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Sample records for adelaide australia 18-20

  1. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  2. Impact ejecta horizon within late precambrian shales, adelaide geosyncline, South australia.

    PubMed

    Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S

    1986-07-11

    A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

  3. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  4. Gravity wave motions and momentum fluxes in the middle atmosphere at Adelaide, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. A.; Fritts, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of gravity wave momentum fluxes in the middle atmosphere using data collected during June 1984 at Adelaide, Australia (35 deg S). The primary objectives were to identify that portion of the gravity wave spectrum that contributes most of the momentum transport and flux divergence and to examine the temporal variability of wave energies and momentum fluxes. The data were obtained with an HF (2 MHz) radar operated in a Doppler configuration with two coplanar off-vertical beams. This technique provides a direct measure of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum due to an arbitrary spectrum of gravity wave and other motions in the plane of the radar beams.

  5. Evaluation of a heat warning system in Adelaide, South Australia, using case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Hansen, Alana; Williams, Susan; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Heatwave warning systems aim to assist in reducing health effects during extreme heat. Evaluations of such systems have been limited. This study explored the effect of a heatwave warning programme on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia, by comparing extreme events in 2009 and 2014, the latter with exposure to the preventive programme. Methods The health outcomes during the two heatwaves were compared using the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of daily ambulance call-outs, emergency presentations and mortality data during the heatwaves compared with non-heatwave periods during the warm seasons. Excess or reduced numbers of cases were calculated and the differences in cases between the two heatwaves were estimated. Results IRRs for total ambulance call-outs and emergency presentations were lower during the 2014 heatwaves compared with the 2009 event. The estimated differences in health-specific outcomes between 2009 and 2014 were statistically significant with 207 (59%) for cardiac-related call-outs, 134 (30%) for renal and 145 (56%) for heat-related emergency presentations. Mortality was not reduced in 2014. There were an estimated 34.5 excess deaths in 2009 and 38.2 in 2014. Conclusions Morbidity outcomes were reduced significantly during the 2014 event. The fact that cardiac, renal and heat-related diagnoses were significantly reduced is likely to be associated with the intervention in 2014, which comprised a public warning through media and intense preventive measures directed to individual populations at risk. Further analysis of risk factors of mortality during heatwaves should be explored. PMID:27436672

  6. What Counts as Quality in Education? Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference Proceedings (Adelaide, Australia, September 11-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirelli, Paola S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference was held September 11-12 in Adelaide, Australia, with the theme, "What counts as quality in education?" There has been concern with a general downward trend in Australia's performance on international measures of student achievement, but there is equal concern over the…

  7. Exploration of the perceptions, barriers and drivers of pharmacogenomics practice among hospital pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dias, M M; Ward, H M; Sorich, M J; McKinnon, R A

    2014-06-01

    There is little literature regarding the barriers to the uptake of pharmacogenomics (PG) in pharmacy practice, especially with respect to Australia. To date, pharmacists have seldom been engaged in discussions of these issues. This study aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding of these barriers by interviewing pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia. Ethics approved semistructured interviews were carried out with 21 public hospital pharmacists. Analysis of the data identified themes including: confidence to engage in PG, clinician acceptance of a pharmacist PG role, and the importance of timely and relevant PG education. Interviewees thought that pharmacists could have a greater participation in PG in the future, but they questioned whether this would be possible at the moment given, among other factors, existing time and work constraints.

  8. Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B.; Sinclair, M. I.; Forbes, A. B.; Veitch, M.; Kirk, M.; Cunliffe, D.; Willis, J.; Fairley, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    Few studies have assessed risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in industrialized countries, even though it may be numerically more common than outbreaks of disease. We carried out case-control studies assessing risk factors for sporadic disease in Melbourne and Adelaide, which have water supplies from different ends of the raw water spectrum. In addition to examining drinking water, we assessed several other exposures. 201 cases and 795 controls were recruited for Melbourne and 134 cases and 536 controls were recruited for Adelaide. Risk factors were similar for the two cities, with swimming in public pools and contact with a person with diarrhoea being most important. The consumption of plain tap water was not found to be associated with disease. This study emphasizes the need for regular public health messages to the public and swimming pool managers in an attempt to prevent sporadic cryptosporidiosis, as well as outbreaks of disease. PMID:12113486

  9. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  10. Mosquito communities with trap height and urban-rural gradient in Adelaide, South Australia: implications for disease vector surveillance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emily; Weinstein, Phillip; Slaney, David; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen; Williams, Craig

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing mosquito distribution is important for effective surveillance and control of nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to determine how trap height and distance to the city center influenced the abundance and species of mosquitoes collected in Adelaide, South Australia. Mosquito communities were sampled at two heights (<2 m and ~10 m) along an urban-rural gradient. A total of 5,133 mosquitoes was identified over 176 trap nights. Aedes notoscriptus, Ae. vigilax, and Culex molestus were all more abundant in lower traps while Cx. quinquefasciatus (an ornithophilic species) was found to be more abundant in high traps. Distance to city center correlated strongly with the abundance of Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Cx. globocoxitus, and Cx. molestus, all of which were most common at the sites farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. Overall, the important disease vectors in South Australia (Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Ae. notoscriptus, and Cx. annulirostris) were more abundant in low traps farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. The current mosquito surveillance practice of setting traps within two meters of the ground is effective for sampling populations of the important disease vector species in South Australia.

  11. Basement-cover interaction in the Adelaide Foldbelt, South Australia: the development of an arcuate foldbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Geoffrey L.; Powell, Roger

    1989-02-01

    The upper Proterozoic- to Cambrian-aged sedimentary and volcanic rocks comprising the Adelaide Foldbelt were deformed and, in places, metamorphosed during the Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian Orogeny. Tectonic fabrics developed in the central portion of the foldbelt (Mt. Lofty Ranges) demonstrate westward transport during the orogeny. The sigmoidal shape outlined by the Kangaroo Is., Mt. Lofty Ranges, Olary portion of the foldbelt is interpreted to have been the result of dextral wrench faulting in the lower- to mid-Proterozoic basement. Thus, cover rocks overlying such basement wrench fault zones would have suffered a transpressional stress regime, giving rise to the observed fold axis oriented at an oblique angle to the thrust boundary. In the northern portion of the foldbelt (Northern Flinders Ranges), wrench faulting is interpreted to have accommodated considerable basement shortening which initiated a basement-cover décollement and resulted in thrust-bound pop-up structures in the cover.

  12. The effect of temperature on different Salmonella serotypes during warm seasons in a Mediterranean climate city, Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P

    2016-04-01

    Changing trends in foodborne disease are influenced by many factors, including temperature. Globally and in Australia, warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise if climate change continues. Salmonella spp. are a temperature-sensitive pathogen and rising temperature can have a substantial effect on disease burden affecting human health. We examined the relationship between temperature and Salmonella spp. and serotype notifications in Adelaide, Australia. Time-series Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the effect of temperature during warmer months on Salmonella spp. and serotype cases notified from 1990 to 2012. Long-term trends, seasonality, autocorrelation and lagged effects were included in the statistical models. Daily Salmonella spp. counts increased by 1·3% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1·013, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·008-1·019] per 1 °C rise in temperature in the warm season with greater increases observed in specific serotype and phage-type cases ranging from 3·4% (IRR 1·034, 95% CI 1·008-1·061) to 4·4% (IRR 1·044, 95% CI 1·024-1·064). We observed increased cases of S. Typhimurium PT9 and S. Typhimurium PT108 notifications above a threshold of 39 °C. This study has identified the impact of warm season temperature on different Salmonella spp. strains and confirms higher temperature has a greater effect on phage-type notifications. The findings will contribute targeted information for public health policy interventions, including food safety programmes during warmer weather.

  13. Awareness of and attitudes towards heat waves within the context of climate change among a cohort of residents in Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed

    Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

    2012-12-20

    Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (χ² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change.

  14. Awareness of and Attitudes towards Heat Waves within the Context of Climate Change among a Cohort of Residents in Adelaide, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (χ² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change. PMID:23343978

  15. Seasonal variations of the nighttime O(1S) and OH (8-3) airglow intensity at Adelaide, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Iain M.; Spargo, Andrew J.; Woithe, Jonathan M.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze 15 years of atomic oxygen (OI) 558 nm and hydroxyl (OH) (8-3) 730 nm nightglow emission intensities from heights near 96 and 87 km, respectively, measured using filter photometers at the Buckland Park Field Station (34.6°S, 138.6°E) near Adelaide, Australia. The intensity of both emissions exhibits clear seasonal and interannual periodicities, with annual, semiannual, and quasi-biennial oscillations, as well as a solar cycle influence. In addition, there is a terannual and 4.1 year component in the OI airglow intensity and both a quasi-biennial and quasi-triennial oscillation in the OH intensity. The results are in very good agreement with simultaneous collocated measurements made with an imager, and with global satellite climatologies of OI and OH intensities reported for the Wind Imaging Interferometer instrument. The mean value of the OI annual oscillation intensity is the same as that of the semiannual oscillation at this location to within the experimental uncertainty. The OI annual oscillation maximizes in summer, and the semiannual oscillation maximizes in autumn and spring, with the largest maximum in autumn. The terannual component in the OI nightglow maximizes in early summer, autumn, and spring. The quasi-biennial oscillation in the OI nightglow takes its first maximum value in autumn 1996, and the 4.1 year period in this emission first maximizes in summer 1998. The OH annual and semiannual oscillation intensities also agree to within the experimental uncertainties and are observed to peak in early winter. The quasi-biennial and quasi-triennial oscillations in this emission take their first maximum value in summer 1996.

  16. Fisher in Adelaide.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    R. A. Fisher spent much of his final 3 years of life in Adelaide. It was a congenial place to live and work, and he was much in demand as a speaker, in Australia and overseas. It was, however, a difficult time for him because of the sustained criticism of fiducial inference from the early 1950s onwards. The article discusses some of Fisher's work on inference from an Adelaide perspective. It also considers some of the successes arising from this time, in the statistics of field experimentation and in evolutionary genetics. A few personal recollections of Fisher as houseguest are provided. This article is the text of a article presented on August 31, 2012 at the 26th International Biometric Conference, Kobe, Japan.

  17. Survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in coarse sands of the swan costal plain, Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W F; Mee, B J

    1982-01-01

    The survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in two coarse sands influenced by two sources of septic tank effluent was studied. The experiments were conducted in conditions that reflected the soil environment beneath functioning septic tank systems. Significant differences in survival were found with different effluent sources. In one experiment the survival of S. adelaide was similar to that of fecal coliforms; in the other it was not. The nonuniform, multiphasic nature of survival curves was variability observed in these experiments suggests that the application of such survival data for establishing management criteria for septic tank systems--by, for example, the use of soil moisture characteristic curves to give estimates of movement in the soil--is inappropriate. PMID:7103482

  18. An Introduction to Credentialing Issues in Counselling and Some Main Counselling Groups in Australia (University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, May 6, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelling, Nadine J.

    2005-01-01

    Counselling is an unregulated activity in Australia. As a developing profession in Australia counselling has two main general and many specialty counselling associations attempting to represent counselling to counsellors, clients, and government bodies. This has led to confusion about counselling credentialing efforts. A presentation was arranged…

  19. Informing Policy and Practice in Australia's Vocational Education and Training Sector: Reflections and Futures. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Forum of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 21, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Loveder, Phil, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    To mark the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) brought together policy, industry and academic leaders to reflect on the role that research and statistics have played in the development of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector. This publication includes the original…

  20. Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in adelaide, australia.

    PubMed

    Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-05-29

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants' perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19-6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.58), a high "cues to action" (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63-8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25-5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours

  1. Celebrating Rural Education. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) (13th, Adelaide, South Australia, July 6-8, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Colin, Ed.; Wood, Giovanna, Ed.

    This conference proceedings of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 19 presentations and workshops. An introductory section includes SPERA's mission, goals, and history; a brief welcome address by SPERA president Sheila King; a list of past conference proceedings; and abstracts of presentations. The…

  2. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a strategic and vital resource in South Australia playing a crucial role in sustaining a healthy environment, as well as supporting industries and economic development. In the Adelaide metropolitan region ten different aquifer units have been identified, extending to more than 500 m below sea level. Although salinity within most of these aquifers is variable, water suitable for commercial, irrigation and/or potable use is predominantly found in the deeper Tertiary aquifers. Groundwater currently contributes only 9000 ML/yr of Adelaide's total water consumption of 216,000 ML, while in the Northern Adelaide Plains 17000 ML/yr is used. However, major industries, market gardeners, golf courses, and local councils are highly dependent on this resource. Despite recent rapid expansion in managed aquifer recharge, and the potential for increased extraction of groundwater, particularly for the commercial and irrigation supplies, little is known about the sources and ages of Adelaide's groundwater. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a robust conceptualisation of Adelaide's groundwater system. The study focuses on three important knowledge gaps: 1. Does groundwater flow from the Adelaide Hills into the sedimentary aquifers on the plains? 2. What is the potential for encroachment of seawater if groundwater extraction increases? 3. How isolated are the different aquifers, or does water leak from one to the other? A multi-tool approach has been used to improve the conceptual understanding of groundwater flow processes; including the installation of new groundwater monitoring wells from the hills to the coast, an extensive groundwater sampling campaign of new and existing groundwater wells for chemistry and environmental tracers analysis, and development of a regional scale numerical model rigorously tested under different scenario conditions. The model allows quantification of otherwise hardly quantifiable quantities such as flow across fault zones and

  3. Adelaide Bartlett and the Pimlico mystery.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1886 Adelaide Bartlett stood trial at the Old Bailey for the murder of her husband, Thomas Edwin Bartlett. The court witnessed sensational evidence and the case left questions which remain unanswered. Images p1720-a p1721-a p1723-a p1723-b PMID:7820001

  4. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  5. The new Adelaide medium frequency Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. M.; Vandepeer, B. G. W.; Dillon, S.; Fuller, B.

    1993-08-01

    The Buckland Park Aerial Array (35 deg S, 138 deg E) is situated about 40 km north of Adelaide on a flat coastal plain. It was designed by Basil Briggs and Graham Elford, and constructed between 1965 and 1968. The first results were published in the late 1960's. Some aspects of the history of the array are described in Briggs (1993). A new MF Doppler Radar utilizing the array has been developed. This paper describes some of the technical details of this new facility.

  6. Developing a Model for the Measurement of Social Inclusion and Social Capital in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on social inclusion and social capital to develop a framework to guide the selection of items and measures for the forthcoming SA Department of Human Services Survey of Social Inclusion to be held in the region of Northern Adelaide in South Australia. Northern Adelaide is a region with areas of high socio-economic…

  7. 49 CFR 18.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 18.20... Administration § 18.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant... statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees must meet the...

  8. 29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 UNION STREET (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. Mesospheric gravity-wave climatology at Adelaide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The MF Adelaide partial-reflection radar has been operating continuously since November 1983. This has enabled a climatology of gravity-wave activity to be constructed for the mesosphere. The data have been analyzed for a medium-period range of 1 to 8 hr. and a longer period range between 8 and 24 hr. covering the inertio-period waves. The tidal motions have been filtered out prior to analysis. For the data analyses so far (Nov. 1983 to Dec. 1984), a number of interesting features emerged. Firstly, the wave activity at heights above 80 km shows a small seimannual variation with season with the activity being strongest in summer and winter. At heights below 80 km however, there is a similar but more marked variation with the weakest amplitudes occurring at the time of the changeovers in the prevailing circulation. If breaking gravity waves are responsible for much of the turbulence in the mesosphere, then the periods March to April and September to October might also be expected to be periods of weak turbulence. The wave field appears to be partially polarized. The meridional amplitudes are larger than the zonal amplitudes, especially in water. It is found that the degree of polarization is about 15% in summer and 30% in winter. The polarized component is found to propagate in the opposite direction to the background flow in the stratosphere, which suggests that the polarization arises through directional filtering of the waves as they propagate up from below.

  10. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures…

  11. Mycobacterium chelonae abscesses associated with biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Mihaela; Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of skin abscesses occurred in Adelaide, Australia, in association with biomesotherapy, an alternative therapy practice. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 8 patient and 3 environmental samples. Our findings show M. chelonae infection can be associated with alternative therapies when infection-control breaches occur. Tighter regulations of alternative therapy practices are needed.

  12. Making Visible the First Women in Astronomy in Australia: The Measurers and Computers Employed for the Astrographic Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.

    In Australia a significant number of women were employed to measure and compute the position of stars for the Astrographic Catalogue at Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth Observatories. New archival research has provided evidence that the first women employed in astronomy in Australia were engaged due to this project.

  13. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  14. Historical Thermometer Exposures in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Tapp, Roger; Burrows, Kevin; Richards, David

    1996-06-01

    There is ample contempory evidence that most meteorological themometers in Australia were not exposed in Stevenson screens until very late in the nineteenth century, and in many places not until well into the twentieth century. There is also evidence, from a long-running comparision at Adelaide, that mean temperatures in a Stevenson screen are lower than in an open stand in Australian conditions. Thus, there are strong grounds for expecting that ninteenth century, and some early twentieth century, Australian temperatures are biased warm, relative to modern exposures.

  15. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  16. "My Business Was Not with Lost Souls and the Underprivileged": The Contribution of Colin Badger (1906-1993) to Adult Education in Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushbrook, Peter

    Colin Badger was an adult educator who contributed to Victorian adult education in Australia. After graduating from the University of Adelaide in 1936, Badger became a tutor for the South Australian Workers Education Association (WEA), where he became aware of the possibilities of adult education. After study in London, he returned to Australia to…

  17. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-08-15

    This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001–2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ≥55 years, and those employed in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ and ‘electricity, gas and water’. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of heatwaves on workers' health and safety. • We identify workers at higher risk of illnesses and injuries during heatwaves. • The differences between two heatwave definitions on effect estimates are compared. • Daily injury claims for outdoor industries increased by 6.2% during heatwaves. • Relevant heat prevention measures are required for vulnerable workers.

  18. An audit of pharyngeal gonorrhoea treatment in a public sexual health clinic in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hustig, A; Bell, C; Waddell, R

    2013-05-01

    In recent times there have been changes to guidelines regarding the management of gonorrhoea, from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 and the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. Coinciding with their release we conducted a clinical audit of our treatment protocol for gonorrhoea. In 2010, local data on the minimum inhibitory concentrations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae indicated an increase in local isolates that were less sensitive to ceftriaxone (11.6% c.f. 5.3% in 2009). We have a long history of using 250 mg of ceftriaxone to treat all standard sites of gonorrhoea infection followed with tests of cure in all cases. In a retrospective clinical audit of an 11-year period from 2000 up to and including 2010 we identified six test-of-cure failures over 11 years after treating a total of 215 patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea.

  19. Invitational Seminar on the Delors Report: "Learning--The Treasure Within" (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, November 17, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders Univ., Adelaide. Inst. of International Education.

    This document contains information about, from, and related to a seminar that was convened to bring together senior members of all sectors of education with representatives of business to examine the "UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) Report on Education for the 21st Century" (also known as the…

  20. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  1. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem: An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela; Jarchow, Christopher J; Roberts, Dar A

    2017-04-15

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) pertaining to indices such as NDVI and images at varying spatial resolutions. These issues are relevant to using NDVI values in spatial analyses. We compare two different methods of calculation of a mean NDVI: 1) using pixel values of NDVI within feature/object boundaries and 2) first calculating the mean red and mean near-infrared across all feature pixels and then calculating NDVI. We explore the nature and magnitude of these differences for images taken from two sensors, a 1.24m resolution WorldView-3 and a 0.1m resolution digital aerial image. We apply these methods over an urban park located in the Adelaide Parklands of South Australia. We demonstrate that the MAUP is not an issue for calculation of NDVI within a sensor for pure urban vegetation pixels. This may prove useful for future rule-based monitoring of the ecosystem functioning of green infrastructure.

  2. NDVI, scale invariance and the modifiable areal unit problem: An assessment of vegetation in the Adelaide Parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nouri, Hamideh; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul; Beecham, Simon; Nagler, Pamela L.; Jarchow, Christopher J; Roberts, Dar A.

    2017-01-01

    This research addresses the question as to whether or not the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is scale invariant (i.e. constant over spatial aggregation) for pure pixels of urban vegetation. It has been long recognized that there are issues related to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) pertaining to indices such as NDVI and images at varying spatial resolutions. These issues are relevant to using NDVI values in spatial analyses. We compare two different methods of calculation of a mean NDVI: 1) using pixel values of NDVI within feature/object boundaries and 2) first calculating the mean red and mean near-infrared across all feature pixels and then calculating NDVI. We explore the nature and magnitude of these differences for images taken from two sensors, a 1.24 m resolution WorldView-3 and a 0.1 m resolution digital aerial image. We apply these methods over an urban park located in the Adelaide Parklands of South Australia. We demonstrate that the MAUP is not an issue for calculation of NDVI within a sensor for pure urban vegetation pixels. This may prove useful for future rule-based monitoring of the ecosystem functioning of green infrastructure.

  3. 30 CFR 18.20 - Quality of material, workmanship, and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality of material, workmanship, and design... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.20 Quality of material, workmanship, and design. (a)...

  4. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  5. Complete genome sequence of Oscillibacter valericigenes Sjm18-20T (=NBRC 101213T)

    PubMed Central

    Katano, Yoko; Fujinami, Shun; Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Nakazawa, Hidekazu; Oji, Syoko; Iino, Takao; Oguchi, Akio; Ankai, Akiho; Fukui, Shigehiro; Terui, Yasuyuki; Kamata, Sachi; Harada, Takeshi; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Oscillibacter valericigenes is a mesophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium belonging to the clostridial cluster IV. Strain Sjm18-20T (=NBRC 101213T =DSM 18026T) is the type strain of the species and represents the genus Oscillibacter Iino et al. 2007. It was isolated from the alimentary canal of a Japanese corbicula clam (Corbicula japonica) collected on a seacoast in Shimane Prefecture in Japan. Phylogenetically, strain Sjm18-20T is closest to uncultured bacteria in digestive tracts, including the enriched cells thought to represent Oscillospira guilliermondii Chatton and Perard 1913. The isolated phylogenetic position and some distinct characteristics prompted us to determine the complete genome sequence. The 4,410,036 bp chromosome and the 60,586 bp plasmid were predicted to encode a total of 4,723 protein-coding genes. PMID:23408234

  6. Complete genome sequence of Oscillibacter valericigenes Sjm18-20(T) (=NBRC 101213(T)).

    PubMed

    Katano, Yoko; Fujinami, Shun; Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Nakazawa, Hidekazu; Oji, Syoko; Iino, Takao; Oguchi, Akio; Ankai, Akiho; Fukui, Shigehiro; Terui, Yasuyuki; Kamata, Sachi; Harada, Takeshi; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-30

    Oscillibacter valericigenes is a mesophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium belonging to the clostridial cluster IV. Strain Sjm18-20(T) (=NBRC 101213(T) =DSM 18026(T)) is the type strain of the species and represents the genus Oscillibacter Iino et al. 2007. It was isolated from the alimentary canal of a Japanese corbicula clam (Corbicula japonica) collected on a seacoast in Shimane Prefecture in Japan. Phylogenetically, strain Sjm18-20(T) is closest to uncultured bacteria in digestive tracts, including the enriched cells thought to represent Oscillospira guilliermondii Chatton and Perard 1913. The isolated phylogenetic position and some distinct characteristics prompted us to determine the complete genome sequence. The 4,410,036 bp chromosome and the 60,586 bp plasmid were predicted to encode a total of 4,723 protein-coding genes.

