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Sample records for adenocarcinoma eac methods

  1. Effects of refluxate pH values on duodenogastroesophageal reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Jian-Sheng; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Chen, Rong-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of duodenogastric juice pH on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS: An animal model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux was established using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats undergoing esophagoduodenostomy (ED). The development of EAC was investigated in rats exposed to duodenogastric juice of different pH. The rats were divided into three groups: low-pH group (group A), high-pH group (group B) and a sham-operated group as a control (group C) (n = 30 rats in each group). The incidence of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and EAC was observed 40 wk after the treatment. RESULTS: The incidence rate of esophagitis, BE, intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and EAC was higher in groups A and B compared with the control group after 40 wk (P < 0.01), being 96% and 100% (P > 0.05), 88% and 82.4% (P > 0.05), 20% and 52.1% (P < 0.05), and 8% and 39% (P < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-acidic refluxate increases the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and EAC while the low-pH gastric juice exerts a protective effect in the presence of duodenal juice. The non-acid reflux is particularly important in the progression from BE to cancer. Therefore, control of duodenal reflux may be an important prophylaxis for EAC. PMID:21799654

  2. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus in a neurologically impaired teenager.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Chun, Peter; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) accompanied by Barrett esophagus (BE) is rare in patients younger than 20 years old. EAC in the upper esophagus is also rare. We report a rare case of EAC with BE that developed in the upper esophagus after chronic, untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in a neurologically impaired teenager. A 19-year-old neurologically impaired man underwent endoscopy for evaluation of dysphagia and vomiting, and was diagnosed with EAC with BE. He underwent transthoracic esophagectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but the prognosis was poor. Pathology indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with BE. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  4. Genomic similarity between gastroesophageal junction and esophageal Barrett's adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kuick, Rork; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Nadal, Ernest; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C.; Reddy, Rishindra M.; Orringer, Mark B.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Wang, Thomas D.; Beer, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The current high mortality rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) reflects frequent presentation at an advanced stage. Recent efforts utilizing fluorescent peptides have identified overexpressed cell surface targets for endoscopic detection of early stage Barrett's-derived EAC. Unfortunately, 30% of EAC patients present with gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas (GEJAC) and lack premalignant Barrett's metaplasia, limiting this early detection strategy. We compared mRNA profiles from 52 EACs (tubular EAC; tEAC) collected above the gastroesophageal junction with 70 GEJACs, 8 normal esophageal and 5 normal gastric mucosa samples. We also analyzed our previously published whole-exome sequencing data in a large cohort of these tumors. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering and survival-based analyses demonstrated that GEJAC and tEAC were highly similar, with only modest differences in expression and mutation profiles. The combined expression cohort allowed identification of 49 genes coding cell surface targets overexpressed in both GEJAC and tEAC. We confirmed that three of these candidates (CDH11, ICAM1 and CLDN3) were overexpressed in tumors when compared to normal esophagus, normal gastric and non-dysplastic Barrett's, and localized to the surface of tumor cells. Molecular profiling of tEAC and GEJAC tumors indicated extensive similarity and related molecular processes. Identified genes that encode cell surface proteins overexpressed in both Barrett's-derived EAC and those that arise without Barrett's metaplasia will allow simultaneous detection strategies. PMID:27363029

  5. EAC trains its first international astronaut class.

    PubMed

    Bolender, Hans; Bessone, Loredana; Schoen, Andreas; Stevenin, Herve

    2002-11-01

    After several years of planning and preparation, ESA's ISS training programme has become operational. Between 26 August and 6 September, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) near Cologne gave the first ESA advanced training course for an international ISS astronaut class. The ten astronauts who took part--two from NASA, four from Japan and four from ESA--had begun their advanced training programme back in 2001 with sessions at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston and at the Japanese Training Centre in Tsukuba. During their stay in Cologne, the ten astronauts participated in a total of 33 classroom lessons and hands-on training sessions, which gave them a detailed overview of the systems and subsystems of the Columbus module, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the related crew operations tasks. They were also introduced to the four ESA experiment facilities to be operated inside the Columbus module. After their first week of training at EAC, the astronauts were given the opportunity to see the flight model of the Columbus module being integrated at the site of ESA's ISS prime contractor, Astrium in Bremen. The second week of training at EAC included hands-on instruction on the Columbus Data Management System (DMS) using the recently installed Columbus Crew Training Facility. In preparation for the first advanced crew training session at EAC, two Training Readiness Reviews (TRR) were conducted there in June and August. These reviews were supported by training experts and astronauts from NASA, NASDA and CSA (Canada), who were introduced to ESA's advanced training concept and the development process, and then analysed and evaluated the training flow, content and instructional soundness of lessons and courses, as well as the fidelity of the training facilities and the skills of the ESA training instructors. The International Training Control Board (ITCB), made up of representatives from all of the ISS International Partners and mandated to control and

  6. BMP4 Signaling Is Able to Induce an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Like Phenotype in Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma through Induction of SNAIL2

    PubMed Central

    Kestens, Christine; Siersema, Peter D.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling is involved in the development of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In various cancers, BMP4 has been found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but its function in the development of EAC is currently unclear. Aim To investigate the expression of BMP4 and several members of the BMP4 pathway in EAC. Additionally, to determine the effect of BMP4 signaling in a human Barrett’s esophagus (BAR-T) and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cell line. Methods Expression of BMP4, its downstream target ID2 and members of the BMP4 pathway were determined by Q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis using biopsy samples from EAC patients. BAR-T and OE33 cells were incubated with BMP4 or the BMP4 antagonist, Noggin, and cell viability and migration assays were performed. In addition, expression of factors associated with EMT (SNAIL2, CDH1, CDH2 and Vimentin) was evaluated by Q-RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results Compared to squamous epithelium (SQ), BMP4 expression was significantly upregulated in EAC and BE. In addition, the expression of ID2 was significantly upregulated in EAC and BE compared to SQ. Western blot analysis confirmed our results, showing an upregulated expression of BMP4 and ID2 in both BE and EAC. In addition, more phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 was observed. BMP4 incubation inhibited cell viability, but induced cell migration in both BAR-T and OE33 cells. Upon BMP4 incubation, SNAIL2 expression was significantly upregulated in BAR-T and OE33 cells while CDH1 expression was significantly downregulated. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Conclusion Our results indicate active BMP4 signaling in BE and EAC and suggest that this results in an invasive phenotype by inducing an EMT-like response through upregulation of SNAIL2 and subsequent downregulation of CDH1. PMID:27191723

  7. 75 FR 17912 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Virtual Public Forum for EAC Board of Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Sunshine Act; Notice of Virtual Public Forum for EAC Board of...: EAC Board of Advisors Virtual Meeting Room at http://www.eac.gov . Once at the main page of EAC's Web site, viewers should click the link to the Board of Advisors Virtual Meeting Room. The virtual meeting...

  8. Linkage and related analyses of Barrett's esophagus and its associated adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangqing; Elston, Robert; Falk, Gary W; Grady, William M; Faulx, Ashley; Mittal, Sumeet K; Canto, Marcia I; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Wang, Jean S; Iyer, Prasad G; Abrams, Julian A; Willis, Joseph E; Guda, Kishore; Markowitz, Sanford; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Chandar, Apoorva; Brock, Wendy; Chak, Amitabh

    2016-07-01

    Familial aggregation and segregation analysis studies have provided evidence of a genetic basis for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its premalignant precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). We aim to demonstrate the utility of linkage analysis to identify the genomic regions that might contain the genetic variants that predispose individuals to this complex trait (BE and EAC). We genotyped 144 individuals in 42 multiplex pedigrees chosen from 1000 singly ascertained BE/EAC pedigrees, and performed both model-based and model-free linkage analyses, using S.A.G.E. and other software. Segregation models were fitted, from the data on both the 42 pedigrees and the 1000 pedigrees, to determine parameters for performing model-based linkage analysis. Model-based and model-free linkage analyses were conducted in two sets of pedigrees: the 42 pedigrees and a subset of 18 pedigrees with female affected members that are expected to be more genetically homogeneous. Genome-wide associations were also tested in these families. Linkage analyses on the 42 pedigrees identified several regions consistently suggestive of linkage by different linkage analysis methods on chromosomes 2q31, 12q23, and 4p14. A linkage on 15q26 is the only consistent linkage region identified in the 18 female-affected pedigrees, in which the linkage signal is higher than in the 42 pedigrees. Other tentative linkage signals are also reported. Our linkage study of BE/EAC pedigrees identified linkage regions on chromosomes 2, 4, 12, and 15, with some reported associations located within our linkage peaks. Our linkage results can help prioritize association tests to delineate the genetic determinants underlying susceptibility to BE and EAC.

  9. Genomic catastrophes frequently arise in esophageal adenocarcinoma and drive tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Patch, Ann-Marie; Bailey, Peter; Newell, Felicity; Holmes, Oliver; Fink, J. Lynn; Quinn, Michael C.J.; Tang, Yue Hang; Lampe, Guy; Quek, Kelly; Loffler, Kelly A.; Manning, Suzanne; Idrisoglu, Senel; Miller, David; Xu, Qinying; Waddell, Nick; Wilson, Peter J.; Bruxner, Timothy J.C.; Christ, Angelika N.; Harliwong, Ivon; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Anderson, Matthew; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Wood, Scott; Simpson, Peter T.; Reid, Lynne E.; Krause, Lutz; Hussey, Damian J.; Watson, David I.; Lord, Reginald V.; Nancarrow, Derek; Phillips, Wayne A.; Gotley, David; Smithers, B. Mark; Whiteman, David C.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Campbell, Peter J.; Pearson, John V.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Barbour, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a combination of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism-array profiling to show that genomic catastrophes are frequent in EAC, with almost a third (32%, n = 40/123) undergoing chromothriptic events. WGS of 22 EAC cases show that catastrophes may lead to oncogene amplification through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (MYC and MDM2) or breakage-fusion-bridge (KRAS, MDM2 and RFC3). Telomere shortening is more prominent in EACs bearing localized complex rearrangements. Mutational signature analysis also confirms that extreme genomic instability in EAC can be driven by somatic BRCA2 mutations. These findings suggest that genomic catastrophes have a significant role in the malignant transformation of EAC. PMID:25351503

  10. Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been inversely associated with risk of several cancers. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between physical activity and risk of esophageal cancer (esophageal adenocarcinoma [EAC] and/or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [ESCC]). Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases and conference proceedings from inception through February 2013 for observational studies that examined associations between recreational and/or occupational physical activity and esophageal cancer risk. Summary adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model. Results The analysis included 9 studies (4 cohort, 5 case–control) reporting 1,871 cases of esophageal cancer among 1,381,844 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of esophageal cancer was 29% lower among the most physically active compared to the least physically active subjects (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 47%). On histology-specific analysis, physical activity was associated with a 32% decreased risk of EAC (4 studies, 503 cases of EAC; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.85) with minimal heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). There were only 3 studies reporting the association between physical activity and risk of ESCC with conflicting results, and the meta-analysis demonstrated a null association (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.21-5.64). The results were consistent across study design, geographic location and study quality, with a non-significant trend towards a dose–response relationship. Conclusions Meta-analysis of published observational studies indicates that physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity may decrease the global burden of EAC. PMID:24886123

  11. 75 FR 18189 - Notice: Request for Substantive Comments on the EAC's Procedural Manual for the Election...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act (APA). It is a voluntary effort by the EAC to gather input... the APA's rulemaking provisions applicable to development of this or future EAC procedural programs...

  12. 75 FR 17913 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Virtual Public Forum for EAC Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Sunshine Act; Notice of Virtual Public Forum for EAC Standards... Standards Board Virtual Meeting Room at http://www.eac.gov . Once at the main page of EAC's Web site, viewers should click the link to the Standards Board Virtual Meeting Room. The virtual meeting room will...

  13. IGFBP2 modulates the chemoresistant phenotype in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Amy L.; Lin, Lin; Nancarrow, Derek J.; Wang, Zhuwen; Ferrer-Torres, Daysha; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Orringer, Mark B.; Lin, Jules; Reddy, Rishindra M.; Beer, David G.; Chang, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients commonly present with advanced stage disease and demonstrate resistance to therapy, with response rates below 40%. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance is crucial for improvement of clinical outcomes. IGFBP2 is a member of the IGFBP family of proteins that has been reported to modulate both IGF and integrin signaling and is a mediator of cell growth, invasion and resistance in other tumor types. In this study, high IGFBP2 expression was observed in a subset of primary EACs and was found to be significantly higher in patients with shorter disease-free intervals as well as in treatment-resistant EACs as compared to chemonaive EACs. Modulation of IGFBP2 expression in EAC cell lines promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, implicating a role in the metastatic potential of these cells. Additionally, knockdown of IGFBP2 sensitized EAC cells to cisplatin in a serum-dependent manner. Further in vitro exploration into this chemosensitization implicated both the AKT and ERK pathways. Silencing of IGFBP2 enhanced IGF1-induced immediate activation of AKT and reduced cisplatin-induced ERK activation. Addition of MEK1/2 (selumetinib or trametinib) or AKT (AKT Inhibitor VIII) inhibitors enhanced siIGFBP2-induced sensitization of EAC cells to cisplatin. These results suggest that targeted inhibition of IGFBP2 alone or together with either the MAPK or PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in IGFBP2-overexpressing EAC tumors may be an effective approach for sensitizing resistant EACs to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26317790

  14. Disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) expression in gastroesophageal reflux disease and in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kauttu, T; Mustonen, H; Vainionpää, S; Krogerus, L; Ilonen, I; Räsänen, J; Salo, J; Puolakkainen, P

    2017-01-01

    Clinically useful marker molecules for the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are lacking. Many adenocarcinomas and inflammatory conditions exhibit increased expression of ADAMs, 'a disintegrin and metalloproteinases'. We assessed the expression of five ADAMs (9, 10, 12, 17, 19) in three esophageal cell lines (Het-1A, OE19, OE33) by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and in human samples of normal esophagus, esophagitis, BE, Barrett's dysplasia, and EAC by RT-PCR, and in selected samples by immunohistochemistry. EAC patients showed increased mRNA expression of ADAMs 9, 12, 17 and 19, as compared to controls. At immunohistochemistry, ADAM9 and ADAM10 proteins were increased in EAC. Patient samples also showed increased mRNA expression of ADAM12 in esophagitis, of ADAM9 in BE, and of ADAMs 9, 12 and 19 in Barrett's dysplasia, as compared to controls. Two EAC cell lines showed increased ADAM9 mRNA. ADAM9 expression is increased in EAC. Its predecessors show increased ADAM9 mRNA expression. The importance of the alterations in ADAM expression for the development of EAC, and their use as marker molecules, warrant further studies.

  15. Locoregional Failure Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiation of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and the Outcomes of Salvage Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Kazuki; Taketa, Takashi; Correa, Arlene M.; Campagna, Maria-Claudia; Wadhwa, Roopma; Blum, Mariela A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Weston, Brian; Skinner, Heath D.; Maru, Dipen M.; Rice, David C.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of surveillance of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and/or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma after local therapy (eg, chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery or trimodality therapy [TMT]) is to implement a potentially beneficial salvage therapy to overcome possible morbidity/mortality caused by locoregional failure (LRF). However, the benefits of surveillance are not well understood. We report on LRFs and salvage strategies in a large cohort. Patients and Methods Between 2000 and 2010, 518 patients with EAC who completed TMT were analyzed for the frequency of LRF over time and salvage therapy outcomes. Standard statistical techniques were used. Results For 518 patients, the median follow-up time was 29.3 months (range, 1 to 149 months). Distant metastases (with or without LRF) occurred in 188 patients (36%), and LRF only occurred in 27 patients (5%). Eleven of 27 patients had lumen-only LRF. Most LRFs (89%) occurred within 36 months of surgery. Twelve patients had salvage chemoradiotherapy, but only five survived more than 2 years. Four patients needed salvage surgery, and three who survived more than 2 years developed distant metastases. The median overall survival of 27 patients with LRF was 17 months, and 10 patients (37%) survived more than 2 years. Thus, only 2% of all 518 patients benefited from surveillance/salvage strategies. Conclusion Our surveillance strategy, which is representative of many others currently being used, raises doubts about its effectiveness and benefits (along with concerns regarding types and times of studies and costs implications) to patients with EAC who have LRF only after TMT. Fortunately, LRFs are rare after TMT, but the salvage strategies are not highly beneficial. Our data can help develop an evidence-based surveillance strategy. PMID:24145339

  16. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Joel H.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rapidly increasing in incidence in Western cultures. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is the presumed precursor lesion for this cancer. Several other risk factors for this cancer have been described, including chronic heartburn, tobacco use, Caucasian race, and obesity. Despite these known associations, most patients with EAC present with symptoms of dysphagia from late-stage tumors—only a small minority of patients are identified in screening and surveillance programs. Diagnostic analysis of EAC usually commences with upper endoscopy, followed by cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound is useful to assess local extent of disease as well as the involvement regional lymph nodes. T1a EAC may be treated endoscopically; some patients with T1b disease might also benefit from endoscopic therapy. Locally advanced disease is generally managed with esophagectomy, often accompanied by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy. The prognosis is based on tumor stage: patients with T1a tumors have an excellent prognoses, whereas few patients with advanced disease have longterm survival. PMID:25957861

  17. Three-Gene Immunohistochemical Panel Adds to Clinical Staging Algorithms to Predict Prognosis for Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chin-Ann J.; Shapiro, Joel; Nason, Katie S.; Davison, Jon M.; Liu, Xinxue; Ross-Innes, Caryn; O'Donovan, Maria; Dinjens, Winand N.M.; Biermann, Katharina; Shannon, Nicholas; Worster, Susannah; Schulz, Laura K.E.; Luketich, James D.; Wijnhoven, Bas P.L.; Hardwick, Richard H.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive disease with poor long-term survival. Despite growing knowledge of its biology, no molecular biomarkers are currently used in routine clinical practice to determine prognosis or aid clinical decision making. Hence, this study set out to identify and validate a small, clinically applicable immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for prognostication in patients with EAC. Patients and Methods We recently identified eight molecular prognostic biomarkers using two different genomic platforms. IHC scores of these biomarkers from a UK multicenter cohort (N = 374) were used in univariate Cox regression analysis to determine the smallest biomarker panel with the greatest prognostic power with potential therapeutic relevance. This new panel was validated in two independent cohorts of patients with EAC who had undergone curative esophagectomy from the United States and Europe (N = 666). Results Three of the eight previously identified prognostic molecular biomarkers (epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], tripartite motif-containing 44 [TRIM44], and sirtuin 2 [SIRT2]) had the strongest correlation with long-term survival in patients with EAC. Applying these three biomarkers as an IHC panel to the validation cohort segregated patients into two different prognostic groups (P < .01). Adjusting for known survival covariates, including clinical staging criteria, the IHC panel remained an independent predictor, with incremental adverse overall survival (OS) for each positive biomarker (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.40 per biomarker; P = .02). Conclusion We identified and validated a clinically applicable IHC biomarker panel, consisting of EGFR, TRIM44, and SIRT2, that is independently associated with OS and provides additional prognostic information to current survival predictors such as stage. PMID:23509313

  18. Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian LP

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits. PMID:25400997

  19. Identification of suitable genes contributes to lung adenocarcinoma clustering by multiple meta-analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ze-Hui; Zheng, Rui; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    With the widespread application of high-throughput technology, numerous meta-analysis methods have been proposed for differential expression profiling across multiple studies. We identified the suitable differentially expressed (DE) genes that contributed to lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) clustering based on seven popular multiple meta-analysis methods. Seven microarray expression profiles of ADC and normal controls were extracted from the ArrayExpress database. The Bioconductor was used to perform the data preliminary preprocessing. Then, DE genes across multiple studies were identified. Hierarchical clustering was applied to compare the classification performance for microarray data samples. The classification efficiency was compared based on accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Across seven datasets, 573 ADC cases and 222 normal controls were collected. After filtering out unexpressed and noninformative genes, 3688 genes were remained for further analysis. The classification efficiency analysis showed that DE genes identified by sum of ranks method separated ADC from normal controls with the best accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 0.953, 0.969 and 0.932, respectively. The gene set with the highest classification accuracy mainly participated in the regulation of response to external stimulus (P = 7.97E-04), cyclic nucleotide-mediated signaling (P = 0.01), regulation of cell morphogenesis (P = 0.01) and regulation of cell proliferation (P = 0.01). Evaluation of DE genes identified by different meta-analysis methods in classification efficiency provided a new perspective to the choice of the suitable method in a given application. Varying meta-analysis methods always present varying abilities, so synthetic consideration should be taken when providing meta-analysis methods for particular research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Structure Standard for Archival Context: EAC-CPF Is Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The archival community's new descriptive standard, "Encoded Archival Context" for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF), supports the sharing of descriptions of records creators and is a significant addition to the suite of standards for archival description. EAC-CPF is a data structure standard similar to its older sibling EAD…

  1. Outcomes of T1b esophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianmin; Prasad, Ganapathy A; Lutzke, Lori S; Lewis, Jason T; Wang, Kenneth K

    2011-12-01

    Esophagectomy is usually recommended for patients with submucosal esophageal adenocarcinoma (T1b EAC) because of the potential for lymph node metastasis (LNM). Endoscopic management often differs based on the risk of metastasis. There is limited information on the difference in outcomes for T1b-EAC with and without esophagectomy. To investigate (1) the outcomes of T1b EAC treatments with and without esophagectomy and (2) the percentage of LNM at esophagectomy for T1b-EAC. Retrospective cohort. A tertiary Barrett's esophagus unit. Sixty-eight T1b EAC patients based on EMR histology. Esophagectomy and endoscopic therapies. Survival duration and mortality rate. A total of 68 patients had T1b EAC; cumulative mortality rate was 30.9% and median survival duration was 39.5 months. Thirty-nine underwent esophagectomy and 29 did not. Among patients who underwent esophagectomy, 13 (33.3%) had LNM, and the mortality rate was 50.0% and 11.1% for those with and without LNM, respectively (P < .01). For those with and without esophagectomy, the cumulative mortality rates were 25.6% and 37.9%, and median survival duration was 48.9 and 34.8 months, respectively. There was no statistical difference in Charlson comorbidity index, number of EMRs, mortality rate, or survival duration. In Cox proportional hazard model analysis, the hazard ratio for esophagectomy was 0.5 (P = .21). Retrospective, nonrandomized small sample size cohort. Among the patients with T1b EAC found in EMR specimens who underwent esophagectomy, one third had regional LNM. In our small series, patients who underwent esophagectomy did not have a significantly different survival duration from that of those who did not, indicating that these patients may have similar outcomes [corrected]. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene Expression Profiles in Stage I Uterine Serous Carcinoma in Comparison to Grade 3 and Grade 1 Stage I Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Wang, Dan; Kesterson, Joshua; Syriac, Susanna; Clark, Kimberly; Frederick, Peter J.; Lele, Shashikant; Liu, Song

    2011-01-01

    Background Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed countries. Clinical studies have shown that early stage uterine serous carcinoma (USC) has outcomes similar to early stage high grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC-G3) than to early stage low grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC-G1). However, little is known about the origin of these different clinical outcomes. This study applied the whole genome expression profiling to explore the expression difference of stage I USC (n = 11) relative to stage I EAC-G3 (n = 11) and stage I EAC-G1 (n = 11), respectively. Methodology/Principal Finding We found that the expression difference between USC and EAC-G3, as measured by the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), is consistently less than that found between USC and EAC-G1. Pathway enrichment analyses suggested that DEGs specific to USC vs. EAC-G3 are enriched for genes involved in signaling transduction, while DEGs specific to USC vs. EAC-G1 are enriched for genes involved in cell cycle. Gene expression differences for selected DEGs are confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR with a high validation rate. Conclusion This data, although preliminary, indicates that stage I USC is genetically similar to stage I EAC-G3 compared to stage I EAC-G1. DEGs identified from this study might provide an insight in to the potential mechanisms that influence the clinical outcome differences between endometrial cancer subtypes. They might also have potential prognostic and therapeutic impacts on patients diagnosed with uterine cancer. PMID:21448288

  3. Gene expression profiles in stage I uterine serous carcinoma in comparison to grade 3 and grade 1 stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Wang, Dan; Kesterson, Joshua; Syriac, Susanna; Clark, Kimberly; Frederick, Peter J; Lele, Shashikant; Liu, Song

    2011-03-23

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed countries. Clinical studies have shown that early stage uterine serous carcinoma (USC) has outcomes similar to early stage high grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC-G3) than to early stage low grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC-G1). However, little is known about the origin of these different clinical outcomes. This study applied the whole genome expression profiling to explore the expression difference of stage I USC (n = 11) relative to stage I EAC-G3 (n = 11) and stage I EAC-G1 (n = 11), respectively. We found that the expression difference between USC and EAC-G3, as measured by the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), is consistently less than that found between USC and EAC-G1. Pathway enrichment analyses suggested that DEGs specific to USC vs. EAC-G3 are enriched for genes involved in signaling transduction, while DEGs specific to USC vs. EAC-G1 are enriched for genes involved in cell cycle. Gene expression differences for selected DEGs are confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR with a high validation rate. This data, although preliminary, indicates that stage I USC is genetically similar to stage I EAC-G3 compared to stage I EAC-G1. DEGs identified from this study might provide an insight in to the potential mechanisms that influence the clinical outcome differences between endometrial cancer subtypes. They might also have potential prognostic and therapeutic impacts on patients diagnosed with uterine cancer.

  4. Worldwide Inverse Association between Gastric Cancer and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Suggesting a Common Environmental Factor Exerting Opposing Effects.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Arnold, Melina; Brewster, David H; Going, James J; Mitchell, David R; Forman, David; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is increasing while adenocarcinoma of the stomach is decreasing. We have investigated whether the incidences of these two cancers and their time trends might be inversely related pointing to a common environmental factor exerting opposite effects on these cancers. For cross-sectional analyses data were abstracted from "Cancer Incidence in Five Continents" (CI5) Volume X and GLOBOCAN 2012. Relevant ICD-10 codes were used to locate esophageal and gastric cancers anatomically, and ICD-O codes for the histological diagnosis of EAC. For longitudinal analyses, age standardized rates (ASRs) of EAC and total gastric cancer (TGC) were extracted from CI5C-Plus. Estimated (2012) ASRs were available for 51 countries and these showed significant negative correlations between EAC and both TGC (males: correlation coefficient (CC)=-0.38, P=0.006, females: CC=-0.41, P=0.003) and non-cardia gastric cancer rates (males: CC=-0.41, P=0.003 and females: CC=-0.43, P=0.005). Annual incidence trends were analyzed for 38 populations through 1989-2007 and showed significant decreases for TGC in 89% and increases for EAC in 66% of these, with no population showing a fall in the latter. Significant negative correlation between the incidence trends of the two cancers was observed in 27 of the 38 populations over the 19-50 years of available paired data. Super-imposition of the longitudinal and cross-sectional data indicated that populations with a current high incidence of EAC and low incidence of gastric cancer had previously resembled countries with a high incidence of gastric cancer and low incidence of EAC. The negative association between gastric cancer and EAC in both current incidences and time trends is consistent with a common environmental factor predisposing to one and protecting from the other.

  5. Molecular methods for somatic mutation testing in lung adenocarcinoma: EGFR and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toni-Maree; Fellowes, Andrew; Bell, Anthony; Fox, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutational profiling in cancer has revolutionized the practice of clinical oncology. The discovery of driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an example of this. Molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma is now considered standard of care and part of the diagnostic algorithm. This article provides an overview of the workflow of molecular testing in a clinical diagnostic laboratory discussing in particular novel assays that are currently in use for somatic mutation detection in NSCLC focussing on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET rearrangements. PMID:25870795

  6. Treatment and survival in a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Mooney, Margaret M; Clegg, Limin X; Harlan, Linda C

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the extent of use of specific therapies in clinical practice, and their relationship to therapies validated in clinical trials. METHODS: The US National Cancer Institutes’ Patterns of Care study was used to examine therapies and survival of patients diagnosed in 2001 with histologically-confirmed gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1356). The study re-abstracted data and verified therapy with treating physicians for a population-based stratified random sample. RESULTS: Approximately 62% of patients had stomach adenocarcinoma (SAC), while 22% had gastric-cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 16% lower esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Stage IV/unstaged esophageal cancer patients were most likely and stage I-III stomach cancer patients least likely to receive chemotherapy as all or part of their therapy; gastric-cardia patients received chemotherapy at a rate between these two. In multivariable analysis by anatomic site, patients 70 years and older were significantly less likely than younger patients to receive chemotherapy alone or chemoradiation for all three anatomic sites. Among esophageal and stomach cancer patients, receipt of chemotherapy was associated with lower mortality; but no association was found among gastric-cardia patients. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the relatively low use of clinical trials-validated anti-cancer therapies in community practice. Use of chemotherapy-based treatment was associated with lower mortality, dependent on anatomic site. Findings suggest that physicians treat lower esophageal and SAC as two distinct entities, while gastric-cardia patients receive a mix of the treatment strategies employed for the two other sites. PMID:18506920

  7. EAC: A program for the error analysis of STAGS results for plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sistla, Rajaram; Thurston, Gaylen A.; Bains, Nancy Jane C.

    1989-01-01

    A computer code is now available for estimating the error in results from the STAGS finite element code for a shell unit consisting of a rectangular orthotropic plate. This memorandum contains basic information about the computer code EAC (Error Analysis and Correction) and describes the connection between the input data for the STAGS shell units and the input data necessary to run the error analysis code. The STAGS code returns a set of nodal displacements and a discrete set of stress resultants; the EAC code returns a continuous solution for displacements and stress resultants. The continuous solution is defined by a set of generalized coordinates computed in EAC. The theory and the assumptions that determine the continuous solution are also outlined in this memorandum. An example of application of the code is presented and instructions on its usage on the Cyber and the VAX machines have been provided.

  8. Autocrine Extra-Pancreatic Trypsin 3 Secretion Promotes Cell Proliferation and Survival in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song; Lee, Constance W.; Trevino, Jose G.; Hughes, Steven J.; Sarosi, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Trypsin or Tumor associated trypsin (TAT) activation of Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) promotes tumor cell proliferation in gastrointestinal cancers. The role of the trypsin/PAR-2 network in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) development has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of trypsin/PAR-2 activation in EA tumorogenesis and therapy. We found that esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (EACs) and Barrett’s Metaplasia (BART) expressed high levels of type 3 extra-pancreatic trypsinogen (PRSS3), a novel type of TAT. Activity of secreted trypsin was detected in cultured media from EA OE19 and OE33 cultures but not from BART culture. Surface PAR-2 expression in BART and EACs was confirmed by both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Trypsin induced cell proliferation (∼ 2 fold; P<0.01) in all tested cell lines at a concentration of 10 nM. Inhibition of PAR-2 activity in EACs via the PAR-2 antagonist ENMD (500 µM), anti-PAR2 antibody SAM-11 (2 µg/ml), or siRNA PAR-2 knockdown, reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis by up to 4 fold (P<0.01). Trypsin stimulation led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, suggesting involvement of MAPK pathway in PAR-2 signal transduction. Inhibition of PAR-2 activation or siRNA PAR-2 knockdown in EACs prior to treatment with 5 FU reduced cell viability of EACs by an additional 30% (P<0.01) compared to chemotherapy alone. Our data suggest that extra-pancreatic trypsinogen 3 is produced by EACs and activates PAR-2 in an autocrine manner. PAR-2 activation increases cancer cell proliferation, and promotes cancer cell survival. Targeting the trypsin activated PAR-2 pathway in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic agents may be a viable therapeutic strategy in EA. PMID:24146905

  9. Determining Risk of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Based on Epidemiologic Factors and Genetic Variants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Buas, Matthew F; Gharahkhani, Puya; Kendall, Bradley J; Onstad, Lynn; Zhao, Shanshan; Anderson, Lesley A; Wu, Anna H; Ye, Weimin; Bird, Nigel C; Bernstein, Leslie; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Liu, Geoffrey; Caldas, Carlos; Pharoah, Paul D; Risch, Harvey A; Iyer, Prasad G; Reid, Brian J; Hardie, Laura J; Lagergren, Jesper; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Corley, Douglas A; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Whiteman, David C; Vaughan, Thomas L; Thrift, Aaron P

    2018-04-01

    We developed comprehensive models to determine risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) based on genetic and non-genetic factors. We used pooled data from 3288 patients with BE, 2511 patients with EAC, and 2177 individuals without either (controls) from participants in the international Barrett's and EAC consortium as well as the United Kingdom's BE gene study and stomach and esophageal cancer study. We collected data on 23 genetic variants associated with risk for BE or EAC, and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) for cases and controls by summing the risk allele counts for the variants weighted by their natural log-transformed effect estimates (odds ratios) extracted from genome-wide association studies. We also collected data on demographic and lifestyle factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Risk models with various combinations of non-genetic factors and the PRS were compared for their accuracy in identifying patients with BE or EAC using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Individuals in the highest quartile of risk, based on genetic factors (PRS), had a 2-fold higher risk of BE (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-2.60) or EAC (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-2.92) than individual in the lowest quartile of risk based on PRS. Risk models developed based on only demographic or lifestyle factors or GERD symptoms identified patients with BE or EAC with AUC values ranging from 0.637 to 0.667. Combining data on demographic or lifestyle factors with data on GERD symptoms identified patients with BE with an AUC of 0.793 and patients with EAC with an AUC of 0.745. Including PRSs with these data only minimally increased the AUC values for BE (to 0.799) and EAC (to 0.754). Including the PRSs in the model developed based on non-genetic factors resulted in a net

  10. Global DNA methylation patterns in Barrett's esophagus, dysplastic Barrett's, and esophageal adenocarcinoma are associated with BMI, gender, and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Kaz, Andrew M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Varadan, Vinay; Willis, Joseph E; Chak, Amitabh; Grady, William M

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing Barrett's esophagus (BE) and/or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is associated with specific demographic and behavioral factors, including gender, obesity/elevated body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use. Alterations in DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that can affect gene expression and that can be influenced by environmental factors, is frequently present in both BE and EAC and is believed to play a role in the formation of BE and its progression to EAC. It is currently unknown whether obesity or tobacco smoking influences the risk of developing BE/EAC via the induction of alterations in DNA methylation. To investigate this possibility, we assessed the genome-wide methylation status of 81 esophageal tissues, including BE, dysplastic BE, and EAC epithelia using HumanMethylation450 BeadChips (Illumina). We found numerous differentially methylated loci in the esophagus tissues when comparing males to females, obese to lean individuals, and smokers to nonsmokers. Differences in DNA methylation between these groups were seen in a variety of functional genomic regions and both within and outside of CpG islands. Several cancer-related pathways were found to have differentially methylated genes between these comparison groups. Our findings suggest obesity and tobacco smoking may influence DNA methylation in the esophagus and raise the possibility that these risk factors affect the development of BE, dysplastic BE, and EAC through influencing the epigenetic status of specific loci that have a biologically plausible role in cancer formation.

  11. CpG island methylator phenotype in adenocarcinomas from the digestive tract: Methods, conclusions, and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Gotea, Valer; Chen, Yun-Ching; Elnitski, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades, cancer-related alterations in DNA methylation that regulate transcription have been reported for a variety of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to its relevance for translational research, great emphasis has been placed on the analysis and molecular characterization of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined as widespread hypermethylation of CpG islands in clinically distinct subsets of cancer patients. Here, we present an overview of previous work in this field and also explore some open questions using cross-platform data for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal adenocarcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We provide a data-driven, pan-gastrointestinal stratification of individual samples based on CIMP status and we investigate correlations with oncogenic alterations, including somatic mutations and epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Besides known events in CIMP such as BRAF V600E mutation, CDKN2A silencing or MLH1 inactivation, we discuss the potential role of emerging actors such as Wnt pathway deregulation through truncating mutations in RNF43 and epigenetic silencing of WIF1. Our results highlight the existence of molecular similarities that are superimposed over a larger backbone of tissue-specific features and can be exploited to reduce heterogeneity of response in clinical trials. PMID:28344746

  12. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma: a mimicker of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeremy; Liu, Wendy; Parikh, Keyur; Post, Anthony Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a rare occurrence. Elevation of serum AFP is commonly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumors, but rarely with esophageal carcinoma. Here, we report a rare case of AFP-producing EAC. A 51-year-old man presented with two weeks of acid reflux and a 35-lb weight loss. Laboratory data were notable for transaminitis and AFP was 2524 ng/mL. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed abnormal thickening of the esophagus and multiple metastatic masses throughout the liver. Biopsy of one of the masses revealed adenocarcinoma of gastrointestinal origin. Subsequent upper endoscopy revealed an esophageal mass with biopsy notable for ulcerated dysplastic glandular mucosa with likely underlying malignancy. The patient underwent palliative esophageal stent placement but died two months later. Elevated AFP levels are an unusual occurrence in EAC. Prognosis is poor given its advanced presenting stage and high metastatic potential. Most cases are unsuccessfully treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Serial measurement of serum AFP may be useful for monitoring clinical status and treatment response. Clinicians should consider AFP-producing EAC in their differential diagnosis in the work-up of a liver mass in the setting of elevated AFP or liver function impairment, especially in the absence of chronic liver disease.

  13. 77 FR 54905 - Request for Substantive Comments on the EAC's Proposed Requirements for Version 1.1 of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... for Version 1.1 of the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG) AGENCY: United States Election... Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG). SUMMARY: The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) (Pub. L. 107... (EAC). Section 202 of HAVA directs the EAC to adopt voluntary voting system guidelines (VVSG) and to...

  14. 77 FR 59914 - Amended Notice: Request for Substantive Comments on the EAC's Proposed Requirements for Version 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Administrative Procedures Act (APA). It is a voluntary effort by the EAC to gather input from the public on the.... Furthermore, this request by the EAC for public comment is not intended to make any of the APA's rulemaking... 2005 VVSG (also known as VVSG 1.0) as a result of feedback received through its Voting System Testing...

  15. RNA sequencing of esophageal adenocarcinomas identifies novel fusion transcripts, including NPC1-MELK, arising from a complex chromosomal rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiong; Cheng, Yulan; Abraham, John M; Yan, Rong; Liu, Xi; Chen, Wei; Ibrahim, Sariat; Schroth, Gary P; Ke, Xiquan; He, Yulong; Meltzer, Stephen J

    2017-10-15

    Studies of chromosomal rearrangements and fusion transcripts have elucidated mechanisms of tumorigenesis and led to targeted cancer therapies. This study was aimed at identifying novel fusion transcripts in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). To identify new fusion transcripts associated with EAC, targeted RNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verification were performed in 40 EACs and matched nonmalignant specimens from the same patients. Genomic PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to find the breakpoint of fusion genes. Five novel in-frame fusion transcripts were identified and verified in 40 EACs and in a validation cohort of 15 additional EACs (55 patients in all): fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) in 2 of 55 or 3.6%, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1)-maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) in 2 of 55 or 3.6%, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 54 (USP54)-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II γ (CAMK2G) in 2 of 55 or 3.6%, megakaryoblastic leukemia (translocation) 1 (MKL1)-fibulin 1 (FBLN1) in 1 of 55 or 1.8%, and CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 2 (CNOT2)-chromosome 12 open reading frame 49 (C12orf49) in 1 of 55 or 1.8%. A genomic analysis indicated that NPC1-MELK arose from a complex interchromosomal translocation event involving chromosomes 18, 3, and 9 with 3 rearrangement points, and this was consistent with chromoplexy. These data indicate that fusion transcripts occur at a stable frequency in EAC. Furthermore, our results indicate that chromoplexy is an underlying mechanism that generates fusion transcripts in EAC. These and other fusion transcripts merit further study as diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in EAC. Cancer 2017;123:3916-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Detection of EML4-ALK in Lung Adenocarcinoma Using Pleural Effusion with FISH, IHC, and RT-PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaodie; Song, Yong; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yu, Like; Wang, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene rearrangements occur in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC), leading to the overexpression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and predicting a response to the targeted inhibitor, crizotinib. Malignant pleural effusion occurs in most patients with advanced lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, and tissue samples are not always available from these patients. We attempted to clarify the feasibility of detecting the EML4-ALK fusion gene in pleural effusion cells using different methods. We obtained 66 samples of pleural effusion from NSCLC patients. The pleural effusion fluid was centrifuged, and the cellular components obtained were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. The EML4-ALK fusion gene status was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). EML4-ALK was detected in three of 66 patient samples (4.5%) with RT-PCR. When the RT-PCR data were used as the standard, one false positive and one false negative samples were identified with IHC; and one false negative sample was identified with FISH. These results suggest that a block of pleural effusion cells can be used to detect the EML4-ALK fusion gene. IHC had good sensitivity, but low specificity. FISH had low sensitivity, but high specificity. RT-PCR is a good candidate method for detecting EML4-ALK in blocks of pleural effusion cells from lung cancer patients. PMID:25785456

  17. Detection of EML4-ALK in lung adenocarcinoma using pleural effusion with FISH, IHC, and RT-PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Leilei; Zhan, Ping; Zhou, Xiaodie; Song, Yong; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yu, Like; Wang, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene rearrangements occur in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC), leading to the overexpression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and predicting a response to the targeted inhibitor, crizotinib. Malignant pleural effusion occurs in most patients with advanced lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, and tissue samples are not always available from these patients. We attempted to clarify the feasibility of detecting the EML4-ALK fusion gene in pleural effusion cells using different methods. We obtained 66 samples of pleural effusion from NSCLC patients. The pleural effusion fluid was centrifuged, and the cellular components obtained were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. The EML4-ALK fusion gene status was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). EML4-ALK was detected in three of 66 patient samples (4.5%) with RT-PCR. When the RT-PCR data were used as the standard, one false positive and one false negative samples were identified with IHC; and one false negative sample was identified with FISH. These results suggest that a block of pleural effusion cells can be used to detect the EML4-ALK fusion gene. IHC had good sensitivity, but low specificity. FISH had low sensitivity, but high specificity. RT-PCR is a good candidate method for detecting EML4-ALK in blocks of pleural effusion cells from lung cancer patients.

  18. Immunostaining with EGFR mutation-specific antibodies: a reliable screening method for lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutation in biopsy and resection samples.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiangshan; Liu, Biao; Xu, Haodong; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shanshan; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Jiandong; Lu, Zhenfeng; Ma, Henghui; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2013-08-01

    Mutation analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is essential in determining the therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with EGFR mutation-specific antibodies of del E746-A750 in exon 19 and L858R in exon 21 has been evaluated in resection specimens in a few studies but rarely in biopsy samples. A total of 169 cases (78 biopsies and 91 resected specimens) of lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation status predefined by direct DNA sequencing were histologically examined, and IHC was performed using EGFR mutation-specific antibodies of del E746-A750 and L858R. The cases with positive results by IHC but negative results by direct DNA sequencing were examined by amplified refractory mutation system. Our results showed that the frequency of EGFR mutations for both E746-A750 deletion and L858R mutation was 38.5% (65/169) by DNA sequencing or amplified refractory mutation system and 34.3% (58/169) by IHC in lung adenocarcinomas. Based on molecular test results, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of IHC using these 2 antibodies in all (biopsy/resection) cases were 87.7% (80%/94.3%), 99.0% (97.9%/100%), 98.3% (96%/100%), and 92.8% (88.7%/96.6%), respectively. Lung adenocarcinomas with a predominant acinar, papillary, lepidic, or solid growth pattern more often harbor EGFR mutation of del E746-A750 or L858R. In conclusion, the immunostaining with EGFR del E746-A750 and L858R mutation antibodies is a reliable screening method with high specificity and sensitivity for identifying the EGFR mutation in both resected and biopsied lung adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surveillance endoscopy is associated with improved outcomes of oesophageal adenocarcinoma detected in patients with Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    El-Serag, Hashem B; Naik, Aanand D; Duan, Zhigang; Shakhatreh, Mohammad; Helm, Ashley; Pathak, Amita; Hinojosa-Lindsey, Marilyn; Hou, Jason; Nguyen, Theresa; Chen, John; Kramer, Jennifer R

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of surveillance endoscopy in patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) for reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)-related mortality in patients with BE is unclear. This is a cohort study of patients with BE diagnosed in the National Veterans Affairs hospitals during 2004-2009 excluding those with conditions that affect overall survival. We identified those diagnosed with EAC after BE diagnosis through 2011 and conducted chart reviews to identify BE surveillance programme, and indication for EAC diagnosis, verify diagnosis, stage, therapy and cause of death. We examined the association between surveillance indication for EAC diagnosis with or without surveillance programme and EAC stage and treatment receipt in logistic regression models, and with time to death or cancer-related death using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Among 29 536 patients with BE, 424 patients developed EAC during a mean follow-up of 5.0 years. A total of 209 (49.3%) patients with EAC were in BE surveillance programme and were diagnosed as a result of surveillance endoscopy. These patients were more likely to be diagnosed at an early stage (stage 0 or 1: 74.7% vs 56.2, p<0.001), survived longer (median 3.2 vs 2.3 years; p<0.001) and have lower cancer-related mortality (34.0% vs 54.0%, p<0.0001) and had a trend to receive oesophagectomy (51.2% vs 42.3%; p=0.07) than 215 patients diagnosed by non-BE surveillance endoscopy (17.2% of whom were BE surveillance failure). BE surveillance endoscopy was associated with a decreased risk of cancer-related death (HR 0.47, 0.35 to 0.64), which was largely explained by the early stage of EAC at the time of diagnosis. Similarly, the adjusted mortality for patients with cancer in a prior surveillance programme for overall death was 0.63 (0.47 to 0.84) compared with patients with cancer not in a surveillance programme. Surveillance endoscopy among patients with BE is associated with significantly better EAC outcomes

  20. Estimates and predictors of health care costs of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thein, Hla-Hla; Jembere, Nathaniel; Thavorn, Kednapa; Chan, Kelvin K W; Coyte, Peter C; de Oliveira, Claire; Hur, Chin; Earle, Craig C

    2018-06-27

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is increasing rapidly. Esophageal cancer has the second lowest 5-year survival rate of people diagnosed with cancer in Canada. Given the poor survival and the potential for further increases in incidence, phase-specific cost estimates constitute an important input for economic evaluation of prevention, screening, and treatment interventions. The study aims to estimate phase-specific net direct medical costs of care attributable to EAC, costs stratified by cancer stage and treatment, and predictors of total net costs of care for EAC. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using Ontario Cancer Registry-linked administrative health data from 2003 to 2011. The mean net costs of EAC care per 30 patient-days (2016 CAD) were estimated from the payer perspective using phase of care approach and generalized estimating equations. Predictors of net cost by phase of care were based on a generalized estimating equations model with a logarithmic link and gamma distribution adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. The mean net costs of EAC care per 30 patient-days were $1016 (95% CI, $955-$1078) in the initial phase, $669 (95% CI, $594-$743) in the continuing care phase, and $8678 (95% CI, $8217-$9139) in the terminal phase. Overall, stage IV at diagnosis and surgery plus radiotherapy for EAC incurred the highest cost, particularly in the terminal phase. Strong predictors of higher net costs were receipt of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, surgery plus chemotherapy, radiotherapy alone, surgery alone, and chemotherapy alone in the initial and continuing care phases, stage III-IV disease and patients diagnosed with EAC later in a calendar year (2007-2011) in the initial and terminal phases, comorbidity in the continuing care phase, and older age at diagnosis (70-74 years), and geographic region in the terminal phase. Costs of care vary by phase of care, stage at diagnosis, and type of treatment for EAC

  1. Diagnostic algorithm for detection of targetable driver mutations in lung adenocarcinomas: Comprehensive analyses of 205 cases with immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization methods.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hua-Lin; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chin-Hsuan; Hsu, Wei-Fang; Hsieh, Wen-Yu; Ho, Hsiang-Ling; Chou, Teh-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of the targetable driver mutations is now recommended in all patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Molecular-based methods are usually adopted, however, along with the implementation of highly sensitive and/or mutation-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been considered an alternative method for identifying driver mutations in lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 205 lung adenocarcinomas were examined for EGFR mutations and ALK and ROS1 rearrangements using real-time PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and IHC in parallel. The performance of different commercially available IHC antibody clones toward targetable driver mutations was evaluated. The association between these driver mutations and clinicopathological characteristics was also analyzed. In 205 cases we studied, 58.5% were found to harbor EGFR mutations, 6.3% ALK rearrangements and 1.0% ROS1 rearrangements. Compared to molecular-based methods, IHC of EGFR mutations showed an excellent specificity but the sensitivity is suboptimal, while IHC of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. No significant difference regarding the performance of different antibody clones toward these driver mutations was observed, except that clone SP125 showed a higher sensitivity than 43B2 in the detection of p.L858R of EGFR. In circumstances such as poor quality of nucleic acids or low content of tumor cells, IHC of EGFR mutation-specific antibodies could be used as an alternative method. Patients negative for EGFR mutations are subjected to further analysis on ALK and ROS1 rearrangements using IHC methods. Herein, we proposed a lung adenocarcinoma testing algorithm for the application of IHC in therapeutic diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preclinical Study of AUY922, a Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kosovec, Juliann E; Zaidi, Ali H; Kelly, Lori A; Rotoloni, Christina L; Vytlacil, Christopher; DiCarlo, Christina; Matsui, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Boyd, Natalie H; Omstead, Ashten; Kolano, Elena L; Biederman, Robert W W; Finley, Gene; Silverman, Jan F; Landreneau, Rodney J; Jobe, Blair A

    2016-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, NVP-AUY922-AG (AUY922), in the treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. EAC is a leading cause of cancer death, and current treatment options are limited. Hsp90, a chaperone protein that regulates several oncoproteins, is upregulated in EAC, and may be a novel target for therapy. In vitro, EAC cell lines were utilized to evaluate AUY922, alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin. BrdU ELISA and flow cytometry were used to assess proliferation and measure apoptosis, respectively. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to quantitate Hsp90 pathway expression. In vivo, esophagojejunostomy was performed on rats and treatment animals received AUY922 32 to 40 weeks postoperatively. Drug efficacy was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic biopsy, gross histological evaluation, and Hsp90 pathway expression. In vitro, AUY922 demonstrated antiproliferative activity in both cell lines and showed enhanced efficacy with cisplatin and 5-FU. Western Blot and RT-PCR demonstrated downregulation of CDK1 and CDK4 and upregulation of Hsp72. In vivo, AUY922 showed decrease in tumor volume in 36.4% of rats (control = 9.4%), increase in 9.1% (control = 37.5%), and stable disease in 54.5% (control = 43.7%). Necropsy confirmed the presence of EAC in 50% of treatment animals and 75% of control animals. mRNA expression, pre- and posttreatment, demonstrated significant downregulation of MIF, Hsp70, Hsp90β, and CDK4, and upregulation of Hsp72. AUY922 exhibits antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo for EAC, suggesting the need for human clinical trials.

  3. Expression profiles of cancer stem cell markers: CD133, CD44, Musashi-1 and EpCAM in the cardiac mucosa-Barrett's esophagus-early esophageal adenocarcinoma-advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma sequence.

    PubMed

    Mokrowiecka, Anna; Veits, Lothar; Falkeis, Christina; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Lochowski, Mariusz; Kozak, Jozef; Wierzchniewska-Lawska, Agnieszka; Vieth, Michael; Malecka-Panas, Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE), which develops as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a preneoplastic condition for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A new hypothesis suggests that cancer is a disease of stem cells, however, their expression and pathways in BE - EAC sequence are not fully elucidated yet. We used a panel of putative cancer stem cells markers to identify stem cells in consecutive steps of BE-related cancer progression. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 58 patients with normal cardiac mucosa (n=5), BE (n=14), early EAC (pT1) from mucosal resection (n=17) and advanced EAC (pT1-T4) from postoperative specimens (n=22). Expression of the CD133, CD44, Musashi-1 and EpCAM was analyzed using respective monoclonal antibodies. All markers showed a heterogeneous expression pattern, mainly at the base of the crypts of Barrett's epithelium and EAC, with positive stromal cells in metaplastic and dysplastic lesions. Immuno-expression of EpCAM, CD44 and CD133 in cardiac mucosa was significantly lower (mean immunoreactivity score (IRS)=1.2; 0.0; 0.4; respectively) compared to their expression in Barrett's metaplasia (mean IRS=4.3; 0.14; 0.7; respectively), in early adenocarcinoma (mean IRS=4.4; 0.29; 1.3; respectively) and in advanced adenocarcinoma (mean IRS=6.6; 0.7; 2.7; respectively) (p<0.05). On the contrary, Musashi-1 expression was higher in BE and early ADC compared to GM and advanced ADC (NS). Our results suggest that the stem cells could be present in premalignant lesions. EpCAM, CD44 and CD133 expression could be candidate markers for BE progression, whereas Musashi-1 may be a marker of the small intestinal features of Barrett's mucosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Thomas M.; Abrams, Julian A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a common condition, and is the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, a disease with increasing burden in the western world, especially in Caucasian males. The incidence of BE increased dramatically during the late-20th century and incidence estimates continue to increase, with a prominent male:female ratio. The prevalence is between 0.5 – 2.0 percent. A number of anthropomorphic and behavioral risk factors exist for BE including obesity and tobacco smoking, but GERD is the strongest risk factor, and the risk is more pronounced with long-standing GERD. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in the U.S. Risk factors include GERD, tobacco smoking, and obesity, while NSAIDs and statins may be protective. A major factor predicting progression from non-dysplastic BE to EAC is the presence of dysplastic changes seen on esophageal histology, although a number of issues limit the utility of dysplasia as a marker for disease. Length of the involved BE segment is another risk for progression to high-grade dysplasia and cancer. Biomarkers have shown promise, but none are approved for clinical use. PMID:26021191

  5. Identification of the CIMP-like subtype and aberrant methylation of members of the chromosomal segregation and spindle assembly pathways in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krause, Lutz; Nones, Katia; Loffler, Kelly A; Nancarrow, Derek; Oey, Harald; Tang, Yue Hang; Wayte, Nicola J; Patch, Ann Marie; Patel, Kalpana; Brosda, Sandra; Manning, Suzanne; Lampe, Guy; Clouston, Andrew; Thomas, Janine; Stoye, Jens; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I; Lord, Reginald V; Phillips, Wayne A; Gotley, David; Smithers, B Mark; Whiteman, David C; Hayward, Nicholas K; Grimmond, Sean M; Waddell, Nicola; Barbour, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples including 125 EAC, 19 Barrett's esophagus (BE), 85 squamous esophagus and 21 normal stomach. Transcriptome data of 70 samples (48 EAC, 4 BE and 18 squamous esophagus) were used to identify changes in methylation associated with gene expression. BE and EAC showed similar methylation profiles, which differed from squamous tissue. Hypermethylated sites in EAC and BE were mainly located in CpG-rich promoters. A total of 18575 CpG sites associated with 5538 genes were differentially methylated, 63% of these genes showed significant correlation between methylation and mRNA expression levels. Pathways involved in tumorigenesis including cell adhesion, TGF and WNT signaling showed enrichment for genes aberrantly methylated. Genes involved in chromosomal segregation and spindle formation were aberrantly methylated. Given the recent evidence that chromothripsis may be a driver mechanism in EAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of these pathways should be further investigated. The methylation profiles revealed two EAC subtypes, one associated with widespread CpG island hypermethylation overlapping H3K27me3 marks and binding sites of the Polycomb proteins. These subtypes were supported by an independent set of 89 esophageal cancer samples. The most hypermethylated tumors showed worse patient survival. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Local Synthesis of Pepsin in Barrett's Esophagus and the Role of Pepsin in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Tina; Hoekzema, Craig; Gould, Jon; Goldblatt, Matthew; Frelich, Matthew; Bosler, Matthew; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Johnston, Nikki

    2015-11-01

    Despite widespread use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continues to rise. PPIs reduce reflux acidity, but only transiently inactivate gastric enzymes. Nonacid reflux, specifically nonacid pepsin, contributes to carcinogenesis in the larynx. Given the carcinogenic potential of pepsin and inefficacy of PPIs to prevent EAC, the presence and effect of pepsin in the esophagus should be investigated. Normal and Barrett's biopsies from 8 Barrett's esophagus patients were collected for pepsin analysis via Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Human esophageal cells cultured from healthy patients were treated with pepsin (0.01-1 mg/mL; 1-20 hours), acid (pH 4)±pepsin (5 minutes); real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and cell migration were assayed. Pepsin was detected in all 8 Barrett's and 4 of 8 adjacent normal specimens. Pepsinogen mRNA was observed in 22 Barrett's, but not in normal adjacent samples. Pepsin induced PTSG2 (COX-2) and IL-1β expression and cell migration in vitro. Pepsin is synthesized by metaplastic, Barrett's esophageal mucosa. Nonacid pepsin increases metrics of tumorigenicity in esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. These findings implicate refluxed and locally synthesized pepsin in development and progression of EAC and, in part, explain the inefficacy of PPIs in the prevention of EAC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Extratumoral PD-1 blockade does not perpetuate obesity-associated inflammation in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Karen C; Conroy, Melissa J; Doyle, Suzanne L; Dunne, Margaret R; Fahey, Ronan; Foley, Emma; O'Sullivan, Katie E; Doherty, Derek G; Geoghegan, Justin G; Ravi, Narayanasamy; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Reynolds, John V; Lysaght, Joanne

    2018-04-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 (Programmed death-1), are transforming cancer treatment for inoperable or advanced disease. As the incidence of obesity-associated malignancies, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continues to increase and treatment with checkpoint inhibitors are being FDA approved for a broader range of cancers, it is important to assess how anti-PD-1 treatment might exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory processes at other sites. Outside the EAC tumor, the omentum and liver were found to be enriched with substantial populations of PD-1 expressing T cells. Treatment of omental and hepatic T cells with anti-PD-1 (clone EH12.2H7) did not enhance inflammatory cytokine expression or proliferation, but transiently increased CD107a expression by CD8 + T cells. Importantly, PD-1-expressing T cells are significantly lower in EAC tumor post neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that combination with specific conventional treatments may severely impair the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. This study provides evidence that systemically administered anti-PD-1 treatment is unlikely to exacerbate pre-existing T cell-mediated inflammation outside the tumor in obesity-associated cancers, such as EAC. Furthermore, our data suggests that studies are required to identify the negative impact of concomitant therapies on PD-1 expression in order to boost overall response rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidermal growth factor expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a clinically relevant target?

    PubMed

    Harper, Nicholas; Li, Yan; Farmer, Russell; Martin, Robert C G

    2012-05-01

    There has been recent widespread enthusiasm in epidermal growth factor (EGFR) as a molecularly active target in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, there is limited data on the extent of EGFR expression in EAC. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluated EGFR, pErk1/2, and total Erk1/2 expression in malignant and benign specimens. Baseline expression of EGFR in the human normal squamous, Barrett's, and EAC cell lines were determined as well as after bile acid treatment and curcumin pretreatment. In addition, EGFR expression was also evaluated in 60 matched normal and malignant EAC resected specimens. The in vitro studies in the Het-1a, BarT, and OE19 cell lines failed to show any measurable expression of EGFR via Western blot technique. The marker serving as the positive control for the study, MnSOD, showed expression in each cell line for all three treatment regimens at approximately 24 kDa EGFR, showing moderate staining in the malignant tumor specimens and low staining in the benign tissue specimens. pErk1/2 showed low staining in the malignant tumor specimens and no staining in the benign tissue specimens. Total Erk1/2 showed high staining in both the malignant tumor specimens and benign tissue specimens. The differences in the mean staining scores for the malignant versus benign tissue specimens for pErk1/2 and total Erk1/2 are not statistically significant (p = 0.0726 and p = 0.7054, respectively). Thus, in conclusion, EGFR expression has been confirmed to be limited to non-existent in EAC and thus its use as a clinically active target is limited at best. Prior to the use of these expensive anti-EGFR therapies, confirmation of overexpression should be verified.

