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Sample records for adefovir dipivoxil entecavir

  1. Optimized combination therapies with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and lamivudine, telbivudine, or entecavir may be effective for chronic hepatitis B patients with a suboptimal response to ADV monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyong; Jie, Yusheng; You, Xu; Shi, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Yuankai; Lin, Guoli; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhiliang; Chong, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify high risk factors in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients for suboptimal response to adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) monotherapy, and to assess the efficacy of optimized therapy combining ADV with lamivudine (LAM), telbivudine (LdT), or entecavir (ETV) in patients with a suboptimal response to ADV alone. Methods: Suboptimal response to ADV monotherapy was defined as having a decline in serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level of more than 1 log compared to baseline, but with viremia still detectable (HBV DNA ≥ 100 IU/mL), after 48 weeks of therapy. All patients who received ADV monotherapy in our clinic were analyzed retrospectively. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied for risk factor analysis. Patients who showed suboptimal response completed at least 12 months of optimized combination therapy consisting of ADV plus LAM, ADV plus LdT, ADV plus ETV, or continuous ADV monotherapy. The primary outcome measurement was complete viral suppression, indicated by a reduction of HBV DNA to undetectable levels (CVS, with HBV DNA < 100 IU/mL). Secondary outcome measures were HBeAg seroconversion for HBeAg-positive patients, HBsAg loss, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and virological breakthrough rates. Results: Of 521 patients who received ADV monotherapy, 170 showed a suboptimal response. These were grouped for continued therapy as follows: 34 in group A (continuous ADV monotherapy), 55 in group B (ADV plus LAM), 38 in group C (ADV plus LdT), and 43 in group D (ADV plus ETV). Using a logistic model, five conditions were identified as high risk factors for suboptimal response: presence of the tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) HBV DNA polymerase mutation; being HBeAg positive; having a high baseline level of HBV DNA; having a primary virological non-response to ADV; and [initial virological response] to ADV. After 48 weeks of ADV monotherapy, there were no withdrawn patients who had experienced side

  2. An improved reverse dot hybridization for simple and rapid detection of adefovir dipivoxil-resistant hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Zhang, W L; Xie, S L; Zhao, Y; Hu, J L; Cai, X F; Lai, G Q; Huang, A L

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of adefovir dipivoxil-resistant mutants during long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with this drug is of great clinical importance. We developed an improved reverse dot hybridization test for simple and rapid detection of the rtA181V/T and rtN236T mutations associated with adefovir dipivoxil resistance in chronic hepatitis B patients. Probes were designed for genotypes B, C, and D of this resistance characteristic; a total of 70 clinical samples were analyzed with this improved reverse dot hybridization assay. Its usefulness was validated by comparing with sequencing data. Discordant results were confirmed by subclone sequencing. This reverse dot hybridization assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 10(3) copies/mL; it also detected adefovir dipivoxil-resistant mutant strains when they comprised more than 5% of a mixed virus population. This reverse dot hybridization array correctly identified adefovir dipivoxil-resistant mutants; it had high concordance (98.5%) with direct sequencing data. There was no clear relationship between the HBV genotype and the development of adefovir dipivoxil-resistant mutants. This reverse dot hybridization assay proved to be simple and rapid for detection of rtA181V/T and rtN236T mutations associated with resistance to adefovir dipivoxil. PMID:22290465

  3. Pathologic Femoral Neck Fracture Due to Fanconi Syndrome Induced by Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved. PMID:27247753

  4. Pathologic Femoral Neck Fracture Due to Fanconi Syndrome Induced by Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ho-Jae; Dan, Jinmyoung

    2016-06-01

    In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved. PMID:27247753

  5. Structures and physical properties of the cocrystals of adefovir dipivoxil with dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungyup; Lee, Jonghwi; Kim, Il Won

    2013-06-01

    The cocrystallization of adefovir dipivoxil (AD) with suberic acid (SUB) or succinic acid (SUC) was examined. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the structures of AD/SUB and AD/SUC cocrystals. Both cocrystals were formed via multiple hydrogen bonds between the adenine part of AD and the carboxylic acid groups of SUB or SUC. Longer SUB effectively dispersed AD molecules, and AD hydrogen-bonded only to SUB. When shorter SUC was used, AD formed hydrogen bonding with both SUC and adjacent AD. As a result, the cocrystal compositions were AD/SUB=1:1 and AD/SUC=2:1. Both cocrystals displayed superior thermal stability and increased aqueous solubility. The present study demonstrated that the adenine and similar structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients could be used to produce cocrystals of improved physical properties.

  6. Application of ionic liquid to polymorphic transformation of anti-viral/HIV drug adefovir dipivoxil.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Hun; Jin, Feng; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Hyung Chul; Kim, Jae Sun; Kim, Hyuk Min; Kiyonga, Alice Nguvoko; Min, Dong Sun; Youn, Wonno; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Kiwon

    2016-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are defined as salts with a melting point below 100 °C. ILs have received increasing attention as new alternative to organic solvents because of their unique physicochemical properties. Therefore, this study was conducted in the purpose to present the efficacy of ILs as new solvents capable to control the Polymorphic transformation phenomenon. Here, the polymorphic transformation phenomenon of adefovir dipivoxil, an efficient antiviral active pharmaceutical ingredient on human immunodeficiency virus, was investigated. The phase transformation phenomenon from the metastable polymorph, new form (NF) to the stable polymorph, Form-X in 1-allyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (AEImBF4) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BDMImBF4) ILs solutions was observed utilizing the solvent-mediated phase transformation method The thermodynamic factors, AEImBF4/BDMImBF4 solvent composition ratio of 3:7-6:4 and the temperature in range of 25-100 °C, as well as the dynamic factor, the rational speed in range of 300-1000 rpm were parameters studied in this experiment. The thermodynamic and dynamic equations involving nucleation and mass transfer were applied for the quantitative analysis. The result of the present study confirmed the use of ILs as substitute solvent for volatile organic solvents, and demonstrated the efficacy of ILs as potential solvent-media to control the polymorphic transformation. PMID:26908332

  7. Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

    The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  8. Mechanism study on stability enhancement of adefovir dipivoxil by cocrystallization: Degradation kinetics and structure-stability correlation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui-Zhen; Sun, Peng-Jie; Tao, Qian; Yao, Jia; Chen, Jia-Mei; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2016-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which cocrystallization can enhance the stability of adefovir dipivoxil (AD), a diester prodrug of adefovir with known chemical stability problem. Three multi-component crystals of AD with biologically safe coformers, including gallic acid cocrystal hydrate (1:1:1), salicylate salt (1:1), and maleate salt (1:1) were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. DVS measurements and stability tests were applied to evaluate the stability. The new crystalline phases exhibit improved stability compared to pure drug in the order AD gallic acid cocrystal>AD maleate>AD salicylate>AD form I. Degradation kinetics and structure-stability correlation studies demonstrate that the stability enhancement mechanism by cocrystallization involves (1) inhibition of hydrolysis of AD by replacement of drug-drug homosynthons by stronger drug-coformer heterosynthons at adenine fragments; (2) suppression of dimerization of AD by separation of adenine fragments by inserting coformers in crystal lattices; (3) further reducing rates of hydrolysis by forming hydrogen bonds with hydrate water at phosphoryl fragments. This study has important implications for use of cocrystallization approach to some easily degradable drugs in pharmaceutical. PMID:26462447

  9. Entecavir

    MedlinePlus

    Entecavir is used to treat chronic (long-term) hepatitis B infection (swelling of the liver caused by a ... analogs. It works by decreasing the amount of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the body. Entecavir does not ...

  10. Prevention of de novo hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil in recipients of liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Matthew S; Olsen, Sonja K; Pichardo, Elsa M; Heese, Scott; Stiles, Jessica B; Abdelmessih, Rita; Verna, Elizabeth C; Guarrera, James V; Emond, Jean C; Brown, Robert S

    2012-07-01

    Lamivudine has been shown to prevent de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in liver transplantation (LT) patients receiving hepatitis B core antibody-positive (HBcAb(+)) grafts, but it may produce long-term resistance. Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) might be effective in preventing de novo hepatitis and resistance. A single-center, prospective trial was conducted with 16 adults (10 men and 6 women, mean age = 54 ± 11 years) who underwent LT with HBcAb(+) grafts between September 2007 and October 2009. After LT, patients were given ADV [10 mg daily (adjusted for renal function)]. No hepatitis B immune globulin was administered. At LT, all graft recipients were hepatitis B surface antigen-negative (HBsAg(-)), 38% were surface antibody-positive (HBsAb(+)), and 50% were HBcAb(+). The median follow-up after LT was 1.8 years (range = 1.0-2.6 years). All recipients had undetectable HBV DNA (<40 IU/mL) after LT until the end of follow-up. One recipient (6%) who was HBsAb(-) and HBcAb(-) before LT became HBsAg(+) after 52 weeks. One recipient was switched from ADV to entecavir for chronic renal insufficiency, and 19% of the patients had renal dose adjustments. There was a nonsignificant trend of increasing creatinine levels over time (1.2 mg/dL at LT, 1.3 mg/dL 1 year after LT, and 2.0 mg/dL 2 years after LT, P = 0.27). A comparison with a control cohort of LT recipients with hepatitis C virus who did not receive ADV showed no difference in the creatinine levels at LT or 1 year after LT. In conclusion, ADV prophylaxis prevents HBV replication in recipients of HBcAb(+) livers but does not fully protect recipients from de novo HBV. Long-term follow-up is needed to better determine the risk of de novo infection. PMID:22422699

  11. Entecavir

    MedlinePlus

    ... experience any of the following symptoms after you stop taking entecavir, call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark-colored urine, light-colored bowel movements, or muscle or joint pain. ...

  12. Adefovir

    MedlinePlus

    ... experience any of the following symptoms after you stop taking adefovir, call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark-colored urine, light-colored bowel movements, and muscle or joint pain. ...

  13. The efficacy of tenofovir-based therapy in patients showing suboptimal response to entecavir-adefovir combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Han; Ahn, Sung Hyun; Ko, Soon Young; Choe, Won Hyeok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Kwon, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Before tenofovir (TDF) become available in South Korea, combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and adefovir (ADV) was the most potent regimen for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who fail to respond to rescue therapy for drug resistance. We analyzed the efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy and investigated the clinical and clonal results of TDF-based rescue therapy in CHB patients refractory to this combination. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CHB patients treated for up to 3 years with ETV-ADV combination therapy as a rescue therapy for drug resistance. In cases refractory to this combination, clinical and clonal analyses were performed for TDF-based rescue therapy. Results: The analysis was performed on 48 patients. Twelve patients achieved a virological response (VR) within 3 years. A VR was subsequently achieved in nine of the ten patients without a VR who switched to TDF monotherapy. A VR was also achieved in six of the seven patients who switched to lamivudine-TDF combination therapy, and in two of the two patients who switched to ETV-TDF combination therapy. In an in vitro susceptibility test, viral replication was detected with TDF monotherapy but not with ETV-TDF combination therapy. Conclusions: The efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy was insufficient in CHB patients who were refractory to rescue therapy. A more potent regimen such as ETV-TDF combination therapy may be considered in such refractory cases. PMID:27304549

  14. Urinary β-2 Microglobulin Levels Sensitively Altered in an Osteomalacia Patient Receiving Add-on Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Junko; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kiyoaki; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Hirase, Sho; Ito, Tatsuo; Morishima, Takkan; Otake, Kazuo; Yoneda, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is effective for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; however, ADV may provoke renal injury resulting in osteomalacia, and this side effect is seldom recognized until bone fractures emerge. We herein present a 66-year-old woman with HBV infection who received ADV for 6 years. Although she exhibited no sign of bone fractures, her urinary β-2 microglobulin (β2MG) level increased to 83,837 μg/L and scintigraphy revealed minimal fractures of the third rib. ADV was subsequently reduced and her urinary β2MG rapidly fell to 3,637 μg/L. Conversely, her urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase levels did not respond. PMID:27301512

  15. Antiviral Effects of Lamivudine, Emtricitabine, Adefovir Dipivoxil, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Administered Orally Alone and in Combination to Woodchucks with Chronic Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Menne, Stephan; Butler, Scott D.; George, Andrea L.; Tochkov, Ilia A.; Zhu, Yuao; Xiong, Shelly; Gerin, John L.; Cote, Paul J.; Tennant, Bud C.

    2008-01-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are nucleotide analogs that inhibit the replication of wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV) and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant virus in HBV-infected patients, including those who are coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The combination of ADV or TDF with other nucleoside analogs is a proposed strategy for managing antiviral drug resistance during the treatment of chronic HBV infection. The antiviral effect of oral ADV or TDF, alone or in combination with 3TC or emtricitabine (FTC), against chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection was evaluated in a placebo-controlled study in the woodchuck, an established and predictive model for antiviral therapy. Once-daily treatment for 48 weeks with ADV plus 3TC or TDF plus FTC significantly reduced serum WHV viremia levels from the pretreatment level by 6.2 log10 and 6.1 log10 genome equivalents/ml serum, respectively, followed by TDF plus 3TC (5.6 log10 genome equivalents/ml), ADV alone (4.8 log10 genome equivalents/ml), ADV plus FTC (one survivor) (4.4 log10 genome equivalents/ml), TDF alone (2.9 log10 genome equivalents/ml), 3TC alone (2.7 log10 genome equivalents/ml), and FTC alone (2.0 log10 genome equivalents/ml). Individual woodchucks across all treatment groups also demonstrated pronounced declines in serum WHV surface antigen, characteristically accompanied by declines in hepatic WHV replication and the hepatic expression of WHV antigens. Most woodchucks had prompt recrudescence of WHV replication after drug withdrawal, but individual woodchucks across treatment groups had sustained effects. No signs of toxicity were observed for any of the drugs or drug combinations administered. In conclusion, the oral administration of 3TC, FTC, ADV, and TDF alone and in combination was safe and effective in the woodchuck model of HBV infection. PMID:18676881

  16. Lamivudine-resistant rtL180M and rtM204I/V are persistently dominant during combination rescue therapy with entecavir and adefovir for hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YANG; LIU, SHUANG; CHEN, YU; ZHENG, SUJUN; ZHOU, LI; LU, FENGMIN; DUAN, ZHONGPING

    2016-01-01

    Adefovir (ADV) sequential monotherapy was included in the 2005 Asia-Pacific guidelines for the management of patients with lamivudine (LAM) resistance. However, following the development of ADV resistance, the proportion of resistant variants during combined rescue therapy with ADV and entecavir (ETV) were unknown. The present study characterized the dynamics of resistant variants in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and LAM-resistant variants during antiviral therapy consisting of ADV monotherapy followed by ADV-ETV combination therapy. A total of 3 patients were selected from a cohort of 55 patients with CHB due to developing ADV resistance. The patients had been previously treated with LAM (100 mg daily) for 21–24 months. At the initiation of sequential monotherapy with ADV, LAM-resistant variants (rtM204V/I and rtL180M) were detected in the three patients. These patients developed ADV resistance during 19–30 months of ADV sequential monotherapy, and then switched their antiviral regimen to ADV-ETV combination therapy. During ADV monotherapy and ADV-ETV combination therapy, the patients were monitored every 3 months for the first year of therapy, and then every 6 months thereafter. A total of 30 serum samples were collected from the patients throughout the monitoring period. In total, 10 mutants that were associated with commonly-used antiviral drugs were detected by pyrosequencing. During ADV sequential monotherapy, LAM-resistant variants were gradually decreased, whereas ADV-resistant rtA181V/T and rtN236T variants gradually increased in the viral population. During 30–41 months of ADV-ETV combination therapy, viral load reduction was 2.59–3.28 log10 copies/ml; ADV-resistant variants rtA181T/V and rtN236T were undetectable following 11–24 months of combination therapy; and rtL180M and rtM204I/V remained dominant in the viral population. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that, in patients with LAM and ADV

  17. Adefovir

    MedlinePlus

    ... or bruising; yellowing of the skin or eyes; dark-colored urine; light-colored bowel movements; difficulty breathing; stomach pain or swelling; nausea; vomiting; unusual muscle pain; loss of appetite for at least a few days; lack of energy; flu-like symptoms; itching; feeling cold, especially in ...

  18. Development and Validation of a Sensitive LC-MS-MS Method for the Determination of Adefovir in Human Serum and Urine: Application to a Clinical Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Shen, Lu; Zhan, Ying; Xiao, Qing-Qing; Yang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of adefovir (PMEA,9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine) concentration in human serum and urine. The analysis was performed on a negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The monitored transitions were set at m/z 272.0 → 134.0 and m/z 276.0 → 149.8 for PMEA and internal standard, respectively. After protein precipitation, samples were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a reversed-phase Dikma Diamonsil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 µm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1 mM ammonium formate buffer-methanol. The calibration curves were linear over the serum concentration range 0.5-1,000 ng/mL and urine concentration range 2.0-1,000 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision values of PMEA in both serum and urine were lower than 18.16% for low quality control and 13.70% for medium and high quality control. The accuracy, recovery, matrix factor and stability were also within the acceptable limits. The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of following oral administration of single dose of pradefovir mesylate (10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg) and adefovir dipivoxil (10 mg) to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26657410

  19. A five years study of antiviral effect of entecavir in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kehui; Xiang, Xiaogang; Bao, Rebecca; Chen, Rong; Liu, Yunye; Xie, Jingdong; Guo, Qing; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is a potent viral replication inhibitor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. To investigate the efficacy of ETV in Chinese nucleos(t)ide(NA)-experienced CHB patients. Among 89 CHB patients with ETV monotherapy for ≥6 months, 33/89 (37%) or 56/89 (73%) were NA-naïve or NA-experienced. During a median follow-up of 5.75 years, all NA-naïve CHB patients achieved VR without genotypic ETV-resistance. However, VR was observed in 50/56 (~90%) of NA-experienced CHB patients during a median follow-up of 4.75 years. Antiviral efficacy was not reduced in patients with previous lamivudine (LAM) with/without LAM-resistance (HR 0.465; 95% CI 0.196–1.100; p > 0.05) (HR 0.472; 95% CI 0.205–1.091; p > 0.05). Patients with a primary treatment failure to adefovir (ADV) had a reduced probability of achieving VR compared to NA-naïve (HR 0.496; 95% CI 0.287–0.857; p < 0.01). Previous ADV-experienced patients with a partial VR (HR 1.253; 95% CI 0.429–3.665; p > 0.05) did not influence antiviral response to ETV. The antiviral efficacy of ETV is not influenced by previous treatment LAM with/without LAM-resistance. ETV may still be an option in ADV-experienced patients with a partial VR, but not advised in patients with a primary treatment failure to ADV. PMID:27364728

  20. A five years study of antiviral effect of entecavir in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Xiang, Xiaogang; Bao, Rebecca; Chen, Rong; Liu, Yunye; Xie, Jingdong; Guo, Qing; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is a potent viral replication inhibitor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. To investigate the efficacy of ETV in Chinese nucleos(t)ide(NA)-experienced CHB patients. Among 89 CHB patients with ETV monotherapy for ≥6 months, 33/89 (37%) or 56/89 (73%) were NA-naïve or NA-experienced. During a median follow-up of 5.75 years, all NA-naïve CHB patients achieved VR without genotypic ETV-resistance. However, VR was observed in 50/56 (~90%) of NA-experienced CHB patients during a median follow-up of 4.75 years. Antiviral efficacy was not reduced in patients with previous lamivudine (LAM) with/without LAM-resistance (HR 0.465; 95% CI 0.196-1.100; p > 0.05) (HR 0.472; 95% CI 0.205-1.091; p > 0.05). Patients with a primary treatment failure to adefovir (ADV) had a reduced probability of achieving VR compared to NA-naïve (HR 0.496; 95% CI 0.287-0.857; p < 0.01). Previous ADV-experienced patients with a partial VR (HR 1.253; 95% CI 0.429-3.665; p > 0.05) did not influence antiviral response to ETV. The antiviral efficacy of ETV is not influenced by previous treatment LAM with/without LAM-resistance. ETV may still be an option in ADV-experienced patients with a partial VR, but not advised in patients with a primary treatment failure to ADV. PMID:27364728

  1. Entecavir Interacts with Influx Transporters hOAT1, hCNT2, hCNT3, but Not with hOCT2: The Potential for Renal Transporter-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Drug–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mandíková, Jana; Volková, Marie; Pávek, Petr; Navrátilová, Lucie; Hyršová, Lucie; Janeba, Zlatko; Pavlík, Jan; Bárta, Pavel; Trejtnar, František

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is one of the most potent agents for the treatment of the hepatitis B viral infection. The drug is principally eliminated by the kidney. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of ETV to interact in vitro with the renal SLC transporters hOAT1, hOCT2, hCNT2 and hCNT3. Potential drug–drug interactions of ETV at the renal transporters with antiviral drugs known to be excreted by the kidney (adefovir, tenofovir, cidofovir) as well as transporter-dependent cytotoxicity were also examined. Interactions with the selected transporters along with cytotoxicity were studied in several transiently transfected cellular models using specific substrates and inhibitors. ETV was found to be both a substrate and inhibitor of hOAT1 (IC50 = 175.3 μM), hCNT2 (IC50 = 241.9 μM) and hCNT3 (IC50 = 278.4 μM) transporters, although it interacted with the transporters with relatively low affinities. ETV inhibited the cellular uptake of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir by hOAT1; however, effective inhibition was shown at ETV concentrations exceeding therapeutic levels. In comparison with adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir, ETV displayed no transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in cells transfected with hOAT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. No significant interaction of ETV with hOCT2 was detected. The study demonstrates interactions of ETV with several human renal transporters. For the first time, an interaction of ETV with the hCNTs was proved. We show that the potency of ETV to cause nephrotoxicity and/or clinically significant drug-drug interactions related to the tested transporters is considerably lower than that of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir. PMID:26779022

  2. Genetic Evidence for Genotoxic Effect of Entecavir, an Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Nucleotide Analog

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Xiaoqing; Takeda, Shunichi; Qing, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside analogues (NAs) have been the most frequently used treatment option for chronic hepatitis B patients. However, they may have genotoxic potentials due to their interference with nucleic acid metabolism. Entecavir, a deoxyguanosine analog, is one of the most widely used oral antiviral NAs against hepatitis B virus. It has reported that entecavir gave positive responses in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays. However the genotoxic mechanism of entecavir remains elusive. To evaluate the genotoxic mechanisms, we analyzed the effect of entecavir on a panel of chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte isogenic mutant cell line deficient in DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways. Our results showed that Parp1-/- mutant cells defective in single-strand break (SSB) repair were the most sensitive to entecavir. Brca1-/-, Ubc13-/- and translesion-DNA-synthesis deficient cells including Rad18-/- and Rev3-/- were hypersensitive to entecavir. XPA-/- mutant deficient in nucleotide excision repair was also slightly sensitive to entecavir. γ-H2AX foci forming assay confirmed the existence of DNA damage by entecavir in Parp1-/-, Rad18-/- and Brca1-/- mutants. Karyotype assay further showed entecavir-induced chromosomal aberrations, especially the chromosome gaps in Parp1-/-, Brca1-/-, Rad18-/- and Rev3-/- cells when compared with wild-type cells. These genetic comprehensive studies clearly identified the genotoxic potentials of entecavir and suggested that SSB and postreplication repair pathways may suppress entecavir-induced genotoxicity. PMID:26800464

  3. Genetic Evidence for Genotoxic Effect of Entecavir, an Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Nucleotide Analog.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xiaohua; He, Fang; Liu, Ying; Hu, Xiaoqing; Takeda, Shunichi; Qing, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside analogues (NAs) have been the most frequently used treatment option for chronic hepatitis B patients. However, they may have genotoxic potentials due to their interference with nucleic acid metabolism. Entecavir, a deoxyguanosine analog, is one of the most widely used oral antiviral NAs against hepatitis B virus. It has reported that entecavir gave positive responses in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays. However the genotoxic mechanism of entecavir remains elusive. To evaluate the genotoxic mechanisms, we analyzed the effect of entecavir on a panel of chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte isogenic mutant cell line deficient in DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways. Our results showed that Parp1-/- mutant cells defective in single-strand break (SSB) repair were the most sensitive to entecavir. Brca1-/-, Ubc13-/- and translesion-DNA-synthesis deficient cells including Rad18-/- and Rev3-/- were hypersensitive to entecavir. XPA-/- mutant deficient in nucleotide excision repair was also slightly sensitive to entecavir. γ-H2AX foci forming assay confirmed the existence of DNA damage by entecavir in Parp1-/-, Rad18-/- and Brca1-/- mutants. Karyotype assay further showed entecavir-induced chromosomal aberrations, especially the chromosome gaps in Parp1-/-, Brca1-/-, Rad18-/- and Rev3-/- cells when compared with wild-type cells. These genetic comprehensive studies clearly identified the genotoxic potentials of entecavir and suggested that SSB and postreplication repair pathways may suppress entecavir-induced genotoxicity. PMID:26800464

  4. Coexistence of HBsAg and HBsAb in a difficult-to-treat chronic hepatitis B: loss of HBsAg with entecavir plus tenofovir combination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some reports have documented the coexistence of Hepatitis B surfage Antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBsAg antibodies (HBsAb) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), often in the absence of amino acid substitutions in the HBsAg sequences of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) genome able to explain an immunological escape variant. HBV genome has a very compact coding organization, with four partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Because the reverse transcriptase region (rt) of HBV polymerase overlaps the HBsAg ORF, it is possible that some mutations in the HBsAg region correspond to mutations in the rt ORF, conferring resistance to current antiviral therapies. This unique case explores the response to antiviral therapies of a CHB with concurrent HBsAg and HBsAb positivity, and analyse the clinical implications of possible mutations in rt and HBsAg ORFs. Case presentation Here we describe the case of a 59 year-old Italian man suffering from Hepatitis B envelope Antigen (HBeAg) positive CHB with concurrent HBsAb positivity. By ultra-deep pyro-sequencing (UDPS) technique, mutations conferring immunological escape or resistance to antiviral therapies were found neither in HBsAg nor in HBV rt ORFs, respectively. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with interferon, adefovir monotherapy and adefovir plus entecavir combination. Surprisingly, during entecavir plus tenofovir combination, anti-HBe seroconversion and HBsAg loss were observed, while the titer of HBsAb persisted. Conclusions Concurrent HBsAg/HBsAb positivity in active CHB is a clinical and virological dilemma. In this setting, there are not consistent data about the response to conventional therapies and the immunological balance between host and virus remains so far unexplained. This is, to our knowledge, the first case described of a CHB with HBsAg/HBsAb positivity, wild type for clinically relevant mutations in HBsAg and rt ORFs, successfully treated with a combination of nucleot(s)ide analogues

  5. Delayed hypersensitivity reaction resulting in maculopapular-type eruption due to entecavir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Jeong, Hye Won; Choi, Ki Hwa; Yoon, Tae Young; Sung, Nohyun; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Eun Ha; Chae, Hee Bok

    2014-11-14

    Several clinical trials have demonstrated the potent antiviral efficacy of entecavir (ETV), and this relatively new nucleoside analogue drug has rapidly become a frequently prescribed therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) worldwide. While the studies have also shown a good overall safety profile for ETV, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with advanced cirrhosis have been reported and represent a broad spectrum of drug-induced injuries, including lactic acidosis, myalgia, neuropathy, azotemia, hypophosphatemia, muscular weakness, and pancreatitis, as well as immune-mediated responses (i.e., allergic reactions). Cutaneous ADRs associated with ETV are very rare, with only two case reports in the publicly available literature; both of these cases were classified as unspecified hypersensitivity allergic (type I) ADR, but neither were reported as pathologically proven or as evaluated by cytokine release analysis. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with a generalized maculopapular rash after one week of ETV treatment for lamivudine-resistant CHB. The patient reported having experienced a similar skin eruption during a previous three-month regimen of ETV, for which she had self-discontinued the medication. Histopathological analysis of a skin biopsy showed acanthotic epidermis with focal parakeratosis and a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate admixed with interstitial eosinophils in the papillary and reticular dermis, consistent with a diagnosis of drug sensitivity. A lymphocyte stimulation test showed significantly enhanced IL-4, indicating a classification of type IVb delayed hypersensitivity. The patient was switched to an adefovir-lamivudine combination regimen and the skin eruption resolved two weeks after the ETV withdrawal. This case represents the first pathologically and immunologically evidenced ETV-induced delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction reported to date. Physicians should be aware of the potential, although rare

  6. Label-free silver nanoparticles for the naked eye detection of entecavir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mengmeng; Lin, Rui; Li, Lili; Jiang, Li; Ye, Baofen; He, Hua; Qiu, Lanlan

    A simple, rapid, field-portable colorimetric method for the detection of entecavir was proposed based on the color change caused by the aggregation of silver nanoparticles. Neutralization of the electrostatic repulsion from each silver nanoparticle resulted in the aggregation of AgNPs and a consequent color change of AgNPs from yellow to wine-red, which provided a platform for rapid and field-portable colorimetric detection of entecavir. The concentration of entecavir could be determined with naked eye or UV-vis spectrometer. The proposed method can be used to detect entecavir in human urine with a detection limit of 1.51 μg mL-1, within 25 min by naked eye observation without the aid of any advanced instrument or complex pretreatment. Results from UV-vis spectra showed that the absorption ratio was linear with the concentration of entecavir in the range of 5.04-25.2 μg mL-1 and 1.01-5.04 μg mL-1 with linear coefficients of 0.9907 and 0.9955, respectively. The selectivity of AgNPs detection system for entecavir is excellent comparing with other ions and analytes. Due to its rapid, visible color changes, and excellent selectivity, the AgNPs synthesized in this study are suitable to be applied to on-site screening of entecavir in human urine.