  7. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne W; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005) from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis). A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes), separation/divorce (asthma), unemployment (cancer), high waist circumference (diabetes), elevated cholesterol (angina) and a family history of obesity (angina). Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated) should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives. PMID:18664294

  8. Skin pigment anomalies and mosaicism for a double autosomal trisomy (48,XX,+18,+20).

    PubMed

    Devriendt, K; Matthijs, G; Meireleire, J; Roelen, L; van Buggenhout, G; Fryns, J P

    1998-01-01

    We present a patient with profound mental retardation, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism and multiple skin hyper- and depigmentation areas. Karyotype in white blood cells was normal female, whereas in cultured skin fibroblasts originating from a depigmentated area, mosaic 48,XX,+18,+20 was found. Molecular analyses using polymorphic microsatellites showed a different origin of both additional chromosomes: maternal for the chromosome 20, paternal for chromosome 18. This, together with a mosaic state is consistent with a double postzygotic error in chromosome segregation possibly occurring in a single cell division.

  9. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  10. Simultaneous observations of the phase-locked 2 day wave at Adelaide, Cerro Pachon, and Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.; MacKinnon, A.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Franke, S. J.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.

    2015-03-01

    The Southern Hemisphere summer 2 day wave (TDW) is the most dramatic large-scale event of the upper mesosphere. The winds accelerate over ~1 week, may attain > 70 m/s, and are often accompanied by a near disappearance of the diurnal tide and stabilization of the period close to 48 h. We denote this as the phase-locked 2 day wave (PL/TDW). We have examined airglow and meteor radar (MR) wind data from the Andes Lidar Observatory (Cerro Pachon, Chile:30°S, 289.3°E), MR data from Darwin (12.5°S, 131°E) and airglow and medium frequency radar data from the University of Adelaide (34.7°S, 138.6°E) for the behavior of the TDW during the austral summers of 2010, 2012, and 2013. The Cerro Pachon and Adelaide sites are located at similar latitudes separated in longitude by about 120°. We find a remarkable coincidence between the TDW oscillations at Chile and Adelaide for the period January-February 2010. The oscillations are nearly in phase in terms of local time and the minima and maxima repeat at nearly the same local time from cycle to cycle consistent with a phase-locked wave number 3 TDW. Data for this and other years (including Darwin) show that the amplitude of the diurnal tide decreases when the TDW is largest and that this occurs when the period is close to 48 h. These observations support the proposal that the PL/TDW is a subharmonic parametric instability wherein the diurnal tide transfers energy to a TDW that is resonant at nearly 48 h.

  11. QRPA plus phonon coupling model and the photoabsorption cross section for 18,20,22O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colò, G.; Bortignon, P. F.

    2001-12-01

    We have calculated the electric dipole strength distributions in the unstable neutron-rich oxygen isotopes 18,20,22O, in a model which include up to four quasiparticle-type configurations. The model is the extension, to include the effect of the pairing correlations, of a previous model very successful around closed shell nuclei, and it is based on the quasiparticle-phonon coupling. Low-lying dipole strength is found, which exhausts between 5 and 10% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) below 15 MeV excitation energy, in rather good agreement with recent experimental data. The role of the phonon coupling is shown to be crucial in order to obtain this result.

  12. Structure Beyond the Dripline in the Boron Isotopes: 16,18,20,21B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués, F. Miguel; Leblond, Sylvain; Gibelin, Julien; Orr, Nigel A.; Ogoshi, Shun; Minakata, Ryogo; Kondo, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Ryuki; Achouri, N. Lynda; Aumann, Thomas; Baba, Hidetada; Delaunay, Franck; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Hwang, Jongwong; Inabe, Naohito; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kanno, Daiki; Kim, Sunji; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Lee, Jenny; Motobayashi, Tohru; Murai, Daichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Muto, Kotomi; Nakashima, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Noritsugu; Navin, Alahari; Nishi, Seijiro; Otsu, Hideaki; Sato, Hiromi; Satou, Yoshiteru; Shimizu, Yohei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kento; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Togano, Yasuhiro; Tuff, Adam G.; Vandebrouck, Marine; Yoneda, Ken-ichiro

    As part of the first phase program of experiments utilizing the SAMURAI spectrometer and NEBULA neutron array, we have undertaken invariant mass spectroscopy of 16,18,20,21B using the complementary probes of neutron and proton knockout. After a brief introduction to the experimental setup and analysis techniques, the results for 16,18B are discussed and compared to earlier work, where in addition to substantially improving our knowledge of the known threshold states in both systems, evidence for new levels has been found. Finally, the first results for 20,21B are presented, and the influence of the sequential decay of 21B on the low-energy 20B spectrum discussed.

  13. Occurrence characteristics of medium-scale gravity waves observed in OH and OI nightglow over Adelaide (34.5°S, 138.5°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Yuan, H.; Wan, W.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a 7 year climatology describing medium-scale gravity waves observed in the menopause region covering the years from 1995 to 2001. The data comes from the OI and OH airglow observations of the three-field photometer employed at the University of Adelaide's Buckland Park, Australia (34.5°S, 138.5°E). About 1300 gravity wave events (AGW) are identified during the years 1995-2001. These AGW events usually persist for between 40 min and 4 hours. The magnitudes range from 1% to 14% of the background intensities and peak at 2% for OI observations and at 3% for OH observations. The observed periods range from 10 to 30 min, and the horizontal phase speeds range from 20 to 250 m s-1, with dominant wave scales of 17 min, 70 m s-1 for OI observations and 20 min, 40 m s-1 for OH observations. The intrinsic parameters are obtained by using medium-frequency (MF) wind data observed at the same place. The occurrence frequency of AGW events peaks at 13 min, 40 m s-1 for both OI and OH observations. The occurrence rate of gravity waves has a major peak in summer and a minor peak in winter. There is an obvious dominating southeastward direction for gravity waves, with azimuths of 160° in summer and 130° in winter. Studies for gravity waves observed in various locations show a similar tendency of propagating meridionally toward the summer pole. This implies that the tendency of propagating toward the summer pole may be a global trend for medium-scale gravity waves observed in the mesopause region. During summer, gravity waves propagate against winds measured by MF radar in their dominating direction. Using the ray tracing method, we found that the seasonal variation of winds limits the access of gravity waves to the observation height through reflection and critical coupling, which is one of the causes leading to the seasonal behavior of gravity waves observed over Adelaide.

  14. Literacy--A Focus on the Future; Proceedings of the Australian Reading Conference (1st, Adelaide, August 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Claire, Ed.; Anderson, Jonathon, Ed.

    The papers published in this volume were delivered at the First Australian Reading Conference, which was held in Adelaide in August 1975. Topics of discussion included, among others, preservice and inservice teacher education, facilities in reading, the development and use of reading materials, student motivation, children's literature, reading…

  15. Literacy on the Line. Australian Council for Adult Literacy Conference Proceedings (21st, Adelaide, Australia, September 24-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue, Ed.

    This conference proceedings of the Australian Council for Adult Literacy contains the following papers: "'But I'm Not a Therapist'--The Challenge of Creating Effective Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma" (Horsman); "Future Studies, Postmodernism, and Adult Literacy" (Cross); "Collaboration and Compliance in the…

  16. Assessment and Standards in Vocational Education and Training. Conference/Workshop Report (Adelaide, Australia, October 1-3, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Ltd., Leabrook (Australia).

    These proceedings contain 17 papers from plenary sessions, workshops, and other presentations at a conference to consider and clarify major issues in assessment and standards in vocational education and training, including identification of problems and suggested solutions. A summary of discussions follows most presentations. Plenary session…

  17. Setting the Standard. International Forum on Education in Penal Systems Conference Proceedings (Adelaide, Australia, April 5-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmens, Bob, Ed.; Cook, Sandy, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers presented at an international forum on education in penal systems. The following papers are included: "Burning" (Craig W.J. Minogue); "The Acquisition of Cognitive Skills as a Means of Recidivism Reduction: A Former Prisoner's Perspective" (Trevor Darryl Doherty); "CEA (Correctional…

  18. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in an Ageing Society. Experts Meeting Proceedings (Adelaide, Australia, October 3-4, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most striking features of the modern world is its changing demographic profile. In almost any policy arena, the issue of demographic change (or ageing) sits alongside globalisation, climate change and the knowledge revolution as areas which are transforming societies, including the ways in which we organise and go about our work…

  19. Lessons From a 17-Year Radiosurgery Experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Brophy, Brian P.; Taylor, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.

  20. NEEMO 18-20: Analog Testing for Mitigation of Communication Latency During Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Miller, Matthew J.; Graff, Trevor G.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Halcon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. Three missions were undertaken from 2014-2015, NEEMO's 18-20. All missions were performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During each mission, the effects of communication latencies on operations concepts, timelines, and tasks were studied. METHODS: Twelve subjects (4 per mission) were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA) and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were preplanned based on precursor data. Subjects completed science-related tasks including pre-sampling surveys, geologic-based sampling, and marine-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were designed to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars or the moons of Mars. One-way communication latencies, 5 and 10 minutes between space and mission control, were simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, ST assimilation time (defined as time available for ST to discuss data/imagery after data acquisition). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. RESULTS: Precursor data can be used effectively to plan and execute exploration traverse EVAs (plans included detailed location of science sites, high-fidelity imagery of the sites, and directions to landmarks of interest within a site). Operations concepts that allow for pre-sampling surveys enable efficient traverse execution and meaningful Mission Control Center (MCC) interaction across communication latencies and can be

  1. The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet…

  2. Educational Technology for the Clever Country. Selected Papers from the Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, October 1-3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; Steele, James, Ed.

    This proceeding includes the following 28 papers selected from the 1992 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology: "Ecunet, Edith Cowan University's Video Conferencing Network: Two Years On" (Michael Grant); "Navigation Options in Interactive Multimedia" (John G. Hedberg & Barry Harper); "The…

  3. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Additional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following keynote addresses are include: "Some Recent TAFE National Centre Research and Development in Australian Vocational Education" (Hall); "Vocational Teacher Education:…

  4. Dreams and Dynamics. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, September 27-30, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Sigrun Klara, Ed.; And Others

    The themes of the 22nd Annual International Association of School Librarianship conference were: "Building a Picture of Society in the Year 2000"; "Literature--Themes of the '90s Towards the Future"; "Education--Partnerships To Develop Life-Long Learners"; and "Technology into the 21st Century." The…

  5. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Conference Papers. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following workshop presentations are included: "Vocational Education in a Developing Country" (Theron); "From the Technical to the Critical: A New Agenda for Vocational Education…

  6. International Conference on Recent Research and Development in Vocational Education (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 12-19, 1989). Conference Papers. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAFE National Centre for Research and Development, Payneham (Australia).

    The conference recorded in this document covered a wide variety of themes and consisted of keynote addresses, research presentations, and workshops. The following keynote addresses are included: "Technician Training: A New Zealand Perspective" (Wood); and "The Provision of Information Services in Vocational Education: The Present…

  7. Simultaneous Observations of the Phase-Locked Two Day Wave at Adelaide and Cerro Pachon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Vincent, R. A.; Franke, S. J.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The phase locked two day wave (PL/TDW) during austral summer is the most dramatic large scale event of the upper mesosphere. The PL/TDW wave can achieve amplitudes exceeding 70 m/s and involve the entire southern hemisphere and much of the northern hemisphere. The winds accelerate over a period of about 1 week and are accompanied by a near disappearance of the diurnal tide and stabilization of the two-day wave period at close to 48 hours. We have examined meteor wind data from the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30S, 70.1W) and MF radar data from the University of Adelaide (34.7S, 138.6E) located at similar latitudes. We find a remarkable coincidence between the oscillations. When adjustments for the separation in longitude are made the oscillations are nearly in phase. The amplitude of the oscillation is significantly greater at Chili, where winds approach 100 m/s. The diurnal tide is greatly diminished at both locations. These observations support the explanation that the PL/TDW is a subharmonic parametric instability of the diurnal tide (Walterscheid and Vincent, JGR, 1996). We will also present analysis of airglow data for the two-day wave at both locations.

  8. Southeastern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, ... These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area ...

  9. Understanding the Evolution of Multimorbidity: Evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS)

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Guillaume; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Stocks, Nigel; Sirois, Caroline; Kroger, Edeltraut; Adams, Robert J.; Doucet, Mariève; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. Study Design and Setting Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study(NWAHS) was collected between baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up (2008–2010). Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs) was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD) mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001) while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001), diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001) and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001) were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001), diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01) and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05). Conclusion Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs. PMID:24798485

  10. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  12. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, Kevin T.

    2016-04-28

    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.

  13. An Investigation into Associations with Attachment, Companion Pet Attachment, Empathy, and Prosocial Behaviors in 18-20 Year Old College Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines empathy, parental attachment, companion pet attachment and social behaviors in a sample of 120 students between the ages of 18-20 enrolled at Front Range Community College in Westminster CO during the fall semester 2008. The study is based on the research questions posed by Thompson and Gullone (2008) but pays particular…

  14. Using Research in the Professional Life of Mathematics Teachers. International Congress on Mathematical Education (5th, Adelaide, Australia, August 24-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.

    The papers in this monograph are grouped by the five session topics of the Using Research Group meetings. Perspectives on Using Research was first, with papers on research and the teaching job (Romberg), utility (Wheeler), review and dissemination (Dessart), preparing materials (Jurdak), and the teacher's view (Williams). The second session was on…

  15. Making the Difference. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, July 4-7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truran, John M., Ed.; Truran, Kathleen M., Ed.

    Papers from the 22nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated include the following: (1) "Making Sense of Primary Mathematics" (Gillian M. Boulton-Lewis); (2) "Seeking a Rationale for Particular Classroom Tasks and Activity" (Peter Sullivan); (3) "Research in Mathematics…

  16. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. Methods A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. Results All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Discussion Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended. PMID:23908933

  17. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  18. Local government conservation and management of native vegetation in urban Australia.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Renae N

    2004-08-01

    Reflecting a worldwide trend of devolution of power and responsibilities to local authorities, metropolitan local governments in Australia now have a role in protecting and managing native vegetation (bushland). Reporting on questionnaire and interview results for Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, and Adelaide, this research examines the main disturbances in local government bushlands, local governments' efforts in bushland conservation, and universality of issues and responses among the cities and between urban and urban-rural local authorities. A number of disturbances in bushlands are common among the cities, with weeds, development impacts, and urban run off perceived to be the most threatening. Management efforts focus on weed control, whereas other main disturbances are receiving less attention. Community involvement in management is prevalent, although regional coordination among local governments is limited. Local governments are willing to be involved in biodiversity conservation and their capacity would be enhanced with increased funding, staffing, and regional coordination.

  19. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  20. Children's Television in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)

  1. Adverse learning strategy: the Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory and its subscale replicability in a medical student population.

    PubMed

    Welch, G; Pearce, K; Lewis, M; Mellsop, G

    1990-03-01

    The Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory (ADLIMS) is a measure of learning styles and learning pathologies that was designed to investigate the impact of traditional approaches to learning versus problem-based learning and to identify students whose approach to learning tasks predicted poor academic performance. In this study, some important psychometric properties of the ADLIMS were examined, including its factor structure. In this study, factor replicability across samples was argued to provide a more robust and psychologically meaningful factor solution than that which can be obtained using traditional mathematical criteria. The results of the factor analysis did not confirm the presence of the four factor solution earlier reported for the ADLIMS, but did identify three clear factors that had very high replicability. An inspection of the items comprising these three factors showed that factor 1 tapped subjective distress related to poor study habits, lack of motivation to study, and distraction from social activities. Factor 2 tapped distress arising from high achievement expectations that were hampered by superficial or disorganized study habits that did not enable the student to grasp the relationships between concepts and ideas. Factor 3 tapped positive feelings and a sense of satisfaction associated with a problem-based approach to the learning of new study material. Although the internal reliability of the ADLIMS subscales met the requirements of a measure to be used in general research such as in the investigation of correlates among groups of medical students, they did not meet the higher requirements of a measure to be used to identify or predict individuals with pathological learning styles.

  2. The North West Adelaide Health Study: detailed methods and baseline segmentation of a cohort for selected chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Grant, Janet F; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Wilson, David H; Phillips, Patrick J; Adams, Robert J; Cheek, Julianne; Price, Kay; Gill, Tiffany; Ruffin, Richard E

    2006-04-12

    The North West Adelaide Health Study is a population-based biomedical cohort study investigating the prevalence of a number of chronic conditions and health-related risk factors along a continuum. This methodology may assist with evidence-based decisions for health policy makers and planners, and inform health professionals who are involved in chronic disease prevention and management, by providing a better description of people at risk of developing or already diagnosed with selected chronic conditions for more accurate targeting groups for health gain and improved health outcomes. Longitudinal data will provide information on progression of chronic conditions and allow description of those who move forward and back along the continuum over time. Detailed methods are provided regarding the random recruitment and examination of a representative sample of participants (n = 4060), including the rationale for various processes and valuable lessons learnt. Self-reported and biomedical data were obtained on risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol) and chronic conditions (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes) to classify participants according to their status along a continuum. Segmenting this population sample along a continuum showed that 71.5% had at least one risk factor for developing asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or diabetes. Almost one-fifth (18.8%) had been previously diagnosed with at least one of these chronic conditions, and an additional 3.9% had at least one of these conditions but had not been diagnosed. This paper provides a novel opportunity to examine how a cohort study was born. It presents detailed methodology behind the selection, recruitment and examination of a cohort and how participants with selected chronic conditions can be segmented along a continuum that may assist with health promotion and health services planning.

  3. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  4. Australia's earliest planispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, W.

    2003-12-01

    Australia's earliest-known planispheres were made by a Sydney amateur astronomer named George Butterfield in 1870 and 1877, although a similar but more crudely-made 'noctural dial' was created by Philip Parker King in 1852. This paper discusses these pioneering endeavours, other nineteenth century attempts to popularise astronomy, and the prevailing astronomical climate in Australia at that time.

  5. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  6. Community Music in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  7. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.

    2017-02-01

    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  8. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  9. Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual

  10. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  11. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  12. An odyssey of environmental pollution: the rise, fall and remobilization of industrial lead in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L.; Liqin, W.; Harvey, P. J.; Dong, C.; Rouillon, M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of lead in automobile gasoline resulted in more than 240,000 tonnes of lead being emitted to the Australian environment over its 70-year period of use starting in 1932. The consequences of the emissions and subsequent depositions have resulted in marked contamination of urban and peri-urban aerosols, soils, plants and humans. This paper charts these effects and examines the extent of recovery from one of the most pervasive and persistent environmental pollutants. Lead isotopic composition of Adelaide and Sydney aerosol filters show that air lead composition shifts from values that approximate Broken Hill type ores, the predominant lead source used in gasoline (1.04 206Pb/207Pb and 2.31 208Pb/207Pb), towards ratios that more closely match local uncontaminated soil and bedrock values (Adelaide ~1.19 206Pb/207Pb and ~2.50 208Pb/207Pb; Sydney ~1.15 206Pb/207Pb and 2.48 208Pb/207Pb). Proxy atmospheric measurements from historic wine, lichen and fungi samples extending over 120 years show how both concentration and composition values shifted in the middle to late 20th century to reflect petrol emissions and then recovered rapidly at the end of the century as leaded gasoline consumption declined. For example, lead in wine from South Australia fell from >100 μg/L in the 1960s and 1970s to < 5 μg/L in the 2010s due to the removal of the primary source of atmospheric lead - gasoline. However, measurement of contemporary surface soils, ash produced from wildfires and air filters demonstrate that the effect of depositions persists and industrial lead and other toxic metals (including arsenic, cadmium and nickel) are subject to frequent remobilization. Predicted increases in wildfires and the generation of lead, arsenic and cadmium toxic particulates warrants greater consideration of the risk for vulnerable populations and firefighters who are most exposed.

  13. Garbage In--Garbage Out. The Need for Quality in the Age of Automation. Proceedings of the Australian Library and Information Association National Cataloguing Conference (8th, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, September 14-16, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alan, Ed.; Bundy, Judith, Ed.

    The 17 papers in this collection address aspects of quality data and quality of service to clients and the links between the two. Two keynote addresses are included: "A Plea for Quality Cataloguing with a Consideration of the Audience for Our Product" and "Rare Book Cataloging with the Audience Again Considered" (both by J. B.…

  14. Workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (6th) (abstracts). Held in Tomahawk, Wisconsin on September 18-20, 1995. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Teclaw, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    The sixth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings was held at Treehaven, University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Natural Resource and Education Center near Rhinelander, Wisconsin, on September 18-20, 1995. The 1995 workshop presentations addressed three general problem areas: (1) genetics and physiology, (2) nursery practices, and (3) silviculture and field practices of oak. A one day field tour followed the workshop where participants viewed three unique oak ecosystems. The first two stops were at northern hardwood sites, one a fertile mesic site - The Willow Springs Ecosystem Processes Study, the other a less fertile dry-mesic site - The Bird Lake Oak Regeneration Site. The tour concluded at a thinned red pine plantation where the association between pine and oak is being studied.

