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Sample records for adenomatosis polyposis coli

  1. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Skipworth, James R A; Morkane, Clare; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Vyas, Soumil; Olde Damink, Steven W; Imber, Charles J; Pereira, Stephen P; Malago, Massimo; West, Nicholas; Phillips, Robin K S; Clark, Sue K; Shankar, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) develop duodenal and ampullary polyps that may progress to malignancy via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. Objective The aim of this study was to review a large series of FAP patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary polyposis. Methods A retrospective case notes review of all FAP patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary adenomatosis was performed. Results Between October 1993 and January 2010, 38 FAP patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced duodenal and ampullary polyps. Complications occurred in 29 patients and perioperative mortality in two. Postoperative histology revealed five patients to have preoperatively undetected cancer (R = 0.518, P < 0.001). Conclusions Pancreaticoduodenectomy in FAP is associated with significant morbidity, but low mortality. All patients under consideration for operative intervention require careful preoperative counselling and optimization. PMID:21492334

  2. Decision analysis in the management of duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed Central

    Vasen, H F; Bülow, S; Myrhøj, T; Mathus-Vliegen, L; Griffioen, G; Buskens, E; Taal, B G; Nagengast, F; Slors, J F; de Ruiter, P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are not only at high risk of developing adenomas in the colorectum but a substantial number of patients also develop polyps in the duodenum. Because treatment of duodenal polyps is extremely difficult and it is unknown how many patients ultimately develop duodenal cancer, the value of surveillance of the upper digestive tract is uncertain. AIMS: (1) To assess the cumulative risk of duodenal cancer in a large series of polyposis patients. (2) To develop a decision model to establish whether surveillance would lead to increased life expectancy. METHODS: Risk analysis was performed in 155 Dutch polyposis families including 601 polyposis patients, and 142 Danish families including 376 patients. Observation time was from birth until date of last contact, death, diagnosis of duodenal cancer, or closing date of the study. RESULTS: Seven Dutch and five Danish patients developed duodenal cancer. The lifetime risk of developing this cancer by the age of 70 was 4% (95% confidence interval 1-7%) in the Dutch series and 3% (95% confidence interval 0-6%) in the Danish series. Decision analysis showed that surveillance led to an increase in life expectancy by seven months. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of the upper digestive tract led to a moderate gain in life expectancy. Future studies should evaluate whether this increase in life expectancy outweighs the morbidity of endoscopic examination and proximal pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:9245923

  3. Familial polyposis coli and its extracolonic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S B

    1982-06-01

    A detailed clinical study of 30 families with familial polyposis coli is presented. Seven 'isolated' cases are also described. It was found that some families did not exhibit any extracolonic manifestations, but the majority of families showed various numbers of members who had these manifestations of differing types and degrees. In view of the great variability within the members of a family, polyposis coli and the Gardner syndrome are probably both produced by one pleiotropic gene. The occurrence of other neoplastic phenomena in association with polyposis coli has been considered. Many types of malignancy can occur in these patients and their families and the majority are probably fortuitous. The consistent finding of an association with medulloblastoma is such as to make this association of significance, but no reason is known for this. It is suggested that the term 'Turcot syndrome' should be used in a more restrictive manner than at present. PMID:7108915

  4. Lipomatosis coli, a mimicker of familial polyposis.

    PubMed

    Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Haas, Eric M; Ro, Jae; Thrall, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Multiple intestinal lipomas (lipomatous polyposis) are quite rare, and they can be quite challenging to diagnose because this condition may be clinically confused with familial adenomatous polyposis with a suggestive family history. Herein, we present a case of lipomatous polyposis that was presented with abdominal pain and, in colonoscopy, had more than 100 polyps. The patient was admitted for surgery with diagnosis of familial polyposis. Resected colon specimen had multiple polyps ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 cm. Microscopically, the polyps were composed of mature adipose tissue with normal overlying mucosa. There were also increased fat cells in the submucosa of the colon adjacent to the polyps. Lipomatous polyposis rarely occurs and can be confused with familial polyposis. Polypectomy is a simple and cost-effective procedure to help in diagnosis and prevent a major surgery. PMID:22056034

  5. Tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli downregulates intestinal transport.

    PubMed

    Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Rotte, Anand; Gu, Shuchen; Michael, Diana; Pasham, Venkanna; Wang, Kan; Kempe, Daniela S; Ackermann, Teresa F; Brücher, Björn; Fend, Falko; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2011-05-01