  9. Bile salt receptor TGR5 is highly expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions with significantly worse overall survival and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chunhong; LaLonde, Amy; Godfrey, Tony E; Que, Jianwen; Sun, Jun; Wu, Tong Tong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2017-01-01

    Bile acid reflux in the esophagus plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The G-protein coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) has been associated with the development of gastrointestinal cancer. However, little is known regarding the role of TGR5 in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions. We analyzed genomic DNA from 116 EACs for copy number aberrations via Affymetrix SNP6.0 microarrays. The TGR5 gene locus was amplified in 12.7% (14/116) of the EACs. The TGR5 protein expression was also assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays, including Barrett’s esophagus (BE), low-(LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD), columnar cell metaplasia (CM), squamous epithelium (SE), EAC and squamous cell carcinoma. The TGR5 protein was highly expressed in 71% of EAC (75/106), 100% of HGD (11/11), 72% of LGD (13/18), 66% of BE (23/35), 84% of CM (52/62), and 36% of SE (30/83). The patients with high expression of TGR5 exhibited significantly worse overall survival compared to the patients with nonhigh expression. TGR5 high expression was significantly increased in the males compared to the females in all cases with an odds ratio of 1.9 times. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was significantly correlated with TGR5 expression. Our findings indicated that TGR5 may play an important role in the development and prognosis of EAC through a bile acid ligand. Gender differences in TGR5 and VDR expression may explain why males have a higher incidence of EAC compared to females. PMID:28223834

  10. The importance of exposure rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Cook, Michael B; Pandeya, Nirmala; Vaughan, Thomas L; Abnet, Christian C; Giffen, Carol; Webb, Penelope M; Murray, Liam J; Casson, Alan G; Risch, Harvey A; Ye, Weimin; Kamangar, Farin; Bernstein, Leslie; Sharp, Linda; Nyrén, Olof; Gammon, Marilie D; Corley, Douglas A; Wu, Anna H; Brown, Linda M; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ward, Mary H; Freedman, Neal D; Whiteman, David C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration. The authors pooled data from 12 case-control studies from the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), including 1242 (EAC), 1263 (EGJA) and 954 (ESCC) cases and 7053 controls, modeled joint ORs for cumulative exposure and exposure rate for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and evaluated effect modification by sex, body mass index (BMI), age and self-reported acid reflux. For smoking, all sites exhibited inverse delivery rate effects, whereby ORs with pack-years increased, but trends weakened with increasing cigarettes/day. None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects (P<0.01). For EAC and EGJA, ORs with drink-years exhibited inverse associations in <5 drinks/day consumers and no association in heavier consumers. For ESCC, ORs with drink-years increased, with trends strengthening with greater drinks/day. There was no significant effect modification, except for EAC and EGJA where acid reflux mitigated the inverse associations (P=0.02). For ESCC, younger ages at diagnosis enhanced drinking-related ORs (P<0.01). Patterns of ORs by pack-years and drink-years, delivery rate effects and effect modifiers revealed common as well as distinct etiologic elements for these diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. CDK4/6 dual inhibitor abemaciclib demonstrates compelling preclinical activity against esophageal adenocarcinoma: a novel therapeutic option for a deadly disease.

    PubMed

    Kosovec, Juliann E; Zaidi, Ali H; Omstead, Ashten N; Matsui, Daisuke; Biedka, Mark J; Cox, Erin J; Campbell, Patrick T; Biederman, Robert W W; Kelly, Ronan J; Jobe, Blair A

    2017-11-21

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a deadly disease with limited therapeutic options. In the present study, we determined the preclinical efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib for treatment of EAC. In vitro , apoptosis, proliferation, and pathway regulation were evaluated in OE19, OE33, and FLO1 EAC cell lines. In vivo , esophagojejunostomy was performed on rats to induce EAC. At 36 weeks post-surgery, MRI and endoscopic biopsy established baseline tumor volume and molecular correlates, respectively. Next, the study animals were randomized to 26mg/kg intraperitoneal abemaciclib treatment or vehicle control for 28 days. Pre and post treatment MRIs, histopathology, and qRT-PCR were utilized to determine response. Our results demonstrated treatment with abemaciclib lead to increased apoptosis, and decreased proliferation in OE19 (p=0.185), OE33 (p=0.048), and FLO1 (p=0.043) with anticipated downstream molecular inhibition. In vivo , 78.9% of treatment animals demonstrated >20% tumor volume decrease (placebo 0%). Mean tumor volume changed in the treatment arm by -65.5% (placebo +133.5%) (p<0.01), and prevalence changed by -37.5% (placebo +16.7%) (p<0.01). Pre vs post treatment qRT-PCR demonstrated significant inhibition of all downstream molecular correlates. Overall our findings suggest potent antitumor efficacy of abemaciclib against EAC with evident molecular pathway inhibition and reasonable safety, establishing the rationale for future clinical development.

  12. The French Translation of the EAC DTD: A Few Thoughts on Interoperability with Reference to Authority Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdon, Francoise

    2005-01-01

    The translation into French of the Encoded Archival Context (EAC) DTD tag library has been in progress for a few months. It is being carried out by a group of experts gathered by AFNOR, the French national standards agency. The main goal of this group is to foster the interoperability of authority data between archives, libraries and museums, and…

  13. A Strategic Plan of Academic Management System as Preparation for EAC Accreditation Visit--From UKM Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Yusoff, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Abdul, Nasrul Amir; Hipni, Afiq

    2015-01-01

    Development of a robust platform is important to ensure that the engineering accreditation process can run smoothly, completely and the most important is to fulfill the criteria requirements. In case of Malaysia, the preparation for EAC (Engineering Accreditation Committee) assessment required a good strategic plan of academic management system…

  14. 76 FR 2439 - Request for Comments and Suggestions for the Agenda of the Environmental Affairs Council (Eac) of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... the Environmental Affairs Council (Eac) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free... submitted to both: (1) Rebecca Slocum, U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Oceans and International... meeting agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of State and the Office of the United States Trade Representative...

  15. Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Serum N-linked Glycans from Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, M. M.; Valentine, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Mirjankar, N.; Hammoud, Z. T.; Mechref, Y.; Lavine, B. K.; Clemmer, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Three disease phenotypes, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and a set of normal control (NC) serum samples are examined using a combination of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), mass spectrometry (MS) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. Samples from a total of 136 individuals were examined, including: 7 characterized as BE, 12 as HGD, 56 as EAC and 61 as NC. In typical datasets it was possible to assign ~20 to 30 glycan ions based on MS measurements. Ion mobility distributions for these ions show multiple features. In some cases, such as the [S1H5N4+3Na]3+ and [S1F1H5N4+3Na]3+ glycan ions, the ratio of intensities of high-mobility features to low-mobility features vary significantly for different groups. The degree to which such variations in mobility profiles can be used to distinguish phenotypes is evaluated for eleven N-linked glycan ions. An outlier analysis on each sample class followed by an unsupervised PCA using a genetic algorithm for pattern recognition reveals that EAC samples are separated from NC samples based on 46 features originating from the 11-glycan composite IMS distribution. PMID:23126309

  16. Low-dose non-targeted radiation effects in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hanu, Christine; Wong, Raimond; Sur, Ranjan K; Hayward, Joseph E; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2017-02-01

    To investigate non-targeted radiation effects in esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines (OE19 and OE33) using human keratinocyte and colorectal cancer cell reporters following γ-ray exposure. Both clonogenic assays and ratiometric calcium endpoints were used to check for the occurrence of bystander signals in reporter cells. We report data suggesting that γ-irradiation increases cell killing over the expected linear quadratic (LQ) model levels in the OE19 cell line exposed to doses below 1 Gy, i.e. which may be suggestive to be a low hyper-radiosensitive (HRS) response to direct irradiation. Both EAC cell lines (OE19 and OE33) have the ability to produce bystander signals when irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) is placed onto human keratinocyte reporters, but do not seem to be capable of responding to bystander signals when placed on their autologous reporters. Further work with human keratinocyte reporter models showed statistically significant intracellular calcium fluxes following exposure of the reporters to ICCM harvested from both EAC cell lines exposed to 0.5 Gy. These experiments suggest that the OE19 and OE33 cell lines produce bystander signals in human keratinocyte reporter cells. However, the radiosensitivity of the EAC cell lines used in this study cannot be enhanced by the bystander response since both cell lines could not respond to bystander signals.

  17. Molecular Analysis of Mixed Endometrioid and Serous Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Pakzamir, Elham; Liu, Biao; Lee, Janet M.; Delgado, Melissa K.; Duncan, Kara; Gayther, Simon A.; Liu, Song; Roman, Lynda; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    Background The molecular biology and cellular origins of mixed type endometrial carcinomas (MT-ECs) are poorly understood, and a Type II component of 10 percent or less may confer poorer prognoses. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 10 cases of MT-EC (containing endometrioid and serous differentiation), 5 pure low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 5 pure uterine serous carcinoma (USC). Endometrioid and serous components of the MT-ECs were macrodissected and the expression of 60 candidate genes compared between MT-EC, pure USC and pure EAC. We found that four genes were differentially expressed when MT-ECs were compared to pure low-grade EAC: CDKN2A (P = 0.006), H19 (P = 0.010), HOMER2 (P = 0.009) and TNNT1 (P = 0.006). Also while we found that even though MT-ECs closely resembled the molecular profiles of pure USCs, they also exhibit lower expression of PAX8 compared to all pure cases combined (P = 0.035). Conclusion Our data suggest that MT-EC exhibits the closest molecular and epidemiological similarities to pure USC and supports clinical observations that suggest patients with MT-EC should receive the same treatment as patients with pure serous carcinoma. Novel specific markers of MT-EC could be of diagnostic utility and could represent novel therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:26132201

  18. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising in a Paratubal Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catherine; Matsuo, Koji; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2017-03-01

    A 56-year-old G3P3 postmenopausal woman presented with a 5 month history of abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pain. A computed tomographic scan revealed a 5 cm right adnexal cystic mass in addition to a thickened, heterogenous endometrium and leiomyomatous uterus. A total laparascopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omental and peritoneal biopsy were performed. Gross examination revealed a 12 week size uterus with small fibroids, normal bilateral atrophic ovaries, and a right paratubal cyst. A 4 cm vegetating mass was found in the right side of the uterine wall. Microscopically, the uterine mass was diagnosed as an endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) FIGO 1 with 70% of myometrial invasion. The remaining endometrium showed a complex atypical hyperplasia. In addition, a 5 cm paratubal cystic mass was found that was separate from the uterus and the right adnexa. The cyst content was a chocolate brown fluid and the cyst wall was smooth with a single solid mass of 2 cm in size. The diagnosis of EAC, FIGO 1 was given. The remaining cyst lining showed endometriotic cyst and foci of endometriosis in the cyst wall. There was no lymphovascular invasion. The entire fallopian tube and ovaries were submitted and they were free of tumor. The patient was diagnosed with primary EAC of the paratubal cyst in addition to EAC of the uterine corpus (pT1b). A close follow-up was recommended. Because of our limited knowledge of carcinomas arising in the paratubal cyst, we will review the literature and discuss their clinical aspects, management, and behavior.

  19. Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a rat model by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Eisuke; Fujimura, Takashi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shin-ichi; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hattori, Takanori; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Reflux of bile acid into the esophagus induces esophagitis, inflammation-stimulated hyperplasia, metaplasia such as Barrett's esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) via nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by bile acid is an important factor in the development of BE and EAC. In colorectal cancer, experimental data suggest a chemopreventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We hypothesized that UDCA may protect against the esophageal inflammation-metaplasia-carcinoma sequence by decreasing the overall proportion of the toxic bile acids. Wistar male rats that underwent a duodenoesophageal reflux procedure were divided into two groups. One group was given commercial chow (control group), and the other was given experimental chow containing UDCA (UDCA group). The animals were killed at 40 weeks after surgery, and their bile and esophagus were examined. In the UDCA group, the esophagitis was milder and the incidence of BE was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group, and EAC was not observed (p < 0.05). In analysis of the compartment of bile acid, UDCA was markedly increased in the UDCA group compared with the control group (32.7 ± 11.4 vs. 0.82 ± 0.33 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and cholic acid was decreased (32.7 ± 4.05 vs. 60.9 ± 8.26 mmol/L, p < 0.05). Expression intensity of Cdx2 and NF-κB was greater in the control group than in the UDCA group (p < 0.05). UDCA may be a chemopreventive agent against EAC by varying the bile acid composition.

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination. Secondary bladder adenocarcinomas may arise from the colorectum, prostate, endometrium, cervix and other sites. Immunohistochemical study is valuable in identifying the origin of secondary adenocarcinomas. Noninvasive neoplastic glandular lesions, adenocarcinoma in situ and villous adenoma, are frequently associated with bladder adenocarcinoma. It is also important to differentiate bladder adenocarcinoma from a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the bladder. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis largely because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Urachal adenocarcinoma shares similar histologic features with bladder adenocarcinoma, but it has a more favorable prognosis than bladder adenocarcinoma, partly due to the relative young age of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26309895

  1. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  2. Diagnostic performance of EUS in predicting advanced cancer among patients with Barrett's esophagus and high-grade dysplasia/early adenocarcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qumseya, Bashar J; Brown, Jessica; Abraham, Merna; White, Donna; Wolfsen, Herbert; Gupta, Neil; Vennalaganti, Prashanth; Sharma, Prateek; Wallace, Michael B

    2015-04-01

    The role of EUS among patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or suspected mucosal carcinoma is controversial. To define the role of EUS in detecting advanced disease among patients with BE. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central databases. Patients with BE and HGD or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) who were referred for endoscopic evaluation and underwent EUS. EUS. Pooled proportion of patients with advanced EAC identified by EUS among patients with BE who are referred for HGD or EAC (with or without visible lesions). Forest plots were used to contrast effect sizes in each of the studies and random effect models when tests of heterogeneity were significant (I(2) > 50% or P < .1 for the Q statistic). Of 1278 articles, 47 were reviewed in full text, and 11 articles met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 656 patients. Based on a random-effects model, the proportion of patients with advanced disease detected on EUS was 14% (95% confidence interval, 8%-22%; P < .0001). In a subanalysis, the pooled proportion of patients with advanced disease on EUS in the absence of nodules was 4% (95% confidence interval, 2%-6%, P < .0001). Significant heterogeneity among studies. EUS will result in a change in the therapeutic approach among in a significant minority of patients with BE who are referred for HGD or EAC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Essentials from the 2015 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons.

    PubMed

    Ryom, L; Boesecke, C; Gisler, V; Manzardo, C; Rockstroh, J K; Puoti, M; Furrer, H; Miro, J M; Gatell, J M; Pozniak, A; Behrens, G; Battegay, M; Lundgren, J D

    2016-02-01

    The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines are intended for all clinicians involved in the care of HIV-positive persons, and are available in print, online, and as a free App for download for iPhone and Android. The 2015 version of the EACS guidelines contains major revisions in all sections; antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Among the key revisions is the recommendation of ART for all HIV-positive persons, irrespectively of CD4 count, based on the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study results. The recommendations for the preferred and the alternative ART options have also been revised, and a new section on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been added. A number of new antiretroviral drugs/drug combinations have been added to the updated tables on drug-drug interactions, adverse drug effects, dose adjustment for renal/liver insufficiency and for ART administration in persons with swallowing difficulties. The revisions of the coinfection section reflect the major advances in anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals with earlier start of treatment in individuals at increased risk of liver disease progression, and a phasing out of interferon-containing treatment regimens. The section on opportunistic diseases has been restructured according to individual pathogens/diseases and a new overview table has been added on CD4 count thresholds for different primary prophylaxes. The diagnosis and management of HIV infection and related coinfections, opportunistic diseases and comorbidities continue to require a multidisciplinary effort for which the 2015 version of the EACS guidelines provides an easily accessable and updated overview. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  4. The dynamics of HER2 status in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Creemers, Aafke; Ebbing, Eva A.; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.; Stap, Lisanne; Jibodh-Mulder, Rajni A.; Gisbertz, Susanne S.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; van Montfoort, Maurits L.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; van Oijen, Martijn G.H.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Meijer, Sybren L.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M.

    2018-01-01

    Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER2, has become standard of care for metastatic HER2-overexpressing esophagogastric adenocarcinoma and is currently investigated as (neo)adjuvant treatment option in HER2-positive esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. The HER2 status is commonly determined on archived material of the primary tumor. However, this status may change over the course of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of HER2 status in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with resectable and recurrent disease, and to determine the associations of these changes with clinical outcome. Discordance, defined as any change in HER2 status between matched biopsy and post-neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy resection specimen (N = 170), or between matched resection specimen and recurrence of patients not eligible for curative treatment (N = 61), was determined using the standardized HER2 status scoring system. Clinically relevant positive discordance was defined as a change to HER2 positive status, as this would imply eligibility for HER2-targeted therapy. A difference in HER2 status between biopsy and resection specimen and resection specimen and metachronous recurrence was observed in 2.1% (n = 3) and 3.3% (n = 2) of the paired cases, respectively. Clinically relevant discordance was detected in 1.4% (n = 2) of the resectable patients and 1.6% (n = 1) of the patients with recurrent disease. Patients with HER2-positive status tumors before start of neoadjuvant treatment showed better overall survival, but not statistically significant. No association between HER2 status discordance and survival was found. Clinically relevant HER2 status discordance was observed and in order to prevent under-treatment of patients, the assessment of HER2 status in the metastatic setting should preferably be performed on the most recently developed lesions if the previous HER2 assessment on archival material of the primary tumor was

  5. The dynamics of HER2 status in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Creemers, Aafke; Ebbing, Eva A; Hooijer, Gerrit K J; Stap, Lisanne; Jibodh-Mulder, Rajni A; Gisbertz, Susanne S; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; van Montfoort, Maurits L; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Meijer, Sybren L; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2018-06-01

    Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER2, has become standard of care for metastatic HER2-overexpressing esophagogastric adenocarcinoma and is currently investigated as (neo)adjuvant treatment option in HER2-positive esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. The HER2 status is commonly determined on archived material of the primary tumor. However, this status may change over the course of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of HER2 status in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with resectable and recurrent disease, and to determine the associations of these changes with clinical outcome. Discordance, defined as any change in HER2 status between matched biopsy and post-neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy resection specimen ( N = 170), or between matched resection specimen and recurrence of patients not eligible for curative treatment ( N = 61), was determined using the standardized HER2 status scoring system. Clinically relevant positive discordance was defined as a change to HER2 positive status, as this would imply eligibility for HER2-targeted therapy. A difference in HER2 status between biopsy and resection specimen and resection specimen and metachronous recurrence was observed in 2.1% ( n = 3) and 3.3% ( n = 2) of the paired cases, respectively. Clinically relevant discordance was detected in 1.4% ( n = 2) of the resectable patients and 1.6% ( n = 1) of the patients with recurrent disease. Patients with HER2-positive status tumors before start of neoadjuvant treatment showed better overall survival, but not statistically significant. No association between HER2 status discordance and survival was found. Clinically relevant HER2 status discordance was observed and in order to prevent under-treatment of patients, the assessment of HER2 status in the metastatic setting should preferably be performed on the most recently developed lesions if the previous HER2 assessment on archival material of the primary tumor

  6. Whole-genome sequencing provides new insights into the clonal architecture of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Andrew; Cheetham, R. Keira; Northen, Helen; O’Donovan, Maria; Malhotra, Shalini; di Pietro, Massimiliano; Ivakhno, Sergii; He, Miao; Weaver, Jamie M.J.; Lynch, Andy G.; Kingsbury, Zoya; Ross, Mark; Humphray, Sean; Bentley, David; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular genetic relationship between esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor lesion, Barrett’s esophagus, is poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing on 23 paired Barrett’s esophagus and EAC samples, together with one in-depth Barrett’s esophagus case-study sampled over time and space, we have provided new insights on the following aspects: i) Barrett’s esophagus is polyclonal and highly mutated even in the absence of dysplasia; ii) when cancer develops, copy number increases and heterogeneity persists such that the spectrum of mutations often shows surprisingly little overlap between EAC and adjacent Barrett’s esophagus; and iii) despite differences in specific coding mutations the mutational context suggests a common causative insult underlying these two conditions. From a clinical perspective, the histopathological assessment of dysplasia appears to be a poor reflection of the molecular disarray within the Barrett’s epithelium and a molecular Cytosponge™ technique overcomes sampling bias and has capacity to reflect the entire clonal architecture. PMID:26192915

  7. Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinomas secrete distinct O-acylated forms of sialomucins: a histochemical study of gastric, colorectal and breast adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sáez, C; Japón, M A; Poveda, M A; Segura, D I

    2001-12-01

    Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinomas represent a distinct group of tumours defined by the presence of large amounts of extracellular mucins. By using histochemical methods, we analysed mucins secreted by mucinous versus non-mucinous adenocarcinomas and looked for differential secretion profiles. Sixty-four adenocarcinomas were studied (23 colorectal, 17 gastric, and 24 breast tumours). Thirty-two tumours were of the colloid type. The following methods were applied to paraffin tissue sections: (i) Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS); (ii) high iron diamine and Alcian blue (pH 2.5); (iii) periodic acid borohydride, potassium hydroxide, and PAS; (iv) periodic acid-thionine Schiff, potassium hydroxide, and PAS; and (v) periodic acid-borohydride and PAS. Most adenocarcinomas secreted acidic mucins, with sialomucins predominating over sulfomucins, except for non-mucinous adenocarcinomas of the breast which showed predominant neutral mucins. All mucinous adenocarcinomas contained C9-O-acyl sialic acid as mono, di(C8,C9)-, or tri(C7,C8,C9)-O-acyl forms. Acidic mucins secreted by the majority of non-colloid adenocarcinomas consisted of non-O-acylated sialomucins. C9-O-acylation of sialic acid is a characteristic feature of mucinous adenocarcinomas and can be readily detected by histochemical methods.

  8. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor induced growth factor receptor upregulation enhances the efficacy of near-infrared targeted photodynamic therapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hartmans, Elmire; Linssen, Matthijs D; Sikkens, Claire; Levens, Afra; Witjes, Max J H; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Nagengast, Wouter B

    2017-05-02

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a global health problem, with disappointing 5-year survival rates of only 15-25%. Near-infrared targeted photodynamic therapy (NIR-tPDT) is a novel strategy in which cancer-targeted phototoxicity is able to selectively treat malignant cells. In this in vitro report we demonstrate the applicability of antibody-based NIR-tPDT in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), using the phototoxic compounds cetuximab-IRDye700DX and trastuzumab-IRDye700DX, targeting respectively epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR) and 2 (HER2). Furthermore, we demonstrate that NIR-tPDT can be made more effective by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) induced growth receptor upregulation. Together, these results unveil a novel strategy for non-invasive EAC treatment, and by pretreatment-induced receptor upregulation its future clinical application may be optimized.

  9. PI3K/mTOR Dual Inhibitor, LY3023414, Demonstrates Potent Antitumor Efficacy Against Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Ali H; Kosovec, Juliann E; Matsui, Daisuke; Omstead, Ashten N; Raj, Moses; Rao, Rohit R; Biederman, Robert W W; Finley, Gene G; Landreneau, Rodney J; Kelly, Ronan J; Jobe, Blair A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the efficacy of a PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, LY3023414, on established EAC in an in vivo model. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly lethal cancer with limited treatment options. The PI3K/mTOR pathway is upregulated in EAC and may be a target for novel therapies. Esophagojejunostomy was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats to induce carcinogenesis, and LY3023414 was cyclically administered intraperitoneally between 32 and 40 weeks postsurgery to treatment animals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology were used to determine clinical response. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot were used to validate apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3, proliferation by Ki67, and pathway inhibition, respectively. Mean MRI tumor volume increased by 109.2% in controls (n = 32) and decreased by 56.8% in treatment animals (n=17) (P < 0.01). Treatment with LY3023414 demonstrated tumor volume increase in 0% (control = 46.4%) (P < 0.01), decrease in 58.8% (control = 7.1%) (P < 0.01), and stable volume in 41.2% (control = 46.4%) (P = 0.77). EAC prevalence in controls increased by 25%; whereas, prevalence in treatment animals decreased by 29.4% (P < 0.01). Approximately, 75% of treatment animals presenting with residual masses on MRI had a histological response >50%. Increased apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3 (P = 0.03) and decreased proliferation by Ki67 (P < 0.01) were demonstrated in the treatment arm, when compared with the control arm. On Western blot analysis of pathway checkpoints, p-mTOR (p=0.03) and PI3K-α (P = 0.04) were downregulated in treatment responsive residual tumors, when compared with controls. LY3023414 demonstrates efficacy against EAC in a preclinical model, establishing the rationale for clinical testing.

  10. Body mass index and socioeconomic status measured in adolescence, country of origin, and the incidence of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort of 1 million men.

    PubMed

    Levi, Zohar; Kark, Jeremy D; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Liphshitz, Irena; Niv, Yaron; Furman, Moshe; Afek, Arnon

    2013-12-01

    To the authors' knowledge, little work has been done concerning adolescent precursors for gastroesophageal cancer. In the current study, the association of adolescent overweight as well as socioeconomic status (SES) with the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJAC), and noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC) was evaluated. Body mass index (BMI) was measured in 1 million Israeli adolescent males who underwent a general health examination at a mean age of 17.3 ± 0.5 years from 1967 to 2005. Overweight was defined as a BMI ≥ 85th percentile of the standard US distribution in adolescence. Incident cancer was identified by linkage with the Israeli National Cancer Registry. A total of 182 incident cancer cases were documented (52 combined EAC and GEJAC cases and 130 NCGC cases). Adolescent overweight at baseline (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) was associated with an increased risk in the combined group of cases of EAC and GEJAC (multivariable hazards ratio [HR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-4.3 [P = .032]). Low SES (the lowest category vs the highest) as well as low number of years of education (≤ 9 years) were associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type NCGC (multivariable HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-4.8 [P = .041] and multivariable HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.19 [P = .020], respectively). The adjusted risk of NCGC was higher in immigrants born in Asian countries and the former Soviet Union. Overweight during adolescence was found to be substantially associated with the subsequent development of EAC and GEJAC. In addition, although potential confounding by Helicobacter pylori infection status or lifestyle factors was not fully accounted for in the analyses, lower SES as well as immigration from higher-risk countries are important determinants of NCGC. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  11. Persistence of nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus identifies patients at lower risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma: results from a large multicenter cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaddam, Srinivas; Singh, Mandeep; Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Thota, Prashanthi; Gupta, Neil; Wani, Sachin; Higbee, April D; Mathur, Sharad C; Horwhat, John D; Rastogi, Amit; Young, Patrick E; Cash, Brooks D; Bansal, Ajay; Vargo, John J; Falk, Gary W; Lieberman, David A; Sampliner, Richard E; Sharma, Prateek

    2013-09-01

    Recent population-based studies have shown a low risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus (NDBE). We evaluated whether persistence of NDBE over multiple consecutive surveillance endoscopic examinations could be used in risk stratification of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). We performed a multicenter outcomes study of a large cohort of patients with BE. Based on the number of consecutive surveillance endoscopies showing NDBE, we identified 5 groups of patients. Patients in group 1 were found to have NDBE at their first esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients in group 2 were found to have NDBE on their first 2 consecutive EGDs. Similarly, patients in groups 3, 4, and 5 were found to have NDBE on 3, 4, and 5 consecutive surveillance EGDs. A logistic regression model was built to determine whether persistence of NDBE independently protected against development of cancer. Of a total of 3515 patients with BE, 1401 patients met the inclusion criteria (93.3% white; 87.5% men; median age, 60 ±17 years). The median follow-up period was 5 ± 3.9 years (7846 patient-years). The annual risk of EAC in groups 1 to 5 was 0.32%, 0.27%, 0.16%, 0.2%, and 0.11%, respectively (P for trend = .03). After adjusting for age, sex, and length of BE, persistence of NDBE, based on multiple surveillance endoscopies, was associated with a gradually lower likelihood of progression to EAC. Persistence of NDBE over several endoscopic examinations identifies patients who are at low risk for development of EAC. These findings support lengthening surveillance intervals or discontinuing surveillance of patients with persistent NDBE. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary adenocarcinoma of bladder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T G; Pritchett, T R; Lieskovsky, G; Warner, N E; Skinner, D G

    1991-09-01

    Between April 1983 and December 1987, we have treated and followed 16 patients at the University of Southern California for adenocarcinoma of the bladder. In 10 patients, the cancer originated from a nonurachal source; all underwent radical cystectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, and urinary diversion. The other 6 patients had an apparent urachal origin of their cancer. Half of these patients were treated with radical cystectomy and urinary diversion and half were treated initially with segmental cystectomy. Presenting characteristics (age, sex ratio, and symptoms) were similar for both groups. Three-year adjusted acturial tumor-free survival rates for the two groups were 48 percent and 31 percent, respectively. We advocate an aggressive approach of radical cystectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, and urinary diversion for all invasive adenocarcinoma of the bladder, regardless of location.

  13. [Sinonasal adenocarcinomas: our experience].

    PubMed

    Llorente, José Luis; Núñez, Faustino; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Fernández León, Ramón; Alvarez, César; Hermsen, Mario; Suárez, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Sinonasal adenocarcinoma is a rare epithelial cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses and exposure to sawdust particles is a strong aetiological factor. Seventy-nine patients (78 men and 1 woman) operated on between 1986 and 2002 were studied. In 62 patients (78.5 %) there was a history of exposure to wood dust. The clinical factors presenting statistical significance in the multivariate analysis with prognosis were: the exclusive invasion of the middle concha (as good prognosis), recurrence and invasion of the dura mater (as bad prognosis). The actuarial survival rate was 36 % at 5 years falling to 28 % at 10 years. Exposure to wood dust, even over a short period of time, must be considered as a high risk factor for the development of a sinonasal adenocarcinoma. This tumour must be ruled out in all patients suffering any type of sinonasal pathology.

  14. DNA methylation profiling of esophageal adenocarcinoma using Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM).

    PubMed

    Guilleret, Isabelle; Losi, Lorena; Chelbi, Sonia T; Fonda, Sergio; Bougel, Stéphanie; Saponaro, Sara; Gozzi, Gaia; Alberti, Loredana; Braunschweig, Richard; Benhattar, Jean

    2016-10-14

    Most types of cancer cells are characterized by aberrant methylation of promoter genes. In this study, we described a rapid, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive approach allowing the detection of multiple human methylated promoter genes from many tissue samples, without the need of bisulfite conversion. The Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM), an array-based analysis, was designed in order to measure methylation levels of 58 genes previously described as putative biomarkers of cancer. The performance of the design was proven by screening the methylation profile of DNA from esophageal cell lines, as well as microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Using the MLM approach, we identified 32 (55%) hypermethylated promoters in EAC, and not or rarely methylated in normal tissues. Among them, 21promoters were found aberrantly methylated in more than half of tumors. Moreover, seven of them (ADAMTS18, APC, DKK2, FOXL2, GPX3, TIMP3 and WIF1) were found aberrantly methylated in all or almost all the tumor samples, suggesting an important role for these genes in EAC. In addition, dysregulation of the Wnt pathway with hypermethylation of several Wnt antagonist genes was frequently observed. MLM revealed a homogeneous pattern of methylation for a majority of tumors which were associated with an advanced stage at presentation and a poor prognosis. Interestingly, the few tumors presenting less methylation changes had a lower pathological stage. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of MLM for DNA methylation profiling of FFPE tissue samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. microRNA 125a Regulates MHC-I Expression on Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells, Associated With Suppression of Anti-tumor Immune Response and Poor Outcomes of Patients.

    PubMed

    Mari, Luigi; Hoefnagel, Sanne J M; Zito, Domenico; van de Meent, Marian; van Endert, Peter; Calpe, Silvia; Sancho Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Gisbertz, Susanne S; Medema, Jan Paul; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Meijer, Sybren L; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Milano, Francesca; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2018-06-07

    Immune checkpoint inhibition may affect growth or progression of highly aggressive cancers, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated the regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex, class 1 (MHC-I) proteins (encoded by HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) and the immune response to EACs in patient samples. We performed quantitative PCR array analyses of OE33 cells and OE19 cells, which express different levels of the ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (TAP1) and TAP2, required for antigen presentation by MHC-I, to identify microRNAs that regulate their expression. We performed luciferase assays to validate interactions between microRNAs and potential targets. We overexpressed candidate microRNAs in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cell lines and performed quantitative PCR, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses to identify changes in mRNA and protein expression; we studied the effects of cytotoxic T cells. We performed microRNA in situ hybridization, RNA-sequencing, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor tissues from 51 untreated patients with EAC in the Netherlands. Clinical and survival data were collected for patients, and EACs subtypes were determined. We found OE19 cells to have increased levels of 7 microRNAs. Of these, we found binding sites for microRNA 125a (MIR125a)-5p in the 3'UTR of the TAP2 mRNA and binding sites for MIR148a-3p in 3'UTRs of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C mRNAs. Overexpression of these microRNAs reduced expression of TAP2 in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cells, and reduced cell-surface levels of MHC-I. OE33 cells that expressed the viral peptide BZLF1 were killed by cytotoxic T cells, whereas OE33 that overexpressed MIR125a-5p or MIR 148a along with BZLF1 were not. In EAC and non-tumor tissues, levels of MIR125a-5p correlated inversely with levels of TAP2 protein. High expression of TAP1 by EAC correlated with significantly shorter overall survival times of patients. EACs that expressed high levels of TAP1 and genes involved

  16. Analysis of papillary renal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Bard, R H

    1987-12-01

    A retrospective review was conducted comparing the angiographic findings, tumor volumes, staging, and survival of patients with papillary renal adenocarcinoma as compared with the more common clear and granular cell renal adenocarcinoma. The data suggest that the papillary histopathologic organization confers an improved prognosis, which concurs with previous findings. We speculate on why this tumor behaves differently from clear cell carcinoma.

  17. Effect of normalization methods on the performance of supervised learning algorithms applied to HTSeq-FPKM-UQ data sets: 7SK RNA expression as a predictor of survival in patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahriyari, Leili

    2017-11-03

    One of the main challenges in machine learning (ML) is choosing an appropriate normalization method. Here, we examine the effect of various normalization methods on analyzing FPKM upper quartile (FPKM-UQ) RNA sequencing data sets. We collect the HTSeq-FPKM-UQ files of patients with colon adenocarcinoma from TCGA-COAD project. We compare three most common normalization methods: scaling, standardizing using z-score and vector normalization by visualizing the normalized data set and evaluating the performance of 12 supervised learning algorithms on the normalized data set. Additionally, for each of these normalization methods, we use two different normalization strategies: normalizing samples (files) or normalizing features (genes). Regardless of normalization methods, a support vector machine (SVM) model with the radial basis function kernel had the maximum accuracy (78%) in predicting the vital status of the patients. However, the fitting time of SVM depended on the normalization methods, and it reached its minimum fitting time when files were normalized to the unit length. Furthermore, among all 12 learning algorithms and 6 different normalization techniques, the Bernoulli naive Bayes model after standardizing files had the best performance in terms of maximizing the accuracy as well as minimizing the fitting time. We also investigated the effect of dimensionality reduction methods on the performance of the supervised ML algorithms. Reducing the dimension of the data set did not increase the maximum accuracy of 78%. However, it leaded to discovery of the 7SK RNA gene expression as a predictor of survival in patients with colon adenocarcinoma with accuracy of 78%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Cutaneous metastases of prostatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Patne, Shashikant C.U.; Naik, Bitan; Patnaik, Pranab; Trivedi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is a common visceral malignancy of elderly men. Cutaneous metastasis of PA is rare. The incidence is <1%. A 55-year-old man presented with urinary symptoms and multiple cutaneous nodules around suprapubic region, inner aspect of both thighs and scrotum. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cutaneous nodules was suggestive of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Skin and prostatic biopsies confirmed the cytological diagnosis. Serum level of prostate specific antigen was raised. Total prostatectomy revealed adenocarcinoma of Gleason's score 7 (3 + 4). Though rare, cutaneous metastases of PA must be known to cytopathologists. Meticulously performed FNAC in such cases may help in early diagnosis. PMID:26229250

  19. Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit esophageal adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo through pleiotropic cell death induction and PI3K/AKT/mTOR inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kresty, Laura A.; Weh, Katherine M.; Zeyzus-Johns, Bree; Perez, Laura N.; Howell, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents known to improve urinary tract health and more recent evidence supports cranberries possess cancer inhibitory properties. However, mechanisms of cancer inhibition by cranberries remain to be elucidated, particularly in vivo. Properties of a purified cranberry-derived proanthocyanidin extract (C-PAC) were investigated utilizing acid-sensitive and acid-resistant human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines and esophageal tumor xenografts in athymic NU/NU mice. C-PAC induced caspase-independent cell death mainly via autophagy and low levels of apoptosis in acid-sensitive JHAD1 and OE33 cells, but resulted in cellular necrosis in acid-resistant OE19 cells. Similarly, C-PAC induced necrosis in JHAD1 cells pushed to acid-resistance via repeated exposures to an acidified bile cocktail. C-PAC associated cell death involved PI3K/AKT/mTOR inactivation, pro-apoptotic protein induction (BAX, BAK1, deamidated BCL-xL, Cytochrome C, PARP), modulation of MAPKs (P-P38/P-JNK) and G2-M cell cycle arrest in vitro. Importantly, oral delivery of C-PAC significantly inhibited OE19 tumor xenograft growth via modulation of AKT/mTOR/MAPK signaling and induction of the autophagic form of LC3B supporting in vivo efficacy against EAC for the first time. C-PAC is a potent inducer of EAC cell death and is efficacious in vivo at non-toxic behaviorally achievable concentrations, holding promise for preventive or therapeutic interventions in cohorts at increased risk for EAC, a rapidly rising and extremely deadly malignancy. PMID:26378019

  20. Necl 4 and RNase 5 Are Important Biomarkers for Gastric and Colon Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, İlyas; Gökçe, Aysun; Demirtas, Levent; Eken, Hüseyin; Çimen, Ferda Keskin; Çimen, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify new prognostic factors that may be used in addition to the known risk factors in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as the prognostic efficacy of these biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas. Material/Methods Ninety-two cases resected due to stomach and colon adenocarcinoma were included in the study. The expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the stomach and colon normal mucosa and adenocarcinoma areas. Results In colon adenocarcinomas, there was a significant association between Necl 4 and lymphovascular invasion, vascular invasion, and perineural invasion (p<0.05). There was a significant association between RNase 5 and histological differentiation in colon adenocarcinomas (p<0.05). There was no association between RNase 5 and Necl 4 in gastric or colon adenocarcinomas. Conclusions Necl 4 may have prognostic value in colon adenocarcinomas, but it is difficult to ascertain in gastric adenocarcinomas. PMID:28561015

  1. Necl 4 and RNase 5 Are Important Biomarkers for Gastric and Colon Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sayar, İlyas; Gökçe, Aysun; Demirtas, Levent; Eken, Hüseyin; Çimen, Ferda Keskin; Çimen, Orhan

    2017-05-31

    BACKGROUND There is a need to identify new prognostic factors that may be used in addition to the known risk factors in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as the prognostic efficacy of these biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-two cases resected due to stomach and colon adenocarcinoma were included in the study. The expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the stomach and colon normal mucosa and adenocarcinoma areas. RESULTS In colon adenocarcinomas, there was a significant association between Necl 4 and lymphovascular invasion, vascular invasion, and perineural invasion (p<0.05). There was a significant association between RNase 5 and histological differentiation in colon adenocarcinomas (p<0.05). There was no association between RNase 5 and Necl 4 in gastric or colon adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS Necl 4 may have prognostic value in colon adenocarcinomas, but it is difficult to ascertain in gastric adenocarcinomas.

  2. Quantitative proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Almatroodi, Saleh A; McDonald, Christine F; Collins, Allison L; Darby, Ian A; Pouniotis, Dodie S

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported primary lung cancer subtype is adenocarcinoma, which is associated with a poor prognosis and short survival. Proteomic studies on human body fluids such as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) have become essential methods for biomarker discovery, examination of tumor pathways and investigation of potential treatments. This study used quantitative proteomics to investigate the up-regulation of novel proteins in BALF from patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma in order to identify potential biomarkers. BALF samples from individuals with and without primary lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. One thousand and one hundred proteins were identified, 33 of which were found to be consistently overexpressed in all lung adenocarcinoma samples compared to non-cancer controls. A number of overexpressed proteins have been previously shown to be related to lung cancer progression including S100-A8, annexin A1, annexin A2, thymidine phosphorylase and transglutaminase 2. The overexpression of a number of specific proteins in BALF from patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma may be used as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright© 2015, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Mammaglobin expression in gynecologic adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Ian S; Pfeifer, John D; Cao, Dengfeng

    2013-04-01

    Mammaglobin (MGB) has been proposed as a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for adenocarcinoma of the breast. The differential diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma versus a gynecologic primary frequently arises. We performed a semiquantitative survey of MGB immunoreactivity in 26 benign gynecologic tissues (6 ectocervices, 9 endocervices, 11 endometria), 86 ovarian adenocarcinomas, 70 endometrial adenocarcinomas, and 10 endocervical adenocarcinomas. Among ovarian tumors, MGB was present in 40% of endometrioid carcinomas; 36%, serous carcinomas; 21%, clear cell carcinomas; and 6%, mucinous carcinomas. Among endometrial cancers, MGB reactivity was present in 57% of endometrioid carcinomas, but only 30% of serous carcinomas and 6% of clear cell carcinomas. MGB was absent in endocervical adenocarcinomas. Across all tumor types with positive staining, MGB was focal or patchy (ie, less than diffuse) in 50 of 57 cases. Using a scale of 0 to 3+, the only 3 tumors with 3+ MGB reactivity were all serous carcinomas (1 ovarian and 2 endometrial). There were no cases with diffuse 3+ MGB expression. On the other hand, diffuse 2+ MGB was seen in 4 cases: 1 endometrioid carcinoma of ovary, 1 serous carcinoma of ovary, and 2 clear cell carcinomas of ovary. In conclusion, a diagnostically significant proportion of gynecologic carcinomas are immunoreactive for MGB. Gynecologic primaries should be considered in the differential diagnosis of MGB-positive malignancies of unknown origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pancreas adenocarcinoma: novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Krantz, Benjamin A; Yu, Kenneth H; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2017-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in the US, and is projected to be second only to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the 2020s. Current therapies have a modest impact on survival and median overall survival (mOS) across all stages of disease remains under a year. Over the last decade, however, great strides have been made in the understanding of PDAC pathobiology including the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME), DNA damage repair and mechanism of immunosuppression. Exciting novel therapeutics are in clinical development targeting the TME to increase cytotoxic drug delivery, decrease immunosuppressive cell presence and attack cancer stem cells (CSCs). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines and other immunotherapies are actively being studied and novel combinations of targeted agents are being pursued. There is a sense of optimism in the oncology community that these scientific advances will translate into improved outcomes for patients with PDAC in the proximate future. In this review, we examine various novel therapeutics under clinical development with a focus on stromal disrupting agents, immunotherapeutics and DNA damage repair strategies.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of esophageal adenocarcinoma yields specific copy number aberrations that correlate with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Adam; Armour, Nicola; Nancarrow, Derek; Krause, Lutz; Hayward, Nicholas; Lampe, Guy; Smithers, B Mark; Barbour, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been increasing rapidly for the past 3 decades in Western (Caucasian) populations. Curative treatment is based around esophagectomy, which has a major impact on quality of life. For those suitable for treatment with curative intent, 5-year survival is ∼30%. More accurate prognostic tools are therefore needed, and copy number aberrations (CNAs) may offer the ability to act as prospective biomarkers in this regard. We performed a genome-wide examination of CNAs in 54 samples of EAC using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aims were to describe frequent regions of CNA, to define driver CNAs, and to identify CNAs that correlated with survival. Regions of frequent amplification included oncogenes such as EGFR, MYC, KLF12, and ERBB2, while frequently deleted regions included tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2A/B, PTPRD, FHIT, and SMAD4. The genomic identification of significant targets in cancer (GISTIC) algorithm identified 24 regions of gain and 28 regions of loss that were likely to contain driver changes. We discovered 61 genes in five regions that, when stratified by CNA type (gain or loss), correlated with a statistically significant difference in survival. Pathway analysis of the genes residing in both the GISTIC and prognostic regions showed they were significantly enriched for cancer-related networks. Finally, we discovered that copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity is a frequent mechanism of CNA in genes currently targetable by chemotherapy, potentially leading to under-reporting of cases suitable for such treatment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented.

  7. Highlights of the 2017 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons version 9.0.

    PubMed

    Ryom, L; Boesecke, C; Bracchi, M; Ambrosioni, J; Pozniak, A; Arribas, J; Behrens, G; Mallon, Pgm; Puoti, M; Rauch, A; Miro, J M; Kirk, O; Marzolini, C; Lundgren, J D; Battegay, M

    2018-05-01

    The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas. Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management. Recommendations on the clinical situations in which tenofovir alafenamide may be considered over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are provided, and recommendations on which antiretrovirals can be used safely during pregnancy have been revised. Renal and bone toxicity and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment have been added as potential reasons for ART switches in fully virologically suppressed individuals, and dolutegravir/rilpivirine has been included as a treatment option. In contrast, dolutegravir monotherapy is not recommended. New recommendations on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic lung disease, solid organ transplantation, and prescribing in elderly are included, and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination recommendations have been expanded. All drug-drug interaction tables have been updated and new tables are included. Treatment options for direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been updated and include the latest combinations of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. Recommendations on management of DAA failure and acute HCV infection have been expanded. For treatment of tuberculosis (TB), it is underlined that intermittent treatment is contraindicated, and for resistant TB new data suggest that using a three-drug combination may be as effective as a five-drug regimen, and may reduce treatment duration from 18-24 to 6-10 months. Version 9.0 of the EACS Guidelines provides a holistic approach to HIV care and is translated into the six most commonly spoken languages.

  8. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  9. Effect of Au-dextran NPs as anti-tumor agent against EAC and solid tumor in mice by biochemical evaluations and histopathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Medhat, Dalia; Hussein, Jihan; El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Attia, Mohamed F; Anwar, Mona; Latif, Yasmine Abdel; Booles, Hoda F; Morsy, Safaa; Farrag, Abdel Razik; Khalil, Wagdy K B; El-Khayat, Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Dextran-capped gold nanoparticles (Au-dextran NPs) were prepared exploiting the natural polysaccharide polymer as both reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis process, aiming at studying their antitumor effect on solid carcinoma and EAC-bearing mice. To this end, Au-dextran NPs were designed via simple eco-friendly chemical reaction and they were characterized revealing the monodispersed particles with narrow distributed size of around 49nm with high negative charge. In vivo experiments were performed on mice. Biochemical analysis of liver and kidney functions and oxidation stress ratio in addition to histopathological investigations of such tumor tissues were done demonstrating the potentiality of Au-dextran NPs as antitumor agent. The obtained results revealed that EAC and solid tumors caused significant increase in liver and kidney functions, liver oxidant parameters, alpha feto protein levels and diminished liver antioxidant accompanied by positive expression of tumor protein p53 of liver while the treatment with Au-dextran NPs for both types caused improvement in liver and kidney functions, increased liver antioxidant, increased the expression level of B-cell lymphoma 2 gene and subsequently suppressed the apoptotic pathway. As a result, the obtained data provides significant antitumor effects of the Au-dextran NPs in both Ehrlich ascites and solid tumor in mice models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, A; Lopez-Beltran, A; Egan, A J; Bostwick, D G

    1998-05-01

    A wide variety of architectural patterns of adenocarcinoma may be seen in the prostate. We have recently encountered a hitherto-undescribed pattern of growth characterized by intraluminal ball-like clusters of cancer cells reminiscent of renal glomeruli, which we refer to as prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features. To define the architectural features, frequency, and distribution of prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features, we reviewed 202 totally embedded radical prostatectomy specimens obtained between October 1992 and April 1994 from the files of the Mayo Clinic. This series was supplemented by 100 consecutive needle biopsies with prostatic cancer from January to February 1996. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features was characterized by round to oval epithelial tufts growing within malignant acini, often supported by a fibrovascular core. The epithelial cells were sometimes arranged in semicircular concentric rows separated by clefted spaces. In the radical prostatectomy specimens, nine cases (4.5%) had glomeruloid features. The glomeruloid pattern constituted 5% to 20% of each cancer (mean, 8.33%) and was usually located at the apex or in the peripheral zone of the prostate. Seven cases were associated with a high Gleason score (7 or 8), one with a score of 6, and one with a score of 5. All cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and extensive perineural invasion. Pathological stages included T2c (three cases), T3b (four cases), and T3c (two cases); one of the T3b cases had lymph node metastases (N1). Three (3%) of 100 consecutive routine needle biopsy specimens with cancer showed glomeruloid features, and this pattern constituted 5% to 10% of each cancer (mean, 6.7%). The Gleason score was 6 for two cases and 8 for one case. Two cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and one case had perineural invasion. Glomeruloid features were not observed in any benign or

  11. Anal sac adenocarcinoma in a Siamese cat.

    PubMed

    Mellanby, R J; Foale, R; Friend, E; Woodger, N; Herrtage, M E; Dobson, J D

    2002-12-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered Siamese cat presented with a history of inappetance and lethargy and an enlarged left anal sac. The anal sac was surgically excised and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of anal sac adenocarcinoma. Perianal tumours are rare in the cat and anal sac adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. This is in contrast to the dog where anal sac adenocarcinoma is a well recognised albeit uncommon tumour.

  12. Lysine-specific demethylase 2A expression is associated with cell growth and cyclin D1 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin-Lin; Du, Changzheng; Liu, Hangqi; Pei, Lin; Qin, Li; Jia, Mei; Wang, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), a specific H3K36me1/2 demethylase, has been reported to be closely associated with several types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and function of KDM2A in colorectal adenocarcinoma. A total of 215 colorectal adenocarcinoma specimens were collected, and then subjected to immunohistochemistry assay to evaluate the expression levels of KDM2A, cyclin D1 and other proteins in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and other molecular biology methods were used to explore the role of KDM2A in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. In this study, we report that the expression level of KDM2A is high in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues, and this high expression promotes the proliferation and colony formation of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, as demonstrated by KDM2A knockdown experiments. In addition, the expression of KDM2A is closely associated with cyclin D1 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. Our study reveals a novel role for high-expressed KDM2A in colorectal adenocarcinoma cell growth, and that the expression of KDM2A is associated with that of cyclin D1 in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  13. [Correlations between OCT4 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Huimin; Jin, Bo; Dong, Qianggang; Huang, Jinsu; Han, Baohui

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, cases of lung adenocarcinoma morbidity have consistently grown. OCT4 is the key gene that controls the automatic renewal of stem cells, and regulates the proliferation and differentiation of cancer stem cells. The aim of this study is to detect OCT4 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and to evaluate its relevance in the metastasis, chemotherapeutic effect, and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Immunofluorescence method was employed to detect OCT4 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. The relationship between OCT4 expression and clinical pathological indicators is examined through chi-square test. Moreover, the survival rate is calculated through the Kaplan-Meier survivorship curve. Finally, the relevance between the indicators and patient survival is estimated using Cox analysis. Among the 126 tissue samples of lung adenocarcinoma, 91 showed OCT4 positive cells. OCT4 expression is closely related to metastasis and chemoresistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and negatively corresponds to the patients' disease-free survival and survival periods. OCT4 expression is related to metastasis and chemoresistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and thus indicates poor prognosis.

  14. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  15. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas. PMID:28206961

  16. Differential diagnosis and cancer staging of a unique case with multiple nodules in the lung - lung adenocarcinoma, metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Qiu, Jianxing; Shang, Xueqian; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Yan; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite this, there have been few cases of simultaneous primary and metastatic cancers in the lung reported, let alone coexisting with tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case. A 61-year-old man with a history of colon adenocarcinoma was revealed as having three nodules in the lung 11 months after colectomy. The nodule in the left upper lobe was primary lung adenocarcinoma, the larger one in the right upper lobe was a metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and the smaller one in the right upper lobe was colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma. Our paper focused on the differential diagnosis and cancer staging of this unique case, and discussed the uncommon phenomenon of the lung acting as a recipient in tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

  17. [Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Balderrama, Lázaro; López-Briones, Sergio; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Macías, Maciste H; López-Gaytán, Teresa; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    The human prostate is a gland composed of many types of cells and extracellular components with specific functions. The stromal compartment includes nerve tissue, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscular cells. The epithelial compartment is composed of luminal epithelial cells, basal cells, and a lesser number of neuroendocrine cells, which are transcendental in growth regulation, differentiation, and secretory function. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells replicate especially in high grade and advanced stage, and hormonally treated tumoral cells adopt characteristics that make them resistant to hormonal deprivation. Androgen receptors have a crucial role in tumorigenesis of prostate adenocarcinoma. Deprivation hormone therapy blocks the expression of androgen receptors in the prostatic epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells lack androgen receptors; their growth is hormonally independent and that is why deprivation hormonal therapy does not eliminate the neoplasic neuroendocrine cells. In contrast, these types of cells proliferate after therapy and make a paracrine network, stimulating the proliferation of androgen-independent neoplastic cells, which finally lead to tumoral recurrence. In this work we describe the neuroendocrine function in normal tissue and in prostatic adenocarcinoma, including neoplasic proliferation stimulation, invasion, apoptosis resistance, and angiogenesis, and describe some molecular pathways involved in this neuroendocrine differentiation.

  18. Rac3 Regulates Cell Invasion, Migration and EMT in Lung Adenocarcinoma through p38 MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenlei; Liu, Tieqin; Wang, Gebang; Wang, Huan; Che, Xiaofang; Gao, Xinghua; Liu, Hongxu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role of Rac3 in cell proliferation in lung adenocarcinoma has been tackled in our previous study. However, the role of Rac3 in cell invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma is still not clear. Methods: The expression of Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma specimens and paired noncancerous normal tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to silence Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 and H1299. A p38 MAPK inhibitor (LY2228820) was employed to inhibit activity of p38 MAPK pathway. Cell invasion and migration in vitro were examined by invasion and migration assays, respectively. PathScan® intracellular signaling array kit and western blot were employed in mechanism investigation. Results: Rac3 expression was frequently higher in lung adenocarcinoma than paired noncancerous normal tissues. Rac3 expression was an independent risk factor for lymphonode metastasis, and was associated with worse survival outcome. Silencing of Rac3 inhibited cell invasion and cell migration in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of Rac3 decreased activity of p38 MAPK pathway. LY2228820, which was an important p38 MAPK inhibitor, inhibited Rac3-induced cell invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma. E-cadherin expression was increased and vimentin expression was decreased after silencing of Rac3 or following the treatment of LY2228820. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Rac3 regulates cell invasion, migration and EMT via p38 MAPK pathway. Rac3 may be a potential biomarker of invasion and metastasis for lung adenocarcinoma, and knockdown of Rac3 may potentially serve as a promising therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28900489

  19. Noninvasive Computed Tomography–based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. Objectives: To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. Methods: We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. Conclusions: CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26052977

  20. AgNOR histochemical expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, R.; Delyuzar; Laksmi, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma were common diseases and usually occurred after the 5th decade of life. The problem in diagnosing using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was how to differentiate whether it is benign or malignant zone. Therefore, proliferating markers, such as AgNOR, could be helping to over this difficulty. A descriptive study using consecutive sampling as the method of sample recruiting was conducted to describe AgNOR histochemical expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. AgNOR staining was done in 13 benign prostatic hyperplasia samples and 7 prostatic adenocarcinoma samples, which have been confirmed using p63 immunohistochemical staining before. Benign prostatic hyperplasia usually showed lower AgNOR proliferating activity while all of theprostatic adenocarcinoma (100%) had high AgNOR proliferating activity.

  1. Isolated adenocarcinoma of the nipple

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M; Basit, A

    2011-01-01

    A 47-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of ‘eczematous change’ to the right nipple. Bilateral mammography and ultrasound were entirely normal. Free hand biopsy demonstrated invasive adenocarcinoma of the nipple. The patient underwent a right-sided central segmentectomy and sentinel node biopsy. Histology demonstrated that the nipple was almost completely replaced by an invasive ductal carcinoma with a maximum diameter of 13 mm. Invasion of the underlying breast tissue was to a depth of 3 mm. A single sentinel lymph node demonstrated metastatic carcinoma. Her oestrogen receptor status was positive while HER-2 status was negative. The patient subsequently underwent right-sided axillary node clearance to level three nodes. All 17 nodes in the specimen were found to be within normal limits. She is scheduled to undergo radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment. PMID:22689722

  2. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

  3. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  4. "Ductal adenocarcinoma in anular pancreas".

    PubMed

    Benassai, Giacomo; Perrotta, Stefano; Furino, Ermenegildo; De Werra, Carlo; Aloia, Sergio; Del Giudice, Roberto; Amato, Bruno; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Limite, Gennaro; Quarto, Gennaro

    2015-09-01

    The annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue partially or completely surrounds the second portion of the duodenum. Its often located above of papilla of Vater (85%), rarely below (15%). This pancreatic tissue is often easily dissociable to the duodenum but there is same cases where it the tissue is into the muscolaris wall of the duodenum. We describe three case of annular pancreas hospitalized in our facility between January 2004 and January 2009. There were 2 male 65 and 69 years old respectively and 1 female of 60 years old, presented complaining of repeated episodes of mild epigastric pain. Laboratory tests (including tumor markers), a direct abdomen X-ray with enema, EGDS and total body CT scan were performed to study to better define the diagnosis. EUS showed the presence of tissue infiltrating the muscle layer all around the first part of duodenum. Biopsies performed found the presence of pancreatic tissue with focal areas of adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with Roux was performed. The histological examinations shows an annular pancreas of D1 with multiple focal area of adenocarcinoma. (T1aN0M0). We performed a follow up at 5 years. One patients died after 36 months for cardiovascular hit. Two patients, one male and one female, was 5-years disease-free. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly which usually presents itself in infants and newborn. Rarely it can present in late adult life with wide range of clinical severities thereby making its diagnosis difficult. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. CT scan can illustrate the pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum. ERCP and MRCP are useful in outlining the annular pancreatic duct. Surgery still remains necessary to confirm diagnosis and bypassing the obstructed segment. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MLN0264 in Previously Treated Asian Participants With Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma or Metastatic or Recurrent Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Expressing Guanylyl Cyclase C

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoma

  6. Ethmoidal sinus adenocarcinoma with orbital invasion.

    PubMed

    Koukoulomatis, P; Charakidas, A; Papakrivopoulos, A; Giotakis, I

    2001-01-01

    To report a rare case of massive ethmoidal adenocarcinoma with orbital invasion but minimal ophthalmic symptoms on presentation. Case report of a 69-year-old, otherwise healthy, retired carpenter who was referred for treatment of bilateral senile cataract. A relative afferent pupillary defect and sectorial disc atrophy on ophthalmic examination led to further investigation and identification of an extensive ethmoidal neoplasm with orbital invasion. An incisional biopsy was performed and histopathologic examination revealed an adenocarcinoma of low-grade malignancy. Ethmoidal adenocarcinomas with orbital involvement may occasionally be relatively asymptomatic and masked by coexisting ocular disease.