  15. Large Grain-Based Hole-Blocking Layer-Free Planar-Type Perovskite Solar Cell with Best Efficiency of 18.20.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haejun; Ryu, Jaehoon; Lee, Jong Woo; Roh, Jongmin; Lee, Kisu; Yun, Juyoung; Lee, Jungsup; Kim, Yun Ki; Hwang, Doyk; Kang, Jooyoun; Kim, Seong Keun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-03-08

    There remains tremendous interest in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in the solar energy field; the certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) now exceeds 20%. Along with research focused on enhancing PCE, studies are also underway concerning PSC commercialization. It is crucial to simplify the fabrication process and reduce the production cost to facilitate commercialization. Herein, we successfully fabricated highly efficient hole-blocking layer (HBL)-free PSCs through vigorously interrupting penetration of hole-transport material (HTM) into fluorine-doped tin oxide by a large grain based-CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) film, thereby obtaining a PCE of 18.20%. Our results advance the commercialization of PSCs via a simple fabrication system and a low-cost approach in respect of mass production and recyclability.

  16. International workshop on Chromosome 12 held at St. Catherine`s College, Oxford, England, September 18--20, 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmill, R.

    1992-12-31

    The First International Mapping Workshop on Human Chromosome 12 was held on Sept. 18--20, 1992, at St Catherine`s College, Oxford, UK. The meeting was hosted by Ian Craig and organized by Drs. Craig, Gemmill and Kutcherlapati. It was attended by 50 participants primarily from Europe and the USA. The workshop was highly successful and achieved the major goal of fostering direct and personal interactions between investigators with strong research interests in this chromosome. Participants reviewed the status of several critical aspects of chromosome mapping and prepared consensus views of the current state of knowledge. In addition, lists of resources available for this chromosome including somatic cell hybrids, individual DNA clones and libraries and genetic markers were prepared.

  17. Australia's polio risk.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2014-06-30

    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  18. Cyclone Chris Hits Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This false-color image shows Cyclone Chris shortly after it hit Australia's northwestern coast on February 6, 2002. This scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. (Please note that this scene has not been reprojected.) Cyclone Chris is one of the most powerful storms ever to hit Australia. Initially, the storm contained wind gusts of up to 200 km per hour (125 mph), but shortly after making landfall it weakened to a Category 4 storm. Meteorologists expect the cyclone to weaken quickly as it moves further inland.

  19. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  20. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  1. Media Matters in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kell

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a teacher helped transform a K-12 Christian school near Sydney, Australia, from a book-bound media studies program into a hands-on learning experience for students. Various projects allow students to operate advanced equipment, evaluate their own and their peers' work, present research results to the class, and produce live media…

  2. Career Development in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Colin; Mountain, Elizabeth

    Australia has a federal system, comprising the national Commonwealth government and eight state and territory governments. At the Commonwealth level, the ministries of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, and Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business have primary roles in the career information and services field. Education and training…

  3. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, R.

    1987-04-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come.

  4. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  5. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  6. Australia: Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This new addition to the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) library of international publications is a guide for United States admissions officers to the structure and content of the education system of Australia together with a formal set of placement recommendations based upon the author's research.…

  7. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  8. Standardized MRD quantification in European ALL trials: proceedings of the Second International Symposium on MRD assessment in Kiel, Germany, 18-20 September 2008.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, M; Schrauder, A; Raff, T; Pfeifer, H; Dworzak, M; Ottmann, O G; Asnafi, V; Baruchel, A; Bassan, R; Benoit, Y; Biondi, A; Cavé, H; Dombret, H; Fielding, A K; Foà, R; Gökbuget, N; Goldstone, A H; Goulden, N; Henze, G; Hoelzer, D; Janka-Schaub, G E; Macintyre, E A; Pieters, R; Rambaldi, A; Ribera, J-M; Schmiegelow, K; Spinelli, O; Stary, J; von Stackelberg, A; Kneba, M; Schrappe, M; van Dongen, J J M

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) has acquired a prominent position in European treatment protocols for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), on the basis of its high prognostic value for predicting outcome and the possibilities for implementation of MRD diagnostics in treatment stratification. Therefore, there is an increasing need for standardization of methodologies and harmonization of terminology. For this purpose, a panel of representatives of all major European study groups on childhood and adult ALL and of international experts on PCR- and flow cytometry-based MRD assessment was built in the context of the Second International Symposium on MRD assessment in Kiel, Germany, 18-20 September 2008. The panel summarized the current state of MRD diagnostics in ALL and developed recommendations on the minimal technical requirements that should be fulfilled before implementation of MRD diagnostics into clinical trials. Finally, a common terminology for a standard description of MRD response and monitoring was established defining the terms 'complete MRD response', 'MRD persistence' and 'MRD reappearance'. The proposed MRD terminology may allow a refined and standardized assessment of response to treatment in adult and childhood ALL, and provides a sound basis for the comparison of MRD results between different treatment protocols.

  9. Geothermal development in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. L.; Creelman, R. A.; Buckingham, N. W.; Harrington, H. J.

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 sq m, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  10. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  11. The regolith in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, C. D.

    1988-12-01

    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  12. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  13. Is Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  14. Australia and Gondwanaland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teichert, C.

    1959-01-01

    Along the western margin of the Australian continent there exist four major sedimentary basins, filled with predominantly marine rocks from Cambrian to Tertiary in age, and up to 40,000 feet thick. Seaward these basins continue into depressions recognizable in the continental shelf and even the continental slope. Their very presence, the nature of their sediments and the composition and relationships of their fossil faunas indicate the existence of an open ocean to the west of Australia since early Paleozoic time. Composition of the Australian fossil land vertebrate faunas suggests isolation of the Australian continent since at least Permian time. ?? 1959 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  15. Planning Australia’s Defense Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Alexander, Australia Since Federation (Melbourne: Thomas Nelson (Australia) Ltd., 1976), p. 208-210. 5. Charles Wilson, Australia 1788-1988: The Creation...p. 2. 9. Hughes, p. 48. 10. Charles Wilson, Australia 1788-1988: The Creation of a Nation (Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1988), p. 9. 11. Hughes, p. 52...Australia’s Defence Forces," Army Quarterly and Defence Journal," October 1986, p. 462. 15. Babbage , "Australia: Defence Palnning Patchy and Rudderless," 251

  16. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  17. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Catherine; Chaix, Basile; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Thomas, Frédérique; Daniel, Mark

    2016-05-21

    Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health.

  18. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Catherine; Chaix, Basile; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Adams, Robert J.; Taylor, Anne W.; Thomas, Frédérique; Daniel, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health. PMID:27213423

  19. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  20. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  1. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  2. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  3. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  4. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Trends in stimulant use in Australia: A comparison of wastewater analysis and population surveys.

    PubMed

    Tscharke, Benjamin J; Chen, Chang; Gerber, Jacobus P; White, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    Levels of community drug use are usually described by national surveys; data relied upon by decision makers in health and law enforcement. In recent years the analysis of wastewater for drugs and their metabolites has become prominent. Both methods convey unique drug use information. This paper demonstrates differences arising from the two approaches, using methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cocaine data from the state of South Australia. The proportion of people using each drug, obtained from three prominent drug surveys, was compared with estimates of total community drug use derived by wastewater analysis. Temporal trends were compared for available years of the surveys and wastewater analysis from 2010 to 2013. Wastewater results showed methamphetamine to be the most prevalent stimulant in Adelaide, South Australia, with an average of 24.4±1.7 doses per day per 1000 inhabitants for 2013, while consumption of MDMA and cocaine were much lower at 0.52±0.12 and 0.42±0.06 doses per day per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. Survey data typically had MDMA as the most used stimulant on a proportion of the population basis. The difference in magnitude of drug use between MDMA and methamphetamine was also less apparent. Temporal trends of the proportion of the population using a drug by surveys did not generally reflect total use within the community which was observed by wastewater analysis. Survey data are excellent for describing users demographically. However, discrepancies between the proportion of the population who are users and the magnitude of drug use can lead to misrepresentation of the overall scale of use. The results from this study indicate methamphetamine was used to a much greater extent than suggested by the surveys. Together, wastewater analysis and survey data give a comprehensive view of the drug problem enabling more informed decisions on drug policy.

  7. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  8. Is risk associated with drinking water in Australia of significant concern to justify mandatory regulation?

    PubMed

    McKay, J; Moeller, A

    2001-10-01

    Presently in Australia there are no mandatory drinking water standards. Here we argue that the risk associated with drinking water in Australia is of a dimension discernible to warrant mandatory regulations. The catchments that supply the major metropolitan areas of Sydney and Adelaide, and the groundwater for the city of Perth have been seriously compromised by the encroachment of development and activities. Melbourne in the past has generally relied on a closed catchment reservoir system; however, population growth in the near future will sequester the full online operation of additional reservoirs, which have multiple land use catchments. In addition to the current landscape circumstances, the management of a water system in itself proposes significant issues of risk. Two critical assumptions that are unique to a mass medium substance like water and dramatically alter the appraisal of risk are: (1) very large numbers of people are potentially exposed, and (2) small changes in contaminant levels may have adverse population outcomes. It is also known that water reticulation systems frequently suffer from contamination problems caused solely by the distribution system, and optimal management of these facilities would best be served by statutory protected transparency and dedicated water quality programs. In 1979, an Australian parliamentary committee stated that an "uncontaminated water supply is" a "basic requirement for the obtainment of good health"; however, recent surveys of Australian water systems show many are not meeting basic water quality criteria, and many communities are not receiving regular monitoring or testing as required by government authorized Australian drinking water guidelines. Exacerbating this situation is the lack of reporting and statutory endorsed standardized procedures to ensure information is properly and promptly recorded and that data are centralized for maximum benefit. The evaluation of risk associated with drinking water in

  9. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  10. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  11. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  12. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  13. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  14. The Radiometric Map of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minty, Brian; Franklin, Ross; Milligan, Peter; Richardson, Murray; Wilford, John

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience Australia and the Australian State and Territory Geological Surveys have systematically surveyed most of the Australian continent over the past 40 years using airborne gamma-ray spectrometry to map potassium, uranium and thorium elemental concentrations at the Earth's surface. However, the individual surveys that comprise the national gamma-ray spectrometric radioelement database are not all registered to the same datum. This limits the usefulness of the database as it is not possible to easily combine surveys into regional compilations or make accurate comparisons between radiometric signatures in different survey areas. To solve these problems, Geoscience Australia has undertaken an Australia-Wide Airborne Geophysical Survey (AWAGS), funded under the Australian Government's Onshore Energy Security Program, to serve as a radioelement baseline for all current and future airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys in Australia. The AWAGS survey has been back-calibrated to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) radioelement datum. We have used the AWAGS data to level the national radioelement database by estimating survey correction factors that, once applied, minimise both the differences in radioelement estimates between surveys (where these surveys overlap) and the differences between the surveys and the AWAGS traverses. The database is thus effectively levelled to the IAEA datum. The levelled database has been used to produce the first `Radiometric Map of Australia' - levelled and merged composite potassium (% K), uranium (ppm eU) and thorium (ppm eTh) grids over Australia at 100m resolution. Interpreters can use the map to reliably compare the radiometric signatures observed over different parts of Australia. This enables the assessment of key mineralogical and geochemical properties of bedrock and regolith materials from different geological provinces and regions with contrasting landscape histories.

  15. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  16. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.

  17. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  18. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Carrano, Matthew T; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a 'centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  19. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  20. Systematic Co-Operation between Theory and Practice in Mathematics Education. Mini-Conference at ICME 5. Topic Area Research and Teaching (Adelaide, Australia, August 25-29, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Bent; And Others

    A miniconference (consisting of four 60-minute sessions) was organized to contribute to the exploration of frames, forms, and contents of systematic cooperation and interaction between the researcher and teacher in the classroom. These proceedings of the conference include descriptions of the organization, purpose, and background of the…

  1. Research to Reality: Putting VET Research To Work. Proceedings of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) Conference (4th, Adelaide, Australia, March 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association, Alexandria.

    This document contains 95 papers and summaries of 5 poster sessions from an Australian conference on putting vocational education and training (VET) research to work. The following are among the areas covered in the papers: factors affecting VET graduates' employability over time; technical and further education (TAFE) institutes as models of…

  2. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  3. Nurturing and Sustaining Entrepreneurship. University, Science Park, Business and Government Partnership in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examines entrepreneurial activities in university science and technology parks that promote innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Highlights projects at the University of Adelaide and Australian government programs that support entrepreneurship. (SK)

  4. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships.

  5. A comparison of methods of ranking the provision of periodontal services by dental practices in south Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, L F

    1995-03-01

    Wide variations documented in the provision of periodontal services have raised concerns about possible under- and over-servicing. The aim of this study was to compare various methods used to measure the provision of periodontal services. The methods compared were procedure logs to measure service mix, audits of patients' records and patients' recall of treatment received at their last series of dental visits. The study was conducted among private general dental practices in Adelaide, South Australia. The first aspect of the study compared 2,290 patients' recall of receiving periodontal information, including oral hygiene instruction, or periodontal treatment at their last dental visit(s) with notations of their dental records. Discordance was high, with disagreement occurring in 71.5 per cent of cases for patient education, and 42.2 per cent of cases for periodontal treatment. Comparison of the ranking of the provision of periodontally-related services by 24 dental practices according to the three data collection methods showed that the ranking of a practice was significantly related to the data collection method used (Friedman's two-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). It was concluded that methods used to measure the provision of periodontal care are fallible, and that more than one method may be needed to record the full range of preventive and treatment services.

  6. High Technology in Australia: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhon, J. G.; Shannon, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper outlines the imbalance in Australia's intellectual and high technology trade, and argues that if Australia is to move beyond being a high technology colony, a new attitude toward research and development needs to be engendered, particularly in the private sector of industry. It is noted that Australia supplies a small number of the…

  7. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  8. Governing International Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  9. Education Policy Making in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, R. F., Ed.

    Thirteen papers and a speech address the theme of who makes education policy in Australia. Kwong Lee Dow's address assesses national planning in uncertain times and urges flexibility. John Steinle outlines the operation of Australian policy-making and recommends developing think tanks. Edward Holdaway analyzes the complex relationship between…

  10. Improving Reading in Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Hayes, Peter; Coutts, James

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, six teachers established a program of literacy intervention and professional learning in remote northwestern Australia based on the Reading Recovery principles. This group of teachers was determined to learn what had to happen in order for them to make a difference with students and then to make it happen. Their work led to getting…

  11. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  13. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  14. 15 CFR 18.20 - Further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... award will be made on the basis of the written record. However, on request of either the applicant or... necessary for full and fair resolution of the issues arising from the application, and shall be conducted as... determined on the basis of the administrative record, as a whole, which is made in the adversary...

  15. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia.

    PubMed

    March, Lynette M; Bagga, Hanish

    2004-03-01

    Arthritis affects around 3 million people in Australia, representing about 15% of the population. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Osteoarthritis is the third leading cause of life-years lost due to disability. Obesity and joint injury are important potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Obesity is also an important predictor of progression of osteoarthritis. Currently, about 19000 hip and 20000 knee replacements are performed for osteoarthritis in Australia each year. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and the need for total joint replacement surgery are likely to increase because of a combination of increasing risk factors (age, obesity, injury), increasing expectations for improved quality of life, and improved surgical and anaesthetic techniques making surgery possible for more people. Services to provide these cost-effective procedures need to be increased. Primary and secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing obesity, preventing injury and improving rehabilitation and physical activity are urgently required.

  16. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere.

  17. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  18. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  19. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  20. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  1. Metal levels in seston and marine fish flesh near industrial and metropolitan centres in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J W; Edyvane, K S; Boxall, V A; Hamann, M; Soole, K L

    2001-05-01

    Port Pirie is the site of the largest lead smelter in the world, depositing 250 t of zinc, and 100 t of lead annually into Spencer Gulf. Barker Inlet is adjacent to metropolitan Adelaide, and receives unknown quantities of urban and industrial discharges. Both areas are sites of major commercial and recreational fisheries, contained within delicately balanced marine wetland ecosystems, comprising large areas of mangrove and seagrass habitats. Aldrichetta forsteri and Sillago schomburgkii are major species within these fisheries and as estuarine-dependent species were chosen for this study as indicator species for the detection and monitoring of pollutant impacts in the nearshore marine ecosystems of South Australia. Seston sediment collectors were deployed at each site and analysed seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper. Flesh samples from A. forsteri and S. schomburgkii were examined seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper and the results correlated with levels found in the seston sediment at each site. Metal concentrations were also correlated with a biomarker of genotoxicity measured in the same animals (micronuclei in erythrocytes) that were reported previously. Seston levels of cadmium, lead and copper were highest at Port Pirie, followed by Barker Inlet and were lowest at Wills Creek, with cadmium undetectable at the latter site. Metals in seston varied considerably with season, with generally higher levels in winter samples. In fish flesh, metal levels followed broadly similar trends as for seston. Spearman rank correlations between metals in seston and in flesh were strongly positive. There was also a significant correlation between flesh concentrations of each metal and the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes. This study has shown that seston concentration of pollutant metals are high in areas of industrial activity, and that these levels are also reflected in metal content of fish flesh. Mean flesh levels of cadmium

  2. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  3. Unity in Diversity: Multicultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Barbara, Ed.; Harris, Joy, Ed.

    Papers presented at two institutes held in Australia to discuss multicultural education are presented. Topics discussed include demographic background of Australia, principles of Australian pluralism, problems and issues for teachers making decisions on curriculum, the educational experience of children of migrant origin, the objectives and…

  4. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  5. Language Planning and Placenaming in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Flavia

    2007-01-01

    Before colonisation Australia was fully named by its Indigenous population, but that complex network of naming was largely overlooked as Europeans introduced their own names for features and settlements. Each of Australia's states and territories now has a nomenclature authority, whose activities are coordinated through the Committee for…

  6. Imported case of poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Roberts, Jason A; Beckett, Carolyn L; Prime, Hayden T; Loh, Poh-Sien; Thorley, Bruce R; Daffy, John R

    2009-01-01

    Wild poliovirus-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has not been reported in Australia since 1977. We report type 1 wild poliovirus infection in a man who had traveled from Pakistan to Australia in 2007. Poliomyelitis should be considered for patients with acute flaccid paralysis or unexplained fever who have been to poliomyelitis-endemic countries.

  7. Serum immunoglobulin levels in Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, C. J.; Johnson, K. M.

    1972-01-01

    Ig levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion in uncomplicated cases of acute hepatitis with or without Australia antigenaemia. Initial sera from Australia antigen negative cases showed a striking elevation in IgM levels when compared to Australia antigen positive cases (6·5 versus 1·9 mg/ml). None of twenty-four Australia antigen positive cases exceeded 3 mg/ml IgM, and only 3/58 Australia antigen negative cases exhibited values below 3 mg/ml. Intial sera from Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative subjects did not differ in concentration of IgG, IgA, or IgD. Serial determinations of IgG revealed a transient fall in patients with Australia antigen positive hepatitis, and a rise in Australia antigen negative cases. Asymptomatic, Australia antigen positive, Guaymi Indian subjects were compared to matched Australia antigen negative controls from the same indigenous group and no differences in the concentration of IgG, IgM, IgA or IgD were found, although elevations of IgG and IgM were common in both groups. No evidence of abnormal proteins was found when sera were tested by cellulose acetate electrophoresis or by immunoelectrophoresis versus immunoglobulin-specific antisera. Ultracentrifugal analysis failed to detect `7S' IgM. PMID:4625396

  8. Intraplate deformation on north-dipping basement structures in the Northern Gawler Craton, Australia: reactivation of original terrane boundaries or later intra-cratonic thrusts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, G.; Giles, D.; Betts, P. G.; Backé, G.

    2007-12-01

    Multiple intraplate orogenic events have deformed Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous sedimentary sequences that cover the Archean to Mesoproterozoic basement of the northern Gawler Craton, Australia. These intraplate orogenies reactivated north-dipping basement penetrating faults that are imaged on seismic reflection profiles. These north-dipping structures pre-date Neoproterozoic deposition but their relationships to significant linear magnetic and gravity anomalies that delineate unexposed Archean to Early Mesoproterozoic basement terranes are unclear. The north-dipping structures are either terrane boundaries that formed during continental amalgamation or later faults, which formed during a mid- to late-Mesoproterozoic transpressional orogeny and cross-cut the original lithological terrane boundaries. We model magnetic and gravity data to determine the 3D structure of the unexposed basement of the northern Gawler Craton. These models are constrained by drill hole and surface observations, seismic reflection profiles and petrophysical data, such that geologically reasonable models that can satisfy the data are limited. The basement structures revealed by this modelling approach constrain the origin and significance of the north-dipping structures that were active during the later intraplate Petermann, Delamerian and Alice Springs Orogenies. These results have bearing on which structures are likely to be active during present-day intraplate deformation in other areas, including, for example, current seismic activity along similar basement structures in the Adelaide "Geosyncline".

  9. National space program in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, G. M.

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the Australian space activity history and present status is presented in the following aspects: (1) full-scale space activities since the establishment of the Australian Space Board in 1987 and the start of governmental budgetary support to national space program; (2) cooperation with NASA and ESA through satellite ground stations in satellite communication and ground support; (3) Australian private enterprises contract to provide launch support for INTERSAT and other satellites and schedule to start mobile satellite communication all over the country; and (4) supporting the second ground station construction to facilitate acquisition of the southern Pacific Ocean data of the wide area covering from the end of Antarctic continent to the eastern end of New Zealand. The remote sensing equipment development, launch service business plan, present status of supersonic technology in Australia and Australian space policy are outlined.

  10. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded.

  11. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes.

  12. Religion and BMI in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kortt, Michael A; Dollery, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We estimated the relationship between religion and body mass index (BMI) for a general and representative sample of the Australia population. Data from the Household Income Labour Dynamics survey were analysed for 9,408 adults aged 18 and older. OLS regression analyses revealed that religious denomination was significantly related to higher BMI, after controlling for socio-demographic, health behaviours, and psychosocial variables. 'Baptist' men had, on average, a 1.3 higher BMI compared to those reporting no religious affiliation. Among women, 'Non-Christians' had, on average, a 1 unit lower BMI compared to those reporting no religious affiliation while 'Other Christian' women reported, on average, a 1 unit higher BMI. Our results also indicate that there was a negative relationship between religious importance and BMI among Australian women.

  13. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  14. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  15. Mesozoic/Cenozoic tectonic events around Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Gaina, Carmen; Tikku, Anahita; Mihut, Dona; Cande, Steven C.; Stock, Joann M.