    Loss of function mutations of the tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) underly the familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice carrying an inactivating mutation in the apc gene (apc (Min/+)) similarly develop intestinal polyposis. APC is effective at least in part by degrading β-catenin and lack of APC leads to markedly enhanced cellular β-catenin levels. β-Catenin has most recently been shown to upregulate the Na+/K+ ATPase. The present study, thus, explored the possibility that APC could influence intestinal transport. The abundance and localization of β-catenin were determined utilizing Western blotting and confocal microscopy, the activity of the electrogenic glucose carrier (SGLT1) was estimated from the glucose-induced current in jejunal segments utilizing Ussing chamber experiments and the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3) activity from Na+ -dependent re-alkalinization of cytosolic pH (ΔpH(i)) following an ammonium pulse employing BCECF fluorescence. As a result, β-catenin abundance in intestinal tissue was significantly higher in apc (Min/+) mice than in wild-type mice (apc (+/+)). The β-catenin protein was localized in the basolateral membrane. Both, the glucose-induced current and ΔpH(i) were significantly higher in apc (Min/+) mice than in apc (+/+) mice. In conclusion, intestinal electrogenic transport of glucose and intestinal Na+/H+ exchanger activity are both significantly enhanced in apc (Min/+) mice, pointing to a role of APC in the regulation of epithelial transport. PMID:21476133

  6. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation Leads to Myopia Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenzhao; Zhou, Xiangtian; An, Jianhong; Huang, Furong; Wang, Qiongsi; Reinach, Peter S.; Li, Wei; Chen, Wensheng; Liu, Zuguo

    2015-01-01

    Myopia incidence in China is rapidly becoming a very serious sight compromising problem in a large segment of the general population. Therefore, delineating the underlying mechanisms leading to myopia will markedly lessen the likelihood of other sight compromising complications. In this regard, there is some evidence that patients afflicted with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), havean adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation and a higher incidence of myopia. To clarify this possible association, we determined whether the changes in pertinent biometric and biochemical parameters underlying postnatal refractive error development in APCMin mice are relevant for gaining insight into the pathogenesis of this disease in humans. The refraction and biometrics in APCMin mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates between postnatal days P28 and P84 were examined with eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR) and customized optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with WT littermates, the APCMin mutated mice developed myopia (average -4.64 D) on P84 which was associated with increased vitreous chamber depth (VCD). Furthermore, retinal and scleral changes appear in these mice along with: 1) axial length shortening; 2) increased retinal cell proliferation; 3) and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis. Scleral collagen fibril diameters became heterogeneous and irregularly organized in the APCMin mice. Western blot analysis showed that scleral alpha-1 type I collagen (col1α1) expression also decreased whereas MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was invariant. These results indicate that defective APC gene function promotes refractive error development. By characterizing in APCMin mice ocular developmental changes, this approach provides novel insight into underlying pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to human myopia development. PMID:26495845

  7. Genotype-phenotype correlations in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli.

    PubMed Central

    Soravia, C; Berk, T; Madlensky, L; Mitri, A; Cheng, H; Gallinger, S; Cohen, Z; Bapat, B

    1998-01-01

    Germ-line mutations of the tumor suppressor APC are implicated in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli (AAPC), a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). AAPC is recognized by the occurrence of <100 colonic adenomas and a later onset of colorectal cancer (age >40 years). The aim of this study was to assess genotype-phenotype correlations in AAPC families. By protein-truncation test (PTT) assay, the entire coding region of the APC gene was screened in affected individuals from 11 AAPC kindreds, and their phenotypic differences were examined. Five novel germ-line APC mutations were identified in seven kindreds. Mutations were located in three different regions of the APC gene: (1) at the 5' end spanning exons 4 and 5, (2) within exon 9, and (3) at the 3' distal end of the gene. Variability in the number of colorectal adenomas was most apparent in individuals with mutations in region 1, and upper-gastrointestinal manifestations were more severe in them. In individuals with mutations in either region 2 or region 3, the average number of adenomas tended to be lower than those in individuals with mutations in region 1, although age at diagnosis was similar. In all AAPC kindreds, a predominance of right-sided colorectal adenomas and rectal polyp sparing was observed. No desmoid tumors were found in these kindreds. Our data suggest that, in AAPC families, the location of the APC mutation may partially predict specific phenotypic expression. This should help in the design of tailored clinical-management protocols in this subset of FAP patients. PMID:9585611