  7. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-01-01

    Background The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. Methods In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Conclusions Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or

  8. Concordant and Discordant EGFR Mutations in Patients with Multifocal Adenocarcinomas: Implications for EGFR Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jody C.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Neal, Joel W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Adenocarcinoma remains the most common subtype of lung cancer in the United States. Most patients present with tumors that are invasive and often metastatic, but some patients develop multiple precursor in-situ or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma tumors which can be synchronous and metachronous. These precursor lesions harbor the same spectrum of genetic mutations found in pure-invasive adenocarcinomas, such as EGFR, KRAS and p53 mutations. It is less clear, however, if separate lesions in patients who present with multifocal disease share common underlying genetic driver mutations. Methods Here we review the relevant literature on molecular driver alterations in adenocarcinoma precursor lesions. We then report four cases with multifocal EGFR mutant adenocarcinomas in whom we performed molecular testing on 2 separate lesions. Findings In two of these patients, the mutations are concordant, and in two cases the mutations are discordant. A review of the literature demonstrates increasing evidence that lesions with discordant mutations may confer a more favorable prognosis, since they are unlikely to represent metastases. Implications Our findings suggest that the emergence of the dominant EGFR driver alteration is often independent between lesions in patients with multifocal adenocarcinomas, and thus the same targeted therapy may not be effective for all lesions. However, genetic testing of multiple lesions can help distinguish separate primary tumors from metastatic disease. PMID:27368115

  9. Risk factors for Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: Results from the FINBAR study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lesley A; Watson, RG Peter; Murphy, Seamus J; Johnston, Brian T; Comber, Harry; Mc Guigan, Jim; Reynolds, John V; Murray, Liam J

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This all-Ireland population-based case-control study recruited 224 Barrett’s oesophagus patients, 227 oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients and 260 controls. All participants underwent a structured interview with information obtained about potential lifestyle and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Gastro-oesophageal reflux was associated with Barrett’s [OR 12.0 (95% CI 7.64-18.7)] and oesophageal adenocarcinoma [OR 3.48 (95% CI 2.25-5.41)]. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients were more likely than controls to be ex- or current smokers [OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.06-2.81) and OR 4.84 (95% CI 2.72-8.61) respectively] and to have a high body mass index [OR 2.69 (95% CI 1.62-4.46)]. No significant associations were observed between these risk factors and Barrett's oesophagus. Fruit but not vegetables were negatively associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.30-0.86)]. CONCLUSION: A high body mass index, a diet low in fruit and cigarette smoking may be involved in the progression from Barrett’s oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:17461453

  10. Meta-analysis: the association of oesophageal adenocarcinoma with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, J. H.; Taylor, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Endoscopic screening has been proposed for patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the hope of reducing mortality from oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Assessing the net benefits of such a strategy requires a precise understanding of the cancer risk in the screened population. Aim To estimate precisely the association between symptoms of GERD and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies with strict ascertainment of exposure and outcomes. Results Five eligible studies were identified. At least weekly symptoms of GERD increased the odds of oesophageal adenocarcinoma fivefold (odds ratio = 4.92; 95% confidence interval = 3.90, 6.22), and daily symptoms increased the odds sevenfold (random effects summary odds ratio = 7.40, 95% confidence interval = 4.94, 11.1), each compared with individuals without symptoms or less frequent symptoms. Duration of symptoms was also associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, but with very heterogeneous results, and unclear thresholds. Conclusions Frequent GERD symptoms are strongly associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. These results should be useful in developing epidemiological models of the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and in models of interventions aimed at reducing mortality from this cancer. PMID:20955441

  11. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: A renewed entity in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kadara, Humam; Kabbout, Mohamed; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer, of which non-small-cell lung cancer comprises the majority, is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and worldwide. Lung adenocarcinomas are a major subtype of non-small-cell lung cancers, are increasing in incidence globally in both males and females and in smokers and non-smokers, and are the cause for almost 50% of deaths attributable to lung cancer. Lung adenocarcinoma is a tumour with complex biology that we have recently started to understand with the advent of various histological, transcriptomic, genomic and proteomic technologies. However, the histological and molecular pathogenesis of this malignancy is still largely unknown. This review will describe advances in the molecular pathology of lung adenocarcinoma with emphasis on genomics and DNA alterations of this disease. Moreover, the review will discuss recognized lung adenocarcinoma preneoplastic lesions and current concepts of the early pathogenesis and progression of the disease. We will also portray the field cancerization phenomenon and lineage-specific oncogene expression pattern in lung cancer and how both remerging concepts can be exploited to increase our understanding of lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis for subsequent development of biomarkers for early detection of adenocarcinomas and possibly personalized prevention. PMID:22040022

  12. Pathology of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    De las Heras, M; González, L; Sharp, J M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical, gross pathology, histopathology and electron microscopy of the ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA, jaagsiekte) either natural or experimentally induced in sheep, goat and moufflon are described. OPA is caused by an oncogenic betaretrovirus,jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Most natural cases of OPA appear in animals 1-4 years old. There is no evidence of sex or breed susceptibility. Sheep affected by OPA show an afebrile respiratory illness associated with loss of weight. A very characteristic clinical sign is moist rales caused by the accumulation of fluid in the respiratory airways which is discharged from the nostrils when the head is lowered. Gross lesions are confined to the lungs but occasionally thoracic or extrathoracic structures are also affected. Two pathologic forms of OPA are currently recognized, classical and atypical. In classical forms the neoplastic lesions occurs particularly in the cranioventral parts of all lung lobes. They are diffuse or nodular, light grey or light purple in colour. On the cut surface the tumour is moist, and frothy fluid may pour from the airways on slight pressure. Atypical forms tend to be more nodular in both early and advanced tumours. They are pearly white in colour, very hard in consistency, very well demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma and their surface is dry. Histology of the lung sections reveals the presence of several foci of epithelial cell neoplastic proliferation in both alveolar or bronchiolar regions. The tumours, derived from type II pneumocytes and Clara cells, proliferate into mostly papillary but also acinar or occasionally solid growths. The tumour generally shows a benign histological pattern but intra- and extrathoracic metastases have been detected in some cases. Several considerations suggest that the tumour should be classified as an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The histology of atypical OPA is similar to that of the classical disease, with an increase in the stromal reaction

  13. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  14. Bioinformatics approach reveals systematic mechanism underlying lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiya; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yunhua; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the systematic molecular mechanism of lung adenocarcinoma and gain a deeper insight into it. Comprehensive bioinformatics methods were applied. Initially, significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed from the Affymetrix microarray data (GSE27262) deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Subsequently, gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed using online Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery (DAVID) software. Finally, significant pathway crosstalk was investigated based on the information derived from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. According to our results, the N-terminal globular domain of the type X collagen (COL10A1) gene and transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) gene were identified to be the most significant DEGs in tumor tissue compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The main GO categories were biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In addition, the crosstalk was significantly different between non-small cell lung cancer pathways and inositol phosphate metabolism pathway, focal adhesion signal pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction signal pathway, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway in tumor. Dysfunctional genes and pathways may play key roles in the progression and development of lung adenocarcinoma. Our data provide a systematic perspective for understanding this mechanism and may be helpful in discovering an effective treatment for lung adenocarcinoma.

  15. Racial differences in patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Cronjé, H S; Fourie, S; Doman, M J; Helms, J B; Nel, J T; Goedhals, L

    1992-11-01

    To determine the differences between white and black women with regard to the presentation and behavior of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Records of 273 (68%) white patients and 117 (32%) black patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma were reviewed in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Survival data was calculated according to the direct method where losses in follow-up were regarded as tumor deaths. Most patients (82%) were treated by pre-operative radium followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with post-operative external irradiation where indicated. Pre-operatively, fewer black women had reached FIGO stage I, while a larger number had advanced to stages II-IV (P = 0.0024). In addition, the tumor differentiation was more often poor in the black group (P < 0.0001). Ten-year follow-up was achieved in 84% of the white patients and 51% of the black patients and the 10-year survival figures were 67% for white patients and 28% for blacks (P < 0.0001). Endometrial adenocarcinoma is a more aggressive disease in black women than it is in whites.

  16. Expression of SNCG, MAP2, SDF-1 and CXCR4 in gastric adenocarcinoma and their clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shufang; Shi, Lifang; Zhang, Yi; He, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to detect the expression of SNCG, MAP2, SDF-1 and CXCR4 in gastric adenocarcinoma, and to evaluate their roles in the carcinogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma, development, invasion and metastasis as well as their clinical significance. Methods: The expression of SNCG, MAP2, SDF-1 and CXCR4 was detected by SP immunohistochemical method in 225 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and 105 cases of nonneoplastic adjacent gastric tissue. The expression of SNCG, MAP2, SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA was also detected by RT-PCR method in 50 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and 30 cases of nonneoplastic adjacent gastric tissue. Results: The expression of SNCG, MAP2, SDF-1 and CXCR4 in the gastric adenocarcinoma was remarkably higher than those in the nonneoplastic adjacent gastric tissue (P < 0.01); The positive expression of SNCG and MAP2 was correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and the metastasis of lymph nodes (P < 0.05), and that of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was correlated with the metastasis of lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Conclusions: SNCG, MAP2, SDF-1 and CXCR4 may play an important role in the carcinogenesis, progression, invasion and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, it still needs more exploration whether they can serve as promising therapeutic targets of gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:25400739

  17. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  18. Comparative Survival of Patients With Anal Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus, and Rectal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Robert A; Giri, Smith; Valasareddy, Poojitha; Lands, Lindsey T; Martin, Mike G

    2016-03-01

    Anal adenocarcinoma (AA) represents 5% to 10% of anal cancer. Little is known about its natural history and prognosis. Using population-based data, we defined the outcomes of AA relative to other anorectal malignancies. We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database to identify patients ≥ 18 years old with AA, squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), and rectal adenocarcinoma (RA) diagnosed between 1990 and 2011. Median overall survival (OS), 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year OS were computed using actuarial methods. The log rank test was used to estimate the difference between Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to adjust the effects of other covariates on survival, including age, year diagnosed, sex, stage, surgery, and radiation. Of 57,369 cases, 0.8% (n = 462) were patients with AA, 87.8% (n = 50,382) were patients with RA, and 11.4% (n = 6525) were patients with SCCA. The median age for AA was 69 years (range, 20-96 years), 66 years (range, 18-103 years) for RA, and 66 years (range, 14-104 years) for SCCA. The median OS was significantly lower for AA (33 months), compared with SCCA (118 months) and RA (68 months) (P < .01). In multivariate analysis, AA had a worse prognosis compared with SCCA (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.75; P < .01) and RA (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61-0.77; P < .01), after adjusting for age, sex, race, stage, grade, radiation, and surgery. There was a strong trend for improved survival among patients who received radical surgery (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-1.00; P = .05). AA confers a significantly worse prognosis than SCCA and RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of somatic mutations in EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung adenocarcinoma is a highly heterogeneous disease with various etiologies, prognoses, and responses to therapy. Although genome-scale characterization of lung adenocarcinoma has been performed, a comprehensive somatic mutation analysis of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers has not been conducted. Methods We analyzed whole exome sequencing data from 16 EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas and additional 54 tumors in two expansion cohort sets. Candidate loci were validated by target capture and Sanger sequencing. Gene set analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results We identified 27 genes potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. These included targetable genes involved in PI3K/mTOR signaling (TSC1, PIK3CA, AKT2) and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling (ERBB4) and genes not previously highlighted in lung adenocarcinomas, such as SETD2 and PBRM1 (chromatin remodeling), CHEK2 and CDC27 (cell cycle), CUL3 and SOD2 (oxidative stress), and CSMD3 and TFG (immune response). In the expansion cohort (N = 70), TP53 was the most frequently altered gene (11%), followed by SETD2 (6%), CSMD3 (6%), ERBB2 (6%), and CDH10 (4%). In pathway analysis, the majority of altered genes were involved in cell cycle/DNA repair (P <0.001) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling (P <0.001). Conclusions The genomic makeup of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas in never-smokers is remarkably diverse. Genes involved in cell cycle regulation/DNA repair are implicated in tumorigenesis and represent potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24576404

  20. Immunohistochemical assessment of NY-ESO-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma resection specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Stephen J; Hng, Keng Ngee; Clark, Peter; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Hawkins, Robert E; Ang, Yeng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess NY-ESO-1 expression in a cohort of esophageal adenocarcinomas. METHODS: A retrospective search of our tissue archive for esophageal resection specimens containing esophageal adenocarcinoma was performed, for cases which had previously been reported for diagnostic purposes, using the systematised nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine coding system. Original haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were reviewed, using light microscopy, to confirm classification and tumour differentiation. A total of 27 adenocarcinoma resection specimens were then assessed using immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 expression: 4 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated, 4 moderate-poorly differentiated, and 5 poorly differentiated. RESULTS: Four out of a total of 27 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma examined (15%) displayed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression for NY-ESO-1. They displayed a heterogeneous and mosaic-type pattern of diffuse staining. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining was not identified in any of these structures: stroma, normal squamous epithelium, normal submucosal gland and duct, Barrett’s esophagus (goblet cell), Barrett’s esophagus (non-goblet cell) and high grade glandular dysplasia. All adenocarcinomas showed an unexpected dot-type pattern of staining at nuclear, paranuclear and cytoplasmic locations. Similar dot-type staining, with varying frequency and size of dots, was observed on examination of Barrett’s metaplasia, esophageal submucosal gland acini and the large bowel negative control, predominantly at the crypt base. Furthermore, a prominent pattern of apical (luminal) cytoplasmic dot-type staining was observed in some cases of Barrett’s metaplasia and also adenocarcinoma. A further morphological finding of interest was noted on examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections, as aggregates of lymphocytes were consistently noted to surround submucosal glands. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated for the first time NY

  1. Detection of tumor angiogenesis factor in adenocarcinoma of kidney.

    PubMed

    Bard, R H; Mydlo, J H; Freed, S Z

    1986-05-01

    Implantation of human renal adenocarcinoma in the rabbit cornea has resulted in new vascular growth from the limbus toward the tumor implant. This suggests that renal adenocarcinoma elaborates tumor angiogenesis factor (TAF) which stimulates endothelial cell growth. Such a substance could conceivably be responsible for the luxuriant vascularity of most renal adenocarcinomas. Conversely, absence or diminished secretion of TAF may be responsible for the hypovascular papillary renal adenocarcinomas and their recognized relatively benign clinical behavior.

  2. Primary appendicular adenocarcinoma presenting as haematuria

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Bassem; Santana-Vaz, Natasha; Munir, Komal

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix is a rare malignant neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract encountered rarely within general surgical practice. We present the case of a 49-year-old man who, while undergoing investigations for haematuria, was diagnosed with an appendicular adenocarcinoma following bladder biopsy. Consequently he underwent right hemicolectomy and partial cystectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. By discussing this case we hope to raise awareness within the medical profession of this rare presentation so that it may be considered within clinicians’ differential diagnoses. PMID:25358831

  3. Infected colonic mass revealing a lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Doussot, Alexandre; Chalumeau, Claire; Combier, Christophe; Cheynel, Nicolas; Facy, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    We report the case of lung adenocarcinoma revealed by infected colonic tumor in a 62-year-old man. An en bloc surgical resection was performed with uneventful recovery. The pathologic report concluded in a right mesocolic lymph node metastases from a mildly differentiated adenocarcinoma from pulmonary origin. GI metastases of lung cancer are described in the literature and are frequently asymptomatic in patient with a known primary cancer. In this patient, the complication of the metastases revealed the primary and immunochemistry permitted to adapt the systemic chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. EGFR immunoexpression, RAS immunoexpression and their effects on survival in lung adenocarcinoma cases

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Sevgen; Firat, Pinar; Dogan, Riza

    2014-01-01

    Background The impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunoexpression and RAS immunoexpression on the survival and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients are debated in the literature. Methods Twenty-six patients, who underwent pulmonary resections between 2002 and 2007 in our clinic, and whose pathologic examinations yielded adenocarcinoma, were included in the study. EGFR and RAS expression levels were examined by immunohistochemical methods. The results were compared with the survival, stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. Nonparametric bivariate analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results A significant link between EGFR immunoexpression and survival has been identified while RAS immunoexpression and survival have been proven to be irrelevant. Neither EGFR, nor RAS has displayed a significant link with the stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, or pleural invasion. Conclusions Positive EGFR immunoexpression affects survival negatively, while RAS immunoexpression has no effect on survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:24977003

  5. Mutation analysis of the p53, APC, and p16 genes in the Barrett's oesophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    González, M V; Artímez, M L; Rodrigo, L; López-Larrea, C; Menéndez, M J; Alvarez, V; Pérez, R; Fresno, M F; Pérez, M J; Sampedro, A; Coto, E

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To study the loss of heterozygosity and the presence of mutations at the p53, p16/CDKN2, and APC genes in Barrett's oesophagus, low grade dysplastic oesophageal epithelium, and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus; to relate the presence of alterations at these genes with the progression from Barrett's oesophagus to adenocarcinoma. METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks containing tissue from Barrett's oesophagus (12 samples), low grade dysplasia (15 cases), and adenocarcinoma (14 cases). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the p53, p16, and APC genes was determined by comparing the autoradiographic patterns of several microsatellite markers between the normal tissue and the malignant tissue counterpart. SSCP was used to determine the presence of mutations at p53 (exons 5 to 8), p16 (exon 2), and APC. Homozygous deletion of the p16 gene was defined through polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot. RESULTS: LOH at the p53, p16, and APC genes was not observed in Barrett's oesophagus without dysplasia, and increased to 90% (p53), 89% (p16), and 60% (APC) in the adenocarcinomas. The p53 gene was mutated in only two adenocarcinomas (codons 175 and 245). In one case a mutation at the APC gene (codon 1297) was found. No patient had mutation at the second exon of p16. However, this gene was homozygously deleted in three of the 12 adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: The tumour suppressor genes p53, p16, and APC are often deleted in adenocarcinomas derived from Barrett's oesophagus. Mutations at these genes are also found in the adenocarcinomas, including the homozygous deletion of the p16 gene. However, the absence of genetic alterations in the Barrett's oesophagus and the low grade dysplastic epithelia suggest that mutations at these genes develop later in the progression from Barrett's oesophagus to adenocarcinoma. Images PMID:9155671

  6. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT ), retardance (RT ), depolarization(ΔT ), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT , ΔL, RT ,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DTa nd DL showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues.

  7. Naked Cuticle Drosophila 1 Expression in Histologic Subtypes of Small Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sangjeong; Hwangbo, Won; Kim, Hyunchul

    2013-01-01

    Background Naked cuticle Drosophila 1 (NKD1) has been related to non-small cell lung cancer in that decreased NKD1 levels have been associated with both poor prognosis and increased invasive quality. Methods Forty cases of lung adenocarcinoma staged as Tis or T1a were selected. Cases were subclassified into adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and small adenocarcinoma (SAD). Immunohistochemical studies for NKD1 were performed. Results Forty samples comprised five cases of AIS (12.5%), eight of MIA (20.0%), and 27 of SAD (67.5%). AIS and MIA showed no lymph node metastasis and 100% disease-free survival, whereas among 27 patients with SAD, 2 (7.4%) had lymph node metastasis, and 3 (11.1%) died from the disease. Among the 40 cases, NKD1-reduced expression was detected in 8 (20%) samples, whereas normal expression was found in 15 (37.5%) and overexpression in 17 (42.5%). Loss of NKD1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.001). All cases with predominant papillary pattern showed overexpression of NKD1 (p=0.026). Conclusions Among MIA and SAD, MIA had better outcomes than SAD. Down-regulated NKD1 expression was closely associated with nodal metastasis, and overexpression was associated with papillary predominant adenocarcinoma. PMID:23837013

  8. The Smad4/PTEN Expression Pattern Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yumin; Wi, Young Chan; Kim, Yeseul; Bang, Seong Sik; Yang, Jung-Ho; Jang, Kiseok; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Paik, Seung Sam

    2018-01-01

    Background Smad4 and PTEN are prognostic indicators for various tumor types. Smad4 regulates tumor suppression, whereas PTEN inhibits cell proliferation. We analyzed and compared the performance of Smad4 and PTEN for predicting the prognosis of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods Combined expression patterns based on Smad4+/– and PTEN+/– status were evaluated by immunostaining using a tissue microarray of colorectal adenocarcinoma. The relationships between the protein expression and clinicopathological variables were analyzed. Results Smad4–/PTEN– status was most frequently observed in metastatic adenocarcinoma, followed by primary adenocarcinoma and tubular adenoma (p<.001). When Smad4–/PTEN– and Smad4+/PTEN+ groups were compared, Smad4–/PTEN– status was associated with high N stage (p=.018) and defective mismatch repair proteins (p=.006). Significant differences in diseasefree survival and overall survival were observed among the three groups (Smad4+/PTEN+, Smad4–/PTEN+ or Smad4+/PTEN–, and Smad4–/PTEN–) (all p<.05). Conclusions Concurrent loss of Smad4 and PTEN may lead to more aggressive disease and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma compared to the loss of Smad4 or PTEN alone. PMID:29056035

  9. Lymphatic vessel density in the neoplastic progression of Barrett's oesophagus to adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brundler, M‐A; Harrison, J A; de Saussure, B; de Perrot, M; Pepper, M S

    2006-01-01

    Background Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm with poor prognosis as a result of early lymph node metastasis. Aims To measure lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in the neoplastic progression from Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma and determine whether LVD can predict the risk of cancer. In addition, to correlate LVD with lymph node metastasis and assess whether LVD could be used as a prognostic indicator for outcome or survival. Methods LVD and microvascular density (MVD) were assessed after immunohistochemical staining of vessels in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma tissues and were correlated with clinicopathological features. Results LVD was significantly reduced in adenocarcinoma, being half that seen in normal stomach/oesophagus or metaplasia/dysplasia. LVD did not correlate with tumour grade, stage, or clinical outcome; however, patients who had either lymph node metastasis or invasion of tumour cells into peritumorous lymphatic vessels had a significantly worse overall survival. MVD was also assessed as a prognostic marker; its increase appeared to be linked more with the development of Barrett's metaplasia than adenocarcinoma. Conclusions The reduction in lymphatic vessel numbers was not useful for determining disease outcome in the patient group studied. It is the entry of tumour cells into pre‐existing peritumorous lymphatic vessels that confers a significantly worse overall survival. PMID:16443737

  10. Lung Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Plasmacytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Atsunori; Nakase, Kazunori; Fukutome, Kazuo; Nomura, Hideki; Ueno, Setsuko; Mizuno, Toshiro; Katayama, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    An increased risk of second malignancy is well recognized in patients treated for plasma cell neoplasms. However, second solid tumor is very rare in such patients. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with plasmacytoma who developed lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24455337

  11. Adenocarcinoma arising in urinary bladder endocervicosis.

    PubMed

    Nakaguro, Masato; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Shimada, Satoko; Taki, Tetsuro; Tsuchiyama, Mari; Kitamura, Atsuko; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Yojiro; Ono, Kenzo

    2016-02-01

    Endocervicosis is a rare benign condition characterized by the presence of endocervical-type mucinous glands. Urinary bladder endocervicosis forms an elevated lesion in the posterior wall of the urinary bladder and is sometimes misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor clinically and pathologically. Herein we describe the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in urinary bladder endocervicosis. The patient, a 58-year-old woman, presented with asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a nodular mass measuring 4 cm in diameter in the posterior wall, and total cystectomy was performed. Histology revealed that the elevated lesion of the bladder wall was composed of haphazard proliferation of cystic glands lined by benign endocervical-type epithelium. An adenocarcinoma arose at the center of this endocervicosis. Mucin histochemistry revealed the presence of sulfomucin in both the endocervicosis and adenocarcinoma components. Immunohistochemically, the endocervicosis was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7, AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, HBME1, CA19-9, and estrogen receptor (ER), and negative for CK20, CDX2, progesterone receptor (PR), MUC5AC, and β-catenin. The adenocarcinoma showed similar immunohistochemical results, except for loss of ER expression and a slight increase in the ratio of Ki-67-positive cells. This case indicates that endocervicosis, known as a benign lesion, harbors the possibility of malignant transformation. © 2016 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Rare coexistence of sarcoidosis and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Amit Girish; Ochieng, Pius; Kachalia, Kinjal; Rahman, Habibur

    2014-01-01

    An eighty year old African-American female was evaluated for cough, chest pain, asymptomatic anemia and 21 pound weight loss over a six month period. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed a spiculated 2.8 cm right upper lobe lung nodule, other smaller nodules and lymphadenopathy. Gallium scan revealed abnormal uptake of radiotracer in lacrimal, hilar and mediastinal glands. Broncho-alveolar lavage showed CD4/CD8 ratio of 2:1 with 15% lymphocytes. Biopsy of right upper lobe lesion and mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsy showed numerous matured uniform non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, however stains and culture for Acid fast bacilli (AFB)/fungal organisms were negative. Patient improved on oral steroids. Six months later she returned with worsening dyspnea and chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusions. Thoracocentesis revealed Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) positive adenocarcinoma cells and Video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedure revealed numerous pleural, pericardial, diaphragmatic metastasis. Biopsy also was positive for TTF1 adenocarcinoma and positive for Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, however negative for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK). Talc pleurodesis was performed. She was treated with erlotinib while steroid was kept on hold. Initial tumor burden decreased but follow-up PET scan six months later showed progression of tumor with lymphadenopathy. After discussion with patient and family, patient opted for hospice care. Oncocentric theory postulates sarcoidosis as an immunological reaction to dispersal of tumor antigen. Sarcocentric theory postulates that cell-mediated immune abnormalities induced by sarcoidosis in CD4 and CD8 cells is involved in the onset of lung cancer. Thus considerable controversy exists regarding sarcoidosis and malignancy. In our case, TTF1 adenocarcinoma cells from thoracocentesis suggest peripheral nodules in right upper lobe and lingula were likely metastatic, presenting as malignant

  13. Comparison of absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresunko, O. P.; Zelinska, N. V.; Prydij, O. G.; Zymnyakov, D. A.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  14. EGFR immunoexpression, RAS immunoexpression and their effects on survival in lung adenocarcinoma cases.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Onder, Sevgen; Firat, Pinar; Dogan, Riza

    2014-06-01

    The impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunoexpression and RAS immunoexpression on the survival and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients are debated in the literature. Twenty-six patients, who underwent pulmonary resections between 2002 and 2007 in our clinic, and whose pathologic examinations yielded adenocarcinoma, were included in the study. EGFR and RAS expression levels were examined by immunohistochemical methods. The results were compared with the survival, stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. Nonparametric bivariate analyses were used for statistical analyses. A significant link between EGFR immunoexpression and survival has been identified while RAS immunoexpression and survival have been proven to be irrelevant. Neither EGFR, nor RAS has displayed a significant link with the stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, or pleural invasion. Positive EGFR immunoexpression affects survival negatively, while RAS immunoexpression has no effect on survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  15. Efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiangru; Shi, Yuankai

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with brain metastases (BMs) from lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and methods Clinical data of 28 cases with BMs from lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients took 125 mg icotinib orally three times a day. Progression of disease, intolerable adverse reactions, and number of deaths were recorded. Results For all the patients, the remission rate of icotinib was 67.8% and the disease control rate was 96.4%. The median overall survival time of patients was 21.2 months, and the median progression-free survival time of patients was 10.9 months. Only mild adverse events of grade 1/2 were observed during the treatment. Conclusion Icotinib was an effective and safe strategy to treat patients with BMs from lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27274284

  16. [Increased expressions of peripheral PD-1+ lymphocytes and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in gastric adenocarcinoma patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Li, Songyan; Hu, Shidong; Zou, Guijun; Hu, Zilong; Wei, Huahua; Wang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Objective To detect the frequencies of peripheral programmed death-1 + (PD-1 + ) lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods The study enrolled 29 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Frequencies of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were detected using flow cytometry. Results The number of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood was higher in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than that in the control group. Moreover, linear correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between PD-1 expression and frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of the patients. Conclusion Gastric adenocarcinoma patients present with increased PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood.

  17. Possible pathways used to predict different stages of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Duan, Qiongyu; Xuan, Ying; Sun, Yunan; Wu, Rong

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to find some specific pathways that can be used to predict the stage of lung adenocarcinoma.RNA-Seq expression profile data and clinical data of lung adenocarcinoma (stage I [37], stage II 161], stage III [75], and stage IV [45]) were obtained from the TCGA dataset. The differentially expressed genes were merged, correlation coefficient matrix between genes was constructed with correlation analysis, and unsupervised clustering was carried out with hierarchical clustering method. The specific coexpression network in every stage was constructed with cytoscape software. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis was performed with KOBAS database and Fisher exact test. Euclidean distance algorithm was used to calculate total deviation score. The diagnostic model was constructed with SVM algorithm.Eighteen specific genes were obtained by getting intersection of 4 group differentially expressed genes. Ten significantly enriched pathways were obtained. In the distribution map of 10 pathways score in different groups, degrees that sample groups deviated from the normal level were as follows: stage I < stage II < stage III < stage IV. The pathway score of 4 stages exhibited linear change in some pathways, and the score of 1 or 2 stages were significantly different from the rest stages in some pathways. There was significant difference between dead and alive for these pathways except thyroid hormone signaling pathway.Those 10 pathways are associated with the development of lung adenocarcinoma and may be able to predict different stages of it. Furthermore, these pathways except thyroid hormone signaling pathway may be able to predict the prognosis.

  18. Prognostic relevance of TTF-1 expression in stage I adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Zhao, Jikai; Shao, Jinchen; Li, Wentao

    2017-12-08

    Tyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) motivates the differentiation and development of bronchioloalveolar cells. The association of TTF-1 expression with prognosis in stage I adenocarcinoma is unclear. This study enrolled patients with resected stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma who had TTF-1 immunostaining. All the corresponding clinicopathologic data including sex, age, smoking history, pathologic T stage, pathologic disease stage, surgical procedure, subtypes, follow-up records and adjuvant chemotherapy were investigated. Totally, 126 adenocarcinomas with TTF-1- and 2687 adenocarcinomas with TTF-1+ were subjected to the study. Among adenocarcinomas with TTF-1-, the major subtype was acinar-predominant adenocarcinomas, followed by invasive mucinous and papillary subtypes while acinar, papillary and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma were in the majority among adenocarcinomas with TTF-1+. The status of TTF-1 expression was not a significant factor for relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Furthermore, there was no survival difference between the two groups (RFS: p = 0.2474; OS: p = 0.1480). When confined to stage IB adenocarcinomas with TTF-1-, whether received adjuvant chemotherapy made no difference to RFS and OS (RFS: p = 0.2707; OS: p = 1.000), as was the case in stage IB adenocarcinomas with TTF-1+ (RFS: p = 0.9161; OS: p = 0.1100). Within follow-up period, there was significant difference in post-recurrence survival (PRS) for TTF-1- patients compared with those TTF-1+ patients (Log-rank p = 0.0113). However, regarding to the recurrence site, there was no difference between TTF-1- patients and TTF-1+ patients in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma ( p = 0.771) In conclusion, there is no significant difference in RFS and OS between TTF-1- group and TTF-1+ group, but TTF-1 negative adenocarcinoma has significantly worse PFS in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma. Moreover, chemotherapeutic efficacy between TTF-1+ and TTF-1- stage IB

  19. Prognostic relevance of TTF-1 expression in stage I adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chao; Zhao, Jikai; Shao, Jinchen; Li, Wentao

    2017-01-01

    Tyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) motivates the differentiation and development of bronchioloalveolar cells. The association of TTF-1 expression with prognosis in stage I adenocarcinoma is unclear. This study enrolled patients with resected stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma who had TTF-1 immunostaining. All the corresponding clinicopathologic data including sex, age, smoking history, pathologic T stage, pathologic disease stage, surgical procedure, subtypes, follow-up records and adjuvant chemotherapy were investigated. Totally, 126 adenocarcinomas with TTF-1− and 2687 adenocarcinomas with TTF-1+ were subjected to the study. Among adenocarcinomas with TTF-1−, the major subtype was acinar-predominant adenocarcinomas, followed by invasive mucinous and papillary subtypes while acinar, papillary and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma were in the majority among adenocarcinomas with TTF-1+. The status of TTF-1 expression was not a significant factor for relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Furthermore, there was no survival difference between the two groups (RFS: p = 0.2474; OS: p = 0.1480). When confined to stage IB adenocarcinomas with TTF-1−, whether received adjuvant chemotherapy made no difference to RFS and OS (RFS: p = 0.2707; OS: p = 1.000), as was the case in stage IB adenocarcinomas with TTF-1+ (RFS: p = 0.9161; OS: p = 0.1100). Within follow-up period, there was significant difference in post-recurrence survival (PRS) for TTF-1− patients compared with those TTF-1+ patients (Log-rank p = 0.0113). However, regarding to the recurrence site, there was no difference between TTF-1− patients and TTF-1+ patients in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma (p = 0.771) In conclusion, there is no significant difference in RFS and OS between TTF-1− group and TTF-1+ group, but TTF-1 negative adenocarcinoma has significantly worse PFS in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma. Moreover, chemotherapeutic efficacy between TTF-1+ and TTF-1− stage IB

  20. Next-Generation Sequencing of Matched Primary and Metastatic Rectal Adenocarcinomas Demonstrates Minimal Mutation Gain and Concordance to Colonic Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Pepper, Kristi L; Phan, Alexandria T; Olsen, Randall J; Schwartz, Mary R; Portier, Bryce P

    2016-06-01

    -Colorectal carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer death in males and females in the United States. Rectal adenocarcinoma can have distinct therapeutic and surgical management from colonic adenocarcinoma owing to its location and anatomic considerations. -To determine the oncologic driver mutations and better understand the molecular pathogenesis of rectal adenocarcinoma in relation to colon adenocarcinoma. -Next-generation sequencing was performed on 20 cases of primary rectal adenocarcinoma with a paired lymph node or solid organ metastasis by using an amplicon-based assay of more than 2800 Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC)-identified somatic mutations. -Next-generation sequencing data were obtained on both the primary tumor and metastasis from 16 patients. Most rectal adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated identical mutations in the primary tumor and metastasis (13 of 16, 81%). The mutations identified, listed in order of frequency, included TP53, KRAS, APC, FBXW7, GNAS, FGFR3, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, and SMAD4. -The somatic mutations identified in our rectal adenocarcinoma cohort showed a strong correlation to those previously characterized in colonic adenocarcinoma. In addition, most rectal adenocarcinomas harbored identical somatic mutations in both the primary tumor and metastasis. These findings demonstrate evidence that rectal adenocarcinoma follows a similar molecular pathogenesis as colonic adenocarcinoma and that sampling either the primary or metastatic lesion is valid for initial evaluation of somatic mutations and selection of possible targeted therapy.

  1. Composite protective lifestyle factors and risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhensheng; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2017-02-28

    Incidence of gastric cancer is the highest in Eastern Asia. Multiple modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified as risk factors for gastric cancer. However, their aggregated effect on the risk of gastric cancer has not been examined among populations with high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. A study was conducted to examine the association between multiple lifestyle factors together and the risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63 257 men and women between 45 and 74 years enroled during 1993-1998. Composite score of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, dietary pattern, and sodium intake at baseline was assessed with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of gastric adenocarcinoma using Cox regression method. Higher healthy composite lifestyle scores were significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a dose-dependent manner. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total, cardia, and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma for the highest (score 5) vs lowest composite score (score 0/1/2) were 0.42 (0.31-0.57), 0.22 (0.10-0.47), and 0.55 (0.39-0.78), respectively (all P trend <0.001). These lifestyles together accounted for 48% of total gastric adenocarcinoma cases in the study population. The inverse association was observed in both genders, and remained after exclusion of first 5 years of follow-up. The inverse association between the aggregated healthy lifestyle factors and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma is in dose-dependent manner in this highly H. pylori-exposed population. These lifestyle factors together may account for up to half of disease burden in this study population.

  2. LHX6, An Independent Prognostic Factor, Inhibits Lung Adenocarcinoma Progression through Transcriptional Silencing of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juntang; Han, Fei; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Mingqian; Huang, Yongsheng; Hao, Xianglin; Jiang, Xiao; Yin, Li; Chen, Hongqiang; Cao, Jia; Zhang, Huidong; Liu, Jinyi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study identified LIM homeobox domain 6 (LHX6) as a frequently epigenetically silenced tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer. However, its clinical value has never been evaluated, and the in-depth anti-tumor mechanism remains unclear. Methods: Public database was used for lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma patients and tissue microarray data was used for lung adenocarcinoma patients to study prognostic outcome of LHX6 expression by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. In vitro proliferation, metastasis and in vivo nude mice model were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of LHX6 on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The mechanisms were explored using western blot, TOP/FOP flash assays and luciferase reporter assays. LHX6 expression and clinical stages data were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Results: Expression of LHX6 was found to be a favorable independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) of total lung adenocarcinoma patients (P=0.014) and patients with negative lymph nodes status (P=0.014) but not related the prognostic outcome of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. The expression status of LHX6 significantly correlated to histological grade (P<0.01), tumor size (P=0.026), lymph node status (P=0.039) and clinical stages (P<0.01) of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Functionally, LHX6 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo . Furthermore, LHX6 suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through transcriptionally silencing the expression of β-catenin, and the promoter region (-1161 bp to +27 bp) was crucial for its inhibitory activity. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the expression of LHX6 may serve as a favorable prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients and provide a novel mechanism of LHX6 involving in the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  3. LHX6, An Independent Prognostic Factor, Inhibits Lung Adenocarcinoma Progression through Transcriptional Silencing of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juntang; Han, Fei; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Mingqian; Huang, Yongsheng; Hao, Xianglin; Jiang, Xiao; Yin, Li; Chen, Hongqiang; Cao, Jia; Zhang, Huidong; Liu, Jinyi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study identified LIM homeobox domain 6 (LHX6) as a frequently epigenetically silenced tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer. However, its clinical value has never been evaluated, and the in-depth anti-tumor mechanism remains unclear. Methods: Public database was used for lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma patients and tissue microarray data was used for lung adenocarcinoma patients to study prognostic outcome of LHX6 expression by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. In vitro proliferation, metastasis and in vivo nude mice model were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of LHX6 on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The mechanisms were explored using western blot, TOP/FOP flash assays and luciferase reporter assays. LHX6 expression and clinical stages data were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Results: Expression of LHX6 was found to be a favorable independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) of total lung adenocarcinoma patients (P=0.014) and patients with negative lymph nodes status (P=0.014) but not related the prognostic outcome of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. The expression status of LHX6 significantly correlated to histological grade (P<0.01), tumor size (P=0.026), lymph node status (P=0.039) and clinical stages (P<0.01) of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Functionally, LHX6 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LHX6 suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through transcriptionally silencing the expression of β-catenin, and the promoter region (-1161 bp to +27 bp) was crucial for its inhibitory activity. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the expression of LHX6 may serve as a favorable prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients and provide a novel mechanism of LHX6 involving in the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28900494

  4. Clinicopathological features of younger (aged ≤ 50 years) lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring the EML4‐ALK fusion gene

    PubMed Central

    Sugio, Kenji; Osoegawa, Atsushi; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2018-01-01

    Background The EML4‐ALK fusion gene has recently been identified as a driver mutation in a subset of non‐small cell lung cancers. In subsequent studies, EML4‐ALK has been detected in a low percentage of patients, and was associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations, younger age, and adenocarcinoma with acinar histology. Cases with the EML4‐ALK fusion gene were examined to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of young adenocarcinoma patients. Methods Between December 1998 and May 2009, 85 patients aged ≤ 50 with lung adenocarcinoma were treated at our hospital. We examined 49 samples from adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy for the EML4‐ALK gene. None of the patients received ALK inhibitors because these drugs had not been approved in Japan before 2012. EML4‐ALK fusion genes were screened using multiplex reverse‐transcription PCR assay, and were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The EML4‐ALK fusion gene was detected in five tumors (10.2%). One patient had stage IB disease, one had stage IIIA, and three had stage IV. Histologically, there was one solid adenocarcinoma, two acinar adenocarcinomas, and two papillary adenocarcinomas. EML4‐ALK fusion genes were mutually exclusive to EGFR and KRAS mutations. The five‐year survival rate was 59.4% in patients without EML4‐ALK fusion and was not reached in patients with EML4‐ALK fusion. Conclusion The EML4‐ALK fusion gene may be a strong oncogene in younger patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:29517858

  5. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Gastrin Receptor Antagonist in Barretts Esophagus | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen five-fold over the past several decades, yet the prognosis for EAC remains extremely poor. As such, EAC represents a very attractive target for chemoprevention. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the precursor lesion for EAC, and acid reflux is a major risk factor for both BE and EAC. Virtually all patients with BE,

  6. FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

  7. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of Caecum Causing Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rashmi; Osborn, Sally; Horgan, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is rare and is usually seen in ovarian endometriosis. The colon and rectum are the most common sites for extragonadal endometriosis, and although serosal involvement is commonly seen, mucosal involvement is rare. Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a rare but a well-known complication of endometriosis. We report an unusual presentation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis, arising from endometriosis in the caecal wall and causing ileocaecal intussusception. The patient presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain with features suggestive of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an ileocaecal intussusception. Conversion to open surgery confirmed a caecal mass causing ileocaecal intussusception, and a radical right hemicolectomy was performed. Histology revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in a focus of endometriosis in the muscularis propria and involving the mucosa, with one regional metastatic lymph node. PMID:23710407

  8. Lung Adenocarcinoma Distally Rewires Hepatic Circadian Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Liu, Yu; Cervantes, Marlene; Baldi, Pierre; Jacks, Tyler; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock controls metabolic and physiological processes through finely tuned molecular mechanisms. The clock is remarkably plastic and adapts to exogenous zeitgebers, such as light and nutrition. How a pathological condition in a given tissue influences systemic circadian homeostasis in other tissues remains an unanswered question of conceptual and biomedical importance. Here we show that lung adenocarcinoma operates as an endogenous reorganizer of circadian metabolism. High-throughput transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed unique signatures of transcripts and metabolites cycling exclusively in livers of tumor-bearing mice. Remarkably, lung cancer has no effect on the core clock, but rather reprograms hepatic metabolism through altered pro-inflammatory response via the STAT3-Socs3 pathway. This results in disruption of AKT, AMPK and SREBP signaling, leading to altered insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. Thus, lung adenocarcinoma functions as a potent endogenous circadian organizer (ECO), which rewires the pathophysiological dimension of a distal tissue such as the liver. PMID:27153497

  9. Metastasis to the breast from colonic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Kyoung Tae; Oh, Boyoung; Sung, Sun Hee; Lee, Ryung-Ah; Chung, Soon Sup; Moon, Byung In

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to a breast surgeon with a breast mass discovered incidentally during follow-up study after colon cancer surgery. Invasive adenocarcinoma was revealed on core needle biopsy. Wide excision of the breast including the tumor was performed. On standard histological examination the tumor showed features of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemistry study revealed positive results for cytokeratin (CK)20 and CDX2, but negative for CK7. These are typical characteristics for colon cancer. Considering her history of subtotal colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer, it is presumable that the mass in the breast was of colonic origin, and it was an extremely rare case of metastasis to the breast from primary colorectal neoplasm. Although the instance is rare, clinicians should keep the possibility of breast metastasis from colorectal cancer in mind for early and correct diagnosis. PMID:22319737

  10. CANARY Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical utilization of chest high resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent sub-solid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to non-invasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semi-quantitative measures to decrease inter- and intra-rater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still sub-optimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, non-invasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. CANARY correlates well with consensus histology and post-surgical patient outcomes and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management e.g. in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  11. Raman Spectroscopy Study of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Bulk Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, S.; Dai, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, R.; Cao, A.; Pandya, A.; Auner, G. W.; Sarkar, F.; Sakr, W.; Naik, V.

    2009-03-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among men. The mortality rate for this disease can be dramatically reduced if it can be diagnosed in its early stages. Raman spectroscopy is one of the optical techniques which can provide fingerprints of a disease in terms of its molecular composition which changes due to the onset of disease. The aim of this project is to investigate the differences in the Raman spectra to identify benign epithelium (BE), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and adenocarcinoma of various Gleason grades in archived bulk tissues embedded in paraffin wax. For each tissue, two adjacent tissue sections were cut and dewaxed, where one of the sections was stained using haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination and the other unstained adjacent section was used for Raman spectroscopic studies. We have collected Raman spectra from 10 prostatic adenocarcinoma dewaxed tissue sections using Raman microscope (785 nm excitation laser). The data were analyzed using statistical methods of principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis to classify the tissue regions. The results indicate that Raman Spectroscopy can differentiate between BE, PIN and Cancer regions.

  12. Pleiotropic analysis of cancer risk loci on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Stram, Daniel O.; Ek, Weronica E.; Onstad, Lynn E; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Ye, Weimin; Lagergren, Jesper; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Hardie, Laura J; Gammon, Marilie D.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Risch, Harvey A.; Corley, Douglas A.; Levine, David M; Whiteman, David C.; Bernstein, Leslie; Bird, Nigel C.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wu, Anna H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several cancer-associated loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been associated with risks of multiple cancer sites, suggesting pleiotropic effects. We investigated whether GWAS-identified risk variants for other common cancers are associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) or its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Methods We examined the associations between risks of EA and BE and 387 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been associated with risks of other cancers, by using genotype imputation data on 2,163 control participants and 3,885 (1,501 EA and 2,384 BE) case patients from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Genetic Susceptibility Study, and investigated effect modification by smoking history, body mass index (BMI), and reflux/heartburn. Results After correcting for multiple testing, none of the tested 387 SNPs were statistically significantly associated with risk of EA or BE. No evidence of effect modification by smoking, BMI, or reflux/heartburn was observed. Conclusions Genetic risk variants for common cancers identified from GWAS appear not to be associated with risks of EA or BE. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of pleiotropic genetic associations with risks of EA and BE. PMID:26364162

  13. Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Barbara A.; Woo, Michele S.; Getz, Gad; Perner, Sven; Ding, Li; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William M.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Johnson, Laura A.; Shah, Kinjal; Sato, Mitsuo; Thomas, Roman K.; Barletta, Justine A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Broderick, Stephen; Chang, Andrew C.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Cho, Jeonghee; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Gazdar, Adi F.; Giordano, Thomas; Greulich, Heidi; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Kris, Mark G.; Lash, Alex; Lin, Ling; Lindeman, Neal; Mardis, Elaine R.; McPherson, John D.; Minna, John D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Nadel, Mark; Orringer, Mark B.; Osborne, John R.; Ozenberger, Brad; Ramos, Alex H.; Robinson, James; Roth, Jack A.; Rusch, Valerie; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shepherd, Frances; Sougnez, Carrie; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Twomey, David; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Winckler, Wendy; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Yu, Soyoung; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Beer, David G.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Watson, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Rubin, Mark A.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Varmus, Harold E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered. PMID:17982442

  14. Chemoprevention of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bresalier, Robert S

    2018-06-12

    Barrett's esophagus is common in Western countries, but progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma is uncommon. Chemoprevention therefore needs to consider whether benefits outweigh risks given an otherwise healthy population. This will depend on the particular population at risk and the relative safety of a potential preventive agent. Most evidence regarding the potential benefit of chemoprevention of Barrett's esophagus and prevention of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma is based on observational studies such as case-control and cohort studies. Given the potential benefits and relatively low risks, patients with BE should receive once-daily PPI therapy, but routine use of twice-daily PPI is not recommended unless necessitated by poor control of reflux symptoms or esophagitis. Recent data suggest that the inverse associations between aspirin/NSAID use and esophageal adenocarcinoma may be the result of reducing neoplastic progression (from metaplasia to dysplasia and carcinoma) rather than initiation of Barrett's esophagus. While substantial associative data suggest a potential benefit of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs in reducing the risk of progression of Barrett's esophagus, the low risk of progression and the potential risks (gastrointestinal bleeding, complicated ulcer disease, hemorrhagic stroke) do not warrant routine use, unless dictated by cardiovascular risk. Chemoprevention after mucosal ablation in those at highest risk of post-ablation recurrence (dysplastic Barrett's) is currently under investigation.

  15. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  16. Pre-existing Pulmonary Diseases and Survival in Patients With Stage-dependent Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Wu, Ming-Fang; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are common lung diseases associated with lung cancer mortality. This study evaluated sex disparities in pre-existing pulmonary diseases and stage-dependent lung adenocarcinoma survival. Patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma between 2003 and 2008 were identified using the National Health Insurance Research Database and Cancer Registry. Cases with lung adenocarcinoma were followed until the end of 2010. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of pre-existing asthma, COPD, and/or TB, and to estimate all-cause mortality risk in patients with different stages of lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 14,518 cases were identified with lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, among men, the HRs for TB were 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.58), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.14–1.93), and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.08–1.49) for individuals with stage I + II, III, and IV diseases, respectively. The HRs for asthma were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00–1.99) in women with stage I + II and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in men with stage IV disease. For pulmonary disease combinations in men, the HRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.12–1.89) for asthma + COPD + TB, 1.35 (95% CI, 1.12–1.63) for COPD + TB, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01–1.63) for TB, and 1.15 (95%CI, 1.04–1.27) for asthma + COPD, respectively. For women with stage I + II disease, the HR was 6.94 (95% CI, 2.72–17.71) for asthma + COPD + TB. Coexistence of pre-existing pulmonary diseases increased mortality risk in men with adenocarcinoma. TB is at elevated risk of mortality among men with different stages of adenocarcinoma. Asthmatic women with early-stage adenocarcinoma had increased risk of mortality. PMID:26962806

  17. Gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Jung, So-Youn; Yoon, Hongman; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Ryu, Keun Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Young-Woo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma. A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth II gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively. PMID:19860007

  18. Adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder: A report of two patients.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nitu; Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Agrawal, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. Primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder are morphologically similar, but histogenetically different. We present two cases, a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with follow-up and another of glandular adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. Pathological evaluation and immunohistochemical panel of eight markers (E-cadherin, CK20, CK7, CDX2, estrogen receptor (ER), gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP15), 34bE12, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) provides a diagnostic confirmation of primary adenocarcinoma with the positive expression of E-cadherin and CK20 in case 1 and metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate with profile of E-cadherin+, CK20-, GCDFP15+, 34bE12+, and PSA+ in case 2.

  19. Computerized margin and texture analyses for differentiating bacterial pneumonia and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma presenting as consolidation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Ja Hwan; Sung, Yu Sub; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Sung-Han; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2017-01-01

    Radiologists have used margin characteristics based on routine visual analysis; however, the attenuation changes at the margin of the lesion on CT images have not been quantitatively assessed. We established a CT-based margin analysis method by comparing a target lesion with normal lung attenuation, drawing a slope to represent the attenuation changes. This approach was applied to patients with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 40) or bacterial pneumonia (n = 30). Correlations among multiple regions of interest (ROIs) were obtained using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values. CT visual assessment, margin and texture parameters were compared for differentiating the two disease entities. The attenuation and margin parameters in multiple ROIs showed excellent ICC values. Attenuation slopes obtained at the margins revealed a difference between invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and pneumonia (P<0.001), and mucinous adenocarcinoma produced a sharply declining attenuation slope. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, pneumonia had an ill-defined margin (odds ratio (OR), 4.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-18.52; P = 0.02), ground-glass opacity (OR, 8.55; 95% CI, 2.09-34.95; P = 0.003), and gradually declining attenuation at the margin (OR, 12.63; 95% CI, 2.77-57.51, P = 0.001). CT-based margin analysis method has a potential to act as an imaging parameter for differentiating invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and bacterial pneumonia.

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their correlation with a poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine (NT) and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their possible correlations with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Sixty-six specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues were studied. Immunohistochemistry was employed to localize iNOS and NT protein and an immunohistochemical scoring system was used. The occurrence of apoptotic cell death (apoptotic index [AI]) was analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. RESULTS: Results showed that iNOS expression was detected at an intermediate or high level in 41 of 66 (62%) specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma. NT expression was 58%. Neither of them was found in the normal gastric tissues; there were significant positive correlations among iNOS expression, NT expression and AI. Many clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma, such as tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging, were related to iNOS and NT expressions (P<0.05). In 66 surviving patients, the 5-year survival rate of 41 patients who had tumors with intermediate or high iNOS expressions and high AIs (4.09%; 19.96%) was significantly lower than that of 25 patients who had tumors with negative or low iNOS expressions and low AIs (0.79%; 47.14%) (P = 0.001). COX’s multivariate analysis revealed that the iNOS expression was identified as one of the significant independent prognostic factors predictive of a poor survival (relative risk [RR] = 2.69). CONCLUSION: NO produced by iNOS may play a stronger role in promoting gastric adenocarcinoma growth than in suppressing its growth. iNOS and NT expressions by gastric adenocarcinoma may correlate with a poor survival. PMID:15849807

  1. EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutational profiles of female patients with micropapillary predominant invasive lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed

    Demirağ, Funda; Yılmaz, Aydın; Yılmaz Demirci, Nilgün; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Erdoğan, Yurdanur

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: This study aimed to analyze EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in females with micropapillary predominant invasive lung adenocarcinoma and their relationships with immunohistochemical and clinicopathological patterns.Materials and methods: A total of 15 females with micropapillary lung adenocarcinoma were selected. Mutational analysis of the EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF genes was carried out. Information regarding the demographic data, tumor size, treatment, and survival time for each patient was collated, and the predominant cell type, secondary architectural growth patterns, psammoma bodies, necrosis, and visceral pleural and angiolymphatic invasions were evaluated.Results: We identified EGFR mutation in six cases, KRAS mutation in three cases, and BRAF mutation in one case. EGFR, c-kit, VEGFR, and bcl-2 positivity was observed in ten, seven, four, and six cases, respectively. All cases were positive for VEGF (strong positivity in 11 cases and weak positivity in four cases) and bcl-2 (strong positivity in nine cases and weak positivity in six cases). Seven (46.6%) cases were positive for c-kit and 10 (66.6%) cases were positive for EGFR. Conclusion: EGFR mutation occurred at a higher incidence rate in micropapillary predominant invasive adenocarcinoma than has previously been found in conventional lung adenocarcinomas. KRAS mutation was observed as having a similar frequency to what was previously observed, but the frequency of BRAF mutation was lower than previously reported.

  2. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  3. Differential co-expression analysis of a microarray gene expression profiles of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shijie; Pan, Xufeng; Fang, Wentao

    2014-08-01

    Lung cancer severely reduces the quality of life worldwide and causes high socioeconomic burdens. However, key genes leading to the generation of pulmonary adenocarcinoma remain elusive despite intensive research efforts. The present study aimed to identify the potential associations between transcription factors (TFs) and differentially co‑expressed genes (DCGs) in the regulation of transcription in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Gene expression profiles of pulmonary adenocarcinoma were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and gene expression was analyzed using a computational method. A total of 37,094 differentially co‑expressed links (DCLs) and 251 DCGs were identified, which were significantly enriched in 10 pathways. The construction of the regulatory network and the analysis of the regulatory impact factors revealed eight crucial TFs in the regulatory network. These TFs regulated the expression of DCGs by promoting or inhibiting their expression. In addition, certain TFs and target genes associated with DCGs did not appear in the DCLs, which indicated that those TFs could be synergistic with other factors. This is likely to provide novel insights for research into pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, the present study may enhance the understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to an improved diagnosis of lung cancer. However, further studies are required to confirm these observations.

  4. Evaluation of the Possible Utilization of 68Ga-DOTATOC in Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Samaneh; Naderi, Mojdeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Alirezapour, Behrouz; Beiki, Davood

    2018-01-01

    Objective(s): Studies have indicated advantageous properties of [DOTA-DPhe1, Tyr3] octreotide (DOTATOC) in tumor models and labeling with gallium. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women, and most of these cancers are often an adenocarcinoma. Due to the importance of target to non-target ratios in the efficacy of diagnosis, the pharmacokinetic of 68Ga-DOTATOC in an adenocarcinoma breast cancer animal model was studied in this research, and the optimized time for imaging was determined. Methods: 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator. The complex was prepared at optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the complex was checked using both HPLC and ITLC methods. Biodistribution of the complex was studied in BALB/c mice bearing adenocarcinoma breast cancer. Also, PET/CT imaging was performed up to 120 min post injection. Results: The complex was produced with radiochemical purity of greater than 98% and specific activity of about 40 GBq/mM at optimized conditions. Biodistribution of the complex was studied in BALB/c mice bearing adenocarcinoma breast cancer indicated fast blood clearance and significant uptake in the tumor. Significant tumor: blood and tumor:muscle uptake ratios were observed even at early times post-injection. PET/CT images were also confirmed the considerable accumulation of the tracer in the tumor. Conclusion: Generally, the results proved the possible application of the radiolabelled complex for the detection of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer and according to the pharmacokenitic data, the suitable time for imaging was determined as at least 30 min after injection. PMID:29333466

  5. Clinical predictors of resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Alharbi, Othman; Azzam, Nahla; Altayeb, Mohannad; Javed, Moammed; Alsaif, Faisal; Hassanain, Mazen; Alsharabi, Abdulsalam; Al-Saleh, Khalid; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying patient-related factors as well as symptoms and signs that can predict pancreatic cancer at a resectable stage, which could be used in an attempt to identify patients at an early stage of pancreatic cancer that would be appropriate for surgical resection and those at an unresectable stage be sparred unnecessary surgery. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a major tertiary care, university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study population included individuals who underwent a computed tomography and a pancreatic mass was reported as well as the endoscopic reporting database of endoscopic procedures where the indication was a pancreatic mass, between April 1996 and April 2012. Any patient with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas was included in the analysis. We included patients' demographic information (age, gender), height, weight, body mass index, historical data (smoking, comorbidities), symptoms (abdominal pain and its duration, anorexia and its duration, weight loss and its amount, and over what duration, vomiting, abdominal distention, itching and its duration, change in bowel movements, change in urine color), jaundice and its duration. Other variables were also collected including laboratory values, location of the mass, the investigation undertaken, and the stage of the tumor. A total of 61 patients were included, the mean age was 61.2 ± 1.51 years, 25 (41%) were females. The tumors were located in the head (83.6%), body (10.9%), tail (1.8%), and in multiple locations (3.6%) of the pancreas. Half of the patients (50%) had Stage IV, 16.7% stages IIB and III, and only 8.3% were stages IB and IIA. On univariable analysis a lower hemoglobin level predicted resectability odds ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.98), whereas on multivariable regression none of the variables included in the model could predict resectability of pancreatic cancer. A CA 19-9 cutoff level of 166 ng/mL had a

  6. Prognosis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma following surgery and no surgery in a nationwide Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the recent prognostic trends in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing resectional surgery and no such surgery. Additionally, risk factors for death were assessed in each of these patient groups. Design Cohort study. Setting A population-based, nationwide study in Sweden. Participants All patients diagnosed with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Sweden from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2013, with follow-up until 14 May 2017. Outcome measures Observed and relative (to the background population) 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survivals were analysed using life table method. Multivariable Cox regression provided HR with 95% CI for risk factors of death. Results Among 3794 patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and 4631 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 82% and 63% were men, respectively. From 1990–1994 to 2010–2013, the relative 5-year survival increased from 12% to 15% for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and from 9% to 12% for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding survival following surgery increased from 27% to 45% in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and from 24% to 43% in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In patients not undergoing surgery, the survival increased from 3% to 4% for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and from 3% to 6% for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Women with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma had better prognosis than men both following surgery (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.83) and no surgery (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93). Conclusions The prognosis has improved over calendar time both in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Sweden that did and did not undergo surgery. Women appear to have better prognosis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma than men, independent of treatment. PMID:29748347

  7. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting in a Premenopausal Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Chambers, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…

  8. GATA6 expression in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Kirill; Honing, Judith; Meijer, Coby; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Peters, Frans T M; van den Berg, Anke; Karrenbeld, Arend; Plukker, John T M; Kruyt, Frank A E; Kleibeuker, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus can progress towards oesophageal adenocarcinoma through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA6 is known to be involved in columnar differentiation and proliferation, and GATA6 gene amplification was recently linked with poor survival in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. To study the expression of GATA6 during Barrett's oesophagus development and malignant transformation. To determine the prognostic value of GATA6 in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Two retrospective cohorts were derived from the pathological archive of the University Medical Center Groningen. The first cohort contained 130 tissue samples of normal squamous epithelium, metaplasia, dysplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The second cohort consisted of a tissue microarray containing tissue from 92 oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine GATA6 protein expression and to correlate GATA6 expression in oesophageal adenocarcinoma with overall and disease-free survival. The percentage of GATA6-positive cells was low in squamous epithelium (10%) but increased progressively in Barrett's oesophagus (30%, P < 0.001) and high-grade dysplasia (82%, P = 0.005). GATA6 expression was not associated with overall or disease-free survival in oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients (P = 0.599 and P = 0.700 respectively). GATA6 expression is progressively increased during Barrett's oesophagus development and its malignant transformation. However, no prognostic value of GATA6 expression could be found in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulwani, Hanni; Jain, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome. PMID:21151719

  10. Evaluation of the Possible Utilization of 68Ga-DOTATOC in Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zolghadri, Samaneh; Naderi, Mojdeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Alirezapour, Behrouz; Beiki, Davood

    2018-01-01

    Studies have indicated advantageous properties of [DOTA-DPhe 1 , Tyr 3 ] octreotide (DOTATOC) in tumor models and labeling with gallium. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women, and most of these cancers are often an adenocarcinoma. Due to the importance of target to non-target ratios in the efficacy of diagnosis, the pharmacokinetic of 68 Ga-DOTATOC in an adenocarcinoma breast cancer animal model was studied in this research, and the optimized time for imaging was determined. 68 Ga was obtained from 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator. The complex was prepared at optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the complex was checked using both HPLC and ITLC methods. Biodistribution of the complex was studied in BALB/c mice bearing adenocarcinoma breast cancer. Also, PET/CT imaging was performed up to 120 min post injection. The complex was produced with radiochemical purity of greater than 98% and specific activity of about 40 GBq/mM at optimized conditions. Biodistribution of the complex was studied in BALB/c mice bearing adenocarcinoma breast cancer indicated fast blood clearance and significant uptake in the tumor. Significant tumor: blood and tumor:muscle uptake ratios were observed even at early times post-injection. PET/CT images were also confirmed the considerable accumulation of the tracer in the tumor. Generally, the results proved the possible application of the radiolabelled complex for the detection of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer and according to the pharmacokenitic data, the suitable time for imaging was determined as at least 30 min after injection.