    We use an absolute and relative plate motion model for the plates around Australia to identify major plate tectonic events, evaluate their causes, and investigate their effects on anomalous intraplate subsidence or uplift and on the history of oceanic crustal accretion. An event at ˜136 Ma is marked by the onset of sea floor spreading between Greater India and Australia. At about this time long-lived subduction east of Australia ceased, probably due to subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge, changing this plate boundary to a transform margin. Between 130 and 80 Ma, Australia and East Antarctica moved eastward in the Atlantic-Indian mantle hotspot reference frame. This can be plausibly linked to ridge push from the NW-SE oriented spreading center NW of Australia and to the inferred geometry and continued subduction of the Phoenix plate beneath the West Antarctic margin. A drastic change in spreading direction between the Indian and Australian plates from NE-SW to N-S occurred at about 99 Ma, possibly caused by a change in absolute motion of the Pacific Plate. Chron 27 (˜61 Ma) marks the onset of relative motion between East and West Antarctica, and a change in the relative motion between Australia and Antarctica. It may be linked to the subduction of a segment of the Neo-Tethyan Ridge. Both events caused anomalous subsidence on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. The almost stationary position of Australia w.r.t. the mantle from ˜80 Ma to ˜40 Ma may reflect the progressive subduction of the Pacific-Phoenix ridge to the east of New Zealand preceding 80 Ma, resulting in a diminished trench suction force east of Australia. Preliminary reconstructions to close the Pacific-Australian plate circuit based on recently collected geophysical data indicate that a tectonic event at 43 Ma may mark the onset of renewed subduction east of Australia. At the same time spreading in the Wharton Basin between India and Australia ceased, and tectonic reactivation is

  16. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  17. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  18. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  19. Concept, Challenge, Conundrum: From Library Skills to Information Literacy. Proceedings of the National Information Literacy Conference Conducted by the University of South Australia Library and the Australian Library and Information Association Information Literacy Special Interest Group (4th, Adelaide, Australia, December 3-5, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Di, Ed.

    These proceedings from the fourth National Information Literacy Conference (Decemeber 1999) include the keynote addresses and the papers presented in workshop sessions throughout the conference. Acknowledgements by Irene Doskatsch, conference convener, that precedes the introductory piece by Alan Bundy, "Journey Without End..." is…

  20. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  1. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  2. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  3. ESO and Australia to Discuss Future Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    For some time, the astronomical community in Australia has expressed interest in closer ties to ESO. One of the main reasons is the construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), of which the first 8.2 m unit telescope is scheduled for completion less than 2 years from now. The science of astronomy and astrophysics is highly developed in Australia and researchers in this country already have access to several excellent observational facilities, notably the 3.9 m optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, the 64 m Parkes radio telescope and the Australia Telescope, one of the largest radio interferometric instruments in the world. On this important background, it is understandable that there is now an expressed desire among Australian scientists to participate in the VLT project and thus to partake in the front-line science and technology at the world's largest optical telescope. The related moves have been channelled through the Australian National Committee for Astronomy and the first formal contacts between Australia and ESO were made 1/2 year ago, cf. ESO Press Release 07/95 of 8 June 1995. ESO has welcomed the prospects of a closer, future collaboration with Australia, in particular because of the acknowledged expertise in that country within the important field of optical interferometry, a main feature of the VLT project. The Australian Government recently announced a new master plan 'Innovate Australia' which aims at updating and further development of science and technology in this country. It incorporates important support towards the modernization of the Australia Telescope, and certain funds are also foreseen for participation in international projects within the field of astronomy and astrophysics. At the request of the Australian Government, a high-ranking Australian delegation will visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) in order to explore with ESO in some detail possible modes of future collaboration. This visit will take place

  4. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia?

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb

    2016-11-07

    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  5. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  6. Emergence of neural angiostrongyliasis in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Jones, Malcolm K; Aland, Kieran V; Reid, Simon A; Traub, Rebecca J; McCarthy, James S; Lee, Rogan

    2015-03-01

    Despite an apparent increase in cases of angiostrongyliasis in humans and animals in Australia, the epidemiology of infection with the two species of Angiostrongylus that co-exist in this country, namely A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae, is poorly understood. This knowledge gap is particularly important with respect to A. mackerrasae, a species evidently native to Australia, as its ability to cause disease in humans is unknown. Likewise, there is little information on the roles of native and introduced species of rodents and molluscs as hosts of Angiostrongylus species in Australia. This review focuses on the gaps in the knowledge about the two species, highlighting the need for epidemiological and pathogenesis studies on the native lungworm A. mackerrasae.

  7. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Stern, T.; Aitken, A. R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10 500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate boundary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks. Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  8. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Michelle; Kennett, Brian; Sambridge, Malcolm; Stern, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate bound- ary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks.Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  9. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  10. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach

  11. Deciphering the crustal structure of the Tasmanides in southeastern Australia with anisotropic short-period Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroucau, P.; Rawlinson, N.; Young, M.; Salmon, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Tasmanides of Australia were formed by a series of tectonic supercycles that determined the crustal - and probably the lithospheric - structure of the eastern third of the Australian continent during the Phanerozoic. In southeast Australia, the Tasmanides essentially consist of the Delamerian, Lachlan and New England orogens whose mutual boundaries are obscured by the presence of large Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary basins: the Sydney Basin at the boundary separating the Lachlan and the New England orogens, and the Murray Basin at the boundary between the Delamerian and the Lachlan orogens. In this work, we exploit the ambient noise wavefield recorded by the largest transportable seismic array experiment in the southern hemisphere, which has operated in eastern Australia from 1998 to present and involves the deployment of over 700 temporary stations with an average interstation distance of about 50 km. We analyze Rayleigh wave phase dispersion curves obtained in a previous study on more than 8,200 cross-correlograms using data from 450 sites, and we perform an anisotropic tomography inversion for periods ranging from 1 to 20 s in order to account for the apparent dependence of Rayleigh wavespeeds on azimuthal propagation direction. The resulting maps allow us to identify several crustal elements in terms of lateral extent, wavespeed and anisotropy. The Archean Gawler Craton and Proterozoic Curnamona Province, as well as the Eastern and Central Subprovinces of the Lachlan Orogen, are characterized by high velocities, while the Western Subprovince of the Lachlan Orogen and the Adelaide Fold Belt exhibit lower velocities. The transition from Delamerian to Lachlan orogens is marked by a clear change from high to low velocity and a change in anisotropy pattern, especially in the northern sector of the model. In the western Lachlan subprovince, the fast direction changes from SE-NW in the South to SW-NE in the North, and follows the orientation of its boundary with

  12. Status of solid oxide fuel cell development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Badwal, S.P.S.; Foger, K.

    1995-12-31

    Ceramic Fuel Cells Limited, owned by a consortium consisting of BHP -- Australia`s largest company; CSIRO -- Australia`s major R and D Organization; Energy Research and Development Corporation -- Federal Government agency; Strategic Industry Research Foundation -- Victorian State Government agency and five major main land electricity utilities Pacific Power (New South Wales), ETSA (South Australia), Generation Victoria (Victoria), QEC (Queensland), SECWA (Western Australia) has been established to provide a national focus for the development of SOFC technology in Australia with a number of universities and research organizations contributing to its program. In this paper the status of solid oxide fuel cell R and D in Australia and within Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd has been described. The SOFC development effort, the R and D infrastructure and significant achievements made since the incorporation of the Company in manufacture of single cells and stacks and their performance has been discussed.

  13. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., Mangifera indica L., from Australia into the Continental United States, A Pathway-Initiated Risk Analysis... (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from Australia only under the...

  14. 22 CFR 120.35 - Australia Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Australia Implementing Arrangement. 120.35 Section 120.35 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.35 Australia Implementing Arrangement. Australia Implementing Arrangement means...

  15. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  16. Biodiversity in Australia: What, Where, and for How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panizzon, Debra; Boulton, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Australia's most serious environmental problem is the loss of biological diversity, or biodiversity. Australia harbors much of the world's species diversity and has remarkably high numbers of endemic species. Reviews current threats to biodiversity and efforts to protect and enhance it in Australia. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/ASK)

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-61 - Litchi from Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Litchi from Australia. 319.56-61 Section 319.56-61... from Australia. Litchi (Litchi chinensis) may be imported into the continental United States from Australia only under the following conditions and in accordance with all other applicable provisions of...

  18. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  19. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  20. The Future of Nuclear Science in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Dillich, Jack

    2002-07-01

    The replacement of Australia's only nuclear reactor, the 44 year old HIFAR, with a state-of-the-art research facility represents an exciting development in nuclear science. The design for the replacement reactor incorporates many safety features, including extraordinary defence-in-depth. The facilities will include advanced capabilities in the areas of radiopharmaceutical production and neutron scattering research. (author)

  1. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cradduck, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  2. Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-06-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments carried out through RALs in Australia are heavily biased towards electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines. However, the experiments carried out through RALs in Europe had more variety, in addition to the traditional electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines, there were experiments in mechanical and mechatronic disciplines. It was found that RALs are now being developed aggressively in Australia and Europe and it can be argued that RALs will develop further and faster in the future with improving Internet technology. The rising costs of real experimental equipment will also speed up their development because by making the equipment remotely accessible, the cost can be shared by more universities or institutions and this will improve their cost-effectiveness. Their development would be particularly rapid in large countries with small populations such as Australia, Canada and Russia, because of the scale of economy. Reusability of software, interoperability in software implementation, computer supported collaborative learning and convergence with learning management systems are the required development of future RALs.

  3. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  4. Australia's Contribution to International School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallein, Joe; And Others

    Australia has played a very active role in promoting and developing school librarianship on an international basis. Most aid projects in school library development have been in the Asia/Pacific region, but programs have been implemented in other areas as well. The largest school library development project that has been carried out by Australians…

  5. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  6. Teaching about National Conservation Strategy for Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall, Annette

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the development and content of the National Conservation Strategy for Australia (NCSA). The Australian Department of Arts, Heritage, and Environment has produced a teacher's guide designed to help teachers bring the content of the NCSA to their classroom. A description of the guide and ordering information are provided. (JDH)

  7. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  8. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  9. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.

  10. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  11. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  12. Occupational Forecasting of Librarians in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, Roy

    This paper reviews the principal sources and methods used by the Manpower Research and Information Branches of the Department of Employment and Industrial Relations (DEIR) to forecast the over or undersupply of librarians in Australia. After differentiating between manpower policy, planning, and forecasting, the role of the commonwealth government…

  13. Eritrea: Lessons for Australia's Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreoni, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…

  14. Australia's Universities--Through the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penington, David

    1991-01-01

    Upheaval in Australia's university system in recent years can be attributed in large part to two influences dating to 1987: accession of John Dawkins to the Ministry of Employment, Education, and Training and the advent of federal regulation of industrial relations in education, which has undermined the collegial decision-making tradition. (MSE)

  15. South Pacific: Australia comes back strong

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Exploration and production action experienced mixed fortunes last year. Exploration improved markedly with increased Australian activity. Liquids output declined, but gas production was up overall. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, development, and production in Australia, the Zone of Cooperation, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea.

  16. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  17. Mapping Music Education Research in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robin S.; McPherson, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    Music education research in Australia has grown almost exponentially over the past 25 years. Particularly in the area of doctoral research studies, there has been a substantial increase in the number of theses completed from two in 1977 to 72 in 2002. In addition, there have been increases in professional research undertaken by university…

  18. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  19. Improving the Quality of Teaching in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Australia needs to more effectively attract, train, support, retain, recognize, and reward quality teachers throughout their careers. After a slow start and decades of debate, the pieces of the quality teaching puzzle are now coming together. Increased federal government intervention and financial support, along with state and territorial support…

  20. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country.

  1. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  2. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  3. Learning around Town: Learning Communities in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Liz; Castles, Rachel; McGrath, Majella; Brown, Tony

    This booklet explains the features and benefits of learning communities and summarizes Australia's experience with them. Part 1 traces the history of learning communities from the 1970s through the present, presents several definitions of the term "learning community," lists reasons for becoming a learning community, and explains the…

  4. The Outlook for Training in Australia's Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This book, which is intended primarily for Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector, industry decision makers, and policymakers, provides an overview of occupational trends and the current training effort relating to occupations in Australian industry. Chapter 1 traces economic and labor market changes and the changing…

  5. Tertiary Education and Training in Australia, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…

  6. GNSS Antenna Calibration Facility at Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. R.; Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    A GNSS antenna calibration facility has recently been established at Geoscience Australia. The facility includes a GEO++ robotic antenna calibration system, and an industrial robot (';KUKA'). Previous studies have highlighted the importance of accounting for the variation in antenna calibration due to the electromagnetic coupling between the antenna and monument. The reactive near-field effect has been reported to have the potential to produce a combination of a mean bias and change in periodic noise characteristics which then result in a velocity bias as well as a decrease in precision of coordinate estimates. Initially the priority of the calibration system will be to perform individual antenna calibrations for over 100 antennas purchased for high accuracy deformation surveys carried out in Western Australia, South Australia and south-east Australia. The principal aim of these deformation surveys is to detect intra-plate crustal deformation, where the magnitude of the signal is expected to be less than 1 mm/yr. The main role of the industrial robot is for research and development into GNSS algorithms and to further developments into antenna calibration. The industrial robot has a much higher payload capability of up to 60 kg. This makes it feasible to perform calibrations with a section of the monument still attached to the antenna, potentially providing a calibration which will better reflect the environment the signals are observed in. We will detail various experiments to be carried out on the industrial robot, and provide an update on the status and performance of the calibration facility.

  7. Francisella tularensis Subspecies holarctica, Tasmania, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Justin; McGregor, Alistair; Cooley, Louise; Ng, Jimmy; Brown, Mitchell; Ong, Chong Wei; Darcy, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of ulceroglandular tularemia that developed in a woman after she was bitten by a ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) in a forest in Tasmania, Australia. Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica was identified. This case indicates the emergence of F. tularensis type B in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22931809

  8. Australia: Evaluation and Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, David; Stokes, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Modern Australia evolved from separate colonies, which came together as a federation a century ago. The balance of state/federal responsibilities is relevant to most aspects of Australian life. This includes higher education, where universities are largely state owned but federally funded (with government funding declining), while the other higher…

  9. Australia: An Instructional Unit for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duea, Joan; And Others

    Designed to provide elementary teachers with materials for the study of Australia, this unit contains 19 lessons that include objectives, materials, procedures, suggested extension activities, and answer keys where needed. Following the 19 lessons are blackline masters for teacher transparencies, student worksheets, and extension activities. A…

  10. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  11. An Environmentally Sustainable Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The future Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Queensland, Australia, is an example of how principles of environmentally sustainable design have translated into practice. Those responsible for the new project recognise the importance of building design that respects the environment by using resources efficiently and minimising pollution. The site's…

  12. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  13. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia

    2016-11-09

    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  14. Remote Access Laboratories in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments…

  15. Australia's Federated Network Universities: What Happened?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massingham, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examines the performance of Australia's three federated network universities from an inter-organizational relations perspective. Investigates the influence of the political economy--network members' pursuit of funds and power--on the network's relationships and its performance. Describes how the strength of the network's political economy and the…

  16. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  17. Station Climatic Summaries: Antarctica, Australia and Oceania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    7 3.0 LWCL01J /VAXW 7/10 t m 10/10 WM 40WLCL400 HEIGH----------------------------------- les than 1000 feet 100 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 1.2 1 . ead/orVSHY 2Mo...AVAILABLE DATA, I.E. LT 24 HRS/DAY, OR LT 12 MONTH/YR SOURCE(S): 1. USAFETAC DATSAV SURFACE JAN 73-DEC 86, HOURLY 0600-1700 LST 2. NOAA CLIATOGRAPHY OF THE...0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 12-14 LST 1 2 1 0 # 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 15-17 LST 1 1 1 # 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 # 18-20 LST ft 21-23L5T ft ft ft ft 51 mr~~ wm *~O a 91066 by

  18. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  19. History of corneal transplantation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Coster, Douglas J

    2015-04-01

    Corneal transplantation is a triumph of modern ophthalmology. The possibility of corneal transplantation was first raised in 1797 but a century passed before Zirm achieved the first successful penetrating graft in 1905. Gibson reported the first corneal graft in Australia from Brisbane in 1940 and English established the first eye bank there a few years later. Corneal transplantation evolved steadily over the twentieth century. In the second half of the century, developments in microsurgery, including surgical materials such as monofilament nylon and strong topical steroid drops, accounted for improvements in outcomes. In 2013, approximately 1500 corneal transplants were done in Australia. Eye banking has evolved to cope with the rising demands for donor corneas. Australian corneal surgeons collaborated to establish and support the Australian Corneal Graft Registry in 1985. It follows the outcomes of their surgery and has become an important international resource for surgeons seeking further improvement with the procedure.

  20. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  1. Does Princess Adelaide Really Have Whooping Cough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Phil J.; Wendelyn, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Spectrum Community School, an alternative public high school in the North Kitsap (Washington) School District, and Omnibus School, an independent evening program in Ekaterinburg, Russia, have spent the past six years building bridges. They have traveled to each others' homes and shared each other's lives via a collaborative, engaging, and…

  2. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  3. Biobanking and Privacy Laws in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Don

    2015-01-01

    Australian biobanks are largely autonomous and funded by local health care institutions, although some biobanks also receive funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). There is no formal biobank legislation, but the NHMRC has developed biobanking guidelines. The regulation of biobanks is mainly through privacy laws and human research ethics committees. Australia is moving toward the use of broad consent for biobanking. International data sharing is permitted.

  4. Early medical registration in Australia. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Dammery, D

    2001-11-01

    The lure of land and gold, the hope for better health and an overcrowded profession in Britain led to an increasing number of doctors migrating to Australia. This migration was even more marked after the goldrush, especially in Victoria. The fifth article in this series looks at the way in which medical practice was controlled by excluding many of those doctors who were from non-British origins.

  5. Heroin users in Australia: population trends.

    PubMed

    Kaya, C Yalçin; Tugai, Yuliya; Filar, Jerzy A; Agrawal, Manju R; Ali, Robert L; Gowing, Linda R; Cooke, Richard

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify certain important population trends among heroin users in Australia for the period 1971 - 97, such as: population growth, initiation, i.e. the number who were initiated to heroin in a given year, and quitting, i.e. the number that quit using heroin. For this purpose, we summarize and extract relevant characteristics from data from National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS 1998) conducted in Australia in 1998. We devise a systematic procedure to estimate historical trends from questions concerning past events. It is observed from our findings that the size of the heroin user population in Australia is in a sharp increase, especially from the early 1980s onwards. The general trend obtained for the period 1971 - 97 is strikingly similar to that obtained by Hall et al. (2000) for the dependent heroin user population in Australia, even though their study was based on different datasets and a different methodology. In our reconstruction of the time history we also detect a levelling-off prior to 1990. Initiation is also observed to be on a sharp increase. The latter trend is accompanied by a similar trend of quitting, perhaps indicating a relatively short heroin use career. A sharp decrease in both initiation and quitting is observed after 1990. In conclusion, in the case of the trend in the population of heroin users a high rate of growth has been identified that is consistent with the existing literature. In the process, we demonstrated that even a static survey such as NDSHS 1998 can, sometimes, be used to extract historical (dynamic) trends of certain important variables.

  6. Status of women in physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Up to 2006 there was some improvement for women in physics in Australia; since then there has been a decline. Women are underrepresented in all aspects of physics education and work, including school, university, and research laboratories. In addition, women physicists usually have lower seniority and earn less. This scenario is compounded by recent inactivity of the Australian Institute of Physics women's group since December 2010.

  7. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  8. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  9. Leptospiral antibodies in flying foxes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smythe, L D; Field, H E; Barnett, L J; Smith, C S; Dohnt, M F; Symonds, M L; Moore, M R; Rolfe, P F

    2002-01-01

    The sera of 271 pteropid bats (or flying foxes) collected from Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory were screened against a reference panel of 21 Leptospira spp. using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera were collected from December 1997 through August 1999. The MAT panel represented those serovars previously isolated in Australia, as well as exotic serovars found in neighboring countries. Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 75 (28%) of the sera and represented seven serovars, one of which, L. interrogans serovar cynopteri has been regarded as exotic to Australia. Sixty sera were reactive to one serovar, 12 sera were reactive to two serovars, and three sera were reactive to three serovars. The L. kirschneri serovar australis was most frequently identified (60.2%). The findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of pteropid bats in the natural history of leptospirosis. The potential exists for establishment of infection in new host species, the transmission of new serovars to known host species, and for changes in virulence of leptospires as a result of passage through these species.

  10. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  11. Gulf War illness: a view from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel. PMID:16687266

  12. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  13. Managed entry agreements for pharmaceuticals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Agnes; Roughead, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In Australia, a number of managed entry agreements have been developed to enable national coverage of new medicines. Non-outcome based agreements are usually pricing arrangements that involve price or volume rebate agreements. In February 2013, there were at least 71 special pricing arrangements in place, including 26 for medicines restricted to use in hospitals. Health outcome based agreements can be made at the individual or population level. At the individual level, there were 28 medicines funded subject to continuation rules involving documentation of adequate benefit within the individual; some of these medicines also had price agreements in place. At the population level, only one outcome-based agreement has been implemented so far, for bosentan, a medicine marketed for pulmonary hypertension. In May 2010, a memorandum of understanding signed between the Australian Government and Medicines Australia, the peak pharmaceutical industry organisation, included the possibility for industry to request consideration of a 'Managed Entry Scheme' as part of the funding submission process for medicines with high clinical needs. It includes the possibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT)-based entry scheme. Although this form of managed entry has yet not been trialed in Australia, several 2012/2013 funding recommendations included requests by the decision making committee for further evidence development.

  14. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage, and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses, such as psychosis, are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper, thus, examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health, and health service utilization in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilizes quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, SA, Australia. Participants (42% female) provided information about socioeconomic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilization. The paper highlights that socioeconomic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact, and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by this disadvantage be

  15. The current state of bone and tissue banking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D A; Ilyas, I; Bryce, S L; Johnson, N

    1998-01-01

    The development of bone and tissue banking in Australia over the last decade is described and details of the administrative structure, donor and recipient testing protocols, allograft segment processing procedures, and internal audit safety arrangements are also provided. Demographic data concerning both the retrieval and dispersal of musculoskeletal allograft materials in Australia are also discussed. Current price schedules for a variety of allograft materials available in Australia are made available for international comparison.

