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Sample records for adelie penguin rookeries

  1. A remote sensing analysis of Adelie penguin rookeries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Olson, Charles E., Jr.; Ma, Zhenqui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Dahmer, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) makes up the vast majority of bird biomass in the Antarctic. As a major consumer of krill, these birds play an important role in the Antarctic food web, and they have been proposed as an indicator species of the vitality of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. This study explores the terrestrial habitat of the Adelie penguin as a target for remote sensing reconnaissance. Laboratory and ground-level reflectance measurements of Antarctic materials found in and around penguin rookeries were examined in detail. These analyses suggested data transformations which helped separate penguin rookeries from surrounding areas in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The physical extent of penguin rookeries on Ross and Beaufort Islands, Antarctic, was estimated from the satellite data and compared to published estimates of penguin populations. The results suggest that TM imagery may be used to identify previously undiscovered penguin rookeries, and the imagery may provide a means of developing new population estimation methods for Antarctic ornithology.

  2. Responding to Climate Change: Adelie Penguins Confront Astronomical and Ocean Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Trathan, Phil N.

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Ad lie penguin spans 22 deg. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adelies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a 3-yr period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated migratory routes and characteristics and wintering locations of Adelie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 Geolocation Sensors affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12,760 km, with the longest being 17,600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75-85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 hr with sun greater than 6 below horizon). We review how Adelie Penguin migration has likely changed since withdrawal of the West Antarctic Ice 35 Sheet across the Ross Sea beginning 12,000 yBP. If sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases, as predicted by climate models, we can expect change in wintering areas, the location of which ultimately may be limited more by the availability of adequate light for visual foraging than by the availability of suitable pack-ice.

  3. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  4. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival.

    PubMed

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology.

  5. Geographic structure of adelie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Ribic, C.A.; Ballard, G.; Heath, S.; Gaffney, I.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Wilson, P.R.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    In an investigation of the factors leading to geographic structuring among Ade??lie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations, we studied the size and overlap of colony-specific foraging areas within an isolated cluster of colonies. The study area, in the southwestern Ross Sea, included one large and three smaller colonies, ranging in size from 3900 to 135000 nesting pairs, clustered on Ross and Beaufort Islands. We used triangulation of radio signals from transmitters attached to breeding penguins to determine foraging locations and to define colony-specific foraging areas during the chick-provisioning period of four breeding seasons, 1997-2000. Colony populations (nesting pairs) were determined using aerial photography just after egg-laying; reproductive success was estimated by comparing ground counts of chicks fledged to the number of breeding pairs apparent in aerial photos. Foraging-trip duration, meal size, and adult body mass were estimated using RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and an automated reader and weighbridge. Chick growth was assessed by weekly weighing. We related the following variables to colony size: foraging distance, area, and duration; reproductive success; chick meal size and growth rate; and seasonal variation in adult body mass. We found that penguins foraged closest to their respective colonies, particularly at the smaller colonies. However, as the season progressed, foraging distance, duration, and area increased noticeably, especially at the largest colony. The foraging areas of the smaller colonies overlapped broadly, but very little foraging area overlap existed between the large colony and the smaller colonies, even though the foraging area of the large colony was well within range of the smaller colonies. Instead, the foraging areas of the smaller colonies shifted as that of the large colony grew. Colony size was not related to chick meal size, chick growth, or parental body mass. This differed from the year previous to

  6. Comparing plasma and faecal measures of steroid hormones in Adelie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae.

    PubMed

    Ninnes, Calum Edward; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2010-01-01

    Physiological measurements of both stress and sex hormones are often used to estimate the consequences of natural or human-induced change in ecological studies of various animals. Different methods of hormone measurement exist, potentially explaining variation in results across studies; methods should be cross-validated to ensure that they correlate. We directly compared faecal and plasma hormone measurements for the first time in a wild free-living species, the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). Blood and faecal samples were simultaneously collected from individual penguins for comparison and assayed for testosterone and corticosterone (or their metabolites). Sex differences and variability within each measure, and correlation of values across measures were compared. For both hormones, plasma samples showed greater variation than faecal samples. Males had higher mean corticosterone concentrations than females, but the difference was only statistically significant in faecal samples. Plasma testosterone, but not faecal testosterone, was significantly higher in males than females. Correlation between sample types was poor overall, and weaker in females than in males, perhaps because measures from plasma represent hormones that are both free and bound to globulins, whereas measures from faeces represent only the free portion. Faecal samples also represent a cumulative measure of hormones over time, as opposed to a plasma 'snapshot' concentration. Our data indicate that faecal sampling appears more suitable for assessing baseline hormone concentrations, whilst plasma sampling may best define immediate responses to environmental events. Consequently, future studies should ensure that they select the most appropriate matrix and method of hormone measurement to answer their research questions.

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of diet within a presumed metapopulation of Adelie penguins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Ballard, G.; Barton, K.J.; Karl, B.J.; Rau, G.H.; Ribic, C.A.; Wilson, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated temporal and spatial variability in the diet of chick-provisioning Ade??lie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding at all colonies within one isolated cluster in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica, 1994-2000. We wished to determine if prey quality explained different population growth and emigration rates among colonies. Diet composition was described both by conventional means (stomach samples) and by analysis of stable isotopes in chick tissues (toenails of individuals killed by skuas [Stercorarius maccormicki]). Diets were similar among the four study colonies compared to the disparity apparent among 14 widely spaced sites around the continent. Calorimetry indicated that fish are more energetically valuable than krill, implying that if diet varied by colony, diet quality could attract recruits and help to explain differential rates of colony growth. However, a multiple-regression analysis indicated that diet varied as a function of year, time within the year, and percent of foraging area covered by sea ice, but not by colony location. Stable isotopes revealed similarity of diet at one colony where conventional sampling was not possible. We confirmed that sea ice importantly affects diet composition of this species in neritic waters, and found that (1) quality of summer diet cannot explain different population growth rates among colonies, and (2) stable isotope analysis of chick tissues (toenails) is a useful tool to synoptically describe diet in this species over a large area.

  8. Corticosterone in relation to body mass in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) affected by unusual sea ice conditions at Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, J F; Potter, M A; Candy, E J

    2006-12-01

    Penguins naturally fast each year during breeding and again whilst moulting, and may lose more than 40% of body mass during a fast. Fasting in emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri) and king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins has been divided into three phases, with phase III characterised by an increased rate of body mass loss, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, and a change in behaviour leading to abandonment of the breeding attempt and return to sea to feed. Initial corticosterone concentrations and corticosterone responses to a handling stressor were measured in the current study to determine if they increase during phase III of fasting in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The study was conducted in 2001 at the northern Cape Bird colony on Ross Island, Antarctica. Penguin breeding on Ross Island was disrupted in the 2001-2002 summer by a large iceberg (B15A) which stopped the normal movement of sea ice in the Ross Sea. Penguins departing from the Cape Bird colony were lighter than returning or incubating birds (3.39+/-0.10cf. 4.16+/-0.06 and 4.07+/-0.08kg). It is likely that the departing birds were males that had been lighter than normal when they arrived at the colony. Initial plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in departing than returning or incubating penguins (6.89+/-1.69cf. 2.36+/-0.42 and 1.08+/-0.19ng/ml). Corticosterone responses to handling were also greater in departing penguins. Initial plasma corticosterone, concentrations at 30min and total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses were inversely related to body mass in departing penguins, whereas there were no relationships in arriving penguins. beta-hydroxybutyrate and uric acid concentrations were consistent with departing birds having entered phase III of fasting. The results indicate that corticosterone and corticosterone responses are elevated in phase III of fasting in the Adelie penguin. PMID:16876799

  9. Corticosterone in relation to body mass in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) affected by unusual sea ice conditions at Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, J F; Potter, M A; Candy, E J

    2006-12-01

    Penguins naturally fast each year during breeding and again whilst moulting, and may lose more than 40% of body mass during a fast. Fasting in emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri) and king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins has been divided into three phases, with phase III characterised by an increased rate of body mass loss, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, and a change in behaviour leading to abandonment of the breeding attempt and return to sea to feed. Initial corticosterone concentrations and corticosterone responses to a handling stressor were measured in the current study to determine if they increase during phase III of fasting in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The study was conducted in 2001 at the northern Cape Bird colony on Ross Island, Antarctica. Penguin breeding on Ross Island was disrupted in the 2001-2002 summer by a large iceberg (B15A) which stopped the normal movement of sea ice in the Ross Sea. Penguins departing from the Cape Bird colony were lighter than returning or incubating birds (3.39+/-0.10cf. 4.16+/-0.06 and 4.07+/-0.08kg). It is likely that the departing birds were males that had been lighter than normal when they arrived at the colony. Initial plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in departing than returning or incubating penguins (6.89+/-1.69cf. 2.36+/-0.42 and 1.08+/-0.19ng/ml). Corticosterone responses to handling were also greater in departing penguins. Initial plasma corticosterone, concentrations at 30min and total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses were inversely related to body mass in departing penguins, whereas there were no relationships in arriving penguins. beta-hydroxybutyrate and uric acid concentrations were consistent with departing birds having entered phase III of fasting. The results indicate that corticosterone and corticosterone responses are elevated in phase III of fasting in the Adelie penguin.

  10. Transfer rates and pattern of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE from mother to egg in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Surbramanian, A.; Hidaka, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1986-03-01

    Mother to egg transfer of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE was examined in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Antarctica. Transfer rate to a clutch of two eggs was estimated to be small, accounting to about 4.0% for both PCBs and p,p-DDE to the burden in mother. No significant difference was found in the concentration ratios of individual PCB isomers and congeners between mother and egg, which apparently differed from those between mother and fetus of striped dolphin previously reported.

  11. Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguins.

    PubMed

    Kahl, L Alex; Schofield, Oscar; Fraser, William R

    2010-12-01

    Despite their strong dependence on the pelagic environment, seabirds and other top predators in polar marine ecosystems are generally studied during their reproductive phases in terrestrial environments. As a result, a significant portion of their life history is understudied which in turn has led to limited understanding. Recent advances in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technologies have allowed satellite-tagged Adélie penguins to guide AUV surveys of the marine environment at the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Near real-time data sent via Iridium satellites from the AUVs to a centralized control center thousands of miles away allowed scientists to adapt AUV sampling strategies to meet the changing conditions of the subsurface. Such AUV data revealed the water masses and fine-scale features associated with Adélie penguin foraging trips. During this study, the maximum concentration of chlorophyll was between 30 and 50 m deep. Encompassing this peak in the chlorophyll concentration, within the water-column, was a mixture of nutrient-laden Upper Circumpolar Deep (UCDW) and western Antarctic Peninsula winter water (WW). Together, data from the AUV survey and penguin dives reveal that 54% of foraging by Adélie penguins occurs immediately below the chlorophyll maximum. These data demonstrate how bringing together emerging technologies, such as AUVs, with established methods such as the radio-tagging of penguins can provide powerful tools for monitoring and hypothesis testing of previously inaccessible ecological processes. Ocean and atmosphere temperatures are expected to continue increasing along the western Antarctic Peninsula, which will undoubtedly affect regional marine ecosystems. New and emerging technologies such as unmanned underwater vehicles and individually mounted satellite tracking devices will provide the tools critical to documenting and understanding the widespread ecological change

  12. Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguins.

    PubMed

    Kahl, L Alex; Schofield, Oscar; Fraser, William R

    2010-12-01

    Despite their strong dependence on the pelagic environment, seabirds and other top predators in polar marine ecosystems are generally studied during their reproductive phases in terrestrial environments. As a result, a significant portion of their life history is understudied which in turn has led to limited understanding. Recent advances in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technologies have allowed satellite-tagged Adélie penguins to guide AUV surveys of the marine environment at the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Near real-time data sent via Iridium satellites from the AUVs to a centralized control center thousands of miles away allowed scientists to adapt AUV sampling strategies to meet the changing conditions of the subsurface. Such AUV data revealed the water masses and fine-scale features associated with Adélie penguin foraging trips. During this study, the maximum concentration of chlorophyll was between 30 and 50 m deep. Encompassing this peak in the chlorophyll concentration, within the water-column, was a mixture of nutrient-laden Upper Circumpolar Deep (UCDW) and western Antarctic Peninsula winter water (WW). Together, data from the AUV survey and penguin dives reveal that 54% of foraging by Adélie penguins occurs immediately below the chlorophyll maximum. These data demonstrate how bringing together emerging technologies, such as AUVs, with established methods such as the radio-tagging of penguins can provide powerful tools for monitoring and hypothesis testing of previously inaccessible ecological processes. Ocean and atmosphere temperatures are expected to continue increasing along the western Antarctic Peninsula, which will undoubtedly affect regional marine ecosystems. New and emerging technologies such as unmanned underwater vehicles and individually mounted satellite tracking devices will provide the tools critical to documenting and understanding the widespread ecological change

  13. Ecophysiological response of Adelie penguins facing an experimental increase in breeding constraints.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, M; Spée, M; Lazin, D; Ropert-Coudert, Y; le Maho, Y; Ancel, A; Raclot, T

    2010-01-01

    Foraging strategies play a key role in breeding effort. Little is known, however, about their connection with hormonal and nutritional states, especially when breeding constraints vary. Here, we experimentally increased foraging costs and thus breeding constraints by handicapping Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) with dummy devices representing 3-4% of the penguins' cross-sectional area. We examined food-related stress (via plasma corticosterone concentration) and nutritional state (via metabolite levels). Concurrently, we investigated the use of ecological niches via the isotopic signature of red blood cells indicating the trophic position (delta(15)N) and the spatial distribution (delta(13)C) of penguins. Handicapped birds performed approximately 70% longer foraging trips and lost approximately 60% more body mass than controls and their partners. However, corticosterone levels and the nutritional state were unchanged. The isotopic signature revealed that males and females differed in their foraging behaviour: upper trophic levels contributed more in the males' diet, who foraged in more pelagic areas. Handicapped and partner birds adopted the same strategy at sea: a shift towards higher delta(13)C values suggested that they foraged in more coastal areas than controls. This change in foraging decisions may optimize feeding time by decreasing travelling time. This may partly compensate for the presumed lower foraging efficiency of handicapped birds and for the energetic debt of their partners who had to fast approximately 70% longer on the nest. We propose that this flexible use of ecological niches may allow birds facing increased breeding constraints to avoid chronic stress and to minimize the impact on their body condition.

  14. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  15. Survival differences and the effect of environmental instability on breeding dispersal in an Adelie penguin meta-population.

    PubMed

    Dugger, Katie M; Ainley, David G; Lyver, Phil O'B; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2010-07-01

    High survival and breeding philopatry was previously confirmed for the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) during a period of stable environmental conditions. However, movements of breeding adults as a result of an unplanned natural experiment within a four-colony meta-population provided interesting insights into this species' population dynamics. We used multistate mark-recapture models to investigate apparent survival and dispersal of breeding birds in the southwestern Ross Sea during 12 breeding seasons (1996-2007). The natural experiment was facilitated by the temporary grounding of two immense icebergs that (i) erected a veritable fence separating colonies and altering migration routes and (ii) added additional stress by trapping extensive sea ice in the region during 5 of 12 y. Colony size varied by orders of magnitude, allowing investigation of apparent survival and dispersal rates in relation to both environmental conditions and colony size within this meta-population. Apparent survival was lowest for the smallest colony (4,000 pairs) and similar for the medium (45,000 pairs) and large colonies (155,000 pairs), despite increased foraging effort expended by breeders at the largest colony. Dispersal of breeding birds was low (<1%), except during years of difficult environmental conditions when movements increased, especially away from the smallest colony (3.5%). Decreased apparent survival at the smallest colony could reflect differences in migration chronology and winter habitat use compared with the other colonies, or it may reflect increased permanent emigration to colonies outside this meta-population. Contrary to current thought, breeding penguins are not always philopatric. Rather, stressful conditions can significantly increase dispersal rates.

  16. Relics: penguin population programs.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Xie, Z

    2001-01-01

    What has been responsible for the increase in Chinstrap penguin populations during the past 40 years in maritime Antarctica? One view ascribes it to an increase in availability of their prey brought on by the decrease in baleen whale stocks. The contrary opinion, attributes it to environmental warming. This causes a gradual decrease in the frequency of cold years with extensive winter sea ice cover. A number of penguin monitoring programs are in progress and are expected to provide some answers to these questions. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic change since penguins are easily accessible predators of krill and the feeding range of the penguins has almost overlapped with the krill fishery in time and space in the last four decades. Therefore it is important to reconstruct the change of ancient penguin abundance and distribution in the absence of human activity. Many efforts have focused on surveying the abandoned penguin rookeries, but this method has not been able to give a continuous historical record of penguin populations. In several recent studies, ancient penguin excreta was scooped from the penguin relics in the sediments of the lake on penguin rookery, Ardley Island, maritime Antarctica. In these studies, penguin droppings or guano soil deposited in the lake and changes in sediment geochemistry have been used to calculate penguin population changes based upon the geochemical composition of the sediment core. The results suggest that climate change has a significant impact on penguin populations.

  17. Geometry for a penguin-albatross rookery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Vailati, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a simple ecological model describing the spatial organization of two interacting populations whose individuals are indifferent to conspecifics and avoid the proximity to heterospecifics. At small population densities Φ a nontrivial structure is observed where clusters of individuals arrange into a rhomboidal bipartite network with an average degree of 4. For Φ →0 the length scale, order parameter, and susceptibility of the network exhibit power-law divergences compatible with hyperscaling, suggesting the existence of a zero-density nontrivial critical point. At larger densities a critical threshold Φc is identified above which the evolution toward a partially ordered configuration is prevented and the system becomes jammed in a fully mixed state.

  18. Geometry for a penguin-albatross rookery.

    PubMed

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Vailati, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a simple ecological model describing the spatial organization of two interacting populations whose individuals are indifferent to conspecifics and avoid the proximity to heterospecifics. At small population densities Φ a nontrivial structure is observed where clusters of individuals arrange into a rhomboidal bipartite network with an average degree of 4. For Φ → 0 the length scale, order parameter, and susceptibility of the network exhibit power-law divergences compatible with hyperscaling, suggesting the existence of a zero-density nontrivial critical point. At larger densities a critical threshold Φ(c) is identified above which the evolution toward a partially ordered configuration is prevented and the system becomes jammed in a fully mixed state.

  19. 77 FR 31044 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...), and Import into the U.S.A. The applicant plans to salvage up to 25 various samples of Adelie penguins... will be collected from the penguin rookeries located at Beaufort Island (ASPA 105), Cape Royds...

  20. Estimating population size of Pygoscelid Penguins from TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Dahmer, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    An estimate was made toward a continent wide population of penguins. The results indicate that Thematic Mapper data can be used to identify penguin rookeries due to the unique reflectance properties of guano. Strong correlations exist between nesting populations and rookery area occupied by the birds. These correlations allow estimation of the number of nesting pairs in colonies. The success of remote sensing and biometric analyses leads one to believe that a continent wide estimate of penguin populations is possible based on a timely sample employing ground based and remote sensing techniques. Satellite remote sensing along the coastline may well locate previously undiscovered penguin nesting sites, or locate rookeries which have been assumed to exist for over a half century, but never located. Observations which found that penguins are one of the most sensitive elements in the complex of Southern Ocean ecosystems motivated this study.

  1. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  2. Second generation DNA sequencing of the mitogenome of the Chinstrap penguin and comparative genomics of Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sankar; Lingala, Syamala Gowri; Swaminathan, Siva; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David

    2014-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) was sequenced and compared with other penguin mitogenomes. The genome is 15,972 bp in length with the number and order of protein coding genes and RNAs being very similar to that of other known penguin mitogenomes. Comparative nucleotide analysis showed the Chinstrap mitogenome shares 94% homology with the mitogenome of its sister species, Pygoscelis adelie (Adélie penguin). Divergence at nonsynonymous nucleotide positions was found to be up to 23 times less than that observed in synonymous positions of protein coding genes, suggesting high selection constraints. The complete mitogenome data will be useful for genetic and evolutionary studies of penguins.

  3. Direct Penguin Counting Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C. U.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents an application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to monitor penguin colony in Baton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The area around Narębski Point located on the southeast coast of Barton Peninsula was designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171 (ASPA 171), and Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins inhabit in this area. The UAV images were acquired in a part of ASPA 171 from four flights in a single day, Jan 18, 2014. About 360 images were mosaicked as an image of about 3 cm spatial resolution and then a subset including representative penguin rookeries was selected. The subset image was segmented based on gradient map of pixel values, and spectral and spatial attributes were assigned to each segment. The object based image analysis (OBIA) was conducted with consideration of spectral attributes including mean and minimum values of each segment and various shape attributes such as area, length, compactness and roundness to detect individual penguin. The segments indicating individual penguin were effectively detected on rookeries with high contrasts in the spectral and shape attributes. The importance of periodic and precise monitoring of penguins has been recognized because variations of their populations reflect environmental changes and disturbance from human activities. Utilization of very high resolution imaging method shown in this study can be applied to other penguin habitats in Antarctica, and the results will be able to support establishing effective environmental management plans.

  4. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  5. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  6. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  7. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  8. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  9. Penguin Olympics!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how a second grade science unit on penguins became the ideal content to integrate with the physical education curriculum. The movement experiences reinforced the information students learned about penguins and helped students to gain a deeper understanding of penguin behaviors. Together, the physical education teacher and the…

  10. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula.

  11. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula. PMID:26874670

  12. Penguin Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  13. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  14. Modeling huddling penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, Francois; Waters, Aaron; Kim, Arnold

    2012-11-01

    We present a model of the behavior of huddling penguins. We focus on the densest huddles, formed during storms, where penguins may be considered to leave no openings in the interior of the huddle. We compute a temperature distribution around the huddle, accounting for the effects of the wind. The dynamics of the huddle are based on an iterative process where the most exposed penguin relocates to the most sheltered location available. We study the effects of wind strength, number of penguins, and random perturbations. We find that our model produces huddles that agree qualitatively with actual huddles in terms of shape and downwind displacement. Moreover, the exposure to the wind appears to be shared nearly equally among penguins, despite the fact that our model assumes only that each penguin aims to minimize its own heat loss.

  15. Modeling huddling penguins.

    PubMed

    Waters, Aaron; Blanchette, François; Kim, Arnold D

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic and quantitative model of huddling penguins. In this mathematical model, each individual penguin in the huddle seeks only to reduce its own heat loss. Consequently, penguins on the boundary of the huddle that are most exposed to the wind move downwind to more sheltered locations along the boundary. In contrast, penguins in the interior of the huddle neither have the space to move nor experience a significant heat loss, and they therefore remain stationary. Through these individual movements, the entire huddle experiences a robust cumulative effect that we identify, describe, and quantify. This mathematical model requires a calculation of the wind flowing around the huddle and of the resulting temperature distribution. Both of these must be recomputed each time an individual penguin moves since the huddle shape changes. Using our simulation results, we find that the key parameters affecting the huddle dynamics are the number of penguins in the huddle, the wind strength, and the amount of uncertainty in the movement of the penguins. Moreover, we find that the lone assumption of individual penguins minimizing their own heat loss results in all penguins having approximately equal access to the warmth of the huddle. PMID:23166841

  16. A Hydrographic and CFC Survey on the Adelie Land Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, M. J.; Rintoul, S. R.; Tilbrook, B.; Bullister, J. L.; Sonnerup, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    During 16 Dec 07 - 27 Jan 08, a hydrographic survey of the Antarctic shelf adjacent to Adelie Land was carried out as part of the joint Australian programs - Climate of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean (CASO) and Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census (CEAMARC) - from aboard the RSV Aurora Australis. Over 80 CTD stations were occupied on the shelf or adjacent slope in the region between 139° 13' E and 145° E. In addition to hydrographic parameters, dissolved oxygen and nutrients, CFCs, dissolved inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity were measured at nearly all of these stations. Several features of the CFC distributions stand out in this formation region of Adelie Land Bottom Water (ALBW) and appear to be related to the bathymetry of the shelf. There are two depressions in this region, both deeper than 800 m - one on the western edge of the study region and the other adjacent to the Mertz Glacial Tongue on the eastern side of the study region. Throughout most of the study area, the presence of Highly-Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (HMCDW) is reflected in mid-depth CFC concentration minima. However, HMCDW is not present in the shallower region between the depressions. Beneath the HMCDW, CFC concentrations generally increase towards the seafloor. The bottom water CFC concentrations below 600 m in the easternmost of these basins are 5-10% higher than those of the westernmost depression. The bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations are also higher by approximately 15 μmol kg-1 in bottom waters of the eastern depression. The circulation in the eastern depression is cyclonic and bottom waters can flow out of the basin through a trough in the shelf break near 143° E. Waters with high CFC concentrations were detected on the downslope side of the trough - indicating that ALBW was being supplied to the deep Australia-Antarctic Basin even during summer. The data from this expedition will be compared to previous CFC measurements from this region over the past

  17. Geology and petroleum potential of Adelie Coast margin, east Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Wanneson, J.

    1987-05-01

    The few rock outcrops on Adelie Coast-Wilkes Land consist mainly of Precambrian plutonic rocks and metasediments. On the continental margin, several multichannel seismic surveys, including the 1982 IFP survey, reveal the presence of a thick sedimentary basin, especially beneath the outer continental shelf and upper slope, where it may exceed 6000 m. Thin basin results from the creation and evolution of a continental margin, initiated some 100 Ma from the separation of Australia and Antarctica. Beneath the outer shelf, which is 400-500 m deep, the sedimentary series consist of four units separated by three major unconformities: (1) a predrift unit including a Precambrian basement, possible Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sediments, and a Mesozoic syn-rift sequence; (2) an upper Eocene to Oligocene unit in a shallow marine environment; and (3) a Neogene glacial prograding unit. The predrift and early postrift units are considered to be a promising target with reference to other passive margins, although no major hydrocarbon accumulation has been discovered as yet on the Australian conjugate margin.

  18. Injuries to avian researchers at Palmer Station, Antarctica from penguins, giant petrels, and skuas.

    PubMed

    Bovard, R S

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes 5 cases of injury to seabird researchers between 1996 and 1999 at Palmer Station, Antarctica. The injuries were inflicted by 3 seabird species: the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae); the southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus); and the brown skua (Catharacta lonnbergi). All injured parties were biologic researchers with previous field experience working under National Science Foundation research grants; all sought medical evaluation and treatment voluntarily. The nature and frequency of such injuries seems not to have been greatly reported in the medical literature. Although these cases were largely soft tissue injuries that healed without serious complications, the possibility of exotic infections is considered. We have dubbed this constellation of injuries AVES (Antarctic Vogel [German for bird] Encounter Syndrome). PMID:10921359

  19. Quantitative Evaluations of Turbulent Mixing and Double-Diffusive Convection Around Adelie Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, D.; Kitade, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Adelie Land Bottom Water is thought to be mixture of Shelf Water from Adelie Depression and Circumpolar Deep Water (Gordon and Tchernia, 1972; Williams et al., 2008). To evaluate mixing strengths of turbulence and double-diffusive convection around the Adelie Depression, hydrographic observations using Sea-Bird Electronics SBE911plus with Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (LADCP, RDI) were carried out off Adelie Land including Adelie Depression by TR/V Umitaka-Maru in austral summer of 2008. This observation was conducted as a part of CEAMARC project (Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census, URL: http://www.caml.aq). Shelf Water (θ<-1.7°C, σ2>37.16) was only found in the depression. Temperature inversions due to intrusions of warmer offshore waters of Circumpolar Deep Water origin were found from 250 to 350 dbar at some stations in the depression. Velocity field around the depression obtained by LADCP indicated that the intrusions were related to inflow of southward current. Turbulent eddy diffusivity Kv were estimated from vertical overturning scale of density inversions. Relatively large values of Kv (10-4~10-3m2s-1) were found at continental shelf and slope regions, and in the Adelie Depression. On the other hand, Kv in the open ocean showed one or two order smaller than that in the boundary region and Adelie Depression. These results showed the possibility of boundary mixing in these regions. Next, activities of double-diffusive convection were examined from Turner angle Tu. Values of Tu in the upper part of the intrusions in the depression were up to about -80°, indicating active diffusive convection, and the values were about 60° in the lower part of the intrusions, indicating weak salt finger convection. While there were few active double-diffusive convection layers in the shelf and the depression, many active double-diffusive convection layers (75°<|Tu|<90°) distributed on the continental slope region. In this region, diffusivities of heat

  20. Workshop 2 - Penguin Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Trina

    2012-10-01

    Energy conservation is on everyone's mind these days. But just where does it go and what is its source? Here's another toy that will help us trace electrical energy to kinetic energy as the penguins march on.

  1. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  2. Age-Related Differences in the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Ana; Benzal, Jesús; Motas, Miguel; Diaz, Julia I.; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is known to play very important roles in the well being of animals. It is a complex community composed by hundreds of microbial species interacting closely among them and with their host, that is, a microbial ecosystem. The development of high throughput sequencing techniques allows studying the diversity of such communities in a realistic way and considerable work has been carried out in mammals and some birds such as chickens. Wild birds have received less attention and in particular, in the case of penguins, only a few individuals of five species have been examined with molecular techniques. We collected cloacal samples from Chinstrap penguins in the Vapour Col rookery in Deception Island, Antarctica, and carried out pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA in samples from 53 individuals, 27 adults and 26 chicks. This provided the first description of the Chinstrap penguin gastrointestinal tract microbiota and the most extensive in any penguin species. Firmicutes, Bacteoridetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components. There were large differences between chicks and adults. The former had more Firmicutes and the latter more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In addition, adults had richer and more diverse bacterial communities than chicks. These differences were also observed between parents and their offspring. On the other hand, nests explained differences in bacterial communities only among chicks. We suggest that environmental factors have a higher importance than genetic factors in the microbiota composition of chicks. The results also showed surprisingly large differences in community composition with other Antarctic penguins including the congeneric Adélie and Gentoo penguins. PMID:27055030

  3. Age-Related Differences in the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Andrés; Balagué, Vanessa; Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Ana; Benzal, Jesús; Motas, Miguel; Diaz, Julia I; Mira, Alex; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is known to play very important roles in the well being of animals. It is a complex community composed by hundreds of microbial species interacting closely among them and with their host, that is, a microbial ecosystem. The development of high throughput sequencing techniques allows studying the diversity of such communities in a realistic way and considerable work has been carried out in mammals and some birds such as chickens. Wild birds have received less attention and in particular, in the case of penguins, only a few individuals of five species have been examined with molecular techniques. We collected cloacal samples from Chinstrap penguins in the Vapour Col rookery in Deception Island, Antarctica, and carried out pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA in samples from 53 individuals, 27 adults and 26 chicks. This provided the first description of the Chinstrap penguin gastrointestinal tract microbiota and the most extensive in any penguin species. Firmicutes, Bacteoridetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components. There were large differences between chicks and adults. The former had more Firmicutes and the latter more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In addition, adults had richer and more diverse bacterial communities than chicks. These differences were also observed between parents and their offspring. On the other hand, nests explained differences in bacterial communities only among chicks. We suggest that environmental factors have a higher importance than genetic factors in the microbiota composition of chicks. The results also showed surprisingly large differences in community composition with other Antarctic penguins including the congeneric Adélie and Gentoo penguins.

  4. Age-Related Differences in the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Andrés; Balagué, Vanessa; Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Ana; Benzal, Jesús; Motas, Miguel; Diaz, Julia I; Mira, Alex; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is known to play very important roles in the well being of animals. It is a complex community composed by hundreds of microbial species interacting closely among them and with their host, that is, a microbial ecosystem. The development of high throughput sequencing techniques allows studying the diversity of such communities in a realistic way and considerable work has been carried out in mammals and some birds such as chickens. Wild birds have received less attention and in particular, in the case of penguins, only a few individuals of five species have been examined with molecular techniques. We collected cloacal samples from Chinstrap penguins in the Vapour Col rookery in Deception Island, Antarctica, and carried out pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA in samples from 53 individuals, 27 adults and 26 chicks. This provided the first description of the Chinstrap penguin gastrointestinal tract microbiota and the most extensive in any penguin species. Firmicutes, Bacteoridetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components. There were large differences between chicks and adults. The former had more Firmicutes and the latter more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In addition, adults had richer and more diverse bacterial communities than chicks. These differences were also observed between parents and their offspring. On the other hand, nests explained differences in bacterial communities only among chicks. We suggest that environmental factors have a higher importance than genetic factors in the microbiota composition of chicks. The results also showed surprisingly large differences in community composition with other Antarctic penguins including the congeneric Adélie and Gentoo penguins. PMID:27055030

  5. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  6. Genetic structure of Florida green turtle rookeries as indicated by mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shamblin, Brian M.; Bagley, Dean A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.; Desjardin, Nicole A.; Martin, R. Erik; Hart, Kristen M.; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Rusenko, Kirt; Stiner, John C.; Sobel, Debra; Johnson, Chris; Wilmers, Thomas; Wright, Laura J.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting has increased dramatically in Florida over the past two decades, ranking the Florida nesting aggregation among the largest in the Greater Caribbean region. Individual beaches that comprise several hundred kilometers of Florida’s east coast and Keys support tens to thousands of nests annually. These beaches encompass natural to highly developed habitats, and the degree of demographic partitioning among rookeries was previously unresolved. We characterized the genetic structure of ten Florida rookeries from Cape Canaveral to the Dry Tortugas through analysis of 817 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 485 nesting turtles. Two common haplotypes, CM-A1.1 and CM-A3.1, accounted for 87 % of samples, and the haplotype frequencies were strongly partitioned by latitude along Florida’s Atlantic coast. Most genetic structure occurred between rookeries on either side of an apparent genetic break in the vicinity of the St. Lucie Inlet that separates Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island, representing the finest scale at which mtDNA structure has been documented in marine turtle rookeries. Florida and Caribbean scale analyses of population structure support recognition of at least two management units: central eastern Florida and southern Florida. More thorough sampling and deeper sequencing are necessary to better characterize connectivity among Florida green turtle rookeries as well as between the Florida nesting aggregation and others in the Greater Caribbean region.

  7. Have Historical Climate Changes Affected Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) Populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed Central

    Peña M., Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P. M.; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A.

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat. PMID:24759777

  8. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  9. Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.

    PubMed

    Grilo, M L; Vanstreels, R E T; Wallace, R; García-Párraga, D; Braga, É M; Chitty, J; Catão-Dias, J L; Madeira de Carvalho, L M

    2016-08-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however, its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of avian malaria, and provides details on the strategies that can be employed for the diagnostic, treatment and prevention of this disease in captive penguins, discussing possible directions for future research.

  10. Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.

    PubMed

    Grilo, M L; Vanstreels, R E T; Wallace, R; García-Párraga, D; Braga, É M; Chitty, J; Catão-Dias, J L; Madeira de Carvalho, L M

    2016-08-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however, its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of avian malaria, and provides details on the strategies that can be employed for the diagnostic, treatment and prevention of this disease in captive penguins, discussing possible directions for future research. PMID:27009571

  11. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1 Table 1 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table...

  12. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1 Table 1 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table...

  13. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Major Steller Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1 Table 1 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table...