  7. Efficacy of switching to telbivudine plus adefovir in suboptimal responders to lamivudine plus adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of telbivudine (LdT) + adefovir (ADV) vs continuation of lamivudine (LAM) + ADV in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who show a suboptimal response to LAM + ADV. METHODS: This was a randomized, active-control, open-label, single-center, parallel trial. All eligible patients were enrolled in this study in Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea, between March 2010 and March 2011. Hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients whose serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA remained detectable despite at least 6 mo of LAM + ADV therapy were included. Enrolled patients were randomized to either switching to LdT (600 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally) (LdT + ADV group) or to continuation with LAM (100 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally) (LAM + ADV group), and were followed for 48 wk. One hundred and six patients completed the 48-wk treatment period. Serum HBV DNA, HBeAg status, liver biochemistry and safety were monitored at baseline and week 12, 24, 36 and 48. RESULTS: The duration of prior LAM + ADV treatment was 18.3 (LdT + ADV) and 14.9 mo (LAM + ADV), respectively (P = 0.131). No difference was seen in baseline serum HBV DNA between the two groups [3.66 (LdT + ADV) vs 3.76 (LAM + ADV) log10 IU/mL, P = 0.729]. At week 48, although there was no significant difference in the mean reduction of serum HBV DNA from baseline between LdT + ADV group and LAM + ADV group (-0.81 vs -0.47 log10 IU/mL, P = 0.167), more patients in the LdT + ADV group had undetectable HBV DNA levels compared to those in the LAM + ADV group (30.2% vs 11.5%, P = 0.019). Three patients with LdT + ADV treatment and 2 patients with LAM + ADV treatment achieved HBeAg loss. The patients in both groups tolerated the treatment well without serious adverse events. The proportion of patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in the LdT + ADV group increased from 49.1% (26/53) at

  8. The combination of tacrolimus and entecavir improves the remission of HBV-associated glomerulonephritis without enhancing viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifen; Ye, Zhiming; Liang, Huaban; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Lixia; Feng, Zhonglin; Liu, Shuangxin; Shi, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tacrolimus inhibits hepatitis B virus entry into hepatocytes through targeting the HBV receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tacrolimus combined with entecavir antiviral therapy for HBV-associated glomerulonephritis patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy. Method: A cohort of 42 patients was enrolled in this retrospective study. Twenty-three patients received Tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day) in combination entecavir over 24 weeks, whereas the other 19 patients only received entecavir monotherapy. Results: The probability of proteinuria remission in the Tacrolimus+entecavir group was 69 and 87% after 12 and 24 weeks, whereas was only 26 and 42%, respectively, in the entecavir group. The mean time to partial or complete remission was 18.6 weeks in the Tacrolimus+entecavir group and 34.3 weeks in the entecavir group (P<0.001). A decrease in the HBV DNA titer was observed in all patients with active HBV replication. None of the HBV carriers in the Tacrolimus+entecavir group showed evidence of HBV reactivation. The serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase levels remained stable in both groups. The Tacrolimus target trough concentration was 5-10 ng/mL. Conclusion: Tacrolimus combined with entecavir rapidly and effectively induced remission of HBV-GN in Chinese adults. Furthermore, Tacrolimus may have a synergistic antiviral effect with entecavir.

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Anti-HBV Activity of Hybrid Molecules of Entecavir and Adefovir: Exomethylene Acycloguanine Nucleosides and Their Monophosphate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Shuhei; Kohgo, Satoru; Tokuda, Ryoh; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Aoki, Manabu; Amano, Masayuki; Kuwata-Higashi, Nobuyo; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Haraguchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Exomethylene acycloguanine nucleosides 4, 6 and its monophosphate derivatives 5, 7, and 8 have been synthesized. Mitsunobu-type coupling of 2-N-acetyl-6-O-diphenylcarbamoylguanine (11) with primary alcohols proceeded regioselectively to furnish the desired N(9)-substituted products in moderate yield. Evaluation of 4-8 for anti-HBV activity in HepG2 cells revealed that the phosphonate derivative 8 was found to exhibit moderated activity (EC50 value of 0.29 μM), but cytotoxicity (CC50 value of 39 μM) against the host cells was also observed. PMID:26167667

  10. Cost-effectiveness comparison of lamivudine plus adefovir combination treatment and nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Ke, Weixia; Liu, Li; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Zhenjiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy is clinically efficacious for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China, but no pharmacoeconomic evaluations of this strategy are available. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of LAM plus ADV combination treatment compared with five other nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies (LAM, ADV, telbivudine [TBV], entecavir [ETV], and tenofovir [TDF]). Methods To simulate the lifetime (40-year time span) costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for different therapy options, a Markov model that included five initial monotherapies and LAM plus ADV combination as an initial treatment was developed. Two kinds of rescue combination strategies (base-case: LAM + ADV then ETV + ADV; alternative: direct use of ETV + ADV) were considered separately for treating patients refractory to initial therapy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to explore model uncertainties. Results In base-case analysis, ETV had the lowest lifetime cost and served as the reference therapy. Compared to the reference, LAM, ADV, and TBV had higher costs and lower efficacy, and were completely dominated by ETV. LAM plus ADV combination therapy or TDF was more efficacious than ETV, but also more expensive. Although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of combination therapy or TDF were both higher than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $20,466/QALY gained for the reference treatment, in an alternative scenario analysis LAM plus ADV combination therapy would be the preferable treatment option. Conclusion ETV and LAM plus ADV combination therapy are both cost-effective strategies for treating Chinese CHB patients. PMID:27041994

  11. Three pharmaceuticals cocrystals of adefovir: Syntheses, structures and dissolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Sun, Fuxing; Zhang, Tingting; Jia, Jiangtao; Su, Hongmin; Wang, Chenhui; Zhu, Guangshan

    2015-11-01

    We report here three novel cocrystals, which are composed of adefovir as the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) with p-aminobenzoic acid (1, 2C8H12N5O4P·C7H6NO2·3H2O), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, C8H12N5O4P·C7H6O4·H2O) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid (3, C8H12N5O4P·C7H5NO4) as CCFs (cocrystal formers) respectively by crystal engineering strategy. Their structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analysis (EA) and infrared spectral analysis (IR). The analysis of single crystal X-ray diffraction demonstrate that cocrystal 1 and 2 form a strong hydrogen-bonded assembly through the phosphoric acids of API with water in the lattice and carboxylic acids of CCF respectively. Cocrystal 3 is formed in which the phosphoric acid groups of API are also held by the carboxylic acid groups of CCF. The PXRD results indicate their high purity of as-synthesized samples. The TGA, EA, IR and dissolution study of API and the cocrystals were also measured and discussed.

  12. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B in clinical practice with entecavir or tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel

    2014-06-21

    Results from phase III clinical trials clearly demonstrate the efficacy and safety of entecavir and tenofovir in the controlled environment of randomized clinical studies. There are several studies with both drugs performed in clinical practice (also called "real life studies"). Despite the pros and cons, studies performed in real life conditions represent everyday practice and add important information about long term treatment effectiveness and safety in this clinical setting. This review shows that patients treated with first line nucleos(t)ide analogs at referral centres, with good clinical follow-up and adherence to international guidelines, can achieve high treatment response rates with a very low rate of adverse events. PMID:24966587

  13. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of adefovir in plasma using UV detection: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Alireza; Movahed, Hooman; Khoddam, Arash

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of adefovir (CAS 106941-25-7) in human plasma. The separation was achieved on a monolithic silica column (Chromolith Performance RP-18e, 100 x 4.6 mm) using acetonitrile-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (6:94, v/v), pH 5.2, as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min(-1). The wavelength was set at 260 nm. The assay enables the measurement of adefovir for therapeutic drug monitoring with a minimum quantification limit of 1 ng ml(-1). The method involves a simple protein precipitation procedure. Analytical recovery was complete. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 1-40 ng ml(-1). The coefficients of variation for inter-day and intra-day assay were found to be less than 5%. The method was applied to the determination of adefovir in plasma from 12 subjects dosed with adefovir 2 x 10 mg tablets and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. PMID:21950152

  14. Simultaneous determination of pradefovir, PMEA and tenofovir in HBV patient serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application to phase 2 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Yang, Wanqiu; Chen, Lin; Ding, Yitao; Yang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Pradefovir, a prodrug of PMEA, is under phase 2 clinical trial in China to evaluate its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics after multiple-dose study, with adefovir dipivoxil and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as positive control. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of pradefovir, PMEA and tenofovir in HBV patient serum. Serum samples were pretreated via simple protein precipitation with methanol and entecavir was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Synergi(®) fusion-RP column (150mm×4.6mm) by gradient elution with methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water (v/v) at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive ion electrospray ionization at m/z 424.1/151.0, 274.1/162.2, 288.1/176.1, and 278.1/152.2for pradefovir, PMEA, tenofovir and IS, respectively. The assays were validated according to current bioanalytical guidelines including specificity, linearity (2.0-500ng/mL for pradefovir and PMEA, 4.0-1000ng/mL for tenofovir), accuracy and precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. The validated method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of pradefovir, adefovir dipivoxil and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in a set of HBV patients. PMID:27089519

  15. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B in clinical practice with entecavir or tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    Results from phase III clinical trials clearly demonstrate the efficacy and safety of entecavir and tenofovir in the controlled environment of randomized clinical studies. There are several studies with both drugs performed in clinical practice (also called “real life studies”). Despite the pros and cons, studies performed in real life conditions represent everyday practice and add important information about long term treatment effectiveness and safety in this clinical setting. This review shows that patients treated with first line nucleos(t)ide analogs at referral centres, with good clinical follow-up and adherence to international guidelines, can achieve high treatment response rates with a very low rate of adverse events. PMID:24966587

  16. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-04-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, AMA1-C1/alhydrogel, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Aripiprazole, Artesunate/amodiaquine, Asenapine maleate; Bosentan, Brivaracetam; Carisbamate, Clevudine, Clofarabine, Corticorelin acetate; Dasatinib; Elinogrel potassium, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Etazolate; Fampridine, Fluarix, Fondaparinux sodium, Fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, GDC-0941, GI-5005, Golimumab; Imatinib mesylate, Lacosamide, Lapatinib ditosylate, Levetiracetam, Liraglutide, LOLA; Mecasermin, Morphine hydrochloride; Natalizumab, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Olmesartan medoxomil, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Poly I:CLC, Pralatrexate, Pregabalin; Ranolazine, Rasagiline mesilate, Retigabine hydrochloride, Rhenium Re-186 etidronate, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, RTL-1000, Rufinamide; Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, Stiripentol; Tiotropium bromide; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Varenicline tartrate; XL-184; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:20448862

  17. Acute liver graft failure due to emergence of lamivudine resistant hepatitis B virus: rapid resolution during treatment with adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Mutimer, D; Feraz-Neto, B; Harrison, R; O'Donnell, K; Shaw, J; Cane, P; Pillay, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Strategies for prevention of liver graft reinfection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been developed during recent years. Initially, passive immunoprophylaxis with high titre HBV immunoglobulin (HBIg), followed by lamivudine prophylaxis, and then the combination of lamivudine and HBIg have been employed. However, suboptimal use of the combination may be associated with failure of prophylaxis reflected by the emergence of HBV species with genetic changes that confer resistance to lamivudine and HBIg. Reinfection of the graft by HBV can be associated with rapid development of liver failure.
CASE REPORT—A 43 year old HBV infected man received lamivudine before transplantation, and lamivudine and HBIg after transplantation. Despite prophylaxis, graft reinfection and severe hepatitis were observed. The observed serological evolution and genetic sequencing of the emergent HBV species suggested selection of lamivudine resistant and surface antigen escape mutants consecutively. Adefovir treatment began after the devlopment of graft failure.
OUTCOME—A rapid exponential decline in serum HBV titre was observed. Liver function tests normalised and signs of liver failure resolved.
CONCLUSION—The use of HBIg and lamivudine permits prevention of graft reinfection by HBV for the majority of patients. Adefovir, a potent inhibitor of lamivudine resistant HBV, should be used when failure of prophylaxis is associated with graft hepatitis.


Keywords: hepatitis B virus; adefovir; liver graft; lamivudine PMID:11709523

  18. Co-treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and entecavir for hepatitis D: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Memon, Mohammad Sadik; Umer, Muhammad Amir; Abbas, Minaam; Shazi, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFNα) therapy with and without entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis D. METHODS: Forty hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA positive patients were randomized to receive either PEG-IFNα-2a 180 μg weekly in combination with entecavir 0.5 mg daily (n = 21) or PEG-IFNα alone (n =19). Patients who failed to show 2 log reduction in HDV RNA level at 24 wk of treatment, or had detectable HDV RNA at 48 wk of therapy were considered as treatment failure. Treatment was continued for 72 wk in the rest of the patients. All the patients were followed for 24 wk post treatment. Intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 6.8 years, 31 were male. Two log reduction in HDV RNA levels at 24 wk of therapy was achieved in 9 (43%) patients receiving combination therapy and 12 (63%) patients receiving PEG-IFNα alone (P = 0.199). Decline in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels was insignificant. At the end of treatment, HDV RNA was negative in 8 patients (38%) receiving combination therapy and 10 patients (53%) receiving PEG-IFNα-2a alone. Virological response persisted in 7 (33%) and 8 (42%) patients, respectively at the end of the 24 wk follow-up period. One responder patient in the combination arm lost HBsAg and became hepatitis B surface antibody positive. Six out of 14 baseline hepatitis B e antigen reactive patients seroconverted and four of these seroconverted patients had persistent HDV RNA clearance. CONCLUSION: Administration of PEG-IFNα-2a with or without entecavir, resulted in persistent HDV RNA clearance in 37% of patients. The addition of entecavir did not improve the overall response. PMID:27190579

  19. Regression of esophageal varices during entecavir treatment in patients with hepatitis-B-virus-related liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Jwa, Hye Young; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Choi, Eun Kwang; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Hyun Joo; Na, Soo-Young; Boo, Sun-Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk; Kim, Bong Soo; Lee, Byoung-Wook; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that liver cirrhosis is reversible after administering oral nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy to patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, few studies have addressed whether esophageal varices can regress after such therapy. We report a case of complete regression of esophageal varices during entecavir therapy in patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis, suggesting that complications of liver cirrhosis such as esophageal varices can regress after the long-term suppression of HBV replication. PMID:27044771

  20. Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for the selective extraction and purification of adefovir from human serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Pourfarzib, Mojgan; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Mehramizi, Ali; Rastegar, Hossein; Shekarchi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer has been synthesized to specifically extract adefovir, an antiviral drug, from serum and urine by dispersive solid-phase extraction before high-performance liquid chromatography with UV analysis. The imprinted polymers were prepared by bulk polymerization by a noncovalent imprinting method that involved the use of adefovir (template molecule) and functional monomer (methacrylic acid) complex prior to polymerization, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and chloroform as porogen. Molecular recognition properties, binding capacity, and selectivity of the molecularly imprinted polymers were evaluated and the results show that the obtained polymers have high specific retention and enrichment for adefovir in aqueous medium. The new imprinted polymer was utilized as a molecular sorbent for the separation of adefovir from human serum and urine. The serum and urine extraction of adefovir by the molecularly imprinted polymer followed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed a linear calibration curve in the range of 20-100 μg/L with excellent precisions (2.5 and 2.8% for 50 μg/L), respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantization were determined in serum (7.62 and 15.1 μg/L), and urine (5.45 and 16 μg/L). The recoveries for serum and urine samples were found to be 88.2-93.5 and 84.3-90.2%, respectively. PMID:25763883

  1. Is increasing the dose of Entecavir effective in partial virological responders?

    PubMed Central

    Erturk, Ayse; Adnan Akdogan, Remzi; Parlak, Emine; Cure, Erkan; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Ozturk, Cinar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of increasing Entecavir (ETV) dosage in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who partially responded to ETV after 1 year. Methods Twenty-three hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 36 HBeAg-negative patients with CHB were treated with ETV 0.5 mg daily. After 1 year of the treatment, those with detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV-DNA) were randomized to either ETV 0.5 mg or 1 mg daily. The resistance to ETV was excluded. Both groups received ETV for 3 years. The groups were compared in aspects of undetectable DNA. Results Group 1 was given 0.5 mg ETV and included 32 patients (20 HBeAg-negative and 12 HBeAg-positive). Group 2 was given 1 mg ETV and consisted of 27 patients (16 HBeAg-negative and eleven HBeAg-positive). Group 2 had more effective suppression of HBV-DNA while both groups had comparable rates of HBeAg loss (58% and 63% for group 1 and group 2, respectively) and alanine transaminase (ALT) normalization at the end of 4 years. Conclusion Increasing ETV dose from 0.5 mg to 1 mg after 1 year of ETV treatment may provide an effective suppression of viral replication. PMID:24936126

  2. Entecavir for Patients with Hepatitis B Decompensated Cirrhosis in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, F Y; Li, B; Li, Y; Liu, H; Qu, W D; Xu, H W; Qi, J N; Qin, C Y

    2016-01-01

    Evidence about the clinical effects of entecavir (ETV) for patients with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis remain controversial. Therefore, we perform this meta-analysis to assess the treatment outcomes of ETV in participants with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis. Relevant studies were identified by searching databases until the March 2016. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). GRADEprofiler3.6 was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. A total of 26 studies (involving 2040 patients) were included. The quality of the evidence was classified from very low to high by the GRADED approach for all included RCTs. Meta-analysis showed that patients were more likely to experience HBV-DNA loss (RR:1.85, 95%CIs: 1.41 to 2.43, P < 0.0001 at 48 weeks), have normalized alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) (P = 0.003 at 24 weeks, P = 0.02 at 48 weeks), and have a low mortality rate at 24 weeks (P = 0.003) when treated with ETV. There was no significant different between ETV and the control groups at the total mortality (P = 0.06) and HBeAg seroconversion (P = 0.14). In conclusion, ETV could be the first line therapy for patients with HBV related decompensated cirrhosis, because ETV could reduce the early mortality and move HBV DNA load down. PMID:27601086

  3. Entecavir for Patients with Hepatitis B Decompensated Cirrhosis in China: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F.Y.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Liu, H.; Qu, W.D.; Xu, H.W.; Qi, J.N.; Qin, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence about the clinical effects of entecavir (ETV) for patients with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis remain controversial. Therefore, we perform this meta-analysis to assess the treatment outcomes of ETV in participants with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis. Relevant studies were identified by searching databases until the March 2016. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). GRADEprofiler3.6 was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. A total of 26 studies (involving 2040 patients) were included. The quality of the evidence was classified from very low to high by the GRADED approach for all included RCTs. Meta-analysis showed that patients were more likely to experience HBV-DNA loss (RR:1.85, 95%CIs: 1.41 to 2.43, P < 0.0001 at 48 weeks), have normalized alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) (P = 0.003 at 24 weeks, P = 0.02 at 48 weeks), and have a low mortality rate at 24 weeks (P = 0.003) when treated with ETV. There was no significant different between ETV and the control groups at the total mortality (P = 0.06) and HBeAg seroconversion (P = 0.14). In conclusion, ETV could be the first line therapy for patients with HBV related decompensated cirrhosis, because ETV could reduce the early mortality and move HBV DNA load down. PMID:27601086

  4. Tenofovir-based alternate therapies for chronic hepatitis B patients with partial virological response to entecavir.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Yip, B; Trinh, H; Pan, C Q; Han, S-H B; Wong, C C; Li, J; Chan, S; Krishnan, G; Wong, C C; Nguyen, M H

    2015-08-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is a first-line antiviral therapy for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, some patients have suboptimal response to ETV. Currently, there are limited data on how to approach these patients. Therefore, our aim was to compare the effectiveness of two alternate therapies--tenofovir (TDF) monotherapy and combination therapy of ETV+TDF--in CHB patients with ETV partial virological response. We conducted a retrospective study of 68 patients who had partial virological response to ETV, defined as having detectable HBV DNA following at least 12 months of ETV, and were switched to TDF monotherapy (n = 25) or ETV+TDF (n = 43). Patients were seen in seven US liver/community-based clinics and started on ETV between 2005 and 2009. The majority of patients were male; the vast majority were Asian and had positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Patients in both groups had similar pretreatment characteristics. Complete viral suppression (CVS) rates with TDF monotherapy and ETV+TDF were similar after 6 months (71% vs 83%, P = 0.23) and 12 months (86% vs 84%, P = 0.85), and there was no statistically significant difference in CVS rates even when only patients with higher HBV DNA levels at switch (>1000 IU/mL) were evaluated. Multivariate analysis indicated that ETV+TDF was not an independent predictor of CVS compared to TDF monotherapy (OR = 1.19, P = 0.63). In conclusion, TDF monotherapy and ETV+TDF are comparable in achieving CVS in CHB patients with partial virological response to ETV. Long-term alternate therapy with one pill (TDF monotherapy) vs two pills (ETV+TDF) could lead to lower nonadherence rates and better treatment outcomes. PMID:25417914

  5. Adefovir- or Lamivudine-Induced Renal Tubular Dysfunction after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Geun; Lee, Juhan; Lee, Jung Jun; Song, Seung Hwan; Ju, Man Ki; Choi, Gi Hong; Kim, Myoung Soo; Choi, Jin Sub; Kim, Soon Il; Joo, Dong Jin

    2015-09-01

    To reduce hepatitis B virus reinfection after liver transplantation (LT), patients often receive antihepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) alone or combined with antiviral nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NUCs); however, proximal renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) that was induced by NUCs in liver recipients was rarely reported. Here, we analyzed RTD and renal impairment (RI) following adefovir (ADV) and lamivudine (LAM) treatment in liver recipients. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated with HBIG alone (group 1, n = 42) or combined with ADV or LAM (group 2, n = 21) after LT. We compared RTD and RI incidence during the 12 months after LT. An RTD diagnosis required manifestation of at least 3 of the following features: hypophosphatemia, RI, hypouricemia, proteinuria, or glucosuria. No significant differences were observed regarding sex, age, donor type, model of end-stage liver score, and estimated glomerular filtration rate at pre-LT between the 2 groups. Hepatitis B virus recurrence within 12 months was 4.8% in both groups (P = 1.000); however, the RTD incidence was 0% in group 1 and 19.0% in group 2 (P = 0.010). RI occurrence did not differ between the groups. The only risk factor for RI was HBIG administration combined with both LAM and ADV (odds ratio 11.27, 95% confidence interval 1.13-112.07, P = 0.039, vs HBIG alone). RTD occurred more frequently in patients treated with HBIG combined with LAM or ADV compared with HBIG alone. Thus, LAM or ADV therapy can induce RTD after LT, and when administered, liver recipients should be monitored. PMID:26402818

  6. Adefovir- or Lamivudine-Induced Renal Tubular Dysfunction after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Geun; Lee, Juhan; Lee, Jung Jun; Song, Seung Hwan; Ju, Man Ki; Choi, Gi Hong; Kim, Myoung Soo; Choi, Jin Sub; Kim, Soon Il; Joo, Dong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To reduce hepatitis B virus reinfection after liver transplantation (LT), patients often receive antihepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) alone or combined with antiviral nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NUCs); however, proximal renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) that was induced by NUCs in liver recipients was rarely reported. Here, we analyzed RTD and renal impairment (RI) following adefovir (ADV) and lamivudine (LAM) treatment in liver recipients. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated with HBIG alone (group 1, n = 42) or combined with ADV or LAM (group 2, n = 21) after LT. We compared RTD and RI incidence during the 12 months after LT. An RTD diagnosis required manifestation of at least 3 of the following features: hypophosphatemia, RI, hypouricemia, proteinuria, or glucosuria. No significant differences were observed regarding sex, age, donor type, model of end-stage liver score, and estimated glomerular filtration rate at pre-LT between the 2 groups. Hepatitis B virus recurrence within 12 months was 4.8% in both groups (P = 1.000); however, the RTD incidence was 0% in group 1 and 19.0% in group 2 (P = 0.010). RI occurrence did not differ between the groups. The only risk factor for RI was HBIG administration combined with both LAM and ADV (odds ratio 11.27, 95% confidence interval 1.13–112.07, P = 0.039, vs HBIG alone). RTD occurred more frequently in patients treated with HBIG combined with LAM or ADV compared with HBIG alone. Thus, LAM or ADV therapy can induce RTD after LT, and when administered, liver recipients should be monitored. PMID:26402818

  7. Efficacy Comparison of Tenofovir and Entecavir in HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with High HBV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Huang, Mingxing; Lin, Guoli; Li, Xiangyong; Wu, Yuankai; Jie, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) effects in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with high HBV DNA. Method. 96 patients treated initially with tenofovir (TDF group) or entecavir (ETV group) were included in this retrospective study. The following parameters were assessed: HBeAg and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) status, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and HBV-DNA levels at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96; time to ALT normalization, undetectable HBV-DNA levels, and HBeAg seroconversion; total duration of follow-up and adverse reactions. Results. The patients included 66 (69%) and 30 (31%) individuals administered ETV and TDF, respectively, comprising 75% males. They were 35.1 ± 4.5 and 33.7 ± 4.6 years old in ETV and TDF groups, respectively. At 36 weeks, the response rate was significantly higher in the TDF group than in ETV treated patients (90% versus 69.7%, p = 0.03). At 48 weeks, less patients administered ETV showed undetectable HBV-DNA levels compared with the TDF group (86.4% versus 96.7%), a non-statistically significant difference (p = 0.13). Only 1 ETV treated patient developed virological breakthrough at 48–96 w. No adverse reactions were found. Conclusion. ETV and TDF are comparable in efficacy and safety to suppress HBV-DNA replication in HBeAg-positive CHB patients with high HBV DNA. PMID:27034945

  8. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-11-01

    Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Adalimumab, AdCD40L, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, Ambrisentan, Amlodipine, Amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil, AN-2728, Apixaban, Aripiprazole, Armodafinil, Atazanavir sulfate, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrasentan, Azacitidine, Bevacizumab, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Carfilzomib, Caspofungin acetate, Cediranib, Cetuximab, Choriogonadotropin alfa, Clevudine, Clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide, Clofarabine, Daidzeol, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Deforolimus, Degarelix acetate, Denenicokin, Dexlansoprazole, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Elacytarabine, Enfuvirtide, Enoxaparin, Entecavir, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Ezetimibe/simvastatin, Forodesine hydrochloride, Fosamprenavir calcium, Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Golimumab, Imatinib mesylate, Imetelstat, Insulin gl'argine, Insulin glulisine, Interferon alfa-2b XL, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Lacosamide, Lenalidomide, Lintuzumab, Liposomal adriamycin, Liposomal belotecan, Liposome-encapsulated fentanyl, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lutropin alfa, LY-207320, Maraviroc, Mecasermin, MKC-253, MP-470, NGR-TNF, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate, PAN-811, Panobinostat, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perospirone hydrochloride, PF-734200, Phentermine/topiramate, Pimecrolimus, Pitavastatin calcium, Plerixafor hydrochloride, Pregabalin, Raltegravir potassium, Ramelteon, Ranibizumab, Recombinant Bet V1, Recombinant human insulin, Regadenoson, rhITF, Romidepsin, Rosuvastatin calcium, Ruboxistaurin hydrochloride, Rufinamide, Sapropterin dihydrochloride Saracatinib, SB-73, SC-599, Seliciclib, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate, Tadalafil, Tanespimycin, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tegaserod maleate, Telbivudine, Tenofovir

  9. Chronic Hepatitis B: Integrating Long-Term Treatment Data and Strategies to Improve Outcomes in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Afdhal, Nezam H.; Bacon, Bruce R.; Brown, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of agents can reduce viral replication in patients with chronic hepatitis B, but most patients do not undergo a curative response to these drugs and therefore require long-term therapy. Thus, recent studies have investigated the long-term safety, efficacy, and resistance profiles of several antiviral nucleotide/nucleoside agents: lamivudine, telbivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, and tenofovir. The most recent data have revealed that lamivudine and telbivudine produce high rates of resistance when treatment is continued for 2–5 years; as a result, these agents are no longer preferred for first-line monotherapy. Entecavir and tenofovir, on the other hand, appear to have favorable safety and efficacy profiles when used as monotherapy, with very low rates of resistance over 5 years. In order to help clinicians incorporate these data into clinical practice, this monograph will review recently published data on hepatitis B antiviral medications, as well as explore when to consider cessation of therapy. The treatment of special patient populations and the need to screen patients for hepatocellular carcinoma will also be discussed. PMID:22557938

  10. Efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B under treatment in the public health system in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Camila V; Tovo, Cristiane Valle; Grossmann, Thiago K; Mirenda, Henrique; Dal-Pupo, Bruna B; de Almeida, Paulo RL; de Mattos, Angelo A

    2016-01-01

    There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective. PMID:27074254

  11. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is superior to lamivudine plus adefovir in lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan-Hong; Xie, Yuan-Jun; Zhao, Nian-Feng; Pan, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Wei; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus adefovir (ADV). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in suboptimal responders to lamivudine plus adefovir. Charts were reviewed for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who visited the Zhejiang Province People’s Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from June 2009 to May 2013. Patients whose serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA remained detectable despite at least 6 mo of LAM plus ADV combination therapy were included. Patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus ADV were randomized to switch to TDF monotherapy (300 mg/d orally; TDF group) or to continuation with LAM (100 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally; LAM plus ADV group) and were followed for 48 wk. Serum HBV DNA was determined at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48. HBV serological markers and biochemistry were assessed at baseline and weeks 12, 24, and 48. Resistance surveillance and side effects were monitored during therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patient were randomized to switch to TDF (n = 28) or continuation with LAM plus ADV (n = 31). No significant differences were found between the groups at baseline. Prior to TDF therapy, all patients had been exposed to LAM plus ADV for a median of 11 mo (range: 6-24 mo). No difference was seen in baseline serum HBV DNA between the two groups [5.13 ± 1.08 log10 copies/mL (TDF) vs 5.04 ± 31.16 log10 copies/mL (LAM + ADV), P = 0.639]. There was no significant difference in the rates of achieving complete virological response (CVR) at week 4 between the TDF and LAM + ADV groups (17.86% vs 6.45%, P = 0.24). The rate of achieving CVR in the TDF and LAM plus ADV groups was 75% vs 16.13% at week 12, 82.14% vs 22.58% at week 24, 89.29% vs 25.81% at week 36, and 96.43% vs 29.03% at week 48, respectively

  12. Cost-effectiveness of entecavir versus lamivudine for the suppression of viral replication in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna Maria N; L 'italien, Gilbert; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau A

    2008-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is an important public-health issue. Chronic patients have a higher risk of death due to complications, which increases health-care expenses in. Cost-effectiveness analysis of entecavir (ETV) versus lamivudine (LVD) for treatment of chronic hepatitis B, in e antigen (AgHBe)-positive and negative patients, based on two phase 3, controlled and randomized studies. A decision analysis model was developed, using the following endpoints: cost per patient with undetectable viral load and cost per quality life year (QALY) gained. Risks for complications (compensated or decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) were based on the cohort study REVEAL, published in 2006. The REVEAL parameters were applied to the results of the viral load levels obtained from the clinical assay data. The complication costs were based on a study of the disease cost conducted in Brazil, in 2005. The cost data were obtained predominantly from Sistema Unico de Saúde [SUS - Brazilian public health system] payment tables and drug price lists. The utility data were obtained from literature and life expectancy information was based on IBGE data. The analysis perspective was that of SUS. A discount rate of 3% per year was used. For the horizon of time of 10 years, the ETV had an incremental cost of approximately two million Brazilian Reais (R$) compared to LVD. Reducing the number of complications, ETV treatment reduced costs by around 3 million, reducing final costs by 1 million, for AgHBe-positive patients. ETV also reduced the incremental cost per QALY gained. ETV was found to be the most cost-effective alternative for AgHBe-positive and negative patients. PMID:19219274

  13. Dynamic Characteristics of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving 7 Years of Entecavir Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia-Xia; Li, Min-Ran; Xi, Hong-Li; Cao, Ying; Zhang, Ren-Wen; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xiao-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of hepatitis B treatment is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance. Several factors have been suggested to be associated with the rate of HBsAg reduction in antiviral-naive or lamivudine therapy cohorts. However, there are few studies evaluating the factors during long-term entecavir (ETV) therapy. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the factors to predict the outcome of ETV therapy for 7 years. Methods: A total of 47 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with ETV monotherapy were included in this study. Liver biochemistry, hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers, serum HBV DNA, and HBsAg titers were tested at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly from 1 to 7. The associations between factors and HBsAg reduction were assessed using multivariate tests with repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: At baseline, serum HBsAg levels showed a positive correlation with baseline HBV DNA levels (r = 0.625, P < 0.001). The mean HBsAg titers after ETV treatment were significantly lower than the baseline titers (P ranges from 0.025 to 0.000,000,6). The HBsAg reduction rate during the 1st year was greater compared to after 1 year of treatment (P < 0.05). Multivariate test showed that hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroclearance and/or HBsAg reduction ≥0.5 log10 IU/ml at 6 months had a high negative predictive value (96.77%) for HBsAg seroclearance (P = 0.002, P = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions: The HBsAg reduction rate during the 1st year was greater than that after 1 year of treatment. Further, HBeAg status and HBsAg levels at month 6 are the optimal factors for the early prediction of HBsAg seroclearance after long-term ETV therapy in CHB patients. PMID:27064037

  14. An evaluation of entecavir treatment among nucleos(t)ide-naïve Moroccan patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Chakkor, Amal; Rouibaa, Fedoua; Elaboudi, Safiaa; Aourarh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) treatment in nucleos(t)ide (NUC)-naïve Moroccan patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods We retrospectively analysed 41 NUT-naïve Moroccan patients with chronic hepatitis B who received ETV 0,5 mg/day monotherapy for at least 3 months, of whom 3 were HBV envelope antigen (HbeAg) positive and 38 were HBeAg negative. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving virological response. Secondary end points included biochemical response (alanine transaminase (ALT) normalisation), serological response (HbeAg and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) loss or seroconversion) and safety. Results The median follow-up duration was 74 weeks (48–144 weeks) and mean age was 43.8 years. Of 41 patients, 6 were primary non-responders and 2 achieved partial virological response at week 48, whereas 35 achieved undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA at month 12. Viral suppression was maintained in 97.6% of patients after 3 years of ETV treatment. One patient experienced a virological breakthrough at month 12 of treatment. ALT normalisation occurred in 100% of the patients after 1 year of treatment. Only three patients in our study were HbeAg positive, of whom one has experienced seroconversion at month 12 of treatment. However, HBsAg loss or seroconversion was not achieved during the period of the study. No serious adverse event was reported. Conclusions These preliminary results showed that ETV is a safe and potent inhibitor of HBV in NUC-naïve Moroccan patients, but we need to observe more patients for a longer period of time, in order to assess the long-term effectiveness, safety, resistance profile and predictive factors for virological and serological response of ETV. PMID:27195127

  15. How to address the sample preparation of hydrophilic compounds: Determination of entecavir in plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate with novel extraction sorbents.