  16. The genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 (Diplopoda, Penicillata, Polyxenida) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Short, Megan; Huynh, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The penicillate genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 is widespread, with species found in Africa, Madagascar, India and Australia. Each of the two Australian species was originally described from single samples from Western Australia. In this study, collections of Penicillata from museums in all states of Australia were examined to provide further details of the two described species, to revise the diagnoses for both the genus and the species, and to better understand the distribution of the two species in Australia. In addition, two new species Unixenus karajinensis sp. n. and Unixenus corticolus sp. n. are described. PMID:22303098

  17. Catastrophic Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M.; Magee, J. W.; Gagan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Extinction of the Australian megafauna (50ñ5ka) occurred shortly after human colonization (55ñ5ka). A link between the two has been suggested, including the possibility that landscape modification was influential, but pinpointing the role of humans remains elusive. To evaluate changes at the ecosystem level across the extinction event we utilize dietary information recorded by d13C preserved in eggshells of the extant emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a large flightless bird. Emus are opportunistic feeders; their diet reflects the range of food sources available in the weeks before nesting (June). d13C quantifies the proportion of C3 vs C4 vegetation that constitutes the emu's diet. A 150,000-year record of emu dietary intact has been reconstructed using more than 300 individuals from Lake Eyre (south-central Australia) dated by 14C, luminescence and/or racemization. Prior to 50 ka emu diet was highly variable, ranging from 100% C3 to 100% C4. However, immediately after 50 ka, emu diet shifted dramatically: the C4 contribution never exceeded 50% (n=200) after 50 ka, whereas more than half the samples older than 50 ka old contain >50% C4 dietary sources. We attribute the observed changes in emu diet to a fundamental rearrangement of the plant ecosystems in semi-arid central Australia. Such a change in plant communities may have contributed to the extinction of many dependent herbivores. The coincidence in time of megafauna extinction and ecosystem collapse shortly after human colonization suggests there may be a causal link. Development of similar records of vegetation change for other regions of Australia are currently underway to evaluate whether the Lake Eyre record reflects a continental scale reorganization of the Australian biota.

  18. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  19. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 8: Modern Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis, A. M.; And Others

    The status of modern Greek in Australian society and education are detailed in this report. Chapters include discussion of these issues: the history of modern Greek in Australia (Greek immigration and settlement, public and private domains of use, language maintenance and shift, and language quality); the functions of modern Greek in Australia…

  20. Country Education Profiles: Australia, and Australia-Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Australia and Australian Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island). Statistics…

  1. Skilling Australia for the Future? A Study of Quality Assurance in Australia's Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbola, Frank Wogbe; Lambert, Daniel Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    From the end of World War II until the early 1970s, vocational education and training (VET) in Australia was surprisingly static and resilient to government-led reform, due to the dominance of industry and union power. Following the oil shocks of 1973 and associated unemployment and declining union power, there have been calls on the federal and…

  2. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  3. Mandatory bicycle helmet use--Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    1993-05-14

    On July 1, 1990, the first statewide law in Australia requiring wearing of an approved safety helmet by all bicyclists became effective in Victoria (1989 population: approximately 4.3 million) (Figure 1). Implementation of the law was preceded by a decade-long campaign to promote helmet use among the estimated 2.2 million persons who ride bicycles; the campaign included educational programs; mass media publicity; financial incentives; and efforts by professional, community, and bicycle groups (1,2). This report assesses helmet law enforcement, helmet use, and injuries related to bicycling in Victoria.

  4. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ergas, Henry; Paolucci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop. PMID:22312229

  5. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-07-14

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  6. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2001-01-01

    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  7. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015.

  8. Neutron capture therapy research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Allen, B J

    1989-01-01

    Neutron capture therapy research in Australia has continued to grow since the first Australia-Japan workshop in April, 1986. The support base has broadened and the wide range of contributing laboratories includes universities, research institutes, and hospitals. Considerable progress has been made in boron chemistry--an accurate boron assay technique has been developed, boron analogues of chlorpromazine and thiouracil have been synthesised or nearly so, and decaborane conjugation with monoclonal antibodies has been achieved to the required loadings. In vitro cell survival experiments are proceeding in the Moata reactor using human melanoma and mouse cell lines incubated with enriched boronophenylalanine and boron tetraphenyl porphyrins. Electron microscopy examination of radiation damaged morphology shows considerable differences between cell lines. Progress with the nude mouse human melanoma model has been slow because of the lack of a reliable in vivo melanotic melanoma line, and the B16 mouse line is found to be more efficacious. Tailored beam calculations for the 10 MW HIFAR reactor indicate the difficulty of obtaining a suitable therapeutic beam because of the generated gamma dose in the beam filters. A new approach to NCT utilises the enormous cross section of 157Gd and the induced-Auger effect which has been shown to cause double strand breaks in circular DNA.

  9. Moderation in Australia-policy and achievements.

    PubMed

    Stockley, Creina

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60% of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990-cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year.

  10. Neutron capture therapy research in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.

    1989-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy research in Australia has continued to grow since the first Australia-Japan workshop in April, 1986. The support base has broadened and the wide range of contributing laboratories includes universities, research institutes, and hospitals. Considerable progress has been made in boron chemistry--an accurate boron assay technique has been developed, boron analogues of chlorpromazine and thiouracil have been synthesised or nearly so, and decaborane conjugation with monoclonal antibodies has been achieved to the required loadings. In vitro cell survival experiments are proceeding in the Moata reactor using human melanoma and mouse cell lines incubated with enriched boronophenylalanine and boron tetraphenyl porphyrins. Electron microscopy examination of radiation damaged morphology shows considerable differences between cell lines. Progress with the nude mouse human melanoma model has been slow because of the lack of a reliable in vivo melanotic melanoma line, and the B16 mouse line is found to be more efficacious. Tailored beam calculations for the 10 MW HIFAR reactor indicate the difficulty of obtaining a suitable therapeutic beam because of the generated gamma dose in the beam filters. A new approach to NCT utilises the enormous cross section of 157Gd and the induced-Auger effect which has been shown to cause double strand breaks in circular DNA. 34 references.

  11. Melioidosis and Aboriginal seasons in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Ward, Linda; Currie, Bart J

    2008-12-01

    Melioidosis, an infection due to the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with cases strongly correlated with the monsoonal wet season. We hypothesized that seasonal variation in the mode of acquisition, informed by traditional knowledge, would result in variations in disease characteristics as well as disease incidence. We explored the seasonal variation in acute, culture-confirmed melioidosis using local Aboriginal definitions of seasons in presentations to the Royal Darwin Hospital, the referral centre for the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. In 387 patients, we observed an increased proportion of patients with pneumonia (60%) and severe sepsis (25%) associated with presentations in the wet seasons Gunumeleng (October-December) and Gudjewg (January-March) compared with the drier seasons Wurrgeng (June August) and Gurrung (August-October) (pneumonia 26%, severe sepsis 13%). This observation supports the hypothesis that in the wet seasons there may be changes in the mode and/or magnitude of exposure to B. pseudomallei, with a shift from percutaneous inoculation to aerosol inhalation, for instance.

  12. Hepatitis with Australia antigenemia following renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Alex; Gault, Mathew H.; Huang, Shao-Nan; Lal, Stephan; Wu, Kwang-Tzen; Moinuddin, M.D.; Spence, Leslie; MacLean, Lloyd D.

    1973-01-01

    Over a seven-year period 18 of 125 patients who underwent renal transplantation developed hepatitis. Acute hepatic necrosis occurred in two, chronic aggressive hepatitis progressing to posthepatitic cirrhosis in eight, chronic persistent hepatitis in five, acute hepatitis with recovery in two and cholestatic hepatitis in one. Hepatic failure was the cause of death in four and a major contributing factor in three. Fifteen of the 18 were of blood Group A. After renal transplantation Australia antigen (Au) was present in the blood of 12 of the 15 patients with hepatitis who were tested and in one of 38 patients without clinical evidence of liver disease. Once present, Au persisted in all patients but one. Particles measuring 210 to 250 Å, characteristic of Au, were seen in liver cells by electronmicroscopy in nine of the 10 patients examined who had hepatitis with Australia antigenemia, but they were not seen in the two patients studied with Au-negative hepatitis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4566289

  13. Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business?

    PubMed

    Parker, Rhian

    2007-08-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.

  14. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  15. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  16. The funding of private hospitals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Abby L

    2002-01-01

    Private hospitals are an essential component of Australia's complex mix of public and private health funding and provision. Private hospitals account for 34.3 per cent of all hospital separations, and over half (56.2%) of all same-day separations. The revenue (funding) of the sector approached $4 billion by 1998/99, and as a result of its recent rapid growth capital expenditure in the sector was nearly $550 million in the same year. Private casemix of private hospitals is distinctive, and characterised by a high proportion of surgical procedures in general (48.1 per cent), and more than a majority of all services in such areas as rehabilitation, orthopaedics (shoulder, knee, spinal fusion, and hand surgery), alcohol disorders, same day colonoscopy and sleep disorders. This chapter synthesizes data from a multitude of sources to produce a comprehensive picture of Australia's private hospital sector and its funding. It examines the funding (revenue) sources of private hospitals, and considers how and why private hospitals approach the issue of funding from a different perspective than their public sector colleagues. To illustrate how Australian private hospitals approach revenue (funding) strategically, a series of indicative types of hospitals is explored.

  17. HIV criminalisation and sex work in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Elena; Matthews, Kane; Thomas, Alina

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, Scarlet Alliance, the Australian Sex Workers Association, carried out a needs assessment among sex workers living with HIV in Australia. The research showed that HIV positive sex workers experience discrimination from within the community, are criminalised for sex work and subject to disclosure laws in some states and territories, and face stigma perpetrated by the media. Supported by legislation, they have an almost insurmountable lack of access to policy development due to disclosure and confidentiality issues, and have expressed ongoing frustration at the lack of leadership on the intersecting issues of HIV and sex work. A high profile prosecution of a sex worker living with HIV coincided with the duration of the needs assessment project. The research gave a voice to sex workers living with HIV and highlighted the levels of institutionalised marginalisation and stigmatisation they experience. Criminalisation of sex work, of people living with HIV, and of sex workers living with HIV is at the core of this discrimination and must be challenged. Scarlet Alliance advocates for the decriminalisation of sex work across all jurisdictions in Australia. This will deliver rights to sex workers living with HIV and create a more equitable and productive environment for HIV prevention and public health generally.

  18. Road crashes involving animals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Peter; Steinhardt, Dale; Sheehan, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Each year in Australia many thousands of collisions occur between motor vehicles and animals, resulting in considerable vehicle repair costs, injury to persons, and loss of animal life. This paper reviews animal-related road crashes in Australia and presents data from the in-depth Rural and Remote Road Safety Study in North Queensland for serious casualties (n=33) resulting from direct impact with an animal or swerving to avoid an animal on public roads. These crash types accounted for 5.5% of all eligible on-road serious casualties in the study and, hence, are considered to be an important issue that requires particular attention within rural and remote areas. Kangaroos and wallabies were the predominant species involved in these crashes (44.8%). Consistent with international studies, night-time travel was found to be a significant risk factor when comparing animal-related crashes to other serious injury crashes in the study. There were also a significantly higher proportion of motorcyclists (51.7%) than other vehicle occupants involved in animal-related serious crashes compared to all other serious injury crashes. Data matching to official Government records found underreporting of animal-related crashes to be an issue of concern. These findings are discussed in terms of countermeasures suitable for the Australian context and the need for consistent crash reporting across jurisdictions.

  19. The accreditation of nursing education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and discuss the role that ANMAC and the accreditation standards play in pre-registration nursing education nationally. The context of the discussion is situated in the continuum of events that mark the accreditation of nursing education in Australia. The National Registration and Accreditation Scheme has given rise to significant challenges related to the accreditation of nursing programs of education in Australia. Given the importance of accreditation to the quality of nursing education, ANMAC in its appointed role as accrediting authority, must fill the position rather than occupy it. Enhancing transparency and effectiveness is central to ensuring accreditation facilitates quality in nursing education. Given ANMAC's key position, further work is needed in developing a broad base of expertise by fostering scholarly output in the substantive area of nursing accreditation. There is a concerning lack of research centred on the accreditation of programs of nursing education along with the processes associated with it. This problem is not restricted to the Australian context but also extends internationally. In this context, the expertise of accreditors ought to be questioned along with the processes ANMAC use to identify individual capability. As such, the selection of experts needs to be articulated clearly by ANMAC along with the ownership of introducing a research culture into accreditation.

  20. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  1. United States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    5 3. AUSTRALIA’S TEMPESTUOUS NEIGHBORS. ........... 7 Basic causes for unrest ................. 7 Specific problem areas.................9 Summary...33 Summary.........................40 5 .. UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARD AUSTRALIA .. ....... 41 General...With a population of only five million, she had more men killed than did the United States. 5 The Second World War, for the first time, posed a

  2. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  3. Learning from Successful Skills Development Systems: Lessons from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main institutional features of Australia's TVET sector, focussing particularly on the qualifications framework, how it relates to the labour market, and the role of industry. It also looks briefly at two current policy challenges for Australia. Seeking lessons for other countries in the Asia Pacific region, it discusses…

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distinction between native and introduced flora in Australia presents some unique challenges given its geological and colonization history. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses, to date, have investigated the origin, diversity and phylo...

  5. The Flow of American Television Materials to Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    A review of the current situation regarding the media flow between the United States and Australia shows that the traditional pattern--American content dominating the Australian media--still holds, but that there is evidence of movement by the Australians to establish their own media identity. An analysis of the television ratings for Australia's…

  6. Continuing Professional Development in Australia: Barriers and Support.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) requirements for nurses are common throughout the world, with CPD being required in Australia since 2010. Many barriers to CPD have been identified. In Australia, state and territory governments have implemented supports to help nurses overcome these barriers.

  7. The Evolution of Distance Education in Australia: Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiach, Stephen; Averbeck, Clemens; Cassidy, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Australia's large size and scattered population made it a prime location for the development of correspondence education in the 1920s, and the country is still in the forefront of distance education. This article is based on an extensive interview with Terry Evans, professor at Deakin University in Australia, who reflects on the history of…

  8. A New Era for Research Education in Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Helene; Smith, Bradley; King, Max; Evans, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective.…

  9. Australia's Adoption of Outcomes Based Education: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Australia's adoption of outcomes based education (OBE), sometimes known as Essential Learnings or outcomes and standards based education, has been at the centre of a good deal of public scrutiny and debate. In Western Australia, during 2006, the planned introduction of OBE into years 11 and 12 led to a strident and vocal media campaign, in part,…

  10. Pathways to Marriage: Learning for Married Life in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Michele; And Others

    In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-60 - Mangoes from Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from Australia. 319.56-60 Section 319.56-60... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-60 Mangoes from Australia. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States...

  12. "Unhelpfully Complex and Exceedingly Opaque": Australia's School Funding System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Australia's system of school funding is notoriously complex and difficult to understand. This article shines some light on this issue by describing clearly the processes of school funding that currently exist in Australia. It describes the steps taken by federal and state governments to provide over $30 billion each year to government and…

  13. PictureAustralia--Participating in a Collaborative Digital Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Deborah

    The PictureAustralia service is a collaboration between cultural agencies to bring their digital pictorial collections together at the one web site, hosted by the National Library of Australia. It was developed through the identification of a need for a national image discovery service. The key to the service is its cross-sectoral nature,…

  14. Education and Change in South Australia. First Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, Adelaide.

    This publication contains the first report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, the major task of which is to examine and make recommendations to the Minister of Education on the educational system of South Australia. The committee emphasized that there was no need for radical changes in the educational system at this…

  15. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  16. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  17. Growth dynamics of Australia's polar dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions.

  18. Homicide-suicide in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Milroy, C M; Dratsas, M; Ranson, D L

    1997-12-01

    Thirty-nine incidents of homicide-suicide occurring in Victoria, Australia between 1985 and 1989 were examined. In 33 cases the assailants were men. The victims were spouses or women living in a de facto marriage. The majority of the victims were shot, and this was also the most frequent method of suicide. Breakdown in a relationship was the most frequent reason for killing. Mental illness of the assailant accounted for the killing in approximately 20% of cases. Physical ill health and financial stress were identified as important associative factors, particularly in the elderly. The pattern of homicide-suicide in Victoria is similar to that observed in other jurisdictions and represents an important and distinct subgroup of homicide.

  19. Acute melioidosis outbreak in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Inglis, T J; Garrow, S C; Adams, C; Henderson, M; Mayo, M; Currie, B J

    1999-12-01

    A cluster of acute melioidosis cases occurred in a remote, coastal community in tropical Western Australia. Molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from culture-confirmed cases and suspected environmental sources by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI chromosomal DNA digests showed that a single PFGE type was responsible for five cases of acute infection in a community of around 300 during a 5 week period. This temporal and geographical clustering of acute melioidosis cases provided a unique opportunity to investigate the environmental factors contributing to this disease. B. pseudomallei isolated from a domestic tap at the home of an asymptomatic seroconverter was indistinguishable by PFGE. Possible contributing environmental factors included an unusually acid communal water supply, unrecordable chlorine levels during the probable exposure period, a nearby earth tremor, and gusting winds during the installation of new water and electricity supplies. The possible role of the potable water supply as a source of B. pseudomallei was investigated further.

  20. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier.

    The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.)

    Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea.

    The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image

  1. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  2. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Walker, N; Swanson, M

    1994-02-05

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking.

  3. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  4. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  5. New investments in primary care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Del Mar, Chris

    2011-02-17

    There is a crisis in primary care health workforce shortages in Australia. Its government has attempted to fix this by role-substitution (replacing medical work with nursing instead). This was not completely successful. Obstacles included entrenched social roles (leading to doctors 'checking' their nurse role-substituted work) and structures (nurses subservient to doctors)--both exacerbated by primary care doctors' ageing demographic; doctors owning their own practices; doctors feeling themselves to have primary responsibility for the care delivered; and greater attraction towards independence that may have selected doctors into primary care in the first place.Yet there is much to be optimistic about this social experiment. It was conducted, if not ideally, at least in an environment that the Australian government has enriched with capacity for research and evaluation.

  6. Agricultural health and safety performance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lower, Tony; Fragar, Lyn; Temperley, John

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the proportion of Australian farming enterprises with systems and processes that meet current regulatory and industry standards for health and safety. Data from 683 farming enterprises were drawn from a nationally stratified random sample representing seven commodity sectors: beef cattle, cotton, dairy, horticulture, grain growing, sheep, and sugar cane. Results indicated low levels of implementation for farm health and safety plans as well as induction for new workers and contractors. Improvements to control major safety hazards are required for farm machinery and implements, farm vehicles, reducing exposure of children to hazards, and the use of helmets when riding quad bikes, motorbikes, and horses. There were considerable variations between commodity sectors. There remains significant scope to enhance the safety of farmers in Australia.

  7. Potential seen on Australia's Bonaparte exploration acreage

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Miyazaki, S. )

    1994-09-12

    Two of the offshore areas recently released for exploration bids by the Australian government are NT94-1 and NT94-2 covering 23,000 sq km in the oil producing Bonaparte basin off northwestern Australia 300 km northwest of Darwin. Three wells have been drilled in the two areas, including Evans Shoal-1 which made a gas discovery currently considered to be non-commercial. The results of a study by the Australian Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS) have been synthesized into the Evans Shoal Area Bulletin and Data Base. BRS interprets the available geochemical and maturation data to indicate that potential source rocks are present in the Jurassic Plover formation and Flamingo group and the Cretaceous Bathurst Island group. The paper describes the area geology, play types, and gas and oil potential.

  8. Growth Dynamics of Australia's Polar Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Holly N.; Rich, Thomas H.; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is marked by parallel-fibered tissue, suggesting reduced growth rates approaching skeletal maturity. Bone microstructure similarities between the ornithopods and theropods, including the presence of LAGs in each group, suggest there is no osteohistologic evidence supporting the hypothesis that polar theropods hibernated seasonally. Results instead suggest high-latitude dinosaurs had growth trajectories similar to their lower-latitude relatives and thus, rapid early ontogenetic growth and the cyclical suspensions of growth inherent in the theropod and ornithopod lineages enabled them to successfully exploit polar regions. PMID:21826250

  9. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  10. Aussat - A milestone in Australia's communication history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowland, W. L.

    1983-04-01

    The Australian national satellite system, Aussat, will commence operations in 1985 after launch of the two initial Aussat communications satellites. Australia is a member of Intelsat, which currently provides both international telephone links and television services to 50 Outback communities. The project was organized in study areas of satellite design and plans for the ground segment, major city earth stations, and minor earth stations. Aussat services will include low power DBS of radio and television, telephony, voice and data communications for minerals exploration and medical care, a school of the air, ATC links, emergency and disaster relief communications, data transfer, and voice conferencing.Initial configurations include Ku-band satellites launched by the Shuttle, with telemetry in the 12/14 GHz bands. The Aussat organization will be eventually transformed to 49 percent private ownership.

  11. New Communities on Eucalypts Grown Outside Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of eucalypt forestry worldwide has been accompanied by accidental and deliberate introductions of Australian insects associated with eucalypts. Local insect species have also colonized introduced eucalypts in many regions. This situation provides a unique opportunity to observe the development of new insect communities across trophic levels. Here the history of Australian invaders and native colonizers on eucalypts outside Australia is reviewed from the perspective of herbivore guilds: leaf chewers, sap suckers, wood borers, gall formers, termites. Historical patterns of invasion are identified across these guilds. Very few species of Australian leaf chewers, wood borers or termites have become widespread but these guilds are proportionately high in native colonizers. In contrast, sap suckers have multiple invasive species globally with relatively fewer native colonizers. The gall former guild also has several invasive species but so far includes no native colonizers, perhaps due to their tendency to have highly specific host plant associations. Natural enemies of Australian invaders are also members of new eucalypt insect communities, partly through planned biological control programs, but the rate of accidental introductions at higher trophic levels is increasing steadily. At the same time, local natural enemies enter eucalypt communities either to form new associations with Australian invaders or to follow native colonizers into this new habitat. Australian sap suckers have attracted far more new associations than other guilds so far. Native leaf chewers have often been followed by their local natural enemies into eucalypt communities, particularly in Brazil. Generally there are fewer records relating to local natural enemies and their role in new eucalypt communities. The complexity of new eucalypt communities outside Australia is expected to increase in future. PMID:27965703

  12. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit.