  14. Hawksbill turtle terra incognita: conservation genetics of eastern Pacific rookeries.

    PubMed

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Liles, Michael J; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Henríquez, Ana V; Torres, Perla; Urteaga, José; Vallejo, Felipe; Baquero, Andres; LeMarie, Carolina; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chaves, Jaime A; Hart, Catherine E; Peña de Niz, Alejandro; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Otterstrom, Sarah; Yañez, Ingrid L; LaCasella, Erin L; Frey, Amy; Jensen, Michael P; Dutton, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Prior to 2008 and the discovery of several important hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting colonies in the EP (Eastern Pacific), the species was considered virtually absent from the region. Research since that time has yielded new insights into EP hawksbills, salient among them being the use of mangrove estuaries for nesting. These recent revelations have raised interest in the genetic characterization of hawksbills in the EP, studies of which have remained lacking to date. Between 2008 and 2014, we collected tissue samples from 269 nesting hawksbills at nine rookeries across the EP and used mitochondrial DNA sequences (766 bp) to generate the first genetic characterization of rookeries in the region. Our results inform genetic diversity, population differentiation, and phylogeography of the species. Hawksbills in the EP demonstrate low genetic diversity: We identified a total of only seven haplotypes across the region, including five new and two previously identified nesting haplotypes (pooled frequencies of 58.4% and 41.6%, respectively), the former only evident in Central American rookeries. Despite low genetic diversity, we found strong stock structure between the four principal rookeries, suggesting the existence of multiple populations and warranting their recognition as distinct management units. Furthermore, haplotypes EiIP106 and EiIP108 are unique to hawksbills that nest in mangrove estuaries, a behavior found only in hawksbills along Pacific Central America. The detected genetic differentiation supports the existence of a novel mangrove estuary "reproductive ecotype" that may warrant additional conservation attention. From a phylogeographic perspective, our research indicates hawksbills colonized the EP via the Indo-Pacific, and do not represent relict populations isolated from the Atlantic by the rising of the Panama Isthmus. Low overall genetic diversity in the EP is likely the combined result of few rookeries, extremely small

  15. Hawksbill turtle terra incognita: conservation genetics of eastern Pacific rookeries.

    PubMed

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Liles, Michael J; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Henríquez, Ana V; Torres, Perla; Urteaga, José; Vallejo, Felipe; Baquero, Andres; LeMarie, Carolina; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chaves, Jaime A; Hart, Catherine E; Peña de Niz, Alejandro; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Otterstrom, Sarah; Yañez, Ingrid L; LaCasella, Erin L; Frey, Amy; Jensen, Michael P; Dutton, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Prior to 2008 and the discovery of several important hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting colonies in the EP (Eastern Pacific), the species was considered virtually absent from the region. Research since that time has yielded new insights into EP hawksbills, salient among them being the use of mangrove estuaries for nesting. These recent revelations have raised interest in the genetic characterization of hawksbills in the EP, studies of which have remained lacking to date. Between 2008 and 2014, we collected tissue samples from 269 nesting hawksbills at nine rookeries across the EP and used mitochondrial DNA sequences (766 bp) to generate the first genetic characterization of rookeries in the region. Our results inform genetic diversity, population differentiation, and phylogeography of the species. Hawksbills in the EP demonstrate low genetic diversity: We identified a total of only seven haplotypes across the region, including five new and two previously identified nesting haplotypes (pooled frequencies of 58.4% and 41.6%, respectively), the former only evident in Central American rookeries. Despite low genetic diversity, we found strong stock structure between the four principal rookeries, suggesting the existence of multiple populations and warranting their recognition as distinct management units. Furthermore, haplotypes EiIP106 and EiIP108 are unique to hawksbills that nest in mangrove estuaries, a behavior found only in hawksbills along Pacific Central America. The detected genetic differentiation supports the existence of a novel mangrove estuary "reproductive ecotype" that may warrant additional conservation attention. From a phylogeographic perspective, our research indicates hawksbills colonized the EP via the Indo-Pacific, and do not represent relict populations isolated from the Atlantic by the rising of the Panama Isthmus. Low overall genetic diversity in the EP is likely the combined result of few rookeries, extremely small

  16. Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:20235460

  17. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  18. Make a Splash with Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Helen

    1989-01-01

    Several across-the-curriculum activities, with a penguin theme, are described. Research, discussion, science, writing, math, and art activities are listed. Included is a list of resources which gives sources for books and posters. (IAH)

  19. 76 FR 48184 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... population biology of the Adelie, Gentoo and Chinstrap penguins, and interactions among these species and..., 1500 Adelie, 2700 Gentoo penguins, 250 Brown skua, 350 South polar skua, 600 Giant petrel, 100...

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bear, penguin and south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Evans, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Nakanishi, Junko; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (DFs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in livers of polar bears from the Alaskan Arctic and in eggs of Adelie penguin and south polar skua and weddell seal liver, fish and krill from Antarctica. This is one of the first reports to document the concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in polar bear livers from Alaska, and in penguin and skua eggs from Antarctica. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in livers of polar bears ranged from 8 to 66 (mean: 26) pg/g, on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in Antarctic samples were in the increasing order on a lipid weight basis; weddell seal liver (8.9 pg/g) < fish (11-17 pg/g) < krill (27 pg/g) <penguin eggs (mean: 23 pg/g) < south polar skua eggs (mean: 181 pg/g). Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs (including two di-ortho congeners) in polar bear livers were in the range of 1,080-3,930 ng/g, lipid wt. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in Antarctic samples were in the following order on a lipid weight basis; south polar skua eggs (mean: 1,440 ng/g) > > penguin eggs (30 ng/g) > seal liver (57 ng/g) > fishes (6.2 ng/g) > krill (0.9 ng/g). Concentrations of 2378-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) calculated based on the WHO TEFs were higher in the eggs of polar skua (mean: 344: range: 220-650 pg/g, lipid wt.) from Antarctica than in polar bear livers from Alaska (mean: 120; range: 69-192 pg/g). In general, concentrations of PCDFs were greater than those of PCDDs in polar organisms. 23478-PeCDF is one of the dominant congener found in several samples. Concentrations of TEQs in polar bear livers and skua eggs were close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Dioxin-like PCBs, particularly, non-ortho coplanar PCBs were the major contributors to TEQ concentrations in penguin and skua eggs whereas mono-ortho PCBs accounted for a major portion of TEQs in

  1. Hydrodynamics of penguin wing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Cuong Duong, Nhut; Herpich, Jerome

    2010-11-01

    The three-dimensional kinematics of penguin wings were obtained from movie footage in aquariums. A 1:1 scale model of the penguin wing (with an identical planform but with a flat section profile and a rigid configuration) was actuated with a robotic arm in a water channel. The experiments were performed at a chord Reynolds number of about 10^4 (an order of magnitude lower than for the observed penguin). The dynamics of the wing were analyzed with force and flowfield measurements. The two main results are: 1. a net thrust on both the upstroke and downstroke movement; 2. the occurence of a leading edge vortex (LEV) along the wing span. The effects of section profile, wing flexibility, and a higher Reynolds number will be investigated in the future.

  2. Krill ( Euphausia superba) abundance and Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding performance in the waters off the Béchervaise Island colony, East Antarctica in 2 years with contrasting ecological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, S.; Clarke, J.; Romaine, S. J.; Kawaguchi, S.; Williams, G.; Hosie, G. W.

    2008-02-01

    In 2001 and 2003 small-scale acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) distribution and abundance were conducted offshore from an East Antarctic colony of Adelie penguins on Bechervaise Island (67°35'S, 62°49'E) that has been monitored for 15 years. Although the distribution of krill was similar between the two summers, their abundance in 2001 was estimated to be 3 times higher than in 2003. This biomass difference was reflected in the breeding performance of the penguins at the monitored colony. Significant differences were observed between the two seasons in foraging trip duration during chick rearing, breeding success, meal mass and dietary composition. Penguins travelled further to forage in 2003 than 2001, stayed away longer and brought back smaller meals. Fish (mostly Pleuragramma antarcticum) contributed significantly to the diet in 2003 but were only a minor component in 2001. Differences between years were particularly apparent during the late guard to early crèche stages of chick rearing, coinciding with the timing of the krill survey. Chick mortality peaked during this period also. Krill demographics showed little difference between the 2 years. Oceanographically, the two summers differed; in 2003 the mixed layer was fresher and shallower, indicating a delayed melting of sea-ice in the study area when compared to 2001. Satellite observations indicated that the pack-ice directly offshore from the Mawson coast broke out earlier in 2001 and the perennial fast-ice along the coast persisted later in 2003.

  3. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  4. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  5. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Richard J; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  6. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Richard J; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet. PMID:25853880

  7. Solomon Islands Largest Hawksbill Turtle Rookery Shows Signs of Recovery after 150 Years of Excessive Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Richard J.; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C.; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands’ future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet. PMID:25853880

  8. Ocean-Ice-Atmosphere Interactions off Sabrina and Adelie Coasts During NBP1402 and AU1402

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, A. H.; Zielinski, N. J.; Webb, C.; Huber, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Diverse interactions of winds, currents and ice around Antarctica dictate how, where and when the world's densest waters form, massive floating ice shelves and glaciers melt, gases are exchanged at the sea surface, and primary productivity. Compelled by recent rate estimates of East Antarctic Ice Sheet mass loss, we contrast the paths and mixing histories of oceanic waters reaching the continental ice edge off the Sabrina and Adelie coasts relying on a the first synoptic shipboard measurements made by U.S. (NBP1402) and Australian (AU1402) scientists. Analysis of historical hydrography and sea ice concentration fields within the Mertz Polynya indicates the apparent effect of evolving ocean-ice- atmosphere interactions on the characteristics of local Shelf Water (SW) sources. A polynya dominated water mass structure similar to that observed off the Adelie Coast before the removal of the Mertz Ice Tongue was expected to the west of the Dalton Ice Tongue (DIT). However, there was no evidence of dense SW off Sabrina Coast during both summer cruises of 2014 and 2015, thus lessening the region's preconceived influence to global meridional overturning. Present sea ice production within the eastern Dalton Polynya is overshadowed by freshwater input to relatively stable interior upper waters. The Antarctic Coastal Current (ACoC) picks up distinct meltwater contributions along the DIT western flank and in front of the Moscow University Ice Shelf (MUIS) and Totten Glacier (TG). Unlike over other highly influential margins to global sea level rise, the main evidence of inflow and mixing of relatively warm oceanic waters is reduced to relatively cold thermocline water (< 0.3°C) from the continental slope. This source water enters the eastern trough off Sabrina Coast and is swiftly steered poleward by complex underlying topography. Meltwater export from beneath the MUIS and TG is observed at newly discovered trenches that effectively constrain sub-cavity inflow to low salinity

  9. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  10. Wind and temperature regime along the slope of Adelie Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Yuji; Wendler, Gerd

    1986-05-01

    An analysis was made of data collected from automatic weather stations (AWS) on the slope of Adelie Land, Antarctica. The data were collected simultaneously at different stations on the ice-covered slope of the continent, where no data have previously been obtained. The stations are classified into three groups according to their location (high plateau, intermediate plateau, or coastal region), each having distinct annual temperature and wind speed regimes. These classifications also correspond well to the stations' slopes. Change in surface air temperature along the slope with respect to height was smaller than -1°C/100 m between the high plateau and the intermediate plateau stations. The wind directions did not follow Ball's model, which suggests the importance of the gradient of surface potential air temperature along the slope on the wind regime. A scale analysis showed the condition in which the gradient of surface potential air temperature along the slope should not be considered negligible when considering the total pressure gradient force. This condition in turn indicates that the entrainment of momentum across the top of the katabatic wind layer is also important.

  11. Mercury offloaded in Northern elephant seal hair affects coastal seawater surrounding rookery.

    PubMed

    Cossaboon, Jennifer M; Ganguli, Priya M; Flegal, A Russell

    2015-09-29

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that is biomagnified approximately 1-10 million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. The potential for this top-down contamination is greatest in coastal areas with productive marine ecosystems that provide ideal habitats for large marine mammal colonies that can number in the thousands. This recycling of MeHg was evidenced by comparing total mercury (HgT) and MeHg concentrations in seawater, and HgT in molted pelage of M. angustirostris, at the Año Nuevo State Reserve pinniped rookery with concentrations at neighboring coastal sites in Central California. Seawater MeHg concentrations around the rookery (average = 2.5 pM) were markedly higher than those at the comparison coastal sites (average = 0.30 pM), and were as high as 9.5 pM during the M. angustirostris molting season. As a consequence, excreta and molts from this marine mammal colony, and presumably other marine predator populations, constitute a major source of MeHg at the base of the local marine food chain.

  12. Mercury offloaded in Northern elephant seal hair affects coastal seawater surrounding rookery

    PubMed Central

    Cossaboon, Jennifer M.; Ganguli, Priya M.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that is biomagnified approximately 1–10 million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. The potential for this top-down contamination is greatest in coastal areas with productive marine ecosystems that provide ideal habitats for large marine mammal colonies that can number in the thousands. This recycling of MeHg was evidenced by comparing total mercury (HgT) and MeHg concentrations in seawater, and HgT in molted pelage of M. angustirostris, at the Año Nuevo State Reserve pinniped rookery with concentrations at neighboring coastal sites in Central California. Seawater MeHg concentrations around the rookery (average = 2.5 pM) were markedly higher than those at the comparison coastal sites (average = 0.30 pM), and were as high as 9.5 pM during the M. angustirostris molting season. As a consequence, excreta and molts from this marine mammal colony, and presumably other marine predator populations, constitute a major source of MeHg at the base of the local marine food chain. PMID:26372960

  13. Mercury offloaded in Northern elephant seal hair affects coastal seawater surrounding rookery.

    PubMed

    Cossaboon, Jennifer M; Ganguli, Priya M; Flegal, A Russell

    2015-09-29

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that is biomagnified approximately 1-10 million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. The potential for this top-down contamination is greatest in coastal areas with productive marine ecosystems that provide ideal habitats for large marine mammal colonies that can number in the thousands. This recycling of MeHg was evidenced by comparing total mercury (HgT) and MeHg concentrations in seawater, and HgT in molted pelage of M. angustirostris, at the Año Nuevo State Reserve pinniped rookery with concentrations at neighboring coastal sites in Central California. Seawater MeHg concentrations around the rookery (average = 2.5 pM) were markedly higher than those at the comparison coastal sites (average = 0.30 pM), and were as high as 9.5 pM during the M. angustirostris molting season. As a consequence, excreta and molts from this marine mammal colony, and presumably other marine predator populations, constitute a major source of MeHg at the base of the local marine food chain. PMID:26372960

  14. Isolation and characterization of macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) microsatellite loci and their utility in other penguin species (Spheniscidae, AVES).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sophia; Hart, Tom; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Trathan, Philip N; Rogers, Alex D

    2009-11-01

    We report the characterization of 25 microsatellite loci isolated from the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus). Thirteen loci were arranged into four multiplex sets for future genetic studies of macaroni penguin populations. All 25 loci were tested separately in each of four other penguin species [Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica), gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)]. Between eight and 12 loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are expected to be useful for studies of population genetic structure in a range of penguin species. PMID:21564950

  15. Radiative b to d Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtle, P.; /SLAC

    2007-06-13

    This article gives an overview of the recent searches and measurements of b {yields} d penguin transitions with the BaBar experiment. The branching fraction of these decays in the Standard Model (SM) is expected to be a factor of 10 or more lower than the corresponding b {yields} s penguin transitions, but a deviation from the SM prediction would be an equally striking sign of new physics. The exclusive decay B {yields} {pi}{ell}{ell} is searched by BaBar with no excess over the background found. The BaBar measurement of B {yields} ({rho}, {omega}){gamma} provides the first evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma}, {sup c} is in good agreement with the previous Belle results and provides a measurement of |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}| independent of the one from Bs mixing. No deviation from the SM is found.

  16. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  17. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  18. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  19. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  20. A 40-year accumulation dataset for Adelie Land, Antarctica and its application for model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Genthon, Christophe; Gallée, Hubert; Krinner, Gerhard; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2012-01-01

    The GLACIOCLIM-SAMBA (GS) Antarctic accumulation monitoring network, which extends from the coast of Adelie Land to the Antarctic plateau, has been surveyed annually since 2004. The network includes a 156-km stake-line from the coast inland, along which accumulation shows high spatial and interannual variability with a mean value of 362 mm water equivalent a-1. In this paper, this accumulation is compared with older accumulation reports from between 1971 and 1991. The mean and annual standard deviation and the km-scale spatial pattern of accumulation were seen to be very similar in the older and more recent data. The data did not reveal any significant accumulation trend over the last 40 years. The ECMWF analysis-based forecasts (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim), a stretched-grid global general circulation model (LMDZ4) and three regional circulation models (PMM5, MAR and RACMO2), all with high resolution over Antarctica (27-125 km), were tested against the GS reports. They qualitatively reproduced the meso-scale spatial pattern of the annual-mean accumulation except MAR. MAR significantly underestimated mean accumulation, while LMDZ4 and RACMO2 overestimated it. ERA-40 and the regional models that use ERA-40 as lateral boundary condition qualitatively reproduced the chronology of interannual variability but underestimated the magnitude of interannual variations. Two widely used climatologies for Antarctic accumulation agreed well with the mean GS data. The model-based climatology was also able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern. These data thus provide new stringent constraints on models and other large-scale evaluations of the Antarctic accumulation.

  1. Effects of rising temperature on the viability of an important sea turtle rookery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laloë, Jacques-Olivier; Cozens, Jacquie; Renom, Berta; Taxonera, Albert; Hays, Graeme C.

    2014-06-01

    A warming world poses challenges for species with temperature-dependent sex determination, including sea turtles, for which warmer incubation temperatures produce female hatchlings. We combined in situ sand temperature measurements with air temperature records since 1850 and predicted warming scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to derive 250-year time series of incubation temperatures, hatchling sex ratios, and operational sex ratios for one of the largest sea turtles rookeries globally (Cape Verde Islands, Atlantic). We estimate that light-coloured beaches currently produce 70.10% females whereas dark-coloured beaches produce 93.46% females. Despite increasingly female skewed sex ratios, entire feminization of this population is not imminent. Rising temperatures increase the number of breeding females and hence the natural rate of population growth. Predicting climate warming impacts across hatchlings, male-female breeding ratios and nesting numbers provides a holistic approach to assessing the conservation concerns for sea turtles in a warming world.

  2. Evidence for a recent origin of penguins.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sankar; Beans-Picón, Gabrielle; Swaminathan, Siva K; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are a remarkable group of birds, with the 18 extant species living in diverse climatic zones from the tropics to Antarctica. The timing of the origin of these extant penguins remains controversial. Previous studies based on DNA sequences and fossil records have suggested widely differing times for the origin of the group. This has given rise to widely differing biogeographic narratives about their evolution. To resolve this problem, we sequenced five introns from 11 species representing all genera of living penguins. Using these data and other available DNA sequences, together with the ages of multiple penguin fossils to calibrate the molecular clock, we estimated the age of the most recent common ancestor of extant penguins to be 20.4 Myr (17.0-23.8 Myr). This time is half of the previous estimates based on molecular sequence data. Our results suggest that most of the major groups of extant penguins diverged 11-16 Ma. This overlaps with the sharp decline in Antarctic temperatures that began approximately 12 Ma, suggesting a possible relationship between climate change and penguin evolution.

  3. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  4. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  5. Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, HyoJung

    2010-02-01

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb-1 containing 657 millions BB¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for pododermatitis in penguins.

    PubMed

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Fernandes, Loriê Tukamoto; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Dutra, Gustavo Henrique Pereira; Nascimento, Cristiane Lassálvia

    2014-01-01

    Pododermatitis is currently one of most frequent and important clinical complications in seabirds kept in captivity or in rehabilitation centers. In this study, five Magellanic penguins with previous pododermatitis lesions on their footpad were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). All PDT treated lesions successfully regressed and no recurrence was observed during the 6-month follow-up period. PDT seems to be an inexpensive and effective alternative treatment for pododermatitis in Magellanic penguins encouraging further research on this topic.

  7. High frequency of multiple paternity in the largest rookery of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Judith A; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Leippert, Fabio; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2007-09-01

    Mating systems are a central component in the evolution of animal life histories and in conservation genetics. The patterns of male reproductive skew and of paternal shares in batches of offspring, for example, affect genetic effective population size. A prominent characteristic of mating systems of sea turtles seem to be a considerable intra- and interspecific variability in the degree of polyandry. Because of the difficulty of observing the mating behaviour of sea turtles directly in the open sea, genetic paternity analysis is particularly useful for gaining insights into this aspect of their reproductive behaviour. We investigated patterns of multiple paternity in clutches of loggerhead sea turtles in the largest Mediterranean rookery using four highly variable microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we tested for a relationship between the number of fathers detected in clutches and body size of females. More than one father was detected in the clutches of 14 out of 15 females, with two clutches revealing the contribution of at least five males. In more than half the cases, the contributions of different fathers to a clutch did not depart from equality. The number of detected fathers significantly increased with increasing female body size. This relationship indicates that males may prefer to mate with large, and therefore productive, females. Our results suggest that polyandry is likely to increase effective population size compared to a population in which females would mate with only one male; male reproductive contributions being equal.

  8. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  9. Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Pinho-da-Silva-Filho, Rodolfo; Corrado-Adornes, Andréa; Conte-Sena, Daniella; Velozo, Raquel; Myiaji-Kolesnikovas, Cristiane; Dutra, Gustavo; Maracini, Pryscilla; Carvalho-do-Nascimento, Cláudia; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir; Barbosa, Lupércio; Serra, Sheila

    2010-10-01

    Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000 km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins.

  10. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis. PMID:25339513

  11. Heterothermy in growing king penguins.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Götz; Groscolas, René; Le Glaunec, Gaële; Parisel, Camille; Arnold, Laurent; Medina, Patrice; Handrich, Yves

    2011-01-01

    A drop in body temperature allows significant energy savings in endotherms, but facultative heterothermy is usually restricted to small animals. Here we report that king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus), which are able to fast for up to 5 months in winter, undergo marked seasonal heterothermy during this period of general food scarcity and slow-down of growth. They also experience short-term heterothermy below 20 °C in the lower abdomen during the intense (re)feeding period in spring, induced by cold meals and adverse weather. The heterothermic response involves reductions in peripheral temperature, reductions in thermal core volume and temporal abandonment of high core temperature. Among climate variables, air temperature and wind speed show the strongest effect on body temperature, but their effect size depends on physiological state. The observed heterothermy is remarkable for such a large bird (10 kg before fasting), which may account for its unrivalled fasting capacity among birds. PMID:21847109

  12. Heterothermy in growing king penguins.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Götz; Groscolas, René; Le Glaunec, Gaële; Parisel, Camille; Arnold, Laurent; Medina, Patrice; Handrich, Yves

    2011-08-16

    A drop in body temperature allows significant energy savings in endotherms, but facultative heterothermy is usually restricted to small animals. Here we report that king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus), which are able to fast for up to 5 months in winter, undergo marked seasonal heterothermy during this period of general food scarcity and slow-down of growth. They also experience short-term heterothermy below 20 °C in the lower abdomen during the intense (re)feeding period in spring, induced by cold meals and adverse weather. The heterothermic response involves reductions in peripheral temperature, reductions in thermal core volume and temporal abandonment of high core temperature. Among climate variables, air temperature and wind speed show the strongest effect on body temperature, but their effect size depends on physiological state. The observed heterothermy is remarkable for such a large bird (10 kg before fasting), which may account for its unrivalled fasting capacity among birds.

  13. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  14. Hypoxemic and ischemic tolerance in emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savin, T; St Leger, J; Ponganis, P J

    2010-06-01

    Oxygen store depletion and a diving bradycardia in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) expose tissues to critical levels of hypoxemia and ischemia. To assess the prevention of re-perfusion injury and reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage in emperor penguins, superoxide radical production, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), and antioxidant enzyme activity profiles in biopsy samples from muscle and liver were determined and compared to those in the chicken and 8 species of flighted marine birds (non-divers and plunge divers). In muscle of emperor penguins, superoxide production and TBARS levels were not distinctly different from those in the other species; among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly elevated above all species. In the liver of emperor penguins, TBARS levels were not significantly different from other species; only CAT activity was significantly elevated, although GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were 2-3 times higher than those in other species. The potential for ROS formation and lipid peroxidation is not reduced in the pectoral muscle or liver of the emperor penguin. Scavenging of hydrogen peroxide by CAT and the conjugation of glutathione with reactive intermediates and peroxides by GST and GPX appear to be important in the prevention of ROS damage and re-perfusion injury in these birds.

  15. Ice Formation Delay on Penguin Feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadehbirjandi, Elaheh; Tavakoli-Dastjerdi, Faryar; St. Leger, Judy; Davis, Stephen H.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic penguins reside in a harsh environment where air temperature may reach -40 °C with wind speed of 40 m/s and water temperature remains around -2.2 °C. Penguins are constantly in and out of the water and splashed by waves, yet even in sub-freezing conditions, the formation of macroscopic ice is not observed on their feathers. Bird feathers are naturally hydrophobic; however, penguins have an additional hydrophobic coating on their feathers to reinforce their non-wetting properties. This coating consists of preen oil which is applied to the feathers from the gland near the base of the tail. The combination of the feather's hydrophobicity and surface texture is known to increase the contact angle of water drops on penguin feathers to over 140 ° and classify them as superhydrophobic. We here develop an in-depth analysis of ice formation mechanism on superhydrophobic surfaces through careful experimentations and development of a theory to address how ice formation is delayed on these surfaces. Furthermore, we investigate the anti-icing properties of warm and cold weather penguins with and without preen oil to further design a surface minimizing the frost formation which is of practical interest especially in aircraft industry.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiwu; Xia, Yan; Dang, Xiao; Chen, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the largest living species of penguin. Herein, we first reported the complete mitochondrial genome of emperor penguin. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 17 301 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA, and one control region. To verify the accuracy and the utility of new determined mitogenome sequences, we constructed the species phylogenetic tree of emperor penguin together with 10 other closely species. This is the second complete mitochondrial genome of penguin, and this is going to be an important data to study mitochondrial evolution of birds. PMID:26403091

  17. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds.

  18. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds. PMID:21753043

  19. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  20. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  1. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  2. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  3. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation. PMID:27253438

  4. Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Hyo Jung

    2010-02-10

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb{sup -1} containing 657 millions BB-bar pairs collected at the UPSILON(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  5. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Sanders, Felicia; Spinks, Mark D; Wills, William; Denison, Amy M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Carios capensis, a tick of seabirds, infests the nests of brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, and other ground nesting birds along the coast of South Carolina. This tick is associated with pelican nest abandonment and could pose a threat to humans visiting pelican rookeries if visitors are exposed to ticks harboring infectious agents. We collected ticks from a pelican rookery on Deveaux Bank, South Carolina and screened 64 individual ticks, six pools of larvae, and an egg mass for DNA from Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Ticks harbored DNA from "Borrelia lonestari", a novel Coxiella sp., and three species of Rickettsia, including Rickettsia felis and two undescribed Rickettsia spp. DNA from the Coxiella and two undescribed Rickettsia were detected in unfed larvae that emerged in the laboratory, which implies these agents are transmitted vertically by female ticks. We partially characterize the novel Coxiella by molecular means. PMID:16821092

  6. Antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from seawater and penguin fecal samples collected near Palmer Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert V; Gammon, Katharine; Day, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in aquatic bacteria has increased steadily as a consequence of the widespread use of antibiotics, but practice and international treaty should have limited antibiotic contamination in Antarctica. We estimated antibiotic resistance in microorganisms isolated from the Antarctic marine waters and a penguin rookery, for 2 reasons: (i) as a measure of human impact and (ii) as a potential "snapshot" of the preantibiotic world. Samples were taken at 4 established sampling sites near Palmer Station, which is situated at the southern end of the Palmer Archipelago (64 degrees 10'S, 61 degrees 50'W). Sites were chosen to provide different potentials for human contamination. Forty 50 mL samples of seawater were collected and colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were determined at 6 and 20 degrees C. For this study, presumed psychrophiles (growth at 6 degrees C) were assumed to be native to Antarctic waters, whereas presumed mesophiles (growth at 20 degrees C but not at 6 degrees C) were taken to represent introduced organisms. The 20-6 degrees C CFU/mL ratio was used as a measure of the relative impact to the ecosystem of presumably introduced organisms. This ratio was highest at the site nearest to Palmer Station and decreased with distance from it, suggesting that human presence has impacted the natural microbial flora of the site. The frequency of resistance to 5 common antibiotics was determined in each group of isolates. Overall drug resistance was higher among the presumed mesophiles than the presumed psychrophiles and increased with proximity to Palmer Station, with the presumed mesophiles showing higher frequencies of single and multiple drug resistance than the psychrophile population. The frequency of multidrug resistance followed the same pattern. It appears that multidrug resistance is low among native Antarctic bacteria but is increased by human habitation.

  7. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring ‘giant penguins’ after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  8. STUDIES OF RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS AT BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, C

    2003-10-27

    The electromagnetic radiative ''penguin'' decays b {yields} s{gamma}, b {yields} d{gamma} are sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. The authors present recent studies made with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring.

  9. 78 FR 24238 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...'s). The applicant intends to conduct censusing/surveying visitor sites and penguin/ seabird breeding... involve infrequent and minimal disturbances to resident fauna such as: Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo...

  10. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  11. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  12. Trapping penguins with entangled B mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadisman, Ryan; Gardner, Susan; Yan, Xinshuai

    2016-03-01

    The first direct observation of time-reversal (T) violation in the B B ‾ system has been reported by the BaBar Collaboration, employing the method of Bañuls and Bernabéu. Given this, we generalize their analysis of the time-dependent T-violating asymmetry (AT) to consider different choices of CP tags for which the dominant amplitudes have the same weak phase. As one application, we find that it is possible to measure departures from the universality of sin ⁡ (2 β) directly. If sin ⁡ (2 β) is universal, as in the Standard Model, the method permits the direct determination of penguin effects in these channels. Our method, although no longer a strict test of T, can yield tests of the sin ⁡ (2 β) universality, or, alternatively, of penguin effects, of much improved precision even with existing data sets.

  13. Glueball production via gluonic penguin decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-03-01

    We study glueball production in gluonic penguin decay , using the next-to-leading order gluonic penguin interaction and effective couplings of a glueball to two perturbative gluons. Subsequent decays of a scalar glueball are described by using techniques of effective chiral Lagrangians to incorporate the interaction between a glueball and pseudoscalar mesons. Mixing effects between the pure glueball with other mesons are considered. Identifying the as a scalar glueball, we find that both the top and the charm penguin are important and obtain a sizable branching ratio for of order , where the effective coupling strength is estimated to be GeV using experimental data for the branching ratio of based on a chiral Lagrangian estimate. An alternative perturbative QCD based estimation of is a factor of 20 larger, which would imply a much enhanced branching ratio. Glueball production from this rare semi-inclusive decay can be probed at the LHCb and Belle II to narrow down the allowed parameter space. A similar branching ratio is expected for the pseudoscalar glueball. We also briefly comment on the case of vector and tensor glueballs.

  14. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  15. Systemic aspergillosis in an oiled magallanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Lima, J S; Halfen, D C; Salguero, F J; Sánchez-Cordon, P; Becker, G

    2001-09-01

    This report describes a case of fatal aspergillosis caused by A. fumigatus during the recovery of an oiled Magallanic penguin. The possible role of aspergillosis as a possible complication responsible for the mortality of penguins surviving the first days of treatment for oil is emphasized.

  16. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  17. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-08-16

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins.

  18. "March of the Penguins": Building Knowledge in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingeret, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author followed a kindergarten class that watched the film and used the book "March of the Penguins" in order to find out how much information the students learned from the film and how the teacher integrated the texts into her unit on penguins in order to maximize their impact. The students were given an oral assessment prior…

  19. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  20. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    eggshell and guano δ15N values document a major dietary contribution of krill but not a krill-dominated diet, since δ13C values remain much too high if krill prevail in the diet. According to the Holocene environmental background attested for Victoria Land, Adélie penguin dietary shifts between fish and krill seem to reflect penguin paleoecological responses to different paleoenvironmental setting with different conditions of sea-ice extension and persistence. References Baroni C, Hall BL (2004) A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica. J Quaternary Sci 19:377-396. Baroni C, Orombelli G (1994) Abandoned penguin rookeries as Holocene paleoclimatic indicators in Antarctica. Geology 22:23-26. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1978) Influences of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 42(5):495-506. Hall BL, Hoelzel AR, Baroni C, Denton GH, Le Boeuf BJ, Overturf B, Töpf AL (2006) Holocene elephant seal distribution implies warmer-than-present climate in the Ross Sea. P Natl Acad Sci Usa 103:10213-10217. Hobson KA (1995) Reconstructing avian diets using stable-carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components: patterns of isotopic fractionation and turnover. The Condor 97:752-762. Koch PL, Fogel ML, Tuross N (1994) Tracing the diet of fossil animals using stable isotopes. Pages 63-92 in K. Lajtha and R. H. Michener, editors. Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science. Blackwell Scientific Publications, USA. Lambert DM, Ritchie PA, Millar CD, Holland B, Drummond AJ, Baroni C (2002) Rates of evolution in Ancient DNA from Adélie Penguins. Science 295:2270-2273. Lorenzini S, Olmastroni S, Pezzo F, Salvatore MC, Baroni C (2009) Holocene Adélie penguin diet in Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biol 32:1077-1086. Minagawa M, Wada E (1984) Stepwise enrichment of δ15N along food chains: further evidence and the relation between δ15N and animal age. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 48:1135-1140.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  2. Diving energetics in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Culik, B M; Pütz, K; Wilson, R P; Allers, D; Lage, J; Bost, C A; Le Maho, Y

    1996-04-01

    Dive duration in wild king penguins and the energetic cost of swimming in a 30m long swim channel were determined at Ile de la Possession, Crozet Archipelago, using external data loggers and respirometry, respectively. Calibrated electronic data loggers equipped with a pressure sensor were used to determine dive durations: 95% of dives were less than 6 min long and 66% of dives were less than 4 min long. Dive patterns show that king penguins may intersperse long dive durations (4-6.3 min) with short ones (1.5-3 min) and make surface pauses of variable duration between them (0.5-3.5 min), or dive regularly (for up to 5 h) with long dive durations (5 min) and constant interdive surface intervals (1.5 min). The latter indicates that the aerobic dive limits (ADL) of this species could be higher and oxygen consumption lower than previously reported. Assuming that king penguins dive within their aerobic limit, different approaches to the analysis of the data obtained in the swim channel are discussed to derive the ADL. Swimming speeds observed in the channel ranged from 0.9 to 3.4 m s-1. Transport costs were lowest between 1.8 and 2.2 m s-1. Although at 2.2 m s-1 king penguins used only 10.3 Wkg-1 over a dive+surface cycle (minimal transport costs of 4.7 J kg-1 m-1), we speculate that tisse oxygen consumption during submergence may be as low as 0.23 ml O2 kg-1 s-1 (2.1 times standard metabolic rate, SMR) or perhaps lower (which gives an ADL of 4.2 min). During surface phases, oxygen uptake would be increased to at least 1 ml O2kg-1 s-1 (9.3 times SMR). This implies that at least 70% of all dives are aerobic. Potential physiological mechanisms allowing king penguins to partition O2 consumption between submergence and surface periods remain, however, unclear. PMID:8788090

  3. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna. PMID:21900330

  4. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Ksepka, Daniel T; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2011-06-23

    Penguins (Sphenisciformes) inhabit some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The 60+ Myr fossil record of penguins spans an interval that witnessed dramatic shifts in Cenozoic ocean temperatures and currents, indicating a long interplay between penguin evolution and environmental change. Perhaps the most celebrated example is the successful Late Cenozoic invasion of glacial environments by crown clade penguins. A major adaptation that allows penguins to forage in cold water is the humeral arterial plexus, a vascular counter-current heat exchanger (CCHE) that limits heat loss through the flipper. Fossil evidence reveals that the humeral plexus arose at least 49 Ma during a 'Greenhouse Earth' interval. The evolution of the CCHE is therefore unrelated to global cooling or development of polar ice sheets, but probably represents an adaptation to foraging in subsurface waters at temperate latitudes. As global climate cooled, the CCHE was key to invasion of thermally more demanding environments associated with Antarctic ice sheets.

  5. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna.

  6. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy.

  7. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. PMID:26916364

  8. Charmless and Penguin Decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Dorigo, Mirco; Collaboration, for the CDF

    2010-12-01

    Penguin transitions play a key role in the search of New Physics hints in the heavy flavor sector. During the last decade CDF has been exploring this opportunity with a rich study of two-body charmless decays of neutral B mesons into charged final-state particles. After briefly introducing the aspects of this physics peculiar to the hadron collision environment, I report on two interesting results: the first polarization measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi} decay and the update of the B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h{prime}{sup -} decays analysis.

  9. Enhanced Electroweak Penguin Amplitude in B{yields}VV Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Beneke, M.; Rohrer, J.; Yang, D.

    2006-04-14

    We discuss a novel electromagnetic penguin contribution to the transverse helicity amplitudes in B decays to two vector mesons, which is enhanced by two powers of m{sub B}/{lambda} relative to the standard penguin amplitudes. This leads to unique polarization signatures in penguin-dominated decay modes such as B{yields}{rho}K* similar to polarization effects in the radiative decay B{yields}K*{gamma} and offers new opportunities to probe the magnitude and chirality of flavor-changing neutral current couplings to photons.

  10. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  11. Advanced systems data for mapping Emperor Penguin habitats in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial orbital sensor systems combined with other resource data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) may offer an effective way of mapping Emperor penguin habitats and their response to regional climate change in Antarctica. This project examined these resources to determine their applicability for mapping Emperor penguin habitats to support the National Science Foundation. This work is especially significant to investigate satellite-based imaging as an alternative to intrusive in-the-field enumeration of Emperor penguins and the potential of applying these procedures to support The National Map (TNP).

  12. 76 FR 48183 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... biology of the Adelie, Gentoo and Chinstrap penguins, and interactions among these species and their..., 2700 Gentoo penguins, 250 Brown skua, 350 South polar skua, 600 Giant petrel, 100 Kelp gulls, 150...