    PubMed

    Vlčková, Hana; Janák, Jaroslav; Gottvald, Tomáš; Trejtnar, František; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Two fast, simple, selective and economical sample preparation methods for the determination of entecavir in biological materials available at low amounts are reported. The choice of optimal extraction techniques was performed with regard to analyte hydrophilicity, sample volumes, selectivity, method recovery and rapidity. The compatibility of the eluate with the hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mobile phase was crucial to allow the elimination of the evaporation and reconstitution steps and to obtain acceptable peak shapes. Different types of sorbents were employed for the extraction of two biological materials (plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate). The mixed-mode polymeric sorbent MCX was chosen as a suitable one for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of plasma samples. The analytes were eluted with 1ml of the mixture of 5 % ammonium hydroxide in ACN:water (95:5). Protein precipitation (PP) with 1ml of ACN was used to remove proteins from 500μl of plasma sample prior to SPE extraction. The microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was employed for the cleaning up of plasma ultrafiltrate samples due to very small volumes available for the analysis. MEPS implemented a novel sorbent based on porous graphitic carbon, semi-automatic analytical syringe and a small volume of sample (50μl). The elution step was performed using 100μl of the mixture of 5mM ammonium acetate pH 4.0:ACN (25:75). The MEPS eluate was fully compatible with HILIC mobile phase subsequently used for the analysis of entecavir, unlike SPE eluate, which had to be evaporated and reconstituted in mobile phase. Both analytical methods were validated and demonstrated good linearity in a range 1-100ng/ml (r(2)>0.9992) for plasma samples and in a range 0.5-100ng/ml (0.9991) for the plasma ultrafiltrate samples. Intra-day accuracy expressed as recovery was within the range from 80-98% for the plasma samples and 97-106% for the plasma ultrafiltrate samples. Inter-day accuracy ranged within 81

  16. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Xue-Hua; Zhou, Zheng-Hua; Liu, Shun-Qing; Lv, Hua; Li, Man; Li, Lu; Gao, Yue-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group) or placebo combined with entecavir (control group) for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P = 0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P = 0.019). The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P = 0.038). There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594. PMID:24058372

  17. Entecavir Versus Lamivudine Therapy for Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B-Associated Liver Failure: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoguo; An, Yong; Jiang, Xuemei; Xu, Minling; Xu, Linlin; Chen, Shijun; Xi, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nucleoside analogues are recommended as antiviral treatments for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver failure. Clinical data comparing entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) are inconsistent in this setting. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of ETV and LAM in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-associated liver failure. Patients and Methods: A literature search was performed on articles published until January 2014 on therapy with ETV and LAM for patients with CHB-associated liver failure. Risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) were used to measure the effects. Survival rate was the primary efficacy measure, while total bilirubin (TBIL), prothrombin activity (PTA) changes and HBV DNA negative change rates were secondary efficacy measures. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of the two drugs. Safety of ETV and LAM was observed. Results: Four randomized controlled trials and nine retrospective cohort studies comprising a total of 1549 patients were selected. Overall analysis revealed comparable survival rates between patients received ETV and those received LAM (4 weeks: RR = 1.03, 95%CI [0.89, 1.18], P = 0.73; 8 weeks: RR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.85, 1.14], P = 0.84; 12 weeks: RR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.90, 1.08], P = 0.70; 24 weeks: RR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.94, 1.10], P = 0.66). After 24 weeks of treatment, patients treated with ETV had a significantly lower TBIL levels (MD = -37.34, 95% CI [-63.57, -11.11], P = 0.005), higher PTA levels (MD = 11.10, 95% CI [2.47, 19.73], P = 0.01) and higher HBV DNA negative rates (RR = 2.76, 95% CI [1.69, 4.51], P < 0.0001) than those treated with LAM. In addition, no drug related adverse effects were observed in the two treatment groups. Conclusions: ETV and LAM treatments had similar effects to improve 24 weeks survival rate of patients with CHB-associated liver failure, but ETV was associated with greater clinical improvement. Both drugs were tolerated well during

  18. A predictive model for carcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis B undergoing entecavir therapy and its validation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Nishijima, Norihiro; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Takashi; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Osaki, Yukio

    2016-09-01

    We created a model to predict the development of liver carcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) undergoing entecavir (ETV) therapy and to validate the accuracy using an independent dataset.A total of 328 CHB subjects were analyzed. Subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups: the training group (n = 164) and the validation group (n = 164). Using data from the training group, we built a predictive model for liver carcinogenesis by performing univariate and multivariate analyses using variables associated with liver carcinogenesis. We subsequently assessed the applicability of the constructed model in the validation group.The median (range) follow-up periods in the training and the validation groups were 5.03 years (1.03-9.98) and 4.84 years (1.10-9.97), respectively. The proportion of hepatitis B virus-DNA at 24 weeks <1.9 log IU/mL in the training group was 70.7% (116/164), while that in the validation group was 71.3% (117/164). For the entire cohort (n = 328), the median alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value at 24 weeks (3.45 ng/mL; range, 0.9-102.7 ng/mL) significantly decreased compared to the baseline values (5.55 ng/mL; range, 0.9-1039.5 ng/mL), while the median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value at 24 weeks (24 IU/mL; range, 6-251 IU/mL) also significantly decreased compared to baseline values (57 IU/mL; range, 7-1450 IU/mL). During the observation period, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developed in 15 (9.1%) patients in the training group and in 17 (10.4%) patients in the validation group. The 3- and 5-year cumulative HCC incidence rates in the entire cohort were 4.48% and 9.52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis of the training group, age ≥54 years (P = 0.0273), ALT level at 24 weeks (P = 0.0456), and AFP at 24 weeks (P = 0.0485) were found to be significant predictors linked to HCC. Using these independent predictors, the risk for HCC development was well stratified in the validation group (overall significance

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Entecavir and Interferon Combination Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiao-Ling; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Ling-Hong; Fu, Lin-Lin; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of entecavir (ETV) and interferon (IFN) combination therapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) mono-infection via a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All eligible RCTs evaluating combination therapy for treating CHB were identified from nine electronic databases. A meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Systemic Review handbook. Eleven trials encompassing 1010 participants were included in this meta-analysis. It showed that at 12 and ≥ 96 weeks of therapy, the combination of ETV and IFN was not better than ETV in improving the undetectable HBV DNA (12 weeks: RR=1.12, 95% CI=0.88-1.42; ≥ 96 weeks: RR = 0.64, 95% CI=0.21-1.98, respectively) and HBeAg seroconversion rates (12 weeks: RR=1.35, 95% CI=0.60-3.04; ≥ 96 weeks: RR=1.36, 95% CI=0.75-2.64, respectively). But at 48 weeks of therapy and approximately 2 years of follow up, combination therapy was superior to ETV in improving the undetectable HBV DNA (48 weeks: RR=1.46, 95% CI=1.13-1.90; follow up: RR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26-3.81, respectively) and HBeAg seroconversion rates (48 weeks: RR=1.82, 95% CI=1.44-2.30; follow up: RR=1.92, 95% CI=1.19-3.11, respectively). When compared to IFN group, at 24 and 48 weeks of therapy, combination group showed a greater undetectable HBV DNA (24 weeks: RR=2.14, 95% CI=1.59-2.89; 48 weeks: RR=2.28, 95% CI=1.54-3.37, respectively) and ALT normalization rate (24 weeks: RR=1.56, 95% CI= 1.24-1.96; 48 weeks: RR=1.55, 95% CI = 1.16-2.07, respectively). At 48 weeks of therapy, combination group achieved a greater HBeAg seroconversion rate than IFN (48 weeks: RR=1.58, 95% CI=1.24-2.00). No significant differences were observed in the side effects of the three therapies. So we can conclude that ETV and IFN combination therapy is more effective than ETV or IFN mono-therapy in CHB treatment. ETV, IFN, and the combination of the two are safe in CHB treatment. PMID

  20. Cimicifuga foetida L. plus adefovir effectively inhibits the replication of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    DAI, XIUFANG; YI, XIANFU; SUN, ZEQUN; RUAN, PENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of Cimicifuga foetida L. (C. foetida) in the patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 60 randomly selected patients with CHB were recruited and divided into groups I and II. The patients in group I received a monotherapy of adefovir (ADV), and the patients in group II received a combination therapy of ADV and C. foetida for >48 weeks. Intrahepatic (IH) HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), serum HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), alanine aminotransferase levels and serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels were quantified during the test. Following the treatment, a significant reduction of the median IH cccDNA level was identified in group II (P=0.017), but not in group I (P=0.05, and P=0.01 between the 2 groups), and a significant reduction of log10 HBsAg was identified in groups I (P=0.012) and II (P<0.0001, and P=0.20 between the 2 groups). A significant increase of the median serum IFN-γ level was found in group II (P=0.0005), but not in group I (P=0.06, and P=0.004 between the 2 groups), and a significant reduction of the median TGF-β level was identified in groups I (P<0.0001) and II (P<0.0001, and P=0.002 between the 2 groups). A total of 24 patients in group I, and 27 patients in group II achieved a sustained virological response (P=0.0386), and 20 patients in group I and 24 in group II achieved hepatitis B e antigen seroclearance (P=0.0442). In conclusion, C. foetida can effectively inhibit HBV transcription and replication in the patients by stimulating the release of the inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ. PMID:27073640

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-11-01

    1-Octanol, 9vPnC-MnCc; Abiraterone acetate, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, ARRY-520, AS-1404, Asimadoline, Atazanavir sulfate, AVE-0277, Azelnidipine; Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Boceprevir, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Clevudine, Contusugene ladenovec, CP-751871, Crofelemer, Cypher, CYT006-AngQb; Darbepoetin alfa, Desmopressin, Dexlansoprazole, DG-041; E-5555, Ecogramostim, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Falecalcitriol, Fampridine, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fingolimod hydrochloride; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GS-7904L, GV-1001; HT-1001; Insulin detemir, ISIS-112989, Istradefylline; Laquinimod sodium, Latanoprost/timolol maleate, Lenalidomide, Levobetaxolol hydrochloride, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liposomal morphine sulfate, Lubiprostone, Lumiracoxib, LY-518674; MEM-1003, Mesna disulfide, Mipomersen sodium, MM-093, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naptumomab estafenatox, Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Pasireotide, Pazufloxacin mesilate, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimagedine, Pimecrolimus, Pramlintide acetate, Prasterone, Pregabalin, Prulifloxacin; QAE-397; Rec-15/2615, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, rhGAD65, Roflumilast, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, Rupatadine fumarate; Safinamide mesilate, SIR-Spheres, Sitagliptin phosphate, Sodium phenylacetate, Sodium phenylacetate/Sodium benzoate, Sorafenib, SSR-244738; Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Teduglutide, Tegaserod maleate, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Trabectedin, Travoprost

  2. Safe and cost-effective control of post-transplantation recurrence of hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Akinobu; Yagi, Takahito; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    A combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NUC) is the current standard of care for controlling hepatitis B recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, long-term HBIG administration is associated with several unresolved issues, including limited availability and extremely high cost, and thus several protocols for treatment with low-dose HBIG combined with NUC or HBIG-free regimens have been developed. This article reviews recent advances in post-OLT hepatitis B virus (HBV) control and future methodological directions. New NUC such as entecavir, tenofovir or lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil combinations induce a very low frequency of viral resistance. The withdrawal of HBIG after several months of OLT under new NUC continuation also has permissible effects. Even after HBV reactivation, NUC can usually achieve viral control when viral markers are strictly followed up. Another approach is to induce self-producing anti-HBV antibodies via vaccination with a hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine. However, HBV vaccination is not sufficiently effective in patients to treat liver cirrhosis type B after OLT because immune tolerance to the virus has already continued for several decades. Trials of its safety and cost-effectiveness are required. This review advocates a safe and economical approach to controlling post-OLT HBV recurrence. PMID:24905970

  3. Safe and cost-effective control of post-transplantation recurrence of hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Akinobu; Yagi, Takahito; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    A combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NUC) is the current standard of care for controlling hepatitis B recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, long-term HBIG administration is associated with several unresolved issues, including limited availability and extremely high cost, and thus several protocols for treatment with low-dose HBIG combined with NUC or HBIG-free regimens have been developed. This article reviews recent advances in post-OLT hepatitis B virus (HBV) control and future methodological directions. New NUC such as entecavir, tenofovir or lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil combinations induce a very low frequency of viral resistance. The withdrawal of HBIG after several months of OLT under new NUC continuation also has permissible effects. Even after HBV reactivation, NUC can usually achieve viral control when viral markers are strictly followed up. Another approach is to induce self-producing anti-HBV antibodies via vaccination with a hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine. However, HBV vaccination is not sufficiently effective in patients to treat liver cirrhosis type B after OLT because immune tolerance to the virus has already continued for several decades. Trials of its safety and cost-effectiveness are required. This review advocates a safe and economical approach to controlling post-OLT HBV recurrence. PMID:24905970

  4. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 3,4-DAP; Adefovir dipivoxil, ADL-10-0101, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alosetron hydrochloride, ALT-711, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atlizumab, atvogen; Bortezomib; CETP vaccine, clevudine, crofelemer; DAC:GLP-1, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DX-9065a; E-7010, edodekin alfa, emivirine, emtricitabine, entecavir, erlosamide, erlotinib hydrochloride, everolimus, exenatide; Fondaparinux sodium, frovatriptan, fulvestrant; Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gestodene; Homoharringtonine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, indium 111 (111In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, inhaled insulin, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, ivabradine hydrochloride; Lanthanum carbonate, lapatinib, LAS-34475, levetiracetam, liraglutide, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melagatran, micafungin sodium; Natalizumab, NSC-640488; Oblimersen sodium; Parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2(a), peginterferon alfa-2b, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, pleconaril, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, prucalopride; rAHF-PFM, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, ranolazine, rDNA insulin, recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, rhGM-CSF, roxifiban acetate, RSD-1235, rubitecan, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; SC-51, squalamine; Tegaserod maleate, telbivudine, tesaglitazar, testosterone gel, tezosentan disodium, tipranavir; Vatalanib succinate; Ximelagatran; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:14671684

  5. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-03-01

    ABT-869, Acadesine, Acetylsalicylic acid/omeprazole, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, AEG-35156, Agatolimod sodium, Albiglutide, Alemtuzumab, Alipogene tiparvovec, Alogliptin benzoate, AMG-386, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Apremilast, Aripiprazole, Asoprisnil, Atorvastatin/fenofibrate, AVN-944, Axitinib; Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BHT-3021, BI-2536, Biapenem, Bilastine, Biphasic insulin aspart, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Catumaxomab, CD-NP, Cediranib, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Ciclesonide, CK-1827452,Clevudine, Clofarabine, CSL-360, CYT-997; Dapagliflozin, Darinaparsin, Denosumab, Densiron 68, Desloratadine, Dulanermin; Edoxaban tosilate, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fidaxomicintiacumiv, Fulvestrant; G-207, GCR-8015, Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), Glufosfamide; HPV16L1E7CVLP; Ibutamoren mesilate, Imatinib mesylate, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Iodine (I131) tositumomab, Istaroxime, ITMN-191, Ixabepilone; JZP-4, Lenalidomide; Levetiracetam, Linaclotide acetate, Liposomal cytarabine/daunorubicin, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liraglutide, LY-518674; Milatuzumab, MMR-V, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Niacin/simvastatin; Obatoclax mesylate, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pazufloxacin, PBT-2, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perampanel, PfCP2.9, Pitavastatin calcium, Poly I:CLC, Pomalidomide, Pralatrexate, Pramlintide acetate, Prucalopride; rhGAD65, Roflumilast; RTS,S/AS02D; SCH-530348, Semagacestat, Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-Eluting Stent, SIR-Spheres, Sivelestat sodium hydrate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tafluprost, Tanespimycin, Teduglutide, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tiotropium bromide, TMC-435350, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Travoprost/timolol, Triciribine

  6. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-09-01

    12B75, 274150; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Abatacept, Ad2/HIF-1alpha, Adalimumab, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, AGN-201904-Z, AIDSVAX, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Alvimopan hydrate, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amlodipine besylate/Olmesartan medoxomil, Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, Amodiaquine, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Arsenic trioxide, Artesunate/Amodiaquine, Ascorbic acid, Atazanavir sulfate, Atazanavir/ritonavir, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrigel-Leuprolide, Axitinib; Bevacizumab, Binodenoson, Bortezomib, Bovine lactoferrin; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Carisbamate, Certolizumab pegol, Ciclesonide, Conivaptan hydrochloride, CP-690550, CP-751871, Cypher; Dapivirine, Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, del-1 Genemedicine, Denosumab, Desloratadine, Dexlansoprazole, DiabeCell, Drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, DTaP-HepB-IPV, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Eculizumab, Eldecalcitol, Eletriptan, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Eritoran tetrasodium, Ertapenem sodium, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Esomeprazole magnesium, Estradiol acetate, Eszopiclone, ETEC vaccine, Etoricoxib, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Fluticasone furoate, Fosmidomycin, Fosmidomycin/clindamycin; Glutamine; Heat Shock Protein 10, Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, HIV vaccine, Hochuekki-to, Human Albumin, Human papillomavirus vaccine; Immune globulin subcutaneous [human], IMP-321, Interferon omega, ISIS-301012, Istaroxime; Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine; Latanoprost/timolol maleate, Lenalidomide, Linaclotide acetate, Lumiracoxib, LY-517717; Malaria vaccine, MAS-063D, Meningitis B vaccine, Mepolizumab, Methylnaltrexone bromide, Micafungin sodium, MK-0822A, Morphine glucuronide, Morphine hydrochloride, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, Nesiritide, Norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol, NT-201; Oblimersen sodium, Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, Omalizumab, Otamixaban; Paclitaxel nanoparticles

  7. The effects of the insulin resistance index on the virologic response to entecavir in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Yao; Wang, Yu-Gang; Wei, Li-Qing; Zhou, Jian; Dai, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To further observe and verify the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and investigate the relationship between the virologic response and insulin resistance. Patients and methods A retrospective study was adopted and 61 NAFLD patients with HBeAg-positive CHB were included as the observation group (group A), and 64 patients with simple CHB were included as the control group (group B). Results After 12 weeks of treatment with entecavir, the total virologic response rate in group A was statistically significantly lower than that in group B (P<0.05). During weeks 24–96, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In weeks 48 and 96, there was no significant difference in the HBeAg seroconversion rates between the two groups (P>0.05). In weeks 12 and 24, there was also no significant difference in the alanine transaminase (ALT) normalization rate between the two groups (P>0.05). Then, in weeks 48 and 96, the ALT normalization rate of group A was obviously lower than that of group B (P<0.05). Group A patients were divided into group A1 (≤M) and group A2 (>M) according to the median value (M=2.79) of the baseline homeostatic model assessment method insulin resistance levels. In weeks 48 and 96, the ALT normalization rate of group A1 was significantly higher than that of group A2 (P<0.05). The correlation coefficient (r) of the baseline homeostatic model assessment method insulin resistance level and the severity of fatty liver in group A was 0.426 (P=0.001). Conclusion NAFLD cannot affect the long-term total virologic response rate and HBeAg seroconversion rate in CHB patients treated with entecavir but can reduce the long-term biochemical response rate, which has a positive correlation with the severity of fatty liver and the insulin resistance index.

  8. Combination therapy including CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and entecavir induces early viral response and enhanced inhibition of viral replication in a woodchuck model of chronic hepadnaviral infection.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhongji; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Pei, Rongjuan; Zhang, Ejuan; Kemper, Thekla; Vollmer, Jörg; Davis, Heather L; Glebe, Dieter; Gerlich, Wolfram; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji

    2016-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) stimulate immune cells via TLR9 and are potentially useful immunomodulators for the treatment of chronic viral infections. In the present study, different classes of CpGs were tested for their capacities for innate immune activation and antiviral activities in the woodchuck model. A class P CpG ODN was found to stimulate interferon (IFN) production in woodchuck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro, and following subcutaneous administration in vivo, it was observed to induce IFN and MxA expression in woodchuck PBMCs. Combination treatment with CpG ODN and entecavir (ETV) led to effective suppression of the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) load in the woodchucks, with early viral responses and inhibition of replication. The woodchuck hepatitis surface antigen (WHsAg) serum concentrations were strongly decreased by CpG and ETV together but not by either agent alone, indicating synergistic effects. However, viral control post-treatment was still transient, similar to that observed with ETV alone. Significantly elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but not of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in some of the woodchucks receiving CpG ODN were noted, but these increases were resolved before the completion of treatment and were not associated with an elevated serum bilirubin level or coagulation disorders, suggesting the absence of a significant safety concern. PMID:26585244

  9. Combination of DNA prime--adenovirus boost immunization with entecavir elicits sustained control of chronic hepatitis B in the woodchuck model.

    PubMed

    Kosinska, Anna D; Zhang, Ejuan; Johrden, Lena; Liu, Jia; Seiz, Pia L; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Ma, Zhiyong; Kemper, Thekla; Fiedler, Melanie; Glebe, Dieter; Wildner, Oliver; Dittmer, Ulf; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A potent therapeutic T-cell vaccine may be an alternative treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Previously, we developed a DNA prime-adenovirus (AdV) boost vaccination protocol that could elicit strong and specific CD8+ T-cell responses to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) core antigen (WHcAg) in mice. In the present study, we first examined whether this new prime-boost immunization could induce WHcAg-specific T-cell responses and effectively control WHV replication in the WHV-transgenic mouse model. Secondly, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of this new vaccination strategy in chronically WHV-infected woodchucks in combination with a potent antiviral treatment. Immunization of WHV-transgenic mice by DNA prime-AdV boost regimen elicited potent and functional WHcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell response that consequently resulted in the reduction of the WHV load below the detection limit in more than 70% of animals. The combination therapy of entecavir (ETV) treatment and DNA prime-AdV boost immunization in chronic WHV carriers resulted in WHsAg- and WHcAg-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, which were not detectable in ETV-only treated controls. Woodchucks receiving the combination therapy showed a prolonged suppression of WHV replication and lower WHsAg levels compared to controls. Moreover, two of four immunized carriers remained WHV negative after the end of ETV treatment and developed anti-WHs antibodies. These results demonstrate that the combined antiviral and vaccination approach efficiently elicited sustained immunological control of chronic hepadnaviral infection in woodchucks and may be a new promising therapeutic strategy in patients. PMID:23785279

  10. Rapid Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Variants Associated with Lamivudine and Adefovir Resistance by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Combined with Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shuangrong; Wang, Feng; Li, Fake; Chang, Kai; Yang, Shaojun; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the major obstacles to successful therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. Although there are many methods for detecting the antiviral drug-resistant mutations of HBV, their applications are restricted because of their shortcomings, such as low sensitivity, the time required, and the high cost. For this study, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe real-time PCR (MLP-RT-PCR) method was developed to simultaneously detect lamivudine (LAM)- and adefovir (ADV)-resistant HBV mutants (those with the mutations rtM204V/I, rtA181V/T, and rtN236T). The new method combined the high-throughput nature of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with the rapid and sensitive detection of real-time PCR. In this report, MLP-RT-PCR was evaluated by detecting drug-resistant mutants in 116 patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. By MLP-RT-PCR analysis, LAM-resistant mutations were detected in 41 patients (35.3%), ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 17 patients (14.7%), and LAM- and-ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 5 patients (4.3%). Based on the results of MLP-RT-PCR, the mutations rtM204V, rtM204I, rtA181T, rtA181V, and rtN236T were 95.7% (111/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), 99.1% (115/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), and 99.1% (115/116 patients) concordant, respectively, with those of direct sequencing. The MLP-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than direct sequencing for detecting mutations with low frequencies. Four samples containing the low-frequency (<10%) mutants were identified by MLP-RT-PCR and further confirmed by clonal sequencing. MLP-RT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method that enables the detection of multidrug-resistant HBV mutations in clinical practice. PMID:24478474

  11. The Efficacy of Add-on Telbivudine Versus Switching to Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Poor Responses to Adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Fan, Chao; Zhou, Yun; Kang, Wenzhen; Wang, Jiuping; Sun, Li; Wang, Linxu; Peng, Meijuan; Lian, Jianqi; Jia, Zhansheng; Hao, Chunqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have poor responses to adefovir (ADV). Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding on telbivudine (LdT) or switching to pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α2a) as alternative rescue therapies for patients with poor responses to the initial ADV treatments. Patients and Methods: Ninety-seven CHB patients with HBV DNA > 2 log10 copies/mL 48 weeks after ADV monotherapy were included in this study. Fifty-nine of these patients were treated with a combination of LdT plus ADV (LdT + ADV) daily, while thirty-eight patients were switched to PEG-IFN-α2a subcutaneous injections weekly for 48 weeks. Results: Both rescue strategies were proven to be safe and the majority of patients tolerated the therapies well. LdT + ADV led to more rapid reductions in viral loads than PEG-IFN-α2a monotherapy, with 2.14 (LdT + ADV) and 0.98 (PEG-IFN-α2a) log10 copies/mL decreases 48 weeks after rescue treatments, respectively (P < 0.00001). The rates corresponding to virological and biochemical responses were also elevated in patients who received the LdT + ADV combination therapy at the end of the observation period (88.1 vs. 68.4% for virological response, P = 0.017; 83.3 vs. 47.2%, P = 0.00045). However, the decline in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was more pronounced in PEG-IFN-α2a treated patients. Moreover, the cumulative rates of serological responses were higher in patients who switched to the PEG-IFN-α2a therapy. Conclusions: Both add-on LdT and switching to PEG-IFN-α2a were satisfactory and optimal treatments for CHB patients with poor responses to ADV. Both rescue strategies resulted in significant reductions in serum viral load and ALT levels, and were associated with high rate of serological outcomes in our hospital. PMID:27110255

  12. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Intergrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 249553, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase beta, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Alovudine, Amdoxovir, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, AQ-13, Aripiprazole, AS-1404, Asoprisnil, Atacicept, Atrasentan; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam; Catumaxomab, Cediranib, Cetuximab, cG250, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Curcumin, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, Denosumab, Dihydrexidine; Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Febuxostat, Fenspiride hydrochloride, Fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GSK-1562902A; HSV-tk/GCV; Iclaprim, Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Indacaterol, Insulinotropin, ISIS-112989; L-Alanosine, Lapatinib ditosylate, Laropiprant; Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-beta, Mipomersen sodium, Motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, Nimotuzumab; OSC, Ozarelix; PACAP-38, Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein-(1-36), Pasireotide, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimecrolimus, Pitavastatin calcium, Plitidepsin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranolazine, Recombinant human relaxin H2, Regadenoson, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, RO-3300074, Rosuvastatin calcium; SIR-Spheres, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Talabostat, Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Temsirolimus, Teriparatide, Tiotropium bromide, Tipifarnib, Tirapazamine, Tocilizumab; UCN-01, Ularitide

  13. Hepatitis B and liver transplantation: 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Beckebaum, Susanne; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Gerken, Guido; Cicinnati, Vito R

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of treatment is suppression of viral replication to undetectable HBV-DNA levels prior to and after liver transplantation (LT) to prevent infection of the newly transplanted liver. Most published data are available from therapy with lamivudine (LAM) in pre- and post-transplant HBV patients. Add-on therapy with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) in pre-transplant LAM-resistant patients has been shown to represent an effective antiviral strategy leading to hepatic recompensation in many cases and, eventually, removal from the waiting list. Newer nucleos(t)ide analogues such as entecavir, tenofovir and telbivudine have shown lower resistance rates than LAM and more antiviral potency in studies in the non-transplant setting. Combined hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy have been widely adopted as the most effective treatment strategy against recurrent HBV disease after LT. Many programs have evaluated lower doses or a shorter duration of HBIG and intramuscular versus intravenous routes of administration. Active immunisation using recombinant HBV vaccines, including the S, pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions, and those with immunostimulatory adjuvants, seem to be more immunogenic than the currently available vaccines and have been used in studies to replace HBIG. Furthermore, it has been shown that immune memory against HBV can be adoptively transferred from organ donors to transplant recipients. Nucleos(t)ide analogue combination therapies might provide an alternative to the current treatment paradigm with costly HBIG; however, experience with this new treatment regimen is very limited and controlled clinical studies are urgently warranted to investigate its safety and efficacy and to determine which nucleos(t)ide analogue combinations will be the most promising in the long term after LT. PMID:18816503