  13. Prospective Frontier basins off eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Falvey, D.A.; Hinz, K.; Willcox, J.B.; Exon, N.F.; Symonds, P.A.; Williamson, P.E.

    1986-07-01

    Eleven thousand kilometers of high-quality multichannel seismic reflection data have been gathered in four poorly known, but prospective areas off eastern Australia. The Otway basin has an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, more than half of which is in depths exceeding 500 m. Its Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary sequence is up to 10,000 m thick and is cut by large coast-parallel normal faults. The oldest marine strata are Cenomanian. The basinal area off west Tasmania covers 40,000 km/sup 2/, two-thirds of it in offshelf depths. It contains up to 6000 m of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences similar to those of the Otway basin. The Lord Howe Rise is a ribbon of continent off eastern Australia, about 2000 km long and 400 km wide. Much of its crest lies in water depths of 750-1200 m. Up to 4500 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences has been identified, and extensive faulting, related to the formation of the Tasman Sea, has formed rift basins and horst and graben areas. Simple extension was apparently dominant in the south, and oblique extension in the north. The Queensland Plateau covers 200,000 km/sup 2/, half of which is in water shallower than 1000 m. The plateau behaved as a stable block during and after the Paleogene spreading episode, which formed the Coral Sea to the northeast. About 1000 m of latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences are present above a planated surface on the plateau, and up to 5000 m in the flanking Queensland and Townsville Troughs to the southwest. The sequence beneath the planated surface is believed to contain Cretaceous rift-fill sediments in places.

  14. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Carbonate platform development in northeast Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    In northeast Australia, the Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland and Marion plateaus comprise carbonate platforms separated by major rift basins. Cenozoic platform evolution has been dependent upon (1) northward drift of Australia from temperate into tropical latitudes; (2) subsidence pulses in the Eocene/Oligocene and the Pliocene/Pleistocene; (3) sea level oscillations; (4) continental and oceanic influences; and (5) paleophysiography and paleo-ocean chemistry. The evolution of each platform reflects the interaction of these factors on its development. Further, the evolution of the Queensland Plateau has markedly affected that of the Great Barrier Reef through its influence on circulation patterns. In the Eocene/Oligocene, and shelf on which the Great Barrier Reef grew protected the Marion Plateau from terrigenous influences, while in the late Miocene to early Pliocene the Marion Plateau formed the springboard from which the central and southern Great Barrier Reef developed. Models of platform development must take account of 1)early Eocene reef initiation on the Queensland Plateau concomitant with marine transgression into the adjacent rift troughs; 2)Eocene/Oligocene subsidence resulting in stepback of the reefs from the flank of the Queensland Plateau and reestablishment at higher bathymetric levels, concomitant clastic sedimentation along the tropical northern continental margin and temperate(.) carbonate progradation along the margin of the Marion Plateau; 3)extensive growth of Miocene reef complexes on the Queensland Plateau and the initiation of reef complexes on the Marion Plateau and on the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef; and 4)Pliocene subsidence leading to contraction of the area of reef growth on the Queensland Plateau, with almost total drowning of the Marion Plateau and stepback of the Miocene barrier and platform reefs to their present position on the central Great Barrier Reef.

  16. Co-evolution of Plant Biodiversity and Pedogeochemistry in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, E. N.; Gonzalez-Orozco, C.; Miller, J.

    2013-12-01

    With the geostatistical package geoR (Ribeiro and Diggle 2001), we used the National Geochemical Survey of Australia's 1315 reported total elemental concentrations for aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), all in mg kg-1, for the fine earth (<2 mm) fraction as determined by X-ray fluorescence, and pH1:5 (soil:water) and EC1:5 (soil:water) (de Caritat and Cooper 2011) to predict pedogeochemistry at 127,259 sites, representing presence data for 1020 Acacia species across Australia. Species in the genus Acacia are widely distributed across Australia. Here we show that strong associations exist between plant communities, individual species, and pedogeochemistry. Acacia communities in southern Australia are associated with high pH and high electrical conductivity, high total Mg on greenstone-derived soils, and high total Ca and Mg concentrations on calcareous and saline soils. Many species that tolerate extreme pedogeochemical conditions are range restricted. Both Acacia distribution and pedogeochemistry reflect climatic conditions. Species with strong correlation to local edaphic conditions present a higher potential for loss resulting from climate change, due to abiotic constraints. References de Caritat, P. & Cooper, M. (2011). National Geochemical Survey of Australia: The Geochemical Atlas of Australia. Geoscience Australia, Record 2011/20 (2 Volumes), 557 pp. Ribeiro, P.J. & Diggle, P.J. (2001). geoR: A package for geostatistical analysis. R-News Vol 1, No 2. Available at: http://cran.r-project.org/.

  17. Conduction invasion noise in nanoparticle WO3/Au thin-film devices for gas sensing applicationThis paper is a slightly modified version of one presented at BioMEMS and Smart Nanostructures, SPIE Conference, Adelaide, Australia, 17-19 December 2001.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, A.; Ederth, J.; Kopniczky, J.; Heszler, P.; Kish, L. B.; Olsson, E.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2002-10-01

    Conduction noise measurements were carried out in the 0.3-45 Hz frequency range on Au films covered by a thin layer of tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles. Exposing the films to alcohol vapor resulted in a gradually increased noise intensity which went through a maximum after an exposure time of the order of 15 min. The maximum noise intensity could increase by several orders of magnitude above the initial level. Longer exposure times made the noise decrease and approach its original value. This effect was not observed in the absence of WO3 nanoparticles. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of a new 'invasion noise' model in which the noise is related to the insertion and extraction of mobile chemical species.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  19. Revealing the early seafloor spreading history between India and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-09-01

    The Perth Abyssal Plain, a section of ocean floor that lies off the western coast of Australia, formed as India and Australia broke away from what had been the supercontinent Gondwana, beginning around 130 million years ago. Oceanic crust within the Perth Abyssal Plain is the only region of preserved seafloor that directly records the early history of relative motion between India and Australia, but the lack of magnetic data collected in that region had made it difficult for scientists to validate tectonic models of the motion of those continents.

  20. Space Power: Military Imperatives in Australia’s Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Australia’s closest ally and the Soviet Union has nothing to gain by invading Australia. On the other hand, the same features can work against Australia...missiles to be launched in a1 iorth westerly direction and tracked over 2,000 kilometer of virtually uninhabited land. During the 1960s, the Europea ...troubfe." 3’ Mr Beazley named China, Japan, India and the Soviet Union as being the major powers with the 50 potential to interfere in regional affairs

  1. Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus (Colletidae: Hylaeinae).

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space.

  2. Australia's Vocational Education and Training System--Volume I. Annual National Report 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    In 1995, efforts to develop Australia's vocational education and training (VET) system focused on implementing Australia's first national strategy for VET, Towards a Skilled Australia. All stakeholders in VET worked to advance Australia's national strategy for VET, which revolved around the following four themes: responsiveness (maximizing…

  3. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  4. Spatiotemporal fuzzy based climate forecasting for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, M.; Vervoort, R. W.; Minasny, B.; McBratney, A.

    2012-12-01

    Variation in weather and climate events impacts agriculture production processes, and profits across years. Therefore, seasonal rainfall prediction is an important factor for strategic and tactical decision making in agricultural, land and water resource management. This study aims to apply optimal data-driven techniques for fine resolution climate classification and forecasting over South-eastern Australia. Data were used in this study were included daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature data collected over 40 years from 107 weather stations in Southeast Australia acquired from the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Fuzzy-k means clustering techniques (FKM) were applied on one year weekly time series. Cluster centroids and memberships of rainfall and temperature weekly time series for one year period provide meaningful and insight into weather variability in time and space over the study. Stations are grouped based on their memberships in rainfall and temperature classes. The result showed that FKM is a useful method for trend analysis and pattern discovery in space and time. Outcomes indicate improvement in the climate classification of the area at the station level. An associate project is gathering higher spatial density on-farm data. This high-resolution climate data collected at the farm scale will be analyzed similarly in the future to improve spatial resolution of our classification. The second stage of this study consists of development of a fine-resolution forecasting model for predicting rainfall. FKM was applied on a metrics which included input and output time series to extract rules and relationships between them. After classification, rules were extracted within each class based on forecasting time, space and extreme climate events followed by effective sea surface temperature anomalies. These rules and a lookup table of input and output centroids were used for rainfall prediction in the form of weekly time series for the next six months. One

  5. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  6. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  7. Science and the governance of Australia's climate regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Rodney J.; Caripis, Lisa; Foerster, Anita; Godden, Lee; Peel, Jacqueline

    2012-07-01

    The promise of a scientifically sound policy approach to tackle greenhouse-gas emissions in Australia gives hope that the country's efforts to mitigate climate change can make an effective contribution to international objectives.

  8. Australia/Pacific: Industry watchers expect the worst

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article presents the outlook for the Australia/Pacific area with respect to petroleum. The main observations are: ATEA forsees Australia drilling declining by nearly 50% this year compared to last; With no tax relief in sight for crude, major Aussie oil projects are delayed; New Zealand's leasing moratorium has ended, and licensing policies have improved; Australia's self-sufficiency dream vanishes as Bass Strait exports dwindle; Gulf has more finds onshore Papua/New Guinea, but well economics still questionable; Australian gas projects enjoy some insulation from poor crude markets; Jabiru find in Timor Sea due onstream, and Northwest Shelf LNG export plans continue; Australia's largest operators each announce budget cuts; rig count continues to plunge.

  9. The Ethics of Isolation for Patients With Tuberculosis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This case study examines the ethical dimensions of isolation for patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Australia. It seeks to explore the issues of resource allocation, liberty, and public safety for wider consideration and discussion.

  10. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus--a dengue threat for southern Australia?

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard C; Williams, Craig R; Sutherst, Robert W; Ritchie, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, the so-called 'Asian tiger mosquito,' which has invaded areas of the Pacific, the Americas, Africa and Europe, and been intercepted in various Australian seaports in recent years, has now become established on a number of Torres Strait islands in northern Queensland and threatens to invade mainland Australia. As well as being a significant pest with day-biting tendencies, Ae. albopictus is a vector of dengue viruses and is capable of transmitting a number of other arboviruses. The species colonises domestic and peri-domestic containers, and can establish in temperate areas with cold winters. According to predictions made using the CSIRO climate matching software CLIMEX, Ae. albopictus could become established elsewhere in Australia, including southern Australia, and lead to these areas becoming receptive to dengue infections-a condition that currently does not exist because the vector Aedes aegypti is confined to Queensland and no species in southern Australia is known to be capable of transmitting dengue.

  11. The Special Broadcasting Service and Australia's Ethnic Broadcasting Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklovsky, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Broadcasting services for non-English speaking peoples in Australia are reviewed both for radio and television. Broadcasting criteria for ethnic groups, funding levels, and current facilities are discussed. (RAO)

  12. Australia-Indonesia Relations: Getting Beyond East Timor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Indonesian counterparts in dismantling the culpable Jemaah Islamiyah cells . ● For the United States, Australia’s links with Indonesia have always been useful...Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ( DFAT ) now confirm that Australian officials not only knew of the invasion plans, but were convinced by...archipelago. In its September 2003 Indonesia Country Brief, the Australian DFAT stated that: “Australia has consistently urged the Indonesian Government to

  13. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  14. Newspaper coverage of water issues in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hurlimann, Anna; Dolnicar, Sara

    2012-12-01

    The media has been found to have an impact on public debate, public opinion, and public policy agendas. Public debate, and public opinion about water conservation and water supply management projects matter because they can influence specific outcomes. For example, public opinion can potentially lead to positive behaviour, like increased water conservation, or potentially negative behaviours such as public opposition to developments such as dams or water recycling plants, which may be necessary under changing climatic conditions. It is therefore critical to understand how the media reports on water-related topics. Results from a content analysis of 1253 newspaper articles published in Australia in 2008 indicate that water-related reports are characterised by lack of inclusion of views held by various stakeholders, a low level of support of statements with scientific evidence, a low level of impartiality in the sense of reporting on opposing views and a relatively high level of hedging, meaning that the author signals that there is some uncertainly about the reported information. In sum these tendencies could theoretically culminate to work against public engagement in water issues and undermine the public's understanding of and confidence in water management measures. Proactive measures of media management are recommended.

  15. Major trauma in Australia: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Dziukas, L; Hadj, A; Clark, P; Hooper, S

    1995-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequency, distribution, cause, pattern, and outcome of patients suffering from major trauma in the State of Victoria over a 1-year period. No previous study in Australia has attempted a comprehensive regional analysis of major trauma. All major trauma admissions resulting from blunt, penetrating, and burns injury were identified, and data collected from emergency departments and intensive care log books at 25 major metropolitan and rural hospitals from the January 3, 1992 to February 28, 1993 by onsite data collectors. The total number of patients admitted into the study was 2,944. There were 1,076 major trauma cases with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 in a population of 4.2 million people. The type of injury was predominantly blunt (87.5%), with only a small percentage of penetrating injuries (6.4%) and burns (6%). Major trauma in pediatric cases is less common (132 cases). The most common causes of injury were road transport (56%) and falls (22%). The overall outcome of the group was favorable when compared with the Major Trauma Outcome Study group (Z = 1.4, M = 0.93, W = 0.52). There was an unexpectedly low number of patients suffering from major trauma. Outcome using Trauma and Injury Severity Score methodology was favorable when compared with North America.

  16. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  17. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

  18. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.

    2016-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  19. Training in addiction medicine in Australia.

    PubMed

    Haber, Paul S; Murnion, Bridin P

    2011-04-01

    Barriers to entering addiction medicine (AM) have led to a persisting workforce shortage. To address this problem, the Chapter of Addiction Medicine (AChAM) was formed in 2001 as a subdivision of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP). Through consultation, AChAM has identified the scope of practice and offered fellowship to suitable established practitioners. The Chapter successfully applied to the Australian Government for recognition of AM as a medical specialty, which was finalized in November 2009. Specialist reimbursement item numbers were incorporated into that decision process and commence operating in November 2010. AChAM has designed and implemented a training scheme using a model similar to that of the RACP internal medicine training program. This comprises 3 years of basic general medical training post internship followed by 3 years of discipline-specific supervised training. The training is broadly based, with experience in both ambulatory care and inpatient care, and including physical health as well as mental health. Assessment is continuous and competency based. There is no exit examination. The overriding clinical approach rests upon the harm minimization framework consistent with long-established national drug policy in Australia and favors evidence-based treatment.

  20. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Kimberley; Denehy, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the longstanding physical impairment suffered by survivors of intensive care has resulted in physiotherapists re-evaluating treatment priorities to include exercise rehabilitation as a part of standard clinical practice. The goals of respiratory physiotherapy management are to promote secretion clearance, maintain or recruit lung volume, optimize oxygenation, and prevent respiratory complications in both the intubated and spontaneously breathing patient. In the intubated patient, physiotherapists commonly employ manual and ventilator hyperinflation and positioning as treatment techniques whilst in the spontaneously breathing patients there is an emphasis on mobilization. Physiotherapists predominantly use functional activities for the rehabilitation of the critically ill patient in intensive care. While variability exists between states and centers, Australian physiotherapists actively treat critically ill patients targeting interventions based upon research evidence and individualized assessment. A trend toward more emphasis on exercise rehabilitation over respiratory management is evident. PMID:22807651

  1. Humans, water, and the colonization of Australia

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Damien

    2016-01-01

    The Pleistocene global dispersal of modern humans required the transit of arid and semiarid regions where the distribution of potable water provided a primary constraint on dispersal pathways. Here, we provide a spatially explicit continental-scale assessment of the opportunities for Pleistocene human occupation of Australia, the driest inhabited continent on Earth. We establish the location and connectedness of persistent water in the landscape using the Australian Water Observations from Space dataset combined with the distribution of small permanent water bodies (springs, gnammas, native wells, waterholes, and rockholes). Results demonstrate a high degree of directed landscape connectivity during wet periods and a high density of permanent water points widely but unevenly distributed across the continental interior. A connected network representing the least-cost distance between water bodies and graded according to terrain cost shows that 84% of archaeological sites >30,000 y old are within 20 km of modern permanent water. We further show that multiple, well-watered routes into the semiarid and arid continental interior were available throughout the period of early human occupation. Depletion of high-ranked resources over time in these paleohydrological corridors potentially drove a wave of dispersal farther along well-watered routes to patches with higher foraging returns. PMID:27671630

  2. Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I; Sangster, N C; Coleman, G

    2002-10-02

    There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward this objective by providing a "snap-shot" of the veterinary parasitology courses at the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland in eastern Australia. It includes a description of the veterinary science curriculum in each institution, and provides an outline of its veterinary parasitology course, including objectives, topics covered, course delivery, student examination procedures and course evaluation. Student contact time in veterinary parasitology during the curriculum is currently higher in Melbourne (183 h) compared with Sydney and Queensland (106-110 h). In the teaching of parasitology, Melbourne adopts a taxonomic approach (in the pre-clinical period) followed by a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach in the clinical semesters, whereas both Sydney and Queensland focus more on presenting parasites on a host species-basis followed by a problem-based approach.

  3. Humans, water, and the colonization of Australia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Michael I; O'Grady, Damien; Ulm, Sean

    2016-10-11

    The Pleistocene global dispersal of modern humans required the transit of arid and semiarid regions where the distribution of potable water provided a primary constraint on dispersal pathways. Here, we provide a spatially explicit continental-scale assessment of the opportunities for Pleistocene human occupation of Australia, the driest inhabited continent on Earth. We establish the location and connectedness of persistent water in the landscape using the Australian Water Observations from Space dataset combined with the distribution of small permanent water bodies (springs, gnammas, native wells, waterholes, and rockholes). Results demonstrate a high degree of directed landscape connectivity during wet periods and a high density of permanent water points widely but unevenly distributed across the continental interior. A connected network representing the least-cost distance between water bodies and graded according to terrain cost shows that 84% of archaeological sites >30,000 y old are within 20 km of modern permanent water. We further show that multiple, well-watered routes into the semiarid and arid continental interior were available throughout the period of early human occupation. Depletion of high-ranked resources over time in these paleohydrological corridors potentially drove a wave of dispersal farther along well-watered routes to patches with higher foraging returns.

  4. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  5. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  6. IMOS, an Integrated Marine Observing System for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuront, L.; Leterme, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    IMOS is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Time Series, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) and 5 nodes (Blue Water, Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System, New South Wales IMOS, Southern Australia IMOS and Western Australia IMOS).The data are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Specifically, IMOS also incorporates a National Reference Station infrastructure (NRS) based on 9 stations in the coastal ocean around Australia. The NRS is (i) multi-disciplinary and integrated with the collection of over 60 marine parameters, (ii) modular, which allows for deployment with or without a surface signature, and (iii) versatilely based on regionally scaled logistics. After introducing the philosophy of IMOS and its implementation, the first results obtained through a suite of facilities will be illustrated across different nodes.

  7. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  8. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  9. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring ‘giant penguins’ after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  10. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010.

    PubMed

    Turner, Aj

    2011-09-01

    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions.

  11. Regime Dependant Microphysical Variability in Darwin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, B.; Rutledge, S. A.; Lang, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Of utmost importance for global precipitation estimates from satellites such as TRMM and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is to understand processes that lead to variability in precipitation on sub-seasonal, seasonal, and climatological scales. Many studies have linked differences in rainfall characteristics such as mean diameter (D0) to sub-seasonal regime variability forced by large scale wind shifts, topography, and continental and maritime convection, across various regions of the globe. Several analyses have tied differences between regimes to differing microphysical processes that drive changes in the drop-size distributions occurring in convective rainfall. For example, decreased ice mass aloft and smaller mean diameters are indicative of warm rain processes, while vigorous ice formation leads to large, melting ice to create large drops. If the microphysical variability in different regimes is characterized and understood, the results could be used to improve satellite precipitation algorithms. The polarimetric, Doppler C-band radar, CPOL, located near Darwin, Australia provides a unique platform to study differences in microphysics between land and ocean, as well as variability between monsoon and break periods. The focus of this study is to examine the microphysical processes occurring in four distinct regimes around Darwin (monsoon-land, monsoon-ocean, break-land, break-ocean), using polarimetric data from CPOL. Analyses such as contoured frequency by altitude (CFADs) diagrams, cumulative distribution functions, and mean profiles of precipitation water mass, precipitation ice mass, reflectivity, differential reflectivity and specific differential phase will aide in understanding the physics of precipitation in these regimes. The formation of precipitation ice aloft, warm rain processes, and the contributions of warm rain and cold cloud processes including melting of ice into large drops, will be linked to differences in D0, rain

  12. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  13. A new population curve for prehistoric Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alan N

    2013-06-22

    This paper presents a new reconstruction of prehistoric population of Australia for the last 50 ka, using the most comprehensive radiocarbon database currently available for the continent. The application of new techniques to manipulate radiocarbon data (including correction for taphonomic bias), gives greater reliability to the reconstructed population curve. This shows low populations through the Late Pleistocene, before a slow stepwise increase in population beginning during the Holocene transition (approx. 12 ka) and continuing in pulses (approx. 8.3-6.6, 4.4-3.7 and 1.6-0.4 ka) through the Holocene. These data give no support for an early saturation of the continent, although the estimated population following initial landfall was probably greater than previously allowed (comparable with the Early Holocene). The greatest increase in population occurred in the Late Holocene, but in contrast to existing intensification models, changes in demography and diversification of economic activities began much earlier. Some demographic changes appear to be in response to major climatic events, most notably during the last glacial maximum, where the curve suggests that population fell by about 60 per cent between 21 and 18 ka. An application of statistical demographic methods to Australian ethnographic and genetic data suggests that a founding group of 1000-2000 at 50 ka would result in a population high of approximately 1.2 million at approximately 0.5 ka. Data suggests an 8 per cent decline to approximately 770 000-1.1 million at the time of European contact, giving a figure consistent with ethnographic estimates and with historical observations of the impact of smallpox, and other diseases introduced by Macassans and Europeans during and after AD 1788.