  13. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  14. Long-term effects of flipper bands on penguins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier-Clerc, M.; Gendner, J.-P.; Ribic, C.A.; Fraser, William R.; Woehler, Eric J.; Descamps, S.; Gilly, C.; Le, Bohec C.; Le, Maho Y.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in seabird populations, and particularly of penguins, offer a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of fisheries and climatic variations on marine resources. Such investigations often require large-scale banding to identify individual birds, but the significance of the data relies on the assumption that no bias is introduced in this type of long-term monitoring. After 5 years of using an automated system of identification of king penguins implanted with electronic tags (100 adult king penguins were implanted with a transponder tag, 50 of which were also flipper banded), we can report that banding results in later arrival at the colony for courtship in some years, lower breeding probability and lower chick production. We also found that the survival rate of unbanded, electronically tagged king penguin chicks after 2-3 years is approximately twice as large as that reported in the literature for banded chicks. ?? 2004 The Royal Society.

  15. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear primarily adapted for a marine existence, they remain dependent on land for breeding, rearing young, and moulting. Here we describe and compare the breeding cycle of all the penguin species, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation. We also focus on the breeding cycle of the genus Aptenodytes, since it largely differs from the breeding cycle of most of the other penguin species.

  16. Cosmic airburst debris, climate anomalies and societal reactions at 4.2kyr BP: from North Syria to Adelie Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coqueugniot, E.; Courty, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The linkages established between dust spikes, unprecedented drought and societal disruption at 4.2 kyr BP have yet failed elucidating the marked increase in aerosol. The volcanic dust component or the erratic spatial pattern are among other puzzling anomalies for a global climate event. We examine here the 4.2 kyr BP debris records from high quality sedimentary archives across the two hemispheres: (1) at Tell Dja'de (Syria), a carbonaceous surface sealed by a EB III/IV Bronze age cemetery; (2) at Tell Ahmar (Syria), the nearly intact collapsed wood frame of the Akkad palace sandwiched between the last 3rd millennium BC plastered floors and massive destruction layers of the monumental buildings; (3) debris accumulation from human processed slags in late Akkaddian contexts at Tell Leilan, Tell Chuera, Tell Beydar, Tell Brak (North Syria) and in an EB III/IV one at Umbaschi (South Syria); (4) a tsunami layer at Banda Aceh (Sumatra); (5) deep sea cores from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas, the Indian and Austral oceans. Using an in situ multi-analytical protocol, we focus on the carbonaceous polymorphs and the composite elements that we formerly defined to tracing hypervelocity cosmic airbursts. A meticulous control of their spatial pattern and structural characteristics at meso to nano-scales has helped to distinguishing the intact debris fall of airburst origin from their human processed-byproducts. The later trace the occurrence in the debris airbursts of highly valuable resources, i.e. fossil combustible with singular properties, that have been exploited since the prehistoric time. Evidence for an oceanic impact at 4.2 kyr BP in the Austral ocean are provided by the 3 m record in the Adelie land high resolution marine core (MD03-2601) showing sudden discharge of ice rafted fine debris with impact features. Their fresh fingerprints in the high to low latitude records from the southern hemisphere indicate massive dispersion of impact debris by air and surface

  17. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  18. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  19. Charming penguin contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Isola, C.; Ladisa, M.; Nardulli, G.; Pham, T. N.; Santorelli, P.

    2001-07-01

    We present calculations of the charming-penguin long-distance contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi} decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. Our calculation is based on the chiral effective Lagrangian for light and heavy mesons, corrected for the hard pion and kaon momenta. We find that the charming-penguin contributions increase significantly the B{r_arrow}K{pi} decay rates in comparison with the short-distance contributions, giving results in better agreement with experimental data.

  20. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins. PMID:23349094

  1. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins.

  2. Long-term behavior at foraging sites of adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida rookeries.

    PubMed

    Foley, Allen M; Schroeder, Barbara A; Hardy, Robert; MacPherson, Sandra L; Nicholas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study behavior at foraging sites of 40 adult female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from three Florida (USA) rookeries. Foraging sites were located in four countries (USA, Mexico, the Bahamas, and Cuba). We were able to determine home range for 32 of the loggerheads. One turtle moved through several temporary residence areas, but the rest had a primary residence area in which they spent all or most of their time (usually >11 months per year). Twenty-four had a primary residence area that was <500 km(2) (mean = 191). Seven had a primary residence area that was ≥500 km(2) (range = 573-1,907). Primary residence areas were mostly restricted to depths <100 m. Loggerheads appeared to favor areas with larger-grained sediment (gravel and rock) over areas with smaller-grained sediment (mud). Short-term departures from primary residence areas were either looping excursions, typically involving 1-2 weeks of continuous travel, or movement to a secondary residence area where turtles spent 25-45 days before returning to their primary residence area. Ten turtles had a secondary residence area, and six used it as an overwintering site. For those six turtles, the primary residence area was in shallow water (<17 m) in the northern half of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and overwintering sites were farther offshore or farther south. We documented long winter dive times (>4 h) for the first time in the GOM. Characterizing behaviors at foraging sites helps inform and assess loggerhead recovery efforts. PMID:24882883

  3. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype-10 detected in Rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological, serological and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMV by electron microscopy; however, its vi...

  4. Radiative And Electroweak Penguin Decays of B

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Jeffrey D.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-11-09

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are flavor-changing-neutral-current processes that provide powerful ways to test the Standard Model at the one-loop level, to search for the effects of new physics, and to extract Standard Model parameters such as CKM matrix elements and quark masses. The large data samples obtained by the B-factory experiments BaBar and Belle, together with an intensive theoretical effort, have led to significant progress towards understanding these rare decays. Recent experimental results include the measurements of the b {yields} d{gamma} decays B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, the observation of B {yields} K(*){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decays (together with studies of the associated kinematic distributions), and improved measurements of the inclusive B {yields} Xs{gamma} rate and photon energy spectrum.

  5. The dark penguin shines light at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primulando, Reinard; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2015-07-01

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For several types of DM-Standard Model couplings, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory, considering simplified models with light mediators. This is especially important in the case of loop-mediated interactions. In this paper we perform the first simplified model study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, by including the one-loop momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling — given by the Dark Penguin — in collider processes. We compute bounds from the monojet, monophoton, and diphoton searches at the 8 and 14 TeV LHC, and compare the results to those of direct and indirect detection experiments. Future searches at the 100 TeV hadron collider and at the ILC are also addressed. We find that the optimal search strategy requires loose cuts on the missing transverse energy, to capture the enhancement of the form factors near the threshold for on-shell production of the mediators. We consider both minimal models and models where an additional state beyond the DM is accessible. In the latter case, under the assumption of anarchic flavor structure in the dark sector, the LHC monophoton and diphoton searches will be able to set much stronger bounds than in the minimal scenario. A determination of the mass of the heavier dark fermion might be feasible using the M T2 variable. In addition, if the Dark Penguin flavor structure is almost aligned with that of the DM mass, a displaced signal from the decay of the heavier dark fermion into the DM and photon can be observed. This allows us to set constraints on the mixings and couplings of the model from an existing search for non-pointing photons.

  6. Spacelike penguin diagram effects in {ital B}{implies}{ital P}{ital P} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Du, D.; Yang, M.; Zhang, D. |

    1996-01-01

    The spacelike penguin diagram contributions to branching ratios and {ital CP} asymmetries in charmless decays of {ital B} to two pseudoscalar mesons are studied using the next-to-leading order low energy effective Hamiltonian. Both the gluonic penguin and the electroweak penguin diagrams are considered. We find that the effects are significant. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Avian Malaria ( Plasmodium spp.) in Captive Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) from Northern Argentina, 2010.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Capellino, Félix; Silveira, Patricia; Braga, Érika M; Rodríguez-Heredia, Sergio Andres; Loureiro, Julio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of lethal avian malaria in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) captive at San Clemente del Tuyú, Argentina, approximately 560 km north of Argentinean breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins. Blood smears revealed both penguins were concurrently infected by Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) sp., and Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. PMID:27285418

  8. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming

    PubMed Central

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C.; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26°C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  9. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  10. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions.

  11. Benthos of Adjacent Mangrove, Seagrass and Non-vegetated Habitats in Rookery Bay, Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    1997-04-01

    Benthic faunal abundances and biomasses in adjacent mangrove, seagrass and non-vegetated mud habitats were compared in Rookery Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Although all habitats were intertidal, mangroves received the shortest duration of flooding, and non-vegetated mud received the longest. Replicate cores were taken at high tide in each habitat in July, September and December 1988, and in April 1989. Seagrass substrates were low organic content sands, whereas mangrove and non-vegetated substrates were high organic content sandy clays. Over 300 taxa were recorded, most of them relatively rare, and only 32 taxa were considered dominant (averaging ≥636 individuals m -2or five core -1in any habitat at a given time). Seagrass and non-vegetated mud faunas were more diverse than those of mangrove substrates. Total densities were always higher in red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) peat than elsewhere, averaging 22 591 to 52 914 individuals m -2. Densities in mixed seagrasses ranged between 6347 and 23 545 individuals m -2, while those in non-vegetated mud ranged between 3611 and 22 465 individuals m -2. Biomasses, however, were always higher in either seagrasses (15·7-87·4 g wet weight m -2) or non-vegetated mud (11·9-26·2 g m -2) than in mangroves (3·6-8·2 g m -2). Tanaids and annelids were the numerical dominants, reaching maximum densities of 35 127 and 31 388 m -2, respectively, in mangroves. Annelids were also the dominant biomass in most habitats each month. Variation in densities of most of the 32 dominant taxa were related to habitat not time. Each habitat harboured four to eight taxa that were significantly more abundant there than in alternate habitats. Feeding guild analysis indicated few differences among habitats, as surface deposit feeders and carnivores were predominant. Red mangrove appear capable of functioning in a manner similar to intertidal marsh habitats by providing high densities of small prey items for mobile consumers able to exploit the

  12. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus). PMID:26385329

  13. The origin of traveling waves in an emperor penguin huddle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerum, R. C.; Fabry, B.; Metzner, C.; Beaulieu, M.; Ancel, A.; Zitterbart, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Emperor penguins breed during the Antarctic winter and have to endure temperatures as low as -50 °C and wind speeds of up to 200 km h-1. To conserve energy, they form densely packed huddles with a triangular lattice structure. Video recordings from previous studies revealed coordinated movements in regular wave-like patterns within these huddles. It is thought that these waves are triggered by individual penguins that locally disturb the huddle structure, and that the traveling wave serves to remove the lattice defects and restore order. The mechanisms that govern wave propagation are currently unknown, however. Moreover, it is unknown if the waves are always triggered by the same penguin in a huddle. Here, we present a model in which the observed wave patterns emerge from simple rules involving only the interactions between directly neighboring individuals, similar to the interaction rules found in other jammed systems, e.g. between cars in a traffic jam. Our model predicts that a traveling wave can be triggered by a forward step of any individual penguin located within a densely packed huddle. This prediction is confirmed by optical flow velocimetry of the video recordings of emperor penguins in their natural habitat.

  14. New candidate species most closely related to penguins.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maiko; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuda, Tomi T; Kobayashi, Takanori; Mindell, David; Cao, Ying; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-08-15

    The phylogenetic position of the order Spenisciformes in Aves remains unclear despite several independent analyses based on morphological and molecular data. To address this issue, we determined the complete mtDNA sequence of rockhopper penguins. The mitochondrial genome, excluding the region from the D-loop to 12SrRNA, was also sequenced for petrel, albatross, frigatebird, loon and grebe, which previous studies suggest are related to penguins. A maximum likelihood analysis of the phylogenetic placement of penguins with 23 birds, including 17 species whose mtDNA sequences were previously reported, suggested that storks are the closest extant relatives of penguins, with 78% and 56% bootstrap supports, depending on the choice of outgroup species. Thus, ciconiiform birds constitute new candidates as the closest extant relatives of penguins (previously proposed candidates were either gaviiform, podicipediform, or procellariiform birds). In addition to this new evidence, our analysis gave evidence to some of ambiguous relationships in the avian tree: our analysis supported a basal split between passerines and other neoavians within Neoaves, and rejected the monophyly of Falconiformes as well as that of loons and grebes. PMID:16806742

  15. Septicaemia caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, H; Wenker, C; Robert, N; Albini, S

    2011-03-01

    Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from 2003 to 2007. The affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. The causative agents, E. tarda and P. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intestinal flora of wild and captive aquatic animals, including penguins. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed. PMID:21360449

  16. Septicaemia caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, H; Wenker, C; Robert, N; Albini, S

    2011-03-01

    Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from 2003 to 2007. The affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. The causative agents, E. tarda and P. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intestinal flora of wild and captive aquatic animals, including penguins. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed.

  17. Sea Ice Changes in the Adelie Depression during the Ice-Trapping Period of the Chinese Ice-Breaker RV Xuelong in January 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, F.; Zhai, M.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.; Heil, P.; Zhao, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the 30th Chinese Antarctic Expedition in 2013/14, the Chinese ice-breaker vessel RV Xuelong answered a rescue call for the Russian vessel Akademik Shokalskiy. While assisting the repatriation of personnel from the Russian vessel to the Australian RV Australis, the RV Xuelong itself became entrapped within the compacted ice in the Adelie Depression region. Here we present our analysis of MODIS and SAR imagery, to provide an in detail description of the regional sea ice conditions, which led to beset the RV Xuelong for ~6 days. The remotely sensed imagery clearly revealed the sea-ice characteristics during the four stages of the entrapment: gathering stage, compaction stage, dispersion stage and calving stage. Here we present our evaluation of the four factors characterizing the local sea-ice conditions during the late Dec 2013 and early January 2014: coastal current, wind, tide and temperature. This study demonstrates that high spatio-temporal resolution remote sensing data are required to monitor the local and regional sea-ice changes with view to avoid future entrapping of vessels due to drastic changes and to work towards improved understanding of sea-atmosphere-ice interactions.

  18. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-11-25

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p < 0.01); this indicated that historical penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800-2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400-1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today.

  19. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p < 0.01); this indicated that historical penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800-2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400-1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today. PMID:26601753

  20. MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN AN AFRICAN PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS).

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristian J; Reavill, Drury; Weldy, Scott H; Bradway, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-and specifically M. genavense -in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis.

  1. Trojan Penguins and Isospin Violation in Hadronic B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, yuval

    1999-09-10

    Some rare hadronic decays of B mesons, such as B {yields} {pi}K, are sensitive to isospin-violating contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model. Although commonly referred to as electroweak penguins, such contributions can often arise through tree-level exchanges of heavy particles, or through strong-interaction loop diagrams. The Wilson coefficients of the corresponding electroweak penguin operators are calculated in a large class of New Physics models, and in many cases are found not to be suppressed with respect to the QCD penguin coefficients. Several tests for these effects using observables in B{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}K decays are discussed, and nontrivial bounds on the couplings of the various New Physics models are derived.

  2. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Labuschagne, Christiaan; Kotzé, Antoinette; Grobler, J Paul; Dalton, Desiré L

    2014-01-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was sequenced. The molecule was sequenced via next generation sequencing and primer walking. The size of the genome is 17,346 bp in length. Comparison with the mitochondrial DNA of two other penguin genomes that have so far been reported was conducted namely; Little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) and the Rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). This analysis made it possible to identify common penguin mitochondrial DNA characteristics. The S. demersus mtDNA genome is very similar, both in composition and length to both the E. chrysocome and E. minor genomes. The gene content of the African penguin mitochondrial genome is typical of vertebrates and all three penguin species have the standard gene order originally identified in the chicken. The control region for S. demersus is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe and all three species of penguins contain two sets of similar repeats with varying copy numbers towards the 3' end of the control region, accounting for the size variance. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence for the mitochondrial genome of the African penguin, S. demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes. PMID:24157264

  3. Sex identification of four penguin species using locus-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun; Han, Jiabo; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Junxin; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for sex identification are not applicable to sexually monomorphic species, leading to difficulties in the management of their breeding programs. To identify sex in sexually monomorphic birds, molecular methods have been established. Two established primer pairs (2550F/2718R and p8/p2) amplify the CHD1 gene region from both the Z and W chromosomes. Here, we evaluated the use of these primers for sex identification in four sexually monomorphic penguin species: king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). For all species except rockhopper penguins, primer pair 2550F/2718R resulted in two distinct CHD1Z and CHD1W PCR bands, allowing for sex identification. For rockhopper penguins, only primer pair p8/p2 yielded different CHD1Z and CHD1W bands, which were faint and similar in size making them difficult to distinguish. As a result, we designed a new primer pair (PL/PR) that efficiently determined the gender of individuals from all four penguin species. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed that they were from the CHD1 gene region. Primer pair PL/PR can be evaluated for use in sexing other penguin species, which will be crucial for the management of new penguin breeding programs. PMID:22383375

  4. Foraging areas of king penguins from Macquarie Island in relation to a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Wienecke, Barbara; Robertson, Graham

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-three king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from Macquarie Island were tracked by satellite during the late incubation period in 1998-1999 to determine the overlap of the foraging zone of king penguins with an area to be declared a marine protected area (MPA) near the island. While all penguins left the colony in an easterly direction and traveled clockwise back to the island, three penguins foraged in the northern parts of the general foraging area and stayed north of 56 degrees S. The remaining 20 penguins ventured south and most crossed 59 degrees S before returning to the island. The total foraging area was estimated to be 156,000 km2 with 36,500 km2 being most important (where penguins spent > 150 hr in total). North-foraging penguins reached on average 331 +/- 24 km from the colony compared to 530 +/- 76 km for the south-foraging penguins. The latter traveled an average total distance of 1313 +/- 176 km, while the northern foragers averaged 963 +/- 166 km. Not only did the penguins spend the majority of their foraging time within the boundaries of the proposed MPA, they also foraged chiefly within the boundaries of a highly protected zone. Thus, the MPA is likely to encompass the foraging zone of king penguins, at least during incubation. PMID:12180180

  5. Avian malaria seroprevalence in Jackass penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Brossy, J J; Plös, A; Stoskopf, M K

    1995-10-01

    Blood samples of 191 adult Jackass penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from South Africa were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with Plasmodium falciparum antigen (R32tet32) for avian malaria antibodies (Ab). The samples originated from free-ranging penguins from offshore islands and southern coast colonies (3 groups, n = 110), from 2 penguin groups (n = 66) rescued after offshore oil-spill contamination and rehabilitated at the Rescue Station of the South African National Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds (SANCCOB) in Cape Town, and from SANCCOB-resident penguins (n = 15). The total average malaria Ab seroprevalence was 39%, and the mean malaria seropositivity ranged from 20% to 62% among the 6 S. demersus groups, with a mean of 55% for oiled penguins, and 31% for the remaining birds. The total mean absorbance value was 0.57 for ELISA-positive penguins, 0.43 for birds kept at SANCCOB facilities, and 0.70 for the penguins from wild colonies. The 2 groups of oiled penguins exhibited higher malaria Ab seroprevalence (38% and 62%) than the 3 groups of non-oiled birds (29%, 33% and 35%). Malaria Ab seroprevalence of free-ranging penguins was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than in the 3 groups of birds at SANCCOB facilities and did not differ significantly among 3 wild penguin colonies.

  6. Foraging areas of king penguins from Macquarie Island in relation to a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Wienecke, Barbara; Robertson, Graham

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-three king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from Macquarie Island were tracked by satellite during the late incubation period in 1998-1999 to determine the overlap of the foraging zone of king penguins with an area to be declared a marine protected area (MPA) near the island. While all penguins left the colony in an easterly direction and traveled clockwise back to the island, three penguins foraged in the northern parts of the general foraging area and stayed north of 56 degrees S. The remaining 20 penguins ventured south and most crossed 59 degrees S before returning to the island. The total foraging area was estimated to be 156,000 km2 with 36,500 km2 being most important (where penguins spent > 150 hr in total). North-foraging penguins reached on average 331 +/- 24 km from the colony compared to 530 +/- 76 km for the south-foraging penguins. The latter traveled an average total distance of 1313 +/- 176 km, while the northern foragers averaged 963 +/- 166 km. Not only did the penguins spend the majority of their foraging time within the boundaries of the proposed MPA, they also foraged chiefly within the boundaries of a highly protected zone. Thus, the MPA is likely to encompass the foraging zone of king penguins, at least during incubation.

  7. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Stucchi, Marcelo; Urbina, Mario; Giannini, Norberto; Bertelli, Sara; Narváez, Yanina; Boyd, Clint A

    2007-07-10

    New penguin fossils from the Eocene of Peru force a reevaluation of previous hypotheses regarding the causal role of climate change in penguin evolution. Repeatedly it has been proposed that penguins originated in high southern latitudes and arrived at equatorial regions relatively recently (e.g., 4-8 million years ago), well after the onset of latest Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and increases in polar ice volume. By contrast, new discoveries from the middle and late Eocene of Peru reveal that penguins invaded low latitudes >30 million years earlier than prior data suggested, during one of the warmest intervals of the Cenozoic. A diverse fauna includes two new species, here reported from two of the best exemplars of Paleogene penguins yet recovered. The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude approximately 14 degrees S) regions during greenhouse earth conditions. One new species, Perudyptes devriesi, is among the deepest divergences within Sphenisciformes. The second, Icadyptes salasi, is the most complete giant (>1.5 m standing height) penguin yet described. Both species provide critical information on early penguin cranial osteology, trends in penguin body size, and the evolution of the penguin flipper.

  8. Sex identification of four penguin species using locus-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun; Han, Jiabo; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Junxin; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for sex identification are not applicable to sexually monomorphic species, leading to difficulties in the management of their breeding programs. To identify sex in sexually monomorphic birds, molecular methods have been established. Two established primer pairs (2550F/2718R and p8/p2) amplify the CHD1 gene region from both the Z and W chromosomes. Here, we evaluated the use of these primers for sex identification in four sexually monomorphic penguin species: king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). For all species except rockhopper penguins, primer pair 2550F/2718R resulted in two distinct CHD1Z and CHD1W PCR bands, allowing for sex identification. For rockhopper penguins, only primer pair p8/p2 yielded different CHD1Z and CHD1W bands, which were faint and similar in size making them difficult to distinguish. As a result, we designed a new primer pair (PL/PR) that efficiently determined the gender of individuals from all four penguin species. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed that they were from the CHD1 gene region. Primer pair PL/PR can be evaluated for use in sexing other penguin species, which will be crucial for the management of new penguin breeding programs.

  9. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Labuschagne, Christiaan; Kotzé, Antoinette; Grobler, J Paul; Dalton, Desiré L

    2014-01-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was sequenced. The molecule was sequenced via next generation sequencing and primer walking. The size of the genome is 17,346 bp in length. Comparison with the mitochondrial DNA of two other penguin genomes that have so far been reported was conducted namely; Little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) and the Rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). This analysis made it possible to identify common penguin mitochondrial DNA characteristics. The S. demersus mtDNA genome is very similar, both in composition and length to both the E. chrysocome and E. minor genomes. The gene content of the African penguin mitochondrial genome is typical of vertebrates and all three penguin species have the standard gene order originally identified in the chicken. The control region for S. demersus is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe and all three species of penguins contain two sets of similar repeats with varying copy numbers towards the 3' end of the control region, accounting for the size variance. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence for the mitochondrial genome of the African penguin, S. demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes.

  10. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia A.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stucchi, Marcelo; Urbina, Mario; Giannini, Norberto; Bertelli, Sara; Narváez, Yanina; Boyd, Clint A.

    2007-01-01

    New penguin fossils from the Eocene of Peru force a reevaluation of previous hypotheses regarding the causal role of climate change in penguin evolution. Repeatedly it has been proposed that penguins originated in high southern latitudes and arrived at equatorial regions relatively recently (e.g., 4–8 million years ago), well after the onset of latest Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and increases in polar ice volume. By contrast, new discoveries from the middle and late Eocene of Peru reveal that penguins invaded low latitudes >30 million years earlier than prior data suggested, during one of the warmest intervals of the Cenozoic. A diverse fauna includes two new species, here reported from two of the best exemplars of Paleogene penguins yet recovered. The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude ≈14°S) regions during greenhouse earth conditions. One new species, Perudyptes devriesi, is among the deepest divergences within Sphenisciformes. The second, Icadyptes salasi, is the most complete giant (>1.5 m standing height) penguin yet described. Both species provide critical information on early penguin cranial osteology, trends in penguin body size, and the evolution of the penguin flipper. PMID:17601778

  11. Osteology of Icadyptes salasi, a giant penguin from the Eocene of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; DeVries, Thomas J; Urbina, Mario

    2008-01-01

    We present the first detailed description of the giant Eocene penguin Icadyptes salasi. The species is characterized by a narrow skull with a hyper-elongate spear-like beak, a robust cervical column and a powerful flipper. The bony beak tip of Icadyptes is formed by fusion of several elements and is unique among penguins, differing markedly from previously described giant penguin beaks. Vascular canal patterning similar to that of boobies, frigatebirds and albatrosses suggests I. salasi may have had a thin, sheet-like rhamphotheca unlike the thick rugose rhamphotheca of modern penguins. Together, these features suggest a novel ecology for I. salasi, most likely involving the capture of larger prey items via spearing. As the first described giant penguin specimen to preserve a complete wing skeleton, the I. salasi holotype yields significant insight into the shape, proportions and orientation of the wing in giant penguins. In articulation, the forelimb of I. salasi is straighter, permitting less manus and antibrachium flexion, than previous depictions of giant penguin wings. Cross-sections of the humerus and ulna reveal a level of osteosclerosis equalling or surpassing that of extant penguins. Based on ontogenetic data from extant penguins and the morphology of the carpometacarpus of I. salasi, we infer the retention of a free alular phalanx in basal penguins. Previously, the status of this element in penguins was disputed. Differences in the proportions of the manual phalanges contribute to a more abruptly tapering wingtip in I. salasi compared with crown penguins. Fossils from Peru, including the I. salasi holotype specimen, document that penguins expanded to nearly the whole of their extant latitudinal range early in their evolutionary history and during one of the warmest intervals in the Cenozoic. PMID:18564073

  12. Osteology of Icadyptes salasi, a giant penguin from the Eocene of Peru.

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; DeVries, Thomas J; Urbina, Mario

    2008-08-01

    We present the first detailed description of the giant Eocene penguin Icadyptes salasi. The species is characterized by a narrow skull with a hyper-elongate spear-like beak, a robust cervical column and a powerful flipper. The bony beak tip of Icadyptes is formed by fusion of several elements and is unique among penguins, differing markedly from previously described giant penguin beaks. Vascular canal patterning similar to that of boobies, frigatebirds and albatrosses suggests I. salasi may have had a thin, sheet-like rhamphotheca unlike the thick rugose rhamphotheca of modern penguins. Together, these features suggest a novel ecology for I. salasi, most likely involving the capture of larger prey items via spearing. As the first described giant penguin specimen to preserve a complete wing skeleton, the I. salasi holotype yields significant insight into the shape, proportions and orientation of the wing in giant penguins. In articulation, the forelimb of I. salasi is straighter, permitting less manus and antibrachium flexion, than previous depictions of giant penguin wings. Cross-sections of the humerus and ulna reveal a level of osteosclerosis equalling or surpassing that of extant penguins. Based on ontogenetic data from extant penguins and the morphology of the carpometacarpus of I. salasi, we infer the retention of a free alular phalanx in basal penguins. Previously, the status of this element in penguins was disputed. Differences in the proportions of the manual phalanges contribute to a more abruptly tapering wingtip in I. salasi compared with crown penguins. Fossils from Peru, including the I. salasi holotype specimen, document that penguins expanded to nearly the whole of their extant latitudinal range early in their evolutionary history and during one of the warmest intervals in the Cenozoic. PMID:18564073

  13. Allometric estimation of metabolic rate from heart rate in penguins.

    PubMed

    Green, J A; White, C R; Butler, P J

    2005-12-01

    Studies of the relationship between heart rate (f(H)) and rate of oxygen consumption (V(.) (O(2))), which are then used to predict field metabolic rate, frequently fail to incorporate body mass as a predictive variable. This is a potentially important omission in the study of animals whose body mass fluctuates substantially during their annual cycle. In an attempt further to improve estimates of field metabolic rate from f(H), we re-evaluated data on M(b), f(H) and V(.) (O(2)) from previous studies of macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and derived a new relationship to integrate these three quantities. This relationship is at least as accurate and precise as previously determined relationships. We applied this same principle to published data on 11 of the 20 recognised penguin taxa to derive a relationship to predict V(.) (O(2)) from f(H) and M(b) in penguins of any species. This result has interesting implications in terms of reducing the logistical burden in studies of field metabolic rate. PMID:16297646

  14. Studies of Radiative Penguin B Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier

    2003-05-14

    We summarize results on a number of observations of penguin dominated radiative decays of the B meson. Such decays are forbidden at tree level and proceed via electroweak loops. As such they may be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. The observations have been made at the BaBar experiment at PEPII, the asymmetric B factory at SLAC.

  15. Seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jamie L; McCutchan, Thomas F; Vargas, F Hernan; Deem, Sharon L; Cruz, Marilyn; Hartman, Daniel A; Parker, Patricia G

    2013-10-01

    A parasite species of the genus Plasmodium has recently been documented in the endangered Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Avian malaria causes high mortality in several species after initial exposure and there is great concern for the conservation of the endemic Galapagos penguin. Using a Plasmodium spp. circumsporozoite protein antigen, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test the level of exposure in this small population, as indicated by seroprevalence. Sera from adult and juvenile Galapagos penguins collected between 2004 and 2009 on the Galapagos archipelago were tested for the presence of anti- Plasmodium spp. antibodies. Penguins were also tested for the prevalence of avian malaria parasite DNA using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. Total seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in this sample group was 97.2%, which suggests high exposure to the parasite and low Plasmodium-induced mortality. However, total prevalence of Plasmodium parasite DNA by PCR screening was 9.2%, and this suggests that parasite prevalence may be under-detected through PCR screening. Multiple detection methods may be necessary to measure the real extent of Plasmodium exposure on the archipelago.

  16. Snow accumulation variability derived from radar and firn core data along a 600 km transect in Adelie Land, East Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verfaillie, D.; Fily, M.; Le Meur, E.; Magand, O.; Jourdain, B.; Arnaud, L.; Favier, V.

    2012-11-01

    The mass balance of ice sheets is an intensively studied topic in the context of global change and sea-level rise. However - particularly in Antarctica - obtaining mass balance estimates remains difficult due to various logistical problems. In the framework of the TASTE-IDEA (Trans-Antarctic Scientific Traverses Expeditions - Ice Divide of East Antarctica) program, an International Polar Year project, continuous ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were carried out during a traverse in Adelie Land (East Antarctica) during the 2008-2009 austral summer between the Italian-French Dome C (DC) polar plateau site and French Dumont D'Urville (DdU) coastal station. The aim of this study was to process and interpret GPR data in terms of snow accumulation, to analyse its spatial and temporal variability and compare it with historical data and modelling. The focus was on the last 300 yr, from the pre-industrial period to recent times. Beta-radioactivity counting and gamma spectrometry were applied to cores at the LGGE laboratory, providing a depth-age calibration for radar measurements. Over the 600 km of usable GPR data, depth and snow accumulation were determined with the help of three distinct layers visible on the radargrams (≈ 1730, 1799 and 1941 AD). Preliminary results reveal a gradual increase in accumulation towards the coast (from ≈ 3 cm w.e. a-1 at Dome C to ≈ 17 cm w.e. a-1 at the end of the transect) and previously undocumented undulating structures between 300 and 600 km from DC. Results agree fairly well with data from previous studies and modelling. Drawing final conclusions on temporal variations is difficult because of the margin of error introduced by density estimation. This study should have various applications, including model validation.

  17. Snow accumulation variability in Adelie Land (East Antarctica) derived from radar and firn core data. A 600 km transect from Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verfaillie, D.; Fily, M.; Le Meur, E.; Magand, O.; Jourdain, B.; Arnaud, L.; Favier, V.

    2012-07-01

    Polar ice sheets mass balance is a timely topic intensively studied in the context of global change and sea-level rise. However, obtaining mass balance estimates in Antarctica in particular, remains difficult due to various logistical problems. In the framework of the TASTE-IDEA program, labeled as an International Polar Year project, continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements were carried out during a traverse realised in Adelie Land (East Antarctica) during the 2008-2009 austral summer between the Italo-French Dome C (DC) polar plateau site and French Dumont D'Urville (DdU) coastal station. The aim of this study was to process and interpret GPR data in terms of snow accumulation, to analyse its spatial and temporal variability along the DC-DdU traverse and compare it with historical data and modeling. The emphasis has been put on the last 300 yr, from the pre-industrial to recent time period. Beta-radioactivity counting and gamma spectrometry were studied in cores at LGGE laboratory, providing a depth-age calibration for radar measurements. Over the 600 km of usable GPR data, depth and snow accumulation were determined with the help of three distinct layers visible on the radargrams (≈1730, 1799 and 1941 AD). Preliminary results reveal a gradual accumulation increase towards the coast and the occurrence of previously undocumented undulating structures between 300 and 600 km from DC. Results agree fairly well with data from previous studies and modeling. Concluding on temporal variations is difficult because of the margin of error introduced by density estimation. This study should have various applications such as for model validation.

  18. Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Meir, Jessica U; Stockard, Torre K; Williams, Cassondra L; Ponganis, Katherine V; Ponganis, Paul J

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the diving heart rate (f(H)) response of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), the consummate avian diver, birds diving at an isolated dive hole in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica were outfitted with digital electrocardiogram recorders, two-axis accelerometers and time depth recorders (TDRs). In contrast to any other freely diving bird, a true bradycardia (f(H) significantly penguins. Maximum instantaneous surface interval f(H) in this study is the highest ever recorded for emperor penguins (256 beats min(-1)), equivalent to f(H) at V(O(2)) max., presumably facilitating oxygen loading and post-dive metabolism. The classic Scholander-Irving dive response in these emperor penguins contrasts with the absence of true bradycardia in diving ducks, cormorants, and other penguin species. PMID:18375841

  19. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    PubMed

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  20. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    PubMed

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins. PMID:26886216

  1. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D.; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500–1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species. PMID:23969993

  2. Adélie Penguin Foraging Location Predicted by Tidal Regime Switching

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A.; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator. PMID:23383091

  3. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin. PMID:24317269

  4. Adélie penguin foraging location predicted by tidal regime switching.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Matthew J; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator. PMID:23383091

  5. Adélie penguin foraging location predicted by tidal regime switching.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Matthew J; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator.

  6. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.

  7. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  8. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630–24,662 bp and 35.5–35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9–39.3% (amino acid, 32.1–47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008–2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  9. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-Keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  10. Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins.

  11. Habituation of adult Magellanic penguins to human visitation as expressed through behavior and corticosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian G; Boersma, P Dee; Wingfield, John C

    2006-02-01

    Ecotourism is increasing worldwide; hence, it is important to know how wildlife are affected behaviorally and physiologically by human visitation. We studied the effects of human visitation on the Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at Punta Tombo, Argentina, by monitoring changes in defensive head turns and plasma corticosterone (a hormone secreted in response to stress) for penguins with and without a history of tourist visitation. Habituation to human visitation was rapid. In penguins with no previous exposure to tourists, the number of defensive head turns and level of plasma corticosterone decreased significantly within 5 days of one 15-minute visit/day. Penguins living in tourist-visited and undisturbed areas secreted more corticosterone when captured and restrained than penguins visited by a person. Penguins in tourist areas, however did not show as strong a corticosterone response to capture and restraint as did penguins in areas without tourists. This difference was due to a decreased capability of the adrenocortical tissue to secrete corticosterone in tourist-visited birds. Although our data show no direct negative effects of tourism on Magellanic Penguins at Punta Tombo, consequences of a modification of physiological capabilities (e.g., adrenocortical function) may not become apparent until much later in life. The physiological differences between tourist-visited and undisturbed groups of Magellanic Penguins emphasize the importance of monitoring the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wildlife at multiple levels. PMID:16909667

  12. Vocal individuality and species divergence in the contact calls of banded penguins.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gili, Claudia; Da Rugna, Cristiano; Gnone, Guido; Fissore, Chiara; Sanchez, Daniel; McElligott, Alan G; Gamba, Marco; Pessani, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 acoustic parameters from each vocalisation. These included temporal (duration), source-related (fundamental frequency, f0), and filter-related (formants) parameters. They were then used to carry out a series of stepwise discriminant function analyses (with cross-validation) and General Linear Model comparisons. We showed that contact calls allow individual discrimination in two additional species of the genus Spheniscus. We also found that calls can be classified according to species in a manner far greater than that attributable by chance, even though there is limited genetic distance among African, Humboldt, and Magellanic penguins. Our results provide further evidence that the source-filter theory is a valuable framework for investigating the biologically meaningful information contained in bird vocalisations. Our findings also provide novel insights into penguin vocal communication and suggest that contact calls of the penguin family are affected by selection for individuality. PMID:27102762

  13. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference. PMID:24979619

  14. Vocal individuality and species divergence in the contact calls of banded penguins.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gili, Claudia; Da Rugna, Cristiano; Gnone, Guido; Fissore, Chiara; Sanchez, Daniel; McElligott, Alan G; Gamba, Marco; Pessani, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 acoustic parameters from each vocalisation. These included temporal (duration), source-related (fundamental frequency, f0), and filter-related (formants) parameters. They were then used to carry out a series of stepwise discriminant function analyses (with cross-validation) and General Linear Model comparisons. We showed that contact calls allow individual discrimination in two additional species of the genus Spheniscus. We also found that calls can be classified according to species in a manner far greater than that attributable by chance, even though there is limited genetic distance among African, Humboldt, and Magellanic penguins. Our results provide further evidence that the source-filter theory is a valuable framework for investigating the biologically meaningful information contained in bird vocalisations. Our findings also provide novel insights into penguin vocal communication and suggest that contact calls of the penguin family are affected by selection for individuality.