  11. Prognostic relevance of lymph node ratio and total lymph node count for small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Qadan, Motaz; Dua, Monica M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A; Visser, Brendan C

    2015-08-01

    Nodal metastasis is a known prognostic factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma. The goals of this study were to evaluate the number of lymph nodes (LNs) that should be retrieved and the impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was queried to identify patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1988 to 2010. Survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of survival. A total of 2,772 patients underwent resection with at least one node retrieved, and this sample included equal numbers of duodenal (n = 1,387) and jejunoileal (n = 1,386) adenocarcinomas. There were 1,371 patients with no nodal metastasis (N0, 49.4%), 928 N1 (33.5%), and 474 N2 (17.1%). The median numbers of LNs examined for duodenal and jejunoileal cancers were 9 and 8, respectively. Cut-point analysis demonstrated that harvesting at least 9 for jejunoileal and 5 LN for duodenal cancers resulted in the greatest survival difference. Increasing LNR at both sites was associated with decreased overall median survival (LNR = 0, 71 months; LNR 0-0.02, 35 months; LNR 0.21-0.4, 25 months; and LNR >0.4, 16 months; P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed number of LNs examined, T-stage, LN positivity, and LNR were independent predictors of survival. LNR has a profound impact on survival in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. To achieve adequate staging, we recommend retrieving a minimum of 5 LN for duodenal and 9 LN for jejunoileal adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intratumor Heterogeneity of ALK-Rearrangements and Homogeneity of EGFR-Mutations in Mixed Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Federica Zito; Liguori, Giuseppina; Aquino, Gabriella; La Mantia, Elvira; Bosari, Silvano; Ferrero, Stefano; Rosso, Lorenzo; Gaudioso, Gabriella; De Rosa, Nicla; Scrima, Marianna; Martucci, Nicola; La Rocca, Antonello; Normanno, Nicola; Morabito, Alessandro; Rocco, Gaetano; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Background Non Small Cell Lung Cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor. Histologic intratumor heterogeneity could be ‘major’, characterized by a single tumor showing two different histologic types, and ‘minor’, due to at least 2 different growth patterns in the same tumor. Therefore, a morphological heterogeneity could reflect an intratumor molecular heterogeneity. To date, few data are reported in literature about molecular features of the mixed adenocarcinoma. The aim of our study was to assess EGFR-mutations and ALK-rearrangements in different intratumor subtypes and/or growth patterns in a series of mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas. Methods 590 Non Small Cell Lung Carcinomas tumor samples were revised in order to select mixed adenocarcinomas with available tumor components. Finally, only 105 mixed adenocarcinomas and 17 adenosquamous carcinomas were included in the study for further analyses. Two TMAs were built selecting the different intratumor histotypes. ALK-rearrangements were detected through FISH and IHC, and EGFR-mutations were detected through IHC and confirmed by RT-PCR. Results 10/122 cases were ALK-rearranged and 7 from those 10 showing an intratumor heterogeneity of the rearrangements. 12/122 cases were EGFR-mutated, uniformly expressing the EGFR-mutated protein in all histologic components. Conclusion Our data suggests that EGFR-mutations is generally homogeneously expressed. On the contrary, ALK-rearrangement showed an intratumor heterogeneity in both mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas. The intratumor heterogeneity of ALK-rearrangements could lead to a possible impact on the therapeutic responses and the disease outcomes. PMID:26422230

  13. Different effects of H2O2 treatment on cervical squamous carcinoma cells and adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peihai; Yin, Haiqin; Wang, Sie; Wei, Yuping; Peng, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to compare the antioxidant abilities of cervical squamous carcinoma cells and cervical adenocarcinoma cells and to study the related mechanisms. Material and methods Cervical squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells were treated with H2O2. Cell proliferation was determined with the MTT assay. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by the 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) method. The 5,5’-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) method was performed to measure intracellular concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The nitrite formation method, the molybdate colorimetric method, and the DTNB colorimetric method were used to determine activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), respectively. Results Compared with untreated control cells, cell proliferation of cervical squamous carcinoma cells and cervical adenocarcinoma cells was significantly inhibited by H2O2 treatment (p < 0.05). Reactive oxygen species levels and GSSG levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01), whereas GSH levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or 0.01) in both cells after H2O2 treatment. Thus the ratio of GSH/GSSG was significantly decreased by H2O2 treatment in both cells (p < 0.01). In addition, H2O2 treatment significantly increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both cells (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Furthermore, the above-mentioned changes induced by H2O2 treatment were more dramatic in cervical squamous carcinoma cells. Conclusions The antioxidant ability of cervical squamous carcinoma cells is lower than that of cervical adenocarcinoma cells, which may be related to the increased ROS levels in cervical squamous carcinoma cells induced by H2O2 treatments. PMID:26788095

  14. Adjuvant Treatment after Surgery in Stage IIIA Endometrial Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Hun Jung; Cha, Jihye; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Juree; Yoon, Won Sup; Choi, Jin Hwa; Chun, Mison; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Kang Kyoo; Kim, Myungsoo; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Chang, Sei Kyung; Park, Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the role of adjuvant therapy in stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) alone or chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) according to risk group. Materials and Methods A multicenter retrospective study was conducted including patients with surgical stage IIIA endometrial cancertreated by radical surgery and adjuvant RT or CTRT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results Ninety-three patients with stage IIIA disease were identified. Nineteen patients (20.4%) experienced recurrence, mostly distant metastasis (17.2%). Combined CTRT did not affect DFS (74.1% vs. 82.4%, p=0.130) or OS (96.3% vs. 91.9%, p=0.262) in stage IIIA disease compared with RT alone. Patients with age ≥ 60 years, grade G2/3, and lymphovascular space involvement had a significantly worse DFS and those variables were defined as risk factors. The high-risk group showed a significant reduction in 5-year DFS (≥ 2 risk factors) (49.0% vs. 88.0%, p < 0.001) compared with the low-risk group (< 2). Multivariate analysis confirmed that more than one risk factor was the only predictor of worse DFS (hazard ratio, 5.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.12 to 13.98; p < 0.001). Of patients with no risk factors, a subset treated with RT alone showed an excellent 5-year DFS and OS (93.8% and 100%, respectively). Conclusion We identified a low-risk subset of stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who might be reasonable candidates for adjuvant RT alone. Further randomized studies are needed to determine which subset might benefit from combined CTRT. PMID:26511800

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma detected using mutation-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Koizumi, Hirotaka; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi; Takagi, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation rates in adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) were studied using both DNA analysis and mutation-specific immunohistochemistry. The peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp method was used to detect mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene in DNA samples extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical analysis with two EGFR mutation-specific monoclonal antibodies was used to identify proteins resulting from an in-frame deletion in exon 19 (E746_A750del) and a point mutation replacing leucine with arginine at codon 858 of exon 21 (L858R). Forty-three tumors (22 AIS and 21 MIA) were examined. The EGFR mutation rate in AIS detected by DNA analysis was 27.3% (L858R, 5/22; exon 19 deletion,1/22), whereas that detected in MIA was 42.9% (L858R,4/21; exon 19 deletion,5/21). Mutations detected by immunohistochemical analysis included 22.7% (L858R, 4/22; exon 19 deletion, 1/22) in AIS and 42.9% (L858R, 4/21; exon 19 deletion, 5/21) in MIA. Although some results were contradictory, concordant results were obtained using both assays in 38 of 43 cases (88.4%). DNA and immunohistochemical analyses revealed similar EGFR mutation rates in both MIA and AIS, suggesting that mutation-specific monoclonal antibodies are useful to confirm DNA assay results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular profiling identifies prognostic markers of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Shao, Jinchen; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Ruiying; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiaohui; Tu, Shichun; Han, Baohui; Yu, Keke

    2017-09-26

    We previously showed that different pathologic subtypes were associated with different prognostic values in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (AC). We hypothesize that differential gene expression profiles of different subtypes may be valuable factors for prognosis in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray gene expression profiling on tumor tissues micro-dissected from patients with acinar and solid predominant subtypes of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. These patients had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China in 2012. No patient had preoperative treatment. We performed the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to look for gene expression signatures associated with tumor subtypes. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2015 WHO lung Adenocarcinoma classification. We found that patients with the solid predominant subtype are enriched for genes involved in RNA polymerase activity as well as inactivation of the p53 pathway. Further, we identified a list of genes that may serve as prognostic markers for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Validation in the TCGA database shows that these genes are correlated with survival, suggesting that they are novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we have uncovered novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma using gene expression profiling in combination with histopathology subtyping.

  17. Targeting Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Acidic Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Roland, Christina L.; Deng, Defeng; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Moshnikova, Anna; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Logsdon, Craig D.

    2014-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the USA, accounting for ~40,000 deaths annually. The dismal prognosis for PDAC is largely due to its late diagnosis. Currently, the most sensitive diagnosis of PDAC requires invasive procedures, such as endoscopic ultrasonography, which has inherent risks and accuracy that is highly operator dependent. Here we took advantage of a general characteristic of solid tumors, the acidic microenvironment that is generated as a by-product of metabolism, to develop a novel approach of using pH (Low) Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs) for imaging of PDAC. We show that fluorescently labeled pHLIPs can localize and specifically detect PDAC in human xenografts as well as PDAC and PanIN lesions in genetically engineered mouse models. This novel approach may improve detection, differential diagnosis and staging of PDAC.

  18. Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 7.7%. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage not amenable to potentially curative resection. A substantial portion of this review is dedicated to reviewing the current literature on carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9), which is currently the only guideline-recommended biomarker for PDAC. It provides valuable prognostic information, can predict resectability, and is useful in decision making about neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, serum biomarker panels, circulating tumor cells, and cell-free nucleic acids. Although many biomarkers have now been studied in relation to PDAC, significant work still needs to be done to validate their usefulness in the early detection of PDAC and management of patients with PDAC.

  19. Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 7.7%. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage not amenable to potentially curative resection. A substantial portion of this review is dedicated to reviewing the current literature on carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9), which is currently the only guideline-recommended biomarker for PDAC. It provides valuable prognostic information, can predict resectability, and is useful in decision making about neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, serum biomarker panels, circulating tumor cells, and cell-free nucleic acids. Although many biomarkers have now been studied in relation to PDAC, significant work still needs to be done to validate their usefulness in the early detection of PDAC and management of patients with PDAC. PMID:28003762

  20. Lymphocytic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma, and primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A P; Wyatt, J; Jack, A S; Dixon, M F

    1994-01-01

    A series of primary gastric lymphomas and adenocarcinomas was reviewed to assess the prevalence of lymphocytic gastritis in these conditions. Lymphocytic gastritis was more prevalent in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (16 of 130 cases; 12.3%) and primary gastric lymphoma (six of 45 cases; 13.7%) than in unselected patients undergoing endoscopy (0.83-2.5%). This suggests that these two disparate gastric tumours may share an immunological dysfunction or a common pathogenesis, and this is of interest given that Helicobacter pylori is thought to have a role in the evolution of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:7876391

  1. Gene Expression-Based Survival Prediction in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Multi-Site, Blinded Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Enkemann, Steve A.; Tsao, Ming S.; Yeatman, Timothy J.; Gerald, William L.; Eschrich, Steve; Jurisica, Igor; Venkatraman, Seshan E.; Meyerson, Matthew; Kuick, Rork; Dobbin, Kevin K.; Lively, Tracy; Jacobson, James W.; Beer, David G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Misek, David E.; Chang, Andrew C.; Zhu, Chang Qi; Strumpf, Dan; Hanash, Samir; Shepherd, Francis A.; Ding, Kuyue; Seymour, Lesley; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Pennell, Nathan; Weir, Barbara; Verhaak, Roel; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Golub, Todd; Gruidl, Mike; Szoke, Janos; Zakowski, Maureen; Rusch, Valerie; Kris, Mark; Viale, Agnes; Motoi, Noriko; Travis, William; Sharma, Anupama

    2009-01-01

    Although prognostic gene expression signatures for survival in early stage lung cancer have been proposed, for clinical application it is critical to establish their performance across different subject populations and in different laboratories. Here we report a large, training-testing, multi-site blinded validation study to characterize the performance of several prognostic models based on gene expression for 442 lung adenocarcinomas. The hypotheses proposed examined whether microarray measurements of gene expression either alone or combined with basic clinical covariates (stage, age, sex) can be used to predict overall survival in lung cancer subjects. Several models examined produced risk scores that substantially correlated with actual subject outcome. Most methods performed better with clinical data, supporting the combined use of clinical and molecular information when building prognostic models for early stage lung cancer. This study also provides the largest available set of microarray data with extensive pathological and clinical annotation for lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:18641660

  2. Intraoperative Molecular Imaging of Lung Adenocarcinoma Can Identify Residual Tumor Cells at the Surgical Margins

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Jane J.; Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; De Jesus, Elizabeth; Judy, Ryan; Jiang, Jack; Deshpande, Charuhas; Nie, Shuming; Low, Philip; Singhal, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose During lung surgery, identification of surgical margins is challenging. We hypothesized that molecular imaging with a fluorescent probe to pulmonary adenocarcinomas could enhance residual tumor during resection. Procedures Mice with flank tumors received a contrast agent targeting folate receptor alpha. Optimal dose and time of injection was established. Margin detection was compared using traditional methods versus molecular imaging. A pilot study was then performed in 3 humans with lung adenocarcinoma. Results The peak tumor-to background ratio (TBR) of murine tumors was 3.9. Fluorescence peaked at 2 hours and was not improved beyond 0.1 mg/kg. Traditional inspection identified 30% of mice with positive margins. Molecular imaging identified an additional 50% of residual tumor deposits (P<0.05). The fluorescent probe visually enhanced all human tumors with a mean TBR of 3.5. Conclusions Molecular imaging is an important adjunct to traditional inspection to identify surgical margins after tumor resection. PMID:26228697

  3. Duodenal Bulb Adenocarcinoma Benefitted from Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng-Yuan; Mao, Jie; Zhao, Bin; Long, Bo; Zhan, Hao; Zhang, Jun-Qiang; Zhou, Hui-Nian; Guo, Ling-Yun; Jiao, Zuo-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the alimentary tract which has a low incidence rate and nonspecific symptoms. It is difficult to diagnose early, and the misdiagnosis rate is high. CT, MRI, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and other advanced imaging modalities should be combined to make a comprehensive evaluation. The diagnostic confirmation of this tumor type mainly depends on the pathological examination. The combination of surgery with other treatment modalities is effective. A review of reports on duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with chemotherapy revealed 6 cases since 1990. However, there are few reports on neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the disease. In this report, preoperative S-1 in combination with oxaliplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieved a complete pathological response in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows a better clinical efficacy in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma, but its value needs to be further verified. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. HER3 expression is enhanced during progression of lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation from stage 0 to IA1.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Toru; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Nakatsuka, Shin-Ichi; Kimura, Madoka; Kunimasa, Kei; Inoue, Takako; Tamiya, Motohiro; Nishino, Kazumi; Susaki, Yoshiyuki; Kusu, Takashi; Tokunaga, Toshiteru; Okami, Jiro; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio

    2018-04-01

    Activating EGFR mutations, HER2, and HER3 are implicated in lung cancer; however, with the exception of EGFR gene amplification in lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations, their involvement in disease progression during the early stages is poorly understood. In this paper, we focused on which receptor is correlated with lung adenocarcinoma progression in the presence or absence of EGFR mutation from stage 0 to IA1. HER2 and HER3 expression and activating EGFR mutations in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma exhibiting ground glass nodules on chest computed tomography and re-classified to stage 0 and IA1 were examined by immunohistochemistry and peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid PCR clamp method, respectively. HER2 and HER3 expression was detected in 22.2% and 86.1% of samples, respectively. The frequency of EGFR mutation was 45.7% and was not significantly different between stage 0 and IA1 (40.0% and 48.0%, respectively), suggesting that EGFR mutation does not correlate with cancer progression from stage 0 to IA1. HER2 expression also did not correlate to progression. However, not only the frequency, but also the intensity of HER3 expression was increased in stage IA1 lung adenocarcinoma, particularly in lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation. HER3 tends to be intensively expressed during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation from carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Albumin expression distinguishes bile duct adenomas from metastatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moy, Andrea P; Arora, Kshitij; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-09-01

    Bile duct adenomas may be difficult to distinguish from metastatic carcinomas, particularly well-differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Prior studies have evaluated the utility of various immunohistochemical markers, although these markers are notable for low sensitivity and/or specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of albumin and BRAFV600E expression in distinguishing between metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and bile duct adenoma. We studied 26 bile duct adenomas, three bile duct hamartomas, and 158 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Branched-chain in-situ hybridization (bISH) for albumin was performed; bISH is based on the branched DNA technology, wherein signal amplification is achieved via a series of sequential steps. Additionally, BRAFV600E immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on a subset of cases. Twenty-three of 25 (92%) bile duct adenomas were positive for albumin; 18 (72%) showed diffuse staining, and five showed focal staining (20%), including two challenging examples. Two bile duct hamartomas also stained positively. All pancreatic adenocarcinomas were negative for albumin. Seven of 16 (44%) bile duct adenomas and five of 106 (5%) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas were positive for BRAFV600E by IHC. The sensitivity and specificity of expression of albumin, as detected by bISH, for distinguishing bile duct adenomas from metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomas were 92% and 100%, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of BRAFV600E IHC for distinguishing bile duct adenomas from metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomas were 43.8% and 95.3%, respectively. Diagnostically challenging examples of bile duct adenoma may be distinguished from metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma by the use of albumin bISH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ureteric stricture secondary to unusual extension of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Venu; Macek, Petr; O'Neill, Gordon F; Barret, Wade

    2010-02-01

    This article describes an unusual finding in a patient who presented with an adenocarcinoma of the prostate and right hydronephrosis. A 68-year-old male presented with right hydronephrosis and a PSA of 96. DRE was consistent with cT3 carcinoma. Cystoscopy showed an exophytic superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and a transrectal biopsy of the prostate confirmed adenocarcinoma Gleason score 4+3. Staging investigations (CT pelvis and bone scan) were negative; androgen deprivation therapy was therefore initiated for the prostatic adenocarcinoma. Upper tract imaging showed multiple filling defects in the proximal ureter. Ureteroscopy showed a stricture at the level of the iliac vessels. With a working diagnosis of upper tract TCC, right open nephroureterectomy was performed. Final histology showed prostatic adenocarcinoma infiltrating the adventitia of the entire ureter up to the level of the renal pelvis. A rare cause of ureteric stricture, contiguous spread of prostatic adenocarcinoma, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with upper tract obstruction and a known history of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Androgen deprivation therapy for several months did not seem to cause resolution of the tumor in the periureteric, ureteric and perihilar tissues.

  7. Primary Jejunal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Ovarian Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Emmanuel; Ramai, Daryl; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Changela, Kinesh; Krishnaiah, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Small intestinal tumors are rare with adenocarcinoma of the small intestine accounting for less than 2% of all gastrointestinal cancers. Primary jejunal adenocarcinoma constitutes a minute portion of small intestine adenocarcinomas. Clinically, this cancer presents at latter stages of its progression, mainly due to vague and non-specific symptoms, and the difficulty encountered in accessing the jejunum on upper endoscopy. Diagnosis of jejunal adenocarcinoma is usually inconclusive with the use of computed tomography (CT) scan, small bowel series, or upper endoscopy. Laparoscopy followed by frozen section biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis. In the past decade, balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) and capsule endoscopy have become popular as useful modalities for diagnosing small bowel diseases. Wide excisional jejunectomy is the only treatment option with an estimated 5-year survival of 40-65%. Physicians are advised to suspect jejunal adenocarcinoma as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with non-specific symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, gastrointestinal bleeding or signs of small bowel obstruction. We present a rare case of a 37-year-old woman with suspected bilateral ovarian masses, which was immunohistochemically confirmed as primary jejunal adenocarcinoma with bilateral ovarian metastasis. PMID:29317945

  8. Primary Jejunal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Ovarian Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Emmanuel; Ramai, Daryl; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Changela, Kinesh; Krishnaiah, Mahesh

    2017-12-01

    Small intestinal tumors are rare with adenocarcinoma of the small intestine accounting for less than 2% of all gastrointestinal cancers. Primary jejunal adenocarcinoma constitutes a minute portion of small intestine adenocarcinomas. Clinically, this cancer presents at latter stages of its progression, mainly due to vague and non-specific symptoms, and the difficulty encountered in accessing the jejunum on upper endoscopy. Diagnosis of jejunal adenocarcinoma is usually inconclusive with the use of computed tomography (CT) scan, small bowel series, or upper endoscopy. Laparoscopy followed by frozen section biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis. In the past decade, balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) and capsule endoscopy have become popular as useful modalities for diagnosing small bowel diseases. Wide excisional jejunectomy is the only treatment option with an estimated 5-year survival of 40-65%. Physicians are advised to suspect jejunal adenocarcinoma as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with non-specific symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, gastrointestinal bleeding or signs of small bowel obstruction. We present a rare case of a 37-year-old woman with suspected bilateral ovarian masses, which was immunohistochemically confirmed as primary jejunal adenocarcinoma with bilateral ovarian metastasis.

  9. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus with a minimal deviation invasive pattern.

    PubMed

    Landry, D; Mai, K T; Senterman, M K; Perkins, D G; Yazdi, H M; Veinot, J P; Thomas, J

    2003-01-01

    Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type is a rare pathological entity. We describe a variant of typical endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type. One 'pilot' case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type associated with typical endometrioid adenocarcinoma was encountered at our institution in 2001. A second case of same type was received in consultation. We reviewed 168 consecutive hysterectomy specimens diagnosed with 'endometrioid adenocarcinoma' specifically to identify areas of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type. Immunohistochemistry was done with the following antibodies: MIB1, p53, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and vimentin (VIM). Four additional cases of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type were identified. All six cases of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type were associated with superficial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In two cases with a large amount of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type, the cervix was involved. The immunoprofile of two representative cases was ER+, PR+, CK7+, CK20-, CEA-, VIM+. MIB1 immunostaining of four cases revealed little proliferative activity of the minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type glandular cells (0-1%) compared with the associated 'typical' endometrioid adenocarcinoma (20-30%). The same four cases showed no p53 immunostaining in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type compared with a range of positive staining in the associated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type more often develops as a result of differentiation from typical endometrioid adenocarcinoma than de novo. Due to its deceptively benign microscopic appearance, minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type may be overlooked and

  10. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Methods An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection

  11. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P = 0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P = 0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P = 0.003) and lower histological grades (P = 0.031). Patients

  12. Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Schoolland, Meike; Segal, Amanda; Allpress, Stephen; Miranda, Alina; Frost, Felicity A; Sterrett, Gregory F

    2002-12-25

    The current study examines 1) the sensitivity of detection and 2) sampling and screening/diagnostic error in the cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix. The data were taken from public and private sector screening laboratories reporting 25,000 and 80,000 smears, respectively, each year. The study group was comprised of women with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS or AIS combined with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who were accessioned by the Western Australian Cervical Cytology Registry (WACCR) between 1993-1998. Cervical smears reported by the Western Australia Centre for Pathology and Medical Research (PathCentre) or Western Diagnostic Pathology (WDP) in the 36 months before the index biopsy was obtained were retrieved. A true measure of the sensitivity of detection could not be determined because to the authors' knowledge the exact prevalence of disease is unknown at present. For the current study, sensitivity was defined as the percentage of smears reported as demonstrating a possible or definite high-grade epithelial abnormality (HGEA), either glandular or squamous. Sampling error was defined as the percentage of smears found to have no HGEA on review. Screening/diagnostic error was defined as the percentage of smears in which HGEA was not diagnosed initially but review demonstrated possible or definite HGEA. Sensitivity also was calculated for a randomly selected control group of biopsy proven cases of Grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3) accessioned at the WACCR in 1999. For biopsy findings of AIS alone, the diagnostic "sensitivity" of a single smear was 47.6% for the PathCentre and 54.3% for WDP. Nearly all the abnormalities were reported as glandular. The sampling and screening/diagnostic errors were 47.6% and 4.8%, respectively, for the PathCentre and 33.3% and 12.3%, respectively, for WDP. The results from the PathCentre were better for AIS plus HSIL than for AIS alone, but the results from WDP were

  13. Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the penis: a series of 29 cases with predilection for ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Carla L; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine men with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the penis were identified at our institution between 1993 and 2013. Of the 29 patients, 19 had a prior history of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and 8 of those had ductal features in the primary lesion. Sixteen of 29 revealed ductal features in the metastasis. Seven of the 8 cases with ductal features in the primary had ductal features in the penile metastasis. Seven penile metastases were proven to be of prostatic origin solely by immunohistochemistry. Three cases were originally misdiagnosed as urothelial carcinoma upon review of the penile lesion. Other variant morphologies in the metastases included sarcomatoid carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and adenosquamous carcinoma. In summary, prostate carcinoma involving the penis displays ductal features considerably more often than prostate cancer in general. Features that can cause difficulty in recognizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the penis include the unusual anatomic site for prostate cancer, poor differentiation, an increased prevalence of variant morphology, a long interval from the primary lesion, and, in some cases, no documented history of a primary prostatic lesion. Immunohistochemical analysis should be performed to rule out prostate carcinoma in penile/penile urethral tumors with morphology that differs from typical squamous or urothelial carcinoma. Even in the setting of metastatic disease, there is a critical need for an accurate diagnosis so that the appropriate therapy can be initiated, symptomatic relief can be provided, and long-term survival achieved in some cases, while at the same time avoiding penectomy for a misdiagnosis of a primary penile cancer.

  14. Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ferri, María José; Saez, Marc; Figueras, Joan; Fort, Esther; Sabat, Miriam; López-Ben, Santiago; de Llorens, Rafael; Aleixandre, Rosa Núria; Peracaula, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies. CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls. The combination of CA 19-9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19-9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients. Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

  15. Impact of Endoscopic Surveillance on Mortality From Barrett's Esophagus-Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Douglas A.; Mehtani, Kunal; Quesenberry, Charles; Zhao, Wei; De Boer, Jolanda; Weiss, Noel S.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Although patients with Barrett's esophagus commonly undergo endoscopic surveillance, its effectiveness in reducing mortality from esophageal/gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas has not been evaluated rigorously. Methods We performed a case-control study in a community-based setting. Among 8272 members with Barrett's esophagus, we identified 351 esophageal adenocarcinoma: 70 in persons who had a prior diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus (who were eligible for surveillance); 51 of these patients died, 38 as a result of the cancers (cases). Surveillance histories were contrasted with a sample of 101 living persons with Barrett's esophagus (controls), matched for age, sex, and duration of follow-up evaluation. Results Surveillancei within 3 years was not associated with a decreased risk of death from esophageal adenocarcinoma (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36–2.75). Fatal cases were nearly as likely to have received surveillance (55.3%) as were controls (60.4%). A Barrett's esophagus length longer than 3 cm and prior dysplasia each were associated with subsequent mortality, but adjustment for these did not change the main findings. Although all patients should be included in evaluations of effectiveness, excluding deaths related to cancer treatment and patients who failed to complete treatment, changed the magnitude, but not the significance, of the association (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–1.64). Conclusions Endoscopic surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus was not associated with a substantially decreased risk of death from esophageal adenocarcinoma. The results do not exclude a small to moderate benefit. However, if such a benefit exists, our findings indicate that it is substantially smaller than currently estimated. The effectiveness of surveillance was influenced partially by the acceptability of existing treatments and the occurrence of treatment-associated mortality. PMID:23673354

  16. L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) constitutes an emerging biomarker in predicting patients' survival with stomach adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Florou, Dimitra; Papadopoulos, Iordanis N; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Scorilas, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Stomach adenocarcinoma represents a major health problem and is regarded as the second commonest cause of cancer-associated mortality, universally, since it is still difficult to be perceived at a curable stage. Several lines of evidence have pointed out that the expression of L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene and/or protein becomes distinctively modulated in several human neuroendocrine neoplasms as well as adenocarcinomas. In order to elucidate the clinical role of DDC on primary gastric adenocarcinomas, we determined qualitatively and quantitatively the mRNA levels of the gene with regular PCR and real-time PCR by using the comparative threshold cycle method, correspondingly, and detected the expression of DDC protein by immunoblotting in cancerous and normal stomach tissue specimens. A statistically significant association was disclosed between DDC expression and gastric intestinal histotype as well as tumor localization at the distal third part of the stomach (p = 0.025 and p = 0.029, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses highlighted the powerful prognostic importance of DDC in relation to disease-free survival and overall survival of gastric cancer patients. According to Kaplan-Meier curves, the relative risk of relapse was found to be decreased in DDC-positive (p = 0.031) patients who, also, exhibited higher overall survival rates (p = 0.016) than those with DDC-negative tumors. This work is the first to shed light on the potential clinical usefulness of DDC, as an efficient tumor biomarker in gastric cancer. The provided evidence underlines the propitious predictive value of DDC expression in the survival of stomach adenocarcinoma patients.

  17. Differentially regulated ADAMTS1, 8, 9, and 18 in pancreas adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aynekin, Büşra; Bozer, Mikdat; Kara, Adem; Haltaş, Hacer; İçen, Duygu; Demircan, Kadir

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Despite recent diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, pancreas cancer remains one of the highly lethal cancers. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiological barrier that limits the spread of cancer cells into surrounding tissues and distant organs. Disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) is a family of 19 proteases, which is involved in various biological processes such as ECM remodelling and anti-angiogenesis. Aim To investigate the expression of ADAMTS1, 8, 9, and 18 proteinases in pancreas adenocarcinoma and its nodal metastasis. Material and methods The immunostaining status of ADAMTS1, 8, 9, and 18 were investigated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of 25 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for an adenocarcinoma located at the head of the pancreas. Results In semi-quantitive grading pathologically, ADAMTS1, 8, 9, and 18 were found to be highly stained in all cancerous pancreas samples compared with normal pancreas. In addition, the immune positivity of ADAMTS1, 9, and 18 was found to be higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in non-metastatic lymph tissue. Tumour size was correlated with ADAMTS9 and 18 expressions in cancerous pancreas. Conclusions According to the data obtained from the study, we suggest that these four ADAMTSs may have significant roles in the tumorigenesis and nodal spread of pancreas adenocarcinoma. PMID:29358995

  18. From reflux esophagitis to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in the human population. Almost all cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma are derived from Barrett’s esophagus, which is a complication of esophageal adenocarcinoma precancerous lesions. Chronic exposure of the esophagus to gastroduodenal intestinal fluid is an important determinant factor in the development of Barrett’s esophagus. The replacement of normal squamous epithelium with specific columnar epithelium in the lower esophagus induced by the chronic exposure to gastroduodenal fluid could lead to intestinal metaplasia, which is closely associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. Various animal models of the developmental mechanisms of disease, and theoretical and clinical effects of drug treatment have been widely used in research. Recently, animal models employed in studies on gastroesophageal reflux injury have allowed significant progress. The advantage of using animal models lies in the ability to accurately control the experimental conditions for better evaluation of results. In this article, various modeling methods are reviewed, with discussion of the major findings on the developmental mechanism of Barrett’s esophagus, which should help to develop better prevention and treatment strategies for Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25954094

  19. Distribution of type IV collagen in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C. S.; Montebello, J.; Georgiou, T.; Rode, J.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the basement membrane are present in various neoplastic conditions such as neurofibrosarcoma, cervical carcinoma, colorectal cancers and hepatoblastoma. This study examines the expression of type IV collagen in the basement membrane, using an immunohistochemical method, in the normal pancreas (n = 10), chronic pancreatitis (n = 15) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 30). The formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue was sectioned and pretreated with protease prior to immunostaining for type IV collagen. There was a statistically significant difference in type IV collagen expression between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis (P = 0.0001; chi 2 test with continuity correction). In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, type IV collagen distribution in the basement membrane was discontinuous and irregular or absent around individual or groups of neoplastic cells (n = 30). Most cases of chronic pancreatitis showed continuous pattern of basement membrane type IV collagen around residual ducts (n = 10). In the normal pancreas, only one of the ten cases showed discontinuous basement membrane around pancreatic ducts, while in the rest of the cases, the pattern was continuous. This study suggests that there is abnormal distribution of type IV collagen in the basement membrane in pancreatic carcinoma, which may be related to either abnormal deposition or degradation of the collagen. Immunostaining for type IV collagen may be of some diagnostic use for distinguishing pancreatic adenocarcinoma from problematic cases of chronic pancreatitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8199008

  20. Dynamic prognostication using conditional survival analysis for patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooil; Lee, Ho Yun; Jung, Sin-Ho; Woo, Min-Ah; Kim, Hong Kwan; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Jhingook; Zo, Jae Ill; Shim, Young Mog; Han, Joungho; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate conditional survival among patients with surgically resected stage I-IIIa lung adenocarcinoma and identify changes in prognostic contributions for various prognostic factors over time. Patients and Methods We performed conditional survival analysis at each t0 (=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years) for 723 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for lung adenocarcinoma, stratified by various clinico-demographic features, as well as pathologic and imaging (tumor-shadow disappearance ratio [TDR] on CT and maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax] on PET) characteristics. Uni- and multivariableCox regression analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between those variables and conditional survival. Results Three-year conditional overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 92.12% and 75.51% at baseline, but improved steadily up to 98.33% and 95.95% at 5 years after surgery. In contrast to demographic factors, pathologic (stage, subtype, pathologic grade and differentiation) and radiologic factors (TDR and SUVmax) maintained a statistically significant association with subseqeunt 3-year OS until 3 years after surgery. According to the multivariableanalysis, high SUVmax and low TDR value were independent predictors of subsequent 3-year OS and DFS at baseline, 1 and 2 years after surgery, respectively. Conclusion Our findings based on CS provide theoretical background for clinicians to plan longer period of surveillance following lung adenocarcinoma resection in survivors with preoperatively high SUVmax and low TDR on PET-CT and chest CT, respectively. PMID:27793026

  1. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna; Kemkes, Ariane; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Curley, Erin; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Engel, Jay; Bartlett, John; Albert, Monique; Park, Do-Youn; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Landreneau, Rodney; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Cho, Eunjung; Ladanyi, Marc; Tang, Laura; McCall, Shannon J.; Park, Young S.; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Ajani, Jaffer; Camargo, M. Constanza; Alonso, Shelley; Ayala, Brenda; Jensen, Mark A.; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Walton, Jessica; Wan, Yunhu; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Sheth, Margi; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Davidsen, Tanja; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Burton, Robert; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  2. Interventional Nanotheranostics of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Liu, Fengyong; Gupta, Sanjay; Li, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for over 90% of all pancreatic cancer. Nanoparticles (NPs) offer new opportunities for image-guided therapy owing to the unique physicochemical properties of the nanoscale effect and the multifunctional capabilities of NPs. However, major obstacles exist for NP-mediated cancer theranostics, especially in PDAC. The hypovascular nature of PDAC may impede the deposition of NPs into the tumor after systemic administration, and most NPs localize predominantly in the mononuclear phagocytic system, leading to a relatively poor tumor-to-surrounding-organ uptake ratio. Image guidance combined with minimally invasive interventional procedures may help circumvent these barriers to poor drug delivery of NPs in PDAC. Interventional treatments allow regional drug delivery, targeted vascular embolization, direct tumor ablation, and the possibility of disrupting the stromal barrier of PDAC. Interventional treatments also have potentially fewer complications, faster recovery, and lower cost compared with conventional therapies. This work is an overview of current image-guided interventional cancer nanotheranostics with specific attention given to their applications for the management of PDAC. PMID:27375787

  3. Algenpantucel-L immunotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coveler, Andrew L; Rossi, Gabriela R; Vahanian, Nicholas N; Link, Charles; Chiorean, E Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the EU. A minority of patients presents with surgically resectable and potentially curable disease, but among these, 80% are destined to relapse and overall survival rates with adjuvant chemotherapy average 24 months. Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option and a potential paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, and may be particularly effective when used early in the disease course to prevent metastatic spread. Algenpantucel-L (HyperAcute Pancreas, NewLink Genetics, Ames, IA, USA) is a whole-cell immunotherapy consisting of irradiated allogeneic pancreatic cancer cells genetically engineered to express the murine enzyme α-GT, which results in hyperacute rejection of the tumor cells with complement- and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Phase II clinical trial data has been encouraging, particularly for patients who demonstrated humoral immunologic responses. Here, we report preliminary results and biomarkers correlations with clinical activity of algenpantucel-L in pancreatic cancer.

  4. Management of unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salgado, M; Arévalo, S; Hernando, O; Martínez, A; Yaya, R; Hidalgo, M

    2018-02-01

    The diagnosis of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) requires confirmation, through imaging tests, of the unfeasibility of achieving a complete surgical resection, in the absence of metastatic spread. The increase in overall survival (OS), together with an appropriate symptom management is the therapeutic target in LAPC, maintaining an acceptable quality of life and, if possible, increasing the time until the appearance of metastasis. Chemoradiation (CRT) improves OS compared to best support treatment or radiotherapy (RT) but with greater toxicity. No significant increase in OS has been achieved with CRT when compared to chemotherapy (QT) alone in patients without disease progression after four months of treatment with QT. However, a significantly better local control, that is, a significant increase in the time to disease progression was associated with this approach. The greater effectiveness of the schemes FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine (Gem) + Nab-paclitaxel compared to gemcitabine alone, has been extrapolated from metastatic disease to LAPC, representing a possible alternative for patients with good performance status (ECOG 0-1). In the absence of randomized clinical trials, Gem is the standard treatment in LAPC. If disease control is achieved after 4-6 cycles of QT, the use of CRT for consolidation can be considered an option vs QT treatment maintenance. Capecitabine has a better toxicity profile and effectiveness compared to gemcitabine as a radiosensitizer. After local progression, and without evidence of metastases, treatment with RT or CRT, in selected patients, can support to maintain the regional disease control.

  5. Genetics and biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Haoqiang; Dey, Prasenjit; Yao, Wantong; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Draetta, Giulio F.; Maitra, Anirban; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    With 5-year survival rates remaining constant at 6% and rising incidences associated with an epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is on track to become the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. The high mortality rate of PDAC stems primarily from the lack of early diagnosis and ineffective treatment for advanced tumors. During the past decade, the comprehensive atlas of genomic alterations, the prominence of specific pathways, the preclinical validation of such emerging targets, sophisticated preclinical model systems, and the molecular classification of PDAC into specific disease subtypes have all converged to illuminate drug discovery programs with clearer clinical path hypotheses. A deeper understanding of cancer cell biology, particularly altered cancer cell metabolism and impaired DNA repair processes, is providing novel therapeutic strategies that show strong preclinical activity. Elucidation of tumor biology principles, most notably a deeper understanding of the complexity of immune regulation in the tumor microenvironment, has provided an exciting framework to reawaken the immune system to attack PDAC cancer cells. While the long road of translation lies ahead, the path to meaningful clinical progress has never been clearer to improve PDAC patient survival. PMID:26883357

  6. Customization of therapy for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mizrak Kaya, Dilsa; Harada, Kazuto; Amlashi, Fatemeh G; Vasilakopoulou, Maria; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2018-03-01

    Gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEACs) remain a global health problem. These are most often diagnosed at advanced stage and the estimated 5-year relative survival rate is about 5%. Although cure is not possible for patients with advanced GEAC, systemic therapy (chemotherapy or biochemotherapy) can palliate symptoms, improve survival and provide a better quality of life. One of the most promising options for some patients with advanced stage GEAC is immunotherapy, which can result in durable responses. Numerous phase III trials evaluating targeted therapies in different lines are ongoing and it is hoped that better biomarkers will emerge to identify patients who can benefit from targeted agents and immunotherapy in the future. Surgery remains as the corner stone for localized GEAC and adjunctive therapies can increase the survival rates by about 10%. The high toxicity and low completion rates of adjuvant therapy led to the strategies of preoperative treatment. With the results of ongoing pre-operative therapy trials we will be able to determine the optimal adjunctive approach for resectable GEAC.

  7. Metastatic iridociliary adenocarcinoma in a labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Zarfoss, M K; Dubielzig, R R

    2007-09-01

    An enucleated left eye from a 15-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was received by the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) for histopathologic evaluation. Routine histologic preparation included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, and with alcian blue periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). At necropsy 9 months later, all grossly abnormal tissues (ipsilateral orbit and lung) were submitted to the COPLOW for histopathologic evaluation. Histopathologic evaluation of the globe revealed extensive invasion of the uvea and sclera by a pleomorphic cell population that formed disorganized cords and exhibited PAS-positive basement membrane material. Necropsy revealed a morphologically similar tumor in the ipsilateral orbit and lung. On immunohistochemical examination, the intraocular tumor stained diffusely immunopositive for vimentin, S-100, and neuron-specific enolase and multifocally, sparsely immunopositive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The orbital and thoracic tumors stained positively for vimentin but negatively for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. There are few reports of canine metastatic iridociliary adenocarcinoma in the literature; this is the first with immunohistochemical analysis.

  8. Coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Li, Ziyu; Liu, Yiqiang; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Jiyou; Ji, Jiafu

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to detect the clinicopathology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occurring synchronously with gastric adenocarcinomas and to unveil the potential underlying relationship between the synchronous GIST and gastric adenocarcinoma. This study included 15 patients with incidental GISTs found during operations for gastric adenocarcinoma and 30 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer without discovering GIST between January 2005 and December 2010 at the Beijing Cancer Institute. We collected the clinicopathological data and analyzed the KIT/PDGFRA mutational status of GISTs, corresponding gastric adenocarcinoma specimens, and the normal tissue around the cancer lesions. Additionally, as a control group, the mutational status of the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and no other tumors was assayed. Overall, 18 GISTs were found in 15 gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Multiple GIST lesions were found in three cases (20 %). The patients' age ranged from 46 to 85 years, with an average of 67.6 years. The average size of the GISTs was 0.85 cm. All mesenchymal lesions showed low proliferative activity, were of low or very low risk, and were identified as CD117-positive by immunostaining. In GIST lesions, mutations in KIT were detected in 7 out of 13 cases, and of these mutations, 6 were found in exon 11 (46.2 %), and 1 was found in exon 9 (7.7 %). A total of five deletions and one point mutation were in exon 11, and one insertion was in exon 9. Mutations were not detected in exon 17 or 13 of KIT. There was no remarkable mutation analyzed in the gastric adenocarcinoma lesions or normal tissues from either the test or control groups. Clinicopathological profiles and molecular analysis of KIT/PDGFRA showed no obvious relationship between gastric cancer and GISTs in tumor genesis, such as similar oncogene mutations.

  9. Fibulin-1 functions as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Yin, Hai-Bing; Liu, Yi-Fei; Liu, Jun-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Fibulin-1 is a member of the fibulin gene family, characterized by tandem arrays of epidermal growth factor-like domains and a C-terminal fibulin-type module. Fibulin-1 plays important roles in a range of cellular functions including morphology, growth, adhesion and mobility. It acts as a tumor suppressor gene in cutaneous melanoma, prostate cancer and gastric cancer. However, whether fibulin-1 also acts as a tumor suppressor gene in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. We also determined the association of fibulin-1 expression with various clinical and pathological parameters, which would show its potential role in clinical prognosis. We investigated and followed up 140 lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent lung resection without pre- and post-operative systemic chemotherapy at the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from 2009 to 2013. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of fibulin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. We then analyzed the correlations between fibulin-1 expression and clinicopathological variables as well as the patients' overall survival rate. Both western blot assay and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the level of fibulin-1 was downregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with that of normal lung tissues. Fibulin-1 expression significantly correlated with histological differentiation (P = 0.046), clinical stage (P< 0.01), lymph node status (P = 0.038) and expression of Ki-67 (P = 0.013). More importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that fibulin-1 was an independent prognostic marker for lung adenocarcinoma, and high expression of fibulin-1 was significantly associated with better prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. The results supported our hypothesis that fibulin-1 can act as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Serrated adenocarcinoma morphology in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma is associated with improved patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Ta; Chow, Nan-Haw; Su, Pei-Fang; Ho, Chung-Liang; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Lin, Shao-Chieh; Lin, Bo-Wen; Lin, Peng-Chan; Lee, Jenq-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) and serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) share many characteristics, including right-side colon location, frequent mucin production, and various molecular features. This study examined the frequency of SAC morphology in MACs. We assessed the correlation of SAC morphology with clinicopathological parameters, molecular characteristics, and patient prognosis. Eighty-eight colorectal MACs were collected and reviewed for SAC morphology according to Makinen's criteria. We sequenced KRAS and BRAF, assessed CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) frequency, and analyzed DNA mismatch repair enzyme levels using immunohistochemistry in tumor samples. SAC morphology was observed in 38% of MACs, and was associated with proximal location (P=0.001), BRAF mutation (P=0.042), CIMP-positive status (P=0.023), and contiguous traditional serrated adenoma (P=0.019). Multivariate analysis revealed that MACs without both SAC morphology and CIMP-positive status exhibited 3.955 times greater risk of cancer relapse than MACs having both characteristics or either one (P=0.035). Our results show that two MAC groups with distinct features can be identified using Makinen's criteria, and suggest a favorable prognostic role for the serrated neoplastic pathway in colorectal MAC. PMID:28422723

  11. Genetic determinants and potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Robert; Hendifar, Andrew E; Tuli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, carrying a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%, which is the poorest prognosis of any solid tumor type. Given the dismal prognosis associated with PDAC, a more thorough understanding of risk factors and genetic predisposition has important implications not only for cancer prevention, but also for screening techniques and the development of personalized therapies. While screening of the general population is not recommended or practicable with current diagnostic methods, studies are ongoing to evaluate its usefulness in people with at least 5- to 10-fold increased risk of PDAC. In order to help identify high-risk populations who would be most likely to benefit from early detection screening tests for pancreatic cancer, discovery of additional pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes is crucial. Thus, specific gene-based, gene-product, and marker-based testing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are currently being developed, with the potential for these to be useful as potential therapeutic targets as well. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis for PDAC with a focus on germline and familial determinants. A discussion of potential therapeutic targets and future directions in screening and treatment is also provided.

  12. Genetic determinants and potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Robert; Hendifar, Andrew E.; Tuli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, carrying a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%, which is the poorest prognosis of any solid tumor type. Given the dismal prognosis associated with PDAC, a more thorough understanding of risk factors and genetic predisposition has important implications not only for cancer prevention, but also for screening techniques and the development of personalized therapies. While screening of the general population is not recommended or practicable with current diagnostic methods, studies are ongoing to evaluate its usefulness in people with at least 5- to 10-fold increased risk of PDAC. In order to help identify high-risk populations who would be most likely to benefit from early detection screening tests for pancreatic cancer, discovery of additional pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes is crucial. Thus, specific gene-based, gene-product, and marker-based testing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are currently being developed, with the potential for these to be useful as potential therapeutic targets as well. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis for PDAC with a focus on germline and familial determinants. A discussion of potential therapeutic targets and future directions in screening and treatment is also provided. PMID:24624093

  13. From Reflux Esophagitis to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Rhonda F.

    2016-01-01

    Reflux esophagitis causes Barrett's metaplasia, an abnormal esophageal mucosa predisposed to adenocarcinoma. Medical therapy for reflux esophagitis focuses on decreasing gastric acid production with proton pump inhibitors. We have reported that reflux esophagitis in a rat model develops from a cytokine-mediated inflammatory injury, not from a caustic chemical (acid) injury. In this model, refluxed acid and bile stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines from esophageal squamous cells, recruiting lymphocytes first to the submucosa and later to the luminal surface. Emerging studies on acute reflux esophagitis in humans support this new concept, suggesting that reflux-induced cytokine release may be a future target for medical therapies. Sometimes, reflux esophagitis heals with Barrett's metaplasia, a process facilitated by reflux-related nitric oxide (NO) production and Sonic Hedgehog secretion by squamous cells. We have shown that NO reduces expression of genes that promote a squamous cell phenotype, while Hedgehog signaling induces genes that mediate the development of the columnar cell phenotypes of Barrett's metaplasia. Agents targeting esophageal NO production or Hedgehog signaling conceivably could prevent the development of Barrett's esophagus. Persistent reflux promotes cancer in Barrett's metaplasia. We have reported that acid and bile salts induce DNA damage in Barrett's cells. Bile salts also cause NF-κB activation in Barrett's cells, enabling them to resist apoptosis in the setting of DNA damage, and likely contributing to carcinogenesis. Oral treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid prevents the esophageal DNA damage and NF-κB activation induced by toxic bile acids. Altering bile acid composition might be another approach to cancer prevention. PMID:27331918

  14. From Reflux Esophagitis to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rhonda F

    Reflux esophagitis causes Barrett's metaplasia, an abnormal esophageal mucosa predisposed to adenocarcinoma. Medical therapy for reflux esophagitis focuses on decreasing gastric acid production with proton pump inhibitors. We have reported that reflux esophagitis in a rat model develops from a cytokine-mediated inflammatory injury, not from a caustic chemical (acid) injury. In this model, refluxed acid and bile stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines from esophageal squamous cells, recruiting lymphocytes first to the submucosa and later to the luminal surface. Emerging studies on acute reflux esophagitis in humans support this new concept, suggesting that reflux-induced cytokine release may be a future target for medical therapies. Sometimes, reflux esophagitis heals with Barrett's metaplasia, a process facilitated by reflux-related nitric oxide (NO) production and Sonic Hedgehog (Hh) secretion by squamous cells. We have shown that NO reduces expression of genes that promote a squamous cell phenotype, while Hh signaling induces genes that mediate the development of the columnar cell phenotypes of Barrett's metaplasia. Agents targeting esophageal NO production or Hh signaling conceivably could prevent the development of Barrett's esophagus. Persistent reflux promotes cancer in Barrett's metaplasia. We have reported that acid and bile salts induce DNA damage in Barrett's cells. Bile salts also cause NF-x03BA;B activation in Barrett's cells, enabling them to resist apoptosis in the setting of DNA damage and likely contributing to carcinogenesis. Oral treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid prevents the esophageal DNA damage and NF-x03BA;B activation induced by toxic bile acids. Altering bile acid composition might be another approach to cancer prevention. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Visceral Thromboses in Pancreas Adenocarcinoma: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Angel Mier; DeRosa, Antonio; Raj, Micheal; Do, Richard; Yu, Kenneth H; Lowery, Maeve A; Varghese, Anna; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2018-06-01

    Within gastrointestinal malignancies, primary hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently associated with visceral thromboses (VT). Thrombus formation in the portal (PVT), mesenteric (MVT), or splenic vein (SVT) system leads to portal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. VT in PDAC may convey a risk of increased distal thrombosis and poses therapeutic uncertainty regarding the role of anticoagulation. An increasing number of reports describe VT associated with PDAC. It is possible that early diagnosis of these events may help reduce morbidity and speculatively improve oncologic outcomes. To perform a systematic review to study PVT, MVT, and SVT associated with PDAC, and to provide a comprehensive review. Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Data Extraction and Assessment: Two blinded independent observers extracted and assessed the studies for diagnosis of PVT, MVT, and SVT in PDAC. Studies were restricted to English-language literature published between 2007 and 2016. Eleven articles were identified. Five case reports and 7 retrospective studies were found, with a total of 127 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 64 years. PVT was found in 35% (n = 46), SVT in 52% (n = 65), and MVT in 13% (n = 15). Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Only 3 of the selected articles studied the impact of anticoagulation in VT. All patients with nonvisceral thrombosis (eg, deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli) were therapeutically treated; in contrast, patients with VT only rarely received treatment. VT in PDAC is a frequent finding at diagnosis or during disease progression. Evidence to guide treatment choices is limited, and current management is based on inferred experience from nononcologic settings. Anticoagulation appears to be safe in VT, with most of the large studies recommending a careful assessment for patients at a high risk of bleeding. Copyright © 2017

  16. A case of alpha-fetoprotein-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Hu, Huang-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2013-02-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein is a well-known tumor marker in the screening and follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma. In Taiwanese society, a high prevalence of hepatitis and hepatoma and elevation of alpha-fetoprotein associated with liver function impairment usually suggested clinics undertake further examination for liver or genital tumor. We report the case of 45-year-old man who was found to have an alpha-fetoprotein-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma with an initial presentation of liver function impairment and rapid elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Esophageal cancer was diagnosed via endoscope and a biopsy proved the presence of adenocarcinoma. A small endoscopic biopsy specimen failed to identify the alpha-fetoprotein positive tumor cell. Esophagectomy was performed and histopathological study of surgical specimen revealed grade II adenocarcinoma with regional metastatic lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical study was focal positive for alpha-fetoprotein. Serum alpha-fetoprotein declined transiently after esophagectomy and fluctuation of alpha-fetoprotein level was noted during the treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. Finally, 19 months after the operation, the patient died due to multiple organ metastases with multiple organ failure. Thus, a small specimen for upper endoscopy may not be sufficient in the presence of alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma. Monitoring of serum alpha-fetoprotein may be useful in the evaluation and follow-up of esophageal alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dendritic cells in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Tran, Dinh; Killingsworth, Murray C; Buckland, Michael; Lord, Reginald V N

    2009-01-01

    Like other premalignant conditions that develop in the presence of chronic inflammation, the development and progression of Barrett's esophagus is associated with the development of an immune response, but how this immune response is regulated is poorly understood. A comprehensive literature search failed to find any report of the presence of dendritic cells in Barrett's intestinal metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma and this prompted our study. We used immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy to examine whether dendritic cells are present in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD83, a specific marker for dendritic cells, was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (IM, n = 12), dysplasia (n = 11) and adenocarcinoma (n = 14). CD83+ cells were identified in the lamina propria surrounding intestinal type glands in Barrett's IM, dysplasia, and cancer tissues. Computerized quantitative analysis showed that the numbers of dendritic cells were significantly higher in cancer tissues. Double immunostaining with CD83, CD20, and CD3, and electron microscopy demonstrated that dendritic cells are present in Barrett's esophagus and form clusters with T cells and B cells directly within the lamina propria. These findings demonstrate that dendritic cells are present in Barrett's tissues, with a significant increase in density in adenocarcinoma compared to benign Barrett's esophagus. Dendritic cells may have a role in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy treatment of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.

  18. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report.

    PubMed

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-09-13

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient's non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor's morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  19. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Villaruz, Liza C; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F; Stabile, Laura P; Siegfried, Jill M; Conrads, Thomas P; Smith, Neil R; O'Connor, Mark J; Pierce, Andrew J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2016-09-06

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year.