  8. Genotype-phenotype correlations in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Soravia, C; Berk, T; Madlensky, L; Mitri, A; Cheng, H; Gallinger, S; Cohen, Z; Bapat, B

    1998-06-01

    Germ-line mutations of the tumor suppressor APC are implicated in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli (AAPC), a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). AAPC is recognized by the occurrence of <100 colonic adenomas and a later onset of colorectal cancer (age >40 years). The aim of this study was to assess genotype-phenotype correlations in AAPC families. By protein-truncation test (PTT) assay, the entire coding region of the APC gene was screened in affected individuals from 11 AAPC kindreds, and their phenotypic differences were examined. Five novel germ-line APC mutations were identified in seven kindreds. Mutations were located in three different regions of the APC gene: (1) at the 5' end spanning exons 4 and 5, (2) within exon 9, and (3) at the 3' distal end of the gene. Variability in the number of colorectal adenomas was most apparent in individuals with mutations in region 1, and upper-gastrointestinal manifestations were more severe in them. In individuals with mutations in either region 2 or region 3, the average number of adenomas tended to be lower than those in individuals with mutations in region 1, although age at diagnosis was similar. In all AAPC kindreds, a predominance of right-sided colorectal adenomas and rectal polyp sparing was observed. No desmoid tumors were found in these kindreds. Our data suggest that, in AAPC families, the location of the APC mutation may partially predict specific phenotypic expression. This should help in the design of tailored clinical-management protocols in this subset of FAP patients. PMID:9585611

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile polyposis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... In the third type, known as juvenile polyposis coli, affected individuals develop polyps only in their colon. People with generalized juvenile polyposis and juvenile polyposis coli typically develop polyps during childhood. Most juvenile polyps ...

  10. Deep vein thrombosis in a patient of adenomatous polyposis coli treated successfully with aspirin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Neha; Santra, Tuhin; Kar, Arnab; Guha, Pradipta; Bar, Mita; Adhikary, Apu; Datta, Sumana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. However, its association with adenomatous polyposis coli is extremely rare. Here we present an interesting case of deep vein thrombosis associated with adenomatous polyposis coli. Case Presentation: A 15 year old female who was having fever and diarrhea for 5 months developed bilateral asymmetric painful swelling of lower limbs for 1 month. Doppler ultrasound of lower limbs revealed presence of thrombosis from inferior vena cava up to popliteal vein. Colonoscopy and biopsy were suggestive of adenomatous polyposis coli. However, she could not tolerate anticoagulant therapy and was put on aspirin therapy for 6 months to which she responded well with the resolution of thrombus. Conclusion: Role of aspirin therapy may be considered whenever a patient of venous thrombosis cannot tolerate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:27386068

  11. Missense Polymorphisms in the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Gene and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Sean P.; Kim, Hyeja; Croitoru, Marina E.; Redston, Mark; Knight, Julia A.; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Whereas truncating germline mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene give rise to familial adenomatous polyposis, missense polymorphisms of APC may confer a weaker risk for colorectal cancer. METHODS We sequenced the entire open reading frame of the APC gene and tested for two common MYH mutations in a population-based series of patients with colorectal cancer and 5 to 99 adenomas. Missense adenomatous polyposis coli alterations identified in this colorectal cancer multiple-polyp population were analyzed in a population-based series of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy control subjects. RESULTS Germline APC or mutY human homologue (MYH) alterations were identified in 16 of 39 colorectal cancer-multiple polyp patients. Four missense APC gene alterations (S130G, E1317Q, Dl822V, G2502S) were observed in 13 individuals and 3 additional patients carried presumed pathogenic (APC Y94X, biallelic MYH Y165C and heterozygous MYH G382D) mutations. When independently assessed in 971 patients with colorectal cancer and 954 healthy control subjects, none of the identified missense APC alterations conferred a significantly increased risk for colorectal cancer, odds ratio (95 percent confidence intervals): S130G=3.1 (0.29–32.25), E1317Q= 1.08 (0.59–2.74), G2502S= 1 (0.65–1.63), D1822V (heterozygous)=0.79 (0.64–0.98), D1822V (homozygous) =0.82 (0.63–1.27). CONCLUSIONS Germline missense APC alterations observed in 33 percent of patients with multiple colorectal neoplasms seemed to play a limited role in colorectal cancer risk when independently assessed by a population-based, case-control analysis. PMID:18612690