  15. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cassondra L.; Hagelin, Julie C.; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below −40°C and forage in −1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. PMID:26490794

  16. Influence of Fasting during Moult on the Faecal Microbiota of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Meagan L.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference. PMID:24979619

  17. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference.

  18. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density.

  19. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. PMID:26490794

  20. Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin.

    PubMed

    Bost, C A; Thiebot, J B; Pinaud, D; Cherel, Y; Trathan, P N

    2009-08-23

    Although penguins are key marine predators from the Southern Ocean, their migratory behaviour during the inter-nesting period remains widely unknown. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the winter foraging movements and feeding habits of a penguin species by using geolocation sensors fitted on penguins with a new attachment method. We focused on the macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus at Kerguelen, the single largest consumer of marine prey among all seabirds. Overall, macaroni penguins performed very long winter trips, remaining at sea during approximately six months within the limits of the Southern Ocean. They departed from Kerguelen in an eastward direction and distributed widely, over more than 3.10(6) km(2). The penguins spent most of their time in a previously unrecognized foraging area, i.e. a narrow latitudinal band (47-49 degrees S) within the central Indian Ocean (70-110 degrees E), corresponding oceanographically to the Polar Frontal Zone. There, their blood isotopic niche indicated that macaroni penguins preyed mainly upon crustaceans, but not on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, which does not occur at these northern latitudes. Such winter information is a crucial step for a better integrative approach for the conservation of this species whose world population is known to be declining.

  1. Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin

    PubMed Central

    Bost, C. A.; Thiebot, J. B.; Pinaud, D.; Cherel, Y.; Trathan, P. N.

    2009-01-01

    Although penguins are key marine predators from the Southern Ocean, their migratory behaviour during the inter-nesting period remains widely unknown. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the winter foraging movements and feeding habits of a penguin species by using geolocation sensors fitted on penguins with a new attachment method. We focused on the macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus at Kerguelen, the single largest consumer of marine prey among all seabirds. Overall, macaroni penguins performed very long winter trips, remaining at sea during approximately six months within the limits of the Southern Ocean. They departed from Kerguelen in an eastward direction and distributed widely, over more than 3.106 km2. The penguins spent most of their time in a previously unrecognized foraging area, i.e. a narrow latitudinal band (47–49° S) within the central Indian Ocean (70–110° E), corresponding oceanographically to the Polar Frontal Zone. There, their blood isotopic niche indicated that macaroni penguins preyed mainly upon crustaceans, but not on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, which does not occur at these northern latitudes. Such winter information is a crucial step for a better integrative approach for the conservation of this species whose world population is known to be declining. PMID:19447814

  2. Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    PubMed

    Bollmer, Jennifer L; Vargas, F Hernán; Parker, Patricia G

    2007-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome, likely due to balancing selection acting to maintain alleles over time. Lack of MHC variability has been attributed to factors such as genetic drift in small populations and relaxed selection pressure. The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is the only penguin that occurs on the equator. It relies upon cold, nutrient-rich upwellings and experiences severe population declines when ocean temperatures rise during El Niño events. These bottlenecks, occurring in an already small population, have likely resulted in reduced genetic diversity in this species. In this study, we used MHC class II exon 2 sequence data from a DRB1-like gene to characterize the amount of genetic variation at the MHC in 30 Galápagos penguins, as well as one Magellanic penguin (S. magellanicus) and two king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and compared it to that in five other penguin species for which published data exist. We found that the Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Galápagos penguin MHC sequences are most closely related to Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) sequences, its putative sister species based on other loci. An excess of non-synonymous mutations and a pattern of trans-specific evolution in the neighbor-joining tree suggest that selection is acting on the penguin MHC. PMID:17457582

  3. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits endangered penguin.

    PubMed

    Pichegru, L; Grémillet, D; Crawford, R J M; Ryan, P G

    2010-08-23

    No-take zones may protect populations of targeted marine species and restore the integrity of marine ecosystems, but it is unclear whether they benefit top predators that rely on mobile pelagic fishes. In South Africa, foraging effort of breeding African penguins decreased by 30 per cent within three months of closing a 20 km zone to the competing purse-seine fisheries around their largest colony. After the fishing ban, most of the penguins from this island had shifted their feeding effort inside the closed area. Birds breeding at another colony situated 50 km away, whose fishing grounds remained open to fishing, increased their foraging effort during the same period. This demonstrates the immediate benefit of a relatively small no-take zone for a marine top predator relying on pelagic prey. Selecting such small protected areas may be an important first conservation step, minimizing stakeholder conflicts and easing compliance, while ensuring benefit for the ecosystems within these habitats. PMID:20147313

  4. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits endangered penguin.

    PubMed

    Pichegru, L; Grémillet, D; Crawford, R J M; Ryan, P G

    2010-08-23

    No-take zones may protect populations of targeted marine species and restore the integrity of marine ecosystems, but it is unclear whether they benefit top predators that rely on mobile pelagic fishes. In South Africa, foraging effort of breeding African penguins decreased by 30 per cent within three months of closing a 20 km zone to the competing purse-seine fisheries around their largest colony. After the fishing ban, most of the penguins from this island had shifted their feeding effort inside the closed area. Birds breeding at another colony situated 50 km away, whose fishing grounds remained open to fishing, increased their foraging effort during the same period. This demonstrates the immediate benefit of a relatively small no-take zone for a marine top predator relying on pelagic prey. Selecting such small protected areas may be an important first conservation step, minimizing stakeholder conflicts and easing compliance, while ensuring benefit for the ecosystems within these habitats.

  5. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, D J; Gilbert, C; Thierry, A-M; Currie, J; Le Maho, Y; Ancel, A

    2013-06-23

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40' S 140° 01' E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate.

  6. First Results in Inclusive Radiative Penguin Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, Colin P

    2000-11-17

    We present a preliminary measurement of the branching fraction of the exclusive penguin decay B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sub {gamma}}{sup 0} using (8.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} decays B(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sub {gamma}}{sup 0}) = (5.42 {+-} 0.82(stat.) {+-} 0.47(sys.)) x 10{sup -5}. In addition they search for the related penguin decays with a lepton pair in the final state, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  7. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient.

  8. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, D. J.; Gilbert, C.; Thierry, A.-M.; Currie, J.; Le Maho, Y.; Ancel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40′ S 140° 01′ E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate. PMID:23466479

  9. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient. PMID:27286906

  10. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  11. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet

    PubMed Central

    Willener, Astrid S. T.; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G.; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin’s walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins. PMID:26886216

  12. Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution.

    PubMed

    Slack, Kerryn E; Jones, Craig M; Ando, Tatsuro; Harrison, G L Abby; Fordyce, R Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur; Penny, David

    2006-06-01

    Testing models of macroevolution, and especially the sufficiency of microevolutionary processes, requires good collaboration between molecular biologists and paleontologists. We report such a test for events around the Late Cretaceous by describing the earliest penguin fossils, analyzing complete mitochondrial genomes from an albatross, a petrel, and a loon, and describe the gradual decline of pterosaurs at the same time modern birds radiate. The penguin fossils comprise four naturally associated skeletons from the New Zealand Waipara Greensand, a Paleocene (early Tertiary) formation just above a well-known Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary site. The fossils, in a new genus (Waimanu), provide a lower estimate of 61-62 Ma for the divergence between penguins and other birds and thus establish a reliable calibration point for avian evolution. Combining fossil calibration points, DNA sequences, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis, the penguin calibrations imply a radiation of modern (crown group) birds in the Late Cretaceous. This includes a conservative estimate that modern sea and shorebird lineages diverged at least by the Late Cretaceous about 74 +/- 3 Ma (Campanian). It is clear that modern birds from at least the latest Cretaceous lived at the same time as archaic birds including Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and the diverse Enantiornithiformes. Pterosaurs, which also coexisted with early crown birds, show notable changes through the Late Cretaceous. There was a decrease in taxonomic diversity, and small- to medium-sized species disappeared well before the end of the Cretaceous. A simple reading of the fossil record might suggest competitive interactions with birds, but much more needs to be understood about pterosaur life histories. Additional fossils and molecular data are still required to help understand the role of biotic interactions in the evolution of Late Cretaceous birds and thus to test that the mechanisms of microevolution are sufficient to explain

  13. Electroweak Penguin and Leptonic Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, F.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-08-26

    Recent BABAR results on electroweak penguin and leptonic decays are reviewed. In particular, the measurements of B {yields} K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} and the preliminary results on B {yields} X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} are presented. Also summarized are the preliminary limits on B{sup +} {yields} l{sup +}{nu} (l = e,{mu}) and B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  14. Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution.

    PubMed

    Slack, Kerryn E; Jones, Craig M; Ando, Tatsuro; Harrison, G L Abby; Fordyce, R Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur; Penny, David

    2006-06-01

    Testing models of macroevolution, and especially the sufficiency of microevolutionary processes, requires good collaboration between molecular biologists and paleontologists. We report such a test for events around the Late Cretaceous by describing the earliest penguin fossils, analyzing complete mitochondrial genomes from an albatross, a petrel, and a loon, and describe the gradual decline of pterosaurs at the same time modern birds radiate. The penguin fossils comprise four naturally associated skeletons from the New Zealand Waipara Greensand, a Paleocene (early Tertiary) formation just above a well-known Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary site. The fossils, in a new genus (Waimanu), provide a lower estimate of 61-62 Ma for the divergence between penguins and other birds and thus establish a reliable calibration point for avian evolution. Combining fossil calibration points, DNA sequences, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis, the penguin calibrations imply a radiation of modern (crown group) birds in the Late Cretaceous. This includes a conservative estimate that modern sea and shorebird lineages diverged at least by the Late Cretaceous about 74 +/- 3 Ma (Campanian). It is clear that modern birds from at least the latest Cretaceous lived at the same time as archaic birds including Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and the diverse Enantiornithiformes. Pterosaurs, which also coexisted with early crown birds, show notable changes through the Late Cretaceous. There was a decrease in taxonomic diversity, and small- to medium-sized species disappeared well before the end of the Cretaceous. A simple reading of the fossil record might suggest competitive interactions with birds, but much more needs to be understood about pterosaur life histories. Additional fossils and molecular data are still required to help understand the role of biotic interactions in the evolution of Late Cretaceous birds and thus to test that the mechanisms of microevolution are sufficient to explain

  15. MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN AN AFRICAN PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS).

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristian J; Reavill, Drury; Weldy, Scott H; Bradway, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-and specifically M. genavense -in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis. PMID:26667564

  16. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks. PMID:11897187

  17. A Novel Adenovirus in Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins. PMID:24811321

  18. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak.

    PubMed

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-09-22

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak. PMID:17148195

  19. A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-05-07

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  20. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Andreadis, Theodore G; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2005-06-15

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in a flock of African penguins. Diagnosis was based on history and clinical signs and confirmed via serologic testing, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and histologic examination. Clinical signs in penguins included anorexia, behavior changes, depression, regurgitation, ataxia, recumbency, and seizures, and some penguins did not have any clinical signs. Mean +/- SD number of days that affected penguins had clinical signs was 12 +/- 5 days. Abnormalities initially detected on CBC included heterophilic leukocytosis and anemia; lymphocytosis and monocytosis were detected later. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included high activities of aspartate amino-transferase and creatine kinase, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperglycemia, and high concentrations of globulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mean +/- SD number of days required for resolution of CBC and plasma biochemical abnormalities was 67 +/- 24 days after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy. All penguins survived with the exception of one that was euthanatized; histopathologic findings were consistent with encephalitis. Results of RT-PCR assays performed on tissue from the right cerebrum of the penguin that was euthanatized were positive for EEE viral RNA. An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported. PMID:15989191

  1. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Strauss, Venessa; Ryan, Peter G

    2008-10-01

    Although it is well established that certain procellariiform seabirds use odour cues to find prey, it is not clear whether penguins use olfactory cues to forage. It is commonly assumed that penguins lack a sense of smell, yet they are closely related to procellariiforms and forage on similar types of prey in similar areas to many procellariiforms. Such regions are characterized by having high levels of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) a scented compound that many marine animals use to locate foraging grounds. If penguins can smell, DMS may be a biologically relevant scented compound that they may be sensitive to in nature. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) could detect DMS using two separate experiments. We tested wild penguins on Robben Island, South Africa, by deploying mumolar DMS solutions in the colonies, and found that birds slowed down their walking speeds. We also tested captive penguins in a Y-maze. In both cases, our data convincingly demonstrate that African penguins have a functioning sense of smell and are attracted to DMS. The implication of this work is that the detection of changes in the odour landscape (DMS) may assist penguins in identifying productive areas of the ocean for foraging. At-sea studies are needed to investigate this issue further. PMID:18805811

  2. Epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of Babesia sp. in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Woehler, Eric J.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vertigan, Peter; Carlile, Nicholas; Priddel, David; Finger, Annett; Dann, Peter; Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Thompson, Paul; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Braga, Érika M.; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Blood parasites are potential threats to the health of penguins and to their conservation and management. Little penguins Eudyptula minor are native to Australia and New Zealand, and are susceptible to piroplasmids (Babesia), hemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium) and kinetoplastids (Trypanosoma). We studied a total of 263 wild little penguins at 20 sites along the Australian southeastern coast, in addition to 16 captive-bred little penguins. Babesia sp. was identified in seven wild little penguins, with positive individuals recorded in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. True prevalence was estimated between 3.4% and 4.5%. Only round forms of the parasite were observed, and gene sequencing confirmed the identity of the parasite and demonstrated it is closely related to Babesia poelea from boobies (Sula spp.) and B. uriae from murres (Uria aalge). None of the Babesia-positive penguins presented signs of disease, confirming earlier suggestions that chronic infections by these parasites are not substantially problematic to otherwise healthy little penguins. We searched also for kinetoplastids, and despite targeted sampling of little penguins near the location where Trypanosoma eudyptulae was originally reported, this parasite was not detected. PMID:25853053

  3. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  4. Contemporary and historical patterns of African penguin Spheniscus demersus: Distribution at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rory P.; Wilson, Marie-Pierre T.; Duffy, David C.

    1988-04-01

    Line transects from boats were conducted during 1984 and 1985 to determine African Penguin ( Speniscus demersus) distribution in the South African Cape waters. Range limits for breeding birds were derived from information on penguin travelling speeds and durations of foraging trips. Over 50% of all penguins considered to be non-breeding occurred within 20 km of the coast whilst over 50% of all breeding birds occurred within 3 km of the coast. Penguin density decreased with increasing distance offshore. The most frequently encountered penguin group size was one with larger groups decreasing in incidence according to a power curve decay. There was no difference in the frequency of occurrence of different group sizes between breeding and non-breeding penguins, nor did group size distribution change with distance offshore. Data on African Penguin distribution at sea collected in 1984 and 1985 was not discernably different to equivalent data collected between 1954 and 1974. The composition of penguin group size was also the same during both periods.

  5. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Strauss, Venessa; Ryan, Peter G

    2008-10-01

    Although it is well established that certain procellariiform seabirds use odour cues to find prey, it is not clear whether penguins use olfactory cues to forage. It is commonly assumed that penguins lack a sense of smell, yet they are closely related to procellariiforms and forage on similar types of prey in similar areas to many procellariiforms. Such regions are characterized by having high levels of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) a scented compound that many marine animals use to locate foraging grounds. If penguins can smell, DMS may be a biologically relevant scented compound that they may be sensitive to in nature. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) could detect DMS using two separate experiments. We tested wild penguins on Robben Island, South Africa, by deploying mumolar DMS solutions in the colonies, and found that birds slowed down their walking speeds. We also tested captive penguins in a Y-maze. In both cases, our data convincingly demonstrate that African penguins have a functioning sense of smell and are attracted to DMS. The implication of this work is that the detection of changes in the odour landscape (DMS) may assist penguins in identifying productive areas of the ocean for foraging. At-sea studies are needed to investigate this issue further.

  6. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Andreadis, Theodore G; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2005-06-15

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in a flock of African penguins. Diagnosis was based on history and clinical signs and confirmed via serologic testing, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and histologic examination. Clinical signs in penguins included anorexia, behavior changes, depression, regurgitation, ataxia, recumbency, and seizures, and some penguins did not have any clinical signs. Mean +/- SD number of days that affected penguins had clinical signs was 12 +/- 5 days. Abnormalities initially detected on CBC included heterophilic leukocytosis and anemia; lymphocytosis and monocytosis were detected later. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included high activities of aspartate amino-transferase and creatine kinase, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperglycemia, and high concentrations of globulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mean +/- SD number of days required for resolution of CBC and plasma biochemical abnormalities was 67 +/- 24 days after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy. All penguins survived with the exception of one that was euthanatized; histopathologic findings were consistent with encephalitis. Results of RT-PCR assays performed on tissue from the right cerebrum of the penguin that was euthanatized were positive for EEE viral RNA. An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported.

  7. Save the Penguins: Teaching the Science of Heat Transfer through Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittka, Christine; Bell, Randy; Richards, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Engineers, scientists, and environmental groups around the globe are hard at work finding solutions to mitigate or halt global warming. One major goal of the curriculum described here, Save the Penguins, is to help students recognize that what we do at home can affect how penguins fare in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, students learn how…

  8. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xijie

    2016-09-15

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540-2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540-1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition.

  9. Quark- and gluon-condensate contributions to penguin four-Fermi operators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmady, Mohammad R.; Elias, Victor

    1999-10-04

    The nonperturbative content of the QCD vacuum permits the occurrence of QCD-vacuum condensate contributions to penguin amplitudes. We calculate the dimension-4 and <{alpha}{sub s}G{sup 2}> contributions to the effective Wilson coefficients for penguin four-Fermi operators, and discuss how such contributions may contribute to nonleptonic B decays.

  10. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-03-25

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments.

  11. Epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of Babesia sp. in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Woehler, Eric J; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vertigan, Peter; Carlile, Nicholas; Priddel, David; Finger, Annett; Dann, Peter; Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Thompson, Paul; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Braga, Érika M; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-08-01

    Blood parasites are potential threats to the health of penguins and to their conservation and management. Little penguins Eudyptula minor are native to Australia and New Zealand, and are susceptible to piroplasmids (Babesia), hemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium) and kinetoplastids (Trypanosoma). We studied a total of 263 wild little penguins at 20 sites along the Australian southeastern coast, in addition to 16 captive-bred little penguins. Babesia sp. was identified in seven wild little penguins, with positive individuals recorded in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. True prevalence was estimated between 3.4% and 4.5%. Only round forms of the parasite were observed, and gene sequencing confirmed the identity of the parasite and demonstrated it is closely related to Babesia poelea from boobies (Sula spp.) and B. uriae from murres (Uria aalge). None of the Babesia-positive penguins presented signs of disease, confirming earlier suggestions that chronic infections by these parasites are not substantially problematic to otherwise healthy little penguins. We searched also for kinetoplastids, and despite targeted sampling of little penguins near the location where Trypanosoma eudyptulae was originally reported, this parasite was not detected.

  12. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME) AND MACARONI PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUS): EVALUATION OF INFLUENCING FACTORS.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd; Aquino, Susette

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoos and aquaria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using rebound tonometry while penguins were held in two different body positions. Correlations between IOP and factors including age, body position, eye pathology, and housing parameters were evaluated. Normal macaroni penguins had a mean IOP of 42.0 ± 9.7 mm Hg. Normal rockhopper penguins had a mean IOP of 32.9 ± 6.2 mm Hg. Neither species had significantly different IOP between sexes or between left and right eyes of the same penguin. In both species, there was a negative linear correlation between age and IOP. In the macaroni population, IOP was significantly higher when IOP measurement was performed before ophthalmic exam; this was not true in rockhoppers. In both species, IOP measured in a horizontal body position was significantly higher than IOP measured in a vertical body position. In both species, eyes with corneal lesions had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In the macaroni penguin, eyes with rubeosis iridis had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In macaroni penguins, eyes with cataracts had significantly lower mean IOP than normal eyes; this was not true for rockhoppers.

  13. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus Forster, 1781)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northwards up to Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from 3 zoos and 2 rehabilitation centres in Brazil were assayed for the pre...

  14. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME) AND MACARONI PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUS): EVALUATION OF INFLUENCING FACTORS.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd; Aquino, Susette

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoos and aquaria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using rebound tonometry while penguins were held in two different body positions. Correlations between IOP and factors including age, body position, eye pathology, and housing parameters were evaluated. Normal macaroni penguins had a mean IOP of 42.0 ± 9.7 mm Hg. Normal rockhopper penguins had a mean IOP of 32.9 ± 6.2 mm Hg. Neither species had significantly different IOP between sexes or between left and right eyes of the same penguin. In both species, there was a negative linear correlation between age and IOP. In the macaroni population, IOP was significantly higher when IOP measurement was performed before ophthalmic exam; this was not true in rockhoppers. In both species, IOP measured in a horizontal body position was significantly higher than IOP measured in a vertical body position. In both species, eyes with corneal lesions had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In the macaroni penguin, eyes with rubeosis iridis had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In macaroni penguins, eyes with cataracts had significantly lower mean IOP than normal eyes; this was not true for rockhoppers. PMID:27010282

  15. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xijie

    2016-09-15

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540-2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540-1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. PMID:27261428

  16. Activity Time Budget during Foraging Trips of Emperor Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8±4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5±2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9±8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8±7.4% and 69.2±7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9±3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2±1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25±0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3±4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7±4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea. PMID:23185608

  17. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ɛNd-ɛHf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes

  18. Artificial eggs: measuring heart rate and effects of disturbance in nesting penguins.

    PubMed

    Nimon, A J; Schroter, R C; Oxenham, R K

    1996-09-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of heart rate in incubating penguins is described and evaluated. The technique uses an artificial egg fitted with an infrared sensor. Placing the egg in the nest causes minimal disturbance to the resident penguin; this penguin is then paint-marked so that subsequent measurements may be taken from the unmarked, naive partner once it assumes incubation. Heart rate changes are useful indicators of nesting penguins' reactions to events in their environment because often their behaviour does not appear to vary in response to a threat until the point at which they flee, exposing eggs and chicks to predators. The eggs can be readily transferred from one nest to another. They have been successfully deployed on both African (Spheniscus demersus) and Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The design should be readily adaptable for use with other seabirds and passerines. PMID:8873285

  19. Artificial eggs: measuring heart rate and effects of disturbance in nesting penguins.

    PubMed

    Nimon, A J; Schroter, R C; Oxenham, R K

    1996-09-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of heart rate in incubating penguins is described and evaluated. The technique uses an artificial egg fitted with an infrared sensor. Placing the egg in the nest causes minimal disturbance to the resident penguin; this penguin is then paint-marked so that subsequent measurements may be taken from the unmarked, naive partner once it assumes incubation. Heart rate changes are useful indicators of nesting penguins' reactions to events in their environment because often their behaviour does not appear to vary in response to a threat until the point at which they flee, exposing eggs and chicks to predators. The eggs can be readily transferred from one nest to another. They have been successfully deployed on both African (Spheniscus demersus) and Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The design should be readily adaptable for use with other seabirds and passerines.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, S; Christmann, S; Silva, L M R; Hirzmann, J; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A

    2014-11-01

    In general, the knowledge on parasites infecting Antarctic birds is scarce. The present study intends to extend the knowledge on gastrointestinal parasites of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica. Fecal samples of 50 individual Emperor Penguins were collected at the Atka Bay and analyzed using the sodium-acetate-formaldehyde (SAF) method for the identification of intestinal helminth eggs and/or protozoan parasite stages. In addition, coproantigen ELISAs were performed to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections. Overall, 13 out of 50 penguins proved parasitized (26%). The following stages of gastrointestinal parasites were identified: One Capillaria sp. egg, Tetrabothrius spp. eggs, Diphyllobothrium spp. eggs, and proglottids of the cestode Parorchites zederi. The recorded Capillaria infection represents a new host record for Emperor Penguins. All coproantigen ELISAs for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were negative. This paper provides current data on parasites of the Emperor Penguin, a protected endemic species of the Antarctica.

  1. Health Status of Galápagos Sea Lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristóbal Island Rookeries Determined by Hematology, Biochemistry, Blood Gases, and Physical Examination.

    PubMed

    Páez-Rosas, Diego; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Deresienski, Diane; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    The Galápagos sea lion, Zalophus wollebaeki, is an endemic and endangered species subject to population decline associated with environmental variability, such as El Niño events, constant feeding stress, and exposure to diseases through contact with introduced species. Reference blood parameter intervals have been published for some pinniped species, but baseline biochemical and blood gas values are lacking from Z. wollebaeki. We analyzed blood samples from 30 juvenile Galápagos sea lions (19 females, 11 males) captured in two rookeries on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin, Na, K, ionized Ca, and glucose, and blood lactate was measured using a portable Lactate Plus(TM) analyzer. Average heart rate, biochemistry, and hematology parameters were comparable with healthy individuals of other pinniped species. Hemoglobin was significantly correlated with body condition of juvenile Galápagos sea lions. When compared with available blood values of clinically healthy California sea lions, Galápagos sea lions had higher total protein and Hct and lower Ca and K levels. Our results provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos sea lions.

  2. Health Status of Galápagos Sea Lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristóbal Island Rookeries Determined by Hematology, Biochemistry, Blood Gases, and Physical Examination.

    PubMed

    Páez-Rosas, Diego; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Deresienski, Diane; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    The Galápagos sea lion, Zalophus wollebaeki, is an endemic and endangered species subject to population decline associated with environmental variability, such as El Niño events, constant feeding stress, and exposure to diseases through contact with introduced species. Reference blood parameter intervals have been published for some pinniped species, but baseline biochemical and blood gas values are lacking from Z. wollebaeki. We analyzed blood samples from 30 juvenile Galápagos sea lions (19 females, 11 males) captured in two rookeries on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin, Na, K, ionized Ca, and glucose, and blood lactate was measured using a portable Lactate Plus(TM) analyzer. Average heart rate, biochemistry, and hematology parameters were comparable with healthy individuals of other pinniped species. Hemoglobin was significantly correlated with body condition of juvenile Galápagos sea lions. When compared with available blood values of clinically healthy California sea lions, Galápagos sea lions had higher total protein and Hct and lower Ca and K levels. Our results provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos sea lions. PMID:26528574

  3. 75 FR 42462 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ..., Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, 8604 La Jolla Shores Drive, La Jolla... biology of the Adelie, Gentoo and chinstrap penguins, and the interactions among these species and...

  4. Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ainley, David G; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M

    2006-08-01

    An apparent trophic cascade that appears during summer in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, explains why the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) there becomes cannibalistic; its principal prey, crystal krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) becomes scarce; and the diatom community is minimally grazed compared to adjacent areas. The krill is the major grazer of diatoms. On the basis of fieldwork at Ross Island, we suggest that the cascade results from foraging by unusually numerous Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis), and fish-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca). These species and other top predators apparently deplete the krill and silverfish. In drawing our conclusions, we were aided by two "natural experiments." In one "experiment," large, grounded icebergs altered the seasonal pattern of change in regional sea-ice cover, but not the seasonal change in penguin diet and foraging behavior that was also detected during the pre-iceberg era. In the other "experiment," a short-term polynya (opening in the ice) brought penguins and whales together in a confined area, this time altering both penguin diet and foraging behavior. We conclude that the foraging of penguins and whales, and not a formerly hypothesized seasonal decrease in sea-ice cover, explains (1) the annual switch in the penguins' prey from krill to silverfish, (2) the subsequent lengthening of penguin foraging trips, and (3) a marked decline of cetaceans in the area later in the season. Reduction in the middle-trophic-level prey is expressed in the relaxed grazing pressure on phytoplankton.

  5. An improved model of heat transfer through penguin feathers and down.

    PubMed

    Du, Ning; Fan, Jintu; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2007-10-21

    Penguins, mostly live in the extremely cold Antarctic, are known to have feathers and down, which are light weight, compact and extremely efficient in preventing heat loss. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of heat transfer through the penguin feathers and down, and how the unique characteristics of penguin feathers and down make them such good thermal insulators are not fully understood. In this paper, an integrated model of heat transfer through the penguin feathers and down is developed and computed using finite volume method, with the geometrical structure of the barbules being considered. Monte-Carlo method is adopted to determine the radiative absorption and emission constant in the integrated model. The effective thermal conductance of penguin feathers and down computed from our model compared well with the experimentally measured value reported in the literature. Three models (penguin model, random fibre model (fibre radius=3microm) and random fibre model (fibre radius=10microm)) are further simulated and compared. Results showed that the relative small radius of the barbules of penguin feather and their geometrical structure are responsible for the reduction of heat loss in cold environment. PMID:17669436

  6. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult. PMID:26352664

  7. Life cycle of the tick Ixodes uriae in penguin colonies: relationships with host breeding activity.

    PubMed

    Frenot, Y; de Oliveira, E; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Deunff, J; Bellido, A; Vernon, P

    2001-08-01

    A survey of the temporal pattern of population structure and feeding activity of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae was conducted for the first time in two host species colonies: King penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) and Macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus chrysolophus). The life cycle of the tick was investigated over 3 years in a King penguin colony and 2 years in a Macaroni penguin colony at Possession Island (Crozet Archipelago). There was a marked seasonal feeding activity pattern of ticks in both host species, connected with the presence of birds during the breeding season. Although the King penguin colonies were occupied throughout the year by birds, the favourable period for engorgement was limited to 3.5-4.5 months, and almost all the ticks overwintered in the unengorged state. Consequently, I. uriae probably completed its life cycle over 3 years in King penguin colonies. In contrast, this life cycle could be shortened to 2 years in Macaroni penguin colonies, as a result of a different timetable of the presence of birds for breeding and moulting. The relationships between such plasticity and the host behaviour and subantarctic climatic conditions are discussed. PMID:11429167

  8. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p < 0.01); this indicated that historical penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800–2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400–1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today. PMID:26601753

  9. Life cycle of the tick Ixodes uriae in penguin colonies: relationships with host breeding activity.

    PubMed

    Frenot, Y; de Oliveira, E; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Deunff, J; Bellido, A; Vernon, P

    2001-08-01

    A survey of the temporal pattern of population structure and feeding activity of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae was conducted for the first time in two host species colonies: King penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) and Macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus chrysolophus). The life cycle of the tick was investigated over 3 years in a King penguin colony and 2 years in a Macaroni penguin colony at Possession Island (Crozet Archipelago). There was a marked seasonal feeding activity pattern of ticks in both host species, connected with the presence of birds during the breeding season. Although the King penguin colonies were occupied throughout the year by birds, the favourable period for engorgement was limited to 3.5-4.5 months, and almost all the ticks overwintered in the unengorged state. Consequently, I. uriae probably completed its life cycle over 3 years in King penguin colonies. In contrast, this life cycle could be shortened to 2 years in Macaroni penguin colonies, as a result of a different timetable of the presence of birds for breeding and moulting. The relationships between such plasticity and the host behaviour and subantarctic climatic conditions are discussed.

  10. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-11-14

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

  11. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  12. Sea ice cover and its influence on Adélie Penguin reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and ice is well established, with sea ice influencing penguin populations through a variety of processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. To further explain the relationship between sea ice and Adélie Penguin reproductive performance, we investigated the relative importance of various measures of sea ice cover on breeding success at Béchervaise Island, East Antarctica. Our results show a clear distinction in the response of penguins to different types of ice, as well as to the timing of the presence of sea ice. Nearshore sea ice, which is composed primarily of fast ice during the guard stage of the breeding season, had an overwhelmingly strong and negative impact on penguin reproductive performance. The influence of winter and offshore guard-stage ice was only evident in conjunction with nearshore ice. Predicting Adélie Penguin population growth in relation to changes in the sea ice environment may be complicated because penguin-ice interactions vary according to the type of sea ice present, the season in which it is present, and the processes contributing to population growth that are influenced by sea ice.

  13. Climate change increases reproductive failure in Magellanic penguins.

    PubMed

    Boersma, P Dee; Rebstock, Ginger A

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is causing more frequent and intense storms, and climate models predict this trend will continue, potentially affecting wildlife populations. Since 1960 the number of days with >20 mm of rain increased near Punta Tombo, Argentina. Between 1983 and 2010 we followed 3496 known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks at Punta Tombo to determine how weather impacted their survival. In two years, rain was the most common cause of death killing 50% and 43% of chicks. In 26 years starvation killed the most chicks. Starvation and predation were present in all years. Chicks died in storms in 13 of 28 years and in 16 of 233 storms. Storm mortality was additive; there was no relationship between the number of chicks killed in storms and the numbers that starved (P = 0.75) or that were eaten (P = 0.39). However, when more chicks died in storms, fewer chicks fledged (P = 0.05, R(2) = 0.14). More chicks died when rainfall was higher and air temperature lower. Most chicks died from storms when they were 9-23 days old; the oldest chick killed in a storm was 41 days old. Storms with heavier rainfall killed older chicks as well as more chicks. Chicks up to 70 days old were killed by heat. Burrow nests mitigated storm mortality (N = 1063). The age span of chicks in the colony at any given time increased because the synchrony of egg laying decreased since 1983, lengthening the time when chicks are vulnerable to storms. Climate change that increases the frequency and intensity of storms results in more reproductive failure of Magellanic penguins, a pattern likely to apply to many species breeding in the region. Climate variability has already lowered reproductive success of Magellanic penguins and is likely undermining the resilience of many other species.

  14. Climate Change Increases Reproductive Failure in Magellanic Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, P. Dee; Rebstock, Ginger A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is causing more frequent and intense storms, and climate models predict this trend will continue, potentially affecting wildlife populations. Since 1960 the number of days with >20 mm of rain increased near Punta Tombo, Argentina. Between 1983 and 2010 we followed 3496 known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks at Punta Tombo to determine how weather impacted their survival. In two years, rain was the most common cause of death killing 50% and 43% of chicks. In 26 years starvation killed the most chicks. Starvation and predation were present in all years. Chicks died in storms in 13 of 28 years and in 16 of 233 storms. Storm mortality was additive; there was no relationship between the number of chicks killed in storms and the numbers that starved (P = 0.75) or that were eaten (P = 0.39). However, when more chicks died in storms, fewer chicks fledged (P = 0.05, R2 = 0.14). More chicks died when rainfall was higher and air temperature lower. Most chicks died from storms when they were 9–23 days old; the oldest chick killed in a storm was 41 days old. Storms with heavier rainfall killed older chicks as well as more chicks. Chicks up to 70 days old were killed by heat. Burrow nests mitigated storm mortality (N = 1063). The age span of chicks in the colony at any given time increased because the synchrony of egg laying decreased since 1983, lengthening the time when chicks are vulnerable to storms. Climate change that increases the frequency and intensity of storms results in more reproductive failure of Magellanic penguins, a pattern likely to apply to many species breeding in the region. Climate variability has already lowered reproductive success of Magellanic penguins and is likely undermining the resilience of many other species. PMID:24489663

  15. Diel rhythms of tick parasitism on incubating African penguins.

    PubMed

    Duffy, D C; Daturi, A

    1987-01-01

    1. Ticks (Ornithodoros capensis Neumann) were most abundant on incubating host African penguins (Spheniscus demersus Linnaeus) at 24.00 hours and least abundant during 09.00-12.00 hours during 4 day periods in May and October at 3 h intervals. 2. Ticks were three times as abundant in May, the start of the breeding season, as in October, at its end. 3. Air temperature and humidity appear less important than light levels in determining tick activity. 4. The degree of tick parasitism of breeding seabirds is best studied at night.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the penguin tetra, Thayeria boehlkei.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Jiong-Tang; Li, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiu-Li; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-09-01

    The penguin tetra (Thayeria boehlkei) is one of the most popular aquarium fish and belongs to the family of Characidae. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of this family are uncertain. Here, the complete mitogenome of T. boehlkei was reported to be 16,524 bp in length. It contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of T. boehlkei with its congener Astyanax mexicanus revealed high-sequence similarity. The mitochondrial genome of T. boehlkei will contribute to conservation studies and evolution analysis of Characidae family.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; McGraw, Kevin J.; James, Helen F.; Madden, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed ‘spheniscin’, is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm−1. Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds. PMID:23516063

  18. Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGoverin, Cushla M; McGraw, Kevin J; James, Helen F; Madden, Odile

    2013-06-01

    Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed 'spheniscin', is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm(-1). Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds. PMID:23516063

  19. Maternal transfer of anti-Aspergillus spp. immunoglobulins in African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R

    1995-10-01

    Anti-Aspergillus spp. antibody (Ab) levels of seven mating pairs of captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and the maternal Ab levels of their embryonated and unembryonated eggs were determined by ELISA. The egg Ab levels were significantly higher than the Ab levels of their female or male parents. Maternal Ab of unembryonated eggs and Ab of the embryos were significantly correlated with the Ab levels of their female parents. Because eggs can be sampled where adult penguins are not accessible, this technique can be applied for prediction of Aspergillus spp. Ab titers of penguin females in wild populations.