  20. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  1. Incidence of Subsequent Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Patients with a History of Non-Pancreatic Primary Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sunil; McBride, Russell; Kline, Jennie; Mitchel, Elana B.; Lucas, Aimee L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Frucht, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Background Several environmental risk factors are known to predispose to pancreas cancer and up to 15% of pancreatic cancers have an inherited component. Understanding metachronous cancer associations can modify pancreas cancer risk. We sought to investigate the association of non-pancreatic cancers with subsequent pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods We used data from the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) registries to identify 1,618,834 individuals with a primary malignancy and subsequent pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n=4,013). We calculated standardized incidence ratios as an approximation of relative risk (RR) for occurrence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma after another primary malignancy. Results Among patients diagnosed with a first primary malignancy at ages 20-49, the risk of subsequent pancreatic adenocarcinoma was increased among patients with cancers of the ascending colon (RR 4.62, 95%CI 1.86-9.52), hepatic flexure (5.42, 1.12-15.84), biliary system (13.14, 4.27-30.66), breast (1.32, 1.09-1.59), uterine cervix (1.61, 1.02-2.41), testes (2.78, 1.83-4.05) and hematopoietic system (1.83, 1.28-2.53). Among patients with a first malignancy at ages 50-64, the risk was increased after cancers of the stomach (1.88, 1.13-2.93), hepatic flexure (2.25, 1.08-4.13), lung and bronchus (1.46, 1.16-1.82), pharynx (2.26, 1.13-4.04) and bladder (1.24, 1.03-1.48). Among patients with a primary cancer after age 65, the risk was increased after cancers of the stomach (1.79, 1.23-2.53), hepatic flexure (1.76, 1.06-2.75), biliary system (2.35, 1.17-4.20), and uterus (1.23, 1.03-2.47). Conclusions This population-based dataset suggests that pancreatic adenocarcinoma is associated with certain primary cancers. Genetic predisposition, common environmental and behavioral risk factors may all contribute to this observation. Specific tumor associations will guide future risk-stratification efforts. PMID:21887676

  2. Variant Profiling of Candidate Genes in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaqi; Löhr, Johannes-Matthias; Nilsson, Magnus; Segersvärd, Ralf; Matsson, Hans; Verbeke, Caroline; Heuchel, Rainer; Kere, Juha; Iafrate, A John; Zheng, Zongli; Ye, Weimin

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis. Variant profiling is crucial for developing personalized treatment and elucidating the etiology of this disease. Patients with PDAC undergoing surgery from 2007 to 2012 (n = 73) were followed from diagnosis until death or the end of the study. We applied an anchored multiplex PCR (AMP)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) method to a panel of 65 selected genes and assessed analytical performance by sequencing a quantitative multiplex DNA reference standard. In clinical PDAC samples, detection of low-level KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations was validated by allele-specific PCR and digital PCR. We compared overall survival of patients according to KRAS mutation status by log-rank test and applied logistic regression to evaluate the association between smoking and tumor variant types. The AMP-based NGS method could detect variants with allele frequencies as low as 1% given sufficient sequencing depth (>1500×). Low-frequency KRAS G12 mutations (allele frequency 1%-5%) were all confirmed by allele-specific PCR and digital PCR. The most prevalent genetic alterations were in KRAS (78% of patients), TP53 (tumor protein p53) (25%), and SMAD4 (SMAD family member 4) (8%). Overall survival in T3-stage PDAC patients differed among KRAS mutation subtypes (P = 0.019). Transversion variants were more common in ever-smokers than in never-smokers (odds ratio 5.7; 95% CI 1.2-27.8). The AMP-based NGS method is applicable for profiling tumor variants. Using this approach, we demonstrated that in PDAC patients, KRAS mutant subtype G12V is associated with poorer survival, and that transversion variants are more common among smokers. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  4. Immunohistochemistry of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate and adenocarcinomas of non-prostatic origin: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Seipel, Amanda H; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Delahunt, Brett; Wiklund, Peter; Clements, Mark; Egevad, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAC) has morphological similarities to adenocarcinomas of other organs. DAC behaves in an aggressive manner and may present with metastases. These metastases may occur at unusual sites, which itself may cause diagnostic difficulties. It is important for therapeutic decisions that a prostatic origin of these metastases be established. Our aim was to compare the protein expression of DAC and adenocarcinomas of colon, endometrium, lung, pancreas, stomach and urinary bladder. A tissue microarray was constructed using 60 DAC, 6 colonic, 7 endometrial, 7 lung, 5 pancreatic, 5 gastric, and 9 urinary bladder adenocarcinomas. Slides were stained for estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptor, prolactin, PSA, prostein, PSMA, PSAP, CDX2, lysozyme, villin, monoclonal CEA, CK7, CK20, HMWCK, p63, p504s, c-Myc, EGFR, Ki-67, p16, p21, p27, p53, PTEN, ERG, and PAX-8. Androgen receptor, prostein, PSA, and PSAP were almost invariably expressed in DAC. Ki-67-labeling index was lower in DAC than in other adenocarcinomas. The expression patterns of intestinal markers and cytokeratins in DAC were less specific and may lead to diagnostic errors if not combined with prostate-specific markers. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intratumor heterogeneity in localized lung adenocarcinomas delineated by multiregion sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Junya; Zhang, Jianhua; Wedge, David C; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jiexin; Seth, Sahil; Chow, Chi-Wan; Cao, Yu; Gumbs, Curtis; Gold, Kathryn A; Kalhor, Neda; Little, Latasha; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Moran, Cesar; Protopopov, Alexei; Sun, Huandong; Tang, Jiabin; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; William, William N; Lee, J Jack; Heymach, John V; Hong, Waun Ki; Swisher, Stephen; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Futreal, P Andrew

    2014-10-10

    Cancers are composed of populations of cells with distinct molecular and phenotypic features, a phenomenon termed intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). ITH in lung cancers has not been well studied. We applied multiregion whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas. All tumors showed clear evidence of ITH. On average, 76% of all mutations and 20 out of 21 known cancer gene mutations were identified in all regions of individual tumors, which suggested that single-region sequencing may be adequate to identify the majority of known cancer gene mutations in localized lung adenocarcinomas. With a median follow-up of 21 months after surgery, three patients have relapsed, and all three patients had significantly larger fractions of subclonal mutations in their primary tumors than patients without relapse. These data indicate that a larger subclonal mutation fraction may be associated with increased likelihood of postsurgical relapse in patients with localized lung adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhamurthy, Mohana S.; Vallachira, Gopinathan P.; Mahadev, Praveen S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the synchronous occurrence of tumors of different histotypes arising in the same organ has been reported more frequently in the literature. In the stomach, adenocarcinoma has been described with coexisting primary rhabdomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The simultaneous development of adenocarcinoma and gastric mesenchymal tumor has been documented rarely. We report one such case. A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with a proximal gastric adenocarcinoma and underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed the presence of another tumor at the gastric antrum. This was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of low risk category (GIST). The literature has only a few previous reports of this very rare association. It is not known whether this synchronicity is incidental or there is a causative factor inducing the development of tumors of different histotypes in the same organ. Pathologists, oncologists and surgeons should be aware of this interesting condition. PMID:20616420

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid following radiotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, L.D.; Lane, R.; Snow, J.B. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus is rare, representing only 4 to 8% of malignancies of the paranasal sinuses. An extraordinary case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus arising 30 years following high-dose radiotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma is presented. Second fatal mesenchymal and epithelial primaries have been described in 8.5% of patients with bilateral retinoblastomas previously treated with radiotherapy; however, papillary adenocarcinoma arising within the paranasal sinuses has not been reported. Aggressive treatment including partial maxillectomy, radical pansinusectomy, radical neck dissection followed by regional radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy failed to prevent the development of fatal hepatic metastases. The high incidencemore » of second fatal primary neoplasms in patients with bilateral retinoblastomas receiving radiation suggests an innate susceptibility that may add to the risk of radiotherapy.« less

  8. Nasal and paranasal adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, F; Suzuki, S; Tanaka, H; Hayashi, S; Ozaki, K; Narama, I

    2008-03-01

    Tumors of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses of 18 dogs were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically, and histochemically. The tumors were classified histologically as 13 adenocarcinomas, 3 transitional carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma. Tumor cells were strongly immunoreactive for broad-spectrum cytokeratins in all cases, for cytokeratin 8/18 in 16 cases, and for cytokeratin 19 in 17 cases. None of the 18 carcinomas had cytologic or histologic features indicative of neuroendocrine differentiation, yet tumor cells in 5 of the 13 adenocarcinomas were argyrophilic and immunohistochemically positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A. Results of this study indicate that neuroendocrine markers may be detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in canine nasal or paranasal adenocarcinomas despite the lack of typical histologic features of neuroendocrine differentiation.

  9. Duodenal adenocarcinoma presenting as a mass with aneurismal dilatation.

    PubMed

    Mama, Nadia; Ben Slama, Aïda; Arifa, Nadia; Kadri, Khaled; Sriha, Badreddine; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Jemni, Hela; Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is frequent. Aneurysmal dilatation of the small bowel is reported to be a lymphoma characteristic imaging finding. A 57-year-old male was found to have a duodenal adenocarcinoma with aneurismal dilatation on imaging which is an exceptional feature. On laparotomy, the wall thickening of the dilated duodenum extended to the first jejunal loop, with multiple mesenteric lymph nodes and ascites. Segmental palliative resection with gastro-entero-anastomosis was done. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuro-endocrine differentiation foci. Wide areas of necrosis and vascular emboli were responsible for the radiological feature of the dilated duodenum with wall thickening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vulva, intestinal type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hong, Sung Ran

    2017-01-01

    Primary vulva malignancy is a rare gynecologic malignancy. Most of them are squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas are much less common. Intestinal type is a rare variant of primary adenocarcinoma of the vulva. It histologically resembles mucinous colonic carcinomas. Origin from cloacal remnants has been suggested but remains speculative. A 64-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a 1-month history of an itching vulva mass. An incisional biopsy was performed at other hospital and disclosed adenocarcinoma of intestinal type. Extensive workups were performed to detect other underlying carcinomas but revealed nothing abnormal. She underwent wide local excision without lymph node dissection for a primary vulva carcinoma. She received no adjuvant therapy and has been free from recurrent disease for 12 months after surgery. The authors report a rare case and review the relevant literature. PMID:28791269

  11. Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Seretis, E; Konstantinidou, A; Arnogiannakis, N; Xinopoulos, D; Voloudakis-Baltatzis, I E

    2010-12-01

    A primary mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue with signet-ring cells, as revealed after histological evaluation, was examined ultrastructurally. The authors also analyzed the immunohistochemical data of the tissue for serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), bombesin, somatostatin, and glucagon, using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and the immunogold labeling method for light and electron microscope, respectively. Electron microscopically mucinous adenocarcinoma was characterized by the formation of small lumen. Adenocarcinoma cells were full of mucous granules of varying electron density, providing a good environment for the tumor cells to grow. They also exhibited a significant loss of microvilli and intracytoplasmic junctions, which could allow the cells to disseminate. Signet-ring cells were located in the basal site of the ducts or in the lamina propria and appeared neoplastic, with mucin accumulation intracellularly and an eccentric crescent-shaped nucleus. The cytoplasmic organelles were decreased and at the periphery of the cell. The PAP method demonstrated that these cells were strongly positive for bombesin and also positive for vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP). The immunogold method detected bombesin immunoreactivity in the vacuoles as well as in other cytoplasmic membranes, whereas VIP was localized mainly in the plasma membrane. The location of signet-ring cells combined with the immunoreactivity for bombesin and VIP indicated that signet-ring cells were of neuroendocrine origin and probably dedifferentiated enterochromaffin-like endocrine cells. These findings have implications for understanding the biological behavior of these composite malignant tumors and could help in the knowledge of the origin of signet-ring cells.

  12. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Tamara L; Toubaji, Antoun; Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Herawi, Mehsati; Meeker, Alan K; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-03-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an unusual subtype that may be associated with a more aggressive clinical course, and is less responsive to conventional therapies than the more common prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. However, given its frequent association with an acinar component at prostatectomy, some have challenged the concept of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. We studied the occurrence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, in 40 surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma cases, and in their associated acinar component using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A group of 38 'pure' acinar adenocarcinoma cases matched with the ductal adenocarcinoma group for pathological grade and stage was studied as a control. Compared with the matched acinar adenocarcinoma cases, the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was significantly less frequently observed in ductal adenocarcinoma (45 vs 11% of cases, P=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Here, of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases with the gene fusion, 75% were fused through deletion, and the remaining case was fused through translocation. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was also rare in the acinar component of mixed ductal-acinar tumors when compared with the pure acinar adenocarcinoma controls (5 vs 45%, P=0.001, Fisher's exact test). In 95% of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases in which a concurrent acinar component was analyzed, there was concordance for presence/absence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion between the different histologic subtypes. In the control group of pure acinar adenocarcinoma cases, 59% were fused through deletion and 41% were fused through translocation. The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in some cases of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma supports the concept that ductal adenocarcinoma and acinar adenocarcinoma may be related genetically. However, the significantly lower rate of the gene fusion in pure ductal adenocarcinoma cases underscores the fact that genetic and biologic

  13. Different histological status of gastritis in superficial adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masayoshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Oda, Ichiro; Mojtahed, Kaveh; Nonaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Matsubara, Akiko; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka; Shimoda, Tadakazu

    2014-01-01

    Although many gastric cancers arise in chronic gastritis, the association between adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction and the status of background gastritis remains unclear. We aim to investigate the histological status of gastritis in the background fundic gland mucosa of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. The present study included 121 consecutive patients with superficial adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction obtained by surgical and/or endoscopic resection. We re-evaluated the histogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction, including the background fundic gland mucosa using the Updated Sydney System. The prevalence of histologic atrophic gastric mucosa with gastritis (positive gastritis), non-atrophic gastric mucosa without gastritis (negative gastritis) and Barrett's adenocarcinoma was examined. Histologic-positive gastritis was found in 67 (55%) of all patients, in 24 (38%) of 63 Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients and in 43 (74%) of 58 non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients (P < 0.01). A higher female ratio in non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma with gastritis patients `and younger age in non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma without gastritis patients were shown. There were no differences in clinicopathological features related to the gastritis status in Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. Reflux esophagitis was observed in most (81%) of all patients, and 32 (74%) of the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma with gastritis patients. In the 67 positive gastritis patients, the mean Updated Sydney System scores of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were 1.45 and 1.10, respectively, and these scores were higher in the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients than in the Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. This study suggests that about half of the patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction harbor histological gastritis. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is considered to be a heterogeneous entity, including

  14. Nestin predicts a favorable prognosis in early ampullary adenocarcinoma and functions as a promoter of metastasis in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lai, Ming-Derg; Hsu, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    . Inhibiting nestin in patients who exhibit nestin‑overexpressed ampullary adenocarcinoma may be a method of preventing cancer recurrence.

  15. Clostridium septicum aortitis with synchronous ascending colon and rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepanshu; Kistler, Andrew C; Kozuch, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum ( C. septicum ) aortitis is a rare condition frequently associated with colon adenocarcinoma and carries a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, blood in the stool, fever and chills. Laboratory tests were significant for leukocytosis and microcytic anemia. Abdominal imaging revealed a right colon mass and aortitis. Colonoscopy confirmed the right colon mass and also discovered a rectal mass, both adenocarcinomas. Treatment consisted of antibiotics, aortic repair, right hemi-colectomy and later trans-anal excision of the rectal mass. Blood cultures and the aortic specimen grew C. septicum . The patient improved and was doing well in follow up.

  16. Iris metastasis as a first manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Da Mota, S E; Ulaje-Nuñez, J M; Salinas-Gallegos, J L; Rodríguez-Reyes, A

    2018-03-23

    To describe a case of lung adenocarcinoma for which the first clinical manifestation was an iris metastasis. A 76-year-old male patient came for consultation referring a «pinkish speck» on his right eye. On biomicroscopy examination, a mass was found on the iris of the right eye. Subsequent systemic work-up of the patient revealed a left lung adenocarcinoma. Although uncommon, iris metastasis secondary to lung cancer should be part of differential diagnosis in iris tumours. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Unusual case of left atrial myxoma with gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinder Pal; Nagpal, Swapan Deep Singh; Goel, Arun Kumar; Dhingra, Bhupendra Kr

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac myxomas are rare tumors. Esophageal adenocarcinomas are common tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Simultaneous occurrence of these tumors has not been reported. A 52-year-old gentleman presented to our hospital with dysphagia and was diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Routine echocardiography discovered a cardiac tumor in the left atrium. The cardiac tumor was surgically removed and biopsy confirmed a myxoma. We removed the cardiac tumor as the first step and then initiated neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It is ideal to constitute a multidisciplinary team to decide on the course of treatment in such cases.

  18. Expression and significance of Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors, and angiopoietins-1, 2 and 4 in colorectal adenocarcinoma: Immunohistochemical analysis and correlation with clinicopathological factors

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Hatachi, Go; Wen, Chun-Yang; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Yamazumi, Kazuyuki; Niino, Daisuke; Sekine, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    AIM: There is strong evidence that tyrosine kinases are involved in the regulation of tumor progression, cellular growth and differentiation. Recently, many kinds of tyrosine kinase receptors have been reported, among them Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors constitute a major class. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 is known as a ligand of Tie-2 tyrosine kinase receptor. The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive Tie-1 and Tie-2 and Ang-1, 2 and 4 expression profile in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. METHODS: We examined 96 cases of surgically resected human colorectal adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and investigated the statistical correlation between the expressions of Ties and Angs and clinicopathological factors. RESULTS: Among the 96 cases of adenocarcinoma, 87 (90.6%), 92 (95.8%), 83 (86.5%), 89 (92.7%), and 76 cases (79.2%) showed positive staining in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells for the Tie-1 and Tie-2 and Ang-1, 2 and 4 proteins, respectively. Histologically, the expressions of Ties and Angs were variable. The expressions of Ties and Angs were correlated with several clinicopathological factors, but did not correlate with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Ties and Angs were highly expressed in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the Tie-Ang receptor-ligand complex is one of the factors involved in the cellular differentiation and progression of human colorectal adenocarcinoma. PMID:15742397

  19. Identification of a three-miRNA signature as a blood-borne diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background The subtypes of NSCLC have unique characteristics of pathogenic mechanism and responses to targeted therapies. Thus, non-invasive markers for diagnosis of different subtypes of NSCLC at early stage are needed. Results Based on the results from the screening and validation process, 3 miRNAs (miR-532, miR-628-3p and miR-425-3p) were found to display significantly different expression levels in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, as compared to those in healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that the miRNA–based biomarker could distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from healthy controls with high AUC (0.974), sensitivity (91.5%), and specificity (97.8%). Importantly, these three miRNAs could also distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from lung benigh diseases and other subtypes of lung cancer. Methods Two hundreds and one early-stage lung adenocarcinoma cases and one hundreds seventy eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited to this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. A risk score model was established to evaluate the diagnostic value of the plasma miRNA profiling system. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that the 3 miRNA–based biomarker might serve as a novel non-invasive approach for diagnosis of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27036025

  20. Postsurgical Disparity in Survival between African Americans and Caucasians with Colonic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik; Chatla, Chakrapani; Funkhouser, Ellen; Meleth, Sreelatha; Grizzle, William E.; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) indicate a higher mortality rate for African Americans compared with Caucasians in the United States. In the current study, the authors evaluated the racial differences in survival based on tumor location and pathologic stage between African-American patients and Caucasian patients who underwent surgery alone for CRC. METHODS All 199 African American patients and 292 randomly selected, non-Hispanic Caucasian patients who underwent surgery between 1981 and 1993 for first primary sporadic CRC at the University of Alabama–Birmingham (Birmingham, AL) or an affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital were assessed for differences in survival. None of these patients received preoperative or postoperative neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for demographic and tumor characteristics. RESULTS African Americans were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.21–2.33) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.12–2.07) times more likely to die of colonic adenocarcinoma (CAC) within 5 years and 10 years of surgery, respectively, compared with Caucasians. Racial differences in survival were observed among patients with Stage II, III, and IV CAC; however, the strongest and statistically significant association was observed among patients with Stage II CAC. There were no significant racial differences in survival in patients with rectal adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS The current findings suggest that the decreased overall survival at 5 years and 10 years postsurgery observed in African-American patients with CAC may not be attributable to tumor stage at diagnosis or treatment but may be due to differences in other biologic or genetic characteristics between African-American patients and Caucasian patients. PMID:15221990

  1. Tumour buds determine prognosis in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lohneis, Philipp; Sinn, Marianne; Klein, Fritz; Bischoff, Sven; Striefler, Jana K; Wislocka, Lilianna; Sinn, Bruno V; Pelzer, Uwe; Oettle, Helmut; Riess, Hanno; Denkert, Carsten; Bläker, Hendrik; Jühling, Anja

    2018-05-14

    The prognostic effect of tumour budding was retrospectively analysed in a cohort of 173 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) of the prospective clinical multicentre CONKO-001 trial. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained whole tissue slides were evaluated. In two independent approaches, the mean number of tumour buds was analysed according to the consensus criteria in colorectal cancer, in one 0.785 mm 2 field of view and additionally in 10 high-power fields (HPF) (HPF = 0.238 mm 2 ). Tumour budding was significantly associated with a higher tumour grade (p < 0.001) but not with distant or lymph node metastasis. Regardless of the quantification approach, an increased number of tumour buds was significantly associated with reduced disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (10 HPF approach DFS: HR = 1.056 (95% CI 1.022-1.092), p = 0.001; OS: HR = 1.052 (95% CI 1.018-1.087), p = 0.002; consensus method DFS: HR = 1.037 (95% CI 1.017-1.058), p < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.040 (95% CI 1.019-1.061), p < 0.001). Recently published cut-offs for tumour budding in colorectal cancer were prognostic in PDAC as well. Tumour budding is prognostic in the CONKO-001 clinical cohort of patients. Further standardisation and validation in additional clinical cohorts are necessary.

  2. Evaluating Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zishuo I; Shia, Jinru; Stadler, Zsofia K; Varghese, Anna M; Capanu, Marinela; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Lowery, Maeve A; Diaz, Luis A; Mandelker, Diana; Yu, Kenneth H; Zervoudakis, Alice; Kelsen, David P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Klimstra, David S; Saltz, Leonard B; Sahin, Ibrahim H; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2018-03-15

    Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibition has been shown to generate profound and durable responses in mismatch repair deficient (MMR-D) solid tumors and has elicited interest in detection tools and strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making. Herein we address questions on the appropriate screening, detection methods, patient selection, and initiation of therapy for MMR-D pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and assess the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in providing additional prognostic and predictive information for MMR-D PDAC. Experimental Design: Archival and prospectively acquired samples and matched normal DNA from N = 833 PDAC cases were analyzed using a hybridization capture-based, NGS assay designed to perform targeted deep sequencing of all exons and selected introns of 341 to 468 cancer-associated genes. A computational program using NGS data derived the MSI status from the tumor-normal paired genome sequencing data. Available germline testing, IHC, and microsatellite instability (MSI) PCR results were reviewed to assess and confirm MMR-D and MSI status. Results: MMR-D in PDAC is a rare event among PDAC patients (7/833), occurring at a frequency of 0.8%. Loss of MMR protein expression by IHC, high mutational load, and elevated MSIsensor scores were correlated with MMR-D PDAC. All 7 MMR-D PDAC patients in the study were found to have Lynch syndrome. Four (57%) of the MMR-D patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade had treatment benefit (1 complete response, 2 partial responses, 1 stable disease). Conclusions: An integrated approach of germline testing and somatic analyses of tumor tissues in advanced PDAC using NGS may help guide future development of immune and molecularly directed therapies in PDAC patients. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1326-36. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities and molecular landscape of metastasizing mucinous salivary adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Panaccione, Alex; Zhang, Yi; Mi, Yanfang; Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Yan, Guo; Prasad, Manju L.; McDonald, W. Hayes; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Ivanov, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland (MAC) is a lethal cancer with unknown molecular etiology and a high propensity to lymph node metastasis. Mostly due to its orphan status, MAC remains one of the least explored cancers that lacks cell lines and mouse models that could help translational and pre-clinical studies. Surgery with or without radiation remains the only treatment modality but poor overall survival (10-year, 44%) underscores the urgent need for mechanism-based therapies. Methods We developed the first patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model for pre-clinical MAC studies and a cell line that produces aggressively growing tumors after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. We performed cytogenetic, exome, and proteomic profiling of MAC to identify driving mutations, therapeutic targets, and pathways involved in aggressive cancers based on TCGA database mining and GEO analysis. Results: We identified in MAC KRAS (G13D) and TP53 (R213X) mutations that have been previously reported as drivers in a variety of highly aggressive cancers. Somatic mutations were also found in KDM6A, KMT2D, and other genes frequently mutated in colorectal and other cancers: FAT1, NBEA, RELN, RLP1B, and ZFHX3. Proteomic analysis of MAC implied epigenetic up-regulation of a genetic program involved in proliferation and cancer stem cell maintenance. Conclusion Genomic and proteomic analyses provided the first insight into potential molecular drivers of MAC metastases pointing at common mechanisms of CSC propagation in aggressive cancers. The in vitro/in vivo models that we created should aid in the development and validation of new treatment strategies against MAC. PMID:28249646

  4. Metastasis to the appendix from adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingjie; Li, Mingshan; Li, Xiaoxia; Sang, Haiquan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Metastasis of cancer cells involves shedding from the primary tumor through various means to distant tissues and organs with continued growth and formation of new metastatic tumors of the same cancer type as the original tumor. The common sites for colon cancer metastases include the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, liver, and lungs; Colon cancer metastases to the appendix are rare, as reported in this case. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 45-year-old man was admitted to our department with a 24-hour history of abdominal distension and incomplete obstruction. Colonoscopy showed an elevated lesion in the ascending colon and the pathologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. Interventions and outcomes: This patient underwent a radical right hemi-colectomy. The post-operative pathologic examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma in all layers of the appendix, especially the muscularis mucosae. The diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon (pT4bN2bM0 stage IIIC) with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Lessons: An absent right colic artery with lymph node fusion might increase the risk of appendiceal cancer metastasis. PMID:28296772

  5. Poor outcome of oesophageal adenocarcinoma after prior antireflux surgery.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E M; Pal, N; Kalyan, J P; Rhodes, M; Lewis, M P N

    2009-12-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, but abolishing reflux through surgery has not been shown to reduce this risk. The purpose of this study is to report on adenocarcinomas occurring after previous antireflux surgery and their long-term outcome. Six hundred and forty three patients underwent surgical resection in our unit for oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2009. Nine of these had antireflux surgery a median of 6.9 (mean of 9.3) years previously. Clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome (in terms of survival) are described for this patient group. The patients who had prior antireflux surgery were compared to matched control patients for disease free survival. Disease free survival in our antireflux patients was 25.1% as compared to 72.1% in controls at 3 years. (Log rank test p=0.004). Patients who have undergone antireflux surgery for chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease can develop adenocarcinoma and need to be monitored closely. The outcome following surgery appears greatly worse for patients with previous antireflux surgery than age/sex/stage/treatment matched controls in this small study.

  6. Very early stage adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis in the uterus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-I; Chou, Szu-Yuan; Lin, Sey-En; Liang, So-Jung; Chiu, Hsiao-Chen; Hsu, Chun-Sen

    2006-12-01

    Malignant transformations of adenomyosis in premenopausal women with normal endometrium are extremely rare. We report a case of adenocarcinoma arising from an adenomyotic focus in the uterus, which was found unexpectedly in a woman undergoing myomectomy for adenomyosis. A 47-year-old premenopausal woman presented with massive vaginal bleeding and anemia. She was admitted and underwent myomectomy under the initial diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Microscopic studies revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which was a malignant transformation of a focus of adenomyosis in the surgical specimen. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was then performed. Pathologic studies showed no residual tumors in the entire resected specimen except for the previous lesion. The endometrium had normal thickness with mild proliferative activity throughout the cavity. There was no atrophic or hyperplastic change in the whole endometrium. The adenocarcinoma was present exclusively in the myometrium, and a transition between the carcinoma and the adenomyotic glands was observed. This case report presents evidence that adenocarcinoma may a rise de novo from an adenomyotic lesion in the uterus.

  7. Rational combinations of immunotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blair, Alex B; Zheng, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The complex interaction between the immune system, the tumor and the microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) leads to the resistance of PDA to immunotherapy. To overcome this resistance, combination immunotherapy is being proposed. However, rational combinations that target multiple aspects of the complex anti-tumor immune response are warranted. Novel clinical trials will investigate and optimize the combination immunotherapy for PDA.

  8. Hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma in a mare.

    PubMed

    Browne, Nimet S; Scarratt, William K; Robertson, John

    2016-12-01

    A 10-year-old Andalusian mare was presented for evaluation of weight loss, increasing periods of recumbency, and swelling of the lower limbs. Radiographs revealed severe palisading to solid periosteal new bone formation in numerous locations. Necropsy revealed a metastatic malignant adenocarcinoma of ovarian origin with secondary hypertrophic osteopathy.

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the pouch after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zirak, Christophe; Lemaitre, Jean; Lebrun, Eric; Journé, Stephane; Carlier, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    A 52-year-old woman was admitted because of epigastralgia, anorexia and recently increased vomiting, 2 years after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty. On gastroscopy, a tumor mass was visualized in the pouch near the "neo-pylorus". Biopsies confirmed adenocarcinoma. She underwent total gastrectomy, and has no evidence of recurrence at 1 year. The literature on gastric carcinoma after gastroplasty is reviewed.

  10. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, spider naevi and oestrogen hyperexcretion associated with adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brear, S. G.; Edwards, J. D.; Rademaker, M.; Doyle, L.

    1985-01-01

    We describe two patients with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, spider naevi and elevated 24 h urinary oestrogen excretion associated with an adenocarcinoma. In one of the patients, the spider naevi and the clinical signs of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy disappeared and the 24 h urinary oestrogen returned to normal following removal of the tumour. Images Figure 1 PMID:4059145

  11. Lung abscess due to retained gallstones with an adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Scott G; Crestanello, Juan A; Nguyen, Anh-Quan T; Deschamps, Claude

    2005-03-01

    We describe a patient who had a right lower lobe mass containing calcifications consistent with gallstones develop 3(1)/(2) years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thoracotomy revealed a chronic abscess containing pigmented gallstones and an adjacent area of bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma involving both N1 and N2 lymph nodes.

  12. Irreversible electroporation of locally advanced pancreatic neck/body adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Irreversible electroporation (IRE) of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the neck has been used to palliate appropriate stage 3 pancreatic cancers without evidence of metastasis and who have undergone appropriate induction therapy. Currently there has not been a standardized reported technique for pancreatic mid-body tumors for patient selection and intra-operative technique. Patients Subjects are patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body/neck who have undergone appropriate induction chemotherapy for a reasonable duration. Main outcome measures Technique of open IRE of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the neck/body is described, with the emphasis on intra-operative ultrasound and intra-operative electroporation management. Results The technique of open IRE of the pancreatic neck/body with bracketing of the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery with continuous intraoperative ultrasound imaging and consideration of intraoperative navigational system is described. Conclusions IRE of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body/neck is feasible for appropriate patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:26029461

  13. Evaluation of the new IASLC/ATS/ERS proposed classification of adenocarcinoma based on lepidic pattern in patients with pathological stage IA pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Morii, Eiichi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Shintani, Yasushi; Funaki, Soichiro; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2014-11-01

    The International association for the study of cancer (IASLC)/American thoracic society (ATS)/European respiratory society (ERS) has established a new subclassification of lung adenocarcinoma, especially for the lepidic pattern component, formerly called bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (BAC). According to the new classification, BAC has been classified into the following 4 main subtypes: adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), invasive adenocarcinoma (IA), and variants of invasive adenocarcinoma (VIA). An observational study was conducted to validate this classification in patients with pathological stage IA pulmonary adenocarcinoma. 147 patients treated for pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma by complete resection at Osaka University Medical Hospital from January 1993 to December 2002 were assessed. The tumor specimens of the cohort were classified into the 4 subgroups. In addition, these groups were compared for various prognostic factors. Adenocarcinoma in situ was observed in 30 patients, MIA in 8, IA in 104, and VIA in 5 patients, with 5-year survival rates of 100, 100, 85.5, and 60.0 %, respectively. The relationship between the histological classification and K-ras mutation was significant (p < 0.001), especially when comparing the VIA group with the others (p ≪ 0.001). Ki67-labeling indices were significantly different between the AIS and IA groups (p = 0.040). This study validated the proposed IASLC/ATS/ERS classification for pulmonary adenocarcinoma in patients with pathological stage IA pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The difference between AIS and IA may depend on the proliferation of the carcinoma. In addition, the difference between VIA and the other adenocarcinoma types may depend on genetic factors, especially K-ras mutations.

  14. Uterine sarcoma vs adenocarcinoma: can MRI distinguish between them?

    PubMed

    Hernández Mateo, P; Méndez Fernández, R; Serrano Tamayo, E

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the MRI characteristics of uterine sarcomas (mainly carcinosarcomas) and to compare them with those of adenocarcinomas to define the findings that would be useful for the differential diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI studies of 13 patients with histologically diagnosed uterine sarcoma. We analyzed tumor size, signal in T2-weighted, unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted sequences. We compared the data obtained with those of another series of 30 consecutive cases of adenocarcinomas studied with MRI. The sarcomas (> 9cm in 77% of cases) were considerably larger than the adenocarcinomas (p<0.001). There were no differences in FIGO staging by MRI or surgery: both tumor types were diagnosed in early stages. The signal intensity in T2-weighted images differed significantly between the two tumor types: all the sarcomas were heterogeneous and predominantly hyperintense with respect to the myometrium in T2-weighted sequences (p<0.001). In postcontrast studies, all the sarcomas showed enhancement greater than or equal to the myometrium; this finding was significantly different from the adenocarcinomas (p<0.001). In diffusion-weighted sequences, we found no significant differences in ADC values in the areas with greatest restriction, but the ADC map was more heterogeneous in the sarcomas. Uterine sarcomas do not have specific characteristics on MRI, but some findings can indicate the diagnosis. In our study, we found significant differences between sarcomas and adenocarcinomas. Sarcomas were larger, had more hyperintense and heterogeneous signal intensity in T2-weighted sequences, and enhanced more than or at least as much as the myometrium. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolomic Markers of Altered Nucleotide Metabolism in Early Stage Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F.; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L.; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and non-malignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (Stage IA–IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared to non-malignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by: 1) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, 2) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, 3) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, 4) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis and 5) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  16. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F.; Stabile, Laura P.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Smith, Neil R.; O'Connor, Mark J.; Pierce, Andrew J.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year. PMID:27259260

  17. Lung adenocarcinoma with intraoperatively diagnosed pleural seeding: Is main tumor resection beneficial for prognosis?

    PubMed

    Li, Chi; Kuo, Shuenn-Wen; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Lin, Mong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate whether main tumor resection improves survival compared with pleural biopsy alone in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with intraoperatively diagnosed pleural seeding. Forty-three patients with lung adenocarcinoma with pleural seeding diagnosed unexpectedly during surgery performed between January 2006 and December 2014 were included in this retrospective study using a prospectively collected lung cancer database. Each surgeon decided whether to perform main tumor resection or pleural biopsy alone. Main tumor and visible pleural nodule resection was performed in 30 patients (tumor resection group). The remaining 13 patients underwent pleural nodule biopsy alone (open-close group). The clinical T stage was higher in the open-close group than in the tumor resection group (P = .02). The tumor resection group had longer operative times compared with the open-close group (mean, 141.8 vs 80.3 minutes). There were no other statistically significant differences in perioperative parameters. The surgical method was the sole statistically significant prognostic factor. Patients in the tumor resection group had better progression-free survival (3-year survival: 44.5% vs 0%; P = .009) and overall survival (3-year survival: 82.9% vs 38.5%; P = .013) than did the open-close group. There was no significant survival difference between sublobar resection and lobectomy for the main tumor resection. Our study demonstrated improved progression-free and overall survival after main tumor and visible pleural nodule resection in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with intraoperatively diagnosed pleural seeding. Further randomized trials are needed to define the role of main tumor resection in these patients. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole Exome Sequencing of Pediatric Gastric Adenocarcinoma Reveals an Atypical Presentation of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Vivian Y.; Federman, Noah; Martinez-Agosto, Julian; Tatishchev, Sergei F.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric adenocarcinoma is a rare diagnosis in childhood. A 14-year old male patient presented with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma, and a strong family history of colon cancer. Clinical sequencing of CDH1 and APC were negative. Whole exome sequencing was therefore applied to capture the majority of protein-coding regions for the identification of single-nucleotide variants, small insertion/deletions, and copy number abnormalities in the patient’s germline as well as primary tumor. Materials and Methods DNA was extracted from the patient’s blood, primary tumor, and the unaffected mother’s blood. DNA libraries were constructed and sequenced on Illumina HiSeq2000. Data were post-processed using Picard and Samtools, then analyzed with the Genome Analysis Toolkit. Variants were annotated using an in-house Ensembl-based program. Copy number was assessed using ExomeCNV. Results Each sample was sequenced to a mean depth of coverage of greater than 120×. A rare non-synonymous coding SNV in TP53 was identified in the germline. There were 10 somatic cancer protein-damaging variants that were not observed in the unaffected mother genome. ExomeCNV comparing tumor to the patient’s germline, identified abnormal copy number, spanning 6,946 genes. Conclusion We present an unusual case of Li-Fraumeni detected by whole exome sequencing. There were also likely driver somatic mutations in the gastric adenocarcinoma. These results highlight the need for more thorough and broad scale germline and cancer analyses to accurately inform patients of inherited risk to cancer and to identify somatic mutations. PMID:23015295

  19. Treatment, Outcomes, and Clinical Trial Participation in Elderly Patients With Metastatic Pancreas Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daneng; Capanu, Marinela; Yu, Kenneth H.; Lowery, Maeve A.; Kelsen, David P.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the treatment patterns and outcomes of elderly patients with metastatic pancreas cancer remain limited. Therefore, an analysis of systemic therapy use, clinical trial participation, and outcomes in elderly patients with metastatic pancreas cancer was performed at our institution. Elderly patients who received systemic therapy had a longer survival compared with those who did not. However, therapeutic clinical trial participation was low and should be encouraged Background Pancreas adenocarcinoma has a median age at diagnosis of 71 years. Limited studies have focused on the treatment of elderly patients with pancreas cancer. Patients and Methods An analysis of systemic therapy use, clinical trial participation, and overall outcomes of 237 patients with metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma ≥ 75 years of age evaluated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2005 and 2013 was undertaken. Results Median overall survival was 7 months for the entire study population. A total of 197 (83%) patients received systemic therapy, which was significantly associated with longer overall survival (P < .01). No significant difference was detected in survival between age groups 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and ≥ 85 years of age among those who received systemic therapy (P = .49). Seventy-seven (32%) patients participated in a clinical trial of whom 13 (5%) patients were enrolled in a therapeutic trial, including no patients aged ≥ 85 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that presence of liver metastases (P < .001), performance status (P < .001), and number of systemic agents (P < .001) were significantly associated with survival. Conclusion Receipt of systemic therapy was associated with longer survival in elderly patients ≥ 75 years of age with metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma. Therapeutic clinical trial participation among these patients was low and future development of prognostic models for appropriate patient selection is warranted. PMID:26072442

  20. Mutation and prognostic analyses of PIK3CA in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-10-01

    PIK3CA mutation represents a clinical subset of diverse carcinomas. We explored the status of PIK3CA mutation and evaluated its genetic variability, treatment, and prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 810 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma were recruited between 2008 and 2013. The status of PIK3CA mutation and other three genes, that is, EGFR mutation, KRAS mutation and ALK fusion were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Survival curves were plotted with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank for comparison. Cox proportional hazard model was performed for multivariate analysis. Among the 810 patients, 23 cases of PIK3CA mutation were identified with a frequency of 2.8%. There were 14 men and 9 women with a median age of 61 years. Seventeen tumors revealed concurrent gene abnormalities of EGFR mutation (n = 12), KRAS mutation (n = 3), and ALK fusion (n = 2). Seven patients with EGFR & PIK3CA mutations recurred and administrated of EGFR-TKIs yielded a median progression free-survival of 6.0 months. Among four eviromous-treated patients, stable disease was observed in three patients with a median Progression-free survival (PFS) of 3.5 months. Patients with and without PIK3CA mutation had different overall survivals (32.2 vs. 49.6 months, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that PIK3CA mutation was an independent predictor of poor overall survival (HR = 2.37, P = 0.017). The frequency of PIK3CA mutation was around 2.8% in the Chinese patients of lung adenocarcinoma. PIK3CA mutation was associated with reduced PFS of EGFR-TKIs treatment and shorter overall survival. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Long-term Trends in Primary Sites of Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Japan and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Wong, Sandra L.; Healy, Mark A.; Nakajima, Toshifusa; Watanabe, Masayuki; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Ayanian, John Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The incidence and characteristics of gastric cancer have been shown to vary widely across Western and Eastern countries. Our study had two aims: to evaluate long-term trends in gastric adenocarcinoma in Japan over a period of 70 years, and to anticipate the future of gastric cancer in Japan, through comparison with data from the United States. Methods: Japanese patient data for 19,306 incident cases of gastric adenocarcinoma from 1946 - 2014 were collected from the Gastric Cancer Database at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (CIH-GCDB). U.S. patient data for 78,625 incident cases of gastric cancer from 1973 - 2012 were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Changes over time in patient and tumor characteristics were investigated in these two cohorts. Results: There was a marked reduction of cancer incidence in the lower third of the stomach in the CIH-GCDB; over 70% to around 30%. The incidence in the upper third has been increasing steadily over time; 3% to 19%, although the number of cardia tumors has not changed. An increase in elderly and obese patients was also noted. In the U.S. population, there was a significant difference in the primary site across races. A notable overall increase in cardia cancer was evident in the Western population during the study period, with no similar change evident in the Japanese population over the last 15 years. In the East Asian population, the proportional frequency of tumors in the cardia was lower and that of tumors in the pyloric antrum was higher. Conclusion: In Japan, cancer in the antrum or pylorus of the stomach has been declining, whereas cancer in the body has been increasing. Unlike the Western population in the United States, adenocarcinoma of esophago-gastric junction is not increasing in Japan. PMID:28819392

  2. In vivo diagnosis of mammary adenocarcinoma using Raman spectroscopy: an animal model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, R. A.; Ribeiro, D. G.; dos Santos, E. A. P.; Ramalho, L. N. Z.; Ramalho, F. S.; Martin, A. A.; Martinho, H. S.

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type in women Worldwide. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical breast examinations have been estimated from clinical trials to be approximately 54 % and 94 %, respectively. Further, approximately 95 % of all positive breast cancer screenings turn out to be false-positive. The optimal method for early detection should be both highly sensitive to ensure that all cancers are detected, and also highly specific to avoid the humanistic and economic costs associated with false-positive results. In vivo optical spectroscopy techniques, Raman in particular, have been pointed out as promising tools to improve the accuracy of screening mammography. The aim of the present study was to apply FT-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate normal and adenocarcinoma breast tissues of Sprague-Dawley female rats. The study was performed on 32 rats divided in the control (N=5) and experimental (N=27) groups. Histological analysis indicated that mammary hyperplasia, cribriform, papillary and solid adenocarcinomas were found in the experimental group subjects. The spectral collection was made using a commercial FT-Raman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100) equipped with fiber-optic probe (RamProbe) and the spectral region between 900 and 1800 cm-1 was analyzed. Principal Components Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. As concluding remarks it is show that normal and adenocarcinoma tissues discriminations was possible (correct proportion for Transcutaneous collection mode was 80.80% and for "Open Sky" mode was 91.70%); however, a conclusive diagnosis among the four lesion subtypes was not possible.

  3. Nuclear overexpression of the overexpressed in lung cancer 1 predicts worse prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Shen, Hongchang; Fu, Guobin; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Weibo

    2017-02-07

    We have performed this retrospective study to elucidate whether elevated expression of the overexpressed in lung cancer 1 (OLC1) was related to the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Additionally, different effects of various subcellular OLC1 expression on gastric adeno-carcinogenesis were focused on in our study. Both overall and subcellular expression of OLC1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry(IHC) via tissue microarrays from total 393 samples. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard model were exerted to further explore the correlation between OLC1 and prognosis. Total overexpression of OLC1 was significantly associated with stage (P = 0.004) and differentiation (P = 0.009), and only the strong total expression could predict a poor prognosis (HR = 1.31, P = 0.04). There were significant associations found between nuclear overexpression and tumor invasion depth(P = 0.002), lymph node (P < 0.001), stage (P = 0.004), differentiation (P < 0.001) and smoking history (P = 0.045). Furthermore, over-expressed nuclear OLC1 protein could be an independent risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma (univariate: HR = 1.43, P = 0.003; multivariate: HR = 1.39, P = 0.011). In general, both total and nuclear overexpression of OLC1 could be the signs of gastric adeno-carcinogenesis, which might be served as the biomarkers for diagnosis at an early stage, even at the onset of tumorigenesis. Rather than the total expression, nuclear overexpression of OLC1 was correlated with most clinicopathological parameters and could predict a poor overall survival as an independent factor for prognosis, which made it a more effective and sensitive biomarker for gastric adenocarcinoma.

  4. Erlotinib Versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients With EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system, it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results: 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole brain RT (WBRT), andmore » 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median, 35 vs 26 months; P=.62), whereas patients treated with SRS had a longer OS than did those in the erlotinib group (median, 64 months; P=.004). The median time to intracranial progression was 17 months. There was a longer time to intracranial progression in patients who received WBRT than in those who received erlotinib upfront (median, 24 vs 16 months, P=.04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to experience intracranial failure as a component of first failure, whereas WBRT patients were more likely to experience failure outside the brain (P=.004). Conclusions: The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison with a targeted biologic agent with known central nervous system

  5. Erlotinib versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients with EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas; Shi, Weiji; Riely, Gregory J.; Beal, Kathryn; Yu, Helena A.; Chan, Timothy A.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Abraham J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system (CNS), it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole-brain RT (WBRT), and 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Median OS for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median 35 vs. 26 months, p = .62), while patients treated with SRS had a longer OS compared with the erlotinib group (median, 64 months, p = .004). Median time to ICP was 17 months. There was a longer time to ICP in patients who received WBRT vs. erlotinib upfront (median 24 vs. 16 months, p = .04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to fail intracranially as a component of first failure, while WBRT patients were more likely to fail outside the brain (p = .004). Conclusions The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison to a targeted biologic agent with known CNS activity. PMID:24679729

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomymore » in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to

  7. Advanced Stage Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary is both Rare and Highly Lethal: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaino, Richard J.; Brady, Mark F.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michael, Helen; Greer, Benjamin; Bookman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary are uncommon and their biologic behavior uncertain. Retrospective studies suggest that many mucinous carcinomas diagnosed as primary to the ovary were actually metastatic from another site. A prospective randomized trial provided an opportunity to estimate the frequency of mucinous tumors, diagnostic reproducibility, and clinical outcomes. Methods A phase III trial enrolled 4000 women with stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma, treated by surgical staging and debulking, with randomization to one of five chemotherapeutic arms. Slides and pathology reports classified as primary mucinous carcinoma were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Cases were re-classified as primary or metastatic to the ovary according to two methods. Overall survival (OS) of reclassified groups was compared with each other and with that of patients with serous carcinomas. Results Forty-four cases were classified as mucinous adenocarcinoma at review. Using either method, only about one third were interpreted by the three reviewers as primary mucinous carcinomas. Reproducibility of interpretations among the reviewers was high with unanimity of opinion in 30 of the 44 (68%) cases. The median survival (MS) did not differ significantly between the groups interpreted as primary or metastatic, but the OS was significantly less than that for women with serous carcinoma (14 vs 42 months, p<0.001). Conclusion Advanced stage mucinous carcinoma of the ovary is very rare and is associated with poor OS. Many mucinous adenocarcinomas that are diagnosed as primary ovarian neoplasms appear to be metastatic to the ovary. PMID:20862744

  8. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Koji; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2013-10-26

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  9. A Study to Assess the Efficacy of IMAB362 Plus mFOLFOX6 Compared With Placebo Plus mFOLFOX6 as First-line Treatment of Subjects With Claudin (CLDN) 18.2 Positive, HER2-Negative, Locally Advanced Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction (GEJ) Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-30

    Locally Advanced Unresectable Gastroesophageal Junction (GEJ) Adenocarcinoma or Cancer; Locally Advanced Unresectable Gastric Adenocarcinoma or Cancer; Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma or Cancer; Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction (GEJ) Adenocarcinoma

  10. Serum Deprivation Induces Glucose Response and Intercellular Coupling in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma PANC-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Shapira, Yuval; Gershengorn, Marvin C.; Oron, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate whether the previously described differentiating islet-like aggregates of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) develop glucose response and exhibit intercellular communication. Methods Fura 2–loaded PANC-1 cells in serum-free medium were assayed for changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca]i) induced by depolarization, tolbutamide inhibition of K(ATP) channels, or glucose. Dye transfer, assayed by confocal microscopy or by FACS, was used to detect intercellular communication. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes of interest were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation was assayed by the MTT method. Results Serum-deprived PANC-1 cell aggregates developed [Ca]i response to KCl, tolbutamide, or glucose. These responses were accompanied by 5-fold increase in glucokinase mRNA level and, to a lesser extent, of mRNAs for K(ATP) and L-type calcium channels, as well as increase in mRNA levels of glucagon and somatostatin. Trypsin, a proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist previously shown to enhance aggregation, modestly improved [Ca]i response to glucose. Glucose-induced coordinated [Ca]i oscillations and dye transfer demonstrated the emergence of intercellular communication. Conclusions These findings suggest that PANC-1 cells, a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, can be induced to express a differentiated phenotype, in which cells exhibit response to glucose and form a functional syncytium similar to those observed in pancreatic islets. PMID:22129530

  11. The Prognostic Value of Tumor-Infiltrating Neutrophils in Gastric Adenocarcinoma after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Ju-gao; Wu, Yan-heng; Lv, Lin; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Yi-bing; Wang, Dan-dan; Pan, Qiu-zhong; Li, Xiao-dong; Xia, Jian-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Several pieces of evidence indicate that tumor-infiltrating neutrophils (TINs) are correlated to tumor progression. In the current study, we explore the relationship between TINs and clinicopathological features of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, we investigated the prognostic value of TINs. Patients and Methods The study was comprised of two groups, training group (115 patients) and test group (97 patients). Biomarkers (intratumoral CD15+ neutrophils) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between clinicopathological features and patient outcome were evaluated using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Immunohistochemical detection showed that the tumor-infiltrating neutrophils (TINs) in the training group ranged from 0.00–115.70 cells/high-power microscopic field (HPF) and the median number was 21.60 cells/HPF. Based on the median number, the patients were divided into high and low TINs groups. Chi-square test analysis revealed that the density of CD15+ TINs was positively associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.024), distance metastasis (p = 0.004) and UICC (International Union Against Cancer) staging (p = 0.028). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with a lower density of TINs had a better prognosis than patients with a higher density of TINs (p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox's analysis showed that the density of CD15+ TINs was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Using another 97 patients as a test group and basing on the median number of TINs (21.60 cells/HPF) coming from the training group, Kaplan-Meier analysis also showed that patients with a lower density of TINs had a better prognosis than patients with a higher density of TINs (p = 0.032). The results verify that the number of CD15+ TINs can predict the survival of gastric adenocarcinoma surgical patients. Conclusions The presence of CD15+ TINs is an independent and

  12. Predicting adenocarcinoma recurrence using computational texture models of nodule components in lung CT

    SciTech Connect

    Depeursinge, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.depeursinge@hevs.ch; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Leung, Ann N.

    Purpose: To investigate the importance of presurgical computed tomography (CT) intensity and texture information from ground-glass opacities (GGO) and solid nodule components for the prediction of adenocarcinoma recurrence. Methods: For this study, 101 patients with surgically resected stage I adenocarcinoma were selected. During the follow-up period, 17 patients had disease recurrence with six associated cancer-related deaths. GGO and solid tumor components were delineated on presurgical CT scans by a radiologist. Computational texture models of GGO and solid regions were built using linear combinations of steerable Riesz wavelets learned with linear support vector machines (SVMs). Unlike other traditional texture attributes, themore » proposed texture models are designed to encode local image scales and directions that are specific to GGO and solid tissue. The responses of the locally steered models were used as texture attributes and compared to the responses of unaligned Riesz wavelets. The texture attributes were combined with CT intensities to predict tumor recurrence and patient hazard according to disease-free survival (DFS) time. Two families of predictive models were compared: LASSO and SVMs, and their survival counterparts: Cox-LASSO and survival SVMs. Results: The best-performing predictive model of patient hazard was associated with a concordance index (C-index) of 0.81 ± 0.02 and was based on the combination of the steered models and CT intensities with survival SVMs. The same feature group and the LASSO model yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.8 ± 0.01 for predicting tumor recurrence, although no statistically significant difference was found when compared to using intensity features solely. For all models, the performance was found to be significantly higher when image attributes were based on the solid components solely versus using the entire tumors (p < 3.08 × 10{sup −5}). Conclusions

  13. Diagnostic value of tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion: a validation study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei; Zhu, Jing; Liang, Liqun; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Pleural effusion is one of the most common complications of lung adenocarcinoma and is diagnostically challenging. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (MPE) through a validation study and meta-analysis. Pleural effusion samples were collected from 81 lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPEs and 96 benign pleural effusions. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The capacity of tumor markers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies were used to summarize the diagnostic performance of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The pleural levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE compared to benign pleural effusion. The cut-off points for CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were optimally set at 4.55 ng/ml, 43.10 μg/ml, and 12.89 U/ml, and corresponding AUCs were 0.93, 0.85, and 0.81, respectively. The combination of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 increased the sensitivity to 95.06%, with an AUC of 0.95. Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. CEA showed the best diagnostic performance with pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio of 0.75, 0.96, 16.01, 0.23, and 81.49, respectively. The AUC was 0.93. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 play a role in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The combination of these tumor markers increases the diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-02-01

    The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to

  15. Screening and identification of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis-related genes using cDNA microarray coupled to FDD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Shishu

    2002-10-01

    To identify certain gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis-related genes, an RF-1 cell line (primary tumor from a gastric adenocarcinoma patient) and an RF-48 cell line (its metastatic counterpart) were used as a model for studying the molecular mechanism of tumor metastasis. Two fluorescent cDNA probes, labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, were prepared from RF-1 and RF-48 mRNA samples by the reverse transcription method. The two color probes were then mixed and hybridized to a cDNA chip constructed with double-dots from 4,096 human genes, and scanned at two wavelengths. The experiment was repeated twice. Differentially expressedn genes from the above two cells were analyzed by use of computer. Of the total genes, 138 (3.4%) revealed differential expression in RF-48 cells compared with RF-1 cells: 81 (2.1%) genes revealed apparent up-regulation, and 56 (1.3%) genes revealed down-regulation. Forty-five genes involved in gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis were cloned using fluorescent differential display-PCR (FDD-PCR), including three novel genes. There were seven differentially expressed genes that presented the same behaviour under both detection methods. The possible roles of some differentially expressed genes, which may be involved in the mechanism of tumor metastasis, were discussed. cDNA chip was used to analyze gene expression in a high-throughput and large-scale manner in combination with FDD-PCR for cloning unknown novel genes. Some genes related to metastasis were preliminarily scanned, which would contribute to disclose the molecular mechanism of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Usefulness of immunohistochemistry for the detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in Japanese lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Tani, Yoichi; Shitara, Masayuki; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Hikosaka, Yu; Moriyama, Satoru; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade may be a new candidate for target for lung cancer. The usefulness of immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a new approach for the detection of BRAF V600E in cancer patients has been recently reported. To increase the sensitivity, we modified BRAF V600E expression detection assay by IHC using mutation specific antibody. From the screening step, we found a novel 599 insertion T BRAF mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study included 26 surgically removed cases with EGFR, Kras, erbB2, EML4-ALK and KIF5B-RET wild-type (wt) lung adenocarcinomas, including 7 BRAF mutants (5 V600E, 1 N581I, and 1 novel 599 insertion T mutation) analyzed by DNA sequencing. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation was carried out by the Dako EnVision™ FLEX detection system using the VE1 clone antibody and compared with the results of direct sequencing. The autostainer IHC VE1 assay was positive in 5 of 5 (100%) BRAF V600E-mutated tumors and negative in 20 of 21 (95.2%) BRAF non-V600E tumors, except for a novel 599 insertion T case. IHC using the VE1 clone and FLEX linker is a specific method for the detection BRAF V600E and may be an alternative to molecular biology for the detection of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas. This method might be useful for screening to use molecular target therapy for lung adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HRCT features of surgically resected invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Fujii, Takeshi; Kishi, Kazuma; Homma, Sakae

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is prevalent among patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP). HRCT findings mucinous adenocarcinoma in patients with IP have not been described. In 112 consecutive patients with 120 surgically resected IP-associated lung cancers, 42 patients had pathologically proven invasive adenocarcinoma (IA). A total of 14 out of 42 patients (10 men, 4 women, mean age, 68.4 years) had invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the patients' medical records and HRCT scans. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma were most commonly associated with idiopathic IP (n = 13) affecting the lower lobe adjacent to a fibrocystic changes. In 11 patients with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma or other types of IA, the tumour was adjacent to a fibrocystic lesion. In invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, malignant signs included lobulation (n = 11), spiculation (n = 9), vascular convergence (n = 10) and pleural indentation (n = 2). Characteristic findings of mucinous adenocarcinoma (i.e. vague margins (n = 10), lobular-bounded margins (n = 11), air bronchogram (n = 11) and bubble-like low attenuation (n = 8)) were more common in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma than in other IA types. All invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma tumours (n = 11) were closely associated with fibrosis. Mixed ground-glass opacity and consolidation adjacent to a fibrocystic lesion with malignant signs and characteristic features of mucinous adenocarcinoma indicate malignancy. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Different time trend and management of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma in three Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Waku; Tong, Daniel; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Ichihara, Shin; Uedo, Noriya; Gotoda, Takuji

    2017-04-01

    Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma has been on the increase in Western countries. However, in Asian countries, data on the incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma are evidently lacking. In the present review, we focus on the current clinical situation of EGJ adenocarcinoma in three Asian countries: Japan, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma has been reported to be gradually increasing in Malaysia and Japan, whereas it has stabilized in Hong Kong. However, the number of cases in these countries is comparatively low compared with Western countries. A reason for the reported difference in the incidence and time trend of EGJ adenocarcinoma among the three countries may be explained by two distinct etiologies: one arising from chronic gastritis similar to distal gastric cancer, and the other related to gastroesophageal reflux disease similar to esophageal adenocarcinoma including Barrett's adenocarcinoma. This review also shows that there are several concerns in clinical practice for EGJ adenocarcinoma. In Hong Kong and Malaysia, many EGJ adenocarcinomas have been detected at a stage not amenable to endoscopic resection. In Japan, histological curability criteria for endoscopic resection cases have not been established. We suggest that an international collaborative study using the same definition of EGJ adenocarcinoma may be helpful not only for clarifying the characteristics of these cancers but also for improving the clinical outcome of these patients. © 2017 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Rare extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma mimicking as adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Michelle; Haenen, Filip W N; Siozopoulou, Vasiliki; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare finding in comparison with Ewing's sarcoma of bone and usually manifests in young patients. However, even in older patients, one must consider the diagnosis. In this case, we describe a 52-year-old woman diagnosed with EES, mimicking as adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid. The tumor was not visualized by a multi-slice spiral computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast, and eventually the diagnosis was made by positive immunohistochemical staining for CD99 and by molecular testing for EWSR1 translocation. This combination of the patient's age and the localization of the tumor mimicking an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid has never been described before.

  20. MAMMARY GLAND ADENOCARCINOMA IN A MALE BORNEAN ORANGUTAN (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Nancy A; Crook, Erika K

    2017-03-01

    An adult male Bornean orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus ) was diagnosed with invasive, poorly differentiated grade 9/9 mammary gland adenocarcinoma from a subcutaneous mass that was surgically removed during a routine preventative health examination. The tumor was tested for estrogen and progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (HER2 FISH). Whole blood was tested for breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) genes. The orangutan was treated orally with two common human breast cancer drugs; tamoxifen and anastrozole. The orangutan lived for 4.5 yr postdetection, dying from an unrelated cause. This is the first reported case of mammary gland adenocarcinoma in a male great ape.

  1. Clostridium septicum aortitis with synchronous ascending colon and rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Kistler, Andrew C.; Kozuch, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum (C. septicum) aortitis is a rare condition frequently associated with colon adenocarcinoma and carries a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, blood in the stool, fever and chills. Laboratory tests were significant for leukocytosis and microcytic anemia. Abdominal imaging revealed a right colon mass and aortitis. Colonoscopy confirmed the right colon mass and also discovered a rectal mass, both adenocarcinomas. Treatment consisted of antibiotics, aortic repair, right hemi-colectomy and later trans-anal excision of the rectal mass. Blood cultures and the aortic specimen grew C. septicum. The patient improved and was doing well in follow up. PMID:28655990

  2. Endometrial metastasis of colorectal cancer with coincident endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colling, Richard; Lopes, Tito; Das, Nagiindra; Mathew, Joe

    2010-11-05

    Metastasis to the uterine corpus is uncommon and secondary colorectal tumours of the endometrium are rare. We describe a uterine tumour with components of both primary endometrial and metastatic colorectal carcinomata. In this case, a 72-year-old obese woman presented with a 2-week history of postmenopausal bleeding per vaginum and weight loss. She had an abdominoperineal resection 3 years previously for a Dukes stage B rectal carcinoma. A transvaginal ultrasonography showed a thickened endometrium. Histology immunophenotyping showed a CK7+, CK20+, CA125- and CEA+ colorectal metastasis (a profile consistent with her previous cancer) associated with a primary CK7+, CK20-, CA125+ and CEA- endometroid endometrial adenocarcinoma. We conclude this represents endometrial metastasis of colorectal carcinoma with coincident primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. We speculate as to whether the endometrial carcinoma arose de novo or was induced by the colorectal metastasis, or whether the primary endometrial tumour provided a fertile site for the colorectal metastasis.