  14. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  15. Dialysis treatment in Australia, 1982 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Disney, A P

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of new dialysis-dependent patients in Australia increased rapidly from 1982, due mainly to acceptance for treatment of more elderly patients. In 1988, 21% of patients beginning dialysis were 65 to 74 years old, and a further 26% were 55 to 64 years. Consequently, the prevalence of dialysis-dependent patients increased considerably during the same period, particularly in the age range 55 to 74 years. Diabetes-induced renal failure accounted for a constant low proportion of new patients, approximately 10%, which contrasted with the experience in some other countries. Hemodialysis (HD) was the more common method of treatment compared with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in 1988 (70% v 30%, respectively). Home dialysis treatment, HD or CAPD, supported 50% of all dialysis-dependent patients. Patient survival at 1, 2, and 5 years after initiating treatment was 89%, 78%, and 48%, respectively. Age and method of dialysis significantly influenced survival; the elderly and diabetic had a lower expectation of survival. The difference in survival of HD compared with CAPD increased with the duration of treatment, reaching 20% at 5 years (5-year survival, 59% HD; 39% CAPD). There was no evidence of increasing mortality among patients beginning treatment recently. Withdrawal from treatment represented 16% of deaths during 1988; 19% of the deaths were in the age group 65 to 74 years. The influence of the morbidity and mortality of dialysis on provision of such treatment for end-stage renal failure in the elderly population warrants an objective review of both the benefits to the individual and the availability of health care to the whole society.

  16. Evolution of vocational rehabilitation competencies in Australia.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynda R; Buys, Nicholas; Randall, Christine; Biggs, Herbert; Hazelwood, Zoe

    2010-06-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growth in the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services globally, as countries seek to control disability-related expenditure, yet there has been minimal research outside the United States on competencies required to work in this area. This study reports on research conducted in Australia to determine current job function and knowledge areas in terms of their importance and frequency of use in the provision of vocational rehabilitation. A survey comprising items from the Rehabilitation Skills Inventory-Amended and International Survey of Disability Management was completed by 149 rehabilitation counselors and items submitted to factor analysis. T-tests and analyses of variance were used to determine differences between scores of importance and frequency and differences in scores based on work setting and professional training. Six factors were identified as important and frequently used: (i) vocational counseling, (ii) professional practice, (iii) personal counseling, (iv) rehabilitation case management, (v) workplace disability case management, and (vi) workplace intervention and program management. Vocational counseling, professional practice and personal counseling were significantly more important and performed more frequently by respondents in vocational rehabilitation settings than those in compensation settings. These same three factors were rated significantly higher in importance and frequency by those with rehabilitation counselor training when compared with those with other training. In conclusion, although 'traditional' knowledge and skill areas such as vocational counseling, professional practice, and personal counseling were identified as central to vocational rehabilitation practice in Australian rehabilitation agencies, mean ratings suggest a growing emphasis on knowledge and skills associated with disability management practice.

  17. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  18. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  19. Submarine origin for the Neoproterozoic Wonoka canyons, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, J. A.; Wallace, M. W.; Haines, P. W.; Mornane, K.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of the deeply incised Ediacaran Wonoka canyons in the Adelaide Geosyncline (most recently interpreted as subaerial valleys) demonstrates their submarine origin, and confirms them as some of the best examples of ancient outcropping submarine canyons in the world. The entire canyon-fill succession is interpreted to be of deep-water (below wave base) origin, consisting of calcareous shale and siltstone together with a variety of mass-flow deposits including turbidites, grain flows and debris flows. The canyon fill lacks definitive shallow-water structures (e.g. mud cracks, fenestral fabrics or wave ripples) at all stratigraphic levels. Canyon-lining carbonate crusts that have previously been interpreted as non-marine calcretes or tufas (and used to suggest a non-marine origin for the canyons) are argued to be of deep-water, marine, microbial origin. Extremely negative carbon isotope values from the canyon-fill and canyon-lining crusts have a primary marine origin. Previously interpreted deepening upward trends in the canyon fill (used as evidence of a subaerial erosion episode followed by drowning) are suggested to be fining upward trends, caused by the transition from canyon cutting to canyon filling, with the majority of the fill being of deep-water slope origin. The basal conglomeratic canyon-fill sediments represent the last vestiges of the high-energy, deep-water, canyon-erosion environment in which the incisions formed. A deep-water origin for the canyons is consistent with all previous stratigraphic observations of the Wonoka canyons, including the conspicuous lack of regional unconformities in the lower Wonoka Formation, and their emanation from the deep-water facies of the Wonoka Formation. A submarine canyon origin also removes the need for extreme (~ 1 km) relative sea level fluctuation and associated problems (i.e. an enclosed basin with Messinian-style evaporative drawdown or thermal uplift above a migrating mantle plume) required by the

  20. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  1. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  2. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  3. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  4. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  5. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  6. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  7. Antibody persistence at 18-20 months of age and safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a combined DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T vaccine compared to separate vaccines (DTaP, PRP∼T and IPV) following primary vaccination of healthy infants in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-11-21

    This study assessed the antibody persistence, and the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T (Pentaxim®, Sanofi Pasteur's AcXim family) combined vaccine and of standalone vaccines one year after primary vaccination in the People's Republic of China. Participants (N=719) previously primed with DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T at 2, 3, 4 months (Group A, N=255), 3, 4, 5 months (Group B, N=233), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib®) and IPV (Imovax® Polio) at 3, 4, 5 months (Group C, N=231) received boosters of the same vaccines at 18-20 months of age. Seroprotection (SP) and seroconversion (SC) were determined before and 1 month after the booster. Safety was monitored from parental reports. In all groups 87.6-100% of participants had pre-booster protective anti-PRP, -diphtheria, -tetanus and -poliovirus antibody titers; post-booster, all SP rates were 100% and SC was ≥ 80.4% for anti-pertussis titers ≥ 4-fold increase. Reactogenicity was low for each group. These data support the use of the DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T vaccine in the People's Republic of China compared to separate DTaP, IPV, and PRP∼T administration in terms of both safety and immunogenicity.

  8. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2005.

    PubMed

    Roche, Paul; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Bartlett, Mark; Coleman, David; Davis, Craig; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke

    2007-03-01

    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2005 with comparative data available since 2001. There were 1,680 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2005; a notification rate of 8.3 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (41 cases per 100,000 population) and in 1-year-old children (36.5 cases per 100,000 population). Enhanced data provided additional information on 1,015 (60%) of all notified cases. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 8.6 times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians. There were 126 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 7.5%. While the rate of IPD in the Indigenous under 2-year-old population decreased from 219 cases per 100,000 population since targeted introduction of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (7vPCV) in 2001, the rate in 2005 (94 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (20.4 cases per 100,000 population). Rates of disease in all children aged less than 2 years, caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV decreased by 75% between 2004 and 2005 as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. There is no evidence of replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. Serotypes were identified in 90% of all notified cases, with 61% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 88% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). Reduced penicillin susceptibility

  9. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Roche, Paul W; Krause, Vicki; Cook, Heather; Barralet, Jenny; Coleman, David; Sweeny, Amy; Fielding, James; Giele, Carolien; Gilmour, Robin; Holland, Ros; Kampen, Riemke; Brown, Mitchell; Gilbert, Lyn; Hogg, Geoff; Murphy, Denise

    2008-03-01

    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2006 with comprehensive comparative data available since 2002. There were 1,445 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2006; a notification rate of 7 cases per 100,000 population. The rates varied between states and territories and by geographical region with the highest rates in the Northern Territory, the jurisdiction with the largest proportion of Indigenous people. Invasive pneumococcal disease was reported most frequently in those aged 85 years or over (30.8 cases per 100,000 population) and in children aged one year (26.5 cases per 100,000 population). There were 130 deaths attributed to IPD resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 9%. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 4.3 times the rate in non-indigenous Australians. The rate of IPD in the under two years population continued to fall in 2006, but the rate in Indigenous children (73 cases per 100,000 population) was significantly greater than in non-Indigenous children (21 cases per 100,000 population). The rates of disease caused by serotypes in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) decreased between 2002 and 2006 by 78% in children aged under two years as a result of the introduction of a universal childhood 7vPCV immunisation program. Significant decreases in IPD caused by 7vPCV serotypes also occurred in the 2-14 years and 65 years or over age groups. Rates of disease caused by non-7vPCV in the same periods were little changed. Serotypes were identified in 94% of all notified cases, with 43% of disease caused by serotypes in the 7vPCV and 85% caused by serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV). The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remains low and reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins is rare.

  10. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  11. Mucormycosis in Australia: contemporary epidemiology and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K J; Daveson, K; Slavin, M A; van Hal, S J; Sorrell, T C; Lee, A; Marriott, D J; Chapman, B; Halliday, C L; Hajkowicz, K; Athan, E; Bak, N; Cheong, E; Heath, C H; Morrissey, C O; Kidd, S; Beresford, R; Blyth, C; Korman, T M; Robinson, J O; Meyer, W; Chen, S C-A

    2016-09-01

    Mucormycosis is the second most common cause of invasive mould infection and causes disease in diverse hosts, including those who are immuno-competent. We conducted a multicentre retrospective study of proven and probable cases of mucormycosis diagnosed between 2004-2012 to determine the epidemiology and outcome determinants in Australia. Seventy-four cases were identified (63 proven, 11 probable). The majority (54.1%) were caused by Rhizopus spp. Patients who sustained trauma were more likely to have non-Rhizopus infections relative to patients without trauma (OR 9.0, p 0.001, 95% CI 2.1-42.8). Haematological malignancy (48.6%), chemotherapy (42.9%), corticosteroids (52.7%), diabetes mellitus (27%) and trauma (22.9%) were the most common co-morbidities or risk factors. Rheumatological/autoimmune disorders occurred in nine (12.1%) instances. Eight (10.8%) cases had no underlying co-morbidity and were more likely to have associated trauma (7/8; 87.5% versus 10/66; 15.2%; p <0.001). Disseminated infection was common (39.2%). Apophysomyces spp. and Saksenaea spp. caused infection in immuno-competent hosts, most frequently associated with trauma and affected sites other than lung and sinuses. The 180-day mortality was 56.7%. The strongest predictors of mortality were rheumatological/autoimmune disorder (OR = 24.0, p 0.038 95% CI 1.2-481.4), haematological malignancy (OR = 7.7, p 0.001, 95% CI 2.3-25.2) and admission to intensive care unit (OR = 4.2, p 0.02, 95% CI 1.3-13.8). Most deaths occurred within one month. Thereafter we observed divergence in survival between the haematological and non-haematological populations (p 0.006). The mortality of mucormycosis remains particularly high in the immuno-compromised host. Underlying rheumatological/autoimmune disorders are a previously under-appreciated risk for infection and poor outcome.

  12. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  13. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  14. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  15. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  16. Vegemite and chocolate sprinkles: Dutch medical students in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Cals, Jochen; Joyner, Peter; Tuffley, Robert J; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) working group of the Department of General Practice of Maastricht University in the Netherlands was founded in 1998 specifically to introduce students to patient care, research and education in primary health care settings outside the Netherlands. Rural health care in Australia is appealing to international medical students because of its unique setting. In the past 5 years, 42 medical students from Maastricht University have pursued a medical elective in rural Australia, supervised by the PHC working group. Doctors and coordinators in primary care clinics across Australia have welcomed and supervised students from Maastricht and exposed them to the reality of rural health care. Future collaboration with other Australian primary care clinics is welcomed.

  17. Birthing, Nativity, and Maternal Depression: Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Melissa L; Tienda, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes two birth cohort surveys, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n=3944) and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n=7700), to examine variation in maternal depression by nativity, duration of residence, age at migration, and English proficiency in Australia and the United States. Both countries have long immigrant traditions and a common language. The results demonstrate that US immigrant mothers are significantly less depressed than native-born mothers, but maternal depression does not differ by nativity in Australia. Moreover, the association between duration of residence and maternal depression is not linear: recent arrivals and long-term residents exhibit the highest depression levels. Lack of English proficiency exacerbates maternal depression in Australia, but protects against depression in the United States. Differences in immigration regimes and welfare systems likely contribute to the differing salience of nativity for maternal depression.

  18. Epidemiology of coronial deaths from pesticide ingestion in Australia.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Nicholas J; Cairns, Rose; Dawson, Andrew H; Chitty, Kate M; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides in Australia are tightly regulated but it is unknown how this may affect the distribution of misuse and self-harm across Australia, both spatially and within subgroups in the population. We performed an observational study to examine spatial differences in suicide/deliberate poisonings with pesticides in Australia. We examined Coronial inquest cases of self-harm by pesticide ingestion for the years 2001-2013 (n=209). Coronial cases were older, more likely to be male, have lower SES status and live in outer regional areas as opposed to cities when compared to the general population. Case densities (cases/100,000 population) were lower in large capital cities and higher in agricultural areas: despite this half the cases occurred in major cities.

  19. In Brief: Unlocking Australia's oil and gas reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-11-01

    A collaboration to unlock stranded offshore oil and gas reserves through improved underwater pipeline design was launched in Perth, Australia, on 31 October. Called the Wealth From Oceans National Research Flagship's Collaboration Cluster on Subsea Pipelines, the A$11 million program brings together the research capabilities of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and six universities. With more than 80% of Australia's gas resources likely lying as far as 300 kilometers offshore at a depth greater than 1 kilometer, Flagship director Kate Wilson said that realizing the full potential of these resources requires developing economically viable and environmentally sound transportation technologies. ``Projects will investigate seabed characterization and morphology, structural integrity, pipeline monitoring, geohazards, and full-life reliability. This will involve everything from sophisticated computer modeling and seafloor movement prediction to understanding tsunami effects and exploring the use of autonomous underwater and remotely operated vehicles.''

  20. Heat flow measurements on the southeast coast of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, R.D.; Jaeger, J.C.; Sass, J.H.

    1969-01-01

    Three boreholes have been drilled for the Australian National University near the southeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. The heat flows found are 1.1, 1.0, and 1.3 ??cal/cm2sec. The errors resulting from the proximity of the sea and a lake, surface temperature change, conductivity structure and water flow have been examined. The radioactive heat production in some of the intrusive rocks of the area have also been measured. The heat flows are much lower than the values of about 2.0 found elsewhere in south eastern Australia. The lower values appear to be part of a distinct heat flow province in eastern Australia. ?? 1969.

  1. Mantle dynamics of continent-wide tilting of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaprio, L.; Gurnis, M.; Muller, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is distinctive in that during the Cenozoic it experienced first order, broad-scale vertical motions unrelated to normal orogenic processes. The progressive continent-wide tilting down to the northeast is attributed to the horizontal motion of the continent over subducted slabs. We use plate tectonic reconstructions and a model of mantle convection to quantitatively link the geological evolution of the continent to mantle convection. The passage of slabs beneath the Southwest Pacific since 50 Ma is modeled numerically, and the results are compared to geologic observations of anomalous topography. Models show that Australia undergoes a 300 m northeast downward tilt as it approaches and overrides subducted slabs between Melanesia and the active margin along the Loyalty and proto-Tonga Kermadec subduction systems. This pattern of dynamic subsidence is consistent with observations of continent wide tilting and may indicate that during the Cenozoic Australia moved northward away from a relatively hot mantle anomaly presently located beneath Antarctica.

  2. Rossby waves, extreme fronts, and wildfires in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Michael J.; Spengler, Thomas; Musgrave, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    The most catastrophic fires in recent history in southern Australia have been associated with extreme cold fronts. Here an extreme cold front is defined as one for which the maximum temperature at 2 m is at least 17°C lower on the day following the front. An anticyclone, which precedes the cold front, directs very dry northerlies or northwesterlies from the interior of the continent across the region. The passage of the cold front is followed by strong southerlies or southwesterlies. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim Reanalyses show that this regional synoptic pattern common to all strong cold fronts, and hence severe fire conditions, is a consequence of propagating Rossby waves, which grow to large amplitude and eventually irreversibly overturn. The process of overturning produces the low-level anticyclone and dry conditions over southern Australia, while simultaneously producing an upper level trough and often precipitation in northeastern Australia.

  3. Public health response to imported case of poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007.

    PubMed

    Carnie, John A; Lester, Rosemary; Moran, Rodney; Brown, Lynne; Meagher, Julian; Roberts, Jason A; Thorley, Bruce R

    2009-11-01

    Australia, along with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region, was declared free of poliomyelitis by the World Health Organization in October 2000. Yet, the persistence of wild poliovirus in the 4 remaining polio-endemic countries-Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan-poses a risk for its importation into all countries declared polio free. We describe the public health response and outcomes resulting from the importation of a wild poliovirus infection in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2007. This response, based on an assessment of the risk for transmission, included offering vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine to the contacts and placing the index patient in isolation and the household contacts in quarantine until consecutive fecal specimens were negative for poliovirus by culture. The experience gained from the polio importation event in Australia may assist other polio-free countries to prepare for, and respond to, a similar event. No secondary clinical cases resulted from this importation.

  4. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  5. Project Skippy explores lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, Rob; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John

    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband seismic data from over 60 sites across the continent (Figure 1).The main goal of the Skippy Project, which is run by Australian National University's Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES), is to delineate the three-dimensional seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath the continent.

  6. Associations between Climate Change and Natural Systems in Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Lynda E.

    2006-02-01

    In the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report numerous studies of processes and species associated with regional temperature change were listed for the Northern Hemisphere (107 in North America, 458 in Europe, and 14 in Asia), but only a handful of studies for the Southern Hemisphere and, sadly, none for Australia were included. This article looks at the progress that Australia has made in addressing these knowledge gaps during the last three years. The article highlights the need for a national approach to the study of the associations between climate change and natural systems and suggests ways in which this could be achieved.

  7. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.

  8. Pleistocene human footprints from the Willandra Lakes, Southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Steve; Cupper, Matthew L; Robins, Richard

    2006-04-01

    Human and other hominid fossil footprints provide rare but important insights into anatomy and behavior. Here we report recently discovered fossil trackways of human footprints from the Willandra Lakes region of western New South Wales, Australia. Optically dated to between 19-23 ka and consisting of at least 124 prints, the trackways form the largest collection of Pleistocene human footprints in the world. The prints were made by adults, adolescents, and children traversing the moist surface of an ephemeral soak. This site offers a unique glimpse of humans living in the arid inland of Australia at the height of the last glacial period.

  9. Cretaceous vertical motion of australia and the australian- antarctic discordance

    PubMed

    Gurnis; Muller; Moresi

    1998-03-06

    A three-dimensional model of mantle convection in which the known history of plate tectonics is imposed predicts the anomalous Cretaceous vertical motion of Australia and the present-day distinctive geochemistry and geophysics of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. The dynamic models infer that a subducted slab associated with the long-lived Gondwanaland-Pacific converging margin passed beneath Australia during the Cretaceous, partially stagnated in the mantle transition zone, and is presently being drawn up by the Southeast Indian Ridge.

  10. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  11. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Mango, Mangifera indica L., from Australia into the Continental United States: A Pathway-initiated Risk... to read as follows: Sec. 319.56-60 Mangoes from Australia. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  16. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the comprehensive... authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade.... (2) Major program authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden,...

  17. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the comprehensive... authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade.... (2) Major program authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden,...

  18. 20 CFR 25.201 - How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employees in Australia? 25.201 Section 25.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (a) The special schedule of compensation established by subpart B of this part shall apply in Australia with the modifications or...

  19. The Hidden Topography of Australia's Arts Nation: The Contribution of Universities to the Artistic Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In "Arts Nation" 2015, the Australia Council documented the current landscape of artistic endeavour in Australia, acknowledging that there are still gaps that need to be filled to build a greater public understanding of the arts in Australia. The contribution of Australian universities to the arts is one such lacuna. This paper seeks to…

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Australia for fruit flies. (1) Apples from Australia (including Tasmania) may be imported without treatment for the following fruit flies if they are imported from an area in Australia that meets the requirements of § 319.56-5 for pest freedom: Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the Queensland...

  1. A Comparison of Perceived Parental Influence on Mathematics Learning among Students in China and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Zhongjun; Forgasz, Helen; Bishop, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores levels of perceived parental influence on mathematics learning among over 700 students in China and Australia. Students in China had stronger perceived parental influences than students in Australia, and while students in China, Chinese speaking students in Australia, and other language speaking students in Australia…

  2. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  3. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  4. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide...

  5. 20 CFR 25.201 - How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employees in Australia? 25.201 Section 25.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (a) The special schedule of compensation established by subpart B of this part shall apply in Australia with the modifications or...

  6. 20 CFR 25.201 - How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employees in Australia? 25.201 Section 25.201 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... How is the Special Schedule applied for employees in Australia? (a) The special schedule of compensation established by subpart B of this part shall apply in Australia with the modifications or...

  7. Beyond the Conventional Wisdom: Rural Development As If Australia's Rural People Really Mattered. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan; Sher, Katrina Rowe

    This paper proposes a framework for developing a national rural development policy in Australia. Some common relevant misconceptions are that rural Australia and rural Australians are peripheral to the national economy and the nation's future, that farmers and farming communities are the alpha and omega of rural Australia, and that whatever is…

  8. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  9. Do Accredited Undergraduate Accounting Programmes in Australia Meet the Needs and Expectations of the Accounting Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayerlein, Leopold; Timpson, Mel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the overall alignment of undergraduate accounting degree programmes from all Certified Practicing Accountants Australia and Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand accredited higher education providers in Australia with the profession's minimum educational expectations (MEEs).…

  10. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  11. Deaf Culture's Impact on Educational Programs for the Deaf in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, John

    This paper discusses recent trends in provision of educational programs and services reflecting the Deaf community's recognition in Australia as a linguistic and cultural minority, focusing on the Bilingual/Bicultural program of the Thomas Pattison School in Sydney (Australia). The history of Deaf culture, language, and education in Australia and…

  12. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  13. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  14. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  15. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  16. Updated Guidelines for Training Package Developers. Australia's National Training Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This document contains the latest guidelines for developing nationally endorsed training packages for use in Australia's system of vocational education and training (VET). Discussed in section A are the following aspects of the context in which the training packages emerged: development of the National Training Framework and associated new…

  17. Making Inclusion Work: Autism Spectrum Australia Satellite Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.; Keane, Elaine; Clark, Trevor R.