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 81C6; Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase alfa, AGM-1470, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alosetron hydrochloride, anakinra, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir; BAY-43-9006, BBR-3438, beta-L-Fd4C, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentanBR96-doxorubicin; Caspofungin acetate, ciclesonide, cilengitide, cilomilast, COL-1621, COL-3, CpG-7909, cyclosporine; DCVax-Brain, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, dexosome vaccine (melanoma), donepezil hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTI-015, [99Tc]-DTPA-mannosyldextran, duloxetine hydrochloride; Emivirine, emtricitabine, entecavir, epothilone B, estradiol-MNP, etonogestrel/etonogestrel/ethinylestradiol, etoricoxib; Febuxostat, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GVS-111; Heparinase I, HspE7, human alpha-glucosidase, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, INGN-241, interferon alfa B/D hybrid, interferon alfa Biphasix, ISIS-14803; Lanicemine hydrochloride, 1311-lipiodol, liposome-encapsulated mitoxantrone, lixivaptan, lumiracoxib, lupus-AHP, LY-466700; Marimastat, MEN-10755, micafungin sodium; Nitronaproxen, NSC-683864 Omalizumab, oral insulin; Palonosetron hydrochloride, peginterferon alfa-2a, pimecrolimus, pralnacasan, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, pyrazoloacridine; R-165335, ranolazine, risperidone, RPR-109881;, RSD-1235, Satraplatin, seocalcitol, sertindole, SMART anti-interferon gamma antibody, sulfasalazine; T-138067, TAK-013, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, TP-38; Valdecoxib, vatalanib succinate, voriconazole; ZD-9331. PMID:12690708

  15. Gateways to clinical trials. July-August 2008.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, 501516, 89-12; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, AG-701, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Apixaban, Atazanavir sulfate, Atrasentan, Axitinib; BI-1744-CL, BIBF-1120, BIBW-2992, Bortezomib; Carboxyamidotriazole, Caspofungin acetate, CBP-501, Cediranib, Ceftobiprole, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cholesteryl hydrophobized polysaccharide-Her2 protein complex, CHP-NY-ESO-1, Cypher; Dalbavancin, Dalcetrapib, Daptomycin, Darapladib, Deferasirox, Deforolimus, Denosumab, DNA-HIV-C, Dovitinib, DR-5001, Dronedarone hydrochloride, DT388IL3; E75, EC-17/EC-90, Ecogramostim, Efungumab, Entecavir, EP HIV-1090, EP-2101, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Faropenem daloxate, Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium, Fospropofol disodium, Fulvestrant; Golimumab, GSK-089, GW-590735; HO/03/03, hTERT572, hTERT572Y; Iloperidone; Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), Ispinesib mesylate, Istradefylline, Ixabepilone; JR-031, JX-594; KLH; Laropiprant, Lecozotan hydrochloride, Lenalidomide, Lestaurtinib, Linezolid; MGCD-0103, MK-0646, MVA-BN Measles; NI-0401, Niacin/laropiprant, NSC-719239, NYVAC-C; Ospemifene; Paliperidone palmitate, PAN-811, PCV7, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, PEGirinotecan, Perifosine, Pertuzumab, PF-00299804, Picoplatin, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pitavastatin calcium, Pomalidomide, Prasterone, Pratosartan, Prucalopride, PSMA27/pDOM, Pyridoxal phosphate; QS-21, Quercetin; Rebimastat, Rimonabant, Rolofylline, Romidepsin, Rosuvastatin calcium, RTS,S/SBAS2; SCH-530348, SN-29244, Soblidotin, Sodium dichloroacetate, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Spheramine, SU-6668, Succinobucol; Taranabant, Taxus, Telaprevir, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Tocilizumab, Triphendiol; UC-781, Udenafil, UNIL-025; V-5 Immunitor, Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Varenicline tartrate, Velafermin, Vernakalant hydrochloride, Vinflunine, Vitespen, Vorinostat

  16. [Diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D. Hungarian national consensus guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Hunyady, Béla; Gervain, Judit; Lengyel, Gabriella; Makara, Mihály; Pár, Alajos; Szalay, Ferenc; Telegdy, László; Tornai, István

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and D virus infections mean that the patient is able to maintain working capacity, increase quality of life, prevent cancer, and prolong life expectancy, while the society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2014, which is agreed on a consensus meeting of specialists involved in the treatment of the above diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the Hungarian general population is 0.5-0.7%. The indications of treatment is based upon viral examinations (including viral nucleic acid determination), determinations of disease activity and stage (including biochemical, pathologic, and/or non-invasive methods), and excluding contraindications. To avoid unnecessary side effects and for cost-effective approach the guideline emphasizes the importance of quick and detailed virologic evaluations, the applicability of transient elastography as an acceptable alternative of liver biopsy in this regard, as well as the relevance of appropriate consistent follow up schedule for viral response during therapy. The first choice of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection can be pegylated interferon for 48 weeks or continuous entecavir or tenofovir therapy. The latter two must be continued for at least 12 months after hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion. Adefovir dipivoxil is recommended mainly in combination therapy. Lamivudine is no longer a first choice; patients currently taking lamivudine must switch if response is inadequate. Appropriate treatment of patients taking immunosuppressive medications is highly recommended. Pegylated interferon based therapy is recommended for the treatment of concomitant hepatitis D infection. PMID:24631887

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Gervain, Judit; Lengyel, Gabriella; Makara, Mihály; Pár, Alajos; Rókusz, László; Szalay, Ferenc; Telegdy, László; Tornai, István; Werling, Klára; Hunyady, Béla

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and D virus infections mean that the patient is able to maintain working capacity, increase quality of life, prevent cancer, and prolong life expectancy, while the society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2015, which is agreed on a consensus meeting of specialists involved in the treatment of the above diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the Hungarian general population is 0.5-0.7%. The indications of treatment is based upon viral examinations (including viral nucleic acid determination), determinations of disease activity and stage (including biochemical, pathologic, and/or non-invasive methods), and excluding contraindications. To avoid unnecessary side effects and for cost-effective approach the guideline emphasizes the importance of quick and detailed virologic evaluations, the applicability of transient elastography as an acceptable alternative of liver biopsy in this regard, as well as the relevance of appropriate consistent follow up schedule for viral response during therapy. The first choice of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection can be pegylated interferon for 48 weeks or continuous entecavir or tenofovir therapy. The latter two must be continued for at least 12 months after hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion. Adefovir dipivoxil is recommended mainly in combination therapy. Lamivudine is no longer a first choice; patients currently taking lamivudine must switch if response is inadequate. Appropriate treatment of patients taking immunosuppressive medications is highly recommended. Pegylated interferon based therapy is recommended for the treatment of concomitant hepatitis D infection. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(Suppl. 1), 25-35. PMID:26039414

  18. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M, 166Ho-DOTMP, 3-AP; Abatacept, abetimus sodium, ACR-16, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, AMD-070, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, anatumomab mafenatox, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, antigastrin therapeutic vaccine, AP-12009, AP-23573, APC-8024, aripiprazole, ATL-962, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clofazimine, colchicine, cold-adapted influenza vaccine trivalent, CRM197; Desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, diethylhomospermine; Edodekin alfa, efalizumab, elcometrine, eletriptan, enfuvirtide, entecavir, EP-2101, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, etoricoxib, everolimus, exherin, ezetimibe; Febuxostat, fluorescein lisicol, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; Hemoglobin raffimer, HSPPC-96, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, IRX-2, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ixabepilone; Kahalalide F; L-759274, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, licofelone, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lurtotecan, LY-156735; MAb G250, mecasermin, melatonin, midostaurin, muraglitazar; Nesiritide, nitronaproxen; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parecoxib sodium, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, PG-CPT, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, posaconazole; Rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, RG228, rimonabant hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; S-3304, safinamide mesilate, salcaprozic acid sodium salt, SDZ-SID-791, SGN-30, soblidotin

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, adefovir dipivoxil, AGI-1067, alefacept, alemtuzumab, ALVAC-p53, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anti-CTLA-4 Mab, AOD-9604, apafant, aprinocarsen sodium, arsenic trioxide; Balaglitazone, BIM-23190, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Canertinib dihydrochloride, CDP-850, cevimeline hydrochloride, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clenoliximab, clevudine, CN-787; D-003, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine dexanabinol, duloxetine hydrochloride; E-5564, edaravone, efaproxiral sodium, elvucitabine emfilermin, EN-101, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epithalon, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, etilefrine pivalate hydrochloride etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Fidarestat, fondaparinux sodium; Ganstigmine hydrochloride; Homoharringtonine, HuMax-IL-15, hyperimmune IVIG; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-1C11, Inhaled insulin, irofulven, iseganan hydrochloride, ISIS-14803, ISIS-5132, ivabradine hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, LAS-34475, levocetirizine, liraglutide, LY-307161 SR; Magnesium sulfate, maribavir, melatonin, mycobacterium cell wall complex; NN-414, NO-aspirin, nociceptin, nolomirole hydrochloride; Olmesartan medoxomil oral insulin, ospemifene; PDX, perillyl alcohol, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PRO-542, PV-701, pyrazoloacridine; R-744, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasburicase, rDNA insulin, resiniferatoxin, reslizumab, ridogrel, riplizumab ropivacaine, rosuvastatin calcium, roxifiban acetate, ruboxistaurin mesilate

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-04-01

    (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride, [(123)I]-BZA, 9-Aminocamptothecin; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Alvocidib hydrochloride, Ambrisentan, Amsilarotene, Anacetrapib, Anakinra, Apricitabine, Aripiprazole, Arsenic trioxide, Atazanavir sulfate, Atazanavir/ritonavir, Atrasentan, Azacitidine; Banoxantrone, Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Bromfenac; Cachectin, Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Canakinumab, Carfilzomib, CAT-354, CCX-282, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Clevudine, Clofarabine, CNTO-328, Corifollitropin alfa, Crofelemer; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Emtricitabine, Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Epoetin zeta, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farglitazar, Febuxostat, Fosamprenavir calcium, FX-06; Gabapentin enacarbil, Gefitinib; HIVIS DNA; Imatinib mesylate, INCB- 18424, Indacaterol, Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Insulin detemir; JNJ-26854165; Lacosamide, Landiolol, Laromustine, Lenalidomide, Liposomal doxorubicin, L-NAME, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lumiracoxib; Maraviroc, Mepolizumab, Methoxy polyethylene glycol- epoetin-beta, Miglustat, MK-0493, MVA-CMDR, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, Nepafenac, Neratinib, Neridronic acid, Nesiritide, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Olmesartan medoxomil, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel poliglumex, Palifermin, Patupilone, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, PHA-848125, Pitavastatin calcium, Posaconazole, Povidone-iodine liposome complex, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prucalopride; Raltegravir potassium, Retigabine, Revaprazan hydrochloride, rhFSH, Rilpivirine, Rivaroxaban, Romidepsin

  1. A randomized clinical trial of peginterferon alpha-2b with or without entecavir in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B: Role of host and viral factors associated with treatment response.

    PubMed

    Tangkijvanich, P; Chittmittraprap, S; Poovorawan, K; Limothai, U; Khlaiphuengsin, A; Chuaypen, N; Wisedopas, N; Poovorawan, Y

    2016-06-01

    Combining peginterferon (PEG-IFN) and a potent nucleoside/nucleotide analogue might improve treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of PEG-IFN alpha-2b with or without entecavir in HBeAg-negative CHB and to investigate predictors of response. A total of 126 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned to receive monotherapy (n = 63) or combination therapy (n = 63) for 48 weeks. Virological response (VR) was defined as HBV DNA level <2000 IU/mL at week 96. Baseline factors including polymorphisms in the IFNL3 (rs12979860) and HLA-DPA1 (rs3077) genes and on-treatment viral kinetics were determined. At week 48, rates of undetectable HBV DNA were lower in the monotherapy than combination groups, but rates of HBsAg clearance and decline were comparable. At week 96, there was no difference between the corresponding groups regarding virological response (41.3% vs 38.1%, P = 0.856), HBsAg clearance (9.5% vs 4.8%, P = 0.491) and HBsAg decline. Baseline HBsAg level [odds ratio (OR): 3.14 (1.34-7.69), P = 0.012] and rs3077 polymorphism [OR: 2.78 (1.27-6.11), P = 0.011] were independent predictors of response. Patients carried GG genotype of rs3077 with low baseline HBV (<1000 IU/mL) had high probability of achieving VR (76.5%) and HBsAg clearance (29.4%). None of the patients without decrease in HBsAg combined with <2 log10 HBV DNA decline at week 12 achieved a virological response. In conclusion, the combination therapy lead to greater on-treatment HBV DNA suppression but did not improve virological response and HBsAg clearance/decline over monotherapy. Host and viral factors could help optimize decision-making at baseline and during PEG-IFN-based therapy. PMID:26387494

  2. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com.This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-263, AC-2307, Aclidinium bromide, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anakinra, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, ASM-8, Atiprimod hydrochloride, AVE-0277, AVE-1642, AVE-8062, Axitinib, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BI-2536, Biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-387032, BMS-663513, Bortezomib, BQ-123, Brivanib alaninate, BSI-201; Caspofungin acetate, CDX-110, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, CR-011, Cypher; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Dexlansoprazole, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, Dovitinib, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hibvaccine, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, Emtricitabine, Endothelin, Entecavir, Eplivanserin fumarate, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farletuzumab, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fibrin sealant (human), Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Glufosfamide, GSK-1562902A; Hib-TT; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-11F8, Imidazoacridinone, IMP-321, INCB-18424, Indiplon, Indisulam, INNO-406, Irinotecan hydrochloride/Floxuridine, ITF-2357, Ixabepilone; KRN-951; Lasofoxifene tartrate; Lenalidomide, LGD-4665, Lonafarnib, Lubiprostone, Lumiliximab; MDX-1100, Melan-A/MART-1/gp100/IFN-alfa, Methyl-CDDO, Metreleptin, MLN-2704, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Na-ASP-2, Naproxcinod, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NPI-2358; Oblimersen sodium, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, PAN-811, Panobinostat, PBI-1402, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa

  3. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issues focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-gossypol, 2-deoxyglucose, 3,4-DAP, 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, amrubicin hydrochloride, AN-152, anakinra, anecortave acetate, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention, AP-12009, AP-23573, apaziquone, aprinocarsen sodium, AR-C126532, AR-H065522, aripiprazole, armodafinil, arzoxifene hydrochloride, atazanavir sulfate, atilmotin, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atorvastatin, avanafil, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-214662, BN-83495, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B; Caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, chrysin, ciclesonide, clevudine, clofarabine, clopidogrel, CNF-1010, CNTO-328, CP-751871, CX-717, Cypher; Dapoxetine hydrochloride, darifenacin hydrobromide, dasatinib, deferasirox, dextofisopam, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, diclofenac, dronedarone hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edaravone, efaproxiral sodium, emtricitabine, entecavir, eplerenone, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Finrozole, fipamezole hydrochloride, fondaparinux sodium, fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, gaboxadol, gefitinib, gestodene, ghrelin (human); Human insulin, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, immunoglobulin intravenous (human), indiplon, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, insulin glulisine, intranasal insulin, istradefylline, i.v. gamma

  4. Risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in the course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and the protective effect of therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

    PubMed

    Rapti, Irene; Hadziyannis, Stephanos

    2015-05-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide, representing one of the leading causes of death. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is the most important etiologic factor of this tumor, accounting for the development of more than 50% of the cases in the world. Primary prevention of HCC is possible by hepatitis B vaccination conferring protection from HBV infection. However, according to the World Health Organization Hepatitis B Fact sheet N° 204 (update of July 2014) globally there exists a large pool of > 240 million people chronically infected with HBV who are at risk for development of HCC. These individuals represent a target population for secondary prevention both of cirrhosis and of HCC. Since ongoing HBV replication in CHB is linked with the progression of the underlying liver disease to cirrhosis as well as with the development of HCC, effective antiviral treatment in CHB has also been evaluated in terms of secondary prevention of HCC. Currently, most patients with active CHB are subjected to long term treatment with the first line nucleos(t)ide analogues entecavir and tenofovir. These compounds are of high antiviral potency and have a high barrier to HBV resistance compared to lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil and even telbivudine. Many studies have shown that patients under antiviral treatment, especially those in virological remission, develop less frequently HCC compared to the untreated ones. However, the risk for development of HCC cannot be eliminated. Therefore, surveillance for the development of HCC of patients with chronic hepatitis B must be lifelong or until a time in the future when new treatments will be able to completely eradicate HBV from the liver particularly in the early stages of CHB infection. In this context, the aim of this review is to outline the magnitude of the risk for development of HCC among patients with CHB, in the various phases of the infection and in relation to virus, host and

  5. Novel approaches for the treatment of HIV.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, H T

    1998-03-01

    Presentations at the Fifth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections focused on new and novel HIV treatments. Four new agents in advanced testing are described: abacavir (1592), efavirenz (DMP-266), adefovir dipivoxil (bis-POM PMEA), and amprenavir (141W94). Other new drugs are being developed; however, the drugs are not as far along in the testing and approval process. The new drugs include integrase inhibitors, zinc finger inhibitors, cyclams and bycyclams, fusion inhibitors, and CKR-5 gene therapy. A summary of each drug is provided. PMID:11367450

  6. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    SciTech Connect

    Stoop, Jeroen N. . E-mail: j.n.stoop@erasmusmc.nl; Molen, Renate G. van der . E-mail: r.vandermolen@erasmusmc.nl; Kuipers, Ernst J. . E-mail: e.j.kuipers@erasmusmc.nl; Kusters, Johannes G. . E-mail: j.g.kusters@erasmusmc.nl; Janssen, Harry L.A. . E-mail: h.janssen@erasmusmc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-{gamma} production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response.

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of different therapies in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Viganò, Mauro; Di Matteo, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a prevalent disease associated with high morbidity, mortality, and impact on health care costs. Antiviral therapy is aimed at reducing hepatitis B virus replication in order to limit progressive liver disease and improve the natural history of the disease. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, entecavir, tenofovir, and pegylated interferon in patients with CHB. Methods: A Markov model was developed to evaluate the costs and benefits of antivirals in a cohort of patients with CHB (hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive and HBeAg-negative) and cirrhosis over a period of 10 years. Different rescue therapies were considered, according to current guidelines. Data on efficacy and changes in quality of life were derived from clinical trials and epidemiological Italian data. Direct costs were assessed from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. Results: Tenofovir was associated with lower costs and higher efficacy compared with entecavir, telbivudine, and adefovir, as shown by their incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained: tenofovir €30,959, entecavir €45,971, telbivudine €62,051, and adefovir €82,824. Even following 1 year of pegylated interferon therapy, tenofovir had a more favourable ICER per QALY gained compared with the other rescue options. The analysis of patients with cirrhosis confirms the results obtained with the CHB cohort though with higher ICERs. Sensitivity analyses on the main variables confirm the results of the base case scenario. Conclusion: Within the Italian health care system, in patients with CHB, tenofovir is a cost-effective strategy compared with other available therapies. Public health care authorities would benefit from mathematical models designed to estimate the future burden of CHB infection together with the impact of treatment and drug resistance. PMID:21935331

  8. [Chronic hepatitis B: current therapy].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    HBV cannot be fully eradicated from the body because of the persistence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. True cure is infrequent, but persistent suppression of HBV DNA slows liver disease progression and helps to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis B include pegylated interferon and 4 licensed oral nucleosides/nucleotides (lamivudine, adefovir entecavir and tenofovir). Interferon is the only drug with a defined duration of treatment. It is effective in 30% to 40% of patients but is poorly tolerated. In contrast to interferon, nucleotide/nucleoside analogs have only minor adverse effects. However, a resurgence of the infection may occur when these drugs are withdrawn, implying that treatment may have to continue indefinitely. The onset of viral resistance to these agents also limits their long-term use but can be minimized by ensuring potent suppression of viral replication. PMID:19445377

  9. Mutational analysis of reverse transcriptase and surface proteins of patients with partial virological response during mono and combination antiviral therapies in genotype D chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Mahabadi, Mostafa; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Norouzi, Mehdi; Keyvani, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The mutational pattern of chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is unclear in patients who show incomplete response to antiviral therapy. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the benefit of combination therapy with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and Lamivudine (LAM) versus ADV or LAM alone in maintaining virological, biochemical and histological responses and 2) to investigate the patterns of mutations in the reverse transcriptase and surface proteins of HBV with LAM and/or ADF-resistant in partially-responded chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Methods The study group consisted of 186 chronic HBV carriers who were admitted to the Tehran Hepatitis Network from 2010 to 2013. We retrospectively selected 86 patients who partially responded to different nucleoside analogue regimens. After 48 weeks of therapy, five groups of patients were defined including eight Lamivudine (LAM) Group (I), 30 Adefovir (ADV) Group (II), 16 ADV add on LAM Group (III), 32 ADV+LAM Group (IV), and 100 controls (no therapy). Reverse transcriptase (RT) and surface genes were amplified and sequenced for mutational analysis. Results All groups showed differences between mean values for age, gender, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and HBV DNA levels groups showed significant differences than other groups (p < 0.05). The mutation frequencies for groups were I (1.7%), II (1.39%), III (2.28%), IV (2.0%), and V (0.38%). T54N, L80I/V, I91L/V, L180M, M204I/V, Q215P/S, and F221Y/S showed the highest number of mutations in all groups with different frequencies. Four new, unreported mutations were found. Conclusion Those patients who failed to respond in the first 48 weeks, whether they were receiving mono or combination therapy, should be tested genotypically, for the early modification of treatment. PMID:27504160

  10. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2002-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abarelix, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AdGVVEGF121.10, anastrozole, anecortave acetate, aripiprazole, asulacrine isethionate, atazanavir, ATL-962, 16-Aza-epothilone B; Bevacizumab, bicalutamide, blonanserin, BMS-188667, bosentan; Celecoxib, celmoleukin, cetuximab, cilomilast, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CNTF(Ax15), colesevelam hydrochloride; Daclizumab, delavirdine mesilate, desogestrel, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, emtricitabine, epalrestat, escitalopram oxalate, examorelin, exendin-4, ezetimibe; Fidarestat, frovatriptan; HIV-1 Immunogen; Iloperidone, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, irinotecan hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levetiracetam, levormeloxifene, levosimendan, lumiracoxib, LY-307161 SR; Memantine hydrochloride, MEN-10755, metformin hydrochloride, metreleptin, motexafin gadolinium; Naratriptan hydrochloride, natalizumab, nesiritide, nicotine, NN-2211, NN-414; Olanzapine, omalizumab; Pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegvisomant, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, pramlintide acetate prasterone, pregabalin; Quetiapine fumarate; Rabeprazole sodium, raloxifene hydrochloride, raltitrexed, rDNA insulin, rFGF-2, risedronate sodium, rofecoxib, roflumilast, rosiglitazone maleate; SN-22995; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, tiotropium bromide, tomoxetine hydrochloride, trastuzumab, trimegestone; Voglibose, Voriconazole; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:12616707

  11. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-01-01

    [90Y-DOTA-Tyr3]octreotate, Abatacept, ABT-888, ACE-011, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alosetron hydrochloride, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Apaziquone, Aripiprazole, AS-101, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrasentan, Azacitidine; Bevacizumab, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Brivanib alaninate; CERE-120, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Combretastatin A-1 phosphate, Conatumumab, CT-322; Dabigatran etexilate, Darunavir, Deforolimus, Desloratadine, Doripenem, Doxorubicin eluting beads, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium; Gabapentin enacarbil, Ghrelin (human), Golimumab; IC-51, IDM-2, JX-594; Lidocaine/prilocaine, Liraglutide, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lumiracoxib; Men ACWY, MxdnG1; Naproxcinod; OBP-301, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Pasireotide, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Pegaptanib octasodium, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimecrolimus, Prasterone, Pregabalin; Raclopride, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, RB-006, Recombinant human relaxin H2, REG1, Regadenoson, Reximmune-C, Rilonacept; Saxagliptin, SCH-697243, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib; Tadalafil, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Vicriviroc, Volociximab, Vorinostat; WB-1001; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:19798455

  12. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-12-01

    [Methoxy-(11)C]PD-153035, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Adalimumab, Adecatumumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, ADX-10059, Aflibercept, AIR-human growth hormone, Aliskiren fumarate, AMG-221, Amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil, Aprepitant; Bavituximab, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BIBW-2992, BMS-690514, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Briakinumab; Capecitabine, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cholecalciferol, Choline fenofibrate, Chorionic gonadotropin (human), Cixutumumab, Clopidogrel, CP-690550 citrate; Dabigatran, Dacetuzumab, Daclizumab, Dapagliflozin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Denosumab; Efavirenz, Elisidepsin, Enoxaparin, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide; Fenobam, Figitumumab, Filibuvir, Fondaparinux sodium, Fresolimumab; Gefitinib, Golimumab, Golnerminogene pradenovec; Ifosfamide, Imatinib mesylate, Ipilimumab, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liposomal vincristine, Liraglutide; M-118, Masitinib mesylate, Metformin hydrochloride, Micafungin sodium, Moxifloxacin hydrochloride; Neratinib; Oblimersen sodium, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Palifosfamide lysine, Panobacumab, Panobinostat, Patupilone, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, Piclozotan hydrochloride hydrate, Pixantrone maleate, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Prednisone, Progesterone, Prucalopride, pVGI.1 (VEGF-2); Retigabine, rhFSH, Rituximab, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salinosporamide A, Selumetinib, Sipuleucel-T, Somatropin, Sorafenib, SSR-244738, Sunitinib malate; Tamoxifen citrate, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telmisartan, Telmisartan/amlodipine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan, Trastuzumab, Trastuzumab-MCC-DM1, Travoprost, Tremelimumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Valsartan/amlodipine besylate/hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Vandetanib

  13. Roles of hepatocyte nuclear factors in hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2016-08-21

    Approximately 350 million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. HBV maintains persistent infection by employing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a template for all HBV RNAs. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are currently treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir. However, these treatments rarely cure CHB because they are unable to inhibit cccDNA transcription and inhibit only a late stage in the HBV life cycle (the reverse transcription step in the nucleocapsid). Therefore, an understanding of the factors regulating cccDNA transcription is required to stop this process. Among numerous factors, hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) play the most important roles in cccDNA transcription, especially in the generation of viral genomic RNA, a template for HBV replication. Therefore, proper control of HNF function could lead to the inhibition of HBV replication. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of HNFs in the HBV life cycle and the upstream factors that regulate HNFs. This knowledge will enable the identification of new therapeutic targets to cure CHB. PMID:27610013

  14. Generation of a human hepatoma cell line supporting efficient replication of a lamivudine resistant hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Yongmei; Kang, Yaoyue; Wang, Jinyu; Liu, Hongyan; Zhu, Haoxiang; Qin, Yanli; Mao, Richeng; Lin, Xu; Lu, Mengji; Zhang, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    Emergence of lamivudine (LAM) resistance causes treatment failure in patients with chronic hepatitis B and compromise the efficacy of subsequent salvage therapies with other nucleot(s)ide analogs (NAs). Establishment of cell-based assays supporting LAM-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication will not only provide tools for investigating the replication property, but also screening for antiviral agents efficiently inhibiting the replication of LAM-resistant HBV variants. Accordingly, a human hepatoma (HepG2)-derived cell line was established by stable transfection of a plasmid containing a 1.2 unit length of HBV genome harboring rtL180M and rtM204V mutations that confer LAM resistance. In addition to support efficient viral genome replication, the cell line also produces high levels of HBV virions and subviral particles. As expected, HBV DNA replication in this cell line is completely resistant to lamivudine, but sensitive to adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF). The cell line is suitable for screening for antiviral agents that inhibit LAM-resistant HBV replication and inhibitors of HBsAg biosynthesis and secretion, which may reduce HBsAg antigenemia and ultimately help to restore host antiviral immune response against HBV and cure chronic HBV infection. PMID:24583110

  15. Oxethazaine inhibits hepatitis B virus capsid assembly by blocking the cytosolic calcium-signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Chunlan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Xulin

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem and may progress to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is currently treated with PEGylated IFN-α2a and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs). However, PEGylated IFN treatment has problems of high cost, low efficiency and side effects. Long-term administration of NAs is necessary to avoid virus relapse, which can cause drug resistance and side effects. New efforts are now being directed to develop novel anti-HBV drugs targeting either additional viral targets other than viral DNA polymerase or host targets to improve the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In this study, we discovered that oxethazaine, approved for clinic use in a few countries such as Japan, India, South Africa and Brazil, can dose-dependently reduce the levels of HBV envelope antigen, extracellular HBV DNA in supernatants and intracellular HBV total DNA. However, the levels of HBV cccDNA and HBV RNAs were not affected by oxethazaine treatment. Further study confirmed that oxethazaine acts on the virus assembly stage of the HBV life cycle. A study of the mechanisms of oxethazaine suggested that this drug inhibits HBV replication and capsid assembly by blocking the cytosolic calcium-signalling pathway. Moreover, oxethazaine could inhibit the replication of lamivudine/entecavir-dual-resistant and adefovir-resistant HBV mutants. In conclusion, our study suggests that oxethazaine may serve as a promising drug, or could be used as a starting point for anti-HBV drug discovery. PMID:26838678

  16. Roles of hepatocyte nuclear factors in hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 350 million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. HBV maintains persistent infection by employing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a template for all HBV RNAs. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are currently treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir. However, these treatments rarely cure CHB because they are unable to inhibit cccDNA transcription and inhibit only a late stage in the HBV life cycle (the reverse transcription step in the nucleocapsid). Therefore, an understanding of the factors regulating cccDNA transcription is required to stop this process. Among numerous factors, hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) play the most important roles in cccDNA transcription, especially in the generation of viral genomic RNA, a template for HBV replication. Therefore, proper control of HNF function could lead to the inhibition of HBV replication. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of HNFs in the HBV life cycle and the upstream factors that regulate HNFs. This knowledge will enable the identification of new therapeutic targets to cure CHB. PMID:27610013

  17. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Gervain, Judit; Lengyel, Gabriella; Makara, Mihály; Pár, Alajos; Rókusz, László; Szalay, Ferenc; Tornai, István; Werling, Klára; Hunyady, Béla