  12. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Peter T.; Gumy, Laura F.; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J.; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Allan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members, the exact mechanism for the peripheral localization of APC remains unclear. Here we show that the heavy chain of kinesin-1 directly interacts with the APC C-terminus, contributing to the peripheral localisation of APC in fibroblasts. In rat hippocampal neurons the kinesin-1 binding domain of APC is required for its axon tip enrichment. Moreover, we demonstrate that APC requires interactions with both kinesin-2 and kinesin-1 for this localisation. Underlining the importance of the kinesin-1 association, neurons expressing APC lacking kinesin-1-binding domain have shorter axons. The identification of this novel kinesin-1-APC interaction highlights the complexity and significance of APC localisation in neurons. PMID:27272132

  13. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Peter T; Gumy, Laura F; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Allan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members, the exact mechanism for the peripheral localization of APC remains unclear. Here we show that the heavy chain of kinesin-1 directly interacts with the APC C-terminus, contributing to the peripheral localisation of APC in fibroblasts. In rat hippocampal neurons the kinesin-1 binding domain of APC is required for its axon tip enrichment. Moreover, we demonstrate that APC requires interactions with both kinesin-2 and kinesin-1 for this localisation. Underlining the importance of the kinesin-1 association, neurons expressing APC lacking kinesin-1-binding domain have shorter axons. The identification of this novel kinesin-1-APC interaction highlights the complexity and significance of APC localisation in neurons. PMID:27272132

  14. Adenomatous polyposis coli genotype-dependent toll-like receptor 4 activity in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Meng; Guo, Fuchun; Sang, Yaxiong; Qin, Qing; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs)/NF-κB activation stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was associated with diverse biological response in colon cancer, but the underlying mechanism was largely unknown. In the current study, we reported cell proliferation was elevated in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutated- and APC knockdown cell lines, while the proliferation was inhibited in APC wild-type cell lines. Besides, in vivo experiments showed that LPS promoted APC knockdown tumor growth while inhibited proliferation of APC wild type. Further study confirmed that activation of TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway by LPS cross regulated with APC/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway, which were depend on APC status of cell lines. Taken together, APC genotypes play a key role in LPS induced different colon cancer biological response by cross-regulating β-catenin and NF-κB, which may provide a novel strategy for carcinogenesis prevention. PMID:26760960

  15. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    SciTech Connect

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  16. Characterization of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Dynamics and Localization at the Centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Christina; Mok, Myth T. S.; Henderson, Beric R.

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is a multifunctional regulator of Wnt signaling and acts as a mobile scaffold at different cellular sites. APC was recently found to stimulate microtubule (MT) growth at the interphase centrosome; however, little is known about its dynamics and localization at this site. To address this, we analysed APC dynamics in fixed and live cells by fluorescence microscopy. In detergent-extracted cells, we discovered that APC was only weakly retained at the centrosome during interphase suggesting a rapid rate of exchange. This was confirmed in living cells by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which identified two pools of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-APC: a major rapidly exchanging pool (~86%) and minor retained pool (~14%). The dynamic exchange rate of APC was unaffected by C-terminal truncations implicating a targeting role for the N-terminus. Indeed, we mapped centrosome localization to N-terminal armadillo repeat (ARM) domain amino acids 334–625. Interestingly, the rate of APC movement to the centrosome was stimulated by intact MTs, and APC dynamics slowed when MTs were disrupted by nocodazole treatment or knockdown of γ-tubulin. Thus, the rate of APC recycling at the centrosome is enhanced by MT growth, suggesting a positive feedback to stimulate its role in MT growth. PMID:27144584

  17. Characterization of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Dynamics and Localization at the Centrosome.

    PubMed

    Lui, Christina; Mok, Myth T S; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is a multifunctional regulator of Wnt signaling and acts as a mobile scaffold at different cellular sites. APC was recently found to stimulate microtubule (MT) growth at the interphase centrosome; however, little is known about its dynamics and localization at this site. To address this, we analysed APC dynamics in fixed and live cells by fluorescence microscopy. In detergent-extracted cells, we discovered that APC was only weakly retained at the centrosome during interphase suggesting a rapid rate of exchange. This was confirmed in living cells by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which identified two pools of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-APC: a major rapidly exchanging pool (~86%) and minor retained pool (~14%). The dynamic exchange rate of APC was unaffected by C-terminal truncations implicating a targeting role for the N-terminus. Indeed, we mapped centrosome localization to N-terminal armadillo repeat (ARM) domain amino acids 334-625. Interestingly, the rate of APC movement to the centrosome was stimulated by intact MTs, and APC dynamics slowed when MTs were disrupted by nocodazole treatment or knockdown of γ-tubulin. Thus, the rate of APC recycling at the centrosome is enhanced by MT growth, suggesting a positive feedback to stimulate its role in MT growth. PMID:27144584