  3. Adenocarcinoma arising in warthin tumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Hamide; Öztarakçi, Hüseyin; Sayar, Çağdaş; Ağirbaş, Şule

    2012-01-01

    Warthin tumor is a well-defined benign salivary gland neoplasm consisting of both epithelial and lymphoid components. The tumor is the second most common benign tumor next to pleomorphic adenoma. We present a case of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise classified, arising in unilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland in a 63-year-old male patient. Carcinomas arising in or from the epithelial component of a preexisting parotid Warthin tumor are rare and differential diagnosis of metastasis from an adenocarcinoma in Warthin tumor is important. The patient underwent a complete and thorough work-up, and no other primary malignant lesion was found. No other primary malignant lesion had manifested at the last one year follow-up period.

  4. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma presenting an uncommon radiographic aspect.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, M H C G; de Magalhães, R P; de Araújo, V C; de Sousa, S O M

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present clinical, histological and immunohistochemical aspects of a polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma occurring in the mandible. A radiolucent tumour, located in the right mandible, was removed from a 40-year-old woman. Radiographic and CT exams revealed that the lesion expanded bucco-lingual cortical plates and presented an irregular scalloping of the bone. The surrounding lining mucosa was intact. The patient underwent total surgical removal of the lesion with an intraoperative biopsy. Histological diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemical study. One-year follow up was uneventful. The accurate diagnosis of lesions presenting unusual clinical aspects, as the one presented here, is critical for correctly handling treatment.

  5. Gastric adenocarcinoma concurrent with paravertebral plasmacytoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fengcai; Jiang, Lixin; Zhu, Fangqing; Gong, Zhao Hua; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a 77-year-old male patient who was revealed to have an unsuspected case of gastric adenocarcinoma with paravertebral plasmacytoma following biopsy. Plasmacytoma may be classified into two main groups: Multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma without marrow involvement. It comprises isolated plasmacytoma of the bone and extramedullary plasmacytoma. Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) accounts for 3% of all plasmacytomas; however, ~80% are located in the upper respiratory tract and upper gastrointestinal tract. It occurs extremely rarely in paravertebral areas. Case reports of EMP and other types of malignant tumor occurring at the same time have not been identified in searches of the literature. In the present study, we describe the diagnosis and treatment process of a case of gastric adenocarcinoma concurrent with paravertebral plasmacytoma. It may be helpful for early clinical diagnosis and treatment of such cases. PMID:27446469

  6. [A Case of Uterine Body Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mayumi, Katsuyuki; Terakura, Masanobu; Hori, Takaaki; Takemura, Masashi

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of metastatic carcinoma to the uterine body from a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 73-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon carcinoma 2 years before. In the following study, her serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated, and a uterine body tumor invading the rectal wall was detected via enhanced computed tomography. Colonoscopic examination revealed an elevated lesion at the rectum, which was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma. Based on these results, we diagnosed the uterine tumor as metastatic tumor from the colon carcinoma. Immunostaining was negative for CK7, but positive for CK20. Thus, we confirmed metastasis of the sigmoid colon cancer to the uterus. Metastasis to the female genital tract from extragenital malignancies are rare, and the prognosis is extremely poor. However, some patients attain long-term survival by surgical intervention even in such cases.

  7. Prostatic Adenocarcinoma with Concurrent Sertoli Cell Tumor in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Gill, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    A case of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma with concurrent Sertoli cell tumor is presented in an old, miniature Schnauzer dog. The prostatic neoplasm was highly anaplastic and had metastasized widely. Clinical signs were compatible with increased estrogen production. It is interesting to note that the prostatic carcinoma, usually considered to be androgen dependent, developed and metastasized, despite the presence of apparently increased estrogen levels. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7340923

  8. MET amplification, expression, and exon 14 mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Li, Guichao; Sun, Xiangjie; Ni, Shujuan; Tan, Cong; Xu, Midie; Huang, Dan; Ren, Fei; Li, Dawei; Wei, Ping; Du, Xiang

    2018-04-08

    MET amplification, expression, and splice mutations at exon 14 result in dysregulation of the MET signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between MET amplification, protein or mRNA expression, and mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC). MET immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used for MET protein expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for MET amplification detection. Both analyses were performed in tissue microarrays (TMA) containing 294 of colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples and 131 samples of adjacent normal epithelial tissue. MET mRNA expression was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 72 fresh colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples and adjacent normal colon tissue. PCR sequencing was performed to screen for MET exon 14 splice mutations in 59 fresh CRC tissue samples. Our results showed that MET protein expression was higher in colorectal tumor tissue than in adjacent normal intestinal epithelium. Positive MET protein expression was associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Multivariate analysis revealed that positive MET protein expression was an independent risk factor for DFS, but not for OS. MET mRNA expression was upregulated in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The incidence of MET amplification was 4.4%. None of the patients was positive for MET mutation. Collectively, MET was overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinoma, and its positive protein expression predicted a poorer outcome in CRC patients. Furthermore, according to our results, MET amplification and 14 exon mutation are extremely rare events in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Bowel adenocarcinoma in a patient with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Tullett, W M; Thomas, J S; Galloway, D; Stack, B H

    1986-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive condition affecting one in 2,000 live births in the UK. There are few reports of malignant tumours in this condition probably because, until recently, the majority died before the age of 30 years as a result of recurrent and chronic bronchopulmonary infection with impaired growth and development and resistance to infection due to pancreatic malabsorption. We describe an adult male with CF who died from an adenocarcinoma affecting the ileocaecal region of the bowel.

  10. Fluopsin C induces oncosis of human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-sha; Jiang, Chang-you; Cui, Min; Lu, Rong; Liu, Shan-shan; Zheng, Bei-bei; Li, Lin; Li, Xia

    2013-08-01

    Fluopsin C, an antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas jinanesis, has shown antitumor effects on several cancer cell lines. In the current study, the oncotic cell death induced by fluopsin C was investigated in human breast adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MD-MBA-231 were used. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. Time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphological changes. Cell membrane integrity was assessed with propidium iodide (PI) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Flow cytometry was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). A multimode microplate reader was used to analyze the intracellular ATP level. The changes in cytoskeletal system were investigated with Western blotting and immunostaining. Fluopsin C (0.5-8 μmol/L) reduced the cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. Its IC50 values in MCF-7 and MD-MBA-231 cells at 24 h were 0.9 and 1.03 μmol/L, respectively. Fluopsin C (2 μmol/L) induced oncosis in both the breast adenocarcinoma cells characterized by membrane blebbing and swelling, which was blocked by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. In MCF-7 cells, fluopsin C caused PI uptake into the cells, significantly increased LDH release, induced cytoskeletal system degradation and ROS accumulation, decreased the intracellular ATP level and Δψm. Noticeably, fluopsin C exerted comparable cytotoxicity against the normal human hepatocytes (HL7702) and human mammary epithelial cells with the IC50 values at 24 h of 2.7 and 2.4 μmol/L, respectively. Oncotic cell death was involved in the anticancer effects of fluopsin C on human breast adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. The hepatoxicity of fluopsin C should not be ignored.

  11. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    PubMed

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  12. Protein profiles associated with survival in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoan; Gharib, Tarek G; Wang, Hong; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Kuick, Rork; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Shedden, Kerby A.; Misek, David E.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Iannettoni, Mark D.; Yee, John; Hogg, Philip J.; Orringer, Mark B.; Hanash, Samir M.; Beer, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Morphologic assessment of lung tumors is informative but insufficient to adequately predict patient outcome. We previously identified transcriptional profiles that predict patient survival, and here we identify proteins associated with patient survival in lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 682 individual protein spots were quantified in 90 lung adenocarcinomas by using quantitative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. A leave-one-out cross-validation procedure using the top 20 survival-associated proteins identified by Cox modeling indicated that protein profiles as a whole can predict survival in stage I tumor patients (P = 0.01). Thirty-three of 46 survival-associated proteins were identified by using mass spectrometry. Expression of 12 candidate proteins was confirmed as tumor-derived with immunohistochemical analysis and tissue microarrays. Oligonucleotide microarray results from both the same tumors and from an independent study showed mRNAs associated with survival for 11 of 27 encoded genes. Combined analysis of protein and mRNA data revealed 11 components of the glycolysis pathway as associated with poor survival. Among these candidates, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 was associated with survival in the protein study, in both mRNA studies and in an independent validation set of 117 adenocarcinomas and squamous lung tumors using tissue microarrays. Elevated levels of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 in the serum were also significantly correlated with poor outcome in a validation set of 107 patients with lung adenocarcinomas using ELISA analysis. These studies identify new prognostic biomarkers and indicate that protein expression profiles can predict the outcome of patients with early-stage lung cancer. PMID:14573703

  13. Isolated splenic metastasis of endometrial adenocarcinoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Andrei, S; Preda, C; Andrei, A; Becheanu, G; Herlea, V; Lupescu, I; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    The spleen in rarely the place for solid, non-haematological tumors, isolated splenic metastases from adenocarcinomas being extremely rare findings, regardless of the origin and the histological type of the primary tumor. We present the case of a female patient with isolated splenic metastasis diagnosed by abdominal computer tomography at only 20 months after curative surgery for endometrial adenocarcinoma, in which the final diagnosis has been established by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the splenectomy piece. The haematogenous dissemination of the endometrial cancer occurs most commonly in the lungs, liver or bones, the spleen being rarely affected. In the medical literature there are cited up to date only 12 cases of solitary splenic metastasis from endometrial adenocarcinoma. The particularity of the case presented by us is the early appearance of an isolated splenic metastasis, at less than two years after curative surgery (compared to an average of 4-5 years cited in the literature), from an endometrial cancer which was classified histologicaly in the group with low-risk for relapse (well differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma). In conclusion, although solitary splenic secondary determinations are very rare, the incidence of the reported cases in the medical literature is increasing, their late appearance (a few years after the primary tumor's resection) and the lack of symptoms until the tumor reaches appreciable size or it complicates with necrosis, justifies the periodic abdominal imaging examination, on long-term, for postoperative monitorisation after the initial curative surgery. Their treatment of choice is open, classical splenectomy that must be followed by chemotherapy in order to prevent the development of other possible micrometastases.

  14. Molecular Typing of Lung Adenocarcinoma on Cytological Samples Using a Multigene Next Generation Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Fassan, Matteo; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Cappellesso, Rocco; Antonello, Davide; Amato, Eliana; Mafficini, Andrea; Lambiase, Matilde; Esposito, Claudia; Bria, Emilio; Simonato, Francesca; Scardoni, Maria; Turri, Giona; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fassina, Ambrogio; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%). In 24/36 cases (67%) at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16%) and 10/36 (28%) cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25%) showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy. PMID:24236184

  15. 020. Coexistence of lung adenocarcinoma and usual interstitial pneumonia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Baliaka, Aggeliki; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Spyratos, Dionysis; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Sakkas, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    Background Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause. The most common symptoms are progressively increased shortness of breath and dry cough. Some studies suggest an association between usual interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer through different pathogenetic mechanisms. Objective The case presentation of a patient with lung adenocarcinoma and UIP. Methods A 66-year-old male presented with persistent dry cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. The chest radiographs revealed a mass in the lower lobe of the left lung, measuring 3 cm, as well as diffuse interstitial changes in the same lobe. Two partial lobectomies were performed. Results Histological examination of the mass showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, focally with bronchoalveolar pattern (Immunohistochemical detection of EGFR: positive). The rest lung parenchyma presented histological appearance of UIP. Conclusions According to clinicopathological studies, the prevalence of lung cancer among patients with UIP/IPF varies between 4% and 9%. The overall median survival of IPF-Ca patients is seven months in comparison with IPF only patients (14 months).

  16. Differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma: a multimodal approach based on ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, C.W.; Bonsib, S.; Moran, C.

    1992-05-01

    Most compensations for asbestos-related deaths secondary to cancer center around mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma is a common and troublesome one, necessitating the correlation between clinical history, radiographic findings, and pathologic examination of tissues and cells. We describe a multimodal approach based on the use of routine and special stains, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy for distinguishing between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. Once a malignant diagnosis is arrived at by careful pathological examination, the tumor is classified as mesothelioma if mesothelial cells are identified as the constituent cells of the neoplasm. Mesothelial cells are recognized bymore » (1) their main ultrastructural features: slender and elongated microvilli, abundant intermediate filaments, and lacking secretory granules; and (2) their characteristic immunocytochemical reactivity: positivity for cytokeratin, EMA, and vimentin, and negativity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), B72-3, Leu-M1, and other gland-cell markers. A variety of methods have been attempted in an effort to distinguish between reactive and malignant mesothelial cells. In practice, however, such distinction depends more on experience and expertise than in any fool-proof ancillary tests. A number of these tests are discussed along with the illustration of classical and unusual examples of mesothelioma and other pleural tumors.« less

  17. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis reveals cooperating mutations and pathways in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Karen M.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Kovochich, Anne; Dawson, David W.; Black, Michael A.; Brett, Benjamin T.; Sheetz, Todd E.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Chang, David K.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Rust, Alistair G.; Adams, David J.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly cancers affecting the Western world. Because the disease is highly metastatic and difficult to diagnosis until late stages, the 5-y survival rate is around 5%. The identification of molecular cancer drivers is critical for furthering our understanding of the disease and development of improved diagnostic tools and therapeutics. We have conducted a mutagenic screen using Sleeping Beauty (SB) in mice to identify new candidate cancer genes in pancreatic cancer. By combining SB with an oncogenic Kras allele, we observed highly metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Using two independent statistical methods to identify loci commonly mutated by SB in these tumors, we identified 681 loci that comprise 543 candidate cancer genes (CCGs); 75 of these CCGs, including Mll3 and Ptk2, have known mutations in human pancreatic cancer. We identified point mutations in human pancreatic patient samples for another 11 CCGs, including Acvr2a and Map2k4. Importantly, 10% of the CCGs are involved in chromatin remodeling, including Arid4b, Kdm6a, and Nsd3, and all SB tumors have at least one mutated gene involved in this process; 20 CCGs, including Ctnnd1, Fbxo11, and Vgll4, are also significantly associated with poor patient survival. SB mutagenesis provides a rich resource of mutations in potential cancer drivers for cross-comparative analyses with ongoing sequencing efforts in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:22421440

  18. Imaging Characteristics in ALK Fusion-Positive Lung Adenocarcinomas by Using HRCT

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Sakae; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Uehara, Hirofumi; Mun, Mingyon; Takeuchi, Kengo; Nakagawa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to identify high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features useful to distinguish the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) fusion-positive and negative lung adenocarcinomas. Methods: We included 236 surgically resected adenocarcinoma lesions, which included 27 consecutive ALK fusion-positive (AP) lesions, 115 epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive lesions, and 94 double-negative lesions. HRCT parameters including size, air bronchograms, pleural indentation, spiculation, and tumor disappearance rate (TDR) were compared. In addition, prevalence of small lesions (≤20 mm) and solid lesions (TDR ≤20%) were compared. Results: AP lesions were significantly smaller and had lower TDR (%) than ALK fusion-negative (AN) lesions (tumor diameter: 20.7 mm ± 14.1 mm vs. 27.4 mm ± 13.8 mm, respectively, p <0.01; TDR: 22.8% ± 24.8% vs. 44.8% ± 33.2%, respectively, p <0.01). All AP lesions >20 mm (n = 7, 25.9%) showed a solid pattern. Among all small lesions, AP lesions had lower TDR and more frequent spiculation than AN lesions (p <0.01). Among solid lesions, AP lesions were smaller than AN lesions (p = 0.01). Conclusion: AP lung lesions were significantly smaller and had a lower TDR than AN lesions. Spiculation was more frequent in small lesions. Non-solid >20 mm lesions may be ALK fusion-negative. PMID:24899136

  19. Serum deprivation induces glucose response and intercellular coupling in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Shapira, Yuval; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the previously described differentiating islet-like aggregates of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) develop glucose response and exhibit intercellular communication. Fura 2-loaded PANC-1 cells in serum-free medium were assayed for changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca]i) induced by depolarization, tolbutamide inhibition of K(ATP) channels, or glucose. Dye transfer, assayed by confocal microscopy or by FACS, was used to detect intercellular communication. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes of interest were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation was assayed by the MTT method. Serum-deprived PANC-1 cell aggregates developed [Ca]i response to KCl, tolbutamide, or glucose. These responses were accompanied by 5-fold increase in glucokinase mRNA level and, to a lesser extent, of mRNAs for K(ATP) and L-type calcium channels, as well as increase in mRNA levels of glucagon and somatostatin. Trypsin, a proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist previously shown to enhance aggregation, modestly improved [Ca]i response to glucose. Glucose-induced coordinated [Ca]i oscillations and dye transfer demonstrated the emergence of intercellular communication. These findings suggest that PANC-1 cells, a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, can be induced to express a differentiated phenotype in which cells exhibit response to glucose and form a functional syncytium similar to those observed in pancreatic islets.

  20. Partial Cystectomy for Atypical Isolated Recurrence of Ovarian Adenocarcinoma – A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    BACALBASA, NICOLAE; BALESCU, IRINA

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most cases with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian malignancies will experience recurrent disease at a certain moment of their evolution, even if maximal cytoreductive surgery has been performed at the moment of initial diagnosis. However, it seems that the best therapeutic strategy, in case of relapse, remains aggressive re-resection, with complete cytoreduction being the most efficient way to improve survival. Materials and Methods: We present the case of a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with an isolated pelvic recurrence after stage IIIC surgically-treated ovarian cancer three years after primary cytoreduction. Results: Intraoperatively, the diagnosis of an isolated pelvic recurrence invading the urinary bladder was confirmed. The recurrent tumor was resected en bloc with partial cystectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful, while histopathological studies confirmed the presence of a poorly differentiated epithelial ovarian recurrent adenocarcinoma. At two year follow-up, the patient is free of any recurrent disease. Conclusion: Isolated pelvic recurrences after surgically- treated ovarian adenocarcinomas can be safely removed and might improve survival PMID:28438874

  1. Evolution of oesophageal adenocarcinoma from metaplastic columnar epithelium without goblet cells in Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Danielle L; Martinez, Pierre; Gay, Laura J; Cereser, Biancastella; Novelli, Marco R; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Meijer, Sybren L; Graham, Trevor A; McDonald, Stuart A C; Wright, Nicholas A; Jansen, Marnix

    2016-06-01

    Barrett's oesophagus commonly presents as a patchwork of columnar metaplasia with and without goblet cells in the distal oesophagus. The presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium with goblet cells on oesophageal biopsy is a marker of cancer progression risk, but it is unclear whether clonal expansion and progression in Barrett's oesophagus is exclusive to columnar epithelium with goblet cells. We developed a novel method to trace the clonal ancestry of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma across an entire Barrett's segment. Clonal expansions in Barrett's mucosa were identified using cytochrome c oxidase enzyme histochemistry. Somatic mutations were identified through mitochondrial DNA sequencing and single gland whole exome sequencing. By tracing the clonal origin of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma across an entire Barrett's segment through a combination of histopathological spatial mapping and clonal ordering, we find that this cancer developed from a premalignant clonal expansion in non-dysplastic ('cardia-type') columnar metaplasia without goblet cells. Our data demonstrate the premalignant potential of metaplastic columnar epithelium without goblet cells in the context of Barrett's oesophagus. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    PubMed

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RUNX1 promote invasiveness in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through regulating miR-93

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yin; Yang, Haiyan; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Hongkai; Yu, Shuangni; Lu, Zhaohui; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1(RUNX1), a key factor in hematopoiesis that mediates specification and homeostasis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), is also overexpressed in several solid human cancers, and correlated with tumor progression. However, the expression and function of RUNX1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were still unclear. Here, we show that RUNX1 is highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues and knocking down of RUNX1 attenuated aggressiveness in pancreatic cell lines. Moreover, we found that RUNX1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-93. Bioinformatics method showed that there are two binding sites in the the promotor region of miR-93 precursor and through ChIP-qPCR and firefly luciferase reporter assay, we vertified that these two binding sites each have transcriptive activity in one pancreatic cell lines. This result supported our presumption that RUNX1 regulate miR-93 through binding to the promotor region of miR-93. Besides, the expression and function of miR-93 is quite the opposite, miR-93 overexpression suppresses migration and invasiveness in pancreatic cell lines supporting that RUNX1 negatively regulated miR-93. Our findings provided evidence regarding the role of RUNX1 as an oncogene through the inhibition of miR-93. Targeting RUNX1 can be a potential therapeutic strategy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:29245924

  4. A Prediction Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinomas based on Histologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jing; Kong, Mei; Sun, Ke; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xi; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the clinical and histological characteristics of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and build a prediction model to prescreen suitable patients for molecular testing. Methods and Results We identified 27 cases of ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas in 1165 patients with NSCLCs confirmed by real-time PCR and FISH and performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictive factors associated with ROS1 rearrangement and finally developed prediction model. Detected with ROS1 immunochemistry, 59 cases of 1165 patients had a certain degree of ROS1 expression. Among these cases, 19 cases (68%, 19/28) with 3+ and 8 cases (47%, 8/17) with 2+ staining were ROS1 rearrangement verified by real-time PCR and FISH. In the resected group, the acinar-predominant growth pattern was the most commonly observed (57%, 8/14), while in the biopsy group, solid patterns were the most frequently observed (78%, 7/13). Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined that female sex, cribriform structure and the presence of psammoma body were the three most powerful indicators of ROS1 rearrangement, and we have developed a predictive model for the presence of ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinomas. Conclusions Female, cribriform structure and presence of psammoma body were the three most powerful indicator of ROS1 rearrangement status, and predictive formula was helpful in screening ROS1-rearranged NSCLC, especially for ROS1 immunochemistry equivocal cases. PMID:27648828

  5. Generation of Rat Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Nobuaki; Kushida, Masahiko; Yamada, Keita; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Saito, Koichi; Tachibana, Taro

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Biomarkers that can detect the tumor in its early stages when it may be amenable to curative resection might improve prognosis. To discover novel markers expressed in primary pancreatic cancer, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line BxPC3 using a rat medial iliac lymph node method. The antigen recognized by 1B5A5 was expressed on the cell surface and secreted into the conditioned medium of BxPC3 cells, and characterized as glycoproteins with molecular mass between 60 and 90 kDa. A wide range of molecular weights of 1B5A5 antigen in several pancreatic cancer cell lines were observed. Immunohistochemistry using a human multiple organ tumor tissue array showed an enhanced expression of 1B5A5 antigen in pancreas, lung, stomach, breast, urinary bladder, colon, and cervix uteri cancers. Immunoprecipitation followed by proteomic analyses identified CEACAM6 as a 1B5A5 antigen. In addition, western blot analysis results indicated that the 1B5A5 epitope is located within an amino-terminal domain of CEACAM6. These results raised the possibility that our approach could lead to discovery of novel biomarkers for the early stage of cancers in a relatively short period of time.

  6. Molecular biological analysis in a patient with multiple lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Tomoshige; Hirata, Hirokuni; Suka, Shunsuke; Sato, Kozo; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Souma, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hideyuki; Tamura, Motohiko; Matsumura, Yuji; Imada, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2018-05-01

    The utility of molecular biological analysis in lung adenocarcinoma has been demonstrated. Herein we report a rare case presenting as multiple lung adenocarcinomas with four different EGFR gene mutations detected in three lung tumors. After opacification was detected by routine chest X-ray, the patient, a 64-year-old woman, underwent chest computed tomography which revealed a right lung segment S4 ground-glass nodule (GGN). Follow-up computed tomography revealed a 42 mm GGN nodule with a 26 mm nodule (S6) and a 20 mm GGN (S10). Histopathology of resected specimens from the right middle and lower lobes revealed all three nodules were adenocarcinomas. Four EGFR mutations were detected; no three tumors had the same mutations. Molecular biological analysis is a promising tool for the diagnosis of primary tumors in patients with multiple lung carcinomas of the same histotype, enabling appropriate treatment. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. TS expression predicts postoperative recurrence in adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Hidehiko; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Iwata, Teruo; Nakagawa, Makoto; Ono, Kenji; Hanagiri, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    Not all patients with lung cancer require postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy after a complete resection. However, no useful markers for either selecting appropriate candidates or for predicting clinical recurrence exist. Tumor specimens were collected from 183 consecutive patients who underwent a complete resection for lung adenocarcinoma from 2003 to 2007 in our department. We analyzed the thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) expressions in the primary lung adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemisty. The strong expression of TS and DHFR was identified in 39 (21.3%) and 120 (65.6%) patients, respectively. The strong TS expression was identified in 11 (39.3%) of 28 patients and 28 (18.1%) of 155 patients in patients with and without recurrence, respectively (p=0.012). The strong DHFR expression was also identified in 23 (82.1%) and 97 (62.6%) of the patients with and without recurrence, respectively (p=0.045). Logistic regression models indicated the strong TS expression to be an independent factor for tumor recurrence. The strong TS and DHFR expression was associated with a poorer disease-free survival (DFS) according to the survival analysis. A multivariate analysis demonstrated the strong TS expression to be independently associated with an increased risk for poor DFS. The strong TS expression may be a useful marker for predicting postoperative recurrence in patients with lung adenocarcinoma following surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: particularities in diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, L; Robert, A-L; Lavoué, V; Foucher, F; Henno, S; Levêque, J

    2013-05-01

    The adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix accounts for 10 to 20% of the premalignant and malignant lesions and is different from the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Recent literature review (from 1985 to 2012) based on the literature available. Adenocarcinoma in situ is an induced HPV lesion (role of HPV 18) of the glandular epithelium: its preferential endocervical situation explains the difficulties in the diagnosis and follow-up after conservative treatment. If the hysterectomy remains the gold standard for treatment, the conservative treatments (resection in sano of the lesions with margins of more than 1cm, meticulous study of the operative specimen, compliance with the follow-up) are possible in the young patients who desire to preserve their fertility. The invasive adenocarcinoma is characterized by a more difficult diagnosis because of its endocervical development, and a prognosis less favorable when compared to squamous cell carcinoma with a greater frequency of the lymphatic node involvement and metastatic diffusion. Its treatment must take into account the particular gravity of the factors of worse prognosis (FIGO stage, tumor size, lymphatic node spreading, adenosquamous histological subtype) in particular in the advanced stages and includes beside the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgery of metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Howard Phil; Brown, Marjorie Raquel; Rogers, Kenita S

    2006-04-01

    To identify survival and morbidity information after surgery for metastases from apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas (AGACA). Retrospective study. Five dogs with AGACA. Medical records of dogs that had surgery for treatment of metastatic AGACA between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion required that dogs had lymphadenectomy, with or without further debulking, as part of their treatment for metastatic AGACA and that the tissue was histologically confirmed as consistent with the primary AGACA. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, imaging findings, surgical complications, number of surgeries, survival times, and cause of death were recorded. All dogs had a complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, serum electrolytes, 3-projection thoracic radiographs, abdominal radiographs and/or abdominal ultrasonography, and histologic confirmation of metastatic AGACA invading the regional lymph nodes and caudal abdomen. No surgical complications occurred. Three dogs were euthanatized; median survival, 20.6 months. One dog was alive for 19 months postoperatively. One dog had 5 sequential surgical procedures: 1 iliac lymphadenectomy and 4 debulking procedures of metastatic neoplastic tissue around and dorsal to the iliac vessels extending into the pelvic cavity, and was alive 54 months after initial surgery. Dogs with anal sac adenocarcinoma metastases to the iliac lymph nodes can experience long-term survival after surgical excision of the metastatic lesion. Lymphadenectomy may afford long-term survival to patients with metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma.

  10. Implications of inaccurate clinical nodal staging in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Johnson, Kirsten M; Boucher, Kenneth M; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2017-07-01

    Many patients with stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not undergo resection. We hypothesized that (1) clinical staging underestimates nodal involvement, causing stage IIB to have a greater percent of resected patients and (2) this stage-shift causes discrepancies in observed survival. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) research database was used to evaluate cause-specific survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2004-2012. Survival was compared using the log-rank test. Single-center data on 105 patients who underwent resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant treatment were used to compare clinical and pathologic nodal staging. In SEER data, medium-term survival in stage IIB was superior to IB and IIA, with median cause-specific survival of 14, 9, and 11 months, respectively (P < .001). Seventy-two percent of stage IIB patients underwent resection vs 28% in IB and 36% in IIA (P < .001). In our institutional data, 12.4% of patients had clinical evidence of nodal involvement vs 69.5% by pathologic staging (P < .001). Among clinical stage IA-IIA patients, 71.6% had nodal involvement by pathologic staging. Both SEER and institutional data support substantial underestimation of nodal involvement by clinical staging. This finding has implications in decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and analysis of outcomes in the absence of pathologic staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Greulich, Heidi; Muzny, Donna M.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wendl, Michael C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Larson, David E.; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David J.; Sabo, Aniko; Hawes, Alicia C.; Shen, Hua; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Lewis, Lora R.; Hall, Otis; Zhu, Yiming; Mathew, Tittu; Ren, Yanru; Yao, Jiqiang; Scherer, Steven E.; Clerc, Kerstin; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Ng, Brian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Osborne, John R.; Meyer, Rick; Shi, Xiaoqi; Tang, Yuzhu; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Lin, Ling; Abbott, Rachel; Miner, Tracie L.; Pohl, Craig; Fewell, Ginger; Haipek, Carrie; Schmidt, Heather; Dunford-Shore, Brian H.; Kraja, Aldi; Crosby, Seth D.; Sawyer, Christopher S.; Vickery, Tammi; Sander, Sacha; Robinson, Jody; Winckler, Wendy; Baldwin, Jennifer; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dutt, Amit; Fennell, Tim; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Thomas, Roman K.; Tonon, Giovanni; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ziaugra, Liuda; Zody, Michael C.; Giordano, Thomas; Orringer, Mark B.; Roth, Jack A.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ozenberger, Bradley; Good, Peter J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Beer, David G.; Watson, Mark A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Broderick, Stephen; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Province, Michael A.; Weinstock, George M.; Varmus, Harold E.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment. PMID:18948947

  12. Substance P Promotes the Progression of Endometrial Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Yuan, Shifa; Cheng, Jianxin; Kang, Shan; Zhao, Wenhong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that substance P (SP) promotes while neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist inhibits the proliferation of several human cancer cells. Currently, it is still unknown whether such actions exist in human endometrial carcinoma. This study aimed to explore the role of SP/NK-1R signaling in the progression of endometrial adenocarcinoma. The expression levels of SP and NK-1R in endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues and Ishikawa cell line were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. The effects of SP on Ishikawa cells proliferation and invasion were analyzed using MTT assay and transwell matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) in Ishikawa cells after administration of SP were detected by real-time quantitative RCR and Western blot analysis. The expression levels of SP and NK-1R were significantly higher in endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues and Ishikawa cells than in normal endometrium. Substance P significantly enhanced the proliferation and invasion of Ishikawa cells. In addition, SP induced the expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-C in Ishikawa cells, whereas NK-1R antagonist inhibited these effects. Substance P plays an important role in the development of endometrial carcinoma by inducing the expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-C and promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, which can be blocked by NK-1R antagonist.

  13. [Primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma in a male patient].

    PubMed

    Dauendorffer, J-N; Pages, C; Abd Alsamad, I; Bagot, M; Fraitag, S

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented mammary tumours are rare. Herein, we report the third case of primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma in a male patient with clinical mimicking of nodular melanoma of the nipple. A male patient presented with a pigmented nodule of the right nipple. Histological examination of the lesion showed dermal and subcutaneous adenocarcinomatous proliferation. The perilesional stroma contained melanin both inside and outside macrophages, leading us to conclude on primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma clinically mimicking nodular melanoma of the nipple. Local production of melanin by neoplastic cells in the mammary carcinoma was postulated as the cause of hyperpigmentation of the tumour. Other possible causes are transfer of melanin from overlying melanocytes of the pigmented areolar epidermis to the underlying neoplastic cells, or melanin synthesis by intratumoral melanocytes migrating from the epidermis (which strikes us as the most convincing interpretation for the reported case). Breast adenocarcinoma is a rare tumour in men and may present clinically as a pigmented lesion of the nipple, resulting in the problem of differential diagnosis with primary or metastasised nodular melanoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. ERCC2, ERCC1 polymorphisms and haplotypes, cooking oil fume and lung adenocarcinoma risk in Chinese non-smoking females.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhihua; Su, Meng; Li, Xuelian; Li, Mingchuan; Ma, Rui; He, Qincheng; Zhou, Baosen

    2009-12-14

    Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and group 2 (ERCC2) proteins play important roles in the repair of DNA damage and adducts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ERCC2 751, 312 and ERCC1 118 polymorphisms and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. A hospital-based case-control study of 285 patients and 285 matched controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, each person donated 10 ml blood for biomarker testing. Three polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. This study showed that the individuals with the combined ERCC2 751AC/CC genotypes were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the AA genotype [adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.52]. The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ERCC2 751 variant genotypes (AC/CC) was more pronounced in individuals without exposure to cooking oil fume (OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.18-3.32) and those without exposure to fuel smoke (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.46-4.18). Haplotype analysis showed that the A-G-T and C-G-C haplotypes were associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma among non-smoking females (ORs were 1.43 and 2.28, 95%CIs were 1.07-1.91 and 1.34-3.89, respectively). ERCC2 751 polymorphism may be a genetic risk modifier for lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking females in China.

  15. N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genetic variation and the susceptibility to noncardiac gastric adenocarcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Huang, Yi-Shin; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-03-01

    N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) is an important enzyme with the capacity to metabolize carcinogenic aromatic amines. However, it remains controversial whether the encoded functional NAT2 genetic polymorphism is related to the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between NAT2 genetic variation and gastric adenocarcinoma (GA), with special reference to the gastric noncardiac adenocarcinoma (GNA). Peripheral white blood cell DNA from 368 GA patients and 368 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for NAT2 by a polymerase chain reaction method. The lifestyle habits of the participants were assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. NAT2 genotype, interaction with lifestyle habits, and the risk of GA and GNA were analyzed by logistic regression. GA patients were more likely to have a smoking habit, ate more salted foods, and consumed more well-done meat than the controls. There was no association between the NAT2 genotypes and susceptibility to GA. However, if patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA; n = 42) were excluded, the NAT2 slow acetylators (without rapid acetylator allele) had a higher risk of GA than intermediate and rapid acetylators (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.23, p = 0.027). In addition, there was a synergic effect of NAT2 slow acetylator and well-done meat intake to the development of GNA (odds ratio = 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-8.76, p = 0.001). NAT2 slow acetylators have a higher risk of GNA than intermediate and rapid acetylators have in a Taiwanese population. The intake of well-done meat, an additive to the acetylator status, may contribute to the incidence of gastric carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  16. Validation of a Molecular and Pathological Model for Five-Year Mortality Risk in Patients with Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Raphael; Hughes, Elisha; Wagner, Susanne; Gutin, Alexander S.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Zheng, Yifan; Archer, Michael A.; Gustafson, Corinne; Jones, Joshua T.; Rushton, Kristen; Saam, Jennifer; Kim, Edward; Barberis, Massimo; Wistuba, Ignacio; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Wallace, William A.; Harrison, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a molecular expression signature [cell cycle progression (CCP) score] that identifies patients with a higher risk of cancer-related death after surgical resection of early stage (I-II) lung adenocarcinoma in a large patient cohort and evaluate the effectiveness of combining CCP score and pathological stage for predicting lung cancer mortality. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical tumor samples from 650 patients diagnosed with stage I and II adenocarcinoma who underwent definitive surgical treatment without adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed for 31 proliferation genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prognostic discrimination of the expression score was assessed by Cox proportional hazards analysis using 5-year lung cancer-specific death as primary outcome. Results: The CCP score was a significant predictor of lung cancer-specific mortality above clinical covariates [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46 per interquartile range (95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.90; p = 0.0050)]. The prognostic score, a combination of CCP score and pathological stage, was a more significant indicator of lung cancer mortality risk than pathological stage in the full cohort (HR = 2.01; p = 2.8 × 10−11) and in stage I patients (HR = 1.67; p = 0.00027). Using the 85th percentile of the prognostic score as a threshold, there was a significant difference in lung cancer survival between low-risk and high-risk patient groups (p = 3.8 × 10−7). Conclusions: This study validates the CCP score and the prognostic score as independent predictors of lung cancer death in patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone. Patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma and a high prognostic score may be candidates for adjuvant therapy to reduce cancer-related mortality. PMID:25396679

  17. Cytoplasmic Overexpression of CD95L in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells Overcomes Resistance to CD95-Mediated Apoptosis1

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gregory A; Naran, Sanjay; Zhang, Xinglu; Stang, Michael T; Queiroz de Oliveira, Pierre E; Hughes, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The CD95/CD95L pathway plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and immune system regulation; however, the function of this pathway in malignancy remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that CD95L expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma confers advantages to the neoplasm other than immune privilege. Methods CD95L expression was characterized in immortalized squamous esophagus (HET-1A) and Barrett esophagus (BAR-T) cells; adenocarcinoma cell lines FLO-1, SEG-1, and BIC-1, and MDA468 (- control); and KFL cells (+ control). Analyses included reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots of whole cell and secretory vesicle lysates, FACScan analysis, laser scanning confocal microscopy of native proteins and fluorescent constructs, and assessment of apoptosis and ERK1/2 pathways. Results Cleaved, soluble CD95L is expressed at both the RNA and protein levels in these cell lines derived from esophageal adenocarcinoma and other human tissues. CD95L was neither trafficked to the cell membrane nor secreted into the media or within vesicles, rather the protein seems to be sequestered in the cytoplasm. CD95 and CD95L colocalize by immunofluorescence, but an interaction was not proven by immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of CD95L in the adenocarcinoma cell lines induced robust apoptosis and, under conditions of pan-caspase inhibition, resulted in activation of ERK signaling. Conclusions CD95L localization in EA cells is inconsistent with the conference of immune privilege and is more consistent with a function that promotes tumor growth through alternative CD95 signaling. Reduced cell surface expression of CD95 affects cell sensitivity to extracellular apoptotic signals more significantly than alterations in downstream modulators of apoptosis. PMID:21390183

  18. 177Lu-3BP-227 for Neurotensin Receptor 1-Targeted Therapy of Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: First Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Baum, Richard P; Singh, Aviral; Schuchardt, Christiane; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Klette, Ingo; Wiessalla, Stefan; Osterkamp, Frank; Reineke, Ulrich; Smerling, Christiane

    2018-05-01

    Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) is overexpressed in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is still one of the deadliest cancers, with a very poor prognosis. Eligible patients were offered salvage radiopharmaceutical therapy with the novel NTR1 antagonist 177 Lu-3BP-227. Methods: Six patients with confirmed ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma who had exhausted all other treatment options received 177 Lu-3BP-227 for evaluation of NTR1 expression in vivo. Three patients received treatment activities of 5.1-7.5 GBq. Results: Administration of 177 Lu-3BP-227 was well tolerated by all patients. The kidneys were identified as the dose-limiting organ. The most severe adverse event was reversible grade 2 anemia. One patient achieved a partial response and experienced significant improvement of symptoms and quality of life. This patient survived 13 mo from diagnosis and 11 mo from the start of 177 Lu-3BP-227 therapy. Conclusion: This initial report provides clinical evidence of the feasibility of treatment of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma using 177 Lu-3BP-227. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  19. Over-expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene induces cell death in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pickel, Lara; Matsuzuka, Takaya; Doi, Chiyo; Ayuzawa, Rie; Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Xie, Sheng-Xue; Berkland, Cory; Tamura, Masaaki

    2010-02-01

    The endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT 2) has been shown to mediate apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the anti-cancer effect of AT 2 over-expression on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro using adenoviral (Ad), FuGENE, and nanoparticle vectors. All three gene transfection methods efficiently transfected AT 2 cDNA into lung cancer cells but caused minimal gene transfection in normal lung epithelial cells. Ad-AT 2 significantly attenuated multiple human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and H358) as compared to the control viral vector, Ad-LacZ, when cell viability was examined by direct cell count. Examination of annexin V by flow cytometry revealed the activation of the apoptotic pathway via AT 2 over-expression. Western Blot analysis confirmed the activation of caspase-3. Similarly, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable nanoparticles encapsulated AT 2 plasmid DNA were shown to be effectively taken up into the lung cancer cell. Nanoparticle-based AT 2 gene transfection markedly increased AT 2 expression and resultant cell death in A549 cells. These results indicate that AT 2 over-expression effectively attenuates growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells through intrinsic apoptosis. Our results also suggest that PLGA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient gene delivery vector for lung adenocarcinoma targeted therapy.

  20. Population effect model identifies gene expression predictors of survival outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma for both Caucasian and Asian patients

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guoshuai; Xiao, Feifei; Cheng, Chao; Li, Yafang; Amos, Christopher I.; Whitfield, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Background We analyzed and integrated transcriptome data from two large studies of lung adenocarcinomas on distinct populations. Our goal was to investigate the variable gene expression alterations between paired tumor-normal tissues and prospectively identify those alterations that can reliably predict lung disease related outcomes across populations. Methods We developed a mixed model that combined the paired tumor-normal RNA-seq from two populations. Alterations in gene expression common to both populations were detected and validated in two independent DNA microarray datasets. A 10-gene prognosis signature was developed through a l1 penalized regression approach and its prognostic value was evaluated in a third independent microarray cohort. Results Deregulation of apoptosis pathways and increased expression of cell cycle pathways were identified in tumors of both Caucasian and Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients. We demonstrate that a 10-gene biomarker panel can predict prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in both Caucasians and Asians. Compared to low risk groups, high risk groups showed significantly shorter overall survival time (Caucasian patients data: HR = 3.63, p-value = 0.007; Asian patients data: HR = 3.25, p-value = 0.001). Conclusions This study uses a statistical framework to detect DEGs between paired tumor and normal tissues that considers variances among patients and ethnicities, which will aid in understanding the common genes and signalling pathways with the largest effect sizes in ethnically diverse cohorts. We propose multifunctional markers for distinguishing tumor from normal tissue and prognosis for both populations studied. PMID:28426704

  1. Genome-wide association studies in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's oesophagus: a large-scale meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gharahkhani, Puya; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Vaughan, Thomas L; Palles, Claire; Gockel, Ines; Tomlinson, Ian; Buas, Matthew F; May, Andrea; Gerges, Christian; Anders, Mario; Becker, Jessica; Kreuser, Nicole; Noder, Tania; Venerito, Marino; Veits, Lothar; Schmidt, Thomas; Manner, Hendrik; Schmidt, Claudia; Hess, Timo; Böhmer, Anne C; Izbicki, Jakob R; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Lang, Hauke; Lorenz, Dietmar; Schumacher, Brigitte; Hackelsberger, Andreas; Mayershofer, Rupert; Pech, Oliver; Vashist, Yogesh; Ott, Katja; Vieth, Michael; Weismüller, Josef; Nöthen, Markus M; Attwood, Stephen; Barr, Hugh; Chegwidden, Laura; de Caestecker, John; Harrison, Rebecca; Love, Sharon B; MacDonald, David; Moayyedi, Paul; Prenen, Hans; Watson, R G Peter; Iyer, Prasad G; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hardie, Laura J; Lagergren, Jesper; Liu, Geoffrey; Risch, Harvey A; Wu, Anna H; Ye, Weimin; Bird, Nigel C; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Gammon, Marilie D; Corley, Douglas A; Caldas, Carlos; Moebus, Susanne; Knapp, Michael; Peters, Wilbert H M; Neuhaus, Horst; Rösch, Thomas; Ell, Christian; MacGregor, Stuart; Pharoah, Paul; Whiteman, David C; Jankowski, Janusz; Schumacher, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma represents one of the fastest rising cancers in high-income countries. Barrett's oesophagus is the premalignant precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. However, only a few patients with Barrett's oesophagus develop adenocarcinoma, which complicates clinical management in the absence of valid predictors. Within an international consortium investigating the genetics of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, we aimed to identify novel genetic risk variants for the development of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We did a meta-analysis of all genome-wide association studies of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma available in PubMed up to Feb 29, 2016; all patients were of European ancestry and disease was confirmed histopathologically. All participants were from four separate studies within Europe, North America, and Australia and were genotyped on high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Meta-analysis was done with a fixed-effects inverse variance-weighting approach and with a standard genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10 -8 ). We also did an association analysis after reweighting of loci with an approach that investigates annotation enrichment among genome-wide significant loci. Furthermore, the entire dataset was analysed with bioinformatics approaches-including functional annotation databases and gene-based and pathway-based methods-to identify pathophysiologically relevant cellular mechanisms. Our sample comprised 6167 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and 4112 individuals with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, in addition to 17 159 representative controls from four genome-wide association studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. We identified eight new risk loci associated with either Barrett's oesophagus or oesophageal adenocarcinoma, within or near the genes CFTR (rs17451754; p=4·8 × 10 -10 ), MSRA (rs17749155; p=5·2 × 10 -10 ), LINC00208

  2. Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: time for a new synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian J.; Li, Xiaohong; Galipeau, Patricia C.; Vaughan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The public health importance of Barrett’s oesophagus lies in its association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has risen at an alarming rate over the past four decades in many regions of the Western world and there are indications that the incidence of this disease is on the rise in Asian populations where it has been rare. Much has been learned of host and environmental risk factors that affect the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and data indicate that patients with Barrett’s oesophagus rarely develop oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Given that 95% of oesophageal adenocarcinoma arise in individuals without a prior diagnosis of Barrett’s oesophagus, what strategies can be used to reduce late diagnosis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma? PMID:20094044

  3. Predictors of Progression to High-Grade Dysplasia or Adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Matthew J.; Falk, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Article Synopsis The prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing dramatically. Barrett’s esophagus remains the most well established risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic factors that increase the risk of neoplastic progression to high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus. This article will review both risk and protective factors for neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:26021196

  4. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2018-05-15

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma.

  5. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma. PMID:29279503

  6. Primary non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a diethylstilbestrol exposed woman.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samit A; Sunde, Jan

    2014-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman with a history of in-utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, who had a prior hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomata and dysmenorrhea, presented for vaginal bleeding. Vaginal biopsies showed a non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma, and the patient was subsequently treated with radiation therapy. We present a case of primary vaginal non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma in a patient with in-utero DES exposure. Continued monitoring of older DES-exposed women for vaginal lesions is warranted because of reported cases of non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma and persistent risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Microenvironmental changes in the progression from adenocarcinoma in situ to minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and invasive lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masahito; Aokage, Keiju; Saruwatari, Kouichi; Hisakane, Kakeru; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Masato, Sugano; Kojima, Motohiro; Kuwata, Takeshi; Fujii, Satoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Sato, Yukitoshi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ishii, Genichiro

    2016-10-01

    Invasive lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) of the lung is thought to progress in a stepwise fashion from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA). The aim of this study was to investigate the microenvironmental changes during the development from AIS to LPA. Clinicopathological characteristics of AIS (n=51), MIA (n=59), LPA smaller than 3cm (LPA-S, n=113), and LPA larger than 3cm (LPA-L, n=47) were analyzed. We then evaluated the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules (E-cadherin, S100A4), invasion-related molecules (laminin-5, ezrin), stem-cell-related molecules (ALDH-1), and growth factor receptors (c-Met, EGFR) in cancer cells of each group (n=20). The number of tumor-promoting stromal cells, including podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (PDPN+ CAFs), CD204-positive tumor-associated macrophages (CD204+ TAMs), and CD34+ microvessel cells, were also analyzed. No significant difference in these characteristics was found between LPA-S and LPA-L. Laminin-5 expression in the non-invasive carcinoma component of MIA was significantly higher than that of AIS (p<0.001). During the progression from MIA to LPA-S, the expression level of laminin-5 in the invasive carcinoma component was significantly elevated (p<0.01). Moreover, tumor-promoting stromal cells were more frequently recruited in the invasive area of LPA-S (PDPN+ CAFs; p<0.05, CD204+ TAMs; p<0.001, CD34+ microvessel; p<0.05). Ezrin expression in the invasive carcinoma component of LPA-L was significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to LPA-S; however, the number of tumor-promoting stromal cells were not different between these two groups. Our current results indicated that microenvironmental molecular changes occur during the progression from MIA to LPA-S and suggested that this process may play an important role in disease progression from AIS to LPA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Viral expression associated with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in TCGA high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 20% of cancers worldwide are thought to be associated with microbial pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. The widely used methods of viral infection detection are usually limited to a few a priori suspected viruses in one cancer type. To our knowledge, there have not been many broad screening approaches to address this problem more comprehensively. Methods In this study, we performed a comprehensive screening for viruses in nine common cancers using a multistep computational approach. Tumor transcriptome and genome sequencing data were available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Nine hundred fifty eight primary tumors in nine common cancers with poor prognosis were screened against a non-redundant database of virus sequences. DNA sequences from normal matched tissue specimens were used as controls to test whether each virus is associated with tumors. Results We identified human papilloma virus type 18 (HPV-18) and four human herpes viruses (HHV) types 4, 5, 6B, and 8, also known as EBV, CMV, roseola virus, and KSHV, in colon, rectal, and stomach adenocarcinomas. In total, 59% of screened gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (GIA) were positive for at least one virus: 26% for EBV, 21% for CMV, 7% for HHV-6B, and 20% for HPV-18. Over 20% of tumors were co-infected with multiple viruses. Two viruses (EBV and CMV) were statistically significantly associated with colorectal cancers when compared to the matched healthy tissues from the same individuals (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). HPV-18 was not detected in DNA, and thus, no association testing was possible. Nevertheless, HPV-18 expression patterns suggest viral integration in the host genome, consistent with the potentially oncogenic nature of HPV-18 in colorectal adenocarcinomas. The estimated counts of viral copies were below one per cell for all identified viruses and approached the detection limit. Conclusions Our comprehensive screening for viruses in multiple cancer types using next

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation defines distinct subsets among small adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed

    Haneda, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Endo, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Eriko; Yukiue, Haruhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2006-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations are frequently detected in lung cancer, especially in adenocarcinoma, in females, and non-smoking patients. EGFR mutations are closely associated with clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) appearance is a good predictor of response to this agent. Noguchi et al. subdivided small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung into two groups. One group was characterized with tumor cell growth replacing the normal alveolar cells with varying degree of fibrosis (types A-C), and the other shows non-replacing and destructive growth (types D-F). Using probes for the 13 mutations which have been previously described, we have genotyped the EGFR gene status in surgically resected atypical adenomatous hyperplasias (AAH) and small peripheral adenocarcinomas up to 2 cm in diameter using TaqMan PCR assay. In 95 small-sized adenocarcinomas, the EGFR mutations were detected in 37 patients (38.9%), and no mutations were found in five AAHs. In small peripheral adenocarcinomas, EGFR mutations were found 47.1% of types A, B, or C adenocarcinomas; it was less frequent (16%) in Noguchi's types D, E or F adenocarcinomas. These results suggest that type D, F adenocarcinomas are not derived from the less malignant types A-C adenocarcinomas; rather, they have arisen de novo by distinct mechanisms. Although types A and B adenocarcinomas are almost 100% cured by surgery, some type C adenocarcinoma show lymph node metastasis and relapse. EGFR mutation analysis may help identify patients who will respond to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., gefitinib.

  10. Trefoil Factor 3 as a Novel Biomarker to Distinguish Between Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an

  11. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER + adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistentmore » with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44 High  subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44 Low  cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER +  cancers. In conclusion, this model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  12. Gallic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chiu, Ying-Ming; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsieh, Chin-Tung; Shieh, Dong-Chen; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tsay, Gregory J; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate worldwide. Current treatment of gastric cancer includes surgery and chemotherapy as the main modalities, but the potentially severe side-effects of chemotherapy present a considerable challenge. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found to exert an anticancer effect against a variety of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-cancer activity of Galla chinensis and its main component gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. MTT assay and cell death ELISA were used to determine the apoptotic effect of Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. To determine the pathway and relevant components by which gallic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated through, cells were transfected with siRNA (Fas, FasL, DR5, p53) using Lipofectamine 2000. Reults: Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid induced apoptosis of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gallic acid induced up-regulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in AGS cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced gallic acid-induced cell death. In addition, p53 was shown to be involved in gallic acid-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression as well as cell apoptosis in AGS cells. These results suggest that gallic acid has a potential role in the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Perioperative ECX chemotherapy in older adults with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tin, Aung Win; Smith, Eleanor; Hepworth, Rebecca; Walker, Julie; Wilson, David; Wadd, Nick

    2018-06-05

    Perioperative epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-FU or capecitabine (ECF/X) chemotherapy is recognised as a standard of care for patients with resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma; however, there is limited evidence regarding its use in older patients. The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of perioperative ECX chemotherapy in patients aged ≥70 years-old (group 1) compared with a younger population (group 2), and to assess differences in the histology of these groups. 212 patients in our centre were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for potentially resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma between February 2009 and January 2014. Seventy patients (33.0%) were aged ≥70 years-old and 142 (67.0%) patients were aged under 70 years-old. In group 1, 57 (81.4%) of patients underwent intended radical oesophagectomy or gastrectomy compared with 106 (74.6%) in group 2 (p = 0.271). The median overall survival was 35.3 months in group 1 and 30.1 months in group 2, respectively (p = 0.281). The rates of grade 3 to 4 non-haematological toxicity in groups 1 and 2 were 38.6% and 26.8%, respectively (p = 0.079). There was no difference in groups 1 and 2 regarding: pT stage, tumour grade, circumferential resection margin involvement, tumour regression grade, vascular invasion, lymphatic invasion and perineural invasion. 74.4% patients in group 2 were node-positive following chemotherapy and surgery compared with 48% in group 1 (p = 0.0015). Selected older adults with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma treated with perioperative ECX chemotherapy have similar overall survival and likelihood of having radical surgery as younger patients. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    DOE PAGES

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; ...

    2015-12-12

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER + adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistentmore » with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44 High  subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44 Low  cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER +  cancers. In conclusion, this model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  15. Femoral metastases from ovarian serous/endometroid adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beresford–Cleary, NJA; Mehdi, SA; Magowan, B

    2012-01-01

    Bony metastases from ovarian cancer are rare, tend to affect the axial skeleton and are associated with abdomino-pelvic disease. The median time interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and presentation of bony metastases is 44 months (1). We describe a rare case of high grade left ovarian serous / endometrioid adenocarcinoma presenting with a pathological right femoral fracture 4 weeks following diagnosis and optimal debulking of the ovarian tumour. Orthopaedic surgeons must be vigilant when planning treatment of fractures presenting in patients with a history of ovarian cancer. PMID:24960734

  16. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: why and when should it be resected?