    2015-12-15

    Diagnosis and treatment of HBV/HDV infection means for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2016 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases. The prevalence of HBV infection in the Hungarian general population is 0.5-0.7%. The indications of treatment is based upon viral examinations (including viral nucleic acid determination), determinations of disease activity and stage (including biochemical, pathologic, and/or non-invasive methods), and excluding contraindications. To avoid unnecessary side effects and for cost-effective approach the guideline stresses the importance of quick and detailed virologic evaluations, the applicability of elastography as an acceptable alternative of liver biopsy in this regard, as well as the relevance of appropriate consistent follow up schedule for viral response during therapy. The first choice of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection can be pegylated interferon for 48 weeks or continuous ente- cavir or tenofovir therapy. The latter two must be continued for at least 12 months after hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion. Adefovir dipivoxil is recommended mainly in combination therapy. Lamivudine is no longer a first choice; patients currently taking lamivudine must switch if response is inadequate. Appropriate treatment of patients taking immunosuppressive medications is highly recommended. Pegylated interferon based therapy is recommended for the treatment of concomitant hepatitis D infection. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(Suppl. 2) 25-36. PMID:26667112

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-06-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M; Adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, adenosine triphosphate, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, autologous renal tumor vaccine, azimilide hydrochloride; Bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; C340, cantuzumab mertansine, caspofungin acetate, CGP-36742, CHAMPION everolimus-eluting coronary stent, cypher; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Efalizumab, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, everolimus, ezetimibe; Flesinoxan hydrochloride, fosamprenavir calcium, FR-901228, frovatriptan; Gadofosveset sodium, gadomer-17, galiximab, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib; HuOKT3gamma1(Ala234-Ala235); IDN-6556, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, iseganan hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Keratinocyte growth factor; LB-80380, levocetirizine, liposomal doxorubicin, LMB-9, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Mecasermin, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride; Natalizumab, nelfinavir, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; Olcegepant, omalizumab, oregovomab; Parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, perospirone hydrochloride, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, prinomastat; Resiquimod, rhIGFBP-3, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3, ritanserin, ro-31-7453, rosuvastatin calcium; SCIO-469, SDZ-SID-791, SU-11248, suberanilohydroxamic acid; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TER-286, tezosentan disodium, TH-9507, tipifarnib, tipranavir, tolvaptan, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, travoprost, treprostinil sodium, tucaresol

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Know- ledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, adefovir dipivoxil, AdPEDF.11, AES-14, albumex, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvimopan hydrate, aAminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anti-IL-12 MAb, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan, avanafil; Banoxantrone, BG-12, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, CBT-1, ciclesonide, clofarabine, conivaptan hydrochloride, CpG-7909, C-Vax, Cypher; DA-8159, DAC:GLP-1, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eculizumab, efalizumab, efaproxiral sodium, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, ETC-642, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Gefitinib, IV gamma-globulin; Human insulin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium; IDN-6556, iguratimod, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, ixabepilone; Laquinimod, LB-80380, lidocaine/prilocaineliraglutide, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lucinactant; MAb-14.18, melatonin, MLN-591-DM1; NC-531, neridronic acid, nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, niacin/lovastatin; Oblimersen sodium, olcegepant, oral Insulin, ORV-105; Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAmAb, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, pegvisomant, perifosine, pexelizumab, phenoxodiol, phenserine tartrate, pimecrolimus, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-542, prostate cancer vaccine, PT-141; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, reslizumab, rh-Lactoferrin, ribamidine hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium; S-8184l, SC-1, sorafenib, St. John's Wort extract, SU-11248; Taxus, telbivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abiraterone acetate, Ad5CMV-p53, adefovir dipivoxil, AE-941, ambrisentan, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atrasentan; BCH-10618, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, BMS-275183, BMS-387032, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1, BR96-Doxorubicin; Capravirine, caspofungin acetate, cinacalcet hydrochloride; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, DJ-927, duloxetine hydrochloride; Elacridar, emtricitabine, eplerenone, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, ESP-24217, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe; Ferumoxtran-10, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; GS-7904L, GW-5634; HMN-214, human insulin; IC-14, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine, insulinotropin, iseganan hydrochloride; Lanthanum carbonate, L-Arginine hydrochloride, LEA29Y, lenalidomide, LE-SN38, lestaurtinib, L-MDAM, lometrexol, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir; Magnesium sulfate, maraviroc, mepolizumab, metreleptin, milataxel, MNA-715, morphine hydrochloride; Nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, NK-911; Olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ortataxel, oxycodone hydrochloride/ibuprofen; Panitumumab, patupilone, PC-515, PD-MAGE-3 Vaccine, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, prasugrel, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Rosuvastatin calcium, RPR-113090; sabarubicin hydrochloride, safinamide mesilate, SB-715992, sitaxsentan sodium, soblidotin, synthadotin; Tadalafil, taltobulin, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, testosterone gel, tigecycline, tipranavir, tirapazamine, trabectedin

  2. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b

  3. Hepatitis B in HIV patients: what is the current treatment and what are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Soriano, Vincent; Tuma, Paula; Vispo, Eugenia; Labarga, Pablo; Fernández, José Vicente; Medrano, José; Barreiro, Pablo

    2009-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B affects 5-10% of HIV patients in Western countries. Lamivudine should no longer be used as a single anti-HBV agent in HIV-HBV co-infected patients, given its limited antiviral potency and high risk of selection of resistance, which further results in wide cross-resistance to all other nucleoside analogues. Recent reports of transmission of lamivudine-resistant HBV in HIV patients are of especial concern, and large surveillance studies suggest that it may occur in up to 10% of new HBV infections in Western countries. Another worrisome aspect of the selection of lamivudine-resistant HBV is the potential for selection of vaccine escape mutants. Currently, tenofovir must be viewed as the drug of choice in HIV-HBV co-infected patients in whom antiretroviral therapy is advised. Its co-formulation with emtricitabine (Truvada) is particularly convenient for treating both HIV and HBV in co-infected individuals. While pegIFN-alpha monotherapy for 1 year may be considered for HIV-HBV coinfected individuals with good spontaneous HIV control (elevated CD4 cell count, low plasma HIV-RNA), and certain HBV features (genotype A, HBeAg+, low serum HBV-DNA and elevated ALT), it is clear that very few coinfected patients fulfill these criteria. In HBeAg-negative HIV patients, adefovir may be an option but the relatively low antiviral potency of this drug discourages its wide use. Given its potential anti-HIV activity, both entecavir and telbivudine must only be prescribed with antiretroviral agents. Lack of information about potential pharmacodynamic interactions between entecavir and abacavir (both are guanosine analogues) or between telbivudine and zidovudine or stavudine (all are thymidine analogues) further discourages their concomitant use. At this time, most experts agree that early introduction of anti-HBV active HAART is the best strategy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in HIV patients, and Truvada must be part of the triple regimen. PMID:19731560

  4. Substitution at rt269 in Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase Is a Compensatory Mutation Associated with Multi-Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Yong Kwang; Park, Eun-Sook; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Shin, Gu-Choul; Park, Soree; Kang, Hong Seok; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Sung-Il; Chong, Youhoon; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of compensatory mutations in the polymerase gene of drug resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with treatment failure. We previously identified a multi-drug resistant HBV mutant, which displayed resistance towards lamivudine (LMV), clevudine (CLV), and entecavir (ETV), along with a strong replication capacity. The aim of this study was to identify the previously unknown compensatory mutations, and to determine the clinical relevance of this mutation during antiviral therapy. In vitro mutagenesis, drug susceptibility assay, and molecular modeling studies were performed. The rtL269I substitution conferred 2- to 7-fold higher replication capacity in the wild-type (WT) or YMDD mutation backbone, regardless of drug treatment. The rtL269I substitution alone did not confer resistance to LMV, ETV, adefovir (ADV), or tenofovir (TDF). However, upon combination with YMDD mutation, the replication capacity under LMV or ETV treatment was enhanced by several folds. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the rtL269I substitution affects template binding, which may eventually lead to the enhanced activity of rtI269-HBV polymerase in both WT virus and YMDD mutant. The clinical relevance of the rtL269I substitution was validated by its emergence in association with YMDD mutation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with sub-optimal response or treatment failure to LMV or CLV. Our study suggests that substitution at rt269 in HBV polymerase is associated with multi-drug resistance, which may serve as a novel compensatory mutation for replication-defective multi-drug resistant HBV. PMID:26322642

  5. Substitution at rt269 in Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase Is a Compensatory Mutation Associated with Multi-Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Hyun; Kim, Doo Hyun; Lee, Ah Ram; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Yong Kwang; Park, Eun-Sook; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Shin, Gu-Choul; Park, Soree; Kang, Hong Seok; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Sung-Il; Chong, Youhoon; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of compensatory mutations in the polymerase gene of drug resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with treatment failure. We previously identified a multi-drug resistant HBV mutant, which displayed resistance towards lamivudine (LMV), clevudine (CLV), and entecavir (ETV), along with a strong replication capacity. The aim of this study was to identify the previously unknown compensatory mutations, and to determine the clinical relevance of this mutation during antiviral therapy. In vitro mutagenesis, drug susceptibility assay, and molecular modeling studies were performed. The rtL269I substitution conferred 2- to 7-fold higher replication capacity in the wild-type (WT) or YMDD mutation backbone, regardless of drug treatment. The rtL269I substitution alone did not confer resistance to LMV, ETV, adefovir (ADV), or tenofovir (TDF). However, upon combination with YMDD mutation, the replication capacity under LMV or ETV treatment was enhanced by several folds. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the rtL269I substitution affects template binding, which may eventually lead to the enhanced activity of rtI269-HBV polymerase in both WT virus and YMDD mutant. The clinical relevance of the rtL269I substitution was validated by its emergence in association with YMDD mutation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with sub-optimal response or treatment failure to LMV or CLV. Our study suggests that substitution at rt269 in HBV polymerase is associated with multi-drug resistance, which may serve as a novel compensatory mutation for replication-defective multi-drug resistant HBV. PMID:26322642

  6. Dynamic Changes of Treg and Th17 Cells and Related Cytokines Closely Correlate With the Virological and Biochemical Response in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Undergoing Nucleos(t)ide Analogues Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xue-Ping; Guo, Ru-Yi; Su, Mi-Long; Ming, De-Song; Lin, Cheng-Zu; Deng, Yong; Lin, Zhen-Zhong; Su, Zhi-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background: The restoration of HBV-specific T-cell response during antiviral therapy is associated with CD4+T-cell activity. Treg cells and Th17 cells are subtypes of CD4+T cell. However, it has remained unknown how the Treg and Th17 cells and their associated cytokines affect nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) antiviral efficacy. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to provide a new insight to evaluate the NA antiviral therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Patients and Methods: Forty-four CHB patients hospitalized between July 2010 and August 2011 were enrolled in this study. They were received NA (entecavir, lamivudine and adefovir) treatment for 14.42 ± 13.08 weeks, and the peripheral blood was collected. The frequencies of Treg and Th17 cells were detected by flow cytometric analysis, and the levels of IL-10, TGF-β1, IL-17 and IL-23 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In complete and partial-responders, Treg cells frequencies and IL-10, TGF-β1, IL-23 levels were all decreased significantly after NA therapy, while Th17 cells and the IL-17 levels were increased slightly. Treg/Th17 ratio was only dramatically declined in complete-responders. But there was no significant difference in non-responders. Either HBV DNA decreased by at least 2 log copies /mL or ALT turned to normal level, Treg cells frequencies and IL-10, TGF-β1, IL-23 levels were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, Treg cells were positively correlated with HBV DNA and ALT. Conclusions: The changes of Treg and Th17 cells and their associated cytokines were related to virological and biochemical responses. PMID:24403916

  7. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Aclidinium bromide, Adalimumab, Adefovir, Alemtuzumab, Alkaline phosphatase, Amlodipine, Apilimod mesylate, Aripiprazole, Axitinib, Azacitidine; Belotecan hydrochloride, Berberine iodide, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Bryostatin 1; Calcipotriol/hydrocortisone, Carglumic acid, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cixutumumab, Coumarin, Custirsen sodium; Darbepoetin alfa, Darifenacin hydrobromide, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Denibulin hydrochloride, Denosumab, Diacetylmorphine, Dulanermin, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Escitalopram oxalate, Esomeprazole sodium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Fenofibrate/pravastatin sodium, Ferric carboxymaltose, Flavangenol, Fondaparinux sodium; Glutamine, GSK-1024850A; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, Hib-MenC, HIV-LIPO-5; Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), Indacaterol maleate, Indibulin, Indium 111 (¹¹¹In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent vaccine, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin glulisine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Leucovorin/UFT; Maraviroc, Mecasermin, MMR-V, Morphine hydrochloride, Morphine sulfate/naltrexone hydrochloride, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium, Natalizumab; Oncolytic HSV; Paliperidone, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimecrolimus, Posaconazole, Pregabalin; Raltegravir potassium, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasburicase, Rilpivirine

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Interferon Monotherapy or Combined with Different Nucleos(t)ide Analogues for Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jialing; Wu, Xiaoning; Wei, Wei; You, Hong; Jia, Jidong; Kong, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of interferon (IFN) with or without different nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Methods: The PubMed, Wan Fang and CNKI databases were searched to identify relevant trials up to May 2015. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0. The stability and reliability were evaluated by publication bias tests. Results: Fifty-six studies fulfilled the criteria for the meta-analysis. Compared with IFN monotherapy, combination therapy were superior in HBV DNA undetectable rate (Risk Ratio (RR) = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44–1.66, p < 0.00001), HBeAg and HBsAg loss rate (RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.22–1.56, p < 0.00001; RR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.03–2.78, p = 0.04, respectively) at the end of week 48 treatment. Sub-analysis showed the RRs of virological response for entecavir (ETV), adefovir (ADV), and lamivudine (LAM) were 1.64, 1.61 and 1.52, respectively; RRs of HBeAg loss rate were 1.34, 1.71 and 1.34, respectively. However, at the end of follow-up, IFN plus NAs therapy was better than IFN monotherapy only in terms of HBV DNA undetectable rate (p = 0.0007). Conclusions: Combination therapy was better than IFN monotherapy in virological and serological responses at the end of treatment. After follow-up, only HBV DNA undetectable rate was superior for combination therapy. PMID:27455288

  9. Management of chronic hepatitis B in children: an unresolved issue.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Claudia; Nobili, Valerio; Comparcola, Donatella; Cainelli, Francesca; Vento, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    Although a rather benign course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during childhood has been described, 3-5% and 0.01-0.03% of chronic carriers develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma before adulthood. Considering the whole lifetime, the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma rises to 9-24% and the incidence of cirrhosis to 2-3% per year. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge regarding the natural history and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in children and to focus on critical aspects and unresolved questions in the management of childhood HBV infection. A literature search was carried out on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals from January 1980 to February 2013. The search terms used included "Hepatitis B virus infection," "children," "HBV," "interferon," "lamivudine," "adefovir," "entecavir," and "tenofovir." Articles resulting from these searches and relevant references cited in the articles retrieved were reviewed. The current goals of therapy are to suppress viral replication, reduce liver inflammation, and reverse liver fibrosis. Therapeutic options for children are currently limited, and the risk for viral resistance to current and future therapies is a particular concern. Based on the data available at this time, it is the consensus of the panel that it is not appropriate to treat children in the immune-tolerant phase or in the inactive carrier state. For children in the immune-active or reactivation phases, liver histology can help guide treatment decisions. Outside of clinical trials, interferon is the agent of choice in most cases; currently, available nucleoside analogs are secondary therapies. PMID:24863185

  10. Prediction of virologic response to tenofovir mono-rescue therapy for multidrug resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangheun; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Song, Kijun; Ku, Hye Jin; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Most guidelines suggest combination therapy including nucleoside and nucleotide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with multidrug resistance (MD-R). However, long-term combination treatment can evoke high costs and safety problems. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy for viral suppression in patients with CHB exhibiting MD-R. We reviewed patients with CHB exhibiting antiviral drug resistance treated by TDF mono-rescue therapy from December 2012 to June 2014. The patients were categorized into three groups: lamivudine-resistance (LAM-R) group (n = 290), and LAM-R + adefovir-resistance (ADV-R) group (n = 43), and LAM-R + entecavir-resistance (ETV-R) group (n = 113). We compared the virologic response rate according to the multiplicity of resistance and investigated the predictive factors of a virologic response. For a median of 15 months (range, 6-24 months) of TDF mono-rescue therapy, the cumulative virologic response rates were 82.8, 81.4, and 84.1% in the LAM-R, LAM-R + ADV-R, and LAM-R + ETV-R groups, respectively (P = 0.239). Multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity of resistance did not influence the achievement of a virologic response (P = 0.218). However, the baseline HBV DNA level significantly influenced the achievement of a virologic response for the treatment of CHB with MD-R (P < 0.001). TDF mono-rescue therapy is an appropriate treatment for CHB with MD-R, and the baseline HBV DNA level is a significant predictive factor for a virologic response. These factors should be considered before treating CHB with MD-R. J. Med. Virol. 88:1027-1034, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26538234

  11. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an

  12. Pretransplant Hepatitis B Viral Infection Increases Risk of Death After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Cho, Jang-Hee; Lee, Jong Soo; Ahn, Dong-Won; Kim, Chan-Duck; Ahn, Curie; Jung, In Mok; Han, Duck Jong; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) have not been thoroughly evaluated. Here, we investigated recent posttransplant clinical outcomes of KTRs with HBV and compared them with KTRs with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and seronegative KTRs. Of 3855 KTRs from April 1999 to December 2011, we enrolled 3482 KTRs who had viral hepatitis serology data; the patients were followed up for 89.1 ± 54.1 months. The numbers of recipients with HBV and HCV were 160 (4.6%) and 55 (1.6%), respectively. We analyzed the clinical outcomes, including overall mortality and graft failure, among patients who had undergone kidney transplantation. Patients with HBV showed poorer survival (P = 0.019; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.370; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.155–4.865) than KTRs without HBV. However, the graft survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B did not differ from that of patients without HBV. Hepatic complications were the primary causes of mortality of KTRs with HBV. Mortality significantly correlated with a higher grade of inflammation (P = 0.002) and with the use of lamivudine or adefovir antiviral treatment (P = 0.016). HBV-positive KTRs treated with the new-generation antiviral agent entecavir showed improved patient survival compared with KTRs receiving lamivudine (log-rank P = 0.050). HCV did not affect patient survival; however, it increased the incidence of graft failure (P = 0.010; adjusted HR = 2.899; 95% CI: 1.289–6.519). KTRs with HCV had an increased incidence of acute rejection (log-rank P = 0.005, crude HR = 2.144; 95% CI: 1.341–3.426; P = 0.001). KTRs with chronic hepatitis B may exhibit poor survival due to post-transplantation hepatic complications. Pretransplant histological liver evaluations and adequate antiviral management with potent nucleoside/nucleotide analogues are needed to improve the survival of KTRs with chronic hepatitis B even when liver

  13. Medical management of chronic liver diseases in children (part I): focus on curable or potentially curable diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H F; Kamal, Naglaa M

    2011-12-01

    The management of children with chronic liver disease (CLD) mandates a multidisciplinary approach. CLDs can be classified into 'potentially' curable, treatable non-curable, and end-stage diseases. Goals pertaining to the management of CLDs can be divided into prevention or minimization of progressive liver damage in curable CLD by treating the primary cause; prevention or control of complications in treatable CLD; and prediction of the outcome in end-stage CLD in order to deliver definitive therapy by surgical procedures, including liver transplantation. Curative, specific therapies aimed at the primary causes of CLDs are, if possible, best considered by a pediatric hepatologist. Medical management of CLDs in children will be reviewed in two parts, with part I (this article) specifically focusing on 'potentially' curable CLDs. Dietary modification is the cornerstone of management for galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, and certain glycogen storage diseases, as well as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is also essential in tyrosinemia, in addition to nitisinone [2-(nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione] therapy, as well as in Wilson disease along with copper-chelating agents such as D-penicillamine, triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Zinc and antioxidants are adjuvant drugs in Wilson disease. New advances in chronic viral hepatitis have been made with the advent of oral antivirals. In children, currently available drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection are standard interferon (IFN)-α-2, pegylated IFN-α-2 (PG-IFN), and lamivudine. In adults, adefovir and entecavir have also been licensed, whereas telbivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, clevudine, and thymosin α-1 are currently undergoing clinical testing. For chronic hepatitis C virus infection, the most accepted treatment is PG-IFN plus ribavirin. Corticosteroids, with or without azathioprine, remain the basic

  14. What's in a name?

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    A table charts the various nomenclature of drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS. The common name, generic name, and brand name are given for several categories including NARTIs (NRTIs, "Nukes", Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), and PIs (Protease Inhibitors). Other drugs listed are Hydroxyurea (anti-cancer drug) and preveon (Adefovir (Nucleotide)). PMID:11366757

  15. Selective Inhibition of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Replication in Human Cells by Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates▿

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Minyi; Wang, Xin; De Clercq, Erik; Takao, Sonshin; Baba, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Several anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors were evaluated for their antiviral activities against porcine endogenous retrovirus in human cells. Among the test compounds, zidovudine was found to be the most active. The order of potency was zidovudine > phosphonylmethoxyethoxydiaminopyrimidine = phosphonylmethoxypropyldiaminopurine > tenofovir ≥ adefovir > stavudine. PMID:17470654

  16. Two cases of malignant lymphoma with reactivation of resolved hepatitis B virus infection after bendamustine hydrochloride monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Yoshiki; Kawano, Akira; Shigematsu, Hirohisa; Miki, Koichiro; Nomura, Hideyuki; Shimoda, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    A 63-year-old female and a 63-year-old male with resolved HBV infection suffered a relapse of malignant lymphoma. After bendamustine hydrochloride monotherapy, HBV reactivation occurred. Entecavir treatment was commenced immediately, with tests for HBV DNA negative without development of hepatitis. Regular monitoring of HBV DNA based on the guidelines from the Japan Society of Hepatology was useful. PMID:27593368

  17. A biomimetic chitosan derivates: preparation, characterization and transdermal enhancement studies of N-arginine chitosan.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Pan; Cheng, Qing-Qing; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Qiang; Hou, Lu-Lu; Huo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel arginine-rich chitosan (CS) derivates mimicked cell penetration peptides; N-Arginine chitosan (N-Arg-CS) was prepared by two reaction methods involving activated L-arginine and the amine group on the chitosan. FTIR spectra showed that arginine was chemically coupled with CS. Elemental analysis estimated that the degrees of substitution (DS) of arginine in CS were 6%, 31.3% and 61.5%, respectively. The drug adefovir was chosen as model and its permeation flux across excised mice skin was investigated using a Franz diffusion cell. The results showed that the most effective enhancer was 2% (w/v) concentration of 10 kDa N-Arg-CS with 6% DS. At neutral pH, the cumulative amount of adefovir permeated after 12 hours was 2.63 ± 0.19 mg cm(-2) which was 5.83-fold more than adefovir aqueous solution. Meanwhile N-Arg-CS was 1.83, 2.22, and 2.45 times more effective than Azone, eucalyptus and peppermint, respectively. The obtained results suggest that N-Arg-CS could be a promising transdermal enhancer. PMID:21829153

  18. Novel treatment options for hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2004-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects between 350 and 400 million people globally. Interferon-alpha, lamivudine and adefovir (Hepsera) are approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B; however, the use of interferon-alpha is limited. Lamivudine and adefovir have excellent antiviral activity and oral bioavailability, although viral rebound after cessation of therapy and development of resistance after long-term therapy with lamivudine are major clinical limitations. Adefovir has proven to be effective against lamivudine-resistant strains in vitro and in vivo. The various steps of HBV replication provide opportunities for new antiviral drugs to interact with the virus. Recent developments, including new antivirals that interfere with viral DNA replication, hold promise for the future. Sustained reduction in viral load and improved treatment of chronic HBV infection could, in future, be achieved by the development of new drugs with different mechanisms of action and resistance profiles, and with combination therapy involving two or more nucleosides with or without immunomodulators. PMID:15043391

  19. New antivirals - mechanism of action and resistance development.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, J; Naesens, L; De Clercq, E

    1998-10-01

    In recent years, several novel treatment modalities emerged for a number of virus infections, including lamivudine for hepatitis B virus, abacavir, adefovir dipivoxyl and apropovir disprometil for human immunodeficiency virus, cidofovir for cytomegalovirus, and famciclovir (the oral prodrug of penciclovir) and cidofovir for other herpesviruses (i.e. herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus). For all drugs, resistance eventually develops upon prolonged administration to the infected individuals, albeit at a varying extent. In addition, new mutations related to multidrug resistance have recently been identified. PMID:10066527

  20. Does Nucleos(t)ide Analogues Treatment Affect Renal Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Who Have Already Decreased eGFR? A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Chao; Chen, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Po-Lin; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chiu, King-Wah; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Yen, Yi-Hao; Lin, Ming-Tsung; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the renal function in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who received nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) titer. We performed a longitudinal observational study of 37 tenofovir-, 42 telbivudine-, and 62 entecavir-naïve CHB patients, who had impaired renal function (eGFR, 90–30 ml/min/1.73m2) without history of diabetes, hypertension, and chemotherapy. Calculation and evaluation of eGFR was performed with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and Cockcroft-Gault formula at pretreatment, at baseline, and after the 1st and 2nd year of treatment. The eGFR was significantly increased in patients given telbivudine or entecavir (p = 0.003 and p = 0.012, respectively), but the eGFR was decreased in patients given tenofovir (p = 0.001) after 2 years of treatment. Of all patients, eGFR was stable one year prior to treatment. If we analyzed the renal function by change of chronic kidney disease (CKD) category with a change of 25% of eGFR, the proportion of uncertain drop (drop in CKD category with <25% decrease in eGFR) and certain drop (drop in CKD category with ≧25% decrease in eGFR) in tenofovir group was smaller (5.4%) than those of telbivudine (12.9%) or entecavir (6.5%). Furthermore, telbivudine had the lowest stable rate (76.2%), the highest certain rise rate (9.5%), and certain drop rate (7.1%) compared to the other groups (p = 0.049). In conclusion, in NAs-naïve CHB patients with impaired renal function, telbivudine and entecavir resulted in a significant increase in eGFR while tenofovir resulted in a significant decrease after a 2-year treatment. Interestingly, TDF had the lowest proportion of patients reclassified to certain and uncertain drop groups; in contrast, LdT had a higher proportion in both raise and drop groups. The outcomes of this renal effect remain to be determined. PMID:26964034

  1. Complete withdrawal of hepatitis B virus prophylaxis after liver transplantation in a recipient at high risk of recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tian; Ye, Yufu; Geng, Lei; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    With the potent nucleos (t) ide analogues developed, necessity of life-long combined prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplantation has been challenged. But complete withdrawal of HBV prophylaxis has not been previously observed in patients at high recurrence risk who showed active HBV replication before transplant. Herein, we describe a patient with positive HBeAg and HBV-DNA at the time of liver transplantation, who experienced complete HBV prophylaxis withdrawal after 3 years’ application of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir, and showed no HBV recurrence during a long term of follow-up. PMID:26221402

  2. The Expression of TLR-9, CD86, and CD95 Phenotypes in Circulating B Cells of Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis B or C before and after Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping-wei; Ma, Liang; Ji, Hui-fan; Yu, Lei; Feng, Jun-yan; Liu, Ming-yuan; Jiang, Yan-fang

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to assess the differential expression of specific B cell subtypes in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Methods. The frequencies of differential expression of specific B cell subtypes in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy controls were assessed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies specific for CD38, CD27, CD86, CD95, TLR-9, and IgD. The effect of adefovir treatment on B cell subsets in HBV patients was determined. The values of clinical parameters in the patients were also measured. Results. The frequency of CD86+ B cells was not significantly different in chronic HBV patients but was higher in HCV patients compared with that in healthy controls. CD95 and IgD levels were lower in HBV and HCV patients than in healthy controls. A significant negative correlation occurred between the proportion of CD95+ B cells and HBV DNA viral load. The frequency of TLR-9 on the B cells in HBV and HCV patients was higher compared with that of healthy controls. After treatment with adefovir, the frequency of CD95 and IgD expressed on B cells was increased in HBV patients. Conclusions. Activated B cells and exhausted B cells homeostasis were commonly disturbed in HBV and HCV patients. PMID:25892855

  3. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

    SciTech Connect

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A.; Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel; Jilbert, Allison R.

    2013-11-15

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.

  4. Virtual screening reveals a viral-like polymerase inhibitor that complexes with the DNA polymerase of Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Andrade, B S; Souza, C S; Santos, G; Góes-Neto, A

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is a basidiomycota that causes the witches' broom disease in cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L.). The mitochondrial DNA polymerase of M. perniciosa (MpmitDNApol) is classified within the B family of DNA polymerases, which can be found in viruses and cellular organelles. Using virtual screening processes, accessing KEGG, PubChem, and ZINC databases, we selected the 27 best putative nucleoside viral-like polymerase inhibitors to test against MpmitDNApol. We used Autodock Vina to perform docking simulations of the selected molecules and to return energy values in several ligand conformations. Then, we used Pymol v1.7.4.4 to check the stereochemistry of chiral carbons, hydrogen bonding receptors, absence or presence of hydrogen, sub and superstructure, numbers of rings, rotatable bonds, and donor groups. We selected the Entecavir Hydrate, a drug used to control hepatitis B; subsequently AMBER 14 was used to describe the behavior of polymerase-entecavir complex after setting up 3500 ps of simulation in water at a temperature of 300 K. From the simulation, a graph of Potential Energy was generated revealing that the ligand remains in the catalytic site after 3500 ps with a final energy of -612,587.4214 kcal/mol. PMID:27323084

  5. Pharmaceutical management of hepatitis B and C in liver and kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Pipili, Chrysoula; Cholongitas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    The combination of hepatitis B immune globulin with entecavir or tenofovir (at least for a certain period of time) seems to be the most reasonable prophylaxis against recurrent hepatitis B after liver transplantation. Entecavir represents an attractive option for treatment of naïve kidney transplant recipients, because of its high efficacy and the low rates of resistance. However antiviral treatment should be individualized in the view of kidney function and the previous resistance. To date, new captivating therapeutic strategies could make interferon-free regimens viable for treatment of hepatitis C virus positive liver transplant recipients. The recent combinations of sofosbuvir with simeprevir or daclatasvir or ledipasvir plus/minus ribavirin have boosted the on treatment and sustained virological response to rates approaching 100% within liver transplant recipients with recurrent chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Preliminary data showed that the second generation direct oral antivirals could result to high treatment rates of recurrent CHC in kidney transplant recipients as well. Ongoing studies will clarify the optimal treatment of recurrent CHC in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26558143

  6. The management of chronic viral hepatitis: A Canadian consensus conference 2004

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Morris; Bain, Vincent; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Myers, Robert P; Cooper, Curtis; Martin, Steven; Lowe, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Several government and nongovernment organizations held a consensus conference on the management of acute and chronic viral hepatitis to update previous management recommendations. The conference became necessary because of the introduction of new forms of therapy for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The conference issued recommendations on the investigation and management of chronic hepatitis B, including the use of lamivudine, adefovir and interferon. The treatment of hepatitis B in several special situations was also discussed. There were also recommendations on the investigation and treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C-HIV coinfection. In addition, the document makes some recommendations about the provision of services by provincial governments to facilitate the delivery of care to patients with hepatitis virus infection. The present document is meant to be used by practitioners and other health care providers, including public health staff and others not directly involved in patient care. PMID:18159509

  7. [Anti-HIV drugs and drug delivery system].