  18. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates radial axonal sorting and myelination in the PNS.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Benayahu; Traka, Maria; Kunjamma, Rejani B; Dukala, Danuta; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Anton, E S; Barres, Ben A; Soliven, Betty; Popko, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is multifunctional - it participates in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway as well as modulating cytoskeleton function. Although APC is expressed by Schwann cells, the role that it plays in these cells and in the myelination of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is unknown. Therefore, we used the Cre-lox approach to generate a mouse model in which APC expression is specifically eliminated from Schwann cells. These mice display hindlimb weakness and impaired axonal conduction in sciatic nerves. Detailed morphological analyses revealed that APC loss delays radial axonal sorting and PNS myelination. Furthermore, APC loss delays Schwann cell differentiation in vivo, which correlates with persistent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and results in perturbed extension of Schwann cell processes and disrupted lamellipodia formation. In addition, APC-deficient Schwann cells display a transient diminution of proliferative capacity. Our data indicate that APC is required by Schwann cells for their timely differentiation to mature, myelinating cells and plays a crucial role in radial axonal sorting and PNS myelination. PMID:27226321

  19. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) Is Required for Normal Development of Skin and Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Mari; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Bronson, Roderick T; Rothenberg, Rebecca; Ohene-Baah, Nana Yaw; Lund, Jennifer J; Kucherlapati, Melanie; Maas, Richard L; Kucherlapati, Raju

    2006-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) is a member of the Wnt signaling pathway that is involved in development and tumorigenesis. Heterozygous knockout mice for Apc have a tumor predisposition phenotype and homozygosity leads to embryonic lethality. To understand the role of Apc in development we generated a floxed allele. These mice were mated with a strain carrying Cre recombinase under the control of the human Keratin 14 (K14) promoter, which is active in basal cells of epidermis and other stratified epithelia. Mice homozygous for the floxed allele that also carry the K14-cre transgene were viable but had stunted growth and died before weaning. Histological and immunochemical examinations revealed that K14-cre–mediated Apc loss resulted in aberrant growth in many ectodermally derived squamous epithelia, including hair follicles, teeth, and oral and corneal epithelia. In addition, squamous metaplasia was observed in various epithelial-derived tissues, including the thymus. The aberrant growth of hair follicles and other appendages as well as the thymic abnormalities in K14-cre; ApcCKO/CKO mice suggest the Apc gene is crucial in embryonic cells to specify epithelial cell fates in organs that require epithelial–mesenchymal interactions for their development. PMID:17002498

  20. Linkage disequilibrium predicts physical distance in the adenomatous polyposis coli region

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Watkins, W.S.; Carlson, M.; Albertsen, H.; Thliveris, A.; Leppert, M. )