  20. At-Sea Associations in Foraging Little Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Prey distribution, patch size, and the presence of conspecifics are important factors influencing a predator’s feeding tactics, including the decision to feed individually or socially. Little is known about group behaviour in seabirds as they spend most of their lives in the marine environment where it is difficult to observe their foraging activities. In this study, we report on at-sea foraging associations of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) during the breeding season. Individuals could be categorised as (1) not associating; (2) associating when departing from and/or returning to the colony; or (3) at sea when travelling, diving or performing synchronised dives. Out of 84 separate foraging tracks, 58 (69.0%) involved associations with conspecifics. Furthermore, in a total of 39 (46.4%), individuals were found to dive during association and in 32 (38.1%), individuals were found to exhibit synchronous diving. These behaviours suggest little penguins forage in groups, could synchronise their underwater movements and potentially cooperate to concentrate their small schooling prey. PMID:25119718

  1. Early diving behaviour in juvenile penguins: improvement or selection processes.

    PubMed

    Orgeret, Florian; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-08-01

    The early life stage of long-lived species is critical to the viability of population, but is poorly understood. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether juveniles are less efficient foragers than adults as has been hypothesized. We measured changes in the diving behaviour of 17 one-year-old king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at Crozet Islands (subantartic archipelago) during their first months at sea, using miniaturized tags that transmitted diving activity in real time. We also equipped five non-breeder adults with the same tags for comparison. The data on foraging performance revealed two groups of juveniles. The first group made shallower and shorter dives that may be indicative of early mortality while the second group progressively increased their diving depths and durations, and survived the first months at sea. This surviving group of juveniles required the same recovery durations as adults, but typically performed shallower and shorter dives. There is thereby a relationship between improved diving behaviour and survival in young penguins. This long period of improving diving performance in the juvenile life stage is potentially a critical period for the survival of deep avian divers and may have implications for their ability to adapt to environmental change. PMID:27484650

  2. Avian malaria in African black-footed penguins.

    PubMed

    Stoskopf, M K; Beier, J

    1979-11-01

    Ten captive-reared African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from a large outdoor colony were monitored for avian malaria, using several diagnostic tests. One treatment regimen was evaluated. Thin smear blood evaluation enabled detection of seven parasitemias involving Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium elongatum in the penguins. Leukocytosis (relative lymphocytosis) was characteristic of infected birds. Parasitemia was detected as early as 21 days prior to onset of clinical signs (depression, anorexia, regurgitation, pale mucous membranes, and respiratory distress). The single bird that died had clinical signs only a few hours prior to its death. Treatment consisted of 0.03 mg of primaquine phosphate base/kg body weight, administered orally once daily for 3 days. Oral chloroquine phosphate therapy, given simultaneously, was administered in an initial loading dose of 10 mg of chloroquine phosphate base/kg body weight, followed by doses of 5 mg/kg at 6, 18 and 24 hours after the initial chloroquine dose. This treatment regimen prevented mortality and cleared parasites from the blood. Recurrences of malaria occurred in two birds that had received this treatment.

  3. General lower bounds for b{yields}d penguin processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    For the exploration of flavor physics, b{yields}d penguin processes are an important aspect, with the prominent example of B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0}. We recently derived lower bounds for the CP-averaged branching ratio of this channel in the standard model; they were found to be very close to the corresponding experimental upper limits, thereby suggesting that B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0} should soon be observed. In fact, the BABAR Collaboration subsequently announced the first signals of this transition. Here we point out that it is also possible to derive lower bounds for B{yields}{rho}{gamma} decays, which are again surprisingly close to the current experimental upper limits. We show that these bounds are realizations of a general bound that holds within the standard model for b{yields}d penguin processes, allowing further applications to decays of the kind B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sup (}*{sup ){+-}}K{sup (}*{sup )} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}, {rho}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}.

  4. At-sea associations in foraging little penguins.

    PubMed

    Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P Y

    2014-01-01

    Prey distribution, patch size, and the presence of conspecifics are important factors influencing a predator's feeding tactics, including the decision to feed individually or socially. Little is known about group behaviour in seabirds as they spend most of their lives in the marine environment where it is difficult to observe their foraging activities. In this study, we report on at-sea foraging associations of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) during the breeding season. Individuals could be categorised as (1) not associating; (2) associating when departing from and/or returning to the colony; or (3) at sea when travelling, diving or performing synchronised dives. Out of 84 separate foraging tracks, 58 (69.0%) involved associations with conspecifics. Furthermore, in a total of 39 (46.4%), individuals were found to dive during association and in 32 (38.1%), individuals were found to exhibit synchronous diving. These behaviours suggest little penguins forage in groups, could synchronise their underwater movements and potentially cooperate to concentrate their small schooling prey.

  5. Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b {yields} s Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.

    2006-07-11

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}(1020)K{sup 0}, {eta}'K{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {omega}(782)K{sub S}{sup 0} and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays based on a sample of 386 x 106BB(bar sign) pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider. These decays are dominated by the b {yields} s gluonic penguin transition and are sensitive to new CP-violating phases from physics beyond the standard model. One neutral meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays. We also perform measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{gamma} decay that is dominated by the b {yields} s radiative penguin.

  6. Early diving behaviour in juvenile penguins: improvement or selection processes

    PubMed Central

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-01-01

    The early life stage of long-lived species is critical to the viability of population, but is poorly understood. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether juveniles are less efficient foragers than adults as has been hypothesized. We measured changes in the diving behaviour of 17 one-year-old king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at Crozet Islands (subantartic archipelago) during their first months at sea, using miniaturized tags that transmitted diving activity in real time. We also equipped five non-breeder adults with the same tags for comparison. The data on foraging performance revealed two groups of juveniles. The first group made shallower and shorter dives that may be indicative of early mortality while the second group progressively increased their diving depths and durations, and survived the first months at sea. This surviving group of juveniles required the same recovery durations as adults, but typically performed shallower and shorter dives. There is thereby a relationship between improved diving behaviour and survival in young penguins. This long period of improving diving performance in the juvenile life stage is potentially a critical period for the survival of deep avian divers and may have implications for their ability to adapt to environmental change. PMID:27484650

  7. Penguin diagrams, charmless B decays, and the ``missing charm puzzle''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Alexander; Nierste, Ulrich; Ostermaier, Gaby

    1997-12-01

    We calculate the contributions of penguin diagrams with internal u or c quarks to various inclusive charmless B-decay rates. Further we analyze the influence of the chromomagnetic dipole operator Q8 on these rates. We find that the rates corresponding to B¯-->Xuūs, B¯-->Xdd¯s, B¯-->Xss¯s, B¯-->Xss¯d, and B¯-->Xdd¯d are dominated by the new penguin contributions. The contributions of Q8 sizably diminish these rates. Despite an increase of the total charmless decay rate by 36%, the new contributions are not large enough to explain the charm deficit observed by ARGUS and CLEO. We predict nc=1.33+/-0.06 for the average number of charmed particles per B decay in the standard model. Then the hypothesis of an enhancement of the chromomagnetic dipole coefficient C8 by new physics contributions is analyzed. We perform a model-independent fit of C8 to the experimental data. If the CKM structure of the new physics contribution is the same as in the standard model, \\|C8(MW)\\| must be enhanced by a factor of 9 to 16 in order to explain the observed charm deficit.

  8. Huddling behavior in emperor penguins: Dynamics of huddling.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Caroline; Robertson, Graham; Le Maho, Yvon; Naito, Yasuhiko; Ancel, André

    2006-07-30

    Although huddling was shown to be the key by which emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) save energy and sustain their breeding fast during the Antarctic winter, the intricacies of this social behavior have been poorly studied. We recorded abiotic variables with data loggers glued to the feathers of eight individually marked emperor penguins to investigate their thermoregulatory behavior and to estimate their "huddling time budget" throughout the breeding season (pairing and incubation period). Contrary to the classic view, huddling episodes were discontinuous and of short and variable duration, lasting 1.6+/-1.7 (S.D.) h on average. Despite heterogeneous huddling groups, birds had equal access to the warmth of the huddles. Throughout the breeding season, males huddled for 38+/-18% (S.D.) of their time, which raised the ambient temperature that birds were exposed to above 0 degrees C (at average external temperatures of -17 degrees C). As a consequence of tight huddles, ambient temperatures were above 20 degrees C during 13+/-12% (S.D.) of their huddling time. Ambient temperatures increased up to 37.5 degrees C, close to birds' body temperature. This complex social behavior therefore enables all breeders to get a regular and equal access to an environment which allows them to save energy and successfully incubate their eggs during the Antarctic winter. PMID:16740281

  9. [Book review] Skua and penguin: Predator and prey, by Euan Young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Review of: Skua and Penguin: Predator and Prey. Euan Young. 1994. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. xvi + 452 pp., 53 line diagrams, 44 half-tones. ISBN 0-521-32251-0. $99.95 cloth

  10. Diagnosis and attempted surgical repair of hemivertebrae in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Bronson, Ellen; Kintner, Leah; Schultz, Denise; McDonnell, John

    2008-12-01

    Spinal injuries and congenital or developmental spinal deformities have rarely been reported in pet birds, and treatment for these conditions is even less often described. In poultry, spinal and leg deformities have been well documented, but treatment of the individual is not considered, because affected individuals are typically culled. A 10-week-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) from the penguin exhibit at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore was evaluated for ataxia, weakness, and motor deficits and was diagnosed with a spinal deformity. Further investigation by using magnetic resonance imaging was conducted, and the penguin subsequently underwent an attempted surgical repair of the malformation. The penguin never regained normal motor control and was found dead 4 weeks after the surgery. Necropsy results revealed hemivertebrae and compression of the spinal cord with associated myositis. Although attempted treatment was unsuccessful in this case, this report illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges of avian spinal disease.

  11. The Penguin: a Low Reynolds Number Powered Glider for Station Keeping Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, J. K.; Greene, D. W.; Lee, T. T.; Matier, P. T.; Mccarthy, T. R.; Mcguire, R. J.; Schuette, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Penguin is a low Reynolds number (approx. 100,000) remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). It was designed to fly three laps indoors around two pylons in a figure-eight course while maximizing loiter time. The Penguin's low Reynolds number mission is an important one currently being studied for possible future flights in the atmospheres of other planets and for specialized military missions. Although the Penguin's mission seemed quite simple at first, the challenges of such low Reynolds number flight have proven to be quite unique. In addition to the constraint of low Reynolds number flight, the aircraft had to be robust in its control, highly durable, and it had to carry a small instrument package. The Penguin's flight plan, concept, performance, aerodynamic design, weight estimation, structural design, propulsion, stability and control, and cost estimate is detailed.

  12. Occurrence of Magellanic penguins along the Northeast Brazilian coast during 2008 Austral winter.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A S; Lentini, Carlos A D; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  13. The pathology and pathogenicity of a novel Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Cannell, B L; Krasnec, K V; Campbell, K; Jones, H I; Miller, R D; Stephens, N

    2013-10-18

    One hundred and thirty four Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) carcases found since 2004 in south west Australia were necropsied. The livers and spleens from ten of the penguins exhibited varying degrees of multifocal, randomly scattered areas of necrosis and varying numbers of parasites were associated with these areas. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were noted in many of these ten cases. Necrosis and parasites were also observed in the cardiac muscle of four of the cases and in the lung tissue in one of the penguins. Using PCR, the parasites were positively identified in four of the cases as Haemoproteus spp. and morphologically identical tissue stage parasites associated with histopathological changes were observed in all ten dead penguins. This is the first study to demonstrate both the in situ presence of the Haemoproteus parasite in any member of the Sphensicidae family and mortality due to its presence. We postulate the involvement of anomalous environmental conditions in a potential increase in local vectors.

  14. Diagnosis and attempted surgical repair of hemivertebrae in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Bronson, Ellen; Kintner, Leah; Schultz, Denise; McDonnell, John

    2008-12-01

    Spinal injuries and congenital or developmental spinal deformities have rarely been reported in pet birds, and treatment for these conditions is even less often described. In poultry, spinal and leg deformities have been well documented, but treatment of the individual is not considered, because affected individuals are typically culled. A 10-week-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) from the penguin exhibit at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore was evaluated for ataxia, weakness, and motor deficits and was diagnosed with a spinal deformity. Further investigation by using magnetic resonance imaging was conducted, and the penguin subsequently underwent an attempted surgical repair of the malformation. The penguin never regained normal motor control and was found dead 4 weeks after the surgery. Necropsy results revealed hemivertebrae and compression of the spinal cord with associated myositis. Although attempted treatment was unsuccessful in this case, this report illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges of avian spinal disease. PMID:19216262

  15. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A. S.; Lentini, Carlos A. D.; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P. Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R.

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters. PMID:22649308

  16. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the southern Indian Ocean: geographical and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Cherel, Yves; Jaeger, Audrey; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-06-01

    Penguins have been recently identified as useful bioindicators of mercury (Hg) transfer to food webs in the Southern Ocean over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, feather Hg concentrations were measured in adults and chicks of all the seven penguin species breeding in the southern Indian Ocean, over a large latitudinal gradient spanning Antarctic, subantarctic and subtropical sites. Hg was also measured in feathers of museum specimens of penguins collected at the same sites in the 1950s and 1970s. Our aim was to evaluate geographical and historical variations in Hg transfer to penguins, while accounting for feeding habits by using the stable isotope technique (δ(13)C, habitat; δ(15)N, diet/trophic level). Adult feather Hg concentrations in contemporary individuals ranged from 0.7 ± 0.2 to 5.9 ± 1.9 μg g(-1) dw in Adélie and gentoo penguins, respectively. Inter-specific differences in Hg accumulation were strong among both adults and chicks, and mainly linked to feeding habits. Overall, penguin species that feed in Antarctic waters had lower feather Hg concentrations than those that feed in subantarctic and subtropical waters, irrespective of age class and dietary group, suggesting different Hg incorporation into food webs depending on the water mass. While accounting for feeding habits, we detected different temporal variations in feather Hg concentrations depending on species. Notably, the subantarctic gentoo and macaroni penguins had higher Hg burdens in the contemporary rather than in the historical sample, despite similar or lower trophic levels, respectively. Whereas increases in Hg deposition have been recently documented in the Southern Hemisphere, future monitoring is highly needed to confirm or not this temporal trend in penguins, especially in the context of actual changing Hg emission patterns and global warming.

  17. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Michael J.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  18. Adélie penguin survival: age structure, temporal variability and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2011-12-01

    The driving factors of survival, a key demographic process, have been particularly challenging to study, especially for winter migratory species such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). While winter environmental conditions clearly influence Antarctic seabird survival, it has been unclear to which environmental features they are most likely to respond. Here, we examine the influence of environmental fluctuations, broad climatic conditions and the success of the breeding season prior to winter on annual survival of an Adélie penguin population using mark-recapture models based on penguin tag and resight data over a 16-year period. This analysis required an extension to the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber model by incorporating age structure in recapture and survival sub-models. By including model covariates, we show that survival of older penguins is primarily related to the amount and concentration of ice present in their winter foraging grounds. In contrast, fledgling and yearling survival depended on other factors in addition to the physical marine environment and outcomes of the previous breeding season, but we were unable to determine what these were. The relationship between sea-ice and survival differed with penguin age: extensive ice during the return journey to breeding colonies was detrimental to survival for the younger penguins, whereas either too little or too much ice (between 15 and 80% cover) in the winter foraging grounds was detrimental for adults. Our results demonstrate that predictions of Adélie penguin survival can be improved by taking into account penguin age, prior breeding conditions and environmental features.

  19. Two-loop current-current operator contribution to the non-leptonic QCD penguin amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Huber, T.; Li, Xin-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    The computation of direct CP asymmetries in charmless B decays at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD is of interest to ascertain the short-distance contribution. Here we compute the two-loop penguin contractions of the current-current operators Q1,2 and provide a first estimate of NNLO CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated b → s transitions.

  20. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the southern Indian Ocean: geographical and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Cherel, Yves; Jaeger, Audrey; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-06-01

    Penguins have been recently identified as useful bioindicators of mercury (Hg) transfer to food webs in the Southern Ocean over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, feather Hg concentrations were measured in adults and chicks of all the seven penguin species breeding in the southern Indian Ocean, over a large latitudinal gradient spanning Antarctic, subantarctic and subtropical sites. Hg was also measured in feathers of museum specimens of penguins collected at the same sites in the 1950s and 1970s. Our aim was to evaluate geographical and historical variations in Hg transfer to penguins, while accounting for feeding habits by using the stable isotope technique (δ(13)C, habitat; δ(15)N, diet/trophic level). Adult feather Hg concentrations in contemporary individuals ranged from 0.7 ± 0.2 to 5.9 ± 1.9 μg g(-1) dw in Adélie and gentoo penguins, respectively. Inter-specific differences in Hg accumulation were strong among both adults and chicks, and mainly linked to feeding habits. Overall, penguin species that feed in Antarctic waters had lower feather Hg concentrations than those that feed in subantarctic and subtropical waters, irrespective of age class and dietary group, suggesting different Hg incorporation into food webs depending on the water mass. While accounting for feeding habits, we detected different temporal variations in feather Hg concentrations depending on species. Notably, the subantarctic gentoo and macaroni penguins had higher Hg burdens in the contemporary rather than in the historical sample, despite similar or lower trophic levels, respectively. Whereas increases in Hg deposition have been recently documented in the Southern Hemisphere, future monitoring is highly needed to confirm or not this temporal trend in penguins, especially in the context of actual changing Hg emission patterns and global warming. PMID:26896669

  1. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  2. Long-term fasting decreases mitochondrial avian UCP-mediated oxygen consumption in hypometabolic king penguins

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Benjamin; Halsey, Lewis G.; Dolmazon, Virginie; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J.; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, may contribute to the ability of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to withstand fasting for several weeks. After 20 days of fasting, king penguins showed a reduced rate of whole animal oxygen consumption (V̇o2; −33%) at rest, together with a reduced abundance of avUCP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1-α) mRNA in pectoralis muscle (−54%, −36%, respectively). These parameters were restored after the birds had been refed for 3 days. Furthermore, in recently fed, but not in fasted penguins, isolated muscle mitochondria showed a guanosine diphosphate-inhibited, fatty acid plus superoxide-activated respiration, indicating the presence of a functional UCP. It was calculated that variation in mitochondrial UCP-dependent respiration in vitro may contribute to nearly 20% of the difference in resting V̇o2 between fed or refed penguins and fasted penguins measured in vivo. These results suggest that the lowering of avUCP activity during periods of long-term energetic restriction may contribute to the reduction in metabolic rate and hence the ability of king penguins to face prolonged periods of fasting. PMID:18495832

  3. An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci in an outdoor colony of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Jencek, Jacqueline E; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N; Garner, Michael M; Dunker, Freeland H; Baszler, Timothy V

    2012-12-01

    An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci occurred in an outdoor colony of 63 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at the San Francisco Zoo. Affected penguins presented with inappetence, lethargy, and light green urates. Hematologic and serum biochemical findings were consistent with chronic inflammation. Penguins did not respond to initial supportive and antimicrobial therapy, and 3 died. Necropsy results of the 3 birds revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and histologic lesions included necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and vasculitis. Chlamydophila psittaci infection was confirmed by results of Gimenez staining, immunohistochemistry, and tissue polymerase chain reaction assay. As additional birds continued to present with similar clinical signs, the entire colony of penguins was prophylactically treated with a 30-day minimum course of doxycycline, administered orally or intramuscularly or as a combination of both. Despite treatment, 9 additional penguins died during a 3-month period. Pathologic results from these birds revealed renal and visceral gout (n = 4), cardiac insufficiency (n = 2), sepsis from a suspected esophageal perforation (n = 2), and no gross lesions (n = 1). During the outbreak, 4 birds presented with seizures, 5 developed dermatitis, and nearly 90% of birds in the colony showed severe keratoconjunctivitis, believed to be related to drug therapy with doxycycline. We report the clinical and pathologic features of Chlamydophila psittaci infection in an outdoor colony of penguins and the associated challenges of treatment. PMID:23409434

  4. Pond use by captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.

    PubMed

    Ozella, Laura; Favaro, Livio; Carnovale, Irene; Pessani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. However, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of African penguins housed in an exhibit where their pond habitat was adjacent to a swimming pool. Observations were carried out on 7 penguins in the summer of 2009. Data were collected during 3 time periods (Time 1 [T1] = opening of the swimming season, Time 2 [T2] = core of the season, Time 3 [T3] = late season) of 14 days each. The human disturbance caused by bathers strongly reduced the pond use by penguins at T1 and T2, especially when there were large numbers of visitors. However, at T3, we observed that the overall use of the pond by penguins increased, and the average duration of their diving was no longer dependent on the number of visitors. PMID:25402201

  5. Long-term fasting decreases mitochondrial avian UCP-mediated oxygen consumption in hypometabolic king penguins.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Halsey, Lewis G; Dolmazon, Virginie; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-07-01

    In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, may contribute to the ability of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to withstand fasting for several weeks. After 20 days of fasting, king penguins showed a reduced rate of whole animal oxygen consumption (Vo2; -33%) at rest, together with a reduced abundance of avUCP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1-alpha) mRNA in pectoralis muscle (-54%, -36%, respectively). These parameters were restored after the birds had been refed for 3 days. Furthermore, in recently fed, but not in fasted penguins, isolated muscle mitochondria showed a guanosine diphosphate-inhibited, fatty acid plus superoxide-activated respiration, indicating the presence of a functional UCP. It was calculated that variation in mitochondrial UCP-dependent respiration in vitro may contribute to nearly 20% of the difference in resting Vo2 between fed or refed penguins and fasted penguins measured in vivo. These results suggest that the lowering of avUCP activity during periods of long-term energetic restriction may contribute to the reduction in metabolic rate and hence the ability of king penguins to face prolonged periods of fasting. PMID:18495832

  6. AN EVALUATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF BUMBLEFOOT (PODODERMATITIS) IN PENGUINS.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Torgerson-White, Lauri L; Allard, Stephanie M; Schneider, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography as a noninvasive screening tool for detection of pododermatitis during the developing and active stages of disease in three species of penguins: king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) , macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). In total, 67 penguins were examined every 3 mo over a 15-mo period. At each exam, bumblefoot lesions were characterized and measured, and a timed series of thermal images were collected over a 4-min period. Three different methods were compared for analysis of thermograms. Feet with active lesions that compromise the surface of the foot were compared to feet with inactive lesions and no lesions. The hypothesis was that feet with active lesions would have warmer surface temperatures than the other conditions. Analysis of the data showed that although feet with active bumblefoot lesions are warmer than feet with inactive or no lesions, the variability seen in each individual penguin from one exam day to the next and the overlap seen between temperatures from each condition made thermal imaging an unreliable tool for detection of bumblefoot in the species studied. PMID:27468019

  7. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting. PMID:18040974

  8. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  9. A reversal of fortunes: climate change 'winners' and 'losers' in Antarctic Peninsula penguins.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Gemma V; Dunn, Michael J; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J; Pybus, Oliver G; Rogers, Alex D; Hart, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces 'winners', species that benefit from these events and 'losers', species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a 'reversal of fortunes' as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change 'winners', while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change 'losers'. PMID:24865774

  10. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Haddrath, Oliver P; Edge, Kerri-Anne

    2006-01-01

    Classic problems in historical biogeography are where did penguins originate, and why are such mobile birds restricted to the Southern Hemisphere? Competing hypotheses posit they arose in tropical-warm temperate waters, species-diverse cool temperate regions, or in Gondwanaland approximately 100 mya when it was further north. To test these hypotheses we constructed a strongly supported phylogeny of extant penguins from 5851 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Using Bayesian inference of ancestral areas we show that an Antarctic origin of extant taxa is highly likely, and that more derived taxa occur in lower latitudes. Molecular dating estimated penguins originated about 71 million years ago in Gondwanaland when it was further south and cooler. Moreover, extant taxa are inferred to have originated in the Eocene, coincident with the extinction of the larger-bodied fossil taxa as global climate cooled. We hypothesize that, as Antarctica became ice-encrusted, modern penguins expanded via the circumpolar current to oceanic islands within the Antarctic Convergence, and later to the southern continents. Thus, global cooling has had a major impact on penguin evolution, as it has on vertebrates generally. Penguins only reached cooler tropical waters in the Galapagos about 4 mya, and have not crossed the equatorial thermal barrier.

  11. Epidemiology and pathology of avian malaria in penguins undergoing rehabilitation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; da Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane Kiyomi Miyaji; Bhering, Renata Cristina Campos; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Amaku, Marcos; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-03-13

    Seabird rehabilitation is a valuable strategy to mitigate the impacts of oil pollution and other anthropogenic factors, and can significantly contribute to the conservation of penguins. However, infectious diseases such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) can hamper the success of rehabilitation efforts. We combined morphological and molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the epidemiology and pathology of Plasmodium in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at rehabilitation centers along 2500 km of the coastline of Brazil. True prevalence of malarial parasites was estimated between 6.6% and 13.5%. We identified five species, three of which had not been described infecting penguins (P. cathemerium, P. nucleophilum, P. unalis); an additional five distinct Plasmodium lineages were also distinguished, and albeit unidentified these clearly correspond to species that also have not yet been reported in penguins. Our results indicate that the diversity of plasmodia that may infect these birds is greater than previously recognised. Considering the well-defined seasonality observed in this study, it is clear that rehabilitation centers could benefit by narrowing their preventative efforts on penguins maintained or admitted during the Austral spring-summer, particularly by preventing mosquitoes from coming into contact with penguins.

  12. Gillnet fisheries as a major mortality factor of Magellanic penguins in wintering areas.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luis Gustavo; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia Luciano; Haimovici, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    The incidental capture in fisheries is probably the main conservation problem affecting seabirds. While the capture of albatrosses and petrels on longline hooks is well-known worldwide, the bycatch of diving seabirds in gillnets is an overlooked conservation problem. During a winter coastal fishing trip, the capture of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) was recorded in driftnet and bottom setnet fisheries for the first time in southern Brazil. The highest captures rates were found in driftnets, from 146.5 to 545.5 penguins/km² of net and a total of 56 dead penguins were recorded. In the bottom gillnet, a total of 12 birds were killed and the capture rates varied from 41.7 to 125.0 penguins/km² of net. Although preliminary, the results presented in this paper were consistent between sets. If we consider the magnitude of driftnet and setnet fishing fleets, and that most dead penguins were adults, the impact upon Magellanic penguin populations is probably significant.

  13. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Megan A; Lynch, Heather J; Saba, Vincent S; Oliver, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species' geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century.

  14. A reversal of fortunes: climate change 'winners' and 'losers' in Antarctic Peninsula penguins.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Gemma V; Dunn, Michael J; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J; Pybus, Oliver G; Rogers, Alex D; Hart, Tom

    2014-06-12

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces 'winners', species that benefit from these events and 'losers', species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a 'reversal of fortunes' as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change 'winners', while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change 'losers'.

  15. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Megan A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species’ geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century. PMID:27352849

  16. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females.

  17. Diversity in the Toll-Like Receptor Genes of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré Lee; Vermaak, Elaine; Roelofse, Marli; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to the drastic reduction in population numbers over the last 20 years. To date, the only studies on immunogenetic variation in penguins have been conducted on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It was shown in humans that up to half of the genetic variability in immune responses to pathogens are located in non-MHC genes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are now increasingly being studied in a variety of taxa as a broader approach to determine functional genetic diversity. In this study, we confirm low genetic diversity in the innate immune region of African penguins similar to that observed in New Zealand robin that has undergone several severe population bottlenecks. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity across TLRs varied between ex situ and in situ penguins with the number of non-synonymous alterations in ex situ populations (n = 14) being reduced in comparison to in situ populations (n = 16). Maintaining adaptive diversity is of vital importance in the assurance populations as these animals may potentially be used in the future for re-introductions. Therefore, this study provides essential data on immune gene diversity in penguins and will assist in providing an additional monitoring tool for African penguin in the wild, as well as to monitor diversity in ex situ populations and to ensure that diversity found in the in situ populations are captured in the assurance populations. PMID:27760133

  18. Pond use by captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.

    PubMed

    Ozella, Laura; Favaro, Livio; Carnovale, Irene; Pessani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. However, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of African penguins housed in an exhibit where their pond habitat was adjacent to a swimming pool. Observations were carried out on 7 penguins in the summer of 2009. Data were collected during 3 time periods (Time 1 [T1] = opening of the swimming season, Time 2 [T2] = core of the season, Time 3 [T3] = late season) of 14 days each. The human disturbance caused by bathers strongly reduced the pond use by penguins at T1 and T2, especially when there were large numbers of visitors. However, at T3, we observed that the overall use of the pond by penguins increased, and the average duration of their diving was no longer dependent on the number of visitors.

  19. An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci in an outdoor colony of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Jencek, Jacqueline E; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N; Garner, Michael M; Dunker, Freeland H; Baszler, Timothy V

    2012-12-01

    An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci occurred in an outdoor colony of 63 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at the San Francisco Zoo. Affected penguins presented with inappetence, lethargy, and light green urates. Hematologic and serum biochemical findings were consistent with chronic inflammation. Penguins did not respond to initial supportive and antimicrobial therapy, and 3 died. Necropsy results of the 3 birds revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and histologic lesions included necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and vasculitis. Chlamydophila psittaci infection was confirmed by results of Gimenez staining, immunohistochemistry, and tissue polymerase chain reaction assay. As additional birds continued to present with similar clinical signs, the entire colony of penguins was prophylactically treated with a 30-day minimum course of doxycycline, administered orally or intramuscularly or as a combination of both. Despite treatment, 9 additional penguins died during a 3-month period. Pathologic results from these birds revealed renal and visceral gout (n = 4), cardiac insufficiency (n = 2), sepsis from a suspected esophageal perforation (n = 2), and no gross lesions (n = 1). During the outbreak, 4 birds presented with seizures, 5 developed dermatitis, and nearly 90% of birds in the colony showed severe keratoconjunctivitis, believed to be related to drug therapy with doxycycline. We report the clinical and pathologic features of Chlamydophila psittaci infection in an outdoor colony of penguins and the associated challenges of treatment.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF BUMBLEFOOT (PODODERMATITIS) IN PENGUINS.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Torgerson-White, Lauri L; Allard, Stephanie M; Schneider, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography as a noninvasive screening tool for detection of pododermatitis during the developing and active stages of disease in three species of penguins: king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) , macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). In total, 67 penguins were examined every 3 mo over a 15-mo period. At each exam, bumblefoot lesions were characterized and measured, and a timed series of thermal images were collected over a 4-min period. Three different methods were compared for analysis of thermograms. Feet with active lesions that compromise the surface of the foot were compared to feet with inactive lesions and no lesions. The hypothesis was that feet with active lesions would have warmer surface temperatures than the other conditions. Analysis of the data showed that although feet with active bumblefoot lesions are warmer than feet with inactive or no lesions, the variability seen in each individual penguin from one exam day to the next and the overlap seen between temperatures from each condition made thermal imaging an unreliable tool for detection of bumblefoot in the species studied.

  1. Two different avipoxviruses associated with pox disease in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Claudia; Favero, Cíntia M; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Bhering, Renata C C; Brandão, Paulo; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2013-12-01

    A novel avipoxvirus caused diphtheritic lesions in the oesophagus of five and in the bronchioli of four Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) and also cutaneous lesions in eight Magellanic penguins housed in outdoor enclosures in a Rehabilitation Centre at Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. At the same time, another avipoxvirus strain caused cutaneous lesions in three Magellanic penguins at a geographically distinct Rehabilitation Centre localized at Vila Velha, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology and use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical signs in the penguins included cutaneous papules and nodules around eyelids and beaks, depression and restriction in weight gain. The most common gross lesions were severely congested and haemorrhagic lungs, splenomegaly and cardiomegaly. Histological examination revealed Bollinger inclusion bodies in cutaneous lesions, mild to severe bronchopneumonia, moderate periportal lymphocytic hepatitis, splenic lymphopenia and lymphocytolysis. Other frequent findings included necrotizing splenitis, enteritis, oesophagitis, dermatitis and airsacculitis. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen within oesophageal epithelial cells in five birds and in epithelial cells of the bronchioli in four penguins. DNA from all samples was amplified from skin tissue by PCR using P4b-targeting primers already described in the literature for avipoxvirus. The sequences showed two different virus strains belonging to the genus Avipoxvirus of the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, one being divergent from the penguinpox and avipoxviruses already described in Magellanic penguins in Patagonia, but segregating within a clade of canarypox-like viruses implicated in diphtheritic and respiratory disease.

  2. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Megan A; Lynch, Heather J; Saba, Vincent S; Oliver, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species' geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century. PMID:27352849

  3. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, Megan A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species’ geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century.

  4. Subclinical avian malaria infections in African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and induction of parasite recrudescence.

    PubMed

    Cranfield, M R; Graczyk, T K; Beall, F B; Ialeggio, D M; Shaw, M L; Skjoldager, M L

    1994-07-01

    The subclinical and clinical Plasmodium elongatum and Plasmodium relictum infections of captive-reared African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were evaluated in nine adult and 29 juvenile penguins in the Baltimore Zoo (Maryland, USA) during summer 1988 and winter 1989. Two diagnostic methods were used: Giemsa-stained thin blood films, and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old Peking ducklings. Chloroquine and primaquine treatment was applied to all parasitemic juvenile penguins. Twenty-nine parasite-free, juvenile penguins were monitored for parasitemia by Giemsa-stained thin blood films every two weeks for 26 weeks of their first outdoor exposure. Eighteen of 29 penguins experienced naturally acquired malaria; 14 were infected with P. elongatum, three with P. relictum, and one bird had a mixed P. relictum and P. elongatum infection. Eleven of 18 juveniles became parasitemic again after chloroquine and primaquine treatments. Based on Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old ducklings, performed in a mosquito-free environment in winter, nine adult penguins had no evidence of Plasmodium spp. infection. After dexmethasone-induced immunosuppression, four of six of these nonparasitemic adult penguins were found to be infected with P. relictum by the blood inoculation method.

  5. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin.

    PubMed

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N; Whittington, Jason D; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-06-14

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory.

  6. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin

    PubMed Central

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N.; Whittington, Jason D.; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory. PMID:27296726

  7. Penguins with charm and quark-hadron duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneke, M.; Buchalla, G.; Neubert, M.; Sachrajda, C. T.

    2009-06-01

    The integrated branching fraction of the process B→ X s l + l - is dominated by resonance background from narrow charmonium states, such as B→ X s ψ→ X s l + l -, which exceeds the non-resonant charm-loop contribution by two orders of magnitude. The origin of this fact is discussed in view of the general expectation of quark-hadron duality. The situation in B→ X s l + l - is contrasted with charm-penguin amplitudes in two-body hadronic B decays of the type B→ π π, for which it is demonstrated that resonance effects and the potentially non-perturbative cbar{c} threshold region do not invalidate the standard picture of QCD factorization. This holds irrespective of whether the charm quark is treated as a light or a heavy quark.

  8. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin.