    PubMed

    Obaru, K; Mitsuya, H

    1998-03-01

    A number of candidate drugs for therapy of HIV-1 infection which show significant activity against the virus in vitro were reported; however, many of them have been dropped from drug development due to (i) insufficient intracellular activation in certain human target cells (particularly in case of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (ii) poor pharmacokinetic profiles, or (iii) intolerable in vitro and/or in vivo toxicities. To circumvent some of these problems, certain drug delivery systems have been applied and several candidate drugs including two novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, abacavir and adefovir, have acquired favorable properties in the clinical setting. This paper reviews several avenues for developing prodrugs of anti-HIV-1 agents to overcome their inherent limitations. PMID:9549371

  8. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Colquitt, J; Shepherd, J; Harris, P; Cooper, K

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, in accordance with the licensed indication, based upon the evidence submission from Gilead to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal process. The submitted clinical evidence included two international randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tenofovir with adefovir, and a mixed treatment comparison (MTC) using Bayesian methodology to compare tenofovir with other nucleos(t)ide analogues using direct and indirect RCT evidence. There were no statistically significant differences between tenofovir and adefovir in overall adverse events although, in hepatitis B 'e' antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients, there was a higher incidence of mild nausea in the tenofovir treatment group. The primary outcome, 'complete response', was a composite end point defined as histology response and hepatitis B virus DNA below 400 copies/ml. For both HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients, a significantly greater proportion had a complete response after 48 weeks with tenofovir than with adefovir. There was no statistically significant difference in histological response in either group of patients compared with adefovir. The MTC could only generate results for HBeAg positive nucleos(t)ide naive patients as there was insufficient evidence for other subgroups. The probability of achieving undetectable HBV DNA with tenofovir was found to be significantly higher than that for all other treatments considered in the analysis at the 0.05 level. The analysis demonstrated that there is a 98% probability that tenofovir is the most potent nucleos(t)ide in terms of this outcome. The manufacturer's submission concluded that tenofovir is a cost-effective option as first-line treatment. For HBeAg-positive patients, tenofovir followed

  9. Reduction Sensitive Lipid Conjugates of Tenofovir: Synthesis, Stability, and Antiviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Giesler, Kyle E; Marengo, Jose; Liotta, Dennis C

    2016-08-11

    The therapeutic value of numerous small molecules hinges on their ability to permeate the plasma membrane. This is particularly true for tenofovir (TFV), adefovir, and other antiviral nucleosides that demonstrate potent antiviral activity but poor bioavailability. Using TFV as a model substrate, we hybridized two disparate prodrug strategies to afford novel reduction-sensitive lipid conjugates of TFV that exhibit subnanomolar activity toward HIV-1 and are stable in human plasma for more than 24 h with a therapeutic index approaching 30000. These compounds significantly rival the clinically approved formulation of TFV and revitalize the potential of disulfide-bearing prodrugs which have seen limited in vitro and in vivo success since their debut over 20 years ago. We further demonstrate the utility of these conjugates as a tool to indirectly probe the enzymatic hydrolysis of phosphonomonoesters that may further advance the development of other prodrug strategies for nucleosides, peptides, and beyond. PMID:27405794

  10. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy. PMID:24884719

  11. An update on the strategies used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in children.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in children shows a variety of clinical presentations, which influence its natural course and treatment options. This report provides an overview of the ongoing strategies in pediatric CHB management. Interferon-α represents the first choice of treatment in children showing HBV replication and hepatic inflammation (immune active CHB), while the recommendation is to monitor inactive/immune-tolerant children (normal transaminases and low/absent viral replication). When circumstances preclude the use of Interferon-α and in cases of compensated/decompensated cirrhosis, entecavir for children above 2 years of age or tenofovir for children above 12 years of age are the nucleos(t)ide analogues recommended by the most recent guidelines. PMID:26752166

  12. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen, [18F]-FPS; Adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alfimeprase, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Belatacept, bortezomib; C340, caspofungin acetate, clazosentan sodium, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, DB-289, decitabine, dronedarone hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Eletriptan, entecavir, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib; Gaboxadol, gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, gemifloxacin mesilate, glutamine; Human insulin; I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, indiplon, inhaled insulin, isatoribine; L-Arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Magnesium sulfate; Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, omapatrilat, OncoVEX (GM-CSF); rDNA insulin, rupatadine fumarate; Sorafenib; Tadalafil, teduglutide, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tiotropium bromide; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate. PMID:16357953

  13. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro

    PubMed Central

    JIA, HONGYU; LIU, CHANGHONG; YANG, YING; ZHU, HAIHONG; CHEN, FENG; LIU, JIHONG; ZHOU, LINFU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (P<0.05). The cytoplasmic DHBV-DNA content of the cells treated with mimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, the DHBV-DNA content of the nuclear fractions following the intracellular expression of mimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro. PMID:26640539

  14. Why do I treat HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with pegylated interferon?

    PubMed

    Lampertico, Pietro; Viganò, Mauro; Colombo, Massimo

    2013-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in serum HBeAg negative patients is a difficult to cure, progressive disease leading to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, there are two different treatment strategies for such patients: a finite course of Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) or long-term administration of the more potent and less resistance-prone nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUC), i.e. entecavir and tenofovir. Although NUC may ensure persistent viral suppression by preventing disease progression in most patients, they require lifelong administration with the hypothetical disadvantages of cost, lack of long-term safety data and, most important, the null rates of HBsAg seroclearance. On the other hand, 1 year of PEG-IFN has the advantage of providing an immune-mediated control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with the possibility of achieving a sustained off-treatment response in 20% of the patients, ultimately leading to HBsAg loss in approximately 50% of these. However, these sustained response rates can be significantly increased by carefully selecting candidates for PEG-IFN therapy based upon baseline ALT and HBV DNA levels, viral genotype and IL28B polymorphisms, by extending PEG-IFN therapy beyond 48 weeks and, most importantly, by applying early on-treatment stopping rules based upon HBsAg kinetics. Overall, PEG-IFN is an ideal treatment strategy in selected patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, because of its well-recognized and predictable safety profile and a unique mechanism of antiviral activity leading to long-lasting immune control. Because of these features, new therapeutic trials based upon a combination of PEG-IFN and third generation NUC such as entecavir and tenofovir, in both naïve and NUC-exposed patients, are ongoing to further increase the rates of HBsAg seroclearance, which remains the 'ideal end-point' in all HBeAg-negative CHB subjects. PMID:23286860

  15. Application of Bayesian Approach to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Antiviral Treatments in Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Huo, Mingdong; Chao, Jianqian; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major problem for public health; timely antiviral treatment can significantly prevent the progression of liver damage from HBV by slowing down or stopping the virus from reproducing. In the study we applied Bayesian approach to cost-effectiveness analysis, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation methods for the relevant evidence input into the model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LVD) therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Jiangsu, China, thus providing information to the public health system in the CHB therapy. Methods Eight-stage Markov model was developed, a hypothetical cohort of 35-year-old HBeAg-positive patients with CHB was entered into the model. Treatment regimens were LVD100mg daily and ETV 0.5 mg daily. The transition parameters were derived either from systematic reviews of the literature or from previous economic studies. The outcome measures were life-years, quality-adjusted lifeyears (QALYs), and expected costs associated with the treatments and disease progression. For the Bayesian models all the analysis was implemented by using WinBUGS version 1.4. Results Expected cost, life expectancy, QALYs decreased with age. Cost-effectiveness increased with age. Expected cost of ETV was less than LVD, while life expectancy and QALYs were higher than that of LVD, ETV strategy was more cost-effective. Costs and benefits of the Monte Carlo simulation were very close to the results of exact form among the group, but standard deviation of each group indicated there was a big difference between individual patients. Conclusions Compared with lamivudine, entecavir is the more cost-effective option. CHB patients should accept antiviral treatment as soon as possible as the lower age the more cost-effective. Monte Carlo simulation obtained costs and effectiveness distribution, indicate our Markov model is of good robustness. PMID:27574976

  16. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  17. A Multi-targeted Drug Candidate with Dual Anti-HIV and Anti-HSV Activity

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, Jan; Andrei, Graciela; Balestra, Emanuela; Huskens, Dana; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Zicari, Sonia; Liekens, Sandra; Snoeck, Robert; Holý, Antonín; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Margolis, Leonid; Schols, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens, in particular herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The resulting coinfection is involved in a vicious circle of mutual facilitations. Therefore, an important task is to develop a compound that is highly potent against both viruses to suppress their transmission and replication. Here, we report on the discovery of such a compound, designated PMEO-DAPym. We compared its properties with those of the structurally related and clinically used acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) tenofovir and adefovir. We demonstrated the potent anti-HIV and -HSV activity of this drug in a diverse set of clinically relevant in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo systems including (i) CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CEM) cell cultures, (ii) embryonic lung (HEL) cell cultures, (iii) organotypic epithelial raft cultures of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs), (iv) primary human monocyte/macrophage (M/M) cell cultures, (v) human ex vivo lymphoid tissue, and (vi) athymic nude mice. Upon conversion to its diphosphate metabolite, PMEO-DAPym markedly inhibits both HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and HSV DNA polymerase. However, in striking contrast to tenofovir and adefovir, it also acts as an efficient immunomodulator, inducing β-chemokines in PBMC cultures, in particular the CCR5 agonists MIP-1β, MIP-1α and RANTES but not the CXCR4 agonist SDF-1, without the need to be intracellularly metabolized. Such specific β-chemokine upregulation required new mRNA synthesis. The upregulation of β-chemokines was shown to be associated with a pronounced downmodulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 which may result in prevention of HIV entry. PMEO-DAPym belongs conceptually to a new class of efficient multitargeted antivirals for concomitant dual-viral (HSV/HIV) infection therapy through inhibition of virus-specific pathways (i.e. the viral polymerases) and HIV transmission prevention through interference with host

  18. Comparison between Elecsys HBsAg II and Architect HBsAg QT Assays for Quantification of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Patients Coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maylin, Sarah; Boyd, Anders; Delaugerre, Constance; Zoulim, Fabien; Lavocat, Fabien; Simon, François; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification has been steadily gaining interest as a clinical marker of therapeutic efficacy, for which two commercial assays are currently available: Architect HBsAg QT (Architect) and Elecsys HBsAg II (Elecsys). HBsAg quantification was evaluated using both assays in 126 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients initiating treatment with tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate. Linear regression and correlation were used to establish the relationship between the two methods. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine mean between-assay difference and limits of agreement (LOA) (±2 standard deviations [SD]) both overall and stratified on HBV (hepatitis B envelope antigen [HBeAg] status, replication, genotype, HBV mutants) or HIV (CD4+ cell count) cofactors. There was a significant correlation between Elecsys and Architect assays (correlation coefficient, r = 0.959; P < 0.001). HBsAg quantification using the Elecsys assay was on average 0.200 log10 IU/ml (LOA, −0.500, 0.800) higher than that using Architect, which was consistent across levels of CD4+ cell count, presence of precore and YMDD mutations, and HBeAg status. A slightly larger mean between-assay difference was observed with genotypes A and G (0.196 and 0.201, respectively) versus HBV genotypes D and E (0.036 and 0.030, respectively). Mutations on the S region at position s120/s145 were the only determinant in which the mean between-assay difference in HBsAg quantification was lower than the null value (−0.078). In conclusion, the Elecsys assay, with automatic on-board dilution, is capable of quantifying serum HBsAg levels in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients, with very high correlation with the Architect assay. PMID:22190396

  19. Comparison between Elecsys HBsAg II and architect HBsAg QT assays for quantification of hepatitis B surface antigen among patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Maylin, Sarah; Boyd, Anders; Delaugerre, Constance; Zoulim, Fabien; Lavocat, Fabien; Simon, François; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification has been steadily gaining interest as a clinical marker of therapeutic efficacy, for which two commercial assays are currently available: Architect HBsAg QT (Architect) and Elecsys HBsAg II (Elecsys). HBsAg quantification was evaluated using both assays in 126 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients initiating treatment with tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate. Linear regression and correlation were used to establish the relationship between the two methods. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine mean between-assay difference and limits of agreement (LOA) (±2 standard deviations [SD]) both overall and stratified on HBV (hepatitis B envelope antigen [HBeAg] status, replication, genotype, HBV mutants) or HIV (CD4(+) cell count) cofactors. There was a significant correlation between Elecsys and Architect assays (correlation coefficient, r = 0.959; P < 0.001). HBsAg quantification using the Elecsys assay was on average 0.200 log(10) IU/ml (LOA, -0.500, 0.800) higher than that using Architect, which was consistent across levels of CD4(+) cell count, presence of precore and YMDD mutations, and HBeAg status. A slightly larger mean between-assay difference was observed with genotypes A and G (0.196 and 0.201, respectively) versus HBV genotypes D and E (0.036 and 0.030, respectively). Mutations on the S region at position s120/s145 were the only determinant in which the mean between-assay difference in HBsAg quantification was lower than the null value (-0.078). In conclusion, the Elecsys assay, with automatic on-board dilution, is capable of quantifying serum HBsAg levels in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients, with very high correlation with the Architect assay. PMID:22190396

  20. A Novel Pyridazinone Derivative Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Inducing Genome-Free Capsid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Juan; Lu, Dong; Xu, Yi-Bin; Xing, Wei-Qiang; Tong, Xian-Kun; Wang, Gui-Feng; Feng, Chun-Lan; He, Pei-Lan; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Here we first identified a novel pyridazinone derivative, compound 3711, as a nonnucleosidic hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitor in a cell model system. 3711 decreased extracellular HBV DNA levels by 50% (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) at 1.5 ± 0.2 μM and intracellular DNA levels at 1.9 ± 0.1 μM, which demonstrated antiviral activity at levels far below those associated with toxicity. Both the 3TC/ETV dually resistant L180M/M204I mutant and the adefovir (ADV)-resistant A181T/N236T mutant were as susceptible to 3711 as wild-type HBV. 3711 treatment induced the formation of genome-free capsids, a portion of which migrated faster on 1.8% native agarose gel. The induced genome-free capsids sedimented more slowly in isopycnic CsCl gradient centrifugation without significant morphological changes. 3711 treatment decreased levels of HBV DNA contained in both secreted enveloped virion and naked virus particles in supernatant. 3711 could interfere with capsid formation of the core protein (Cp) assembly domain. A Cp V124W mutant, which strengthens capsid interdimer interactions, recapitulated the effect of 3711 on capsid assembly. Pyridazinone derivative 3711, a novel chemical entity and HBV inhibitor, may provide a new opportunity to combat chronic HBV infection. PMID:26349829

  1. The Use of Cytochrome C Oxidase Enzyme Activity and Immunohistochemistry in Defining Mitochondrial Injury in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zsengellér, Zsuzsanna K; Rosen, Seymour

    2016-09-01

    The renal biopsy is a dynamic way of looking at renal disease, and tubular elements are an important part of this analysis. The mitochondria in 20 renal biopsies were examined by immunohistochemical (electron transport chain enzyme: cytochrome C oxidase IV [COX IV]) and enzyme histochemical methods (COX), both by light and electron microscopy. The distal convoluted tubules and thick ascending limbs showed the greatest intensity in the COX immunostains and enzyme activity in controls. The degree of mitochondrial COX protein and enzyme activity diminished as the tubules became atrophic. With proximal hypertrophic changes, there was great variation in both COX activity and protein expression. In contrast, in three cases of systemic lupus erythematosus, biopsied for high-grade proteinuria, the activity was consistently upregulated, whereas protein expression remained normal. These unexpected findings of heterogeneous upregulation in hypertrophy and the dyssynchrony of protein expression and activity may indicate mitochondrial dysregulation. Functional electron microscopy showed COX activity delineated by the intense mitochondrial staining in normal or hypertrophic proximal tubules. With atrophic changes, residual small mitochondria with diminished activity could be seen. With mitochondrial size abnormalities (enlargement and irregularity, adefovir toxicity), activity persisted. In the renal biopsy, mitochondrial analysis is feasible utilizing immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical techniques. PMID:27578326

  2. Adenine: an important drug scaffold for the design of antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyuan; Song, Zhendong; Yu, Haiqing; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Adenine derivatives, in particular the scaffold bearing the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPS), possess significant antiviral and cytostatic activity. Till now, several effective adenine derivatives have been marketed for the treatment of HIV, HBV, CMV and other virus-infected diseases. These compounds are represented by tenofovir (PMPA), a medicine for both HIV and HBV, and adefovir as an anti-HBV agent. More than this, other analogs, such as GS9148, GS9131, and GS7340, are also well-known anti-viral agents that have been progressed to the clinical studies for their excellent activity. In general, the structures of these compounds include an adenine nucleobase linked to a phosphonate side chain. Considerable structural modifications on the scaffold itself and the peripheral sections were made. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this skeleton will provide valuable clues to identify more effective adenine derivatives as antiviral drugs. Here, we systematically summarized the SARs of the adenine derivatives, and gave important information for further optimizing this template. PMID:26579473

  3. Specific primer sets used to amplify by PCR the hepatitis B virus overlapping S/Pol region select different viral variants.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, M L; Mathet, V L; Oubiña, J R

    2012-10-01

    PCR detection of viral genomes has provided new insights into viral diagnosis. Nowadays, it is the most frequently used nucleic acid testing (qualitative and quantitative) technique. The aim of this study was to analyse the major circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants PCR-amplified by three sets of primers in a patient infected with genotype E. The HBV S/Pol overlapping genomic region was amplified from the serum of an infected child using three primer sets previously described. Sequence analysis corresponding to the HBV S/Pol region revealed the presence of different viral populations depending on the set of primers used. D144A S-escape mutant was detected with two of the primer sets, while the rtL217R mutant within the Pol - conferring resistance to Adefovir - could be picked up with a different pair of primer sets. This study undoubtedly implies that the description of viral polymorphisms should be stated together with the sequence of the primers used for PCR amplification when studies of escape and/or antiviral-resistant HBV mutants are carried out. PMID:22967107

  4. Rational Basis for Optimizing Short and Long-term Hepatitis B Virus Prophylaxis Post Liver Transplantation: Role of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bruno; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Nevens, Frederik; Samuel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antiviral therapy using newer nucleos(t)ide analogues with lower resistance rates, such as entecavir or tenofovir, suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, improve liver function in patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis, and delay or obviate the need for liver transplantation in some patients. After liver transplantation, the combination of long-term antiviral and low-dose hepatitis B Immune globulin (HBIG) can effectively prevent HBV recurrence in greater than 90% of transplant recipients. Some forms of HBV prophylaxis need to be continued indefinitely after transplantation but, in patients with a low-risk of HBV recurrence (i.e., HBV DNA levels undetectable before transplantation), it is possible to discontinue HBIG and maintain only long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) therapy. A more cautious approach is necessary for those patients with high pretransplant HBV DNA levels, those with limited antiviral options if HBV recurrence occurs (i.e., HIV or hepatitis D virus coinfection, preexisting drug resistance), those with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, and those at risk of noncompliance with antiviral therapy. In this group, HBIG-free prophylaxis cannot be recommended. PMID:26038873

  5. Nucleos(t)ide analogs in the prevention of hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common cancer types and causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Almost 50% of all HCC cases globally are attributable to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The incidence rates of HCC in untreated Asian subjects with HBV infection was estimated to be 0.2% in inactive carriers, 0.6% for those with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis, and 3.7% for those with compensated cirrhosis. In Western populations, HCC incidences are reported to be 0.02% in inactive carriers, 0.3% in subjects with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis, and 2.2% in subjects with compensated cirrhosis. Despite effective antiviral treatment options which are able to transform chronic hepatitis into an inactive carrier state, the risk of HCC cannot be fully ruled out to exclude those patients from surveillance. Newer nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) as entecavir and tenofovir are very potent in terms of sustained virological suppression which leads to improved liver histology. However, they do not have any influence on the cccDNA or integrated DNA of HBV in the liver. Nonetheless, viral replication is the only modifiable component among the established risk factors for HBV-related HCC with the current treatment options. In this review, it was aimed to summarize cumulative evidence behind the concept of prevention of HBV related HCC by NAs, and to discuss remaining obstacles to eliminate the risk of HCC. PMID:26167247

  6. De novo hepatitis B virus infection developing after liver transplantation using a graft positive for hepatitis B core antibody

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae Hyun; Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo Ho; Hong, Tae Ho; You, Young Kyoung; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The use of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive grafts is increasing, especially where hepatitis B is endemic. However, this remains controversial because of the risk of development of de novo HBV infection. Methods We collected information obtained between January 2000 and December 2012 and retrospectively analyzed data on 187 HBsAg-negative donors and recipients were analyzed retrospectively. De novo HBV infection was defined as development of HBsAg positivity with or without detection of HBV DNA. Results Forty patients (21.4%) received HBcAb-positive grafts. Survival rate did not differ by donor HBcAb status (P = 0.466). De novo HBV infection occurred in five patients (12.5%) who were not treated with anti-HBV prophylaxis, and was significantly more prevalent in hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb)- and HBcAb-negative than HBsAb- and HBcAb-positive recipients (50% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.049). All patients except one were treated with entecavir with/without antihepatitis B immunoglobulin and four were negative in terms of HBV DNA seroconversion. No patient died. Conclusion HBcAb-positive grafts are safe without survival difference. However, the risk of de novo hepatitis B virus infection was significantly increased in HBsAb- and HBcAb-negative recipients. All patients were successfully treated even after recurrence. PMID:26366384

  7. Lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy: neurogenic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zheng, Lemin; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Jin, Suqin; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Aims Myopathy or neuropathy has been associated with lamivudine/telbivudine therapy in hepatitis B patients. We aim to describe the pathological changes of lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy. Methods We retrospectively recruited six patients who were diagnosed with nucleotide analogues-associated myopathy or neuropathy. Muscle and nerve biopsy were performed, and the specimens were prepared for the light microscopy and electron microscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted from frozen muscle specimens, and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content was quantified by real-time PCR. Results Recovery of the myopathy can be achieved after the discontinuation or changing the drugs to entecavir. Muscle and nerve biopsy revealed similar changes under either the light or electronic microscopy in all the subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed decrease of mtDNA content in the affected muscle. Conclusions MtDNA depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction in the lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy. Myopathy was characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied with neurogenic damage due to axonal neuropathy. Ultrastructure changes of mitochondria included vacuolisation, simplification of the cristae and homogenised matrix. PMID:25190818

  8. [Management and treatment of patients with hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    den Eynde, Eva Van; Riveiro-Barciela, Mar

    2016-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately one third of the world's population has serological evidence of past or present infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 350-400 million people are chronic HBV surface antigen carriers. The aim of therapy is to prevent the onset of liver fibrosis and development of cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma by sustained suppression of viral replication. Currently there are 2 strategies for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: the pegylated interferon and long-term treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Pegylated interferon has the advantage of being a treatment of limited duration, and is particularly suitable for patients with chronic hepatitis with positive HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen), but the unfavorable adverse event profile and route of parenteral administration makes it less used than nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Tenofovir and entecavir have shown to be potent inhibitors of HBV with a high genetic barrier to resistance and few adverse effects, so are considered as the first line therapy. PMID:27474247

  9. [Hepatitis B virus reactivation after cessation of prophylactic lamivudine therapy in B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab combined CHOP therapy].

    PubMed

    Mimura, Naoya; Tsujimura, Hideki; Ise, Mikiko; Sakai, Chikara; Kojima, Hiroshige; Fukai, Kenichi; Yokosuka, Osamu; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Kyoya

    2009-12-01

    Here we report three cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after cessation of preemptive lamivudine therapy in B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP). Two patients received eight cycles of R-CHOP, and one received two cycles of R-CHOP followed by two courses of rituximab. As all the patients were HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, lamivudine was administered simultaneously with R-CHOP to prevent virus reactivation. All the patients developed hepatitis due to HBV reactivation 6, 8 and 13 months after completion of chemotherapy, and 4, 2 and 2 months after cessation of lamivudine, respectively. They were treated with either lamivudine or entecavir and all achieved full recovery. When HBV carriers undergo immunosuppressive anticancer treatment, prophylactic antiviral therapy is well recognized as effective. However, the optimal method of prophylaxis has not yet been established. Since the introduction of rituximab, new problems such as delayed HBV reactivation from HBsAg positive patients and de novo hepatitis B from HBsAg negative patients have emerged. Guidelines for prophylactic antiviral therapy in the era of rituximab need to be established. PMID:20068280

  10. Hepatitis B Reactivation with Novel Agents in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ozoya, Oluwatobi O.; Sokol, Lubomir; Dalia, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an endemic disease in most parts of the world despite available prophylactic vaccines. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the most common hematological malignancy, and certain patients undergoing therapy are at increased risk of HBV reactivation. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody, is well studied in HBV reactivation, but newer agents have been implicated as well. Here, we review novel agents suspected in HBV reactivation and effective strategies to prevent HBV reactivation. Fifteen years of literature were reviewed in order to better understand the reactivation rates of hepatitis B in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Anti-CD20 antibodies continue to be the main medications that can lead to HBV reactivation, and HBV reactivation rates have decreased with increased awareness. HBV reactivation is uncommon when using other novel agents. Entecavir and lamivudine remain the agents of choice to prevent HBV reactivation in high risk patients. In conclusion, the immunosuppressive effect of NHL and its therapy provide a pathway for HBV reactivation, especially in patients treated with anti-CD20 antibody. Since many HBV positive patients are often excluded from clinical trials of novel agents in NHL, more aggressive post-market surveillance of new agents, well-designed best practice advisories, and timely case reports are needed to reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation. Lastly, large prospective investigations coupled with well-utilized best practice advisories need to be conducted to understand the impact of more potent novel NHL therapy on HBV reactivation. PMID:27350944

  11. Acute Respiratory Failure Caused by Hepatopulmonary Fistula in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsil; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jee-Min; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old man presented with acute dyspnea following sudden productive cough and expectoration of a full cup of "blood-tinged" sputum. He had been diagnosed with hepatitis B virus–related hepatocellular carcinoma and had received transarterial chemoembolization 5 years ago for a 20-cm hepatic mass; he denied any history of hematemesis and the last esophagogastroduodenoscopy from a year ago showed absence of varix. Chest computed tomography (CT) with angiography showed new appearance of right basal lung consolidation but no bleeding focus. Despite the use of systemic antibiotics, the patient developed respiratory failure on day 7 of hospitalization. After intubation, a massive amount of brown sputum with anchovy-paste-like consistency was suctioned via the endotracheal tube. Bronchoscopic toileting was performed and the patient was extubated. In the ward, he continued to expectorate the brown sputum. On day 25 of hospitalization, a repeat CT scan showed simultaneous disappearance of the pneumonic consolidation and the necrotic fluid within the hepatic mass, suggesting the presence of a fistula. He has continued to receive systemic antibiotics, sorafenib, and entecavir, and follow up by respiratory and hepato-oncology specialists. PMID:27433178

  12. Hepatitis B Reactivation with Novel Agents in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ozoya, Oluwatobi O; Sokol, Lubomir; Dalia, Samir

    2016-06-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an endemic disease in most parts of the world despite available prophylactic vaccines. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the most common hematological malignancy, and certain patients undergoing therapy are at increased risk of HBV reactivation. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody, is well studied in HBV reactivation, but newer agents have been implicated as well. Here, we review novel agents suspected in HBV reactivation and effective strategies to prevent HBV reactivation. Fifteen years of literature were reviewed in order to better understand the reactivation rates of hepatitis B in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Anti-CD20 antibodies continue to be the main medications that can lead to HBV reactivation, and HBV reactivation rates have decreased with increased awareness. HBV reactivation is uncommon when using other novel agents. Entecavir and lamivudine remain the agents of choice to prevent HBV reactivation in high risk patients. In conclusion, the immunosuppressive effect of NHL and its therapy provide a pathway for HBV reactivation, especially in patients treated with anti-CD20 antibody. Since many HBV positive patients are often excluded from clinical trials of novel agents in NHL, more aggressive post-market surveillance of new agents, well-designed best practice advisories, and timely case reports are needed to reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation. Lastly, large prospective investigations coupled with well-utilized best practice advisories need to be conducted to understand the impact of more potent novel NHL therapy on HBV reactivation. PMID:27350944

  13. Immune-modulators to combat hepatitis B virus infection: From IFN-α to novel investigational immunotherapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Isorce, Nathalie; Lucifora, Julie; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David

    2015-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major challenge for clinicians, as there are only two types of approved therapies: interferon-alpha (IFN-α) or its pegylated form, Peg-IFN-α and nucleoside analogs (e.g. tenofovir, entecavir...). The first are used as finite-duration treatments of around 48-52 weeks, while the second must be taken life-long to prevent rebound. Other immune-modulators, including other types of recombinant IFNs and cytokines/chemokines, could be developed for treating chronic hepatitis B. Alternatively, strategies aimed either at restoring or favoring the endogenous production of IFNs, cytokines and/or chemokines, or at alleviating HBV-mediated inhibitory processes could also be envisaged. In this article, we review current investigational, preclinical and clinical efforts to implement immune-modulatory components in the therapy of chronic hepatitis B. This review forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "An unfinished story: from the discovery of the Australia antigen to the development of new curative therapies for hepatitis B". PMID:26275801

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-06-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-chlorotoxin; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, albumin interferon alfa, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, AR-C126532, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cangrelor tetrasodium, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, collagen-PVP, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, dasatinib, denosumab, desloratadine, dexosome vaccine (lung cancer), dexrazoxane, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, eel calcitonin, efalizumab, entecavir, etoricoxib; Falciparum merozoite protein-1/AS02A, fenretinide, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, ghrelin (human); hLM609; Icatibant acetate, imatinib mesylate, ipsapirone, irofulven; LBH-589, LE-AON, levocetirizine, LY-450139; Malaria vaccine, mapatumumab, motexafin gadolinium, muraglitazar, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; nab-paclitaxel, nelarabine; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, orbofiban acetate; Panitumumab, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, pleconaril, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranolazine, rebimastat, recombinant malaria vaccine, rosuvastatin calcium; SQN-400; Taxus, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, troxacitabine; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Val-Tyr sardine peptidase, VNP-40101M, vorinostat. PMID:16845450