    1994-05-01

    To test the reliability of linkage-disequilibrium analysis for gene mapping, the authors compared physical distance and linkage disequilibrium among seven polymorphisms in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) region on chromosome 5. Three of them lie within the APC gene, and two lie within the nearby MCC (mutated in colon cancer) gene. One polymorphism lies between the two genes, and one is likely to be 5' of MCC. Five of these polymorphisms are newly reported. All polymorphisms were typed in the CEPH kindreds, yielding 179-205 unrelated two-locus haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium between each pair of polymorphisms is highly correlated with physical distance in this 550-kb region (correlation coefficient [minus].80, P < .006). This result is replicated in both the Utah and non-Utah CEPH kindreds. There is a tendency for greater disequilibrium among pairs of polymorphisms located within the same gene than among other pairs of polymorphisms. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated, but these measures revealed much less disequilibrium than did the two-locus disequilibrium measures. A review of 19 published disequilibrium studies, including this one, shows that linkage disequilibrium nearly always correlates significantly with physical distance in genomic regions >50-60 kb but that it does not do so in smaller genomic regions. The authors show that this agrees with theoretical predictions. This finding helps to resolve controversies regarding the use of disequilibrium for inferring gene order. Disequilibrium mapping is unlikely to predict gene order correctly in regions <50-60 kb in size but can often be applied successfully in regions of 50-500 kb or so in size. It is convenient that this is the range in which other mapping techniques, including chromosome walking and linkage mapping, become difficult. 81 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Topoisomerase IIα Binding Domains of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Influence Cell Cycle Progression and Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Coffey, Robert J.; Osheroff, Neil; Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Truncating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) are thought to initiate the majority of colorectal cancers. The 15- and 20-amino acid repeat regions of APC bind β-catenin and have been widely studied for their role in the negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. However, functions of APC in other important cellular processes, such as cell cycle control or aneuploidy, are only beginning to be studied. Our previous investigation implicated the 15-amino acid repeat region of APC (M2-APC) in the regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition through interaction with topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα). Methodology/Principal Findings We now demonstrate that the 20-amino acid repeat region of APC (M3-APC) also interacts with topo IIα in colonic epithelial cells. Expression of M3-APC in cells with full-length endogenous APC causes cell accumulation in G2. However, cells with a mutated topo IIα isoform and lacking topo IIβ did not arrest, suggesting that the cellular consequence of M2- or M3-APC expression depends on functional topoisomerase II. Both purified recombinant M2- and M3-APC significantly enhanced the activity of topo IIα. Of note, although M3-APC can bind β-catenin, the G2 arrest did not correlate with β-catenin expression or activity, similar to what was seen with M2-APC. More importantly, expression of either M2- or M3-APC also led to increased aneuploidy in cells with full-length endogenous APC but not in cells with truncated endogenous APC that includes the M2-APC region. Conclusions/Significance Together, our data establish that the 20-amino acid repeat region of APC interacts with topo IIα to enhance its activity in vitro, and leads to G2 cell cycle accumulation and aneuploidy when expressed in cells containing full-length APC. These findings provide an additional explanation for the aneuploidy associated with many colon cancers that possess truncated APC. PMID:20368985

  2. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Waller, Alexia; Findeis, Sarah; Lee, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene on chromosome 5q21, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomas throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of extraintestinal manifestations, including thyroid, soft tissue, and brain tumors, may also be present. These patients inevitably develop colorectal carcinoma by the fourth decade of life. In this review, the pathology, epidemiology, and genetic features of FAP are discussed. PMID:27617147

  3. Large Extent of Disorder in Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Offers a Strategy to Guard Wnt Signalling against Point Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Minde, David P.; Radli, Martina; Forneris, Federico; Maurice, Madelon M.; Rüdiger, Stefan G. D.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the central region of the signalling hub Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) cause colorectal tumourigenesis. The structure of this region remained unknown. Here, we characterise the Mutation Cluster Region in APC (APC-MCR) as intrinsically disordered and propose a model how this structural feature may contribute to regulation of Wnt signalling by phosphorylation. APC-MCR was susceptible to proteolysis, lacked α-helical secondary structure and did not display thermal unfolding transition. It displayed an extended conformation in size exclusion chromatography and was accessible for phosphorylation by CK1ε in vitro. The length of disordered regions in APC increases with species complexity, from C. elegans to H. sapiens. We speculate that the large disordered region harbouring phosphorylation sites could be a successful strategy to stabilise tight regulation of Wnt signalling against single missense mutations. PMID:24130866

  4. Functional Comparison of Human Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) and APC-Like in Targeting Beta-Catenin for Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Schneikert, Jean; Vijaya Chandra, Shree Harsha; Ruppert, Jan Gustav; Ray, Suparna; Wenzel, Eva Maria; Behrens, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Truncating mutations affect the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in most cases of colon cancer, resulting in the stabilization of β-catenin and uncontrolled cell proliferation. We show here that colon cancer cell lines express also the paralog APC-like (APCL or APC2). RNA interference revealed that it controls the level and/or the activity of β-catenin, but it is less efficient and binds less well to β-catenin than APC, thereby providing one explanation as to why the gene is not mutated in colon cancer. A further comparison indicates that APCL down-regulates the β-catenin level despite the lack of the 15R region known to be important in APC. To understand this discrepancy, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments that revealed that phosphorylated β-catenin displays a preference for binding to the 15 amino acid repeats (15R) rather than the first 20 amino acid repeat of APC. This suggests that the 15R region constitutes a gate connecting the steps of β-catenin phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination/degradation. Using RNA interference and domain swapping experiments, we show that APCL benefits from the 15R of truncated APC to target β-catenin for degradation, in a process likely involving heterodimerization of the two partners. Our data suggest that the functional complementation of APCL by APC constitutes a substantial facet of tumour development, because the truncating mutations of APC in colorectal tumours from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients are almost always selected for the retention of at least one 15R. PMID:23840886