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, D.; Johnson, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a common and dreadful disease with an extremely poor prognosis. In practice, only a few patients are cured but surgical resection, although feasible in less than 20% of patients, offers maximum prolongation of life and provides good palliation of symptoms. This can now be performed safely, even in elderly patients, in specialist units. Better radiological imaging and laparoscopy allow selection of resectable tumours effectively. All patient with pancreatic cancer should now be assessed for surgical resection and potentially suitable patients should be referred to a specialist team at an early stage. Images Figure PMID:9307737

  17. Non-invasive Characterization of the Histopathologic Features of Pulmonary Nodules of the Lung Adenocarcinoma Spectrum using Computer Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) – a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Fabien; Boland, Jennifer M.; Raghunath, Sushravya; Aubry, Marie Christine; Bartholmai, Brian J.; deAndrade, Mariza; Hartman, Thomas E.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Yang, Ping; Yi, Eunhee S.; Robb, Richard A.; Peikert, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum are characterized by distinctive morphological and radiological features and variable prognosis. Non-invasive high-resolution computed-tomography (HRCT)-based risk stratification tools are needed to individualize their management. Methods Radiological measurements of histopathologic tissue invasion were developed in a training set of 54 pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum and validated in 86 consecutively resected nodules. Nodules were isolated and characterized by computer-aided analysis and data were analyzed by Spearman correlation, sensitivity, specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values. Results Computer Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) can non-invasively characterize pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Unsupervised clustering analysis of HRCT data identified 9 unique exemplars representing the basic radiologic building blocks of these lesions. The exemplar distribution within each nodule correlated well with the proportion of histologic tissue invasion, Spearman R=0.87,p < 0.0001 and 0.89,p < 0.0001 for the training and the validation set, respectively. Clustering of the exemplars in three-dimensional space corresponding to tissue invasion and lepidic growth was used to develop a CANARY decision algorithm, which successfully categorized these pulmonary nodules as “aggressive” (invasive adenocarcinoma) or “indolent” (adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this approach for the detection of “aggressive” lesions were 95.4%, 96.8%, 95.4% and 96.8%, respectively in the training set and 98.7%, 63.6%, 94.9% and 87.5%, respectively in the validation set. Conclusion CANARY represents a promising tool to non-invasively risk stratify pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum. PMID:23486265

  18. l-Type Amino Acid Transporter-1 Overexpression and Melphalan Sensitivity in Barrett's Adenocarcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jules; Raoof, Duna A; Thomas, Dafydd G; Greenson, Joel K; Giordano, Thomas J; Robinson, Gregory S; Bourner, Maureen J; Bauer, Christopher T; Orringer, Mark B; Beer, David G

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) has been associated with tumor growth. Using cDNA microarrays, overexpression of LAT-1 was found in 87.5% (7/8) of esophageal adenocarcinomas relative to 12 Barrett's samples (33% metaplasia and 66% dysplasia) and was confirmed in 100% (28/28) of Barrett's adenocarcinomas by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry revealed LAT-1 staining in 37.5% (24/64) of esophageal adenocarcinomas on tissue microarray. LAT-1 also transports the amino acid-related chemotherapeutic agent, melphalan. Two esophageal adenocarcinoma and one esophageal squamous cell line, expressing LAT-1 on Western blot analysis, were sensitive to therapeutic doses of melphalan (P < .001). Simultaneous treatment with the competitive inhibitor, BCH [2-aminobicyclo-(2,1,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid], decreased sensitivity to melphalan (P < .05). In addition, confluent esophageal squamous cultures were less sensitive to melphalan (P < .001) and had a decrease in LAT-1 protein expression. Tumors from two esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines grown in nude mice retained LAT-1 mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that LAT-1 is highly expressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas and that Barrett's adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing LAT-1 are sensitive to melphalan. LAT-1 expression is also retained in cell lines grown in nude mice providing a model to evaluate melphalan as a chemotherapeutic agent against esophageal adenocarcinomas expressing LAT-1. PMID:15068672

  19. Update on the potential significance of psammoma bodies in lung adenocarcinoma from a modern perspective.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akio; Okudela, Koji; Matsumura, Mai; Hideaki, Mitsui; Arai, Hiromasa; Umeda, Shigeaki; Yamanaka, Shoji; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ohashi, Kenichi

    2018-03-01

    Psammoma bodies are concentrically lamellated microscopic structures made of calcium. They are commonly observed in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland and serous papillary adenocarcinomas of the ovary, but are also occasionally detected in lung adenocarcinomas. Only one study, published in 1972, has systematically described the significance of psammoma bodies in lung adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to update the significance of psammoma bodies in lung adenocarcinomas from a modern perspective. Psammoma bodies were detected in 7.2% (59/822) of the adenocarcinomas examined, among which the papillary (20.3%, 12/59) and acinar (44.1%, 26/59) histological subtypes, with the feature of a terminal respiratory unit (91.5%, 54/59), were dominant. Malignant potential (cell growth activity measured by Ki67 labelling, lymph node metastasis, and postoperative survival) did not significantly differ between adenocarcinomas with and without psammoma bodies. On the basis of cytogenetic features, adenocarcinomas with psammoma bodies were preferentially affected by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-targetable driver mutations [EGFR (69.8%, 37/53), ALK (13.2%, 7/53), and ROS1 (1.9%, 1/53)]. Multivariate analyses confirmed that psammoma bodies may constitute an independent predictor for these mutations, particularly EGFR and ALK mutations. Psammoma bodies may predict a favourable response of lung adenocarcinomas to TKIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P = 0.029) and 3.26 (P = 0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P = 0.001) and 3.72 (P = 0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

  1. ALK-rearranged pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Thai Patients: From diagnosis to treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Incharoen, Pimpin; Reungwetwattana, Thanyanan; Saowapa, Sakditad; Kamprerasart, Kaettipong; Pangpunyakulchai, Duangjai; Arsa, Lalida; Jinawath, Artit

    2016-05-03

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement is detected in 3% to 13% of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients, and these patients benefit from ALK inhibitors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the clinical and histological characteristics and the treatment outcomes of ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemistry (IHC) IHC, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methodologies. A total of 268 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients were screened for ALK expression by ALK IHC, which was confirmed by FISH and/or RT-PCR for ALK gene rearrangement. The treatment outcomes of ALK-rearranged patients were retrospectively reviewed. ALK gene rearrangement was identified in 26 cases (9.7%) with no EGFR co-mutation, and it showed significant associations with younger age, female sex and non-smoker status (p < 0.05). A cribriform growth pattern was identified as the dominant histologic feature, and a solid signet ring cell component was focally present in a minority of the cases. Among 12 ALK-rearranged patients with conventional treatment, seven cases in the early stage of disease were cured and alive, and five patients in the late stage of the disease progressed and died, with a median overall survival (OS) at 14 months. Of the 14 patients receiving crizotinib, all of them had clinical benefit from crizotinib treatment, with one patient having a complete response (CR), 12 patients having a partial response (PR) and one patient having stable disease (SD). On the cutoff date, six of 14 patients were continuing crizotinib treatment with a median time of response of 7.5 (3-13) months, while eight patients had disease progression, and five of them died with a median OS at 8 months. ALK gene rearrangement tended to occur in younger, non-smoking, female patients. ALK IHC is a reliable screening method to detect ALK gene rearrangement. Crizotinib therapy provided treatment benefit

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and prognosis of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma (minimal deviation adenocarcinoma or adenoma malignum) of the uterine corpus: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    HINO, MAYO; YAMAGUCHI, KEN; ABIKO, KAORU; YOSHIOKA, YUMIKO; HAMANISHI, JUNZO; KONDOH, EIJI; KOSHIYAMA, MASAFUMI; BABA, TSUKASA; MATSUMURA, NORIOMI; MINAMIGUCHI, SACHIKO; KIDO, AKI; KONISHI, IKUO

    2016-01-01

    Our group previously documented the first, very rare case of primary gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus. Although this type of endometrial cancer appears to be similar to the gastric-type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, its main symptoms, appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis have not been fully elucidated due to its rarity. We herein describe an additional case of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and review the relevant literature. The two cases at our institution (Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan) involved postmenopausal women with a primary complaint of abnormal genital bleeding. Microscopic examination of the hysterectomy specimens indicated a highly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma with a desmoplastic stromal reaction. Immunohistochemistry for HIK1083 and/or MUC6 was positive in both cases, suggesting a gastric phenotype. Both patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage, they relapsed or recurred immediately after adjuvant chemotherapy, and eventually succumbed to the disease. The main symptom of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix is watery discharge, whereas abnormal genital bleeding in addition to watery discharge is mainly observed in the mucinous type of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cystic cavities in the tumor are present on MRI in cases of endometrial origin, and prognosis is very poor due to resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine endometrium exhibits a clinical behavior that is similar to tumors originating from the uterine cervix, but is associated with distinguishing clinical symptoms. The incidence of gastric-type endometrial adenocarcinoma may be higher than expected. PMID:27123265

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and prognosis of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma (minimal deviation adenocarcinoma or adenoma malignum) of the uterine corpus: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Hino, Mayo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Abiko, Kaoru; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Hamanishi, Junzo; Kondoh, Eiji; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Baba, Tsukasa; Matsumura, Noriomi; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Kido, Aki; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-05-01

    Our group previously documented the first, very rare case of primary gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus. Although this type of endometrial cancer appears to be similar to the gastric-type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, its main symptoms, appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis have not been fully elucidated due to its rarity. We herein describe an additional case of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and review the relevant literature. The two cases at our institution (Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan) involved postmenopausal women with a primary complaint of abnormal genital bleeding. Microscopic examination of the hysterectomy specimens indicated a highly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma with a desmoplastic stromal reaction. Immunohistochemistry for HIK1083 and/or MUC6 was positive in both cases, suggesting a gastric phenotype. Both patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage, they relapsed or recurred immediately after adjuvant chemotherapy, and eventually succumbed to the disease. The main symptom of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix is watery discharge, whereas abnormal genital bleeding in addition to watery discharge is mainly observed in the mucinous type of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cystic cavities in the tumor are present on MRI in cases of endometrial origin, and prognosis is very poor due to resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine endometrium exhibits a clinical behavior that is similar to tumors originating from the uterine cervix, but is associated with distinguishing clinical symptoms. The incidence of gastric-type endometrial adenocarcinoma may be higher than expected.

  4. Barrett’s esophagus in 2016: From pathophysiology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Russo, Salvatore; Bertani, Lorenzo; Furnari, Manuele; Mokrowiecka, Anna; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo; Marchi, Santino

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal complications caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus (BE). BE is a premalignant condition with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The carcinogenic sequence may progress through several steps, from normal esophageal mucosa through BE to EAC. A recent advent of functional esophageal testing (particularly multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring) has helped to improve our knowledge about GERD pathophysiology, including its complications. Those findings (when properly confirmed) might help to predict BE neoplastic progression. Over the last few decades, the incidence of EAC has continued to rise in Western populations. However, only a minority of BE patients develop EAC, opening the debate regarding the cost-effectiveness of current screening/surveillance strategies. Thus, major efforts in clinical and research practice are focused on new methods for optimal risk assessment that can stratify BE patients at low or high risk of developing EAC, which should improve the cost effectiveness of screening/surveillance programs and consequently significantly affect health-care costs. Furthermore, the area of BE therapeutic management is rapidly evolving. Endoscopic eradication therapies have been shown to be effective, and new therapeutic options for BE and EAC have emerged. The aim of the present review article is to highlight the status of screening/surveillance programs and the current progress of BE therapy. Moreover, we discuss the recent introduction of novel esophageal pathophysiological exams that have improved the knowledge of the mechanisms linking GERD to BE. PMID:27158534

  5. Sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in males, smokers, and non-adenocarcinoma lung cancer in patients with EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhu; Chen, Hua-Jun; Yan, Hong-Hong; Yang, Jin-Ji; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Wu, Yi-Long

    2013-09-27

    The demographical/clinical characteristics of being Asian, having an adenocarcinoma, being female, and being a "never-smoker" are regarded as favorable predictors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with unknown EGFR gene status. In this study, we examined the effects of the supposedly unfavorable clinical variables in EGFR-mutant patients. In total, 159 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients' clinical features were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis of clinical characteristics was performed using the Cox and logistic regression methods. There were 90 females (56.6%), 112 never-smokers (70.4%), and 153 patients with adenocarcinomas (96.2%). All patients were treated with EGFR-TKI, and 52.8% received TKI in a first-line setting. The median PFS of patients receiving first-line TKI was similar, regardless of gender (males vs females: 9.1 vs 9.7 months, p=0.793), smoking status (never-smokers vs smokers: 9.9 vs 9.1 months, p=0.570), or histology (adenocarcinoma vs non-adenocarcinoma: 9.7 vs 9.2 months, p=0.644). OS curves of first-line TKI-treated patients were also not associated with gender (p=0.722), smoking status (p=0.579), or histology (p=0.480). Similar results of PFS and OS were obtained for patients who received TKI beyond first-line. Multivariate analysis indicated that none of these clinical factors was an independent predictor of survival. The supposedly 'favorable' clinical factors of female gender, non-smoking status, and adenocarcinoma were not independent predictive factors for PFS or OS in this population of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients.

  6. Impact on disease-free survival of adjuvant erlotinib or gefitinib in patients with resected lung adenocarcinomas that harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations

    PubMed Central

    Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Park, Bernard J.; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Ladanyi, Marc; Pao, William; D’Angelo, Sandra P.; Kris, Mark G.; Shen, Ronglai; Zheng, Junting; Azzoli, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and EGFR mutation derive clinical benefit from treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Whether treatment with TKI improves outcomes in patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma and EGFR mutation is unknown. Methods Data were analyzed from a surgical database of patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR exon 19 or 21 mutations. In a multivariate analysis, we evaluated the impact of treatment with adjuvant TKI. Results The cohort consists of 167 patients with completely resected stage I–III lung adenocarcinoma. 93 patients (56%) had exon 19 del, 74 patients (44%) had exon 21 mutations, 56 patients (33%) received perioperative TKI. In a multivariate analysis controlling for sex, stage, type of surgery and adjuvant platinum chemotherapy, the 2-year DFS was 89% for patients treated with adjuvant TKI compared with 72% in control group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28 to 1.03; p = 0.06). The 2-year OS was 96% with adjuvant EGFR TKI and 90% in the group that did not receive TKI (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.26 to 1.51; p = 0.296). Conclusions Compared to patients who did not receive adjuvant TKI, we observed a trend toward improvement in disease free survival among individuals with resected stages I–III lung adenocarcinomas harboring mutations in EGFR exons 19 or 21 who received these agents as adjuvant therapy. Based on these data, 320 patients are needed for a randomized trial to prospectively validate this DFS benefit. PMID:21150674

  7. Correlation of EGFR or KRAS mutation status with 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT scan in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takamochi, Kazuya; Mogushi, Kaoru; Kawaji, Hideya; Imashimizu, Kota; Fukui, Mariko; Oh, Shiaki; Itoh, Masayoshi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Ko, Weijey; Akeboshi, Masao; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality based on glucose metabolism. The correlation between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG PET scanning has not been fully elucidated. Correlations between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and clinicopathological factors including SUVmax were statistically analyzed in 734 surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma patients. Molecular causal relationships between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and glucose metabolism were then elucidated in 62 lung adenocarcinomas using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), a method to determine and quantify the transcription initiation activities of mRNA across the genome. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 334 (46%) and 83 (11%) of the 734 lung adenocarcinomas, respectively. The remaining 317 (43%) patients had wild-type tumors for both genes. EGFR mutations were more frequent in tumors with lower SUVmax. In contrast, no relationship was noted between KRAS mutation status and SUVmax. CAGE revealed that 4 genes associated with glucose metabolism (GPI, G6PD, PKM2, and GAPDH) and 5 associated with the cell cycle (ANLN, PTTG1, CIT, KPNA2, and CDC25A) were positively correlated with SUVmax, although expression levels were lower in EGFR-mutated than in wild-type tumors. No similar relationships were noted with KRAS mutations. EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas are biologically indolent with potentially lower levels of glucose metabolism than wild-type tumors. Several genes associated with glucose metabolism and the cell cycle were specifically down-regulated in EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas.

  8. Activated RET and ROS: two new driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Marc; Gardizi, Masyar; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Buettner, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Rearrangements of ROS1 and RET have been recently described as new driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma with a frequency of about 1% each. RET and ROS1 rearrangements both represent unique molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinoma with virtually no overlap with other known driver mutations described so far in lung adenocarcinoma. Specific clinicopathologic characteristics have been described and several multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitors have shown in vitro activity against NSCLC cells harbouring these genetic alterations. In addition, the MET/ALK/ROS inhibitor crizotinib has already shown impressive clinical activity in patients with advanced ROS1-positive lung cancer. Currently, several early proof of concept clinical trials are testing various kinase inhibitors in both molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Most probably, personalized treatment of these genetically defined new subsets of lung adenocarcinoma will be implemented in routine clinical care of lung cancer patients in the near future. PMID:25806222

  9. [In situ adenocarcinoma of the uterus cervix: difficulties of its cytohistological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tranbaloc, P

    2002-04-01

    In situ adenocarcinoma is regarded as the precursor of invasive adenocarcinoma. It is asymptomatic and early diagnosis relies solely on cytopathologist. It is usually discovered on a cone for squamous CIN. When diagnosis is made by biopsy, conisation is required to exclude invasive adenocarcinoma. Lesion is histologically characterised by epitheliomatous transformation of endocervical glands without invasion of the chorion. By the appearance of glandular cells, different histological varieties are described. They have no influence on the prognosis. Several benign lesions may mimic adenocarcinoma: tubal metaplasia, glandular atypia due to inflammation or irradiation, mesonephric remnants and microglandular hyperplasia. Precursor lesions (atypical hyperplasia, glandular dysplasia, CIGNI and II) are badly morphologically defined. Preferential location of in situ adenocarcinoma is the transformation zone. Because of this topography, if the surgical margins are disease free, conisation alone may be adequate therapy. HPV infection (mainly HPV 18) are incriminated in its pathogenesis.

  10. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Endometriosis of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han Moie; Lee, Sang Soo; Eom, Dae Woon; Kang, Gil Hyun; Yi, Sang Wook

    2009-01-01

    Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman. We describe here a patient with this condition and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. A 48-yr-old woman complaining of severe dysmenorrhea was referred for investigation of a pelvic mass. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy. Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma. PMID:19654969

  11. Proteomic alteration in gastic adenocarcinomas from Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Takahiro; Kadota, Yoshito; Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Tatano, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Naohiro; Okitsu, Hiroshi; Umemoto, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Takashi; Itoh, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    Background Gastric adenocarcinomas comprise one of the common types of cancers in Asian countries including Japan. Comprehensive protein profiling of paired surgical specimens of primary gastric adenocarcinomas and nontumor mucosae derived from Japanese patients was carried out by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-EP) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to establish gastric cancer-specific proteins as putative clinical biomarkers and molecular targets for chemotherapy. Results Relatively common alterations in protein expression were revealed in the tumor tissues. Increases in manganese dismutase and nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG-1 (HMG-1) were observed, while decreases in carbonic anhydrases I and II, glutatione-S-transferase and foveolin precursor (gastrokine-1) (FOV), an 18-kDa stomach-specific protein with putative tumor suppressor activity, were detected. RT-PCR analysis also revealed significant down-regulation of FOV mRNA expression in tumor tissues. Conclusion A possible pathological role for down-regulation of FOV in gastric carcinogenesis was demonstrated. Evaluation of the specific decreases in gene and protein expression of FOV in patients may be utilized as clinical biomarkers for effective diagnosis and assessment of gastric cancer. PMID:17187689

  12. Her2+ and b-HCG Producing Undifferentiated Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Eivaz-Mohammadi, Sahar; Tarar, Omer; Malik, Khurram; Syed, Amer K.

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old Hispanic female with a history of anemia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychosis was admitted for anemia associated with fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, night sweats, weight loss, and abdominal and lower back pain for the past two months. On routine management, she was found to have a positive serum b-HCG of 80.4 (0–5 mIU/mL) but the patient denied any sexual activity in her life. During her admission, U/S of the pelvis was noncontributory. CT angiogram of the chest was significant for prominent mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes, diffusely thickened stomach suggesting gastric malignancy with multiple hypoenhancing lesions in the liver and diffuse lytic lesions in the spine and sacrum suspicious for metastatic disease. The MRI of the abdomen confirmed the CT angiogram findings. After these findings, EGD was performed which showed lesions in the antrum, body of the stomach, fundus, and cardia on the lesser curvature of the stomach body correlating with carcinoma. The biopsy was positive for Her2, b-HCG producing poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent one successful round of chemotherapy with Taxotene, Cisplatin, and 5-FU for Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:25349615

  13. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota).

    PubMed

    Baron, H R; Allavena, R; Melville, L M; Doneley, R J T

    2014-10-01

    A 5-year-old captive male diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota) was presented with a 1-month history of regurgitation and anorexia and discrete coelomic distention. Physical examination revealed a firm, immobile mass at approximately two-thirds of the snout-vent length from the front of the head. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate biopsy of the mass in the region of the stomach showed necrosis with bacterial infiltration and possibly neoplastic changes. A gastroscopy was conducted, but showed grossly normal gastric mucosa, confirmed by biopsy. On exploratory coeliotomy, it was confirmed the mass involved most of the stomach wall and occluded the gastric lumen. The mass was completely excised and based on histopathology, a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was made. The snake was found dead 12 h postoperatively, but no specific cause of death was found on postmortem examination. Most cases of adenocarcinoma in snakes go undiagnosed. This case report illustrates that the architecture of gastric masses may lead to false-negative gastric biopsy results in snakes with neoplasia. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Uterine adenocarcinoma in mice treated neonatally with genistein.

    PubMed

    Newbold, R R; Banks, E P; Bullock, B; Jefferson, W N

    2001-06-01

    The developing fetus is uniquely sensitive to perturbation with estrogenic chemicals. The carcinogenic effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is the classic example. Because phytoestrogen use in nutritional and pharmaceutical applications for infants and children is increasing, we investigated the carcinogenic potential of genistein, a naturally occurring plant estrogen in soy, in an experimental animal model previously reported to result in a high incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma after neonatal DES exposure. Outbred female CD-1 mice were treated on days 1-5 with equivalent estrogenic doses of DES (0.001 mg/kg/day) or genistein (50 mg/kg/day). At 18 months, the incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma was 35% for genistein and 31% for DES. These data suggest that genistein is carcinogenic if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation. Thus, the use of soy-based infant formulas in the absence of medical necessity and the marketing of soy products designed to appeal to children should be closely examined.

  15. Molecular pathogenesis of precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Biankin, Andrew V; Kench, James G; Dijkman, Floriaan P; Biankin, Sandra A; Henshall, Susan M

    2003-02-01

    Precursor lesions are assuming greater importance in the study of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. As pancreatic cancer is almost universally fatal due to late clinical presentation and biological aggressiveness, characterisation of its precursor lesions may create scope for early diagnosis and improved outcome with conventional therapies as well as the development of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous tumours (IPMTs) are thought to be precursor lesions of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Recent work has focused on the molecular aberrations associated with these lesions leading to the formulation of a progression model for pancreatic cancer. Progressive histopathological changes along the progression model are associated with aberrations of cell cycle regulatory and growth factor signalling molecules that occur in pancreatic cancer at high frequency and are common to many cancers. Characterisation of these molecular aberrations provides scope for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies that will ultimately impact on the outcome for people who develop pancreatic cancer.

  16. Endoscopic therapy in early adenocarcinomas (Barrett's cancer) of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Mate; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of early esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing significantly in recent decades. Prognosis depends greatly on the choice of treatment. Early cancers can be treated by endoscopic resection, whereas advanced carcinomas have to be sent for surgery. Esophageal resection is associated with high perioperative mortality (1-5%) even in specialized centers. Early diagnosis enables curative endoscopic treatment option. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a familial risk for esophageal cancer should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. High-definition endoscopes have been developed with technical add-on that helps endoscopists to find fine irregularities in the esophageal mucosa, but interpreting the findings remains challenging. In this review we discussed novel and old diagnostic procedures and their values, as well as our own recommendations and those of the authors discussed for the diagnosis and treatment of early Barrett's carcinoma. Endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice in early esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is mandatory to perform a subsequent ablation of all residual Barrett's mucosa to avoid metachronous lesions. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Expression of MUC1 and MUC4 in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Sun-Ju; Hur, Bang

    2012-10-01

    Recent reports have indicated that overexpression of mucin (MUC) 1 and/or MUC4 correlates with the occurrence and progression of extra-hepatobiliary malignancy. In this study, we investigated the expression of MUC1 and MUC4 and their prognostic significance in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We examined 54 surgical gallbladder adenocarcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry for MUC1 and MUC4 expression. Staining was evaluated as a sum score of extent and intensity, dividing the samples into low and high expression groups. The low expression group for both MUC1 and MUC4 was 10 samples (18.5%), and the high expression group was 44 samples (81.5%). High MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with more differentiated tumors (p=0.033), whereas high expression of MUC4 correlated with negative nodal status (p=0.012). Other pathological features were not correlated with MUC expression. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that neither MUC1 nor MUC4 expression correlated with survival. Although there were some correlations found, a prognostic role for either MUC1 or MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma was not identified in this study. Further investigation is required.

  18. Prognostic significance of tumor-associated macrophages in endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Kirsten; Ayub, Tiyasha H; Weber, Sarah K; Zivanovic, Oliver; Abramian, Alina; Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Mallmann, Michael R; Kaiser, Christina; Serçe, Nuran Bektas; Kuhn, Walther; Rudlowski, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies worldwide and in stages confined to the uterus considered to have an excellent prognosis. However, in advanced or recurrent cases when surgery fails to achieve disease control other treatment options are less effective. Thus, new therapeutic avenues are needed. To provide the rationale for the use of novel agents that target immune checkpoints 163 type I endometrial cancer samples were immunohistochemically screened for the presence of CD163(+) tumor-associated macrophages and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Further, a D2-40-based evaluation of lymph vessel density and lymphovascular space invasion was carried out. Correlation analysis with clinicopathological parameters was performed; Kaplan-Meier curves were generated; multivariate analysis was undertaken as appropriate. A substantial amount of tumor-associated macrophages and regulatory T cells was detected in all specimens characterizing endometrial cancer as an immunogenic tumor. However, only the increased infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages was proportionally associated with advanced FIGO stages, high tumor grade, increased lymph vessel density, lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis. Thus, the presence of tumor-associated macrophages indicates aggressive tumor behavior and appeared to be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival. Our results make future therapeutic approaches that target tumor-associated macrophages reasonable to improve the outcome of women with advanced or recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma trypsin in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Besterman, H S; Mallinson, C N; Pera, A; Redshaw, M R; Wood, T P; Bloom, S R

    1979-10-01

    We have used a simple and precise radioimmunoassay to measure trypsin in human plasma. Fasting plasma trypsin concentrations were extremely low in patients with chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhoea (5 +/- 2 ng/ml) when compared to healthy controls (86 +/- 7 ng/ml, p less than 0.001). In patients with chronic pancreatitis but no steatorrhoea basal plasma trypsin levels were similar to those of the normal controls (99 +/- 25 ng/ml). A small but significant postprandial rise in plasma trypsin concentrations was observed in normal subjects (mean increment 15 +/- 4%, p less than 0.005, paired t test) but was absent in patients with chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhoea. In contrast to exocrine deficient chronic pancreatitis, other malabsorptive conditions associated with steatorrhoea (active coeliac disease and acute tropical sprue) demonstrated mean fasting trypsin concentrations similar to controls. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas had basal trypsin concentrations similar to healthy subjects as did patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, rectum, brochus, and breast. In some cases measurement of plasma trypsin may be of help in the differential diagnosis of steatorrhoea.

  20. Sulforaphane‐induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC‐05

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Huang, Yun‐chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan‐qiong; Fan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non‐smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane‐induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL‐05) to explore the value of sulforaphane in lung cancer prevention and treatment. Methods Cell growth inhibition was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay; cell morphology and apoptosis were observed under transmission electron microscope; cell cycle and apoptosis rates were detected using flow cytometry; B‐cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‐2) and Bcl‐2‐like protein 4 (Bax) messenger RNA expression were determined by quantitative PCR; and p53, p73, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, Bcl‐2, and caspase‐9 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. Results Sulforaphane inhibited XWLC‐05 cell growth with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 4.04, 3.38, and 3.02 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Sulforaphane affected the XWLC‐05 cell cycle as cells accumulated in the G2/M phase. The proportion of apoptotic cells observed was 27.6%. Compared with the control, the sulforaphane group showed decreased Bcl‐2 and p53 expression, and significantly increased p73, PUMA, Bax, and caspase‐9 protein expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion Sulforaphane induces Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis. Its possible mechanism may involve the upregulation of p73 expression and its effector target genes PUMA and Bax in lung cancer cells, downregulation of the anti‐apoptotic gene B cl ‐2, and activation of caspase‐9. It may also involve downregulation of the mutant p53 protein. PMID:27878984

  1. Investigation of Metabolomic Blood Biomarkers for Detection of Adenocarcinoma Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Johannes F.; Kim, Kyoungmi; DeFelice, Brian C.; Taylor, Sandra L.; Gandara, David R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Cooke, David T.; Fiehn, Oliver; Kelly, Karen; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Untargeted metabolomics was utilized in case control studies of adenocarcinoma (ADC) lung cancer in order to develop and test metabolite classifiers in serum and plasma as potential biomarkers for diagnosing lung cancer. Methods Serum and plasma were collected and used in two independent case-control studies (ADC1 and ADC2). Controls were frequency matched for gender, age and smoking history. There were 52 ADC cases and 31 controls in ADC1 and 43 ADC cases and 43 controls in ADC2. Metabolomics was conducted using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Differential analysis was performed on ADC1 and the top candidates (FDR < 0.05) for serum and plasma used to develop individual and multiplex-classifiers that were then tested on an independent set of serum and plasma samples (ADC2). Results Aspartate provided the best accuracy (81.4%) for an individual metabolite classifier in serum whereas pyrophosphate had the best accuracy (77.9%) in plasma when independently tested. Multiplex classifiers of either 2 or 4 serum metabolites had an accuracy of 72.7% when independently tested. For plasma, a multi-metabolite classifier consisting of 8 metabolites gave an accuracy of 77.3% when independently tested. Comparison of overall diagnostic performance between the two blood matrices yielded similar performances. However, serum is most ideal given higher sensitivity for low abundant metabolites. Conclusion This study shows the potential of metabolite-based diagnostic tests for detection of lung adenocarcinoma. Further validation in a larger pool of samples is warranted. Impact These biomarkers could improve early detection and diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:26282632

  2. COX-2 overexpression in resected pancreatic head adenocarcinomas correlates with favourable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in oncogenesis and progression of adenocarcinomas of the pancreatic head. The data on the prognostic importance of COX expression in these tumours is inconsistent and conflicting. We evaluated how COX-2 overexpression affected overall postoperative survival in pancreatic head adenocarcinomas. Methods The study included 230 consecutive pancreatoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer (PC, n = 92), ampullary cancer (AC, n = 62) and distal bile duct cancer (DBC, n = 76). COX-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Associations between COX-2 expression and histopathologic variables including degree of differentiation, histopathologic type of differentiation (pancreatobiliary vs. intestinal) and lymph node ratio (LNR) were evaluated. Unadjusted and adjusted survival analysis was performed. Results COX-2 staining was positive in 71% of PC, 77% in AC and 72% in DBC. Irrespective of tumour origin, overall patient survival was more favourable in patients with COX-2 positive tumours than COX-2 negative (p = 0.043 in PC, p = 0.011 in AC, p = 0.06 in DBC). In tumours of pancreatobiliary type of histopathological differentiation, COX-2 expression did not significantly affect overall patient survival. In AC with intestinal differentiation COX-2 expression significantly predicted favourable survival (p = 0.003). In PC, COX-2 expression was significantly associated with high degree of differentiation (p = 0.002). COX-2 and LNR independently predicted good prognosis in a multivariate model. Conclusions COX-2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, ampullary cancer and distal bile duct cancer and confers a survival benefit in all three cancer types. In pancreatic cancer, COX-2 overexpression is significantly associated with the degree of differentiation and independently predicts a favourable prognosis. PMID:24950702

  3. Role of Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy in Adenocarcinomas of the Ampulla of Vater

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Sunil; Rana, Vishal; Evans, Douglas B.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of ampullary cancers remains undefined. We retrospectively compared treatment outcomes in patients treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy alone versus those who received additional adjuvant CRT. Methods and Materials: Between May 1990 and January 2006, 54 of 96 patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma who underwent potentially curative pancreaticoduodenectomy also received adjuvant CRT. The median preoperative radiation dose was 45 Gy (range, 30-50.4 Gy) and median postoperative dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy included primarily 5-fluorouracil (52%) and capecitabine (43%). Median follow-up was 31 months. Univariate and multivariate statistical methodologies weremore » used to determine significant prognostic factors for local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS). Results: Actuarial 5-year LC, DC, and OS were 77%, 69%, and 64%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, gender, race/ethnicity, tumor grade, use of adjuvant treatment, and sequencing of adjuvant therapy were not significantly associated with LC, DC, or OS. However, on univariate analysis, T3/T4 tumor stage was prognostic for poorer LC and OS (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively); node-positive disease was prognostic for poorer LC (p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, T3/T4 tumor stage was independently prognostic for decreased OS (p = 0.002). Among these patients (n = 34), those who received adjuvant CRT had a trend toward improved OS (median, 35.2 vs. 16.5 months; p = 0.06). Conclusions: Ampullary cancers have a distinctly better treatment outcome than pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Higher primary tumor stage (T3/T4), an independent adverse risk factor for poorer treatment outcomes, may warrant the addition of adjuvant CRT to pancreaticoduodenectomy.« less

  4. Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Elderly Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, David P.; Hsu, Charles C.; Wang Jingya

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients {>=}75 years of age. Methods: The study group of 655 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital over a 12-year period (8/30/1993 to 2/28/2005). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, intraoperative data, pathology data, and patient outcomes were collected and analyzed by adjuvant treatment status and age {>=}75 years. Cox proportional hazards analysis determined clinical predictors of mortality and morbidity. Results: We identified 166 of 655 (25.3%) patients were {>=}75 years of age and 489 of 655 patients (74.7%) were <75 years of age.more » Forty-nine patients in the elderly group (29.5%) received adjuvant CRT. For elderly patients, node-positive metastases (p = 0.008), poor/anaplastic differentiation (p = 0.012), and undergoing a total pancreatectomy (p = 0.010) predicted poor survival. The 2-year survival for elderly patients receiving adjuvant therapy was improved compared with surgery alone (49.0% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.013); however, 5-year survival was similar (11.7% vs. 19.8%, respectively, p = 0.310). After adjusting for major confounders, adjuvant therapy in elderly patients had a protective effect with respect to 2-year survival (relative risk [RR] 0.58, p = 0.044), but not 5-year survival (RR 0.80, p = 0.258). Among the nonelderly, CRT was significantly associated with 2-year survival (RR 0.60, p < 0.001) and 5-year survival (RR 0.69, p < 0.001), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy after PD is significantly associated with increased 2-year but not 5-year survival in elderly patients. Additional studies are needed to select which elderly patients are likely to benefit from adjuvant CRT.« less

  5. P16-positive continuous minimal deviation adenocarcinoma and gastric type adenocarcinoma in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Xia; Kure, Shoko; Ishino, Kousuke; Kurose, Keisuke; Yoneyama, Koichi; Wada, Ryuichi; Naito, Zenya

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) in a 33-year-old female patient with synchronous uterine cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and gastric type adenocarcinoma (GTA). The patient was diagnosed with PJS at the age of 10. At the time of consultation, she complained of watery discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed a poorly circumscribed mass in the uterine cervix. Histologically, both MDA and GTA components, as well as their transitional area, were observed. Both components were diffusely positive for MUC6, CK7 and, robustly, for p16. Moreover, the components were negative for ER, PgR and CEA, while HIK1083 and CK20 positive cells were found focally. Ki-67 labeling index in the MDA component was 5% while that in the GTA component was 50%. This case of GTA accompanied by MDA in a patient with PJS is distinct from the single previously-reported comparable case of which we are aware, with respect to the overexpression of p16 protein, an event considered rare in these tumors, and the continuity between the MDA and GTA components. This continuity favors the hypothesis that GTA arises from the dedifferentiation of MDA.

  6. P16-positive continuous minimal deviation adenocarcinoma and gastric type adenocarcinoma in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei-Xia; Kure, Shoko; Ishino, Kousuke; Kurose, Keisuke; Yoneyama, Koichi; Wada, Ryuichi; Naito, Zenya

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) in a 33-year-old female patient with synchronous uterine cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and gastric type adenocarcinoma (GTA). The patient was diagnosed with PJS at the age of 10. At the time of consultation, she complained of watery discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed a poorly circumscribed mass in the uterine cervix. Histologically, both MDA and GTA components, as well as their transitional area, were observed. Both components were diffusely positive for MUC6, CK7 and, robustly, for p16. Moreover, the components were negative for ER, PgR and CEA, while HIK1083 and CK20 positive cells were found focally. Ki-67 labeling index in the MDA component was 5% while that in the GTA component was 50%. This case of GTA accompanied by MDA in a patient with PJS is distinct from the single previously-reported comparable case of which we are aware, with respect to the overexpression of p16 protein, an event considered rare in these tumors, and the continuity between the MDA and GTA components. This continuity favors the hypothesis that GTA arises from the dedifferentiation of MDA. PMID:26191312

  7. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion status in minute (minimal) prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Toubaji, Antoun; Haffner, Michael; Isaacs, William B; A Platz, Elizabeth; Meeker, Alan K; Demarzo, Angelo M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-11-01

    Minute prostatic adenocarcinomas are considered to be of insufficient virulence. Given recent suggestions of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion association with aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma, we evaluated the incidence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute prostatic adenocarcinomas. A total of 45 consecutive prostatectomies with minute adenocarcinoma were used for tissue microarray construction. A total of 63 consecutive non-minimal, Gleason Score 6 tumors, from a separate PSA Era prostatectomy tissue microarray, were used for comparison. FISH was carried out using ERG break-apart probes. Tumors were assessed for fusion by deletion (Edel) or split (Esplit), duplicated fusions and low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus. Minute adenocarcinomas: Fusion was evaluable in 32/45 tumors (71%). Fifteen out of 32 (47%) tumors were positive for fusion. Six (19%) were of the Edel class and 7 (22%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT2): Fusion was identified in 20/30 tumors (67%). Four (13%) were of Edel class and 5 (17%) were combined Edel+Esplit. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 5 (16%) tumors. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT3): Fusion was identified in 19/33 (58%). Fusion was due to a deletion in 6 (18%) tumors. Seven tumors (21%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. One tumor showed Esplit alone. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 3 (9%) cases. The incidence of duplicated fusions was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas (13 vs 0%; P=0.03). A trend for higher incidence of low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus without fusion was noted in non-minute adenocarcinomas (10 vs 0%; P=0.07). We found a TMPRSS2-ERG fusion rate of 47% in minute adenocarcinomas. The latter is not significantly different from that of grade matched non-minute adenocarcinomas. The incidence of duplicated fusion was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas. Our finding of comparable rate of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute adenocarcinomas may argue

  8. The pathological features of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia-associated pulmonary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoko; Okudela, Koji; Matsumura, Mai; Omori, Takahiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Sekine, Akimasa; Woo, Tetsukan; Umeda, Shigeaki; Takemura, Tamiko; Mitsui, Hideaki; Suzuki, Takehisa; Tateishi, Yoko; Iwasawa, Tae; Arai, Hiromasa; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ogura, Takashi; Kameda, Yoichi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ohashi, Kenich

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the pathological features of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP)-associated pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Surgically resected adenocarcinomas associated with IIP (the IIP group) and adenocarcinomas without IIP (the non-IIP group) were subjected to analysis. Adenocarcinomas in the IIP group were subdivided into two groups: one group included tumours connected to bronchiolar metaplasia in honeycomb lesions (the H-IIP group), and the other included tumours unrelated to honeycomb lesions (the NH-IIP group). Histomorphological appearance and immunohistochemical expression were compared among the H-IIP group, the NH-IIP group, and the non-IIP group. Most of the tumour cells in the H-IIP group had a tall, columnar shape that showed similar features to proximal bronchial epithelium, whereas tumour cells in the NH-IIP group and the non-IIP group had a club-like shape that showed similar features to respiratory bronchiolar/alveolar epithelium. Adenocarcinomas in the H-IIP group tended to be negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and positive for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α). The frequency of EGFR mutations was significantly lower in adenocarcinomas in the H-IIP group, although the frequencies of KRAS and ALK mutations did not differ among the three groups. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia-associated pulmonary adenocarcinomas, especially those arising from honeycomb lesions, have distinct pathological features. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Computed tomographic features of adenocarcinoma compared to malignant lymphoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Chamadol, Nittaya; Wongwiwatchai, Jitraporn; Wachirakowit, Tharinee; Pairojkul, Chawalit

    2011-11-01

    To compare the CT findings of adenocarcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the stomach. The authors retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic images of 21 patients who received a definite pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma or malignant lymphoma of the stomach. The images were taken at Srinagarind Hospital between January 2006 and February 2009. Seventeen patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and four with malignant gastric lymphoma were included in the present study. The pattern of involvement, the location of lesion, the perigastric fat plane, the perigastric lymphadenopathy and the extension of disease on CT images were evaluated and analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. There was a statistically significant difference between gastric adenocarcinoma and malignant gastric lymphoma in the pattern of involvement of disease (p = 0.010), the perigastric fat plane (p = 0.002) and the location of disease (p = 0.008). By contrast, there was no respective statistically significant difference in the perigastric lymphadenopathy (p = 0.950) and the extension of disease (p = 0.175) in between gastric adenocarcinoma and malignant gastric lymphoma. The CT findings helpful for differentiating gastric adenocarcinoma from malignant gastric lymphoma are the pattern of involvement, the perigastric fat plane, and the location of lesion. Localized involvement of the lesion, abnormal perigastric fat plane and location involving one region of the stomach tend to indicate gastric adenocarcinoma; while diffused involvement of the lesion, preserved perigastric fat plane and location involving more than one region of the stomach tend to indicate malignant gastric lymphoma.

  10. F-prostanoid receptor regulation of fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sales, Kurt J; Boddy, Sheila C; Williams, Alistair R W; Anderson, Richard A; Jabbour, Henry N

    2007-08-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) is a potent bioactive lipid in the female reproductive tract, and exerts its function after coupling with its heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptor [F-series-prostanoid (FP) receptor] to initiate cell signaling and target gene transcription. In the present study, we found elevated expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2, FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), and FP receptor, colocalized within the neoplastic epithelial cells of endometrial adenocarcinomas. We investigated a role for PGF(2alpha)-FP receptor interaction in modulating FGF2 expression and signaling using an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line stably expressing the FP receptor to the levels detected in endometrial adenocarcinomas (FPS cells) and endometrial adenocarcinoma tissue explants. PGF(2alpha)-FP receptor activation rapidly induced FGF2 mRNA expression, and elevated FGF2 protein expression and secretion into the culture medium in FPS cells and endometrial adenocarcinoma explants. The effect of PGF(2alpha) on the expression and secretion of FGF2 could be abolished by treatment of FPS cells and endometrial tissues with an FP receptor antagonist (AL8810) and inhibitor of ERK (PD98059). Furthermore, we have shown that FGF2 can promote the expression of FGF2 and cyclooxygenase-2, and enhance proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via the FGFR1 and ERK pathways, thereby establishing a positive feedback loop to regulate neoplastic epithelial cell function in endometrial adenocarcinomas.

  11. Elevated expression of WWP2 in human lung adenocarcinoma and its effect on migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui; He, Yao; Chen, Shanshan

    Lung cancer has been a hot area of research because of its high incidence and mortality. In this study, WWP2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is proposed to be an oncoprotein contributing to lung tumorigenesis. We attempted to determine if WWP2 gene expression is correlated with the development of human lung adenocarcinoma. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression of WWP2 in 65 paired lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal lung tissues. We found that WWP2 expression was elevated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and was correlated with the tumor differentiation stage, TNM stage and presence of lymph nodemore » metastasis. We performed CCK-8 and colony formation assays and found that down-regulation of WWP2 inhibited proliferation in A549 and SPC-A-1 cells. A wound healing assay and trans-well invasion assays showed that down-regulation of WWP2 inhibited the migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. It could be predicted from these data that elevated expression of WWP2 may play a role in facilitating the development of lung adenocarcinoma. - Highlights: • Expression of WWP2 is firstly reported in human lung adenocarcinoma. • Function of WWP2 is firstly explored in lung adenocarcinoma cells.« less

  12. The Significance of MMP-1 in EGFR-TKI-Resistant Lung Adenocarcinoma: Potential for Therapeutic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryoko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Naoya; Inoue, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Hata, Shuko; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Sasano, Hironobu

    2018-02-18

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) resistance is one of the most important problems in lung cancer therapy. Lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-TKI resistance was reported to have higher abilities of invasion and migration than cancers sensitive to EGFR-TKI, but the function of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has not been explored in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. This study aims to clarify the significance of MMP-1 in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. From the results of in vitro studies of migration and invasion assays using EGFR-TKI-sensitive and -resistant cell lines and phosphorylation antibody arrays using EGF and rapamycin, we first demonstrate that overexpression of MMP-1, which might follow activation of a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, plays an important role in the migration and invasion abilities of EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. Additionally, immunohistochemical studies using 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma demonstrate that high expression of MMP-1 is significantly correlated with poor prognosis and factors such as smoking history and the subtype of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. These are consistent with the results of this in vitro study. To conclude, this study provides insights into the development of a possible alternative therapy manipulating MMP-1 and the mTOR signaling pathway in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma.

  13. Oestrogen receptor-mediated expression of Olfactomedin 4 regulates the progression of endometrial adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Chao; Liu, Xubin; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Zheng; Xia, Meng; Wang, Liantang; Chen, Shangwu; Yu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common tumour of the female genital tract in developed countries, and oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. When we used bioinformatics tools to search for the genes contributing to gynecological cancers, the expression of Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) was found by digital differential display to be associated with differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Aberrant expression of OLFM4 has been primarily reported in tumours of the digestive system. The mechanism of OLFM4 in tumuorigenesis is elusive. We investigated OLFM4 expression in endometrium, analysed the association of OLFM4 with ER signalling in endometrial adenocarcinoma, and examined the roles of OLFM4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Expression of OLFM4 was increased during endometrial carcinogenesis, linked to the differentiation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and positively related to the expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor. Moreover, ERα-mediated signalling regulated expression of OLFM4, and knockdown of OLFM4 enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells. Down-regulation of OLFM4 was associated with decreased cumulative survival rate of patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Our data suggested that impairment of ERα signal-mediated OLFM4 expression promoted the malignant progression of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which may have significance for the therapy of this carcinoma. PMID:24495253

  14. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kai, E-mail: gk161@163.com; Department of Respiration, 161th Hospital, PLA, Wuhan 430015; Jin, Faguang, E-mail: jinfag@fmmu.edu.cn

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5more » also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.« less

  15. Noninvasive Computed Tomography-based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2015-09-15

    Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas.

  16. Cytomorphological features of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinomas: psammoma bodies and signet ring cells.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Fresia; Crapanzano, John P; Mansukhani, Mahesh M; Bulman, William A; Saqi, Anjali

    2015-03-01

    Correlation between histology and genotype has been described in lung adenocarcinomas. For example, studies have demonstrated that adenocarcinomas with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement may have mucinous features. The objective of the current study was to determine whether a similar association can be identified in cytological specimens. A retrospective search for ALK-rearranged cytopathology (CP) and surgical pathology (SP) lung carcinomas was conducted. Additional ALK-negative (-) lung adenocarcinomas served as controls. For CP and SP cases, the clinical data (i.e., age, sex, and smoking history), architecture, nuclear features, presence of mucin-containing cells (including signet ring cells), and any additional salient characteristics were evaluated. The search yielded 20 ALK-positive (+) adenocarcinomas. Compared with patients with ALK(-) lung adenocarcinomas (33 patients; 12 with epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-mutation, 11 with Kristen rat sarcoma [KRAS]-mutation, and 10 wild-type adenocarcinomas), patients with ALK(+) adenocarcinoma presented at a younger age; and there was no correlation noted with sex or smoking status. The most common histological pattern in SP was papillary/micropapillary. Mucinous features were associated with ALK rearrangement in SP specimens. Signet ring cells and psammoma bodies were evident in and significantly associated with ALK(+) SP and CP specimens. However, psammoma bodies were observed in rare adenocarcinomas with an EGFR mutation. Both the ALK(+) and ALK(-) groups had mostly high nuclear grade. Salient features, including signet ring cells and psammoma bodies, were found to be significantly associated with ALK(+) lung adenocarcinomas and are identifiable on CP specimens. Recognizing these may be especially helpful in the molecular triage of scant CP samples. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. Prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of ALK fusion subtypes in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Difan; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Yunjian; Cheng, Xinghua; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Hang; Gong, Ranxia; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Sun, Yihua; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-04-01

    We performed this retrospective study to have a comprehensive investigation of the clinicopathological characteristics of ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese populations. We screened 1407 patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma from October 2007 to May 2013. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed to detect ALK fusion genes, with validation of positive results using immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected to assess prognosis in ALK fusion-positive patients. Of 1407 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, there were 74 (5.3 %) ALK fusion-positive patients. Patients harboring ALK fusion were significantly younger (56.0 years vs. 59.8 years p = 0.002) and were more likely to have advanced stages (stage III or stage IV) (OR 1.761; 95 % CI 1.10-2.82, p = 0.017). Lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma was rarely found in ALK fusion patients (2.7 vs. 13.5 % p = 0.025), while IMA (invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma) predominant adenocarcinoma was more frequently found (21.6 vs. 5.0 % p < 0.001). ALK fusion was neither a risk factor nor protective factor in relapse-free survival and overall survival. Male, current smoker, and EML4-ALK variant 3 indicated poor prognosis among ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas. ALK fusion was detected in 5.3 % (74/1407) of the Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma. ALK fusion defines a molecular subset of lung adenocarcinoma with unique clinicopathological characteristics. Different ALK fusion variants determine distinct prognoses.

  18. Intraepithelial G3 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium after tamoxifen treatment.

    PubMed

    Marchesoni, Diego; Driul, L; Mozzanega, B; Nardelli, G B; Parenti, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a case of endometrial carcinoma observed in a post-menopausal patient who was treated with tamoxifen for 5 years after a mastectomy for cancer. She came to our department because of vaginal bleeding 2 years after the end of tamoxifen treatment. She underwent hysteroscopy and a D and C. A polypoid endometrium completely filled the uterine cavity and was carefully removed by curettage; histology showed a highly undifferentiated neoplasia with a component of serous adenocarcinoma, which was likely to originate from endometrial polyps. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, but no residual tumor was found in the uterus or in the tubes, ovary, or pelvic nodes, in spite of its low differentiation grade and high potential aggressiveness, and even though the patient was already symptomatic. Two years after surgery the patient is disease free, which is consistent with the evaluation of the surgical specimen, but unusual in poorly differentiated neoplasms.

  19. Hypertrophic gastropathy with gastric adenocarcinoma: Menetrier's disease and lymphocytic gastritis?

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, J F; Flejou, J F; Amouyal, G; Gayet, B; Molas, G; Henin, D; Potet, F

    1991-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis is a form of gastric inflammation characterised by a pronounced increase in lymphocytes in gastric surface and foveolar epithelium. Lymphocytic gastritis is often associated with endoscopic evidence of 'varioliform gastritis'. Lymphocytic gastritis has recently been reported to be associated with other forms of hypertrophic gastropathies. We present a case of hypertrophic gastropathy with gastric adenocarcinoma, with both Menetrier's disease and lymphocyte gastritis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the intraepithelial lymphocytes were predominantly alpha/beta T cells as in the normal stomach and not gamma/delta T cells as in coeliac sprue. This case together with the six recently published cases suggests that Menetrier's disease and lymphocytic gastritis may be part of the same disease spectrum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1773969

  20. Radiosensitive orbital metastasis as presentation of occult colonic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ludmir, Ethan B; McCall, Shannon J; Czito, Brian G; Palta, Manisha

    2014-09-19

    An 82-year-old man presented with progressive right frontal headaches. The patient's history was significant for benign polyps on surveillance colonoscopy 2 years prior, without high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. MRI revealed an enhancing lesion arising within the superomedial aspect of the right orbit. Lesion biopsy demonstrated histological appearance and immunophenotype suggestive of colonic adenocarcinoma. Staging positron emission tomography/CT showed visceral metastases and diffuse activity in the posterior rectosigmoid, consistent with metastatic colon cancer. Treatment of the orbital lesion with external beam radiotherapy to 30 Gy resulted in significant palliation of the patient's headaches. The patient expired 2 months following treatment completion due to disease progression. Orbital metastasis as the initial presentation of an occult colorectal primary lesion is exceedingly rare, and occurred in this patient despite surveillance colonoscopy. Radiotherapy remains an efficacious modality for treatment of orbital metastases. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. [Management of localized, locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Delpero, Jean-Robert; Turrini, Olivier; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which accounts for more than 90% of all pancreatic tumours, is a devastating malignancy. The prognosis is extremely poor because PDAC is usually a systemic disease at diagnosis. All stages, the survival does not exceed 5% at 5 years. However 15% of PDAC can be resected and today a margin-negative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy remains the only potential for a prolonged survival. Postoperative mortality had significantly decreased and the benefit of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy has been clearly shown. Substantial progress has been made in the field of palliative chemotherapy by introducing new chemotherapy regimens (FOLFIRINOX [folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin] and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel), when the patient's performance status allows the use of these drugs. The role of radiation therapy remains controversial.

  2. Genetic Insights in Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian J.; Paulson, Thomas G.; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in the 1980s, an alarming rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) led to screening of patients with reflux to detect Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and surveillance of BE to detect early EA. This strategy, based on linear progression disease models, resulted in selective detection of BE that does not progress to EA over a lifetime (overdiagnosis) and missed BE that rapidly progresses to EA (underdiagnosis). Here we review the historical thought processes that resulted in this undesired outcome and the transformation in our understanding of genetic and evolutionary principles governing neoplastic progression that has come from application of modern genomic technologies to cancers and their precursors. This new synthesis provides improved strategies for prevention and early detection of EA by addressing the environmental and mutational processes that can determine “windows of opportunity” in time to detect rapidly progressing BE and distinguish it from slowly or non-progressing BE. PMID:26208895

  3. Cytotoxic effect of butein on human colon adenocarcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yit, C C; Das, N P

    1994-07-15

    Several classes of plant polyphenols namely, flavonoids, chalcones and coumarins exhibited varying degrees of inhibition on the cell proliferation of human colon adenocarcinoma cell line 220.1. At the highest concentration tested (100 microM), many of the chalcones showed > 100% growth inhibition and their order of potency was butein > 2'-hydroxychalcone > 2-hydroxychalcone > 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone > 2',4-dihydroxychalcone with IC50 values of 1.75, 6.2, 7.5, 17, 23 microM, respectively. Butein (the most potent chalcone) at 2 microM concentration inhibited the incorporation of 14C-labelled thymidine, uridine and leucine into the colon cancer cells whilst 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, a chemotherapeutic drug) at 50 microM concentration could significantly inhibit only the uridine incorporation. The mode of cytotoxic action of butein was different from 5-FU but may be similar to colchicine, a known HeLa cell inhibitor.

  4. [Bilateral conjunctival oedema as a symptom of adrenal adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Paz Moreno-Arrones, J; Montes-Mollón, M Á

    2011-06-01

    We present a case of a 67-year-old female suffering for bilateral conjunctival oedema that did not improve with antibiotic and antiinflammatory treatment. After a complete systemic examination she was diagnosed with an adrenal adenocarcinoma and treated by surgery and chemotherapy. The conjunctival chemosis subsequently improved. Unfortunately the patient died of respiratory failure due to metastasis. We emphasise the need of an exhaustive and complete examination by the ophthalmologist in cases of non-responders to topical antibiotic and antiinflammatory treatment in patients with bilateral conjunctival oedema, in order to make a correct diagnosis of systemic potentially lethal diseases. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Vittor, K.; Nano, R.; Facoetti, A.; Chiari, P.; Bakeine, J.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Salvucci, O.

    2006-05-01

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher 10B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of 10B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  6. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature.

  7. Adenocarcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a mouflon (Ovis musimon).

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia; Simoni, Paolo

    2005-07-01

    A free-living mouflon (Ovis musimon) was presented with a mass on the left shoulder. At necropsy, multifocal, slightly protruding whitish spots were noted on the kidneys, and several lymph nodes were abnormal. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in tubular and tubulopapillary structures. The cytoplasm of the epithelial cells had numerous periodic acid-Schiff-positive and diastase-resistant granules. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained numerous pleomorphic secretory granules and microvilli, which partially covered the luminal surface of the tumor cells. Metastatic foci were present in prescapular and mediastinal lymph nodes and kidneys. On the basis of histological and ultrastructural findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin.

  8. Orbital adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland origin in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I; Ting, C T; Liu, Y S

    2001-03-01

    A 13-year-old intact female mixed-breed dog was presented for a progressive enlargement of the right eye, which had been treated previously for conjunctivitis. A round, firm mass, approximately 4 cm in diameter, was protruding from the superotemporal aspect of the right orbit, displacing the eyeball anteriorly and ventromedially. The mass was encapsulated, distinct from the eyeball, and not associated with the eyelids. On cut surface, there was a pale multilobulated periphery, with a dark red, soft, and depressed core. Histologically, tumor cells formed cords and tubules, which were stained with mouse anti-human cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3. Residual glands were serous, and the majority of tumor cells were negative for mucin. The supraorbital location, encapsulation, and residual serous glands suggest that this mass was a low-grade adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland.

  9. Prognostic Comparison Between Mucinous and Nonmucinous Adenocarcinoma in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Seob; Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is a histological subtype of colorectal cancer. The oncologic behavior of MAC differs from nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (non-MAC). Our aim in this study was to characterize patients with colorectal MAC through evaluation of a large, institutional-based cohort with long-term follow-up. A total of 6475 patients with stages I to III colorectal cancer who underwent radical surgery were enrolled from January 2000 to December 2010. Prognostic comparison between MAC (n = 274, 4.2%) and non-MAC was performed. The median follow-up period was 48.0 months. Patients with MAC were younger than those without MAC (P = 0.012) and had larger tumor size (P < 0.001), higher preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.001), higher pathologic T stage (P < 0.001), more right-sided colon cancer (49.3%, P < 0.001), and more frequent high-frequency microsatellite instability (10.2%, P < 0.001). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 76.5% in the MAC group and 83.2% in the non-MAC group (P = 0.008), and 5-year overall survival was 81.4% versus 87.4%, respectively (P = 0.005). Mucinous histology (MAC vs non-MAC) in the entire cohort was not an independent prognostic factor of DFS but had a statistical tendency (P = 0.071). In subgroup analysis of colon cancer without rectal cancer, mucinous histology was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.026). MAC was found at more advanced stage, located mainly at the right side and was an independent factor of survival in colon cancer. Because of the unique biological behavior of MAC, patients with MAC require special consideration during follow-up. PMID:25881840

  10. A systematic review of economic evaluation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Claire; Fagnoni, Philippe; Vienot, Angélique; Borg, Christophe; Limat, Samuel; Daval, Franck; Calais, François; Vardanega, Julie; Jary, Marine; Nerich, Virginie

    2017-11-01

    The economic evaluation (EE) of healthcare interventions has become a necessity. However, high quality needs to be ensured in order to achieve validated results and help making informed decisions. Thus, the objective of the present study was to systematically identify and review published pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-related EEs and to assess their quality. Systematic literature research was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane to identify published EEs between 2000 and 2015. The quality of each selected EE was assessed by two independent reviewers, using the Drummond's checklist. Our systematic review was based on 32 EEs and showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, including different perspectives, time horizon, and cost effectiveness analyses. Nearly two-thirds of EEs are full EEs (n = 21), and about one-third of EEs had a Drummond score ≥7, synonymous with 'high quality'. Close to 50% of full EEs had a Drummond score ≥7, whereas all of partial EEs had a Drummond score <7 (n = 11). Over the past 15 years, a lot of interest has been evinced over the EE of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its direct impact on therapeutic advances in PDAC. To provide a framework for health care decision-making, to facilitate transferability and to lend credibility to health EEs, their quality must be improved. For the last 4 years, a tendency towards a quality improvement of these studies has been observed, probably coupled with a context of rational decision-making in health care, a better and wider spread of recommendations and thus, medical practitioners' full endorsement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Certad, Gabriela; Ngouanesavanh, Tramy; Guyot, Karine; Gantois, Nausicaa; Chassat, Thierry; Mouray, Anthony; Fleurisse, Laurence; Pinon, Anthony; Cailliez, Jean-Charles; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Creusy, Colette

    2007-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. Particularly, it remains a clinically significant opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients, causing potentially life-threatening diarrhoea in HIV-infected persons. However, the understanding about different aspects of this infection such as invasion, transmission and pathogenesis is problematic. Additionally, it has been difficult to find suitable animal models for propagation of this parasite. Efforts are needed to develop reproducible animal models allowing both the routine passage of different species and approaching unclear aspects of Cryptosporidium infection, especially in the pathophysiology field. Results We developed a model using adult severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium muris while treated or not with Dexamethasone (Dex) in order to investigate divergences in prepatent period, oocyst shedding or clinical and histopathological manifestations. C. muris-infected mice showed high levels of oocysts excretion, whatever the chemical immunosuppression status. Pre-patent periods were 11 days and 9.7 days in average in Dex treated and untreated mice, respectively. Parasite infection was restricted to the stomach, and had a clear preferential colonization for fundic area in both groups. Among C. parvum-infected mice, Dex-treated SCID mice became chronic shedders with a prepatent period of 6.2 days in average. C. parvum-inoculated mice treated with Dex developed glandular cystic polyps with areas of intraepithelial neoplasia, and also with the presence of intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For the first time C. parvum is associated with the formation of polyps and adenocarcinoma lesions in the gut of Dex-treated SCID mice. Additionally, we have developed a model to compare chronic muris and parvum cryptosporidiosis using SCID mice

  12. Pattern Classification of Endocervical Adenocarcinoma: Reproducibility and Review of Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rutgers, Joanne K.L.; Roma, Andres; Park, Kay; Zaino, Richard J.; Johnson, Abbey; Alvarado, Isabel; Daya, Dean; Rasty, Golnar; Longacre, Teri; Ronnett, Brigitte; Silva, Elvio

    2017-01-01

    Previously, our international team proposed a 3-tiered pattern classification (Pattern Classification) system for endocervical adenocarcinoma of the usual type that correlates with nodal disease and recurrence. Pattern Classification- A have well demarcated glands lacking destructive stromal invasion or lymphovascular invasion (lymphovascular invasion), Pattern Classification- B show localized, limited destructive invasion arising from A-type glands, and Pattern Classification- C have diffuse destructive stromal invasion, significant (filling a 4× field) confluence, or solid architecture. 24 Pattern Classification-A, 22 Pattern Classification-B, 38 Pattern Classification-C from the tumor set used in the original description were chosen using the reference diagnosis (reference diagnosis) originally established. 1 H&E slide per case was reviewed by 7 gynecologic pathologists, 4 from the original study. Kappa statistics were prepared, and cases with discrepancies reviewed. We found a majority agreement with reference diagnosis in 81% of cases, with complete or near complete (6 of 7) agreement in 50%. Overall concordance was 74%. Overall Kappa (agreement among pathologists) was .488 (moderate agreement). Pattern Classification- B has lowest kappa, and agreement is not improved by combining B+C. 6 of 7 reviewers had substantial agreement by weighted kappas (>.6), with one reviewer accounting for the majority of cases under or overcalled by 2 tiers. Confluence filling a 4× field, labyrinthine glands, or solid architecture accounted for undercalling other reference diagnosis-C cases. Missing a few individually infiltrative cells was the most common cause of undercalling reference diagnosis- B. Small foci of inflamed, loose or desmoplastic stroma lacking infiltrative tumor cells in reference diagnosis-A appeared to account for those cases up-graded to Pattern Classification-B. In summary, an overall concordance of 74% indicates that the criteria can be reproducibly

  13. [Lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement].