  15. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-09-01

    Aclidinium bromide, AE-37, Alemtuzumab, AMA1-C1/ISA 720, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Arachidonic acid, Arbaclofen placarbil, Aripiprazole, ARQ-621, Azelnidipine, Azilsartan medoxomil potassium; Bevacizumab, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib; Choriogonadotropin alfa, CTS-1027; Dapagliflozin, Dasatinib, Deforolimus, Degarelix acetate, Denufosol tetrasodium, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dronedarone hydrochloride, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Etaracizumab, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Ferric carboxymaltose, Fludarabine, Foretinib; Gefitinib, GFT-505, GSK-256066; HPV-6/11/16/18, HuM195/rGel, HyperAcute-Lung cancer vaccine; I5NP, Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Ivabradine hydrochloride; L2G7, Lacosamide, Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Lidocaine/prilocaine, Liposomal vincristine, Liraglutide, Lixivaptan; Meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W-135) oligosaccharide diphtheria CRM197 conjugate vaccine, Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-β, Mirabegron, Morphine/oxycodone, MR Vaccine, MSC-1936369B, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Narlaprevir, N-Desmethylclozapine; Ocriplasmin, Olaparib, Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/azelnidipine, ONO-5334, ONO-8539; Palifermin, Panitumumab, Pardoprunox hydrochloride, PCV7, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pexelizumab, PF-337210, Pitavastatin calcium; Raltegravir potassium, Recombinant interleukin-7, Regadenoson, Reniale, Roflumilast, Rosuvastatin calcium; Safinamide mesilate, SB-1518, SCH-527123, Selumetinib, Sipuleucel-T, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Talaporfin sodium, Tanespimycin, Technosphere/Insulin, Telaprevir, Telatinib, Telcagepant, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Teriparatide, Testosterone transdermal gel, TH-302, Tiotropium bromide, Tocilizumab, Trabedersen, Tremelimumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Vernakalant hydrochloride, Visilizumab, Voreloxin, Vorinostat. PMID

  16. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B in renal transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection is frequent in renal transplant patients. It negatively impacts long term outcomes reducing graft and patient survival. Current guidelines clearly define who needs treatment, when to start, what is the first line therapy, how to monitor treatment response, when to stop, and how patients must be controlled for its safety. There is some data showing a favorable safety and efficacy profile of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) treatment in the renal transplant setting. Entecavir, a drug without major signs of nephrotoxicity, appears to be the first option for NUC naïve patients and tenofovir remains the preferred choice for patients with previous resistance to lamivudine or any other NUC. Renal transplant recipients under antiHBV therapy should be monitored for its efficacy against HBV but also for its safety with a close renal monitoring. Studies including a large number of patients with long term treatment and follow up are still needed to better demonstrate the safety and efficacy of newer NUCs in this population. PMID:25729474

  17. Fatal fulminant hepatitis caused by infection with subgenotype A1 hepatitis B virus with C1766T/T1768A core promoter mutations.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Takashi; Takagi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Naganuma, Atsushi; Sato, Ken; Kakizaki, Satoru; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    Adults initially infected with the hepatitis B virus develop various types of hepatitis ranging from asymptomatic to fulminant, and the clinical course of infection is influenced by a variety of host and viral factors. The viral risk factors associated with fulminant hepatitis reportedly include subgenotype B1, negative HBe antigen, and mutations in the precore and core promoter regions. Here, we present a case of fatal fulminant hepatitis caused by infection with subgenotype A1 hepatitis B virus with C1766T/T1768A double mutations in the core promoter region. A 53-year-old man was hospitalized with acute hepatitis B. Immediately after admission, entecavir was administered. However, his condition deteriorated, developing into fulminant hepatitis 2 days later. Artificial extracorporeal liver support therapy with plasma exchange (PE) and hemodiafiltration (HDF) were started. At one time point, the severity of hepatic encephalopathy decreased from grade II to grade 0, and the prothrombin time also improved, increasing from 11 to 73 %. However, the total bilirubin levels remained at or above 20 mg/dL and blood creatinine levels gradually increased. HDF was restarted, and therapies such as bilirubin adsorption and PE were administered. However, neither hepatic nor renal failure was alleviated, and the patient died 78 days after admission. PMID:27165167

  18. Acute Respiratory Failure Caused by Hepatopulmonary Fistula in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungsil; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jee-Min; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Sun Mi

    2016-07-01

    A 59-year-old man presented with acute dyspnea following sudden productive cough and expectoration of a full cup of "blood-tinged" sputum. He had been diagnosed with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and had received transarterial chemoembolization 5 years ago for a 20-cm hepatic mass; he denied any history of hematemesis and the last esophagogastroduodenoscopy from a year ago showed absence of varix. Chest computed tomography (CT) with angiography showed new appearance of right basal lung consolidation but no bleeding focus. Despite the use of systemic antibiotics, the patient developed respiratory failure on day 7 of hospitalization. After intubation, a massive amount of brown sputum with anchovy-paste-like consistency was suctioned via the endotracheal tube. Bronchoscopic toileting was performed and the patient was extubated. In the ward, he continued to expectorate the brown sputum. On day 25 of hospitalization, a repeat CT scan showed simultaneous disappearance of the pneumonic consolidation and the necrotic fluid within the hepatic mass, suggesting the presence of a fistula. He has continued to receive systemic antibiotics, sorafenib, and entecavir, and follow up by respiratory and hepato-oncology specialists. PMID:27433178

  19. Incidence and clinical background of hepatitis B virus reactivation in multiple myeloma in novel agents' era.

    PubMed

    Tsukune, Yutaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Odajima, Takeshi; Isoda, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Morio; Koike, Michiaki; Tamura, Hideto; Moriya, Keiichi; Ito, Shigeki; Asahi, Maki; Imai, Yoichi; Tanaka, Junji; Handa, Hiroshi; Koiso, Hiromi; Tanosaki, Sakae; Hua, Jian; Hagihara, Masao; Yahata, Yuriko; Suzuki, Satoko; Watanabe, Sumio; Sugimori, Hiroki; Komatsu, Norio

    2016-09-01

    There are some reports regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with myeloma who are HBV carriers or who have had a resolved HBV infection, and there is no standard prophylaxis strategy for these patients. We performed a retrospective multicenter study to determine the incidence and characteristics of HBV reactivation in patients with multiple myeloma. We identified 641 patients with multiple myeloma who had been treated using novel agents and/or autologous stem cell transplantation with high-dose chemotherapy between January 2006 and June 2014 at nine Japanese hospitals. The patients' characteristics, laboratory data, and clinical courses were retrieved and statistically analyzed. During a median follow-up of 101 weeks, one of eight (12.5 %) HBV carriers developed hepatitis and 9 of 99 (9.1 %) patients with resolved HBV infection experienced HBV reactivation; the cumulative incidences of HBV reactivation at 2 years (104 weeks) and 5 years (260 weeks) were 8 and 14 %, respectively. The nine cases of reactivation after resolved HBV infection had received entecavir as preemptive therapy or were carefully observed by monitoring their HBV DNA levels, and none of these cases developed hepatitis. Among patients with multiple myeloma, HBV reactivation was not rare. Therefore, long-term monitoring of HBV DNA levels is needed to prevent hepatitis that is related to HBV reactivation in these patients. PMID:27358178

  20. Potential Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon-α and a Nucleos(t)ide Analogue as Combination Therapy for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, W. Ray; Gross, John B.; Stadheim, Linda M.; Poterucha, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Despite the potent suppression of the hepatitis B virus with modern antiviral agents, only a minority of HBeAg-positive patients achieve hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion. We aimed to explore the potential efficacy of combination therapy consisting of pegylated interferon (p-IFN) and an oral antiviral agent in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Methods The treatment protocol consisted of p-IFN-α-2a at 180 μg/wk for 48 weeks, with either entecavir or tenofovir added 8 weeks after the initiation of p-IFN and continued for at least 6 months after HBe seroconversion was achieved. Results To date, 10 patients have been treated under the protocol (eight adults, mean age 36±8 years; two adolescents, aged 12 and 16 years). All eight adult patients experienced loss of HBeAg at a mean of 72.3±66.9 weeks, including six patients who also developed anti-HBe and one patient who had HBs seroconversion. Although both adolescents remain on therapy, one adolescent had HBs seroconversion without HBe seroconversion. A total of nine of our 10 patients experienced a favorable serological transition. Conclusions The combination of p-IFN and a modern oral antiviral agent may be more effective than monotherapy with either class of agent in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:26190580

  1. Eliminating hepatitis B by antagonizing cellular inhibitors of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Gregor; Allison, Cody; Preston, Simon; Cooney, James; Toe, Jesse G.; Stutz, Michael D.; Ojaimi, Samar; Baschuk, Nikola; Nachbur, Ueli; Torresi, Joseph; Silke, John; Begley, C. Glenn; Pellegrini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) impair clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by preventing TNF-mediated killing/death of infected cells. A key question, with profound therapeutic implications, is whether this finding can be translated to the development of drugs that promote elimination of infected cells. Drug inhibitors of cIAPs were developed as cancer therapeutics to promote TNF-mediated tumor killing. These drugs are also known as Smac mimetics, because they mimic the action of the endogenous protein Smac/Diablo that antagonizes cIAP function. Here, we show using an immunocompetent mouse model of chronic HBV infection that birinapant and other Smac mimetics are able to rapidly reduce serum HBV DNA and serum HBV surface antigen, and they promote the elimination of hepatocytes containing HBV core antigen. The efficacy of Smac mimetics in treating HBV infection is dependent on their chemistry, host CD4+ T cells, and TNF. Birinapant enhances the ability of entecavir, an antiviral nucleoside analog, to reduce viral DNA production in HBV-infected animals. These results indicate that birinapant and other Smac mimetics may have efficacy in treating HBV infection and perhaps, other intracellular infections. PMID:25902530

  2. Chronic hepatitis B: Advances in treatment

    PubMed Central

    Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Fasano, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has markedly improved in the last 15 years due to the availability of direct antivirals which greatly increase therapeutic options. Currently, there are two classes of agents licensed for CHB treatment: standard or pegylated interferon alpha (IFN or Peg-IFN) and five nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs). Long-term treatment with NAs is the treatment option most often used in the majority of CHB patients. Entecavir and tenofovir, the most potent NAs with high barrier to resistance, are recommended as first-line monotherapy by all major treatment guidelines and can lead to long-lasting virological suppression, resulting in histological improvement or reversal of advanced fibrosis and reduction in disease progression and liver-related complications. In this review, we focus on current treatment strategies of chronic hepatitis B and discuss the most recent efficacy and safety data from clinical trials and real life clinical practice. Recent findings of response-guided approaches are also discussed. PMID:24868322

  3. Primary Hepatic Small-Cell Carcinoma Developed during Antiviral Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suk Bae

    2015-01-01

    Previously reported cases of primary hepatic small-cell carcinoma were all detected at progressed state with associated symptoms. Therefore, the natural course of primary hepatic small-cell carcinoma remains unknown. This case shows the natural course of primary hepatic small-cell carcinoma. We detected a 1.2 cm hypodense nodule 6 months ago in a patient with cirrhosis who had been taking entecavir. It was suspected to be a regenerating or degenerating nodule. Three months later, liver computed tomography (CT) revealed that the mass was increased to 2.1 cm with the same characteristics. The patient wanted to do a follow-up CT scan after 3 months instead of a biopsy. Another 3 months later, the mass was markedly increased, involving the whole left lobe and was confirmed as small-cell carcinoma on biopsy. Here, we report the first case of primary hepatic small-cell carcinoma developed during treatment for chronic hepatitis B with cirrhosis. PMID:26951743

  4. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Lin, Bing-Yi; Shen, Tian; Guo, Hua; Ye, Yu-Fu; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-06-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not necessary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver disease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after withdrawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months; one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data suggested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT. PMID:27298109

  5. Renal disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Jaryal, Ajay; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in hepatic diseases which may include an asymptomatic non-replicative carrier state, immunotolerant phase characterized by high DNA levels without significant hepatic injury, immune-reactive phase characterized by occurrence of chronic hepatitis and fibrosis in the liver, or complications like cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Extrahepatic manifestations may also accompany HBV infection. These may include serum sickness syndrome, polyarthralgia, polyarthritis, dermatologic manifestations like pitted keratolysis, urticaria, purpura, oral lichen planus or Gianotti-Crosti syndrome-a childhood papular eruption. Renal involvement may occur with HBV infection and usually involves glomerular or vascular injury. Various morphologic forms of renal injury have been reported with HBV infection, the commonest being membranous glomerulonephritis. The manifestations may include swelling over face and body, pedal edema, and urinary abnormalities. Evaluation may detect proteinuria, hematuria and reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The management options include use of antiviral drugs targeting HBV infection with or without concomitant immunosuppressive medication. With availability of newer drugs like entecavir and tenofovir, these have become the first line agents as they have a high barrier to resistance. Sole use of immunosuppression is not recommended for lack of clear benefit and the possible risk of HBV reactivation or flare. PMID:27509699

  6. In vitro antiviral activity of the novel, tyrosyl-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 protease inhibitor brecanavir (GW640385) in combination with other antiretrovirals and against a panel of protease inhibitor-resistant HIV.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Richard; Harvey, Robert; Ferris, Robert; Craig, Charles; Yates, Phillip; Griffin, Philip; Miller, John; Kaldor, Istvan; Ray, John; Samano, Vincente; Furfine, Eric; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Hale, Michael; Tung, Roger; St Clair, Marty; Hanlon, Mary; Boone, Lawrence

    2007-09-01

    Brecanavir, a novel tyrosyl-based arylsulfonamide, high-affinity, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI), has been evaluated for anti-HIV activity in several in vitro assays. Preclinical assessment of brecanavir indicated that this compound potently inhibited HIV-1 in cell culture assays with 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.2 to 0.53 nM and was equally active against HIV strains utilizing either the CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor, as was found with other PIs. The presence of up to 40% human serum decreased the anti-HIV-1 activity of brecanavir by 5.2-fold, but under these conditions the compound retained single-digit nanomolar EC(50)s. When brecanavir was tested in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the antiviral activity of brecanavir was synergistic with the effects of stavudine and additive to the effects of zidovudine, tenofovir, dideoxycytidine, didanosine, adefovir, abacavir, lamivudine, and emtricitabine. Brecanavir was synergistic with the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine or delavirdine and was additive to the effects of efavirenz. In combination with other PIs, brecanavir was additive to the activities of indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and atazanavir. Clinical HIV isolates from PI-experienced patients were evaluated for sensitivity to brecanavir and other PIs in a recombinant virus assay. Brecanavir had a <5-fold increase in EC(50)s against 80% of patient isolates tested and had a greater mean in vitro potency than amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir, and darunavir. Brecanavir is by a substantial margin the most potent and broadly active antiviral agent among the PIs tested in vitro. PMID:17620375

  7. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abatacept, Adalimumab, AdCD40L, Adefovir, Aleglitazar, Aliskiren fumarate, AM-103, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Anakinra, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate, Axitinib; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Bortezomib, Bupropion/naltrexone; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Certolizumab pegol, Ciclesonide, CYT-997; Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride cogramostim; Eltrombopag olamine, Emtricitabine, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Fenretinide, Filibuvir, Fludarabine; Golimumab; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, HEV-239, HP-802-247, HPV-16/18 AS04, HPV-6/11/16/18, Human albumin, Human gammaglobulin; Imatinib mesylate, Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Invaplex 50 vaccine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Liposomal doxorubicin, Lopinavir, Lumiliximab, LY-686017; Maraviroc, Mecasermin rinfabate; Narlaprevir; Ocrelizumab, Oral insulin, Oritavancin, Oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Pitavastatin calcium, Posaconazole, Pregabalin, Prucalopride succinate; Raltegravir potassium, Ranibizumab, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salclobuzic acid sodium salt, SCY-635, Selenate sodium, Semapimod hydrochloride, Silodosin, Siltuximab, Silybin, Sirolimus-eluting stent, SIR-Spheres, Sunitinib malate; Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds: a review of their role on hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Qi, F H; Wang, Z X; Cai, P P; Zhao, L; Gao, J J; Kokudo, N; Li, A Y; Han, J Q; Tang, W

    2013-12-01

    Since the significant public health hazard of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and obvious drug resistance and dose-dependent side effects for common antiviral agents (e.g., interferon α, lamivudine, and adefovir), continuous development of agents to treat HBV infection is urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an established segment of the health care system in China. Currently, it is widely used for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China and many parts of the world. Over a long period of time in clinical practice and in basic research progress, the effectiveness and beneficial contribution of TCM on CHB have been gradually known and confirmed. Based upon our review of related papers and because of our prior knowledge and experience, we have selected some Chinese medicines, including Chinese herbal formulas (e.g., Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Xiao-Yao-San, and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang), single herbs (e.g., Phyllanthus niruri, Radix astragali, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rheum palmatum, and Salvia miltiorrhiza) and related active compounds (e.g., wogonin, artesunate, saikosaponin, astragaloside IV, and chrysophanol 8-O-beta-Dglucoside) and Chinese medicine preparations (e.g., silymarin, silibinin, kushenin, and cinobufacini), which seem effective and worthy of additional and indepth study in treating CHB, and we have given them a brief review. We conclude that these Chinese herbal medicines exhibit significant anti-HBV activities with improved liver function, and enhanced HBeAg and HBsAg sero-conversion rates as well as HBV DNA clearance rates in HepG2 2.2.15 cells, DHBV models, or patients with CHB. We hope this review will contribute to an understanding of TCM and related active compounds as an effective treatment for CHB and provide useful information for the development of more effective antiviral drugs. PMID:24423652

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Interact with ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 4/Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A Basis for Unanticipated Enhanced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV–associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside

  10. Curious discoveries in antiviral drug development: the role of serendipity.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2015-07-01

    Antiviral drug development has often followed a curious meandrous route, guided by serendipity rather than rationality. This will be illustrated by ten examples. The polyanionic compounds (i) polyethylene alanine (PEA) and (ii) suramin were designed as an antiviral agent (PEA) or known as an antitrypanosomal agent (suramin), before they emerged as, respectively, a depilatory agent, or reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (ddNs analogues) (iii) have been (and are still) used in the "Sanger" DNA sequencing technique, although they are now commercialized as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in the treatment of HIV infections. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (iv) was discovered as a selective anti-herpes simplex virus compound and is now primarily used for the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. The prototype of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [(S)-HPMPA], (v) was never commercialized, although it gave rise to several marketed products (cidofovir, adefovir, and tenofovir). 1-[2-(Hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (vi) and TIBO (tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4-benzodiazepin-2(1H)]-one and -thione) (vii) paved the way to a number of compounds (i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, etravirine, and rilpivirine), which are now collectively called non-NRTIs. The bicyclam AMD3100 (viii) was originally described as an anti-HIV agent before it became later marketed as a stem cell mobilizer. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors (ix), while active against a broad range of (-)RNA viruses and poxviruses may be particularly effective against Ebola virus, and for (x) the O-ANP derivatives, the potential application range encompasses virtually all DNA viruses. PMID:25726922

  11. Clinical Relevance of Minimal Residual Viremia during Long-Term Therapy with Nucleos(t)ide Analogues in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Melanie; Liebert, Uwe G.; Wittekind, Christian; Kaiser, Thorsten; Berg, Thomas; Wiegand, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful therapy of chronic hepatitis B with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) has been defined by undetectable HBV-DNA determined with conventional PCR (lower limit of detection (LLD) 60–80 IU/mL) in clinical registration trials. However, current EASL guidelines recommend highly sensitive real-time PCR (LLD<10–20 IU/mL) and define treatment response by HBV-DNA<10 IU/mL. Aim We evaluated frequency and relevance of minimal residual viremia (MRV) during long-term NUC-treatment in a real-life setting. Methods Frozen serum samples (HBV-DNA negative by in-house PCR, LLD <73 IU/mL) were re-analyzed by real-time PCR (LLD<10 IU/mL, Abbott, Germany). MRV was defined by real time PCR positivity and conventional PCR negativity. Results 237 samples of six HBsAg carriers and 27 NUC-treated CHB patients were analyzed (treatment period 28 (11–111) months, different treatment regimens with mono- or combination therapy). MRV was detected in 31/33 individuals (n = 160/237 serum samples) and more frequent in HBsAg carriers (95%) and HBeAg positive (87%) compared to HBeAg negative patients (53%) (p<0.0001, respectively). Five HBsAg carriers, five HBeAg positive, and four HBeAg negative individuals were continuously HBV-DNA positive. MRV was not significantly more often observed during NUC-monotherapies compared to combination therapies. Concomitant immunosuppressive therapy was present in nine cases and did not influence the results. Viral resistance occurred in three immunocompetent patients with adefovir or lamivudine monotherapy. Conclusions MRV is frequently observed during long-term NUC-therapy. Adjustment of treatment with highly potent NUCs does not seem to be necessary in case of minimal residual viremia in a real-life setting. PMID:23826307

  12. Therapy of chronic viral hepatitis: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, M

    1999-11-01

    Many oral nucleoside analogues that are potent inhibitors of hepatitis B virus have recently been developed for the treatment of hepatitis B. The problems with these drugs are bioavailability, toxicity and the time-dependent emergence of resistant hepatitis B virus mutants. Lamivudine appears to be the most useful in terms of clinical benefit, safety and tolerance. It is active on wild type hepatitis B virus as well as on HBeAg-minus variants of the virus. However, although hepatitis B virus is consistently repressed while on therapy, only a minority of patients are cured or remain in remission after Lamivudine withdrawal. Maintenance therapy would appear to be in order, but the long-term use of Lamivudine is precluded by the emergence of polymerase gene-mutants which may rekindle disease. Combination with other antivirals (Adefovir?) active also against Lamivudine escape mutants opens promising new prospects. There is, as yet, no valid therapy for chronic hepatitis D virus hepatitis. Attempts to improve the results of alpha-interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C with new interferons, or the manipulation of interferon monotherapy so as to obtain the maximum results compatible with tolerance, have not produced significantly better results than the classic protocols of alpha-interferon monotherapy. A more concrete improvement has been achieved by the combination of interferon with Ribavirin, with the overall rate of response increasing three times compared to interferon monotherapy. Anaemia, however, is a common additional side-effect induced by Ribavirin. Combination therapy has become the treatment of choice for interferon naive patients as well as for interferon relapses; it is not efficacious in patients who have not responded to interferon. PMID:10730571

  13. Progressive painless lower limbs weakness in a dialyzed patient: undiagnosed tertiary syphilis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease, remaining under-estimated, under-recognized due to the variability of clinical presentation and ageing of the population with chronic comorbidities. Hence, some manifestations of the past are nowadays superimposed on the course of chronic diseases. Clinical suspicion should be guided by past medical history of contracting any other sexual disease in a heterosexual person or man who has sex with man. Case presentation We describe a rare case of tertiary syphilis in a hemodialyzed diabetic patient whom was career of chronic liver disease due to the evolution of chronic hepatitis B virus infection complicated by a hepatocellular carcinoma. Initial orientation in diagnosing this rare presentation of progressive painless lower limbs weakness was attributed to possible side effects of ongoing anti viral therapy including lamivudine and adefovir. We continued administering both drugs while patient notified a spectacular improvement under Ceftriaxone therapy introduced empirically for a possible chest infection. Routine ophthalmologic examination realized in a teaching hospital, scheduled without knowing the course of late infection showed the presence of a syphilitic uveitis. Conclusion This case emphasizes the need for a high index of clinical suspicion for syphilis before the occurrence of symptoms related to its end organ damage dominated by neurosyphilis form. Early diagnosis is the key to preventing significant morbidity and mortality and improving prognosis. However, in the setting of chronic diseases such as chronic kidney diseases either before setting up methods of renal replacement therapy or under immune-suppressive therapy; clinical presentation might resemble any disease, delaying the certitude of the diagnosis by prescribing a rapid plasma reagin. PMID:20180955

  14. HLA-C and KIR combined genotype as new response marker for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients treated with interferon-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Stelma, F; Jansen, L; Sinnige, M J; van Dort, K A; Takkenberg, R B; Janssen, H L A; Reesink, H W; Kootstra, N A

    2016-08-01

    Current treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) consists of interferon-based therapy. However, for unknown reasons, a large proportion of patients with CHB do not respond to this treatment. Hence, there is a pressing need to establish response markers to select patients who will benefit from therapy and to spare potential nonresponders from unnecessary side effects of antiviral therapy. Here, we assessed whether HLA-C and KIR genotypes were associated with treatment outcome for CHB. Twelve SNPs in or near the HLA-C gene were genotyped in 86 CHB patients (41 HBeAg positive; 45 HBeAg negative) treated with peginterferon alfa-2a + adefovir. Genotyping of killer immunoglobin-like receptors (KIRs) was performed by SSP-PCR. One SNP in HLA-C (rs2308557) was significantly associated with combined response in HBeAg-positive CHB patients (P = 0.003). This SNP is linked to the HLA-C group C1 or C2 classification, which controls KIR binding. The combination of KIR2DL1 with its ligand HLA-C2 was observed significantly more often in HBeAg-positive patients with a combined response (13/14) than in nonresponders (11/27, P = 0.001). Patients with the KIR2DL1/C2 genotype had significantly higher baseline ALT levels (136 vs 50 U/L, P = 0.002) than patients without this combination. Furthermore, KIR2DL1-C2 predicted response independent of HBV genotype and ALT at baseline. HLA-C and KIR genotype is strongly associated with response in HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with interferon-based therapy. In combination with other known response markers, HLA-C/KIR genotype could enable the selection of patients more likely to respond to interferon-based therapy. PMID:26945896

  15. Combination therapy with a nucleos(t)ide analogue and interferon for chronic hepatitis B: simultaneous or sequential.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kawada, Norifumi

    2013-09-01

    Currently available antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection can be divided into two classes of therapeutic agents: nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and interferon (IFN). The major advantages of NAs are good tolerance and potent antiviral activity associated with high rates of on-treatment response to therapy; the advantages of IFN include a finite course of treatment, absence of drug resistance, and an opportunity to obtain a post-treatment durable response to therapy. The use of these two antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action in combination is theoretically an attractive approach for treatment. Here, we have reviewed previous reports of either simultaneous or sequential combination therapy with NA and IFN for chronic hepatitis B patients. In previous studies comparing the lamivudine/IFN combination and lamivudine monotherapy in a finite course, combination therapy was associated with higher rates of sustained post-treatment response and lower rates of drug resistance than lamivudine monotherapy. However, NAs such as lamivudine are generally administered indefinitely because of high rates of post-treatment relapse. In addition, concern for drug resistance has decreased significantly with newer, high-potency NAs even when administered alone. In previous studies comparing the lamivudine/IFN combination and IFN monotherapy, the combination therapy showed greater on-treatment viral suppression, but no difference was observed in the post-treatment sustained response. Thus, whether combination therapy confers an additional benefit compared to monotherapy for treating chronic hepatitis B remains unclear. The efficacy of IFN in combination with a more potent NA, such as entecavir or tenofovir, remains to be comprehensively evaluated. PMID:23338486

  16. Enhancing virus-specific immunity in vivo by combining therapeutic vaccination and PD-L1 blockade in chronic hepadnaviral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Ejuan; Ma, Zhiyong; Wu, Weimin; Kosinska, Anna; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Möller, Inga; Seiz, Pia; Glebe, Dieter; Wang, Baoju; Yang, Dongliang; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence is facilitated by exhaustion of CD8 T cells that express the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Improvement of the HBV-specific T cell function has been obtained in vitro by inhibiting the PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction. In this study, we examined whether in vivo blockade of the PD-1 pathway enhances virus-specific T cell immunity and leads to the resolution of chronic hepadnaviral infection in the woodchuck model. The woodchuck PD-1 was first cloned, characterized, and its expression patterns on T cells from woodchucks with acute or chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection were investigated. Woodchucks chronically infected with WHV received a combination therapy with nucleoside analogue entecavir (ETV), therapeutic DNA vaccination and woodchuck PD-L1 antibody treatment. The gain of T cell function and the suppression of WHV replication by this therapy were evaluated. We could show that PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells was correlated with WHV viral loads during WHV infection. ETV treatment significantly decreased PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells in chronic carriers. In vivo blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway on CD8 T cells, in combination with ETV treatment and DNA vaccination, potently enhanced the function of virus-specific T cells. Moreover, the combination therapy potently suppressed WHV replication, leading to sustained immunological control of viral infection, anti-WHs antibody development and complete viral clearance in some woodchucks. Our results provide a new approach to improve T cell function in chronic hepatitis B infection, which may be used to design new immunotherapeutic strategies in patients. PMID:24391505

  17. Long-term efficacy of nucleoside monotherapy in preventing HBV infection in HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers

    PubMed Central

    Chotiyaputta, Watcharasak; Pelletier, Shawn J.; Fontana, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs in up to 87.5% of HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers in the absence of HBV prophylaxis. There is no standardized prophylactic regimen to prevent HBV infection in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term efficacy of nucleoside analogue to prevent HBV infection in this setting. Methods A retrospective study of HBsAg-negative patients receiving liver transplantation (LT) from anti-HBc-positive donors during a 10-year period. Results Twenty patients were studied, mean age was 50.2 ± 8.3 years, 40% were men, and 90% were Caucasian. The median MELD score at the time of LT was 18 (12–40). None of the patients received hepatitis B immune globulin. Eighteen patients received nucleoside analogue monotherapy: 10 received lamivudine and 8 received entecavir. None of these 18 patients developed HBV infection after a median follow up of 32 (1–75) months. One patient received a second course of hepatitis B vaccine 50 months after LT with anti-HBs titer above 1,000 mIU/mL. Lamivudine was discontinued and the patient remained HBsAg negative 18 months after withdrawal of lamivudine. Two patients who were anti-HBs positive before LT were not started on HBV prophylaxis after LT; both developed HBV infection after LT. Conclusions Nucleoside monotherapy is sufficient in preventing HBV infection in HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers. HBV prophylaxis is necessary in anti-HBs-positive recipients of anti-HBc-positive donor livers. PMID:21286341

  18. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus during interferon-free therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir in patient with hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Hiroki; Sato, Takeshi; Ikeda, Fusao; Fujiki, Shigeatsu

    2016-03-01

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are not effective for hepatitis B virus (HBV), which may be suggestive of reactivation of anti-HBe hepatitis during interferon (IFN)-free DAA therapy in HBV/HCV co-infected patients with inactive HBV. A 69-year-old male patient was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis due to HBV/HCV co-infection with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 94 U/L, HCV RNA of 4.2 log IU/mL and HBV DNA of 2.5 log copies/mL. HCV was thought to be responsible for the hepatitis activity because of low level of HBV core-related antigen (3.1 log U/mL). He was treated with combination therapy of daclatasvir and asunaprevir. Serum ALT gradually increased, and reached 237 U/L on day 43 in spite of undetectable HCV RNA. Serum HBV DNA was increasing to 7.0 log copies/mL at that time. The treatment was stopped due to suspicion of drug-induced liver injury and/or HBV reactivation. Administration of entecavir reduced HBV DNA levels, followed by improvement in ALT levels. This report proposes that close monitoring of HBV DNA during the anti-HCV DAA therapy and the commencement of anti-HBV therapy with nucleoside analogs after the increase of HBV DNA should be considered in patients with HBV/HCV co-infection. PMID:26297529