    2008-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Australia Satellite Class Project features small specialist classes for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) within general education schools. The program incorporates individual education goals within timetable based on the general school curricula, in conjunction with a schedule of integrated activities. The aim of…

  18. Universal Service in a Participatory Democracy: A Perspective from Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Reuck, John; Joseph, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses universal service policy in telecommunications in Australia in an historical context. Maintains that given the dynamic growth in information technologies, universal service should be reconceptualized within a knowledge-based discourse critically linked to considerations for deepening participatory democracy and that funding should be…

  19. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  20. Language Teacher Research in Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne, Ed.; Burton, Jill, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, inquiry-based teaching has become a highly valued component of professional development and practitioner research in Australia and New Zealand. This volume of the Language Teacher Research Series focuses on teaching and learning experiences in those two countries, which encompass a large geographical area with diverse…

  1. Reclaiming Indigenous Youth in Australia: Families and Schools Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechielsen,Jack; Galbraith, Mal; White, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Australia's Northern Territory is twice the size of Texas, with only 230,000 people living in its enormous space. About half reside in the capital Darwin in the tropical far north; the next biggest town with a population of 25,000 people is Alice Springs, 1600 kilometers south in the central desert. Some 70,000 Indigenous people form 30% of the…

  2. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  3. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  4. The Rising Education Level of Females in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Anh T.; Miller, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    To account for significant increase in female participation in secondary and higher education in Australia, models of educational attainment are estimated for different age groups. Finds that while family-related characteristics play a major role in educational attainment, female attainment is strongly influenced by age-group membership,…

  5. Mapping the Educational Work of Governesses on Australia's Remote Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the educational work of governesses on Australia's remote cattle and sheep stations. These stations occupy vast tracts of land in the outback, and form part of global food supply chains exporting meat to countries around the world. The article explores the nature of governesses' work, the boundaries they negotiate to perform…

  6. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... intended to include representatives from a variety of U.S. biotechnology and life science firms. The goals... a gateway to Asian markets. Australia is the leading biotechnology hub of the Asia-Pacific, with over 1,000 biotechnology companies, and clinical trials that meet the requirements under EU and...

  7. International Adult Education: A Personal Reflection from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Roger K.

    2005-01-01

    The author was born during the Second World War, in Sydney, Australia, and was educated in public schools and at a state teachers' college, largely during the 1950s. He began his working life as an elementary school teacher in the early 1960s, and entered higher education as a lecturer at a small teachers' college in the early 1970s. He retired…

  8. The Governance of Australia. Civics and Citizenship Learning Circle Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Neil

    This kit, the first of four learning circles on civics and citizenship, addresses a series of broad issues about the way in which Australia is governed. Introductory materials include a synopsis of the six sessions; lists of 51 references, 29 Internet sites, and 13 videos and CDs; glossary; and list of 19 resource materials. Session guides are…

  9. Dengue Fever-Associated Maculopathy and Panuveitis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ooi, K G-J; Inglis, H; Paramanathan, N; Downie, J A; Hennessy, M P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a case of dengue fever-associated maculopathy and panuveitis to raise awareness of these ophthalmic complications of dengue in Australia in the light of recent increasing numbers of outbreaks from equatorial through to tropical Australia. Case Report. A 37-year-old Caucasian Australian male returning from Cambodia presented with a bilateral dengue fever-associated maculopathy with left panuveitis diagnosed clinically and haematologically. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral paracentral scotomas while optical coherence tomography demonstrated the maculopathies to be of the diffuse retinal thickening type in the right eye and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) type in the left eye. He was treated conservatively with only topical steroids and cycloplegia and made a full clinical visual recovery. Conclusion. Our case study underscores the importance of the awareness of the ophthalmic complications of dengue fever as despite their rarity they can be potentially sight threatening. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise in Australia with increased global warming and the distribution of Aedes aegypti into subtropical Australia.

  10. National Library of Australia: What Future for the Strategic Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keany, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the National Library of Australia's leadership of the Australian library system in light of the failure of key electronic aspects of the Strategic Plan. Topics include overseas collecting; electronic access; the Distributed National Collection (DNC); culturally discriminatory collecting policy; and costs of access, including user fees.…

  11. The Perceived Importance of University Presence in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John; van Breda, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated rural residents' perceived importance of university presence in rural, regional and remote Australia. The present data indicate that the presence of university in rural areas is perceived as highly important by both rural and urban citizens. Results indicate that rural residents perceive that there is a need for…

  12. The Art of Being an English Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyden, Grace

    2015-01-01

    The role of the English teacher in Australia is constantly being negotiated and with every ideological development teachers are positioned to question their professional values and practices. Much attention has been afforded to this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an analysis of the evolution of the art of being an English…

  13. Inclusive Education in Australia: Rhetoric, Reality and the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joanna; Boyle, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is a term that has been part of the educational discourse in Australia for almost two decades. While there is no overarching definition under which IE operates in that country, it is accepted that the meaning behind the term has shifted from being exclusively about students with a disability to now encompassing the…

  14. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  15. Framing the Framework: Discourses in Australia's National Values Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany Mary

    2009-01-01

    In the past, many Australian state schools avoided teaching about values explicitly. However, the Australian government released Australia's first official values education policy in 2005: the "National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools" (NFVEAS). This framework represents a local manifestation of the recent…

  16. Reflections on the Tertiary Education Sector in Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The split between higher education and vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is not clean. This paper discusses a number of aspects of this tertiary education sector: the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which describes the qualifications offered by the three education sectors: schools, higher education and VET; student…

  17. Long-Run Trends in School Productivity: Evidence from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew; Ryan, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Outside the United States, very little is known about long-run trends in school productivity. We present new evidence using two data series from Australia, where comparable tests are available back to the 1960s. For young teenagers (aged 13-14), we find a small but statistically significant fall in numeracy over the period 1964-2003 and in both…

  18. Women in Science: The Persistence of Gender in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the need for adopting a more scientific approach to specifying and assessing academic standards in higher education. Drawing together insights from large-scale studies in Australia, it advances a definition of academic standards, explores potential indicators of academic quality and looks at approaches for setting standards. As…

  19. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  20. Individualism-Collectivism and Job Satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordin, Fauziah; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data…

  1. Combining Education and Work: Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Although there is currently no national approach to career education in Australia, recent economic and labor trends have prompted the reconsideration of work experience and career education programs. Career education does not exist below secondary levels and prevocational training serves only as an introduction to extensive postsecondary technical…

  2. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  3. MAGSAT anomaly field data of the crustal properties of Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.

  4. Marriage Counselling in Australia: A Review. Working Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Ilene

    In Australia, the institutions of marriage and family are changing as reflected by the statistics on separation, divorce, and remarriage. Recent figures reveal an increase in divorce in the earlier years of marriage as well as a dramatic increase in the number of remarriages occuring across all age groups. Under the Family Law Act the government…

  5. Early medical abortion: legal and medical developments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kerry A

    2010-07-05

    Mifepristone is a safe, effective and relatively cheap drug that plays an important role in women's health care and is widely used for early medical abortion in many countries. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) can authorise mifepristone to be imported into and marketed in Australia. To date, no pharmaceutical company has applied to register mifepristone in Australia. The TGA can also permit medical practitioners to prescribe medicine that is not approved for marketing in Australia under the Authorised Prescribers scheme. The number of approvals for mifepristone has gradually increased, in spite of a complicated and protracted application process. Approval under the Authorised Prescribers scheme requires medical practitioners to comply with state or territory legislation. Abortion laws in Australia vary between jurisdictions, and in some states the law is unclear and confusing. The decriminalisation of abortion in all Australian jurisdictions would protect medical practitioners from criminal liability, promote the health interests of Australian women, and discourage the illegal importation of abortifacients that are being used without quality controls or medical supervision. The Victorian Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 is one legislative model for this.

  6. Advertising Education in Australia: Looking Back to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gayle F.; Waller, David; Patti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In Australia, advertising is a $13 billion industry that needs a supply of suitably skilled employees. Over the years, advertising education has developed from vocational-based courses to degree courses across the country. This study uses diffusion theory and various secondary sources and interviews to observe the development of advertising…

  7. Technology Education In Australia: National Policy and State Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L.

    This paper reviews a decade of development of technology education at the secondary school level in Australia. It traces the influences, both national and international, which have pressed the nation's education systems to introduce technology studies into the school curriculum. The increasing globalization, the movement of capital and labor, the…

  8. Mitigating the Risk of Transfusion-Transmitted Dengue in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Kelly; Seed, Clive R.; Fryk, Jesse J.; Hyland, Catherine A.; Harley, Robert J.; Holmberg, Jerry A.; Marks, Denese C.; Flower, Robert L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV 1–4) are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT) cases reported globally. DENV 1–4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas) with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia. Plasma samples were collected from blood donors during local dengue outbreaks. All samples were tested for the presence of DENV RNA and selected samples were tested for DENV antigen (nonstructural protein 1, NS1) with two assays. No donors residing in high risk areas had detectable levels of DENV RNA or NS1 and no cases of DENV viremia were detected in blood donors residing in areas of Australia experiencing DENV outbreaks. Definitive conclusions could not be drawn from this study; however, the lack of detection of DENV RNA or antigen in donations suggests that the current risk of TT-DENV is low and maintaining the fresh component restriction for “at-risk” donors is appropriate. PMID:27957384

  9. The Experience of an International University Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abayadeera, Nadana

    2013-01-01

    Accounting and Business schools in Australia have a considerable number of international academic staff, and the teaching effectiveness of such staff is an increasingly salient issue. Many international teachers are non-native English speakers and have different teaching approaches and styles, often reflecting their own experiences as a learner in…

  10. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  11. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  12. Dengue Fever-Associated Maculopathy and Panuveitis in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, H.; Paramanathan, N.; Downie, J. A.; Hennessy, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a case of dengue fever-associated maculopathy and panuveitis to raise awareness of these ophthalmic complications of dengue in Australia in the light of recent increasing numbers of outbreaks from equatorial through to tropical Australia. Case Report. A 37-year-old Caucasian Australian male returning from Cambodia presented with a bilateral dengue fever-associated maculopathy with left panuveitis diagnosed clinically and haematologically. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral paracentral scotomas while optical coherence tomography demonstrated the maculopathies to be of the diffuse retinal thickening type in the right eye and acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) type in the left eye. He was treated conservatively with only topical steroids and cycloplegia and made a full clinical visual recovery. Conclusion. Our case study underscores the importance of the awareness of the ophthalmic complications of dengue fever as despite their rarity they can be potentially sight threatening. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise in Australia with increased global warming and the distribution of Aedes aegypti into subtropical Australia. PMID:28078150

  13. Institutionalizing Sustainability: The Case of Sustainability at Griffith University Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the story of one university's reflecting on sustainability. It is the story of Griffith University in Australia and the process of review that identified the focus on sustainability within teaching, research, operational practices, community service, and institutional leadership. The review makes use of the "Association…

  14. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  15. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal

    1993-01-01

    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  16. School-Leaving Decisions in Australia: A Cohort Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Anh T.; Miller, Paul W.

    2004-01-01

    The decision to invest in education is influenced by a large number of economic, social, family, personal and institutional factors. Many of these changed in Australia during the 1970s and 1980s. Several of the more important of these changes, such as the Equal Pay for Equal Work decision of 1969, the Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value decision of…

  17. Children's Library Services for Multicultural Societies in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayfield, Juliana

    Responding to the increasing cultural and ethnic diversity of Australia's population and to awakening interest in its indigenous minorities, this paper examines problems of acquisition and dissemination of children's literature to preserve the cultural heritage of minority groups. Appendices display population by age groups between 1954 and 1977,…

  18. The Age and Qualifications of Special Education Staff in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a survey distributed in April 2007 to government special education schools and settings throughout Australia. The survey collected information about the age and special education qualifications of teaching staff. It followed a similar survey that was distributed in May 2006 to Victorian special schools that…

  19. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  20. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  1. An Industrial Building Converted into a Girls School in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Eamon

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how an industrial building in Perth, Western Australia, has been converted into a secondary school to suit the particular needs of girls with educational and social difficulties. The aim of the building project was to provide a small school for approximately 30 students that caters to the needs of adolescent girls who are…

  2. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to…

  3. Dalcroze Eurhythmics: Interaction in Australia in the 1920s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Although musical, rhythmical and aural training aspects are at the heart of the Dalcroze approach it was physical educators rather than music educators in Australia who showed more interest. Lillian Mills and Ella Gormley, inaugural supervisors of physical training in WA and NSW respectively, contributed to the awareness of its benefits.…

  4. The Bradley Review and Access to Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birrell, Bob; Edwards, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The "Review of Higher Education in Australia" (the Bradley Review) has recommended a massive expansion in the level of domestic training in Australian universities. This article examines the Report's rationale for rejecting the previous orthodoxy that there is no need for such expansion and, to the extent that there is, it would be…

  5. A new species of Austrothaumalea Tonnoir from Australia (Diptera: Thaumaleidae).

    PubMed

    Pivar, Robert J; Moulton, John K; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2016-07-01

    Austrothaumalea spiculata sp. nov. is described from Grampians National Park, in southwest Victoria (Australia). It is known only from the type series and is the second species of Thaumaleidae recorded from the Park. Illustrations of the male terminalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided. Phylogenetic affinities are hypothesized and an updated species identification key is offered.

  6. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  7. Panis populi--bread and public health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1998-04-01

    The 'standard loaf, 680 gm, white, supermarket-purchased' as expressed in the Consumer Price Index, is but the basic form of bread sold to the Australian public. In the public health context, three themes have been intimately associated with bread--quality control, price control and bread used as a vehicle for supplementary nutritive agents important in preventive medicine. Price control, through assizing, has been a feature of bread marketing in western communities for seven centuries; and bread remains the last item on which price control (although seldom enforced) exists in Australia. Quality control, for public health, is determined both by regulation and by the force of increasingly literate consumers, of whom women occupy the most important determinant. From the preventive medicine point of view, important themes in bread quality, such as its use to reduce laxative sales on the one hand and to reduce the demographic incidence of colonic cancer on the other, remains outside formal regulation. Australia is a relatively conservative nation in the context of nutritional additives. It was not until 1953 that the National Health and Medical Research Council approved the addition of extra B vitamins to bread. Currently, folic acid is added as a discretion to selected high-premium breakfast cereals in Australia in one attempt to reduce the incidence to neural tube defects. The addition of such ingredients to bread remains an unrealised, but potentially important aspect of preventive medicine in Australia.

  8. Dustman, Milliner and Watchcase Maker: Skilling Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This paper was presented at the Professional Historians Association (NSW) Islands of History conference held on Norfolk Island in July 2010. It argues that the reliance on overseas workers to address skills shortages has been present ever since the first white settlement of Australia, which has, in turn, shaped attitudes to the governance of…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  10. Early Childhood Music Education in Australia: A Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie

    2008-01-01

    Policy for early childhood music education (birth to eight years of age) in Australia covers a complex and diverse range of curriculum guidelines and legislation relating to the contexts of day care, preschool, and the early years of school. Australian models and policies vary from state to state and according to setting. Furthermore, early…

  11. Moving Ideas and Mobile Researchers: Australia in the Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws from the ARC Discovery project called "Moving Ideas: Mobile Policies, Researchers and Connections in the Social Sciences and Humanities--Australia in the Global Context" (2006-2009). This project explored the ways that ideas travel and how knowledge transforms through travel. One aspect of the study was the critical…

  12. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  13. Future Directions: A Model for Educational Partnerships in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley; Gray, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Educators are typically people who have much to offer their profession as well as the communities in which they work. This article analyzes the strategies used to develop a university postgraduate education program that involved input from stakeholders representing different educational systems in regional and rural Australia. The results indicate…

  14. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barry; And Others

    This document contains 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: (1) N.S.W. (New South Wales) Department of Agriculture Home Study Program (O'Neill); (2) Increasing Citizen Participation in Local Government (Holderness-Roddam); (3) School for Seniors (Benham and Vickers); (4) Community Living Project (Bleechmore); (5) Learning for the Less…

  15. Net settler migration to Australia by birthplace: 1947-98.

    PubMed

    Price, C A

    1998-01-01

    "Between 1947 and 1998 there was a net inflow of 4.8 million migrants to Australia. Only 29.6 per cent were born in Britain and Ireland. Other surprising findings are that more were born in Indo China than Greece and Cyprus and that more were born in New Zealand than Italy."

  16. ANTA Training Update Seminar Proceedings (Brisbane, Australia, July 10, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This document contains the papers and questions submitted at the Australian National Training Authority's 1997 training update seminar, which focused on vocational education and training in schools and in technical and further education (TAFE) institutions across Australia. The following papers are included: "Welcome and Comments"…

  17. Implementation of a Syllabus Innovation in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Colin J.; Hill, Peter W.

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated the implementation of a geography syllabus in Australia between 1976 and 1980. Influences on level of implementation included the state education system, an external examination system, and a very active geography teachers' association. The problems and achievements perceived by teachers in implementing the syllabus are…

  18. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  19. Enterprise Networking Web Sites and Organizational Communication in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Allee M.; Zhu, Yunxia; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to report initial findings about networking in organizational settings in Australia through the use of enterprise social software. According to Gray and Honick (2008), enterprise social software (also known as Enterprise 2.0) is a term describing social software used in businesses and enterprises. It includes such tools as…

  20. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  1. Senior Secondary Workplace Learning and Transition Success in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemici, Sinan; Curtis, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of participation in workplace learning among senior secondary students in Australia. Work placements are deemed to be effective if they meet policy objectives of improving student transitions by (a) enhancing Year 12 completion rates and (b) increasing the engagement of…

  2. Teaching Near and Far – Broome, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Herceg, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs. PMID:27994988

  3. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Brian John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  4. Financing and Regulating Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Australia has made significant changes in the ways it regulates and funds vocational education and training (VET), with increased emphasis on competition to promote efficient delivery of the type of programs that students and employers want. National, state and territory governments have increased the role of employers by basing nationally…

  5. Assessment for Learning in the Accountability Era: Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Val

    2011-01-01

    Developments in school education in Australia over the past decade have witnessed the rise of national efforts to reform curriculum, assessment and reporting. Constitutionally the power to decide on curriculum matters still resides with the States. Higher stakes in assessment, brought about by national testing and international comparative…

  6. A brief history of solar-terrestrial physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Solar-terrestrial physics research in Australia began in 1792 when de Rossel measured the southern hemisphere geomagnetic field at Recherche Bay on the southern tip of Tasmania, proving the field magnitude and direction varied with latitude. This was the time when the French and British were competing to chart and explore the new world. From the early twentieth century Australian solar-terrestrial physics research concentrated on radio wave propagation and communication, which by the 1950s fed into the International Geophysical Year in the areas of atmosphere and ionosphere physics, and geomagnetism, with some concentration on Antarctic research. This was also the era of increased studies of solar activity and the discovery of the magnetosphere and the beginning of the space age. In the 1960s, Australia became a world leader in solar physics which led to radio astronomy discoveries. This paper outlines the historical development of solar-terrestrial physics in Australia and its international connections over the years and concludes with examples of specific research areas where Australia has excelled.

  7. Adult Education in Australia: The Council of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley

    Liberal adult education in Victoria, Australia, takes its ideals, if not its form, from the pre-war university and Workers Education Association (WEA) partnerships: the university providing tutors and content, the WEA providing contact with unions and workers. Unique to Victoria is the level to which community-based adult education has been…

  8. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface. PMID:22709539

  9. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  10. Livistona palms in Australia: ancient relics or opportunistic immigrants?

    PubMed

    Crisp, Michael D; Isagi, Yuji; Kato, Yohei; Cook, Lyn G; Bowman, David M J S

    2010-02-01

    Eighteen of the 34 species of the fan palm genus Livistona (Arecaceae) are restricted to Australia and southern New Guinea, east of Wallace's Line, an ancient biogeographic boundary between the former supercontinents Laurasia and Gondwana. The remaining species extend from SE Asia to Africa, west of Wallace's Line. Competing hypotheses contend that Livistona is (a) ancient, its current distribution a relict of the supercontinents, or (b) a Miocene immigrant from the north into Australia as it drifted towards Asia. We have tested these hypotheses using Bayesian and penalized likelihood molecular dating based on 4Kb of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences with multiple fossil calibration points. Ancestral areas and biomes were reconstructed using parsimony and maximum likelihood. We found strong support for the second hypothesis, that a single Livistona ancestor colonized Australia from the north about 10-17Ma. Spread and diversification of the genus within Australia was likely favoured by a transition from the aseasonal wet to monsoonal biome, to which it could have been preadapted by fire-tolerance.

  11. Transforming Pedagogy in Primary Schools: A Case Study from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendus, Alys

    2016-01-01

    This article stems from a doctoral study about alternative education around the world and the author's personal journey to identify characteristics of the "ideal school." The focus here is a case study of one small primary school in Australia, through which it shows that there can be a larger amount of freedom and self-actualisation…

  12. "Educare" in Australia: Analysing Policy Mobility and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood education and care has been an area of significant policy attention, public investment and private market activity in Australia over the past three decades. Australian educationists and policy-makers have looked to international examples for evidence, policy design and institutional models. However, this area is…

  13. Forward Deployment of U.S. Naval Forces to Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    activities ranging from transmitter stations, Bachelor Officers’ Quarters in the Waterloo Hotel and petroleum dumps, through a Gunnery School, Seventh...would be critical as well to emphasize the two nations’ shared values and cultural heritage : Both Australia and the United States are settler cultures

  14. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  15. Public and Private Schooling in Australia: Some Historical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    With the 1996 funding concessions, financing of private schools in Australia has come full circle. Australians seem prepared to accept educational democracy and pluralism as a way to pass on distinctive forms of cultural capital. However, the 1996 legislation may encourage an exodus from the state school system. (Contains 16 references.) (MLH)

  16. Apprenticeship in Australia: An Historical Snapshot. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, J.

    Apprenticeship came to Australia from England with the establishment of the colony of New South Wales in 1788. By the end of the 19th century, apprenticeship was well recognized throughout all the states, which retained responsibility for its regulation and administration after federation. A common provision in states' apprenticeship legislation…

  17. Monitoring International Interest in Transnational Academic Mobility to Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff looking at potential moves to higher education institutions in Australia. By establishing a web-based portal, attracting interested parties from around the world with information about Australian universities and subsequent career opportunities, web analytics are…

  18. Educators' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 43 principals and 230 teachers in western Australia examined 3 aspects of the policy of inclusion of students with disabilities: (1) severity of teacher stress when asked to include a child with a mild intellectual disability; (2) degree of perceived teacher control over placement decisions; and (3) acceptance of the inclusion…

  19. Constitutional and Legislative Framework for Inclusive Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter; Forlin, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Argues that in Australia, despite complex educational laws/policies, no legal mandate that ensures inclusive education exists. The legislative structure for education is outlined from a constitutional perspective; duties, rights, and responsibilities of teachers, specifically concerning inclusion of children with disabilities in the regular…

  20. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…