    PubMed

    Caliez, J; Monnet, I; Pujals, A; Rousseau-Bussac, G; Jabot, L; Boudjemaa, A; Leroy, K; Chouaid, C

    2017-05-01

    Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, coexistence of EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is rare. We describe the clinical features of two patients with this double anomaly. A 62-year-old Caucasian non-smoking woman was diagnosed with cT4N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Initial biopsy showed EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement. She received cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by 17 months of gemcitabine. Owing to progression, she received erlotinib for 14 months, then paclitaxel for 6 months and finally crizotinib. A partial response was achieved and maintained for 24 months. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman, light smoker, was diagnosed with cT2N3M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Only EGFR mutation was found on initial analysis. She underwent treatment with cisplatin-gemcitabine and thoracic radiotherapy. Progression occurred after 8 months and afatinbib was started. Eight months later, progression was observed with a neoplasic pleural effusion in which tumor cells expressing ALK rearrangement were found. A new FISH analysis was performed on the initial tumor but did not find this rearrangement. Despite a third line of crizotinib, the patient died one month later. The literature shows 45 other cases of these two abnormalities, observed either from the start or during follow-up. EGFR's TKI were almost always given before ALK's TKI. Therapeutic strategy needs to be clarified in cases of double alteration. With regard to the second patient, appearance of ALK rearrangement may constitute a resistance mechanism to EGFR's TKI. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Lectin histochemistry of metastatic adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed

    Thöm, Ina; Schult-Kronefeld, Olaf; Burkholder, Iris; Goern, Michael; Andritzky, Birte; Blonski, Katharina; Kugler, Christian; Edler, Lutz; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo; Laack, Eckart

    2007-06-01

    Several clinical studies indicate that primary tumour cells with high metastatic potential often show aberrant glycosylation as detected by lectin histochemistry. However, it is unclear whether aberrant glycosylation is still present in metastatic deposits. The aim of the present investigation was thus to analyse a possible association between the presence of lectin binding sites of pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells and their lymph node and haematogenous metastatic cells. For this purpose, the expression of HPA, PHA-L and UEA-I was assessed in primary tumours, lymph node metastases and haematogenous metastases of 96 patients with metastatic adenocarcinomas of the lung that underwent surgery between 1999 and 2002. Besides, lectin-binding data and other known prognostic factors were correlated with survival. We found a significant positive correlation between the binding of the lectins HPA (p=0.002), PHA-L (p<0.00001) and UEA-I (p<0.00001) to the cells of the primary tumour and to their lymph node metastases. There was a positive correlation between the binding of HPA to the cells of the primary tumour and the haematogenous metastases as well. Patients with tumours which did not show HPA binding sites had a median overall survival of 27.9 months (95%-CI 7.7-infinity months). Patients with a HPA binding tumour had a median overall survival of 20.9 months (95%-CI 18.5-28.7 months). This is the first investigation to demonstrate a positive correlation between the binding of the lectins HPA, PHA-L and UEA-I to the cells of the primary tumour and to their lymph node metastases. Expression of HPA binding sites is also preserved in the haematogenous metastases. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that altered glycosylation of the membrane-bound glycoproteins of the tumour cells is associated with, but not sufficient for promotion of lymphogenic and haematogenous metastasis.

  15. CT features of HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sawan, Peter; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Li, Angela E; Li, Bob T; Drilon, Alexander; Capanu, Marinela; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2018-06-07

    To describe the radiological phenotype of HER2-mutant lung cancers on CT at presentation. Eligible patients with lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 mutations were stage-matched with two control groups (EGFR- and KRAS-mutant groups). Evaluated CT features of the primary tumor included size, location, consistency, contour, presence of pleural tags and pleural retractions. Presence of pleural effusions, lung metastases, adenopathy, chest wall invasion, and were also recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare continuous and categorical features, respectively. One hundred and fifty-four patients were identified: 50 (33%) harbored HER2 mutations, 56 (36%) harbored KRAS mutations, and 48 (31%) harbored EGFR mutations. Compared with KRAS, HER2 tumors presented as smaller lesions (2.3 cm versus 2.9 cm, p = 0.005 for length; 1.6 cm versus 2.1 cm, p = 0.002 for width) with the presence of pleural tags (74% vs. 52%, p = 0.03), pleural retractions (58% vs. 39%, p = 0.006), ipsilateral hilar (36% vs. 16%, p = 0.03) and scalene/supraclavicular N3 adenopathy (24% vs. 7%, p = 0.03). Compared with EGFR, pleural retractions were more prevalent among the HER2 tumors (58% vs. 37%, p = 0.05). Lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 gene mutation exhibit an aggressive behavior manifesting by higher incidence of local invasion, compared to KRAS and EGFR mutant controls, and a nodal metastatic spread compared to KRAS-mutant control. This is the first radiogenomics study of HER2 mutations in lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential N-Glycosylation Patterns in Lung Adenocarcinoma Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Taylor, Sandra L.; Stroble, Carol; Nguyen, Uyen Thao; Parker, Evan A.; Song, Ting; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Rom, William N.; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kelly, Karen; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    To decrease the mortality of lung cancer, better screening and diagnostic tools as well as treatment options are needed. Protein glycosylation is one of the major post-translational modifications that is altered in cancer, but it is not exactly clear which glycan structures are affected. A better understanding of the glycan structures that are differentially regulated in lung tumor tissue is highly desirable and will allow us to gain greater insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of aberrant glycosylation in lung cancer. Here, we assess differential glycosylation patterns of lung tumor tissue and nonmalignant tissue at the level of individual glycan structures using nLC–chip–TOF–MS. Using tissue samples from 42 lung adenocarcinoma patients, 29 differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) glycan structures were identified. The levels of several oligomannose type glycans were upregulated in tumor tissue. Furthermore, levels of fully galactosylated glycans, some of which were of the hybrid type and mostly without fucose, were decreased in cancerous tissue, whereas levels of non- or low-galactosylated glycans mostly with fucose were increased. To further assess the regulation of the altered glycosylation, the glycomics data was compared to publicly available gene expression data from lung adenocarcinoma tissue compared to nonmalignant lung tissue. The results are consistent with the possibility that the observed N-glycan changes have their origin in differentially expressed glycosyltransferases. These results will be used as a starting point for the further development of clinical glycan applications in the fields of imaging, drug targeting, and biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:26322380

  17. Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Who Really Benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nipun B; Rymer, Jennifer; Koehler, Elizabeth AS; Ayers, G Daniel; Castellanos, Jason; Kooby, David A; Weber, Sharon H; Cho, Clifford S; Schmidt, C Max; Nakeeb, Atilla; Matos, Jesus M; Scoggins, Charles R; Martin, Robert CG; Kim, Hong Jin; Ahmad, Syed A; Chu, Carrie K; McClaine, Rebecca; Bednarski, Brian K; Staley, Charles A; Sharp, Kenneth; Parikh, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in pancreatic cancer remains controversial. The primary aim of this study was to determine if CRT improved survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer in a large, multiinstitutional cohort of patients. STUDY DESIGN Patients undergoing resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from seven academic medical institutions were included. Exclusion criteria included patients with T4 or M1 disease, R2 resection margin, preoperative therapy, chemotherapy alone, or if adjuvant therapy status was unknown. RESULTS There were 747 patients included in the initial evaluation. Primary analysis was performed between patients that had surgery alone (n = 374) and those receiving adjuvant CRT (n = 299). Median followup time was 12.2 months and 14.5 months for survivors. Median overall survival for patients receiving adjuvant CRT was significantly longer than for those undergoing operation alone (20.0 months versus 14.5 months, p = 0.001). On subset and multivariate analysis, adjuvant CRT demonstrated a significant survival advantage only among patients who had lymph node (LN)-positive disease (hazard ratio 0.477, 95% CI 0.357 to 0.638) and not for LN-negative patients (hazard ratio 0.810, 95% CI 0.556 to 1.181). Disease-free survival in patients with LN-negative disease who received adjuvant CRT was significantly worse than in patients who had surgery alone (14.5 months versus 18.6 months, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS This large multiinstitutional study emphasizes the importance of analyzing subsets of patients with pancreas adenocarcinoma who have LN metastasis. Benefit of adjuvant CRT is seen only in patients with LN-positive disease, regardless of resection margin status. CRT in patients with LN-negative disease may contribute to reduced disease-free survival. PMID:19476845

  18. DNA methylation intratumor heterogeneity in localized lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quek, Kelly; Li, Jun; Estecio, Marcos; Zhang, Jiexin; Fujimoto, Junya; Roarty, Emily; Little, Latasha; Chow, Chi-Wan; Song, Xingzhi; Behrens, Carmen; Chen, Taiping; William, William N; Swisher, Stephen; Heymach, John; Wistuba, Ignacio; Zhang, Jianhua; Futreal, Andrew; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-03-28

    Cancers are composed of cells with distinct molecular and phenotypic features within a given tumor, a phenomenon termed intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). Previously, we have demonstrated genomic ITH in localized lung adenocarcinomas; however, the nature of methylation ITH in lung cancers has not been well investigated. In this study, we generated methylation profiles of 48 spatially separated tumor regions from 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas and their matched normal lung tissues using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip array. We observed methylation ITH within the same tumors, but to a much less extent compared to inter-individual heterogeneity. On average, 25% of all differentially methylated probes compared to matched normal lung tissues were shared by all regions from the same tumors. This is in contrast to somatic mutations, of which approximately 77% were shared events amongst all regions of individual tumors, suggesting that while the majority of somatic mutations were early clonal events, the tumor-specific DNA methylation might be associated with later branched evolution of these 11 tumors. Furthermore, our data showed that a higher extent of DNA methylation ITH was associated with larger tumor size (average Euclidean distance of 35.64 (> 3cm, median size) versus 27.24 (<= 3cm), p = 0.014), advanced age (average Euclidean distance of 34.95 (above 65) verse 28.06 (below 65), p = 0.046) and increased risk of postsurgical recurrence (average Euclidean distance of 35.65 (relapsed patients) versus 29.03 (patients without relapsed), p = 0.039).

  19. Massive malignant pleural effusion due to lung adenocarcinoma in 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Hajimohammadi, Amir; Azarhoush, Ramin; Kazemi-Nejad, Vahideh; Yari, Behrouz; Rezapour Esfahani, Mona

    2016-05-01

    A 13-year-old boy with no risk factors for lung cancer presented with a massive left-sided pleural effusion and a mediastinal shift on chest radiography and computed tomography. A chest tube drained bloody pleural fluid with an exudative pattern. A pleural biopsy and wedge biopsy of the left lower lobe revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma in the left lower lobe wedge biopsy and metastatic adenocarcinoma in the pleural biopsy. The patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is planned after shrinkage of the tumor. Adenocarcinoma of the lung is very rarely seen in teenagers or children, especially in the absence of risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Sasieni, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common. Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma. Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population‐based case–control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down‐staging of adenocarcinoma. Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age‐matched controls. Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non‐attenders. The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non‐attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39–0.55) for adenocarcinoma. The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15–0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46–1.09). The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52–3.62) compared to non‐attenders. Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05–0.13); however, the odds doubled 3–5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67–3.18). ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma. Although cytology screening is inefficient at preventing adenocarcinomas, invasive adenocarcinomas are detected earlier than they would be in the absence of screening, substantially preventing Stage 2 and worse adenocarcinomas. PMID:27096255

  1. Spontaneous Rupture of Adenocarcinoma of Meckel’s Diverticulum- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Meckel’s diverticulum is a true diverticulum from remnant of vitelline duct. It is most common congenital anomaly of intestine. It is associated with intestinal atresia and anorectal anomalies. It contains heterotrophic epithelium. Most common heterotrophic mucosa is gastric followed by pancreatic tissue. Adenocarcinoma arising from Meckel’s diverticulum is very rare. Spontaneous perforation of adenocarcinoma rarely reported. Most of perforation reported in Meckel’s diverticulum diagnosed during intraoperative period. This is a case report of spontaneous rupture of adenocarcinoma of Meckel’s diverticulum, which was managed with primary resection and ileostomy. PMID:26672729

  2. Leukocyte telomere length in relation to risk of lung adenocarcinoma incidence: Findings from the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Beckman, Kenneth B; Wang, Renwei; Bull, Caroline; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer; Huang, Joyce Y; Jin, Aizhen; Opresko, Patricia; Newman, Anne B; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Fenech, Michael; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-06-01

    Telomeres are crucial in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and genomic stability. Critically short telomeres can trigger programed cell death while cells with longer telomeres may have increased likelihood of replicative errors, resulting in genetic mutations and chromosomal alterations, and ultimately promoting oncogenesis. Data on telomere length and lung cancer risk from large prospective cohort studies are spare. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was quantified using a validated monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method in 26,540 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study. After a follow-up of 12 years, 654 participants developed lung cancer including 288 adenocarcinoma, 113 squamous cell carcinoma and 253 other/unknown histological type. The Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). HR of lung adenocarcinoma for individuals in the highest comparing the lowest 20 percentile of telomere length was 2.84 (95% CI 1.94-4.14, p trend  < 0.0001). This positive association was present in never smokers (p trend  < 0.0001), ever smokers (p trend  = 0.0010), men (p trend  = 0.0003), women (p trend  < 0.0001), and in shorter (p trend  = 0.0002) and longer (p trend  = 0.0001) duration of follow-up. There was no association between telomere length and risk of squamous cell carcinoma or other histological type of lung cancer in all or subgroups of individuals. The agreement of results from this prospective cohort study with those of previous prospective studies and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a possible etiological role of telomere length in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. © 2018 UICC.

  3. Marriage is a dependent risk factor for mortality of colon adenocarcinoma without a time-varying effect

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Jie; Xiong, Weibin; Chen, Shuang; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been well recognized that the effects of many prognostic factors could change during long-term follow-up. Although marriage has been proven to be a significant prognostic factor for the survival of colon cancer, whether the effect of marriage is constant with time remain unknown. This study analyzed the impact of marital status on the mortality of colon cancer patients with an extended Cox model that allowed for time-varying effects. Methods We identified 71,955 patients who underwent colectomy between 2004 and 2009 to treat colon adenocarcinoma from the Surveilance, Epidemiology and End Results Database. The multivariate extended Cox model was used to evaluate the effect of marital status on all-cause mortality, while the Fine-Gray competing risks model was used for colon cancer-specific mortality, with death from other causes as the competing risk. Results The unmarried patients carried a 1.37-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with the married patients (95%CI: 1.33-1.40; p<0.001), and the hazard ratio remained constant over time. Being unmarried was at a higher risk of death from colon adenocarcinoma as well as death from other causes. Four variables including tumor site, tumor grade, sex and TNM stage were proved to have time-varying effects on survival. Conclusions Marriage is a dependent prognosis factor for survival of surgically treated colon adenocarcinoma patients. Psychological interventions are suggested to improve receipt of treatment among unmarried patients, as their poor survival may be due to the inefficient treatment. PMID:28423614

  4. Impact of neoadjuvant therapy in downstaging of lower rectal adenocarcinoma and the role of pelvic magnetic resonance in staging.

    PubMed

    Magri, Karina Dagre; Bin, Fang Chia; Formiga, Fernanda Bellotti; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Gomes, Caroline Merci Caliari de Neves; Candelári, Paulo de Azeredo Passos; Ortiz, Jorge Alberto; Klug, Wilmar Artur; Mandia, José; Capelhuchnik, Peretz

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant therapy on the stage (TNM) of patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and validate the use of MRI as a method of determining locoregional stage. we conducted a retrospective study of 157 patients with lower rectum adenocarcinoma, whom we divided into two groups: Group 1, 81 patients (52%) who had undergone surgical treatment initially, with the purpose to analyze the accuracy of locoregional staging by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging throug the comparison of radiological findings with pathological ones; Group 2, 76 patients (48%), who had been submitted to neoadjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and radiation) prior to definitive surgical treatment, so as to evaluate its effects on the stage by comparing clinical and radiological findings with pathology. In group 1, the accuracy of determining tumor depth (T) and lymph node involvement (N) was 91.4% and 82.7%, respectively. In group 2, neoadjuvant therapy decreased the T stage, N stage and TNM stage in 51.3%, 21% and 48.4% of cases, respectively. neoadjuvant therapy in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma is effective in decreasing disease stage, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging is effective for locoregional staging. avaliar o efeito da terapia neoadjuvante, nos pacientes portadores de adenocarcinoma de reto, sobre o estádio (TNM) e validar o emprego da ressonância magnética como método de determinação do estádio locorregional. estudo retrospectivo de 157 pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de reto baixo, que foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1, 81 pacientes (52%), submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico de princípio, cuja finalidade foi analisar a acurácia da determinação do estádio locorregional pela ressonância magnética da pelve, através da comparação entre os achados radiológicos e os achados anatomopatológicos; Grupo 2, 76 pacientes (48%), encaminhados à terapia neoadjuvante (quimioterapia e radioterapia), antes do tratamento cirúrgico definitivo

  5. Contemporary Population-Based Comparison of Localized Ductal Adenocarcinoma and High-Risk Acinar Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Packiam, Vignesh T; Patel, Sanjay G; Pariser, Joseph J; Richards, Kyle A; Weiner, Adam B; Paner, Gladell P; VanderWeele, David J; Zagaja, Gregory P; Eggener, Scott E

    2015-10-01

    To compare pathological characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival in patients with ductal adenocarcinoma (DC) compared to those with acinar adenocarcinoma (AC). Using the National Cancer Database, we identified patients diagnosed with clinically localized (cN0, cM0) pure DC (n = 1328) and AC (n = 751,635) between 1998 and 2011. High-risk AC was defined as Gleason 8-10. Demographic, treatment, pathological, and survival characteristics of patients were compared. Compared to patients with Gleason 8-10 AC, those with DC presented with lower mean prostate-specific antigen (10.3 vs 16.2 ng/mL, P <.001), had similar rates (11.7% vs 11.5%, P = .8) of clinical extra-capsular extension (stage ≥ cT3), and were more likely to undergo prostatectomy (54% vs 36%, P <.001). Compared to patients with Gleason 8-10 AC undergoing prostatectomy, those with DC had more favorable pathology: stage ≥ T3 (39% vs 52%, P <.001), fewer positive lymph nodes (4% vs 11%, P <.001), and fewer positive margins (25% vs 33%, P <.001). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with DC had similar 5-year survival (75.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [71.7-78.9]) compared to those with Gleason 8-10 AC (77.1%, 95% CI [76.6%-77.6%], P = .2). On Cox multivariable analysis, patients with Gleason 8-10 AC had a similar risk of death compared to those with DC (hazards ratio = 0.92, 95% CI [0.69-1.23], P = 6). In this large contemporary population-based series, patients with DC of the prostate presented with lower prostate-specific antigen, had more favorable pathological features, and similar overall survival compared to men with Gleason 8-10 AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphism and increased serum VEGF concentration with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, Siddapuram; Govardhan, Bale; Harithakrishna, Ramanujam; Venkat Rao, Guduru; Pradeep, Rebala; Kunal, Bharadhwaj; Ramakrishna, Nalla; Anuradha, Shekaran; Reddy, Duvvuru Nageshwar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND &AIM: Pancreatic cancer is related to high mortality rate. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a strong influence in tumor-related angiogenesis having association with the grade of angiogenesis and the prognosis of different solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. The present study was aimed to analyze the genotype and haplotype distribution of VEGF gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), -460T/C, +405G/C, +936C/T, in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from South India, and the effect of these SNPs on serum VEGF level. Total 80 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 87 controls were recruited. The genotype of VEGF gene polymorphisms was determined in both patients and controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The serum VEGF protein was estimated by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The genotype, +405G/G of VEGF gene showed a significant association with the patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (P = 0.012, Odds ratio: 2.133), whereas no significant difference was found in the genotype distribution of SNPs, -460C/T and +936C/T between patient and control groups (P > 0.05). Serum VEGF level was found to be significantly high in patients (1315.10 pg/Ml, SD ± 230.79) when compared to controls (591.35 pg/mL, SD ± 92.48) (P < 0.0001), which showed a strong genotype-phenotype correlation between genotype +405G/G and serum VEGF level. Further, the haplotype C-G-T showed a strong association with the disease, and no specific haplotype was associated with increased serum VEGF level. The polymorphism, +405G/C but not -460T/C and +936C/T, of VEGF gene is strongly associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and this SNP has significant influence on serum VEGF level. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Size of Small Lung Adenocarcinomas Evaluated with Mediastinal Window Settings on Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sakao, Yukinori; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to clarify that the size of the lung adenocarcinoma evaluated using mediastinal window on computed tomography is an important and useful modality for predicting invasiveness, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in small adenocarcinoma. Methods We evaluated 176 patients with small lung adenocarcinomas (diameter, 1–3 cm) who underwent standard surgical resection. Tumours were examined using computed tomography with thin section conditions (1.25 mm thick on high-resolution computed tomography) with tumour dimensions evaluated under two settings: lung window and mediastinal window. We also determined the patient age, gender, preoperative nodal status, tumour size, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and pathological status (lymphatic vessel, vascular vessel or pleural invasion). Recurrence-free survival was used for prognosis. Results Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and preoperative nodal status were significant predictive factors for recurrence-free survival in univariate analyses. Areas under the receiver operator curves for recurrence were 0.76, 0.73 and 0.65 for mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and lung window, respectively. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and preoperative nodal status were significant predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in univariate analyses; areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.61, 0.76, 0.72 and 0.66, for lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, respectively. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and preoperative nodal status were significant factors for lymphatic vessel, vascular vessel or pleural invasion in univariate analyses; areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.60, 0.81, 0

  8. Significance and prognostic value of lysosomal enzyme activities measured in surgically operated adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction and squamous cell carcinomas of the lower third of esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Altorjay, Aron; Paal, Balazs; Sohar, Nicolette; Kiss, Janos; Szanto, Imre; Sohar, Istvan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish whether there are fundamental differences in the biochemistries of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and the squamous cell carcinomas of the lower third of the esophagus (LTE). METHODS: Between February 1, 1997 and February 1, 2000, we obtained tissue samples at the moment of resection from 54 patients for biochemical analysis. The full set of data could be comprehensively analyzed in 47 of 54 patients samples (81%). Of these, 29 were adenocarcinomas of the GEJ Siewert type I (n = 8), type II (n = 12), type III (n = 9), and 18 presented as squamous cell carcinomas of the LTE. We evaluated the mean values of 11-lysosomal enzyme and 1-cytosol protease activities of the tumorous and surrounding mucosae as well as their relative activities, measured as the ratio of activity in tumor and normal tissues from the same patient. These data were further analyzed to establish the correlation with tumor localization, TNM stage (lymph-node involvement), histological type (papillary, signet-ring cell, tubular), state of differentiation (good, moderate, poor), and survival (≤ 24 or ≥ 24 mo). RESULTS: In adenocarcinomas, the activity of α-mannosidase (AMAN), cathepsin B (CB) and dipeptidyl-peptidase I (DPP I) increased significantly as compared to the normal gastric mucosa. In squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, we also found a significant difference in the activity of cathepsin L and tripeptidyl-peptidase I in addition to these three. There was a statistical correlation of AMAN, CB, and DPP I activity between the level of differentiation of adenocarcinomas of the GEJ and lymph node involvement, because tumors with no lymph node metastases histologically confirmed as well-differentiated, showed a significantly lower activity. The differences in CB and DPP I activity correlated well with the differences in survival rates, since the CB and DPP I values of those who died within 24 mo following surgical intervention were significantly

  9. A case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis accompanied by focal adenomatous hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is very rare. There is still little knowledge about its etiology and pathogenesis. Herein, we present a case of rete testis adenocarcinoma in a 36-year-old Chinese male. The tumor was predominantly composed of irregular small tubules and papillary structures with cuboidal or polygonal cells. In peripheral area of the tumor, the remaining normal rete testis and adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis could also be seen, indicating the possible relationship between adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. In addition, the patient underwent a left hydrocelectomy because of the existence of hydrocele 3 years ago. But, it is unclear whether hydrocele and hydrocelectomy is its cause or just the early clinical presentation of the adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6757609119625499 PMID:23800084

  10. Apatinib in the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma with KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Da-Xiong; Wang, Chang-Guo; Huang, Jian-An; Jiang, Jun-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Activating KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinoma are characterized with treatment resistance and poor prognosis. As a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase, apatinib has been proven successful in advanced gastric cancer and breast cancer. In this study, we show the result of apatinib as salvage treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation. Four advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation were orally administered apatinib (250 mg/d) after second-line treatment. One patient showed progressive disease, while 3 patients showed stable disease response to apatinib, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 3.8 months (1.5-5.5 months). The main toxicities were hoarseness and hemoptysis, which were manageable. Therefore, apatinib might be an optional choice for advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation in post second-line treatment.

  11. [An experimental study on the Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone CPA-Yang1-BR with brain metastasis potency in nude mice and in vivo imaging research].

    PubMed

    Lei, Bei; Cao, Jie; Shen, Jie; Zhao, Lanxiang; Liang, Sheng; Meng, Qinggang; Xie, Wenhui; Yang, Shunfang

    2013-08-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in men and women. It is also the most common cause of brain metastases. A brain metastasis model is difficult to be established because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the lack of optimal methods for detecting brain metastasis in nude mice. Thus, the establishment of a Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell line and its animal model with brain metastasis potency and in vivo research is of great significance. CPA-Yang1 cells were obtained from a patient with human lung adenocarcinoma by lentiviral vector-mediated transfection of green fluorescence protein. Intracardiac inoculation of the cells was performed in nude mice, and brain metastatic lesions were detected using micro ¹⁸F FDG-PET/CT scanners, small animal in vivo imaging system for fluorescence, radionuclide and X ray fused imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with sense body detection, and resection. The samples were divided into two parts for cell culture and histological diagnosis. The process was repeated in vivo and in vitro for four cycles to obtain a novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR. A novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR, was obtained with a brain metastatic rate of 50%. The use of MRI for the detection of brain metastases has obvious advantages. An experimental Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone (CPA-Yang1-BR) and its animal model with brain metastasis potency in nude mice were established. MRI with sense body or micro MRI may be used as a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive method to detect experimental brain metastases in intact live immunodeficient mice. The results of this study may serve as a technical platform for brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in ATM Gene, Cooking Oil Fumes and Lung Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility in Chinese Female Non-Smokers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Yin, Zhihua; Wu, Wei; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Zhou, Baosen

    2014-01-01

    Background The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene plays an important role in the DNA double-strand breaks repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ATM -111G>A (rs189037) polymorphism, environmental risk factors and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese female non-smokers. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 487 lung cancer patients and 516 matched cancer-free controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and environmental risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, 10 ml venous blood was collected from each subject for biomarker testing. Single nucleotide polymorphism was determined by using TaqMan method. Results This study showed that the individuals with ATM rs189037 AA genotype were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the GA or GG genotype (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.02, P = 0.039). The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ATM rs189037 AA genotype in individuals who never or seldom were exposed to cooking oil fumes (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.03–3.49, P = 0.040). Conclusions ATM rs189037 might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, ATM rs189037 AA genotype might be a risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers without cooking oil fume exposure. PMID:24819391

  13. Screening and identification of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis-related genes by using cDNA microarray coupled to FDD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Shi-Shu

    2002-07-01

    To clone gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis related genes, RF-1 cell line (primary tumor of a gastric adenocarcinoma patient ) and RF-48 cell line (its metastatic counterpart) were used as a model for studying the molecular mechanism of tumor metastasis. Two fluorescent cDNA probes, labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, were prepared from RF-1 and RF-48 mRNA samples by reverse transcription method. The two color probes were then mixed and hybridized to the cDNA chip constructed by double-dots of 4 096 human genes, and scanned at two wavelengths. The experiment was repeated for 2 times. Differential expression genes from the above two cells were analyzed using the computer. 138 in all genes (3.4%) revealed differential expression in RF-48 cells compared with RF-1 cells: 81(2.1%) genes revealed apparent up-regulation, and 56(1.3%) genes revealed down-regulation. 45 genes involved in gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis were cloned using fluorescent differential display-PCR (FDD-PCR), including 3 novel genes. There were 7 differential expression genes that agreed with each other in two detection methods. The possible roles of some differential expressed genes, which maybe involved in the mechanism of tumor metastasis, were discussed. cDNA chip was used to analyze gene expression in a high-throughput and large scale manner, in combination with FDD-PCR for cloning unknown novel genes. In conclusion, some genes related to metastasis were preliminarily scanned, which would contribute to disclose the molecular mechanism of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  14. ALK and ROS1 rearrangements, coexistence and treatment in epidermal growth factor receptor-wild type lung adenocarcinoma: a multicenter study of 732 cases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhengbo; Zheng, Yuhui; Wang, Xuzhou; Su, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangements represent two most frequent fusion targets in lung adenocarcinoma. Our study was intended to explore the clinicopathological characteristics, coexistence and treatment of ALK/ROS1-rearranged patients of lung adenocarcinoma without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Methods Patients with wild-type EGFR mutation were screened for ALK/ROS1 at four domestic hospitals. ALK/ROS1 rearrangements were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Progression-free survival (PFS) curve was plotted with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Among 732 eligible cases, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements were detected in 89 (12.2%) and 32 (4.4%) patients respectively. One patient harbored coexisting ALK/ROS1 fusion. Both ALK and ROS1-positive phenotypes were predominantly detected in younger non-smokers. More ALK/ROS1-rearranged patients were correlated with the expressions of TTF1, napsin A and solid predominant adenocarcinoma subtype. Thirty-three ALK and six ROS1 rearrangement patients received crizotinib treatment at an advanced stage. The median PFS was 9.5 months for ALK-positive patients and it was not attained in ROS1-rearranged counterparts. Conclusions The frequency of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements is elevated in EGFR-wild-type patients and the phenomenon of coexisting ALK/ROS1 has remained extremely rare. The rearrangements of ALK/ROS1 are correlated with age, smoking status, expressions of TTF1 & napsin A and solid predominant adenocarcinoma subtype. PMID:29268402

  15. Invasive mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma of ectopic breast tissue in the vulva: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yin, C; Chapman, J; Tawfik, O

    2003-01-01

    We present the first case of primary vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma of ectopic breast origin. The patient is an 84-year-old woman with a mass on the left side of her vulva. A left partial vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissections revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma that involved the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and BRST-1 markers. The clinical and pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and treatment are discussed.

  16. Dietary Factors and the Risks of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Ai; Corley, Douglas A.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Kaur, Rubinder

    2010-01-01

    Incidence rates for esophageal adenocarcinoma have increased by over 500% during the past few decades without clear reasons. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obesity, and smoking have been identified as risk factors, although the demographic distribution of these risk factors is not consistent with the demographic distribution of esophageal adenocarcinoma, which is substantially more common among whites and males than any other demographic groups. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested associations between dietary factors and the risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett’s esophagus, though a comprehensive review is lacking. The main aim of the present review is to consider the evidence linking dietary factors with the risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s esophagus, and the progression from Barrett’s esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The existing epidemiological evidence is strongest for an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, fruits and vegetables, particularly raw fruits and vegetables and dark-green, leafy and cruciferous vegetables, carbohydrates, fiber and iron and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s esophagus. Patients at higher risk for Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma may benefit from increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing their intake of red meat and other processed food items. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between diet and the progression of Barrett’s esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from cohort studies will help determine whether randomized chemoprevention trials are warranted for the primary prevention of Barrett’s esophagus or its progression to cancer. PMID:20624335

  17. CT assessment of woodworkers' nasal adenocarcinomas confirms the origin in the olfactory cleft.

    PubMed

    Georgel, T; Jankowski, R; Henrot, P; Baumann, C; Kacha, S; Grignon, B; Toussaint, B; Graff, P; Kaminsky, M C; Geoffrois, L; Vignaud, J M

    2009-08-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery let us observe that woodworkers' nasal adenocarcinomas originate in the olfactory cleft. Our aim was the identification of CT imaging features that corroborate the olfactory cleft as the site of origin for woodworkers' adenocarcinoma. We designed a retrospective study to compare CT scans of 27 unilateral olfactory cleft adenocarcinomas with 30 cases of nasosinusal polyposis (NSP) and 33 healthy sinus controls. Enlargement of the olfactory cleft, lateralization of the ethmoidal turbinate wall, and contralateral bulging of the nasal septum were measured on coronal scans passing through crista galli and posterior half of both ocular globes. Comparisons have been performed by using analysis of variance and the Bonferroni procedure. The nasal septum was significantly bulging across the midline in adenocarcinoma (4.6 +/- 3 mm; range, -0.1-13.7 mm) compared with NSP (0.7 +/- 1 mm; range, -2.1-2.3 mm) or healthy sinus controls (0.5 +/- 1 mm; range, -1.2-2 mm) (P < .001). The olfactory cleft was significantly wider in adenocarcinoma (15.1 +/- 4.5 mm; range, 8.6-25.7 mm) than in NSP (3.6 +/- 0.4 mm; range, 2.8-4.6 mm) or healthy sinus controls (3.3 +/- 0.7 mm; range, 1.4-4.6 mm). The ethmoidal labyrinth width was significantly smaller on the pathologic side in adenocarcinoma (7.2 +/- 2.7 mm; range, 3.2-14.2 mm) than in the control groups (P < .001). Whereas the angle between the conchal lamina and vertical midline was close to zero degrees in NSP (0.03 +/- 2.25 degrees ; range, -5 degrees -3 degrees ) and healthy sinus controls (0.45 +/- 2.13 degrees , range, -5 degrees -5 degrees ), it reached 39.76 +/- 13.83 degrees (P < .001) in adenocarcinoma. Radiologists should suspect nasal adenocarcinoma on sinus CT scans showing a unilateral expanding opacity of the olfactory cavity.

  18. Differences of immunophenotypic markers and signaling molecules between adenocarcinomas of gastric cardia and distal stomach.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liying; Zhang, Xianghong; Li, Yuehong; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Xuemin; Mi, Jianmin; Wang, Hengshu; Wang, Junling; Yan, Xia

    2011-04-01

    During the past decades, the subsites of gastric carcinoma underwent significant changes. The incidence of the adenocarcinoma at distal stomach has been decreased, whereas cardiac adenocarcinoma remained increasing in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between gastric cardiac and distal adenocarcinomas. We detected expressions of cytokeratins (cytokeratins 7, 14, 19, and 20) and mucins (mucins 1, 2, and 5AC) by immunohistochemistry and signaling molecules (p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 1 (MNK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in both groups. The incidence of mucin 2 expression was lower in total (50.0%) and advanced-stage cases (52.0%) with cardiac adenocarcinomas than those in distal cases with total (70.2%) and advanced stage (71.4%), respectively. However, the staining for cytokeratin 14 was also significantly higher in total or advanced-stage tumors from the cardia. Our data showed no significant difference of cytokeratin 7/cytokeratin 20 pattern between 2 groups, but cytokeratin 20 expression was significantly higher in advanced-stage carcinomas of the cardia (58.7%) than in distal ones with advanced stage (38.3%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated different relationships between immunophenotypic markers and pathologic parameters in adenocarcinomas of the cardia and distal stomach. Moreover, significantly lower expressions of MNK1 and p38 in cardiac tumors were also detected. In summary, we found significant differences in patterns of immunophenotypic markers and expressions of signaling molecules between the 2 groups. It is indicated that adenocarcinoma of the cardia was different in histotype and histologic origin from distal adenocarcinoma. The cardiac adenocarcinoma might be a special subtype or an independent entity of gastric carcinoma in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  19. Mutational landscape of goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix is distinct from typical carcinoids and colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Johncilla, Melanie; Stachler, Matthew; Misdraji, Joseph; Lisovsky, Mikhail; Yozu, Masato; Lindeman, Neal; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Odze, Robert D; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2018-02-08

    There is limited data on the spectrum of molecular alterations in goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix. We used next generation sequencing to determine mutations of potential pathogenetic and therapeutic significance in this rare group of tumors. Adequate DNA was successfully extracted in 34/46 cases and the final group included 18 goblet cell carcinoids and 16 adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids. Illumina TruSeq™ was used for sequencing exons of a custom 282 gene panel using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. All cases had a minimum coverage depth of at least 50 reads. After filtering through the Exome Sequencing Project, the number of mutations per case ranged from 0-9 (mean:3). The mutational burden in adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids was significantly higher than goblet cell carcinoids (mean 5 vs. 3; p < 0.05) but the spectrum of alterations overlapped between the two groups. The most frequent mutations included ARID1A (4/34), ARID2 (4/34), CDH1 (4/34), RHPN2 (4/34), and MLL2 (3/34). Some mutations typically seen in conventional colorectal adenocarcinomas were also identified but with much lower frequency (APC :4/34; KRAS :2/34). MLL2 and KRAS mutations were only seen in adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids and TP53 mutations were limited to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids (2/34). Copy number changes could be evaluated in 15/34 cases and showed low copy number gains in CDKN1B (6/15) and NFKBIA (6/15), among others. The overlapping molecular alterations suggest that goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids are best considered two grades of differentiation of the same tumor rather than two distinct histological types. Mutations in TP53, CDH1 and MLL2 mutations were predominantly present in the adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid group consistent with transformation to a higher grade lesion. The unique mutational profile also offers an

  20. Expression and function of activin receptors in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuji; Toujima, Saori; Otani, Tsutomu; Minami, Sawako; Yamoto, Mareo; Umesaki, Naohiko

    2003-09-01

    Menstrual cycle-dependent expressions of activin A in normal human endometrial tissues have been reported. Expression of activin receptor mRNAs and increased activin A production were also observed in human endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues, suggesting that activin A might enhance cell proliferation and inhibit apoptotic signaling in endometrial cancer cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of activin A on cell proliferation, anticancer drug-induced apoptosis and Fas-mediated apoptosis in 3 differentiated human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely HEC-1, HHUA and Ishikawa. Flow cytometric analyses revealed moderate expressions of all 4 types of activin receptor subunits on the cell surfaces of the 3 cell lines. The proliferations of the 3 endometrial cancer cells were completely unaffected by activin A, whereas it suppressed the cell proliferation of a human ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line, OVK-18, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, activin A did not affect the apoptotic changes in the 3 endometrial adenocarcinoma cells treated with 4 different anticancer drugs, namely CDDP, paclitaxel, etoposide and SN38. The apoptotic changes in HHUA cells treated with anti-Fas IgM were also unaffected by activin A. These results indicate that the increased activin A production in human endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues in vivo may not stimulate carcinoma cell proliferation or inhibit apoptotic signaling in carcinoma cells. Insensitivity to the usual growth suppression signals induced by activin A might be one of the mechanisms of immortality of human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

  1. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-12-12

    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. Changing rates of adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in England.

    PubMed

    Sasieni, P; Adams, J

    2001-05-12

    A recent analysis showed little or no effect of screening on the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cervix between 1971 and 1992. We have used additional data on cancers diagnosed in 1993-94 in England and up to 1997 in five English cancer registries to investigate more recent trends. After inputing the number of adenocarcinomas in women with unknown histology, we fitted an age-cohort model to 8062 adenocarcinomas of the cervix diagnosed in England between 1971 and 1987. Predictions from this model were applied to the more recent data on 5854 cases. Residual effects were plotted against year of diagnosis in each of four age-groups. We estimated the underlying risk of cervical adenocarcinoma to be 14 times (95% CI 11-19) greater in women born in the early 1960s than in cohorts born before 1935. An age-cohort model fitted the data for England well up to 1987, but substantially overestimated the numbers of adenocarcinomas in young women from 1990 onwards. In 1996-97 the incidence rate in women aged 25-54 years was less than 40% of that predicted from the age-cohort model. The substantial increase in cervical adenocarcinoma in recent years is largely a birth-cohort effect presumably associated with greater exposure to human papillomavirus after the sexual revolution in the 1960s. The relative decline in younger women observed in more recent years suggests an effect of cervical screening.

  3. miR-133 involves in lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis by targeting FLOT2.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangxia; Xu, Yahuan; Peng, Tao; Yan, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) reported to involve into the oncogenesis and progression in various human cancers. However, the roles and mechanism of miR-133 in lung adenocarcinoma remain largely unclear. In this study, qPCR assay and western blot were used to detect the expression levels of miR-133, Akt and FLOT2. Luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the target role of miR-133 on FLOT2. The cell invasion and the migration capability were performed using the transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We found that miR-133 expression levels were downregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma specimens and cell lines compared with the adjacent normal tissues and normal human bronchial epithelial cell. miR-133 significantly suppressed metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, FLOT2 (flotillin-2) identified as a direct target of miR-133, and FLOT2 expression levels were inversely correlated with miR-133 expression levels in human lung adenocarcinoma specimens. And the restoration studies suggested FGF2 as a downstream effector of miR-133 which acted through Akt signalling pathway. Our study revealed the mechanism that miR-133 suppresses lung adenocarcinoma metastasis by targeting FLOT2 via Akt signalling pathway, implicating a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma treatment.

  4. Cutaneous metastasis of signet-ring gastric adenocarcinoma to the breast with unusual clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Avgerinou, Georgia; Flessas, Ioannis; Hatziolou, Eftychia; Zografos, Georgios; Nitsios, Ilias; Zagouri, Flora; Katsambas, Andreas; Kanitakis, Jean

    2011-06-01

    Cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma is rare and usually presents in men, as nodules over the abdomen. We present the case of a woman with cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma showing unusual clinicopathological features. A 37-year-old woman developed florid cutaneous metastasis over the skin of the left breast two years after total gastrectomy for a signet-ring adenocarcinoma of the diffuse type. The metastasis presented as a multinodular growth developing over erythematous skin of the left hemithorax. Microscopically, the skin tumor was predominantly made up of spindle-shaped cells, mimicking a mesenchymal/fibrohistiocytic neoplasm. A comparative immunohistochemical study of the gastric primary and the skin tumor showed an almost identical profile (keratin 7/20+; epithelial membrane antigen+, MUC-5AC+), highlighting the gastric adenocarcinoma as the origin of the skin metastasis. Although rare, cutaneous metastases of gastric adenocarcinomas can develop in women and may mimic inflammatory metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry is invaluable in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  5. Differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumors from gastric adenocarcinomas and normal mucosae using confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, and gastric adenocarcinomas are a common cancer worldwide. To differentiate GISTs from adenocarcinomas is important because the surgical processes for both are different; the former excises the tumor with negative margins, while the latter requires radical gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. Endoscopy with biopsy is used to distinguish GISTs from adenocarcinomas; however, it may cause tumor bleeding in GISTs. We reported here the confocal Raman microspectroscopy as an effective tool to differentiate GISTs, adenocarcinomas, and normal mucosae. Of 119 patients enrolled in this study, 102 patients underwent gastrectomy (40 GISTs and 62 adenocarcinomas), and 17 patients with benign lesions were obtained as normal mucosae. Raman signals were integrated for 100 s for each spot on the specimen, and 5 to 10 spots, depending on the sample size, were chosen for each specimen. There were significant differences among those tissues as evidenced by different Raman signal responding to phospholipids and protein structures. The spectral data were further processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis. A two-dimensional plot demonstrated that GISTs, adenocarcinomas, and normal gastric mucosae could be effectively differentiated from each other.

  6. Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Alsaad, Khaled O; Obaidat, Nidal; Dube, Valerie; Chapman, William; Ghazarian, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas are rare tumors, and their histogenesis is not fully understood. They are classified into extramammary Paget's disease, sweat gland carcinomas, and "breast-like" adenocarcinomas of the vulva. The latter resemble adenocarcinomas arising in the breast morphologically and immunophenotypically. Rare cases of adenocarcinoma with apocrine features have been reported, and whether these neoplasms originate from the "native apocrine" sweat glands or from "anogenital mammary-like" glands are still debatable. The presence of normal mammary-like glands in the vicinity of the tumor, the transitional malignant morphological features from normal mammary-like glands and the tumor, the breast-like histological features of the tumor, and the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors generally suggest an origin from anogenital mammary-like glands. Absence of these features points toward native apocrine sweat glands as the source of these neoplasms. In this report, we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Paget's disease of the right vulva, which was treated by hemi-vulvectomy, and who later presented with primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes and intranodal mucinous/colloidal differentiation: a feature, to the best of our knowledge, not reported before. We also reviewed the histogenesis of the vulvar adenocarcinomas, with emphasis on the morphological features that separate the tumors arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands in the vulva from those arising from the native vulvar sweat glands.

  7. Jaundice: an important, poorly recognized risk factor for diminished survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Steven M; Gao, Feng; Sanford, Dominic; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan; Carpenter, Danielle H; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Jaundice impairs cellular immunity, an important defence against the dissemination of cancer. Jaundice is a common mode of presentation in pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between preoperative jaundice and survival in patients who have undergone resection of such tumours. Methods: Thirty possible survival risk factors were evaluated in a database of over 400 resected patients. Univariate analysis was used to determine odds ratio for death. All factors for which a P-value of <0.30 was obtained were entered into a multivariate analysis using the Cox model with backward selection. Results: Preoperative jaundice, age, positive node status, poor differentiation and lymphatic invasion were significant indicators of poor outcome in multivariate analysis. Absence of jaundice was a highly favourable prognostic factor. Interaction emerged between jaundice and nodal status. The benefit conferred by the absence of jaundice was restricted to patients in whom negative node status was present. Five-year overall survival in this group was 66%. Jaundiced patients who underwent preoperative stenting had a survival advantage. Conclusions: Preoperative jaundice is a negative risk factor in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Additional studies are required to determine the exact mechanism for this effect. PMID:23600768

  8. Inhibitory effects of CP on the growth of human gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 tumours in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Zhan-Xue; Li, Ai-Ying; An, Ran; Yue, Bin; Fan, Li-Qiao; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Objective To investigate the potential antitumour effects of [2-(6-amino-purine-9-yl)-1-hydroxy-phosphine acyl ethyl] phosphonic acid (CP) against gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Human BGC-823 xenotransplants were established in nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control and CP groups, which were administered NaHCO 3 vehicle alone or CP dissolved in NaHCO 3 (200 µg/kg body weight) daily, respectively. Tumour volume was measured weekly for 6 weeks. Resected tumours were assayed for proliferative activity with anti-Ki-67 or anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies. Cell apoptosis was examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and with caspase-3 immunostaining. Proteins were measured by Western blotting. Results There was a significant reduction in tumour volume and a reduced percentage of Ki-67-positive or PCNA-positive cells in the CP group compared with the control group. The percentage of TUNEL-positive or caspase 3-positive cells significantly increased following CP treatment compared with the control group. Tumours from the CP group had higher levels of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) compared with control tumours. Conclusion CP treatment inhibited tumour growth and induced tumour cell apoptosis in a nude mouse model of BGC-823 gastric adenocarcinoma. Activation of the AKT and ERK signalling pathways may mediate this antitumour activity.

  9. Impact of esophageal invasion on clinicopathological characteristics and long-term outcome of adenocarcinoma of the subcardia.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masanori; Tanizawa, Yutaka; Bando, Etsuro; Kawamura, Taiichi; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Terashima, Masanori

    2012-12-01

    A different classification system was used in the 7th edition of the TNM classification for adenocarcinoma of the subcardia either with or without esophageal invasion. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological and survival impact of esophageal invasion. The present study included 351 patients who underwent gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma located within 5 cm of the esophagogastric junction. The clinicopathological characteristics and survival curves were compared between patients with esophageal invasion [E (+) group, n = 125] and without esophageal invasion [E (-) group, n = 226]. Patients in the E (+) group had more advanced disease. The 5-year survival rate following macroscopic curative resection was significantly better in the E (-) group (80.8%) than in the E (+) (48.7%, P < 0.001), even after stratification by the pathological stage and nodal status. Multivariate analysis identified esophageal invasion (hazard ratio; 3.323, 95% confidential interval; 1.815-6.082) as one of the independent prognostic factors. Esophageal invasion affected the clinicopathological characteristics and long-term outcome of patients. Further study is necessary to clarify whether patients with esophageal invasion should be classified using the system for esophageal cancer or by another method. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tony S; Wu, Yi-Long; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Chu, Da-Tong; Saijo, Nagahiro; Sunpaweravong, Patrapim; Han, Baohui; Margono, Benjamin; Ichinose, Yukito; Nishiwaki, Yutaka; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yang, Jin-Ji; Chewaskulyong, Busyamas; Jiang, Haiyi; Duffield, Emma L; Watkins, Claire L; Armour, Alison A; Fukuoka, Masahiro

    2009-09-03

    Previous, uncontrolled studies have suggested that first-line treatment with gefitinib would be efficacious in selected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. In this phase 3, open-label study, we randomly assigned previously untreated patients in East Asia who had advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma and who were nonsmokers or former light smokers to receive gefitinib (250 mg per day) (609 patients) or carboplatin (at a dose calculated to produce an area under the curve of 5 or 6 mg per milliliter per minute) plus paclitaxel (200 mg per square meter of body-surface area) (608 patients). The primary end point was progression-free survival. The 12-month rates of progression-free survival were 24.9% with gefitinib and 6.7% with carboplatin-paclitaxel. The study met its primary objective of showing the noninferiority of gefitinib and also showed its superiority, as compared with carboplatin-paclitaxel, with respect to progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). In the subgroup of 261 patients who were positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation, progression-free survival was significantly longer among those who received gefitinib than among those who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001), whereas in the subgroup of 176 patients who were negative for the mutation, progression-free survival was significantly longer among those who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (hazard ratio for progression or death with gefitinib, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.05 to 3.98; P<0.001). The most common adverse events were rash or acne (in 66.2% of patients) and diarrhea (46.6%) in the gefitinib group and neurotoxic effects (69.9%), neutropenia (67.1%), and alopecia (58.4%) in the carboplatin-paclitaxel group. Gefitinib is superior to carboplatin-paclitaxel as an initial treatment for

  11. Quantitative CT based radiomics as predictor of resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Putten, Joost; Zinger, Svitlana; van der Sommen, Fons; de With, Peter H. N.; Prokop, Mathias; Hermans, John

    2018-02-01

    In current clinical practice, the resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is determined subjec- tively by a physician, which is an error-prone procedure. In this paper, we present a method for automated determination of resectability of PDA from a routine abdominal CT, to reduce such decision errors. The tumor features are extracted from a group of patients with both hypo- and iso-attenuating tumors, of which 29 were resectable and 21 were not. The tumor contours are supplied by a medical expert. We present an approach that uses intensity, shape, and texture features to determine tumor resectability. The best classification results are obtained with fine Gaussian SVM and the L0 Feature Selection algorithms. Compared to expert predictions made on the same dataset, our method achieves better classification results. We obtain significantly better results on correctly predicting non-resectability (+17%) compared to a expert, which is essential for patient treatment (negative prediction value). Moreover, our predictions of resectability exceed expert predictions by approximately 3% (positive prediction value).

  12. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  13. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  14. Identification of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Cheng; Yan, Li; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xingxing; Lin, Zongwu; Zhang, Yongxing; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical staining has been widely used in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which is of vital importance for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Due to the lack of a comprehensive analysis of different lung cancer subtypes, there may still be undiscovered markers with higher diagnostic accuracy. Methods Herein first, we systematically analyzed high-throughput data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Combining differently expressed gene screening and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we attempted to identify the genes which might be suitable as immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then we detected the expression of six of these genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in lung cancer sections using immunohistochemical staining. Results A number of genes were identified as candidate immunohistochemical markers with high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then the staining results confirmed the potentials of the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and their sensitivity and specificity were not less than many commonly used markers. Conclusions The results revealed that the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) might be suitable markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and also validated the feasibility of our methods for identification of candidate markers from high-throughput data. PMID:26380766

  15. Fried meat intake is a risk factor for lung adenocarcinoma in a prospective cohort of Chinese men and women in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Yu, Mimi C.

    2013-01-01

    Probable human carcinogens are generated during Chinese-style high-temperature cooking of meat and have been detected in the ambient air and on the meat surface. Although the inhalation of these compounds is an established risk factor for lung cancer, exposure via fried meat consumption has not yet been prospectively evaluated as a risk factor. The relationship between fried meat intake and lung cancer risk was investigated using data from a prospective cohort study among Chinese in Singapore. Lung cancer cases (n = 1130) were identified from 61 321 men and women, 70% of whom were lifetime never smokers. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, there was no association between fried meat intake and risk of all lung cancers combined. For lung adenocarcinoma, fried meat intake had a statistically significant association with increased risk. The association between fried meat intake and risk of lung adenocarcinoma became stronger when analyses were restricted to lifetime never smokers. Compared with the lowest tertile of fried meat intake, the HRs (95% CIs) for the second and third tertiles were 1.43 (0.98, 2.08) and 1.51 (1.03, 2.22), respectively (P for trend = 0.04). The positive association was present among both men and women. There was no association between fried meat intake and risk of non-adenocarcinomas of the lung. Our prospective results for fried meat intake support consumption as an important route of exposure to compounds from Chinese-style high-temperature cooking for the development of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23568952

  16. Duodenal localization is a negative predictor of survival after small bowel adenocarcinoma resection: A population-based, propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Alexander; Galata, Christian; Beutner, Ulrich; Schmied, Bruno M; Warschkow, Rene; Steffen, Thomas; Brunner, Walter; Post, Stefan; Marti, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the influence of tumor localization of small bowel adenocarcinoma on survival after surgical resection. Patients with resected small bowel adenocarcinoma, ACJJ stage I-III, were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2004 to 2013. The impact of tumor localization on overall and cancer-specific survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models with and without risk-adjustment and propensity score methods. Adenocarcinoma was localized to the duodenum in 549 of 1025 patients (53.6%). There was no time trend for duodenal localization (P = 0.514). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 48.2% (95%CI: 43.3-53.7%) for patients with duodenal carcinoma and 66.6% (95%CI: 61.6-72.1%) for patients with cancer located in the jejunum or ileum. Duodenal localization was associated with worse overall and cancer-specific survival in univariable (HR = 1.73; HR = 1.81, respectively; both P < 0.001), multivariable (HR = 1.52; HR = 1.65; both P < 0.001), and propensity score-adjusted analyses (HR = 1.33, P = 0.012; HR = 1.50, P = 0.002). Furthermore, young age, retrieval of more than 12 regional lymph nodes, less advanced stage, and married matrimonial status were positive, independent prognostic factors. Duodenal localization is an independent risk factor for poor survival after resection of adenocarcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. ALK and ROS1 rearrangements, coexistence and treatment in epidermal growth factor receptor-wild type lung adenocarcinoma: a multicenter study of 732 cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhengbo; Zheng, Yuhui; Wang, Xuzhou; Su, Haiyan; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangements represent two most frequent fusion targets in lung adenocarcinoma. Our study was intended to explore the clinicopathological characteristics, coexistence and treatment of ALK/ROS1-rearranged patients of lung adenocarcinoma without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Patients with wild-type EGFR mutation were screened for ALK/ROS1 at four domestic hospitals. ALK/ROS1 rearrangements were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Progression-free survival (PFS) curve was plotted with the Kaplan-Meier method. Among 732 eligible cases, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements were detected in 89 (12.2%) and 32 (4.4%) patients respectively. One patient harbored coexisting ALK/ROS1 fusion. Both ALK and ROS1-positive phenotypes were predominantly detected in younger non-smokers. More ALK/ROS1-rearranged patients were correlated with the expressions of TTF1, napsin A and solid predominant adenocarcinoma subtype. Thirty-three ALK and six ROS1 rearrangement patients received crizotinib treatment at an advanced stage. The median PFS was 9.5 months for ALK-positive patients and it was not attained in ROS1-rearranged counterparts. The frequency of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements is elevated in EGFR-wild-type patients and the phenomenon of coexisting ALK/ROS1 has remained extremely rare. The rearrangements of ALK/ROS1 are correlated with age, smoking status, expressions of TTF1 & napsin A and solid predominant adenocarcinoma subtype.

  18. Omentalization of cystic sublumbar lymph node metastases for long-term palliation of tenesmus and dysuria in a dog with anal sac adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoelzler, M G; Bellah, J R; Donofro, M C

    2001-12-15

    A 13-year-old castrated male Bassett Hound was examined because of a 2-week history of severe constipation and tenesmus. Radiography revealed a large cystic mass in the caudal portion of the abdomen that was compressing the urethra and obstructing the pelvic canal. A small perianal mass was also noticed in the region of the left anal sac. Exploratory surgery was performed, but the mass was deemed unresectable. Instead, the mass was incised, drained, and omentalized in an attempt to establish continuous drainage after surgery. Cytologic evaluation of the perianal mass was consistent with a diagnosis of anal sac adenocarcinoma. Histologic evaluation of the abdominal mass revealed it was a lymph node effaced by adenocarcinoma. Despite the poor prognosis for anal sac adenocarcinoma with metastatic spread to the sublumbar lymph nodes, tenesmus and dysuria in this dog remained palliated until the dog's death 18 months after surgery. Omentalization was successful in providing a continuous method of fluid drainage for this cystopapillary abdominal tumor.

  19. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands of the vulva successfully treated with surgery and hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Benito, Virginia; Arribas, Sara; Martínez, David; Medina, Norberto; Lubrano, Amina; Arencibia, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a rare malignancy; most tumors are squamous cell type while adenocarcinomas are rare. Primary adenocarcinomas of the vulva predominantly include extramammary Paget's disease and sweat gland carcinomas. Greene first described a rare form of adenocarcinoma in 1936, which was called adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands of the vulva because of its morphologic and immunohistochemical resemblance to breast adenocarcinomas. In the management of this entity, varying combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy may be used, as in patients with orthotopic breast carcinoma. However, hormonal therapy leads the way in patients with positive hormonal receptors, where other therapies cannot be used due to comorbidities or advanced age. We present the first reported case of an elderly patient with metastatic vulvar adenocarcinoma arising from mammary-like glands, successfully treated with a combination of surgery and hormonal therapy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Min Young

    2007-01-01

    Synchronous occurrence of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and gastric cancer in the same patient has not yet been reported in the English literature. MCL comprises 2.5 - 7% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and is characterized by a poor prognosis with a median survival probability of 3 - 4 years in most series. A 62-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of an abnormal gastric lesion. The endoscopic finding was compatible with type IIc early gastric cancer (EGC) in the middle third of the stomach, and a biopsy of the lesion proved to be carcinoma. Radical total gastrectomy with splenectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy were performed. The resected specimen revealed two grossly separated lesions. Postoperative histological examination reported both adenocarcinoma and MCL. Immunohistochemical staining showed positivity for CD5, CD20, and cyclin D1 in the infiltrated lymphoid cells. MCL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the current treatment approach is still unsatisfactory. Further advancements in the understanding of the synchronous occurrence of both diseases, and more efforts on investigations of treatment are needed. PMID:18159604