  19. Differences in the availability of diagnostics and treatment modalities for chronic hepatitis B across Europe.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, R; Corti, G; Ruta, S; Lacombe, K; Mondelli, M U; Irwing, W L; Puoti, M; Khalighi, A; Santos, M L; Harxhi, A; Lazarevic, I; Soriano, V; Gervain, J; Leblebicioglu, H; Salmon, D; Arends, J E

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence and management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection differ among European countries. The availability and reimbursement of diagnostics and drugs may also vary, determining distinct treatment outcomes. Herein, we analyse differences in medical facilities for the care of patients with chronic HBV infection across Europe. A survey was sent to the members of the ESCMID Study Group for Viral Hepatitis, all of whom are experts in chronic HBV infection management. The comprehensive survey asked questions regarding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, the availability of diagnostics and drugs marketed, and distinct clinical practice behaviours in the management of chronic HBV infection. World Bank data were used to assess the economic status of the countries. With 16 expert physicians responding (69%), the HBsAg prevalence rates were <1% in France, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the UK, intermediate (1-5%) in Turkey, Romania, and Serbia, and high (>5%) in Albania and Iran. Regarding the availability and reimbursement of HBV diagnostics (HBV DNA and liver stiffness measurement), HBV drugs (interferon, lamivudine, tenofovir, and entecavir), HBV prophylaxis, and duration of HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative HBV infection, the majority of high-income and middle-income countries had no restrictions; Albania, Iran and Serbia had several restrictions in diagnostics and HBV drugs. The countries in the high-income group were also the ones with no restrictions in medical facilities, whereas the upper-middle-income countries had some restrictions. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection is much higher in southern and eastern than in western European countries. Despite the availability of European guidelines, policies for diagnostics and treatment vary significantly across European countries. PMID:26166544

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Recurrent Hepatitis B after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maiwall, Rakhi; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem that leads to development of various complications, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure requiring liver transplantation. The recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) post-liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft dysfunction, cirrhosis of the allograft, and graft failure. Patients with high viral load at the time of transplantation, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, or those with a history of anti-viral drug resistance are considered as high-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation, while patients with low viral load, including HBeAg negative status, acute liver failure, and hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection are considered to be at low-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation. Antivirals for patients awaiting liver transplantation(LT) cause suppression of HBV replication and reduce the risk of recurrent HBV infection of the allograft and, therefore, all HBV patients with decompensated cirrhosis should be treated with potent antivirals with high genetic barrier to resistance (entecavir or tenofovir) prior to liver transplantation. Prevention of post-liver transplantation recurrence should be done using a combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and antivirals in patients at high risk of recurrence. Low dose HBIG, HBIG-free protocols, and monoprophylaxis with high potency antivirals can still be considered in patients at low risk of recurrence. Even, marginal grafts from anti-HBc positive donors can be safely used in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, preferably in anti-hepatitis B core (HBc)/anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) positive recipients. In this article, we aim to review the mechanisms and risk factors of HBV recurrence post-LT in addition to the various treatment strategies proposed for the prevention of recurrent HBV infection PMID:27047773

  1. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    PubMed

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level. PMID:26536626

  2. Management of chronic hepatitis B in severe liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has evolved from a disease that was untreatable and progressive, to one that can be easily controlled with antiviral therapy. However, patients with severe liver disease still remain difficult to treat despite the availability of highly potent nucleos(t)ide analogs. These include those with underlying cirrhosis, severe flares of CHB, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and for those undergoing liver transplantation. For those with established cirrhosis, antiviral therapy should be considered for all, as unpredictable flares can still occur, which can be fatal for those with advanced chronic liver disease. However, even with effective viral suppression, the development of HCC can still occur. For patients with severe flares of CHB, although the use of antiviral can improve long term outcomes, a significant proportion may still die without liver transplantation. The short term prognosis of these patients is dependent on both the severity of flare and underlying pre-existing liver disease. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, liver failure secondary to severe flares, or those with HCC, liver transplantation may be curative. After liver transplantation, long term antiviral therapy is required to prevent graft loss from recurrent hepatitis B infection. The use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in combination with an oral antiviral agent has been the mainstay of post-transplant antiviral regimen for over a decade. With newer and more potent antiviral agents such as tenofovir and entecavir, use of these agents along with HBIG have demonstrated to be effective in preventing significant recurrence in the long term. PMID:25473157

  3. Establishment of drug-resistant HBV small-animal models by hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Junjun; Han, Yanxing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In antiviral therapy of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, drug resistance remains a huge obstacle to the long-term effectiveness of nucleoside/tide analogs (NAs). Primary resistance mutation (rtM204V) contributes to lamivudine (LAM)-resistance, and compensatory mutations (rtL180M and rtV173L) restore viral fitness and increase replication efficiency. The evaluation of new anti-viral agents against drug-resistant HBV is limited by the lack of available small-animal models. We established LAM-resistance HBV replication mice models based on clinical LAM-resistant HBV mutants. Double (rtM204V+rtL180M) or triple (rtM204V+rtL180M+rtV173L) lamivudine-resistant mutations were introduced into HBV expression vector, followed by hydrodynamic injection into tail vein of NOD/SCID mice. Viremia was detected on days 5, 9, 13 and 17 and liver HBV DNA was detected on day 17 after injection. The serum and liver HBV DNA levels in LAM-resistant model carrying triple mutations are the highest among the models. Two NAs, LAM and entecavir (ETV), were used to test the availability of the models. LAM and ETV inhibited viral replication on wild-type model. LAM was no longer effective on LAM-resistant models, but ETV retains a strong activity. Therefore, these models can be used to evaluate anti-viral agents against lamivudine-resistance, affording new opportunities to establish other drug-resistant HBV small-animal models. PMID:26579395

  4. New antiviral targets for innovative treatment concepts for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus.

    PubMed

    Durantel, David; Zoulim, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Current therapies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain limited to pegylated-interferon-alpha (PegIFN-α) or any of the five approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatments. While viral suppression can be achieved in the majority of patients with the high-barrier-to-resistance new-generation of NUC, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir, HBsAg loss is achieved by PegIFN-α and/or NUC in only 10% of patients, after a 5-year follow-up. Attempts to improve the response by administering two different NUC or a combination of NUC and PegIFN-α have not provided a dramatic increase in the rate of functional cure. Because of this and the need of long-term NUC administration, there is a renewed interest regarding the understanding of various steps of the HBV replication cycle, as well as specific virus-host cell interactions, in order to define new targets and develop new antiviral drugs. This includes a direct inhibition of viral replication with entry inhibitors, drugs targeting cccDNA, siRNA targeting viral transcripts, capsid assembly modulators, and approaches targeting the secretion of viral envelope proteins. Restoration of immune responses is a complementary approach. The restoration of innate immunity against HBV can be achieved, with TLR agonists or specific antiviral cytokine delivery. Restoration of adaptive immunity may be achieved with inhibitors of negative checkpoint regulators, therapeutic vaccines, or autologous transfer of engineered HBV-specific T cells. Novel targets and compounds will readily be evaluated using both relevant and novel in vitro and in vivo models of HBV infection. The addition of one or several new drugs to current therapies should offer the prospect of a markedly improved response to treatments and an increased rate of functional cure. This should lead to a reduced risk of antiviral drug resistance, and to a decreased incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID:27084032

  5. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-05-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com/. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, alemtuzumab, alendronate sodium/cholecalciferol, aliskiren fumarate, AMGN-0007, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan; Calcipotriol/beta methasone dipropionate, caldaret hydrate, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, cocaine-BSA conjugate, conivaptan hydrochloride, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, delmitide, desloratadine, desmoteplase, desoxyepothilone B, disufenton sodium, DU-176b, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; EBV-specific CTLs, ecogramostim, edodekin alfa, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, entecavir, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fanapanel, fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, GTI-2040, GW-501516; Her2 E75-peptide vaccine, human insulin; Ibogaine, icatibant acetate, Id-KLH vaccine, imatinib mesylate, immune globulin subcutaneous [human], indacaterol, inolimomab, ipilimumab, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, lanthanum carbonate, lenalidomide, levocetirizine, levodopa methyl ester hydrochloride/carbidopa, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine; Maraviroc, mecasermin, melevodopa hydrochloride, mepolizumab, mitumomab; Nesiritide; Omalizumab, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), patupilone, pegaptanib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, pemetrexed disodium, photochlor, pimecrolimus, posaconazole, prasterone, prasugrel, pregabalin, prilocaine, PRX-00023; QS-21; Ranibizumab, ranirestat, rhodamine 123, rotigaptide; Sarcosine, sirolimus

  6. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs:(R)-Flurbiprofen, 90Yttrium-DOTA-huJ591; ABT-510, ACP-103, Ad5-FGF4, adalimumab, ademetionine, AG-7352, alemtuzumab, Amb a 1 ISS-DNA, anakinra, apaziquone, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir sulfate; BAL-8557, bevacizumab, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, brivudine; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, catumaxomab, CERE-120, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cilomilast, cizolirtine citrate, Cypher, cystemustine; Dalbavancin, darifenacin hydrobromide, dasatinib, deferasirox, denosumab, desmoteplase, dihydrexidine, dimethyl fumarate, dutasteride, DW-166HC; Eculizumab, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, everolimus; Fallypride, febuxostat, fenretinide, fesoterodine, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gabapentin enacarbil, gefitinib; hMaxi-K, human papillomavirus vaccine, HYAL-CT1101; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, inolimomab, ISAtx-247; J591; Lacosamide, landiolol, lasofoxifene tartrate, lestaurtinib, lidocaine/prilocaine, linezolid, lixivaptan, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Natalizumab, nesiritide; OC-108, omalizumab, onercept, OSC; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PD-MAGE-3 vaccine, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pelitinib, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, prasterone sulfate, pregabalin; Ramelteon, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasburicase, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine, RSD-1235, rufinamide, rupatadine fumarate; Sarizotan hydrochloride, SHL-749

  7. Comprehensive outcomes of on- and off-antiviral prophylaxis in hepatitis B patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: A competing risks analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Jihyun; Shim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Choi, Jonggi; Kim, Sang-We; Lee, Danbi; Kim, Kang Mo; Lim, Young-Suk; Lee, Han Chu; Chung, Young-Hwa; Lee, Yung Sang; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-09-01

    Although antiviral prophylaxis is essential in hepatitis B patients in the context of cancer chemotherapy, there is little evidence-based consensus regarding the appropriate prevention strategy depending on the underlying type of cancer and viral status. This retrospective study included a comprehensive cohort of 302 hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients with various cancers undergoing chemotherapy and antiviral prophylaxis. The rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during antiviral therapy (>1 log10 IU/mL increase or positive conversion of serum HBV DNA) and relapse when off antivirals ([re]appearance of HBV DNA >2,000 IU/ml with related alanine aminotransferase elevation) were evaluated, together with the associated risk factors, in a competing risks analysis where cancer death was considered as the competing event. During antiviral prophylaxis, HBV was reactivated in six patients (1.9%), who had leukemia (n = 4) or lymphoma (n = 2) and were treated with lamivudine (n = 4) or entecavir (n = 2). The incidence rate of HBV relapse in 127 off-prophylaxis patients was 21.3% during a median post-antiviral period of 11.7 months. Lymphoma, pre-prophylactic HBV DNA ≥2,000 IU/ml, and age ≥50 years were independent predictors of off-treatment HBV relapse (adjusted hazard ratios 5.25, 3.07, and 0.34, respectively; Ps < 0.05). Antiviral and anticancer drugs, duration of consolidation on antiviral prophylaxis, and HBeAg positivity were not independent predictors. In conclusion, hepatitis B flare-ups are not rare in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy during and after anti-HBV prophylaxis, even when potent antivirals are used. Patients with hematopoietic or lymphoid neoplasms or high viral burdens should receive prolonged and powerful HBV prophylaxis. J. Med. Virol. 88:1576-1586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945543

  8. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: A-007, A6, adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AllerVax Ragweed, amphora, anakinra, angiotensin-(1-7), anidulafungin, apomine, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, avanafil; BAL-8557, becatecarin, bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brivudine; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, catumaxomab, certolizumab pegol, cetuximab, CG-0070, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide, cryptophycin 52, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, darapladib, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, deferasirox, desloratadine, dexanabinol, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, DMF, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, emtricitabine, entecavir, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, estradiol valerate/dienogest, eszopiclone, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, fulvestrant; Gefitinib, gestodene, GYKI-16084; Hyaluronic acid, hydralazine hydrochloride/isosorbide dinitrate; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine; Juzen-taiho-to; Lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, L-arginine hydrochloride, lasofoxifene tartrate, L-BLP-25, lenalidomide, levocetirizine, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lexatumumab, lidocaine/prilocaine, lubiprostone, lumiracoxib; MAb-14.18, mitoquidone; Natalizumab, neridronic acid, neuradiab; Olpadronic acid sodium salt, omalizumab; p53-DC vaccine, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, perifosine, pimecrolimus, prasterone, prasugrel, PRO-2000

  9. Management of patients with hepatitis B in special populations

    PubMed Central

    Cholongitas, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Pipili, Chrysoula

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has improved the outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This review updates issues related to the management of CHB patients included in special populations. Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF) represent the currently recommended first-line NAs in patients with HBV decompensated cirrhosis. The combination of HBV immunoglobulin (usually for a finite duration) and NA is considered the standard of care for prophylaxis against HBV recurrence after liver transplantation. TDF is the best choice for hemodialysis patients and in patients with chronic kidney disease with nucleoside resistance. ETV and telbivudine are the preferred options in naïve renal transplant recipients and with low viremia levels, respectively. All hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive candidates should be treated with NAs before renal transplantation to achieve undetectable HBV DNA at the time of transplantation. Conventional interferon or NAs can also be used in children, on the basis of well-established therapeutic indication. Pregnant women at high risk of perinatal transmission could be treated with lamivudine, telbivudine or TDF in the last trimester of pregnancy. HBsAg-positive patients under immunosuppression should receive NA pre-emptively (regardless of HBV DNA levels) up to 12 mo after its cessation. In HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive patients under immunosuppression, further studies are needed to form a final conclusion; however, it seems that anti-HBV prophylaxis is justified in such patients with hematological diseases and/or for those receiving rituximab-containing regimens, regardless of their anti-HBs or serum HBV DNA status. PMID:25684938

  10. [A case of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated by liver resection after complete response induced by sorafenib administration].

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongkook; Hosoda, Yohei; Kakita, Naruyasu; Yamada, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Masaru; Nishino, Masaya; Okano, Miho; Nagai, Kenichi; Yasui, Masayoshi; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2014-11-01

    A 50-year-old man presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of right hypochondriac pain and a palpable tumor. Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic hepatitis B infection were diagnosed and treated by twice-repeated transcatheterarterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by administration of entecavir. Two months after the last TACE, alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonistII (PIVKA-II) levels had elevated, and multiple small early enhancing nodules were detected on computed tomography(CT)scan. Based on his age and liver function (Child-Pugh score A5), a full dose of sorafenib (800 mg/day) was administered. The sorafenib dose was decreased after one month to 400mg/day because of hand-foot syndrome. Following sorafenib administration, the lesions shrank markedly, and complete response (CR) according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors(mRECIST)was achieved within 4 months. Six months after sorafenib treatment was begun, recurrent HCC was detected in segment 6, near the previously treated lesion. The decreased size of the main tumor and normalization of AFP levels allowed curative surgical resection. The patient was discharged 5 days after surgery and is currently treated with a half dose of sorafenib. Thirteen months after surgery, a small early enhancing lesion is visible on postoperative CT scan, but AFP and PIVKA-II levels are still keeping in a normal range. This case demonstrates that if sorafenib treatment is effective, then subsequent surgical treatment can be reconsidered in patients with advanced HCC responding to this combined therapy. PMID:25731444

  11. Management of hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Pérez, Miguel; González-Grande, Rocío; Mostazo Torres, José; González Arjona, Carolina; Rando-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is responsible for up to 30% of cases of liver cirrhosis and up to 53% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver transplantation (LT) is the best therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver failure caused by HBV. The success of transplantation, though, depends on receiving prophylactic treatment against post-transplant viral reactivation. In the absence of prophylaxis, liver transplantation due to chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with high rates of viral recurrence and poor survival. The introduction of treatment with hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG) during the 1990s and later the incorporation of oral antiviral drugs have improved the prognosis of these patients. Thus, LT for CHB is now a universally accepted option, with an estimated 5 years survival of around 85% vs the 45% survival seen prior to the introduction of HBIG. The combination of lamivudine plus HBIG has for many years been the most widely used prophylactic regimen. However, with the appearance of new more potent oral antiviral agents associated with less resistance (e.g., entecavir and tenofovir) for the treatment of CHB, new prophylactic strategies are being designed, either in combination with HBIG or alone as a monotherapy. These advances have allowed for more personalized prophylaxis based on the individual risk profile of a given patient. In addition, the small pool of donors has required the use of anti-HBc-positive donors (with the resulting possibility of transmitting HBV from these organs), which has been made possible by suitable prophylactic regimens. PMID:26576093

  12. Interleukin-21 Is Associated with Early Antiviral Response in Patients with Hepatitis B e Antigen-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Shen, Zhen; Zhang, Hongxing; Liang, Jian; Lin, Hai

    2016-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) becomes a characteristic of liver disease. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) plays an important role in the control of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to investigate the relationship between IL-21 and early (24 weeks) viral response (EVR) to antiviral therapy in patients with coexistence of CHB and NAFLD (CHB + NAFLD). A prospective study was carried out in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB + NAFLD and CHB patients receiving Entecavir for initial antiviral therapy, by recording demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data at baseline 12 and 24 weeks. Univariate analysis, correlation analysis, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were applied to find related factors with EVR. Forty CHB + NAFLD patients and 20 CHB patients entered final analysis. At baseline, IL-21, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), glutanyltransferase (GGT), body mass index (BMI), and computed tomography (CT) ratio of liver/spleen showed significant difference between the 2 groups. Although no significant difference was found, EVR rates was lower in CHB + NAFLD than CHB (75% vs. 90%, P = 0.053). Baseline IL-21 was associated with BMI, CT ratio of liver/spleen, TG, CHOL, and HBeAg level in CHB + NAFLD patients, whose IL-21, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, CHOL, BMI, and CT ratio of liver/spleen at baseline was associated with EVR. Only the level of IL-21 exhibited significant increase from 0 to 12 weeks, while the change line of other associated factors was nearly parallel between EVR group and non-EVR group. ROC discovered the level of IL-21 at 12 weeks implied a strong predictive value for EVR. We deduced that IL-21 was associated with EVR, and the elevated level of IL-21 at treatment week 12 can predict EVR in CHB + NAFLD patients. PMID:26840345

  13. Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Disease Revisit and Management Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Man-Fung; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M; Hou, Jin-Lin; Maddrey, Willis C; Mizokami, Masashi; Seto, Wai-Kay; Zoulim, Fabien; Lai, Ching-Lung

    2016-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection evolves from immune-tolerance phase, through immune clearance phase to a quiescent phase or reactivation as hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis. Persistent infection may result in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Host factors including gender, age, family history, HLA-DP, and viral factors including HBV DNA, genotypes, precore mutations, pre-S deletions, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level are associated with the development of these complications. Risk scores for the development of HCC have been derived. Patients with persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 for males; >19 U/L for females) and HBV DNA levels >2000 IU/mL should be treated. Patients with established cirrhosis with detectable HBV DNA should also be treated. The recommended first-line agents include pegylated interferon and 2 nucleos(t)ide analogs, entecavir and tenofovir. NAs require long-term treatment to maintain suppression of HBV DNA. They have been shown to decrease hepatic fibrosis, or reverse cirrhosis and to reduce the development of HCC. They have very low rates (0% to 1.2%) of resistance. HBsAg seroclearance, although the ideal endpoint, is only achievable in 10% to 12% of patients by multicenter trials usually studying relatively young patients. Patients on long-term treatment should be monitored for viral breakthrough that may be due to noncompliance or the development of resistance. Newer agents are under trials to enhance the rate of HBsAg seroclearance. However, even with the current NAs, long-term treatment of >6 years can markedly reduce the covalently closed circular DNA, the viral component responsible for initiation of viral replication. PMID:26840752

  14. In search of a selective antiviral chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1997-01-01

    This article describes several approaches to a selective therapy of virus infections: (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU [brivudin]) for the therapy of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus infections: (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (HPMPC [cidofovir]) for the therapy of various DNA virus (i.e., herpesvirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, polyomavirus, and poxvirus) infections; 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA [adefovir]) for the therapy of retrovirus, hepadnavirus, and herpesvirus infections; (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) for the therapy and prophylaxis of retrovirus and hepadnavirus infections; and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(IH)-one and -thione (TIBO), 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT), alpha-anilinophenylacetamide (alpha-APA), and 2',5'bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5"-(4"-amino-1",2"-oxat hiole- 2",2"-dioxide)pyrimidine (TSAO) derivatives, and thiocarboxanilides for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. For the clinical use of NNRTIs, some guidelines have been elaborated, such as starting treatment with combinations of different compounds at sufficiently high concentrations to effect a pronounced and sustained suppression of the virus. Despite the diversity of the compounds described here and the different viruses at which they are targeted, they have a number of characteristics in common. As they interact with specific viral proteins, the compounds achieve a selective inhibition of the replication of the virus, which, in turn, should be able to develop resistance to the compounds. However, as has been established for the NNRTIs, the problem of viral resistance may be overcome if the compounds are used from the start at sufficiently high doses, which could be reduced if different compounds are combined. For HIV infections, drug treatment

  15. Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Law, Man Fai; Ho, Rita; Cheung, Carmen K M; Tam, Lydia H P; Ma, Karen; So, Kent C Y; Ip, Bonaventure; So, Jacqueline; Lai, Jennifer; Ng, Joyce; Tam, Tommy H C

    2016-07-28

    Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although

  16. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN. PMID:26403919

  17. Hepatitis B Infection, Viral Load and Resistance in HIV-Infected Patients in Mozambique and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Musukuma, Kalo; Zürcher, Samuel; Vinikoor, Michael J.; Llenas-García, Jara; Aly, Mussa M.; Mulenga, Lloyd; Chi, Benjamin H.; Ehmer, Jochen; Hobbins, Michael A.; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Egger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Few data on the virological determinants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are available from southern Africa. Methods We enrolled consecutive HIV-infected adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at two urban clinics in Zambia and four rural clinics in Northern Mozambique between May 2013 and August 2014. HBsAg screening was performed using the Determine® rapid test. Quantitative real-time PCR and HBV sequencing were performed in HBsAg-positive patients. Risk factors for HBV infection were evaluated using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests and associations between baseline characteristics and high level HBV replication explored in multivariable logistic regression. Results Seventy-eight of 1,032 participants in Mozambique (7.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1–9.3) and 90 of 797 in Zambia (11.3%, 95% CI: 9.3–13.4) were HBsAg-positive. HBsAg-positive individuals were less likely to be female compared to HBsAg-negative ones (52.3% vs. 66.1%, p<0.001). Among 156 (92.9%) HBsAg-positive patients with an available measurement, median HBV viral load was 13,645 IU/mL (interquartile range: 192–8,617,488 IU/mL) and 77 (49.4%) had high values (>20,000 UI/mL). HBsAg-positive individuals had higher levels of ALT and AST compared to HBsAg-negative ones (both p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, male sex (adjusted odds ratio: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.22–5.53) and CD4 cell count below 200/μl (2.58, 1.20–5.54) were associated with high HBV DNA. HBV genotypes A1 (58.8%) and E (38.2%) were most prevalent. Four patients had probable resistance to lamivudine and/or entecavir. Conclusion One half of HBsAg-positive patients demonstrated high HBV viremia, supporting the early initiation of tenofovir-containing ART in HIV/HBV-coinfected adults. PMID:27032097

  18. Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Man Fai; Ho, Rita; Cheung, Carmen K M; Tam, Lydia H P; Ma, Karen; So, Kent C Y; Ip, Bonaventure; So, Jacqueline; Lai, Jennifer; Ng, Joyce; Tam, Tommy H C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although

  19. Hepatobiliary manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease: The gut, the drugs and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Feria, María; Castro, Manuel; Suárez, Emilio; Ampuero, Javier; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal liver biochemical tests are present in up to 30% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therefore become a diagnostic challenge. Liver and biliary tract diseases are common extraintestinal manifestations for both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), and typically do not correlate with intestinal activity. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is the most common hepatobiliary manifestation of IBD, and is more prevalent in UC. Approximately 5% of patients with UC develop PSC, with the prevalence reaching up to 90%. Cholangiocarcinoma and colon cancer risks are increased in these patients. Less common disorders include autoimmune hepatitis/PSC overlap syndrome, IgG4-associated cholangiopathy, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatic amyloidosis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholelithiasis, portal vein thrombosis, liver abscess, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatitis B reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy is a major concern, with screening and vaccination being recommended in serologically negative cases for patients with IBD. Reactivation prophylaxis with entecavir or tenofovir for 6 to 12 mo after the end of immunosuppressive therapy is mandatory in patients showing as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, independently from viral load. HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive patients, with or without anti-HBs, should be closely monitored, measuring alanine aminotransferase and hepatitis B virus DNA within 12 mo after the end of therapy, and should be treated if the viral load increases. On the other hand, immunosuppressive therapy does not seem to promote reactivation of hepatitis C, and hepatitis C antiviral treatment does not influence IBD natural history either. Most of the drugs used for IBD treatment may induce hepatotoxicity, although the incidence of serious adverse events is low. Abnormalities in liver biochemical tests associated with aminosalicylates are uncommon and are usually not clinically relevant

  20. Hepatitis B and liver transplantation: molecular and clinical features that influence recurrence and outcome.

    PubMed

    Ghaziani, Tahereh; Sendi, Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Zamor, Philippe; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2014-10-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is estimated that about 350 million people throughout the world are chronically infected with HBV. Some of these people will develop hepatic cirrhosis with decompensation and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. For such patients, liver transplantation may be the only hope for cure or real improvement in quality and quantity of life. Formerly, due to rapidity of recurrence of HBV infection after liver transplantation, usually rapidly progressive, liver transplantation was considered to be contraindicated. This changed dramatically following the demonstration that hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), could prevent recurrent HBV infection. HBIG has been the standard of care for the past two decades or so. Recently, with the advent of highly active inhibitors of the ribose nucleic acid polymerase of HBV (entecavir, tenofovir), there has been growing evidence that HBIG needs to be given for shorter lengths of time; indeed, it may no longer be necessary at all. In this review, we describe genetic variants of HBV and past, present, and future prophylaxis of HBV infection during and after liver transplantation. We have reviewed the extant medical literature on the subject of infection with the HBV, placing particular emphasis upon the prevention and treatment of recurrent HBV during and after liver transplantation. For the review, we searched PubMed for all papers on the subject of "hepatitis B virus AND liver transplantation". We describe some of the more clinically relevant and important genetic variations in the HBV. We also describe current practices at our medical centers, provide a summary and analysis of comparative costs for alternative strategies for prevention of recurrent HBV, and pose important still unanswered questions that are in need of answers during the next decade or two. We conclude that it is now rational and cost-effective to decrease and, perhaps, cease altogether

  1. Prognostic factors in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing nucleoside analog antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    NISHIKAWA, HIROKI; NISHIJIMA, NORIHIRO; ARIMOTO, AKIRA; INUZUKA, TADASHI; KITA, RYUICHI; KIMURA, TORU; OSAKI, YUKIO

    2013-01-01

    In the present era of entecavir (ETV) use for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the prognostic factors in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prognostic factors in patients with HBV-related HCC treated with ETV who underwent curative therapy. A total of 74 HBV-related HCC patients treated with ETV who underwent curative therapy were analyzed. Predictive factors associated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were examined using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our study population included 49 males and 25 females with a median age of 62 years. The median observation period was 3.4 years (range, 0.2–11.5 years). The 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates were 100, 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively. The corresponding RFS rates were 82.8, 52.1 and 25.6%, respectively. In this study, 73 patients (98.6%) achieved an HBV DNA level of <400 copies/ml during the follow-up period. No viral breakthrough hepatitis, as defined by 1 log increase from nadir, was observed during ETV therapy. According to multivariate analysis, only hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity was significantly associated with OS [hazard ratio (HR), 0.058; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.005–0.645; P=0.020)], whereas HCC stage (HR, 0.359; 95% CI, 0.150–0.859; P=0.021), HBeAg positivity (HR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.088–0.463; P<0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase ≥50 IU/l (HR, 0.340; 95% CI, 0.152–0.760; P=0.009) were significant predictive factors linked to RFS. In conclusion, HBeAg positivity was significantly associated with OS and RFS in HBV-related HCC patients treated with ETV who underwent curative therapy. In such patients, close observation is required, even after curative therapy for HCC. PMID:24179497

  2. Hepatitis B and liver transplantation: Molecular and clinical features that influence recurrence and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ghaziani, Tahereh; Sendi, Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Zamor, Philippe; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is estimated that about 350 million people throughout the world are chronically infected with HBV. Some of these people will develop hepatic cirrhosis with decompensation and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. For such patients, liver transplantation may be the only hope for cure or real improvement in quality and quantity of life. Formerly, due to rapidity of recurrence of HBV infection after liver transplantation, usually rapidly progressive, liver transplantation was considered to be contraindicated. This changed dramatically following the demonstration that hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), could prevent recurrent HBV infection. HBIG has been the standard of care for the past two decades or so. Recently, with the advent of highly active inhibitors of the ribose nucleic acid polymerase of HBV (entecavir, tenofovir), there has been growing evidence that HBIG needs to be given for shorter lengths of time; indeed, it may no longer be necessary at all. In this review, we describe genetic variants of HBV and past, present, and future prophylaxis of HBV infection during and after liver transplantation. We have reviewed the extant medical literature on the subject of infection with the HBV, placing particular emphasis upon the prevention and treatment of recurrent HBV during and after liver transplantation. For the review, we searched PubMed for all papers on the subject of “hepatitis B virus AND liver transplantation”. We describe some of the more clinically relevant and important genetic variations in the HBV. We also describe current practices at our medical centers, provide a summary and analysis of comparative costs for alternative strategies for prevention of recurrent HBV, and pose important still unanswered questions that are in need of answers during the next decade or two. We conclude that it is now rational and cost-effective to decrease and, perhaps, cease