    PubMed

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N; Whittington, Jason D; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory. PMID:27296726

  9. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p < 0.0001) in accordance with this hypothesis. δ15N values are more variable among modern localities and probably were so in the past as well. Although we found a weak but significant decrease in δ15N (0.3 ‰) in modern versus fossil eggshell values, we do not consider this to be an adequate signal for a dietary shift. Our data also indicate that the decrease in δ13C values in Gentoo Penguins is not as large as that previously observed in Adélie Penguins (a 4-6 ‰ decrease in δ13C values). This weaker signal for the dietary shift in Gentoo Penguins probably results from a greater and more consistent reliance on fish, past and present, in this species compared to the Adélie Penguin. Emslie, S. D. and W. P. Patterson. 2007. Abrupt recent shift in δ13C and δ15N values in Adélie Penguin eggshell in Antarctica

  10. Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G; Parkinson, Claire L; Arrigo, Kevin R; Trathan, Phil N

    2010-07-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) spans approximately 22 degrees. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adélies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a three-year period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated characteristics of migratory routes and wintering locations of Adélie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 geolocation sensor tags (GLS) affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12760 km, with the longest being 17 600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea-ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75% to 85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 h with sun < 6 degrees below the horizon). We report the present Adélie Penguin migration pattern and conjecture on how it probably has changed over the past approximately 12000 years, as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet withdrew southward across the Ross Sea, a situation that no other Adélie Penguin population has had to confront. As sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases in the near future, as predicted by climate models, we can expect further changes in the migration patterns of the Ross Sea penguins.

  11. Use Of Chitinase Gene As Biomarker To Reflect Penguin Population Change In History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Yin, X.; Lin, J.; Sun, L.; You, Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, F.

    2005-12-01

    Penguins are studied as bio-model to understand how climate change has influenced the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This certainly needs to exclude anthropogenic influences from natural variables. Ancient penguin excreta was found ideal material to study historically the impacts of climate change on penguin population excluding the influences of human beings and other secondary factors. In this study, a sediment core, spanning approximately 1600 yrs, collected from a lake on Ardley Island, Antarctica, was studied by a combination of geochemical and molecular microbiological methods. The sediment core had been greatly influenced by penguin guano. Chitinase gene was chosen and tested as a new bio-molecular marker to reflect possible penguin population change in history. Using quantitative competitive-polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR), chitinase gene copies in each 1cm section of the whole sediment column were quantified. It was found that the chitinase gene copies coincide with the temperature history record: a low chitinase gene number in the column occurred around 600yrs B.P., the little ice age; high chitinase gene copies occurred around 1,400yrs B.P., the Medieval warm time period. Along the column, significant correlation was found between chitinase gene copies, P2O5 and TOC concentrations which were served as the geochemical monitor of penguin droppings, demonstrating that the variation of the bacterial chitinase gene number is another reliable proxy to reconstruct Antarctic penguin population change in history. Most of the chitinase genes cloned from the historic sediment core were novel. Analyzing the chitinase gene diversity in selected sediment layers and in the fresh penguin deposits indicated frequent shifts in the chitinolytic bacterial community over time, which suggested the penguin species change in the population and/or their diet change in history. Our results for the first time indicated that the chitinase gene probe is a suitable bio

  12. Long-term breeding phenology shift in royal penguins

    PubMed Central

    Hindell, Mark A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W; Fordham, Damien A; Kerry, Knowles; Hull, Cindy; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's climate is undergoing rapid warming, unprecedented in recent times, which is driving shifts in the distribution and phenology of many plants and animals. Quantifying changes in breeding phenology is important for understanding how populations respond to these changes. While data on shifts in phenology are common for Northern Hemisphere species (especially birds), there is a dearth of evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, and even fewer data available from the marine environment. Surface air temperatures at Macquarie Island have increased by 0.62°C during the 30-year study period (0.21°C decade−1) and royal penguins (Eudyptes schlegeli) commenced egg laying on average three days earlier in the 1990s than during the 1960s. This contrasts with other studies of Southern Ocean seabirds; five of nine species are now breeding on average 2.1 days later than during the 1950s. Despite the different direction of these trends, they can be explained by a single underlying mechanism: resource availability. There was a negative relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and median laying date of royal penguins, such that low-productivity (low SAM) years delayed laying date. This accords with the observations of other seabird species from the Antarctic, where later laying dates were associated with lower sea ice and lower spring productivity. The unifying factor underpinning phenological trends in eastern Antarctica is therefore resource availability; as food becomes scarcer, birds breed later. These changes are not uniform across the region, however, with resource increases in the subantarctic and decreases in eastern Antarctica. PMID:22957162

  13. King penguins adjust their diving behaviour with age.

    PubMed

    Le Vaillant, Maryline; Wilson, Rory P; Kato, Akiko; Saraux, Claire; Hanuise, Nicolas; Prud'homme, Onésime; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Increasing experience in long-lived species is fundamental to improving breeding success and ultimately individual fitness. Diving efficiency of marine animals is primarily determined by their physiological and mechanical characteristics. This efficiency may be apparent via examination of biomechanical performance (e.g. stroke frequency and amplitude, change in buoyancy or body angle, etc.), which itself may be modulated according to resource availability, particularly as a function of depth. We investigated how foraging and diving abilities vary with age in a long-lived seabird. During two breeding seasons, small accelerometers were deployed on young (5 year old) and older (8/9 year old) brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean. We used partial dynamic body acceleration (PDBA) to quantify body movement during dive and estimate diving cost. During the initial part of the descent, older birds exerted more effort for a given speed but younger penguins worked harder in relation to performance at greater depths. Younger birds also worked harder per unit speed for virtually the whole of the ascent. We interpret these differences using a model that takes into account the upthrust and drag to which the birds are subjected during the dive. From this, we suggest that older birds inhale more at the surface but that an increase in the drag coefficient is the factor leading to the increased effort to swim at a given speed by the younger birds at greater depths. We propose that this higher drag may be the result of young birds adopting less hydrodynamic postures or less direct trajectories when swimming or even having a plumage in poorer condition. PMID:23053365

  14. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  15. Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  16. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    PubMed

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  17. Variability in krill biomass links harvesting and climate warming to penguin population changes in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Hinke, Jefferson T; Miller, Aileen K; Reiss, Christian S; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M

    2011-05-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and adjacent Scotia Sea support abundant wildlife populations, many of which were nearly extirpated by humans. This region is also among the fastest-warming areas on the planet, with 5-6 °C increases in mean winter air temperatures and associated decreases in winter sea-ice cover. These biological and physical perturbations have affected the ecosystem profoundly. One hypothesis guiding ecological interpretations of changes in top predator populations in this region, the "sea-ice hypothesis," proposes that reductions in winter sea ice have led directly to declines in "ice-loving" species by decreasing their winter habitat, while populations of "ice-avoiding" species have increased. However, 30 y of field studies and recent surveys of penguins throughout the WAP and Scotia Sea demonstrate this mechanism is not controlling penguin populations; populations of both ice-loving Adélie and ice-avoiding chinstrap penguins have declined significantly. We argue in favor of an alternative, more robust hypothesis that attributes both increases and decreases in penguin populations to changes in the abundance of their main prey, Antarctic krill. Unlike many other predators in this region, Adélie and chinstrap penguins were never directly harvested by man; thus, their population trajectories track the impacts of biological and environmental changes in this ecosystem. Linking trends in penguin abundance with trends in krill biomass explains why populations of Adélie and chinstrap penguins increased after competitors (fur seals, baleen whales, and some fishes) were nearly extirpated in the 19th to mid-20th centuries and currently are decreasing in response to climate change.

  18. Variability in krill biomass links harvesting and climate warming to penguin population changes in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Trivelpiece, Wayne Z.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Miller, Aileen K.; Reiss, Christian S.; Trivelpiece, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and adjacent Scotia Sea support abundant wildlife populations, many of which were nearly extirpated by humans. This region is also among the fastest-warming areas on the planet, with 5–6 °C increases in mean winter air temperatures and associated decreases in winter sea-ice cover. These biological and physical perturbations have affected the ecosystem profoundly. One hypothesis guiding ecological interpretations of changes in top predator populations in this region, the “sea-ice hypothesis,” proposes that reductions in winter sea ice have led directly to declines in “ice-loving” species by decreasing their winter habitat, while populations of “ice-avoiding” species have increased. However, 30 y of field studies and recent surveys of penguins throughout the WAP and Scotia Sea demonstrate this mechanism is not controlling penguin populations; populations of both ice-loving Adélie and ice-avoiding chinstrap penguins have declined significantly. We argue in favor of an alternative, more robust hypothesis that attributes both increases and decreases in penguin populations to changes in the abundance of their main prey, Antarctic krill. Unlike many other predators in this region, Adélie and chinstrap penguins were never directly harvested by man; thus, their population trajectories track the impacts of biological and environmental changes in this ecosystem. Linking trends in penguin abundance with trends in krill biomass explains why populations of Adélie and chinstrap penguins increased after competitors (fur seals, baleen whales, and some fishes) were nearly extirpated in the 19th to mid-20th centuries and currently are decreasing in response to climate change. PMID:21482793

  19. Finding food in the open ocean: foraging strategies in Humboldt penguins.

    PubMed

    Culik, B

    2001-01-01

    Penguins are excellent "model" organisms allowing us to study the behaviour of marine homeotherms at sea. Penguins regularly return to their breeding colonies, enabling biologists to equip them with remote sensing devices such as physiological or behavioural data-loggers, radio- or satellite transmitters. Foraging trips at sea can last from days to weeks and after return of the birds to their breeding sites, the devices can easily be removed for analysis of on-board stored data, yielding a wealth of information. Investigation of penguin behaviour at sea becomes particularly revealing when other sources of information can be matched to the data set, such as satellite data on wind, temperature, ice cover, and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Penguins and other marine homeotherms are true inhabitants of the high seas. Depending on the season, the marine behaviour varies: during reproduction, penguins are central-place foragers, and must return regularly to their nest to feed their chicks. During the remainder of the year, there are no constraints and the birds travel large distances at sea. Breeding Humboldt penguins react to climatic change by varying their daily foraging range and dive duration. Similar to other representatives of the family Spheniscidae, Humboldt penguins avoid food shortages by migrating into more productive marine areas. Navigational clues such as daylength, sea surface temperature, local wind direction and olfaction might provide important aids in finding patchily distributed prey in the open ocean. DMS, a chemical compound produced by decaying algae, seems to be a further clue that indirectly points the way to feeding areas. PMID:16351847

  20. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    PubMed

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  1. Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Chiaradia, André; Wasiak, Paula; Renwick, Leanne; Dann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night

  2. Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Chiaradia, André; Wasiak, Paula; Renwick, Leanne; Dann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night

  3. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  4. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  5. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured. PMID:23409435

  6. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  7. Pattern of mercury allocation into egg components is independent of dietary exposure in Gentoo penguins.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Abel, Stephanie; Polito, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Avian eggs have become one of the most common means of evaluating mercury contamination in aquatic and marine environments and can serve as reliable indicators of dietary mercury exposure. We investigated patterns of mercury deposition into the major components of penguin eggs (shell, membrane, albumen, and yolk) using the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) as a model species. Eggs were collected from both wild and captive populations of Gentoo penguins to compare the allocation of mercury into individual egg components of birds feeding at disparate trophic positions as inferred by stable isotope analysis. Mercury concentrations in captive penguins were an order of magnitude higher than in wild birds, presumably because the former were fed only fish at a higher trophic position relative to wild penguins that fed on a diet of 72-93% krill (Euphausia spp.). Similar to previous studies, we found the majority of total egg mercury sequestered in the albumen (92%) followed by the yolk (6.7%) with the lowest amounts in the shell (0.9%) and membrane (0.4%). Regardless of dietary exposure, mercury concentrations in yolk and membrane, and to a lesser degree shell, increased with increasing albumen mercury (used as a proxy for whole-egg mercury), indicating that any component, in the absence of others, may be suitable for monitoring changes in dietary mercury. Because accessibility of egg tissues in the wild varies, the establishment of consistent relationships among egg components will facilitate comparisons with any other study using eggs to assess dietary exposure to mercury.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes. PMID:27400905

  9. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life.

  10. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes.

  12. Constraining charming penguins in charmless B → ππ, πK and KK decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Zhuang, Ci

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the correlations induced by the charming penguin contributions to B → ππ, πK and KK modes in the flavor SU(3) diagrammatic approach. Strong constraints are found from the measurements of the direct CP asymmetries, especially that of πK modes. We make global fits to the latest data, and show that only a relatively small charming penguin is allowed. In the presence of the charming penguin, the size of color-suppressed tree amplitude (C) relative to that of tree amplitude (T) still remains large C/T ~= 0.6, which disfavors the possibility of a large charming penguin alone as an explanation for the ππ puzzle. We find that this conclusion remains unchanged for various SU(3) breaking schemes. Nevertheless, together with an enhanced annihilation-type W-exchange diagram (E) which is allowed by the current data, the ratio C/T can be reduced to ~0.4. We show that a small charming penguin amplitude can still have significant contribution to the time-dependent CP asymmetry in the KSKS mode.

  13. Malignant melanoma in the penguin: characterization of the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of malignant melanoma in 10 individuals from three species of penguin.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Smedley, Rebecca; Anthony, Simon; Garner, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Malignant melanomas are aggressive neoplasms that are relatively common in penguins compared to other avian species. In this study, the clinical and pathologic characteristics of melanocytic neoplasms in five macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus), three rock hopper (Eudyptes chrysocome), and two Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins are described. Tumors most commonly occurred in the skin of the foot or hock, and were seen in the subcutaneous muscle, especially near the beak/oral cavity. Gross lesions were usually heavily pigmented, becoming raised and ulcerated over time. Humboldt penguins had a unique presentation, forming variably pigmented, cornified lesions in the inguinal area. Original case materials were obtained from all but two cases, and were assessed to define the characteristics of malignancy, evaluate four immunohistochemical markers for melanoma, and look for factors useful to informing prognosis and clinical decisions. Diagnosis was made histologically, based on morphologic features and pigmentation. Though not necessary for diagnosis, PNL-2 was found to be a useful immunohistochemical marker. HMB-45 showed unreliable positive labelling and S-100, Melan-A and Ki67 were not useful. Several factors were associated with prognosis, including gross surface dimension, mitotic index, depth of neoplastic cell invasion, and degree of surface ulceration. Metastatic spread occurred to the liver, lung, adrenal gland, brain, and bone; all lesions showed positive labelling to PNL-2. The average survival after diagnosis was 7 mo, though complete surgical excision of tumors less than 2.0 cm was curative in two cases and radiation therapy prolonged survival in one penguin. The underlying pathogenesis associated with the high prevalence of melanocytic neoplasms in captive penguins could not be identified. Three different molecular methods were performed to look for viral particles and results were negative. Advanced age is the most probable associated risk factor

  14. Malignant melanoma in the penguin: characterization of the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of malignant melanoma in 10 individuals from three species of penguin.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Smedley, Rebecca; Anthony, Simon; Garner, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Malignant melanomas are aggressive neoplasms that are relatively common in penguins compared to other avian species. In this study, the clinical and pathologic characteristics of melanocytic neoplasms in five macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus), three rock hopper (Eudyptes chrysocome), and two Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins are described. Tumors most commonly occurred in the skin of the foot or hock, and were seen in the subcutaneous muscle, especially near the beak/oral cavity. Gross lesions were usually heavily pigmented, becoming raised and ulcerated over time. Humboldt penguins had a unique presentation, forming variably pigmented, cornified lesions in the inguinal area. Original case materials were obtained from all but two cases, and were assessed to define the characteristics of malignancy, evaluate four immunohistochemical markers for melanoma, and look for factors useful to informing prognosis and clinical decisions. Diagnosis was made histologically, based on morphologic features and pigmentation. Though not necessary for diagnosis, PNL-2 was found to be a useful immunohistochemical marker. HMB-45 showed unreliable positive labelling and S-100, Melan-A and Ki67 were not useful. Several factors were associated with prognosis, including gross surface dimension, mitotic index, depth of neoplastic cell invasion, and degree of surface ulceration. Metastatic spread occurred to the liver, lung, adrenal gland, brain, and bone; all lesions showed positive labelling to PNL-2. The average survival after diagnosis was 7 mo, though complete surgical excision of tumors less than 2.0 cm was curative in two cases and radiation therapy prolonged survival in one penguin. The underlying pathogenesis associated with the high prevalence of melanocytic neoplasms in captive penguins could not be identified. Three different molecular methods were performed to look for viral particles and results were negative. Advanced age is the most probable associated risk factor

  15. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Heart rate and aerobic metabolism in Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti, during voluntary dives.

    PubMed

    Butler, P J; Woakes, A J

    1984-01-01

    Heart rate and aerobic metabolism have been recorded from three Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti, freely diving on a freshwater pond (9 X 4.6 X 2.7 m deep), using an implanted radiotransmitter and an open circuit respirometer. Oxygen uptake at mean dive duration (46.2s) was 26% greater than the resting value, but the difference was not statistically significant. Heart rate was also similar to the resting value. It is concluded that voluntary dives of penguins are completely aerobic and that oxygen stores are sufficient to allow metabolism to continue at the rate estimated in the present study for 2.27 min during voluntary submersion. This is longer than that calculated for tufted ducks, probably because the penguins are more efficient at underwater locomotion and because they are almost neutrally buoyant. PMID:6423763

  17. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. PMID:26160534

  18. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution.

  19. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  20. From sea to land: assessment of the bio-transport of phosphorus by penguins in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xianyan; Sun, Liguang; Blais, Jules M.; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Tao; Huang, Wen; Xie, Zhouqing

    2014-01-01

    In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem is dynamically interrelated with the terrestrial ecosystem. An example of the link between these two ecosystems is the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Biovectors, such as penguins, transport phosphorus from sea to land, play a key role in this cycle. In this paper, we selected three colonies of penguins, the most important seabirds in Antarctica, and computed the annual quantity of phosphorus transferred from sea to land by these birds. Our results show that adult penguins from colonies at Ardley Island, the Vestfold Hills, and Ross Island could transfer phosphorus in the form of guano at up to 12 349, 167 036, and 97 841 kg/a, respectively, over their breeding period. These quantities are equivalent to an annual input of 3.96×109-1.63×1010 kg of seawater to the land of Antarctica. Finally, we discuss the impact of phosphorus on the ice-free areas of the Antarctica.

  1. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins.

    PubMed

    Trathan, Phil N; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, Dee; Bost, Charles-André; Crawford, Robert J M; Crossin, Glenn T; Cuthbert, Richard J; Dann, Peter; Davis, Lloyd Spencer; De La Puente, Santiago; Ellenberg, Ursula; Lynch, Heather J; Mattern, Thomas; Pütz, Klemens; Seddon, Philip J; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Wienecke, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative human impacts across the world's oceans are considerable. We therefore examined a single model taxonomic group, the penguins (Spheniscidae), to explore how marine species and communities might be at risk of decline or extinction in the southern hemisphere. We sought to determine the most important threats to penguins and to suggest means to mitigate these threats. Our review has relevance to other taxonomic groups in the southern hemisphere and in northern latitudes, where human impacts are greater. Our review was based on an expert assessment and literature review of all 18 penguin species; 49 scientists contributed to the process. For each penguin species, we considered their range and distribution, population trends, and main anthropogenic threats over the past approximately 250 years. These threats were harvesting adults for oil, skin, and feathers and as bait for crab and rock lobster fisheries; harvesting of eggs; terrestrial habitat degradation; marine pollution; fisheries bycatch and resource competition; environmental variability and climate change; and toxic algal poisoning and disease. Habitat loss, pollution, and fishing, all factors humans can readily mitigate, remain the primary threats for penguin species. Their future resilience to further climate change impacts will almost certainly depend on addressing current threats to existing habitat degradation on land and at sea. We suggest protection of breeding habitat, linked to the designation of appropriately scaled marine reserves, including in the High Seas, will be critical for the future conservation of penguins. However, large-scale conservation zones are not always practical or politically feasible and other ecosystem-based management methods that include spatial zoning, bycatch mitigation, and robust harvest control must be developed to maintain marine biodiversity and ensure that ecosystem functioning is maintained across a variety of scales. PMID:25102756

  2. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  3. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  4. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen

  5. FA composition of heart and skeletal muscle during embryonic development of the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Decrock, Frederic; Groscolas, Rene; Speake, Brian K

    2002-04-01

    Since the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) naturally contain the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA yet reported for the eggs of any avian species, the effects of this (n-3)-rich yolk on the FA profiles of the embryonic heart and skeletal muscle were investigated. The concentrations (mg/g wet tissue) of phospholipid (PL) in the developing heart and leg muscle of the penguin doubled between days 27 and 55 from the beginning of egg incubation (i.e., from the halfway stage of embryonic development to 2 d posthatch), whereas no net increase occurred in pectoral muscle. During this period, the concentration of TAG in heart decreased by half but increased two- and sixfold in leg and pectoral muscle, respectively. The most notable change in cholesteryl ester concentration occurred in pectoral muscle, increasing ninefold between days 27 and 55. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was the major polyunsaturate in PL of the penguin's heart, where it formed about 20% (w/w) of FA at day 55. At the equivalent developmental stage, the heart PL of the chicken contained a 1.3-fold greater proportion of ARA, contained a fifth less DHA, and was almost devoid of EPA, whereas the latter FA was a significant component (7% of FA) of penguin heart PL. Similarly, in PL of leg and pectoral muscle, the chicken displayed about 1.4-fold more ARA, up to 50% less DHA, and far less EPA in comparison with the penguin. Thus, although ARA-rich PL profiles are achieved in the heart and muscle of the penguin embryo, these profiles are significantly affected by the high n-3 content of the yolk. PMID:12030322

  6. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins.

    PubMed

    Trathan, Phil N; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, Dee; Bost, Charles-André; Crawford, Robert J M; Crossin, Glenn T; Cuthbert, Richard J; Dann, Peter; Davis, Lloyd Spencer; De La Puente, Santiago; Ellenberg, Ursula; Lynch, Heather J; Mattern, Thomas; Pütz, Klemens; Seddon, Philip J; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Wienecke, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative human impacts across the world's oceans are considerable. We therefore examined a single model taxonomic group, the penguins (Spheniscidae), to explore how marine species and communities might be at risk of decline or extinction in the southern hemisphere. We sought to determine the most important threats to penguins and to suggest means to mitigate these threats. Our review has relevance to other taxonomic groups in the southern hemisphere and in northern latitudes, where human impacts are greater. Our review was based on an expert assessment and literature review of all 18 penguin species; 49 scientists contributed to the process. For each penguin species, we considered their range and distribution, population trends, and main anthropogenic threats over the past approximately 250 years. These threats were harvesting adults for oil, skin, and feathers and as bait for crab and rock lobster fisheries; harvesting of eggs; terrestrial habitat degradation; marine pollution; fisheries bycatch and resource competition; environmental variability and climate change; and toxic algal poisoning and disease. Habitat loss, pollution, and fishing, all factors humans can readily mitigate, remain the primary threats for penguin species. Their future resilience to further climate change impacts will almost certainly depend on addressing current threats to existing habitat degradation on land and at sea. We suggest protection of breeding habitat, linked to the designation of appropriately scaled marine reserves, including in the High Seas, will be critical for the future conservation of penguins. However, large-scale conservation zones are not always practical or politically feasible and other ecosystem-based management methods that include spatial zoning, bycatch mitigation, and robust harvest control must be developed to maintain marine biodiversity and ensure that ecosystem functioning is maintained across a variety of scales.

  7. Love thy neighbour or opposites attract? Patterns of spatial segregation and association among crested penguin populations during winter

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Norman; Crofts, Sarah; Brown, Ruth; Baylis, Alastair M M; Adlard, Stacey; Horswill, Catharine; Venables, Hugh; Taylor, Phil; Trathan, Philip N; Staniland, Iain J

    2014-01-01

    Aim Competition for food among populations of closely related species and conspecifics that occur in both sympatry and parapatry can be reduced by interspecific and intraspecific spatial segregation. According to predictions of niche partitioning, segregation is expected to occur at habitat boundaries among congeners and within habitats among conspecifics, while negative relationships in the density of species or populations will occur in areas of overlap. We tested these predictions by modelling the winter distributions of two crested penguin species from three colonies in the south-western Atlantic. Location Penguins were tracked from two large colonies on the Falkland Islands and one in South Georgia, from where they dispersed through the South Atlantic, Southern Ocean and south-eastern Pacific. Methods Forty macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) from South Georgia and 82 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) from two colonies in the Falkland Islands were equipped with global location sensors which log time and light, allowing positions to be estimated twice-daily, from April to August in 2011. Positions were gridded and converted into maps of penguin density. Metrics of overlap were calculated and density was related to remote-sensed oceanographic variables and competitor density using generalized additive models. Results Macaroni penguins from western South Georgia and southern rockhopper penguins from Steeple Jason Island, Falkland Islands, were spatially segregated by differences in their habitat preferences thus supporting our first prediction regarding interspecific segregation. However, southern rockhopper penguins from Beauchêne Island showed a marked spatial overlap with macaroni penguins as the two had similar habitat preferences and strong mutual associations when controlling for habitat. Contrary to our predictions relating to intraspecific segregation, southern rockhopper penguins from Beauchêne Island and Steeple Jason

  8. Testing optimal foraging theory in a penguin-krill system.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Ito, Motohiro; Takahashi, Akinori

    2014-03-22

    Food is heterogeneously distributed in nature, and understanding how animals search for and exploit food patches is a fundamental challenge in ecology. The classic marginal value theorem (MVT) formulates optimal patch residence time in response to patch quality. The MVT was generally proved in controlled animal experiments; however, owing to the technical difficulties in recording foraging behaviour in the wild, it has been inadequately examined in natural predator-prey systems, especially those in the three-dimensional marine environment. Using animal-borne accelerometers and video cameras, we collected a rare dataset in which the behaviour of a marine predator (penguin) was recorded simultaneously with the capture timings of mobile, patchily distributed prey (krill). We provide qualitative support for the MVT by showing that (i) krill capture rate diminished with time in each dive, as assumed in the MVT, and (ii) dive duration (or patch residence time, controlled for dive depth) increased with short-term, dive-scale krill capture rate, but decreased with long-term, bout-scale krill capture rate, as predicted from the MVT. Our results demonstrate that a single environmental factor (i.e. patch quality) can have opposite effects on animal behaviour depending on the time scale, emphasizing the importance of multi-scale approaches in understanding complex foraging strategies.

  9. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd

    PubMed Central

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles—the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast—continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultaneously. We studied the behaviour of four pairs before laying. Temperature and light intensity measurements allowed us to precisely detect the occurrence of huddling episodes and to determine the surrounding temperature. The four pairs huddled simultaneously for only 6 per cent of the time when weather conditions were harshest. Despite this asynchrony, the huddling behaviour and the resulting benefits were similar between pairs. By contrast, the huddling behaviour of mates was synchronized for 84 per cent of events. By coordinating their huddling behaviour during courtship despite the apparent confusion within a huddle and its ever-changing structure, both individuals save energy while securing their partnership. PMID:19324739

  10. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  11. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  12. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

    2009-06-22

    As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles-the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast-continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultaneously. We studied the behaviour of four pairs before laying. Temperature and light intensity measurements allowed us to precisely detect the occurrence of huddling episodes and to determine the surrounding temperature. The four pairs huddled simultaneously for only 6 per cent of the time when weather conditions were harshest. Despite this asynchrony, the huddling behaviour and the resulting benefits were similar between pairs. By contrast, the huddling behaviour of mates was synchronized for 84 per cent of events. By coordinating their huddling behaviour during courtship despite the apparent confusion within a huddle and its ever-changing structure, both individuals save energy while securing their partnership.

  13. Robotic penguin-like propulsor with novel spherical joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    We have designed and manufactured an innovative spherical joint mechanism with three actuated degrees of freedom, aimed at mimicking a penguin shoulder and enabling a potential propulsion technology with high efficiency and maneuverability. In addition, the mechanism might also lead to propellers with directional thrusting capability. A parallel architecture was chosen for this type of mechanism in order to ensure rigidity as well high actuation frequencies and amplitudes. Indeed, as the motors are fixed, inertial forces are lower than for a serial robot. The resulting spherical parallel mechanism (SPM) with coaxial shafts was designed and manufactured with the following specifications: fixed center of rotation (spherical joint); working frequency of 2.5 Hz under charge; unlimited rotation about main axis; and arbitrary motion within a cone of 60 degrees. The equations for the inverse kinematics of the mechanism have been established and can yield the trajectories of each actuator for any desired motion applied to the oar or blade. The technology will be illustrated with preliminary experiments in a hydrodynamic channel at the University of Applied Sciences - hepia - Switzerland.

  14. Determining the sign of the Z-penguin amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Haisch, Ulrich; Weiler, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    We point out that the precision measurements of the pseudo observables R{sub b}{sup 0}, A{sub b}, and A{sub FB}{sup 0,b} performed at the CERN LEP and the Stanford Linear Collider suggest that in models with minimal-flavor violation the sign of the Z-penguin amplitude is identical to the one present in the standard model. We determine the allowed range for the nonstandard contribution to the Inami-Lim function C and show, by analyzing possible scenarios with positive and negative interference of standard model and new physics contributions, that the derived bound holds in each given case. Finally, we derive lower and upper limits for the branching ratios of K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}, K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu}, K{sub L}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, B{yields}X{sub d,s}{nu}{nu}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} within constrained minimal-flavor violation, making use of the wealth of available data collected at the Z pole.

  15. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  16. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance.

  17. Of Penguins, Pinnipeds, and Poisons: Anesthesia on Elephant Island.

    PubMed

    Firth, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3.8 mmHg), it would have been feasible to induce anesthesia at a low temperature. However, given the potentially lethal hazards of a light chloroform anesthetic, an adequate and constant depth of anesthesia was essential. The pharmacokinetics of the volatile anesthetic, administered via the open-drop technique in the frigid environment, would have been unfamiliar to the occasional anesthetist. To facilitate vaporization of the chloroform, the team burned penguin skins and seal blubber under overturned lifeboats to increase the ambient temperature from -0.5° to 26.6°C. Chloroform degrades with heat to chlorine and phosgene, but buildup of these poisonous gases did not occur due to venting of the confined space by the stove chimney. The anesthetic went well, and the patient-and all the ship's crew-survived to return home. PMID:27148920

  18. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination. PMID:25632699

  19. Notes on parasites in penguins (Spheniscidae) and petrels (Procellariidae) in the Antarctic and Sub-antarctic.

    PubMed

    Jones, H I

    1988-01-01

    Blood smears were examined from 143 penguins of four species (Aptenodytes patagonicus, Eudyptes chrysolophus, E. schlegeli, and Pygoscelis gentoo) from Sub-antarctic Macquarie Island and Heard Island. No blood parasites were reported. The vectors of Hepatozoon albatrossi (reported from three species of albatross) are probably shared by penguins, and it is suggested that the latter are not susceptible to infection with this protozoan. Cestodes of the genus Tetrabothrius were present in large numbers in the intestines of 17 Antarctic petrels (Thalassoica antarctica), and evidence is presented indicating that euphausiid crustaceans may be intermediate hosts. PMID:3352088

  20. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  1. Electro-Weak Penguin and Leptonic Decays in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lodovico, F.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2005-09-08

    Electro-weak penguin and leptonic decays provide an indirect probe for physics beyond the Standard Model and contribute to the determination of Standard Model parameters. Copious quantities of B mesons produced at the B-Factories permit precision measurements of the electro-weak penguin decays and searches for leptonic decays. We review the current experimental status of b {yields} s(d){gamma}, B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{gamma}, b {yields} s{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and finally B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays at BABAR.

  2. Penguin response to the Eocene climate and ecosystem change in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    Eocene Antarctic penguins are known solely from the La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, James Ross Basin). They are most numerous and taxonomically diverse (at least ten species present) within strata formed at the end of this epoch, which is concomitant with a significant cooling trend and biotic turnover prior to the onset of glaciation. Moreover, all newly appeared taxa were small-bodied, and most probably evolved in situ. Interestingly, some chemical proxies suggest enhanced nutrient upwelling events that coincided with obvious changes in the record of La Meseta penguins.

  3. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. PMID:26924130

  4. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life.

  5. INCIDENCE DENSITY, PROPORTIONATE MORTALITY, AND RISK FACTORS OF ASPERGILLOSIS IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS IN A REHABILITATION CENTER FROM BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Silva Filho, Rodolfo Pinho da; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Ruoppolo, Valéria; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés; Adornes, Andréa Corrado; Cabana, Ângela Leitzke; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis, an opportunistic mycosis caused by the Aspergillus genus, affects mainly the respiratory system and is considered one of the most significant causes of mortality in captive penguins. This study aimed to examine a 6-yr period of cases of aspergillosis in penguins at the Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG), Rio Grande, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the institution's records of penguins received from January 2004 to December 2009. Animals were categorized according to the outcome "aspergillosis," and analyzed by age group, sex, oil fouling, origin, prophylactic administration of itraconazole, period in captivity, body mass, hematocrit, and total plasma proteins. A total of 327 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) was studied, 66 of which died of aspergillosis. Proportionate mortality by aspergillosis was 48.5%, and incidence density was 7.3 lethal aspergillosis cases per 100 penguins/mo. Approximately 75% of the aspergillosis cases occurred in penguins that had been transferred from other rehabilitation centers, and this was considered a significant risk factor for the disease. Significant differences were also observed between the groups in regard to the period of time spent in captivity until death, hematocrit and total plasma proteins upon admission to the center, and body mass gain during the period in captivity. The findings demonstrate the negative impacts of aspergillosis on the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins, with a high incidence density and substantial mortality.

  6. INCIDENCE DENSITY, PROPORTIONATE MORTALITY, AND RISK FACTORS OF ASPERGILLOSIS IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS IN A REHABILITATION CENTER FROM BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Silva Filho, Rodolfo Pinho da; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Ruoppolo, Valéria; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés; Adornes, Andréa Corrado; Cabana, Ângela Leitzke; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis, an opportunistic mycosis caused by the Aspergillus genus, affects mainly the respiratory system and is considered one of the most significant causes of mortality in captive penguins. This study aimed to examine a 6-yr period of cases of aspergillosis in penguins at the Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG), Rio Grande, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the institution's records of penguins received from January 2004 to December 2009. Animals were categorized according to the outcome "aspergillosis," and analyzed by age group, sex, oil fouling, origin, prophylactic administration of itraconazole, period in captivity, body mass, hematocrit, and total plasma proteins. A total of 327 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) was studied, 66 of which died of aspergillosis. Proportionate mortality by aspergillosis was 48.5%, and incidence density was 7.3 lethal aspergillosis cases per 100 penguins/mo. Approximately 75% of the aspergillosis cases occurred in penguins that had been transferred from other rehabilitation centers, and this was considered a significant risk factor for the disease. Significant differences were also observed between the groups in regard to the period of time spent in captivity until death, hematocrit and total plasma proteins upon admission to the center, and body mass gain during the period in captivity. The findings demonstrate the negative impacts of aspergillosis on the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins, with a high incidence density and substantial mortality. PMID:26667521

  7. Superoxide activates a GDP-sensitive proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-26

    We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak. PMID:14651968

  8. Penguin Mediated B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Mancinelli, Giampiero

    2002-09-19

    The authors report on preliminary results of searches for penguin mediated B decays based on 20.7 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) peak with the BABAR detector at PEP-II. The following branching fractions have been measured: {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K{sup +}) = (7.7{sub -1.4}{sup +1.6} {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0}) = (8.1{sub -2.5}{sup +3.1} {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K*{sup +}) = (9.7{sub -3.4}{sup +4.2} {+-} 1.7) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K*{sup 0}) = (8.7{sub -2.1}{sup +2.5} {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup +}) = (6.6{sub -1.8}{sup +2.1} {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B {yields} {eta}K*{sup 0}) = (19.8{sub -5.6}{sup +6.5} {+-} 1.7) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. For several other modes they report upper limits on their branching fractions; for example for the following flavor-changing neutral current decays, {Beta}(B {yields} Kl{sup +}l{sup -}) < 0.6 x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B {yields} K*l{sup +}l{sup -}) < 2.5 x 10{sup -6}, at 90% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  9. The Vocal Repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): Structure and Function of Calls

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal categories. Moreover, we used a principal component analysis, followed by signal classification with a discriminant function analysis, for statistical validation of the vocalisation types. In addition, we identified the behavioural contexts in which calls were uttered. The results show that four basic vocalisations can be found in the vocal repertoire of adult African Penguin, namely a contact call emitted by isolated birds, an agonistic call used in aggressive interactions, an ecstatic display song uttered by single birds, and a mutual display song vocalised by pairs, at their nests. Moreover, we identified two distinct vocalisations interpreted as begging calls by nesting chicks (begging peep) and unweaned juveniles (begging moan). Finally, we discussed the importance of specific acoustic parameters in classifying calls and the possible use of the source-filter theory of vocal production to study penguin vocalisations. PMID:25076136

  10. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica. PMID:26113152

  11. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal categories. Moreover, we used a principal component analysis, followed by signal classification with a discriminant function analysis, for statistical validation of the vocalisation types. In addition, we identified the behavioural contexts in which calls were uttered. The results show that four basic vocalisations can be found in the vocal repertoire of adult African Penguin, namely a contact call emitted by isolated birds, an agonistic call used in aggressive interactions, an ecstatic display song uttered by single birds, and a mutual display song vocalised by pairs, at their nests. Moreover, we identified two distinct vocalisations interpreted as begging calls by nesting chicks (begging peep) and unweaned juveniles (begging moan). Finally, we discussed the importance of specific acoustic parameters in classifying calls and the possible use of the source-filter theory of vocal production to study penguin vocalisations. PMID:25076136

  12. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins. PMID:26480918

  13. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  14. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. PMID:23428720

  15. Concurrent infection with Clostridium and Plasmodium in a captive king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Penrith, M L; Huchzermeyer, F W; De Wet, S C; Penrith, M J

    1994-06-01

    Concurrent infection with Plasmodium relictum and Clostridium perfringens Type B was diagnosed in a king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) that died in the National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria. Macro- and microscopic pathological changes were mainly due to C. perfringens. The relative significance of the two pathogens is discussed. PMID:18671104

  16. Maternal antibodies against Plasmodium spp. in African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Shaw, M L; Craig, L E

    1994-07-01

    Anti-Plasmodium spp. antibody titers of mating pairs of adult, captive-reared, African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and their chicks were determined using the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two Plasmodium falciparum antigens were used for the ELISA: R32tet32 (sporozoite antigen), and crude red blood cell extract (CRBCE). Eighteen chicks were bled weekly for ten weeks starting with their day of hatching. The yolk sacs of two penguin eggs were biopsed for ELISA-detectable maternal antibodies (MAB). None of the 28 adult penguins were parasitemic by Giemsa-stained thin blood smear; however, all had anti-Plasmodium spp. immunoglobulins reacting with P. falciparum antigens. All 18 newly hatched chicks had anti-Plasmodium spp. MAB while housed in a mosquito-free environment. The level of MAB in the newly hatched chicks was correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with antibody level detected in their female parents (R32tet32: r = 0.87, CRBCE: r = 0.89). No correlation was found between antibody titers of the newly hatched chicks and their male parents. The level of maternal-fetal antibodies was regressed significantly (P < 0.001) over the 10-week period. Penguin chicks over 10 weeks of age had no anti-Plasmodium spp. MAB. Egg-yolk samples had significantly (P < 0.03) higher MAB titers than female parents that laid these eggs.

  17. Prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp, in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes.

    PubMed

    Hill, A G; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D; Alley, M R

    2010-09-01

    Yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island were identified with a Leucocytozoon spp. of a novel lineage in association with a high regional incidence of chick mortality (n=32, 100% mortality) during the November 2006 to January 2007 breeding season. Fourteen chicks from Stewart Island were examined post-mortem and histologically for Leucocytozoon infection. In addition, a survey of blood to detect Leucocytozoon spp. infections using PCR was performed on 107 yellow-eyed penguins from 4 distinct nesting areas on the South Island (Oamaru, Otago Peninsula, and Catlins) (n=95), and Stewart Island (n=12). The results of the study revealed that 2 of the 14 (14%) chicks necropsied showed severe, disseminated megaloschizont formation in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney and other tissues characteristic of leucocytozoonosis. Eighty-three percent (83%) of blood samples collected from Stewart Island penguins contained Leucocytozoon DNA, whereas samples from the 3 other nesting areas were negative for the blood parasite. Leucocytozoon spp. DNA sequences isolated from blood and tissues of adults (n=10) and chicks (n=7) were similar and grouped with other published Leucocytozoon spp. sequences but in a distinct cluster together with closely related isolates from a Western march harrier (Circus aerginosus) and common loon (Gavia immer). These findings suggest that yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island are infected with a regionally isolated, host-specific Leucocytozoon spp. which may contribute to the high chick mortality observed during this period.

  18. Purposes for Literacy in Children's Use of the Online Virtual World "Club Penguin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the purposes for literacy discernible in young children's use of the virtual world, "Club Penguin." Twenty-six children aged between 5 and 11 took part in semi-structured interviews in which their use of virtual worlds was explored. Further, three 11-year-old children were filmed using "Club…

  19. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  20. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  1. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-06-26

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica.

  2. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Gemma; Everett, Jason D.; Harcourt, Robert; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are undergoing rapid, regionally specific warming. Strengthening western boundary currents play a role in this phenomenon, with sea surface temperatures (SST) in their paths rising faster than the global average. To understand how dynamic oceanography influences food availability in these ocean warming “hotspots”, we use a novel prey capture signature derived from accelerometry to understand how the warm East Australian Current shapes foraging success by a meso-predator, the little penguin. This seabird feeds on low trophic level species that are sensitive to environmental change. We found that in 2012, prey capture success by penguins was high when SST was low relative to the long-term mean. In 2013 prey capture success was low, coincident with an unusually strong penetration of warm water. Overall there was an optimal temperature range for prey capture around 19–21 °C, with lower success at both lower and higher temperatures, mirroring published relationships between commercial sardine catch and SST. Spatially, higher SSTs corresponded to a lower probability of penguins using an area, and lower prey capture success. These links between high SST and reduced prey capture success by penguins suggest negative implications for future resource availability in a system dominated by a strengthening western boundary current. PMID:26923901

  3. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  4. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal categories. Moreover, we used a principal component analysis, followed by signal classification with a discriminant function analysis, for statistical validation of the vocalisation types. In addition, we identified the behavioural contexts in which calls were uttered. The results show that four basic vocalisations can be found in the vocal repertoire of adult African Penguin, namely a contact call emitted by isolated birds, an agonistic call used in aggressive interactions, an ecstatic display song uttered by single birds, and a mutual display song vocalised by pairs, at their nests. Moreover, we identified two distinct vocalisations interpreted as begging calls by nesting chicks (begging peep) and unweaned juveniles (begging moan). Finally, we discussed the importance of specific acoustic parameters in classifying calls and the possible use of the source-filter theory of vocal production to study penguin vocalisations.

  5. Rare Hadronic and Radiative Penguin B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Willocq, Stephane

    2002-02-07

    We report recent results in the study of rare hadronic and radiative penguin decays of B mesons. These results are based on a sample of 23 million BB pairs collected by the BaBar Collaboration at the SLAC PEP-II e+e- B Factory.

  6. Large electroweak penguin contribution in B{yields}K{pi} and {pi}{pi} decay modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    We discuss a possibility of large electroweak penguin contribution in B{yields}K{pi} and {pi}{pi} from recent experimental data. The experimental data may be suggesting that there are some discrepancies between the data and theoretical estimation in the branching ratios of them. In B{yields}K{pi} decays, to explain it, a large electroweak penguin contribution and large strong phase differences seem to be needed. The contributions should appear also in B{yields}{pi}{pi}. We show, as an example, a solution to solve the discrepancies in both B{yields}K{pi} and B{yields}{pi}{pi}. However the magnitude of the parameters and the strong phase estimated from experimental data are quite large compared with the theoretical estimations. It may be suggesting some new physics effects are included in these processes. We will have to discuss about the dependence of the new physics. To explain both modes at once, we may need large electroweak penguin contribution with new weak phases and some SU(3) breaking effects by new physics in both QCD and electroweak penguin-type processes.

  7. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins.

  8. Behavioral responses of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) (Foster) to saltwater versus freshwater.

    PubMed

    Reisfeld, Laura; Moraes, Kaue; Spaulussi, Lygia; Cardoso, Ricardo Cesar; Ippolito, Laura; Gutierrez, Rafael; Silvatti, Bruna; Pizzutto, Cristiane Schilbach

    2013-01-01

    The most common penguin species found along the coast of Brazil is the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). These penguins spend most of their time foraging for food in the oceans. This information is vital to the maintenance of this species in captivity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavioral response of a group of Magellanic Penguins (S. magellanicus) in two different conditions of water--fresh and salt. The work was divided into two phases. First, animals were kept in enclosures with access to freshwater. Then they were housed with access to saltwater. Behaviors were recorded by scan sampling per interval of time, totaling 7,200 records for each animal. The results show that the use of saltwater for this group of animals kept in captivity was more effective for increasing the time the animals spent in the water, increasing foraging behavior, stimulating swimming, and providing display of typical behaviors of the species, showing that access to a saltwater environment is an important tool in trying to provide well-being for this species in captivity.

  9. SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS FORSTER, 1781).

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Cláudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor C L; Dias, Ricardo A; Ribeiro, Jéssica D; Lassalvia, Cristiane; Maracini, Pryscilla; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Mayorga, Luis F S P; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-03-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northward as far as Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from three zoos and two rehabilitation centers (RCs) in Brazil were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off ≥ 20). The penguins were categorized as young (≤4 yr old) or adults (≥4 yr old) and sexed (male, female, or not identified), and data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 28% of penguins: 25.8% males, 27.8% females, 30.3% unknown sex, 25.4% young, and 31.1% adults. Statistical analyses did not find any difference (P > 0.05) with respect to age, sex, or source of birds. This is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in S. magellanicus.

  10. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-06-01

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, P; Taniguchi, S; Gallo, H; Maranho, A; Kolesnikovas, C; Amorim, D B; Mansilla, M; Navarro, R M; Tabeira, L C; Bicego, M C; Montone, R C

    2016-04-01

    Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, are the most abundant penguins living in temperate regions of South America and are good indicators of environmental pollution in the region. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were detected in the liver of Magellanic penguins found debilitated or dead on the beaches of Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) between 2008 and 2012 as well as in Uruguay and Chile in 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more prevalent than organochlorine pesticides (DDTs ∼ HCB ∼ Drins) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Among PCBs, penta-, hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners were predominant. Concentrations of POPs were similar between the Pacific and Atlantic penguin populations, except for PCBs, which were relatively higher in the Pacific population. During the study years (2008-2012), large variations were found in organochlorine pesticides and PCBs tended to decline. Overall, the southern portion of South America has low concentrations of POPs, with either a constant trend or evidence of decline. PMID:26881336

  12. SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS FORSTER, 1781).

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Cláudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor C L; Dias, Ricardo A; Ribeiro, Jéssica D; Lassalvia, Cristiane; Maracini, Pryscilla; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Mayorga, Luis F S P; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-03-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northward as far as Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from three zoos and two rehabilitation centers (RCs) in Brazil were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off ≥ 20). The penguins were categorized as young (≤4 yr old) or adults (≥4 yr old) and sexed (male, female, or not identified), and data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 28% of penguins: 25.8% males, 27.8% females, 30.3% unknown sex, 25.4% young, and 31.1% adults. Statistical analyses did not find any difference (P > 0.05) with respect to age, sex, or source of birds. This is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in S. magellanicus. PMID:27010304

  13. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Everett, Jason D; Harcourt, Robert; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world's oceans are undergoing rapid, regionally specific warming. Strengthening western boundary currents play a role in this phenomenon, with sea surface temperatures (SST) in their paths rising faster than the global average. To understand how dynamic oceanography influences food availability in these ocean warming "hotspots", we use a novel prey capture signature derived from accelerometry to understand how the warm East Australian Current shapes foraging success by a meso-predator, the little penguin. This seabird feeds on low trophic level species that are sensitive to environmental change. We found that in 2012, prey capture success by penguins was high when SST was low relative to the long-term mean. In 2013 prey capture success was low, coincident with an unusually strong penetration of warm water. Overall there was an optimal temperature range for prey capture around 19-21 °C, with lower success at both lower and higher temperatures, mirroring published relationships between commercial sardine catch and SST. Spatially, higher SSTs corresponded to a lower probability of penguins using an area, and lower prey capture success. These links between high SST and reduced prey capture success by penguins suggest negative implications for future resource availability in a system dominated by a strengthening western boundary current. PMID:26923901

  14. How much is too much? Assessment of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins in Patagonian colonies.

    PubMed

    Sala, Juan E; Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles ('wiggles') for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 42-49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific 'prey type'. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives. PMID:23251554

  15. Aggressiveness in king penguins in relation to reproductive status and territory location.

    PubMed

    CôTé

    2000-04-01

    King penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, vigorously defend small territories in very dense colonies. The egg-laying season lasts approximately 4 months, but only pairs that reproduce during the first half of the period succeed in fledging a chick. I examined various factors affecting aggressiveness of king penguins during the breeding season and focused on the differences between central and peripheral territories. Pairs on peripheral territories experienced twice as many encounters with avian predators as did central birds. The vast majority of peripheral birds were late breeders, indicating that reproductive success was very low among penguins defending a territory on the edge of the colony. Time invested in territory defence and rate of agonistic encounters between breeding neighbours increased from the incubation to the brooding period. Parents gave most threat displays to territorial neighbours when the chick was very young and just before crèche formation. Distance to colony edge was not related to aggressiveness in incubating birds, however, the rate of pecking and flipper blows increased from the edge to the centre during brooding. In addition, aggressiveness of breeding penguins towards travelling birds trespassing into their territory increased with distance to edge. Early breeders were not more aggressive than late breeders but the proportion of time spent in territory defence increased with the number of days a bird had spent incubating. As expected, I did not detect any sex difference in aggressive behaviour. Birds occupying territories on the beach were generally more aggressive during the incubation period than those located on the valley sides. Reproductive status (incubating versus brooding) and territory location were the main factors explaining the various levels of aggressiveness observed in breeding king penguins. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792937

  16. How much is too much? Assessment of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins in Patagonian colonies.

    PubMed

    Sala, Juan E; Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles ('wiggles') for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 42-49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific 'prey type'. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.

  17. How Much Is Too Much? Assessment of Prey Consumption by Magellanic Penguins in Patagonian Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Juan E.; Wilson, Rory P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles (‘wiggles’) for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 42–49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific ‘prey type’. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives. PMID:23251554

  18. Characteristics of naturally acquired avian malaria infections in naive juvenile African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; McCutchan, T F; Bicknese, E J

    1994-01-01

    Antibody responses to naturally acquired Plasmodium relictum and P. elongatum infections, blood parasitemia, and disease signs were investigated in 23 naive juvenile African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus). Anti-Plasmodium spp. immunoglobulins were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using P. falciparum antigens. All birds rapidly developed antibody to P. relictum and P. elongatum. Five penguins showed detectable parasitemia and signs of the disease. Parasitemia was not related to the timing of the maximal antibody response or to the antibody titer. Two of the five parasitemic birds died and gross examination revealed splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and congested, edematous lungs. Although the other 17 birds were clearly exposed to the disease, none showed signs of infection. No subsequent episode of parasitemia was observed in individual penguins. A comparison of the fate of 1993 penguins with those from other years showed a great variability in the proportion of birds exhibiting signs of malaria.

  19. Measurements of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b->s Penguin Dominated Hadronic B Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Biassoni, Pietro

    2010-02-10

    We report measurements of Time-Dependent CP asymmetries in several b->s penguin dominated hadronic B decays, where New Physics contributions may appear. We find no significant discrepancies with respect to the Standard Model expectations.

  20. A reversal of fortunes: climate change ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in Antarctic Peninsula penguins

    PubMed Central

    Clucas, Gemma V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D.; Levy, Hila; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Rogers, Alex D.; Hart, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces ‘winners’, species that benefit from these events and ‘losers’, species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a ‘reversal of fortunes’ as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change ‘winners’, while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change ‘losers’. PMID:24865774

  1. Hematologic characteristics of avian malaria cases in African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) during the first outdoor exposure season.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Shaw, M L; Cranfield, M R; Beall, F B

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-nine juvenile, captive-reared African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were hematologically monitored every 2 wk over the period of 24 wk during their first outdoor exposure. Blood samples taken from the penguins were screened for 12 blood evaluation parameters. Parasitemic penguins were medically treated. Eighteen birds (62.1%) experienced naturally acquired malaria and 11 birds (37.9%) remained nonparasitemic. A total of 32 avian malaria episodes were noted; 25 (78.1%) were identified as Plasmodium elongatum, 5 (15.6%) as Plasmodium relictum, and 2 (6.3%) as Plasmodium spp. One P. elongatum (3.4%) and 3 P. relictum (10.3%) infections were fatal. All deaths occurred during the first episode of parasitemia. Gross lesions of the birds that died included hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Interstitial pneumonia with schizonts was observed on histological examinations. The range, mean, and SD of 12 hematological parameters were determined for nonparasitemic and parasitemic penguins. Differences between these groups in total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative lymphocytosis (LYMPHS) were not significant. The combined classes of total WBC counts (> 20.0 x 10(3)/microliters) and LYMPHS (> 60.0%) are not indicative of avian malaria infection in African penguins. No correlations were found between changes in the values of blood parameters with season or age of penguins. Treatment of parasitemic birds significantly reduced expected mortality from 50.0% to 13.8%.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Avian Malaria in Wild Breeding Colonies of Humboldt and Magellanic Penguins in South America.

    PubMed

    Sallaberry-Pincheira, Nicole; Gonzalez-Acuña, Daniel; Herrera-Tello, Yertiza; Dantas, Gisele P M; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Frere, Esteban; Valdés-Velasquez, Armando; Simeone, Alejandro; Vianna, Juliana A

    2015-06-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of the genera Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium. It affects hundreds of bird species, causing varied clinical signs depending on the susceptibility of the host species. Although high mortality has been reported in captive penguins, limited epidemiological studies have been conducted in wild colonies, and isolated records of avian malaria have been reported mostly from individuals referred to rehabilitation centers. For this epidemiological study, we obtained blood samples from 501 adult Humboldt and 360 adult Magellanic penguins from 13 colonies throughout South America. To identify malaria parasitaemia, we amplified the mtDNA cytochrome b for all three parasite genera. Avian malaria was absent in most of the analyzed colonies, with exception of the Punta San Juan Humboldt penguin colony, in Peru, where we detected at least two new Haemoproteus lineages in three positive samples, resulting in a prevalence of 0.6% for the species. The low prevalence of avian malaria detected in wild penguins could be due to two possible causes: A low incidence, with high morbidity and mortality in wild penguins or alternatively, penguins sampled in the chronic stage of the disease (during which parasitaemia in peripheral blood samples is unlikely) would be detected as false negatives.

  3. International Polar Year (IPY): Thinking Beyond Polar Bears and Penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P.; Austin, S.; Johnson, L.; Walter, D.

    2008-12-01

    The mention of an International Polar Year (IPY) to most of our university students evokes images of polar bears, penguins, perhaps some concepts of polar exploration in previous centuries. IPY provides an unusual opportunity to incorporate various aspects of polar research into the classroom, research opportunities as well as outreach activities. The subject areas that can be incorporated into classroom and undergraduate research activities would include astrobiology, atmospheric sciences, glaciation past and present. Astrobiology, in particular geomicrobiology in relation to the pursuit of life on other planets, is dependent on an understanding of extremophile organisms and the identifying signatures that can be chemical or morphological. Atmospheric studies using balloons with attached instruments enable us to understand the role of an atmosphere in providing a habitable world and filtering damaging rays from the Sun. L. Agassiz studied the patterns of glaciation and their alteration of the crustal surface today and the information enabled us to identify similar patterns in Earth's past and today are important for identifying polar glaciation on Mars. The wide variation of scientific opportunities and research information are also important for developing partnership and outreach programs whether elements are used for planetarium shows, exhibits at museums, hands-on activities, or leading students to pursue atmospheric studies. Each and every one of the components provides different avenues and the potential partnerships are limited only by one's creativity. One example of an effective partnership is the January NASA Space Day at the University of Texas at Brownsville, Texas. The event reaches over 600 primarily Hispanic students from the entire Rio Grande Valley. In January, 2009, the topic will be IPY and the popular Polar Palooza. The event will include exhibits, talks, and the new planetarium show Ice Worlds. The partners for this event include Johnson Space

  4. Ecological Sexual Dimorphism and Environmental Variability within a Community of Antarctic Penguins (Genus Pygoscelis)

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Kristen B.; Williams, Tony D.; Fraser, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual segregation in vertebrate foraging niche is often associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e., ecological sexual dimorphism. Although foraging behavior of male and female seabirds can vary markedly, differences in isotopic (carbon, δ13C and nitrogen, δ15N) foraging niche are generally more pronounced within sexually dimorphic species and during phases when competition for food is greater. We examined ecological sexual dimorphism among sympatric nesting Pygoscelis penguins asking whether environmental variability is associated with differences in male and female pre-breeding foraging niche. We predicted that all Pygoscelis species would forage sex-specifically, and that higher quality winter habitat, i.e., higher or lower sea ice coverage for a given species, would be associated with a more similar foraging niche among the sexes. Results P2/P8 primers reliably amplified DNA of all species. On average, male Pygoscelis penguins are structurally larger than female conspecifics. However, chinstrap penguins were more sexually dimorphic in culmen and flipper features than Adélie and gentoo penguins. Adélies and gentoos were more sexually dimorphic in body mass than chinstraps. Only male and female chinstraps and gentoos occupied separate δ15N foraging niches. Strong year effects in δ15N signatures were documented for all three species, however, only for Adélies, did yearly variation in δ15N signatures tightly correlate with winter sea ice conditions. There was no evidence that variation in sex-specific foraging niche interacted with yearly winter habitat quality. Conclusion Chinstraps were most sexually size dimorphic followed by gentoos and Adélies. Pre-breeding sex-specific foraging niche was associated with overall SSD indices across species; male chinstrap and gentoo penguins were enriched in δ15N relative to females. Our results highlight previously unknown trophic pathways that link Pygoscelis penguins with variation in Southern

  5. Penguin Contributions to CP Phases in B(d,s) Decays to Charmonium.

    PubMed

    Frings, Philipp; Nierste, Ulrich; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The precision of the CP phases 2β and 2β(s) determined from the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in B(d)→J/ψK(S) and B(s)→J/ψϕ, respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by Λ(QCD)/m(ψ), where m(ψ) denotes the J/ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P/T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2β as |Δϕ(d)|≤0.68°. The penguin contribution to 2β(s) is bounded as |Δϕ(s)(0)|≤0.97°, |Δϕ(s)(∥)|≤1.22°, and |Δϕ(s)(⊥)|≤0.99° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular ϕ and J/ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δϕ(d)| for B(d)→ψ(2S)K(S) and the polarization amplitudes in B(d)→J/ψK(*). In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P/T for decays in which P/T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in B(d)→J/ψπ(0), B(d)→J/ψρ(0), B(s)→J/ψK(S), and B(s)→J/ψK(*). For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct CP asymmetries. PMID:26296109

  6. Penguin Contributions to CP Phases in B(d,s) Decays to Charmonium.

    PubMed

    Frings, Philipp; Nierste, Ulrich; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The precision of the CP phases 2β and 2β(s) determined from the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in B(d)→J/ψK(S) and B(s)→J/ψϕ, respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by Λ(QCD)/m(ψ), where m(ψ) denotes the J/ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P/T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2β as |Δϕ(d)|≤0.68°. The penguin contribution to 2β(s) is bounded as |Δϕ(s)(0)|≤0.97°, |Δϕ(s)(∥)|≤1.22°, and |Δϕ(s)(⊥)|≤0.99° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular ϕ and J/ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δϕ(d)| for B(d)→ψ(2S)K(S) and the polarization amplitudes in B(d)→J/ψK(*). In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P/T for decays in which P/T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in B(d)→J/ψπ(0), B(d)→J/ψρ(0), B(s)→J/ψK(S), and B(s)→J/ψK(*). For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct CP asymmetries.

  7. Penguin Contributions to C P Phases in Bd ,s Decays to Charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Philipp; Nierste, Ulrich; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The precision of the C P phases 2 β and 2 βs determined from the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ KS and Bs→J /ψ ϕ , respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by ΛQCD/mψ , where mψ denotes the J /ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P /T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2 β as |Δ ϕd|≤0.68 ° . The penguin contribution to 2 βs is bounded as |Δ ϕs0|≤0.97 ° , |Δ ϕs∥|≤1.22 ° , and |Δ ϕs⊥|≤0.99 ° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular ϕ and J /ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δ ϕd| for Bd→ψ (2 S )KS and the polarization amplitudes in Bd→J /ψ K* . In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P /T for decays in which P /T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ π0, Bd→J /ψ ρ0, Bs→J /ψ KS, and Bs→J /ψ K* . For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct C P asymmetries.

  8. Evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Dunn, J Lawrence; Camp, Tracy; Macha, Laurie; Mazzaro, Lisa; Tuttle, Allison D

    2012-01-01

    Bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. Although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. These factors include substrate, body weight, and lack of exercise. The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate variables potentially contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), including sex, weight, age, season, exhibit activity, and territory substrate. Results indicate that males develop significantly more plantar lesions than females. Penguins weighing between 3.51 and 4.0 kg develop plantar lesions significantly more often than penguins weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, and because male African penguins ordinarily weigh significantly more than females, weight is likely a contributing factor in the development of lesions in males compared with females. Significantly more plantar lesions were observed in penguins standing for greater than 50% of their time on exhibit than swimming. Penguins occupying smooth concrete territories developed more plantar lesions compared with penguins occupying grate territories. Recommendations for minimizing bumblefoot in African penguins include training penguins for monthly foot examinations for early detection of plantar lesions predisposing for the disease, encouraging swimming activity, and replacing smooth surfaces on exhibit with surfaces providing variable degrees of pressure and texture on the feet. PMID:21557300

  9. Evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Dunn, J Lawrence; Camp, Tracy; Macha, Laurie; Mazzaro, Lisa; Tuttle, Allison D

    2012-01-01

    Bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. Although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. These factors include substrate, body weight, and lack of exercise. The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate variables potentially contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), including sex, weight, age, season, exhibit activity, and territory substrate. Results indicate that males develop significantly more plantar lesions than females. Penguins weighing between 3.51 and 4.0 kg develop plantar lesions significantly more often than penguins weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, and because male African penguins ordinarily weigh significantly more than females, weight is likely a contributing factor in the development of lesions in males compared with females. Significantly more plantar lesions were observed in penguins standing for greater than 50% of their time on exhibit than swimming. Penguins occupying smooth concrete territories developed more plantar lesions compared with penguins occupying grate territories. Recommendations for minimizing bumblefoot in African penguins include training penguins for monthly foot examinations for early detection of plantar lesions predisposing for the disease, encouraging swimming activity, and replacing smooth surfaces on exhibit with surfaces providing variable degrees of pressure and texture on the feet.

  10. Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin. PMID:25000718

  11. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)

    PubMed Central

    SUZUTA, Fumiko; KIMURA, Kumiko; URAKAWA, Ryo; KUSUDA, Yukio; TANAKA, Shogo; HANAFUSA, Yasuko; HARITANI, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis. PMID:25892614

  12. Egg binding and hind limb paralysis in an African penguin--a case report.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Monique Anamarie

    2009-03-01

    This case report assesses the role acupuncture played in the rehabilitation therapy of an African penguin with bilateral hind limb paresis and paralysis following egg binding and a caesarean section. Egg binding is the failure of the oviduct to pass the egg down into the cloaca. In avian species the sciatic nerve runs through the middle of the kidney. Swelling of the kidney tissue due to the pressure exerted by the retained egg will cause pressure on the sciatic nerve which may lead to hind limb paresis/paralysis. Acupuncture was used to relieve any muscle, joint or nerve pain and to attempt to stimulate recovery of the sciatic nerve. Acupuncture was incorporated into a fairly intensive physical rehabilitation programme to help the penguin to walk again so that it could be re-introduced back into the sanctuary's captive colony.

  13. Pulmonary dystrophic oxalosis and its possible relation to fibrosis in an aged Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    Wijesundera, Kavindra Kumara; Izawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Nakao, Tatsuko; Maezono, Yuko; Ito, Shu; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old Gentoo penguin was found dead with a clinical history of inappetence and dyspnoea. At necropsy, the lungs showed severe congestion/hemorrhage and atelectasis. Histopathologically, fibrosis was observed exclusively around parabronchi with severe collagen deposition. In fibrotic lesions, there were numerous depositions of crystalline structures accompanied by epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells (foreign body type). In addition to irregularly lamellar structures as the morphology, the crystals were demonstrated calcium oxalate (CaOx) by the Alizarin red S staining with and without polarized light and von Kossa's staining. Myocobacteria and fungi were not found by special and immuohistochemical stainings. Pulmonary dystrophic oxalosis is a very rare lesion in Gentoo penguin.

  14. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to epsilon-prime / epsilon

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N.H.; Dawson, C.; Laiho, J.W.; Noaki, J.; Li, S.; Soni, A.; /Brookhaven

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q8 contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReAP{sub 2} and thus, the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  15. Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin.

  16. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  17. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Suzuta, Fumiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Urakawa, Ryo; Kusuda, Yukio; Tanaka, Shogo; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Haritani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis.

  18. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N. H.; Li, S.; Dawson, C.; Noaki, J.; Laiho, J. W.; Soni, A.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q{sub 8} contribution to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReA{sub 2} and thus, the {delta}I=1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  19. A consistent picture for large penguins in D → π + π -, K + K -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brod, Joachim; Grossman, Yuval; Kagan, Alexander L.; Zupan, Jure

    2012-10-01

    A long-standing puzzle in charm physics is the large difference between the D 0 → K + K - and D 0 → π + π - decay rates. Recently, the LHCb and CDF collaborations reported a surprisingly large difference between the direct CP asymmetries, Δ A CP, in these two modes. We show that the two puzzles are naturally related in the Standard Model via s- and d-quark "penguin contractions". Their sum gives rise to Δ A CP, while their difference contributes to the two branching ratios with opposite sign. Assuming nominal SU(3) breaking, we perform a U-spin based fit to the D 0 → K + π -, π + K - , π + π - , K + K - decay rates, which yields large penguin contractions that naturally explain Δ A CP. Expectations for the individual CP asymmetries are also discussed.

  20. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem. PMID:26675310

  1. A non-marine source of variability in Adélie Penguin demography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    A primary research objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has been to identify and understand the factors that regulate the demography of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). In this context, our work has been focused on variability in the marine environment on which this species depends for virtually all aspects of its life history (Ainley, 2002). As we show here, however, there are patterns evident in the population dynamics of Adélie penguins that are better explained by variability in breeding habitat quality rather than by variability in the marine system. Interactions between the geomorphology of the terrestrial environment that, in turn, affect patterns of snow deposition, drive breeding habitat quality.

  2. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species

    PubMed Central

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P.; Peucker, Amanda J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region’s coastal ecosystem. PMID:26675310

  3. O2 store management in diving emperor penguins

    PubMed Central

    Ponganis, P. J.; Stockard, T. K.; Meir, J. U.; Williams, C. L.; Ponganis, K. V.; Howard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In order to further define O2 store utilization during dives and understand the physiological basis of the aerobic dive limit (ADL, dive duration associated with the onset of post-dive blood lactate accumulation), emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) were equipped with either a blood partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) recorder or a blood sampler while they were diving at an isolated dive hole in the sea ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Arterial PO2 profiles (57 dives) revealed that (a) pre-dive PO2 was greater than that at rest, (b) PO2 transiently increased during descent and (c) post-dive PO2 reached that at rest in 1.92±1.89 min (N=53). Venous PO2 profiles (130 dives) revealed that (a) pre-dive venous PO2 was greater than that at rest prior to 61% of dives, (b) in 90% of dives venous PO2 transiently increased with a mean maximum PO2 of 53±18 mmHg and a mean increase in PO2 of 11±12 mmHg, (c) in 78% of dives, this peak venous PO2 occurred within the first 3 min, and (d) post-dive venous PO2 reached that at rest within 2.23±2.64 min (N=84). Arterial and venous PO2 values in blood samples collected 1–3 min into dives were greater than or near to the respective values at rest. Blood lactate concentration was less than 2 mmol l–1 as far as 10.5 min into dives, well beyond the known ADL of 5.6 min. Mean arterial and venous PN2 of samples collected at 20–37 m depth were 2.5 times those at the surface, both being 2.1±0.7 atmospheres absolute (ATA; N=3 each), and were not significantly different. These findings are consistent with the maintenance of gas exchange during dives (elevated arterial and venous PO2 and PN2 during dives), muscle ischemia during dives (elevated venous PO2, lack of lactate washout into blood during dives), and arterio-venous shunting of blood both during the surface period (venous PO2 greater than that at rest) and during dives (arterialized venous PO2 values during descent, equivalent arterial and venous PN2 values during

  4. Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-10-01

    Inter-annual variation in tissue mercury concentrations in birds can result from annual changes in the bioavailability of mercury or shifts in dietary composition and/or trophic level. We investigated potential annual variability in mercury dynamics in the Antarctic marine food web using Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshell membrane, chick down, and adult feathers were collected from three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins during the austral summers of 2006/2007-2010/2011. To evaluate the hypothesis that mercury concentrations in penguins exhibit significant inter-annual variation and to determine the potential source of such variation (dietary or environmental), we compared tissue mercury concentrations with trophic levels as indicated by δ(15)N values from all species and tissues. Overall, no inter-annual variation in mercury was observed in adult feathers suggesting that mercury exposure, on an annual scale, was consistent for Pygoscelis penguins. However, when examining tissues that reflected more discrete time periods (chick down and eggshell membrane) relative to adult feathers, we found some evidence of inter-annual variation in mercury exposure during penguins' pre-breeding and chick rearing periods. Evidence of inter-annual variation in penguin trophic level was also limited suggesting that foraging ecology and environmental factors related to the bioavailability of mercury may provide more explanatory power for mercury exposure compared to trophic level alone. Even so, the variable strength of relationships observed between trophic level and tissue mercury concentrations across and within Pygoscelis penguin species suggest that caution is required when selecting appropriate species and tissue combinations for environmental biomonitoring studies in Antarctica.

  5. Heart rate as a predictor of energy expenditure in undisturbed fasting and incubating penguins.

    PubMed

    Groscolas, R; Viera, V; Guerin, N; Handrich, Y; Côté, S D

    2010-01-01

    Heart rate (f(H)) measurement offers the possibility to monitor energy expenditure (EE) in wild animals if the EE/f(H) relationship for the species, physiological stages and activities of interest is known. This relationship has been extensively studied using oxygen consumption rate ( ) measurement in captive, repeatedly handled king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Unfortunately, the potential effects of stress on the observed relationships resulting from handling and confinement were not considered. This study is the first involving undisturbed animals, and determines the EE/f(H) relationship in naturally fasting and freely incubating or captivity-acclimatized male and female king penguins. EE determination was based on (1) the measurement of body mass loss during periods of phase II fasting, and (2) the calculation of its energy equivalent from changes in body composition, i.e. 23.9 kJ g(-1). f(H) levels in freely incubating and captivity-acclimatized birds were found to be 50-70% lower than those previously reported for resting king penguins during measurements. Significant EE/f(H) relationships were found in freely incubating and captive males and females (R(2)=0.59 to 0.84), with no difference observed between genders. The best overall relationship was obtained by including fasting duration (t, days) in the model: EE=818+43.7xf(H)+36.3t-1.4txf(H) (R(2)=0.91). This equation yielded EE estimates approximately 26% higher than the previously reported 'best' predictive equation in king penguins, and even more so when f(H) was low. This result suggests that stress induces a disproportionate increase of f(H) vs O(2) consumption, and that the use of EE/f(H) relationships obtained in stressed birds could lead to underestimated EE values. PMID:20008372

  6. Physiological responses of king penguins during simulated diving to 136 m depth

    PubMed

    Ponganis; Kooyman; van Dam R; LeMaho

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate blood N(2) uptake and the role of the respiratory volume (air sacs/lungs) as a N(2) and O(2) reservoir in deep-diving penguins, diving respiratory volume (Vdr), heart rate (fh), venous P(N)(sum), blood volume (V(b)) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) during forced submersions and compressions equivalent to depths up to 136 m. Vdr was 69+/-18 ml kg(-)(1) (mean +/- s.d.) in 62 submersions ranging from 4.4 atmospheres absolute (ATA; 1 ATA=101 kPa) (34 m) to 14.6 ATA (136 m). Submersion fh averaged 30+/-7 beats min(-)(1) (N=18), approximately 20 % of pre- and post-submersion values. Venous P(N)(sum) values during and after submersions as deep as 11.2 ATA (102 m) were all less than 2.8 atmospheres N(2) (283 kPa) above ambient pressure, a previously measured threshold for symptomatic bubble formation. Mean V(b) was 83+/-8 ml kg(-)(1) (N=6); [Hb] was 17.6+/-0.7 g dl(-)(1) (N=7). On a mass-specific basis, mean Vdr, and therefore total available N(2), is 41 % of that in shallow-diving penguin species. Total body O(2) stores, calculated from measured Vdr, V(b), [Hb], muscle mass and myoglobin concentration, are 45 ml kg(-)(1), with 23 % in the respiratory system. This small respiratory fraction in comparison with that in shallow-diving penguins suggests a lesser reliance on the respiratory oxygen store for extended breath-holding and also a reduced uptake of nitrogen at depth. PMID:10504317

  7. [Reducing of the energy expenditure during fasting in the royal penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)].

    PubMed

    Le Maho, Y; Despin, B

    1976-10-11

    In isolated King Penguins there is a 80% decrease in the daily change in body mass; at the same time the resting metabolic rate decreases by 55%. The decrease in change in body mass and metabolic rate occurs mainly during the 5 first days of fasting (decrease of 65% in the daily change in bodymass and 35% in resting metabolic rate). This result is attributed to a quick transition to an economical level of energy expenditure. PMID:826336

  8. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Beaune, David; Park, Young-Hyang; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Stenseth, Nils C; Le Maho, Yvon

    2011-01-13

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 41% [corrected] fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16 percentage points [corrected] lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper

  9. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well. PMID:24555797

  10. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. PMID:24803465

  11. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  12. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Beaune, David; Park, Young-Hyang; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Stenseth, Nils C; Le Maho, Yvon

    2011-01-13

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 41% [corrected] fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16 percentage points [corrected] lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper

  13. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  14. Measurements of sin2beta at BaBar with Charmonium and Penguin Decays

    SciTech Connect

    George, Katherine A.; /Liverpool U.

    2005-12-14

    This article summarizes measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to charmonium, open-charm and gluonic penguin-dominated charmless final states. Unless otherwise stated, these measurements are based on a sample of approximately 230 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B-factory.

  15. Master integrals for the two-loop penguin contribution in non-leptonic B-decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Guido; Huber, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    We compute the master integrals that arise in the calculation of the leading penguin amplitudes in non-leptonic B-decays at two-loop order. The application of differential equations in a canonical basis enables us to give analytic results for all master integrals in terms of iterated integrals with rational weight functions. It is the first application of this method to the case of two different internal masses.

  16. Measurements of sin2{beta} at BABAR with charmonium and penguin decays

    SciTech Connect

    George, Katherine

    2006-07-11

    This article summarises measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to charmonium, open-charm and gluonic penguin-dominated charmless final states. Unless otherwise stated, these measurements are based on a sample of approximately 230 million {upsilon}(4S){yields} BB(bar sign) decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B -factory.

  17. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Naveen, R; Emslie, Steven D

    2012-11-15

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adélie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell δ(15)N or δ(13)C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources.

  18. Supervised accelerometry analysis can identify prey capture by penguins at sea.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian; Harcourt, Rob

    2014-12-15

    Determining where, when and how much animals eat is fundamental to understanding their ecology. We developed a technique to identify a prey capture signature for little penguins from accelerometry, in order to quantify food intake remotely. We categorised behaviour of captive penguins from HD video and matched this to time-series data from back-mounted accelerometers. We then trained a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the penguins' behaviour at 0.3 s intervals as either 'prey handling' or 'swimming'. We applied this model to accelerometer data collected from foraging wild penguins to identify prey capture events. We compared prey capture and non-prey capture dives to test the model predictions against foraging theory. The SVM had an accuracy of 84.95±0.26% (mean ± s.e.) and a false positive rate of 9.82±0.24% when tested on unseen captive data. For wild data, we defined three independent, consecutive prey handling observations as representing true prey capture, with a false positive rate of 0.09%. Dives with prey captures had longer duration and bottom times, were deeper, had faster ascent rates, and had more 'wiggles' and 'dashes' (proxies for prey encounter used in other studies). The mean (±s.e.) number of prey captures per foraging trip was 446.6±66.28. By recording the behaviour of captive animals on HD video and using a supervised machine learning approach, we show that accelerometry signatures can classify the behaviour of wild animals at unprecedentedly fine scales. PMID:25394635

  19. A Mathematica package for calculation of one-loop penguins in FCNC processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakov, Alexander Vadimovich; Tanyıldızı, Şükrü Hanif

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a Mathematica package Peng4BSM@LO which calculates the contributions to the Wilson Coefficients of certain effective operators originating from the one-loop penguin Feynman diagrams. Both vector and scalar external legs are considered. The key feature of our package is the ability to find the corresponding expressions in almost any New Physics model which extends the SM and has no flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) transitions at the tree level.

  20. Supervised accelerometry analysis can identify prey capture by penguins at sea.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian; Harcourt, Rob

    2014-12-15

    Determining where, when and how much animals eat is fundamental to understanding their ecology. We developed a technique to identify a prey capture signature for little penguins from accelerometry, in order to quantify food intake remotely. We categorised behaviour of captive penguins from HD video and matched this to time-series data from back-mounted accelerometers. We then trained a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the penguins' behaviour at 0.3 s intervals as either 'prey handling' or 'swimming'. We applied this model to accelerometer data collected from foraging wild penguins to identify prey capture events. We compared prey capture and non-prey capture dives to test the model predictions against foraging theory. The SVM had an accuracy of 84.95±0.26% (mean ± s.e.) and a false positive rate of 9.82±0.24% when tested on unseen captive data. For wild data, we defined three independent, consecutive prey handling observations as representing true prey capture, with a false positive rate of 0.09%. Dives with prey captures had longer duration and bottom times, were deeper, had faster ascent rates, and had more 'wiggles' and 'dashes' (proxies for prey encounter used in other studies). The mean (±s.e.) number of prey captures per foraging trip was 446.6±66.28. By recording the behaviour of captive animals on HD video and using a supervised machine learning approach, we show that accelerometry signatures can classify the behaviour of wild animals at unprecedentedly fine scales.

  1. Integrating Stomach Content and Stable Isotope Analyses to Quantify the Diets of Pygoscelid Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Michael J.; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z.; Karnovsky, Nina J.; Ng, Elizabeth; Patterson, William P.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Stomach content analysis (SCA) and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA) integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and Gentoo (P. papua) penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1) selecting appropriate prey sources, 2) weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3) refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models. PMID:22053199

  2. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Karnovsky, Nina J; Ng, Elizabeth; Patterson, William P; Emslie, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    Stomach content analysis (SCA) and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA) integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and Gentoo (P. papua) penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1) selecting appropriate prey sources, 2) weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3) refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models.

  3. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-09-30

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ¹⁵N (ratio of ¹⁵N/¹⁴N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ¹⁵N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans.

  4. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ15N (ratio of 15N/14N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ15N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans. PMID:24076768

  5. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  6. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population

    PubMed Central

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Holland, Marika; Strœve, Julienne; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Studies have reported important effects of recent climate change on Antarctic species, but there has been to our knowledge no attempt to explicitly link those results to forecasted population responses to climate change. Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) is projected to shrink as concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase, and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are extremely sensitive to these changes because they use sea ice as a breeding, foraging and molting habitat. We project emperor penguin population responses to future sea ice changes, using a stochastic population model that combines a unique long-term demographic dataset (1962–2005) from a colony in Terre Adélie, Antarctica and projections of SIE from General Circulation Models (GCM) of Earth's climate included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report. We show that the increased frequency of warm events associated with projected decreases in SIE will reduce the population viability. The probability of quasi-extinction (a decline of 95% or more) is at least 36% by 2100. The median population size is projected to decline from ≈6,000 to ≈400 breeding pairs over this period. To avoid extinction, emperor penguins will have to adapt, migrate or change the timing of their growth stages. However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth. PMID:19171908

  7. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species. PMID:26602001

  8. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. PMID:25613517

  9. Perceptual salience of individually distinctive features in the calls of adult king penguins.

    PubMed

    Lengagne, T; Aubin, T; Jouventin, P; Lauga, J

    2000-01-01

    In the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, incubation and brooding duties are undertaken alternately by both partners of a pair. Birds returning from foraging at sea find their mate in the crowded colony using acoustic signals. Acoustic recognition of the mate maintains and strengthens the mate's fidelity and favors synchronization in the different stages of reproduction. In this study it was found that the king penguin vocalizes in response to the mate's playback calls, but not to those of neighbors or unfamiliar conspecific individuals. To study individual features used by the birds for individual recognition of mates, various experimental signals consisting of synthesized modifications of the mate' s call were played back to the incubating bird. Results indicated that birds attend to the FM profile of the call, in particular its initial inflexion. The frequency modulation shape of the syllable can be assimilated to a vocal signature repeated though the different syllables of the call. King penguins pay little attention to the call' s AM envelope or its absolute frequency. PMID:10641659

  10. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators. PMID:22357259

  11. Effect of fasting on the VO2-fh relationship in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, A; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J; Bost, C-A; Holder, R; Duchamp, C; Butler, P J

    2004-10-01

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) may fast for up to 30 days during their breeding period. As such extended fasting may affect the relationship between the rate of O(2) consumption (Vo(2)) and heart rate (f(H)), five male king penguins were exercised at various speeds on repeated occasions during a fasting period of 24-31 days. In addition, Vo(2) and f(H) were measured in the same animals during rest in cold air and water (4 degrees C). Vo(2) and f(H) at rest and Vo(2) during exercise decreased with fasting. There was a significant relation between Vo(2) and f(H) (r(2) = 0.56) that was improved by including speed, body mass (M(b)), number of days fasting (t), and a cross term between f(H) and t (r(2) = 0.92). It was concluded that there was a significant change in the Vo(2)-f(H) relationship with fasting during exercise. As t is measurable in the field and was shown to be significant and, therefore, a practical covariate, a regression equation for use when birds are ashore was obtained by removing speed and M(b). When this equation was used, predicted Vo(2) was in good agreement with the observed data, with an overall error of 3.0%. There was no change in the Vo(2)-f(H) relationship in penguins at rest in water. PMID:15178544

  12. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events. PMID:19019791

  13. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species. PMID:26602001

  14. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement.

  15. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Holland, Marika; Stroeve, Julienne; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2009-02-10

    Studies have reported important effects of recent climate change on Antarctic species, but there has been to our knowledge no attempt to explicitly link those results to forecasted population responses to climate change. Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) is projected to shrink as concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase, and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are extremely sensitive to these changes because they use sea ice as a breeding, foraging and molting habitat. We project emperor penguin population responses to future sea ice changes, using a stochastic population model that combines a unique long-term demographic dataset (1962-2005) from a colony in Terre Adélie, Antarctica and projections of SIE from General Circulation Models (GCM) of Earth's climate included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report. We show that the increased frequency of warm events associated with projected decreases in SIE will reduce the population viability. The probability of quasi-extinction (a decline of 95% or more) is at least 36% by 2100. The median population size is projected to decline from approximately 6,000 to approximately 400 breeding pairs over this period. To avoid extinction, emperor penguins will have to adapt, migrate or change the timing of their growth stages. However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth.

  16. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour.

  17. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species.

  18. Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Megan A; Fraser, William R; Irwin, Andrew J; Oliver, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Pygoscelis penguins are experiencing general population declines in their northernmost range whereas there are reported increases in their southernmost range. These changes are coincident with decadal-scale trends in remote sensed observations of sea ice concentrations (SIC) and sea surface temperatures (SST) during the chick-rearing season (austral summer). Using SIC, SST, and bathymetry, we identified separate chick-rearing niche spaces for the three Pygoscelis penguin species and used a maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) to spatially and temporally model suitable chick-rearing habitats in the Southern Ocean. For all Pygoscelis penguin species, the MaxEnt models predict significant changes in the locations of suitable chick-rearing habitats over the period of 1982-2010. In general, chick-rearing habitat suitability at specific colony locations agreed with the corresponding increases or decreases in documented population trends over the same time period. These changes were the most pronounced along the West Antarctic Peninsula where there has been a rapid warming event during at least the last 50 years.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in a Group of Captive Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    PubMed

    Widmer, Dimitri; Ziemssen, Eva; Schade, Benjamin; Kappe, Eva; Schmitt, Ferdinand; Kempf, Hermann; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2016-06-01

    Nine Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ), between 1 and 1.5 years old and kept at Zoo Dresden, developed local and systemic infections with various opportunistic pathogens within a period of 4 months. Affected birds died peracutely without preceding symptoms or showed various clinical signs, including separation from conspecifics, reduced food intake, lethargy, dyspnea, swelling of the salt glands, and ocular discharge. One bird showed central nervous signs, including seizures. Pathologic examination of deceased birds revealed severe necrotizing inflammation of the mucous membranes and deep structures of the glottis, trachea, nasal sinus, and conchae and granulomatous inflammation of the salt glands. Further findings were airsacculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, and myositis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen in 7 cases. Six penguins died or were euthanatized, whereas 3 penguins that received systemic antibiotic treatment with tobramycin (10 mg/kg IM q24h for 10 days) showed rapid clinical improvement. Insufficient turnover rate of the filtration system, biofilm formation on pipe surfaces, and other factors are assumed to have promoted pathogen buildup in the pool water and subsequent infection.

  20. Distribution of metals and trace elements in adult and juvenile penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula area.

    PubMed

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Vidal, Virginia; D'Amico, Verónica; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    The presence of metals in the Antarctic environment is principally a natural phenomenon caused by geochemical characteristics of the region, although some anthropogenic activities can increase these natural levels. Antarctic penguins present several of the characteristics of useful sentinels of pollution in Antarctica such as they are long-lived species situated at the top of food web. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather, and stomach contents of gentoo, chinstrap, and Adélie penguin (12 adults, five juveniles) from carcasses of naturally dead individuals collected opportunistically in the Antarctic Peninsula area. The obtained results showed that accumulation and magnification of several elements can be occurring, so that Cd and Se reached levels potentially toxic in some specimens. The presence of human activities seems to be increasing the presence of toxic metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni, or Pb in penguins.

  1. Identification of an avian polyomavirus associated with Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Porzig, Elizabeth L; Jennings, Scott; Kraberger, Simona; Farkas, Kata; Julian, Laurel; Massaro, Melanie; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about viruses associated with Antarctic animals, although they are probably widespread. We recovered a novel polyomavirus from Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faecal matter sampled in a subcolony at Cape Royds, Ross Island, Antarctica. The 4988 nt Adélie penguin polyomavirus (AdPyV) has a typical polyomavirus genome organization with three ORFs that encoded capsid proteins on the one strand and two non-structural protein-coding ORFs on the complementary strand. The genome of AdPyV shared ~60 % pairwise identity with all avipolyomaviruses. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the large T-antigen (T-Ag) amino acid sequences showed that the T-Ag of AdPyV clustered with those of avipolyomaviruses, sharing between 48 and 52 % identities. Only three viruses associated with Adélie penguins have been identified at a genomic level, avian influenza virus subtype H11N2 from the Antarctic Peninsula and, respectively, Pygoscelis adeliae papillomavirus and AdPyV from capes Crozier and Royds on Ross Island.

  2. Probing new physics in electroweak penguins through Bd and Bs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Lars; Scherer, Dominik; Vernazza, Leonardo

    2011-12-01

    An enhanced electroweak penguin amplitude due to the presence of unknown new physics can explain the discrepancies found between theory and experiment in the B → πK decays, in particular in ACP(B- → π0K-) - ACP(bar B0 → π+K-), but the current precision of the theoretical and experimental results does not allow to draw a firm conclusion. We argue that the bar Bs → phiρ0 and bar Bs → phiπ0 decays offer an additional tool to investigate this possibility. These purely isospin-violating decays are dominated by electroweak penguins and we show that in presence of a new physics contribution their branching ratio can be enhanced by about an order of magnitude, without violating any constraints from other hadronic B decays. This makes them very interesting modes for LHCb and future B factories. In [1] we have performed both a model-independent analysis and a study within realistic New Physics models such as a modified-Z0-penguin scenario, a model with an additional Z' boson and the MSSM. In this article we summarise the most important results of our study.

  3. Identification of an avian polyomavirus associated with Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Porzig, Elizabeth L; Jennings, Scott; Kraberger, Simona; Farkas, Kata; Julian, Laurel; Massaro, Melanie; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about viruses associated with Antarctic animals, although they are probably widespread. We recovered a novel polyomavirus from Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faecal matter sampled in a subcolony at Cape Royds, Ross Island, Antarctica. The 4988 nt Adélie penguin polyomavirus (AdPyV) has a typical polyomavirus genome organization with three ORFs that encoded capsid proteins on the one strand and two non-structural protein-coding ORFs on the complementary strand. The genome of AdPyV shared ~60 % pairwise identity with all avipolyomaviruses. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the large T-antigen (T-Ag) amino acid sequences showed that the T-Ag of AdPyV clustered with those of avipolyomaviruses, sharing between 48 and 52 % identities. Only three viruses associated with Adélie penguins have been identified at a genomic level, avian influenza virus subtype H11N2 from the Antarctic Peninsula and, respectively, Pygoscelis adeliae papillomavirus and AdPyV from capes Crozier and Royds on Ross Island. PMID:25537375

  4. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement. PMID:26933489

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in a Group of Captive Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    PubMed

    Widmer, Dimitri; Ziemssen, Eva; Schade, Benjamin; Kappe, Eva; Schmitt, Ferdinand; Kempf, Hermann; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2016-06-01

    Nine Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ), between 1 and 1.5 years old and kept at Zoo Dresden, developed local and systemic infections with various opportunistic pathogens within a period of 4 months. Affected birds died peracutely without preceding symptoms or showed various clinical signs, including separation from conspecifics, reduced food intake, lethargy, dyspnea, swelling of the salt glands, and ocular discharge. One bird showed central nervous signs, including seizures. Pathologic examination of deceased birds revealed severe necrotizing inflammation of the mucous membranes and deep structures of the glottis, trachea, nasal sinus, and conchae and granulomatous inflammation of the salt glands. Further findings were airsacculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, and myositis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen in 7 cases. Six penguins died or were euthanatized, whereas 3 penguins that received systemic antibiotic treatment with tobramycin (10 mg/kg IM q24h for 10 days) showed rapid clinical improvement. Insufficient turnover rate of the filtration system, biofilm formation on pipe surfaces, and other factors are assumed to have promoted pathogen buildup in the pool water and subsequent infection. PMID:27315388

  6. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study

    PubMed Central

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-01-01

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-l-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators. PMID:22357259

  7. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  8. Morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with Plasmodium DNA detected in captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Landau, Irène; Snounou, Georges; Petit, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    A morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of Plasmodium infections at La Palmyre Zoo (France). Each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from April to November. Although Plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild Eurasian magpies (Pica pica) and carrion crows (Corvus corone) sampled at the same time in the study area. These parasites consisted of several Plasmodium spp. (P. lenoblei, P. dorsti, P bioccai, P. relictum, P. dherteae, P. beaucournui, P. maior, P. tranieri, and P. snounoui), Parahaemoproteus spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. On the other hand, nested polymerase chain reaction enabled detection of Plasmodium DNA in 28/44 (64%) penguins, 15/25 (60%) magpies, and 4/9 (44%) crows. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the parasite DNA amplified from the penguins, magpies, and crows were similar. Magpies and crows could therefore act as a reservoir for penguin Plasmodium infections, which may be more prevalent than previously thought. Morphologic characterization of the Plasmodium spp. detected in the penguins, as well as further biological and epidemiologic studies, are needed to fully understand the transmission of Plasmodium parasites to captive penguins. PMID:25314825

  9. Morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with Plasmodium DNA detected in captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Landau, Irène; Snounou, Georges; Petit, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    A morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of Plasmodium infections at La Palmyre Zoo (France). Each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from April to November. Although Plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild Eurasian magpies (Pica pica) and carrion crows (Corvus corone) sampled at the same time in the study area. These parasites consisted of several Plasmodium spp. (P. lenoblei, P. dorsti, P bioccai, P. relictum, P. dherteae, P. beaucournui, P. maior, P. tranieri, and P. snounoui), Parahaemoproteus spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. On the other hand, nested polymerase chain reaction enabled detection of Plasmodium DNA in 28/44 (64%) penguins, 15/25 (60%) magpies, and 4/9 (44%) crows. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the parasite DNA amplified from the penguins, magpies, and crows were similar. Magpies and crows could therefore act as a reservoir for penguin Plasmodium infections, which may be more prevalent than previously thought. Morphologic characterization of the Plasmodium spp. detected in the penguins, as well as further biological and epidemiologic studies, are needed to fully understand the transmission of Plasmodium parasites to captive penguins.

  10. Use of Anthropomorphic Brand Mascots for Student Motivation and Engagement: A Promotional Case Study with Pablo the Penguin at the University of Portsmouth Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David E.; Thompson, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A case study demonstrating how an online narrative featuring the adventures of a cuddly toy penguin, Pablo Penguin (@uoppenguin on Twitter) has been introduced at the University of Portsmouth Library to build trust and engagement between university students and library services and facilities. Evidence for the benefits of anthropomorphic brand…

  11. How accurately can we estimate energetic costs in a marine top predator, the king penguin?

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Fahlman, Andreas; Handrich, Yves; Schmidt, Alexander; Woakes, Anthony J; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) are one of the greatest consumers of marine resources. However, while their influence on the marine ecosystem is likely to be significant, only an accurate knowledge of their energy demands will indicate their true food requirements. Energy consumption has been estimated for many marine species using the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption (f(H) - V(O2)) technique, and the technique has been applied successfully to answer eco-physiological questions. However, previous studies on the energetics of king penguins, based on developing or applying this technique, have raised a number of issues about the degree of validity of the technique for this species. These include the predictive validity of the present f(H) - V(O2) equations across different seasons and individuals and during different modes of locomotion. In many cases, these issues also apply to other species for which the f(H) - V(O2) technique has been applied. In the present study, the accuracy of three prediction equations for king penguins was investigated based on validity studies and on estimates of V(O2) from published, field f(H) data. The major conclusions from the present study are: (1) in contrast to that for walking, the f(H) - V(O2) relationship for swimming king penguins is not affected by body mass; (2) prediction equation (1), log(V(O2) = -0.279 + 1.24log(f(H) + 0.0237t - 0.0157log(f(H)t, derived in a previous study, is the most suitable equation presently available for estimating V(O2) in king penguins for all locomotory and nutritional states. A number of possible problems associated with producing an f(H) - V(O2) relationship are discussed in the present study. Finally, a statistical method to include easy-to-measure morphometric characteristics, which may improve the accuracy of f(H) - V(O2) prediction equations, is explained. PMID:17363231

  12. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  13. Effects of climate change on an emperor penguin population: analysis of coupled demographic and climate models.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Holland, Marika; Stroeve, Julienne; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Serreze, Mark; Caswell, Hal

    2012-09-01

    Sea ice conditions in the Antarctic affect the life cycle of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). We present a population projection for the emperor penguin population of Terre Adélie, Antarctica, by linking demographic models (stage-structured, seasonal, nonlinear, two-sex matrix population models) to sea ice forecasts from an ensemble of IPCC climate models. Based on maximum likelihood capture-mark-recapture analysis, we find that seasonal sea ice concentration anomalies (SICa ) affect adult survival and breeding success. Demographic models show that both deterministic and stochastic population growth rates are maximized at intermediate values of annual SICa , because neither the complete absence of sea ice, nor heavy and persistent sea ice, would provide satisfactory conditions for the emperor penguin. We show that under some conditions the stochastic growth rate is positively affected by the variance in SICa . We identify an ensemble of five general circulation climate models whose output closely matches the historical record of sea ice concentration in Terre Adélie. The output of this ensemble is used to produce stochastic forecasts of SICa , which in turn drive the population model. Uncertainty is included by incorporating multiple climate models and by a parametric bootstrap procedure that includes parameter uncertainty due to both model selection and estimation error. The median of these simulations predicts a decline of the Terre Adélie emperor penguin population of 81% by the year 2100. We find a 43% chance of an even greater decline, of 90% or more. The uncertainty in population projections reflects large differences among climate models in their forecasts of future sea ice conditions. One such model predicts population increases over much of the century, but overall, the ensemble of models predicts that population declines are far more likely than population increases. We conclude that climate change is a significant risk for the emperor

  14. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  15. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  16. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganendran, L B; Sidhu, L A; Catchpole, E A; Chambers, L E; Dann, P

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  17. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganendran, L B; Sidhu, L A; Catchpole, E A; Chambers, L E; Dann, P

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival. PMID:26698160

  18. Isolation and Characterization of IgM and IgY Antibodies from Plasma of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Bizelli, Camila C; Silva, A Sandriana R; da Costa, Jessica D; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Atzingen, Marina V; Santoro, Marcelo L; Fernandes, Irene; Catão-Dias, José L; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases such as aspergillosis, avian malaria, and viral infections are significant threats to the conservation of penguins, leading to morbidity and mortality of these birds both in captivity and in the wild. The immune response to such infectious diseases is dependent on different mechanisms mediated by cells and soluble components such as antibodies. Antibodies or immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that have many structural and functional features that mediate distinct effector immune functions. Three distinct classes of antibodies have been identified in birds: immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin Y (IgY). In this study we aim to establish an efficient laboratory method to obtain IgM and IgY antibodies from plasma samples of healthy adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). The protocol was developed combining plasma delipidation, sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate, and size-exclusion chromatography. The efficiency of the protocol and the identity of the purified IgM and IgY antibodies were confirmed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and lectin binding assay. Structural and physicochemical properties of IgM and IgY from Magellanic penguins were consistent with those of other avian species. This purification protocol will allow for more detailed studies on the humoral immunity of penguins and for the development of high specificity serologic assays to test Magellanic penguins for infectious pathogens.

  19. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  20. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  1. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-08-15

    The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic 'hot spots' of mercury availability.

  2. Stable isotopes reveal Holocene changes in the diet of Adélie penguins in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony E; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) modern and fossil eggshells and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils in Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea) were processed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios with the aim of detecting past penguin dietary changes. A detailed and greatly expanded Adélie penguin dietary record dated back to 7,200 years BP has been reconstructed for the investigated area. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7,200 to 2,000 years BP, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2,000 years BP, when the δ(13)C values reveal a change in the penguin feeding behavior. Modern eggshell and guano samples reveal a major dietary contribution of krill but not a krill-dominated diet, since δ(13)C values remain much too high if krill prevail in the diet. According to the Holocene environmental background attested for Victoria Land, Adélie penguin dietary shifts between fish and krill seem to reflect penguin paleoecological responses to different paleoenvironmental settings with different conditions of sea-ice extension and persistence. Furthermore, Adélie penguin diet appears to be particularly affected by environmental changes in a very specific period within the breeding season, namely the egg-laying period when penguin dietary and feeding habit shifts are clearly documented by the δ(13)C of eggshell carbonate.

  3. Can thermoclines be a cue to prey distribution for marine top predators? A case study with little penguins.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Laure; Kato, Akiko; Chiaradia, André; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The use of top predators as bio-platforms is a modern approach to understanding how physical changes in the environment may influence their foraging success. This study examined if the presence of thermoclines could be a reliable signal of resource availability for a marine top predator, the little penguin (Eudyptula minor). We studied weekly foraging activity of 43 breeding individual penguins equipped with accelerometers. These loggers also recorded water temperature, which we used to detect changes in thermal characteristics of their foraging zone over 5 weeks during the penguin's guard phase. Data showed the thermocline was detected in the first 3 weeks of the study, which coincided with higher foraging efficiency. When a thermocline was not detected in the last two weeks, foraging efficiency decreased as well. We suggest that thermoclines can represent temporary markers of enhanced food availability for this top-predator to which they must optimally adjust their breeding cycle.

  4. Seasonal variation and annual trends of metals and metalloids in the blood of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Orbell, John D; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Scarpaci, Carol

    2016-09-15

    Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) are high-trophic coastal feeders and are effective indicators of bioavailable pollutants in their foraging zones. Here, we present concentrations of metals and metalloids in blood of 157 Little Penguins, collected over three years and during three distinct seasons (breeding, moulting and non-breeding) at two locations: the urban St Kilda colony and the semi-rural colony at Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia. Penguin metal concentrations were foremostly influenced by location (St Kilda>Phillip Island for non-essential elements) and differed among years and seasons at both locations, reflecting differences in seasonal metal bioaccumulation or seasonal exposure through prey. Mean blood mercury concentrations showed an increasing annual trend and a negative correlation with flipper length at St Kilda. Notably, this study is the first to report on blood metal concentrations during the different stages of moult, showing the mechanism of non-essential metal mobilisation and detoxification. PMID:27329818

  5. An ELISA for detecting anti-Plasmodium spp. antibodies in African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Skjoldager, M L; Shaw, M L

    1994-02-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing 3 Plasmodium falciparum antigens, R32tet32, P.F.R27, and crude red blood cell extract, was developed for the detection of circulating anti-Plasmodium relictum or anti-Plasmodium elongatum antibodies in sera from naturally infected adult African black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus) at The Baltimore Zoo, Maryland. A concentration of 2.0 micrograms/ml of each antigen was optimal in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and test speed. It was possible to detect anti-Plasmodium spp. antibodies at a dilution of 10(-4.11). Low absorbance values (less than 0.050) of nonspecific background were observed. The binding efficacy of anti-penguin IgG coupled to alkaline phosphatase to antibodies in the penguin sera was significantly higher than the binding efficacy of anti-chicken IgG. All penguins, bled in the winter time, in controlled mosquito-free conditions had anti-Plasmodium spp. antibodies reactive with P. falciparum antigens. The penguins showed age-dependent variation in antibody levels. There was a decrease in antibody titration units that was significantly correlated with the number of outdoor exposure years experienced by the birds, despite the season-comparable epizootiologic conditions in their summer open-air habitat. We concluded that the decrease of anti-malarial antibodies could be explained by an antibody-mediated equilibrium of immunity in naturally immunized birds harboring endothelial-stage parasites. The ELISA described is sensitive, and it requires a minimal amount of equipment to collect the blood samples. The assay can be used for detecting and monitoring levels of anti-Plasmodium spp. antibodies in selected groups of penguins.

  6. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    PubMed Central

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  7. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  8. Transport of nutrients and contaminants from ocean to island by emperor penguins from Amanda Bay, East Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Chu, Zhuding; Qin, Xianyan; Yang, Lianjiao

    2014-01-15

    Penguins play important roles in the biogeochemical cycle between Antarctic Ocean and land ecosystems. The roles of emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, however, are usually ignored because emperor penguin breeds in fast sea ice. In this study, we collected two sediment profiles (EPI and PI) from the N island near a large emperor penguin colony at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic and performed stable isotope and element analyses. The organic C/N ratios and carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggested an autochthonous source of organic materials for the sediments of EPI (C/N = 10.21 ± 0.28, n = 17; δ(13)C = -13.48 ± 0.50‰, δ(15)N = 8.35 ± 0.55‰, n = 4) and an allochthonous source of marine-derived organic materials for the sediments of PI (C/N = 6.15 ± 0.08, δ(13)C = -26.85 ± 0.11‰, δ(15)N = 21.21 ± 2.02‰, n = 20). The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), selenium (Se), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) in PI sediments were much higher than those in EPI, the concentration of copper (Cu) in PI was a little lower, and the concentration of element lead (Pb) showed no difference. As measured by the geoaccumulation indexes, Zn, TP, Hg and Se were from moderately to very strongly enriched in PI, relative to local mother rock, due to the guano input from juvenile emperor penguins. Because of its high trophic level and transfer efficiency, emperor penguin can transport a large amount of nutrients and contaminants from ocean to land even with a relatively small population, and its roles in the biogeochemical cycle between ocean and terrestrial environment should not be ignored. PMID:24056448

  9. Transport of nutrients and contaminants from ocean to island by emperor penguins from Amanda Bay, East Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Chu, Zhuding; Qin, Xianyan; Yang, Lianjiao

    2014-01-15

    Penguins play important roles in the biogeochemical cycle between Antarctic Ocean and land ecosystems. The roles of emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, however, are usually ignored because emperor penguin breeds in fast sea ice. In this study, we collected two sediment profiles (EPI and PI) from the N island near a large emperor penguin colony at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic and performed stable isotope and element analyses. The organic C/N ratios and carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggested an autochthonous source of organic materials for the sediments of EPI (C/N = 10.21 ± 0.28, n = 17; δ(13)C = -13.48 ± 0.50‰, δ(15)N = 8.35 ± 0.55‰, n = 4) and an allochthonous source of marine-derived organic materials for the sediments of PI (C/N = 6.15 ± 0.08, δ(13)C = -26.85 ± 0.11‰, δ(15)N = 21.21 ± 2.02‰, n = 20). The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), selenium (Se), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) in PI sediments were much higher than those in EPI, the concentration of copper (Cu) in PI was a little lower, and the concentration of element lead (Pb) showed no difference. As measured by the geoaccumulation indexes, Zn, TP, Hg and Se were from moderately to very strongly enriched in PI, relative to local mother rock, due to the guano input from juvenile emperor penguins. Because of its high trophic level and transfer efficiency, emperor penguin can transport a large amount of nutrients and contaminants from ocean to land even with a relatively small population, and its roles in the biogeochemical cycle between ocean and terrestrial environment should not be ignored.

  10. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  11. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin.

  12. Intralesional cisplatin chemotherapy and topical cryotherapy for the control of choanal squamous cell carcinoma in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Shannon T; Marlar, Annajane B; Garner, Michael; Lung, Nancy P

    2006-12-01

    A 3.5-yr-old, 2.5-kg female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was diagnosed with a choanal squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of biopsy after a history of choanal ulceration and anorexia with weight loss. Therapeutic modalities included the use of intralesional cisplatin followed by localized, topical cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. The penguin remained free of clinical disease for a period of 9 mo, at which time a second cryotreatment was performed. The patient has remained free of all signs of choanal carcinoma for a period of 13 mo since the second cryotreatment.

  13. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin. PMID:23595494

  14. Diagnosis of Retrobulbar Round Cell Neoplasia in a Macaroni Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) Through Use of Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rose, Michelle; Desjardins, Danielle R; Agnew, Dalen W

    2015-03-01

    A 25-year-old female macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) was diagnosed with exophthalmos secondary to retrobulbar neoplasia through use of computed tomography (CT). Histopathologic examination of the mass supported a diagnosis of malignant round cell neoplasia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling was applied to determine cell origin; the neoplastic cells did not label with T-cell marker CD3 or B-cell marker BLA.36 and could not be further characterized. The scleral ossicles precluded evaluation of the retrobulbar space by ultrasonography; therefore, CT scanning is recommended for examination of intraorbital structures in penguin and other avian species.

  15. Greenhouse gas fluxes influenced by a penguin colony on Bird Island/Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewer, Julia; Tang, Sim; Anderson, Margaret; Braban, Christine; Dragosits, Ulrike; Skiba, Ute

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reactive nitrogen (Nr) emissions from a penguin colony on local greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was investigated on the remote sub-Antarctic Bird Island (54° 00'S, 38° 03'W) in November and December 2010 (8 weeks). Bird Island has a hilly topography and a maximum elevation of 350 m. Winds predominate from the west, however, due to the local topography there were expected to be a significant influences from the local marine environment and local fauna such as seabirds (40,000 pairs of Macaroni penguins at the colony, and other more disperse species) and seals who ranged over the area. Measurements of N2O and CH4 were made using static chambers along a transect with sampling points at a distance of 23, 36, 70, 143 and 338 m downwind from the penguin colony. Gas samples were taken in 3 ml pre-evacuated exetainers and sent back to the UK for analysis on GC-ECD/FID. In addition, parameters including soil moisture, soil respiration, soil and air temperature, total C/N in vegetation and soil, and NO3/NH4 in soil were measured. Mean air temperature was 3.1 ° C with minimum and maximum of -1.9 and 9 ° C. Laboratory incubations were carried out on soil cores taken from the chambers at the end of the measurement campaign. Soils were very shallow and cores collected close to the colony were a mixture of decomposing litter and soil, whereas further inland they consisted of organic soils. Cores were defrosted very slowly to simulate spring warming to 2 oC for 5 days, then to 5 ° C for 3 days and subsequently to 10 ° C for 2 days. Soil moisture was kept constant during this time to investigate the influence of temperature on NO and GHG emissions. After 10 days soils were left to dry out. Mean CH4 fluxes from 8 different days in the field were in the range of -5.5 to 245 μg m-2 h-1,with minimum and maximum fluxes of -83 and 4065 μg m-2 h-1. Mean N2O fluxes ranged from 7 to 23 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, with minimum and maximum fluxes of -0.6 and 226 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1

  16. A Space Oddity: Geographic and Specific Modulation of Migration in Eudyptes Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yves; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Makhado, Azwianewi B.; Trathan, Philip N.; Pinaud, David; Bost, Charles-André

    2013-01-01

    Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual’s migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality’s paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals’ wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World’s seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators) and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands) and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures) when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of subsequent

  17. Solution structure of spheniscin, a beta-defensin from the penguin stomach.

    PubMed

    Landon, Céline; Thouzeau, Cécile; Labbé, Henri; Bulet, Philippe; Vovelle, Françoise

    2004-07-16

    Recently two beta-defensins, named spheniscins, have been isolated from the stomach content of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), which is capable of preserving food for several weeks during egg incubation (Thouzeau, C., Le Maho, Y., Froget, G., Sabatier, L., Le Bohec, C., Hoffmann, J. A., and Bulet, P. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 51053-51058). It has been proposed that, in combination with other antimicrobial peptides, spheniscins may be involved in this lo