  5. Adenomatous polyposis coli mutants dominantly activate Hsf1-dependent cell stress pathways through inhibition of microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Alexander E.; Kortright, Kaitlyn; Kaplan, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells up-regulate cell stress pathways, including the protein chaperone Hsp90. Increases in Hsp90 are believed “buffer” mutant protein activities necessary for cancer phenotypes. Activation of the cell stress pathway also alters the transcriptional landscape of cells in ways that are critical for cancer progression. However, it is unclear when and how the cell stress pathway is de-regulated during cancer progression. Here we report that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) found in colorectal cancer activate cell stress pathways in mouse intestinal crypt cells, prior to loss of heterozygosity at APC or to the appearance of canonical intestinal cancer markers. Hsp90 levels are elevated in normal APC heterozygote crypt cells and further elevated in non-cancer cells adjacent to dysplasias, suggesting that the Hsp90 stress pathway marks the “cancer-field” effect. Expression of mutant APC in normal human epithelial cells is sufficient to activate a cell stress pathway via perturbations in microtubule dynamics. Inhibition of microtubule dynamics is sufficient to activate an Hsf1-dependent increase in gene transcription and protein levels. We suggest that the early activation of this Hsf1 dependent cell stress pathway by mono-allelic mutations in APC can affect cell programming in a way that contributes to cancer onset. PMID:26320184

  6. Absence of somatic alterations of the EB1 gene adenomatous polyposis coli-associated protein in human sporadic colorectal cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Jaïs, P.; Sabourin, J. C.; Bombled, J.; Rougier, P.; Lasser, P.; Duvillard, P.; Bénard, J.; Bressac-de Paillerets, B.

    1998-01-01

    The human EB1 gene product was recently found, by a yeast two-hybrid screening, to be associated with the carboxy terminus of the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) protein, the product of a tumour-suppressor gene thought to act as a gatekeeper in colorectal carcinogenesis. Because virtually all of the APC mutations result in the synthesis of carboxy-terminal truncated proteins, mutant APC proteins are expected to lose their ability to interact with EB1 gene product. Thus, the interaction between APC and EB1 proteins may be important for the tumour-suppressor activity of APC protein, and raises the hypothesis that EB1 is also involved in sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, somatic mutations in the entire coding sequence of EB1 cDNA were searched by reverse transcriptase single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in 21 sporadic colorectal cancers and seven adenomas. None of these tumours contained somatic mutation, whereas a silent cDNA variant was identified in 14% of alleles. Furthermore, to investigate whether EB1 locus was included within a region subjected to losses of heterozygosity, four polymorphism markers surrounding EB1 locus were surveyed. Only one out of 28 colorectal tumours contained a loss of heterozygosity at the D20S107 marker. In conclusion, the present findings strongly suggest that EB1 gene is not involved in somatic colorectal carcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9823979

  7. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity.

    PubMed

    Valvezan, Alexander J; Zhang, Fang; Diehl, J Alan; Klein, Peter S

    2012-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is essential for many signaling pathways and cellular processes. As Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) functions in many of the same processes, we investigated a role for APC in the regulation of GSK-3-dependent signaling. We find that APC directly enhances GSK-3 activity. Furthermore, knockdown of APC mimics inhibition of GSK-3 by reducing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and by activating mTOR, revealing novel roles for APC in the regulation of these enzymes. Wnt signaling inhibits GSK-3 through an unknown mechanism, and this results in both stabilization of β-catenin and activation of mTOR. We therefore hypothesized that Wnts may regulate GSK-3 by disrupting the interaction between APC and the Axin-GSK-3 complex. We find that Wnts rapidly induce APC dissociation from Axin, correlating with β-catenin stabilization. Furthermore, Axin interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 causes APC dissociation from Axin. We propose that APC regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing GSK-3 activity, and that Wnts induce APC dissociation from Axin to reduce GSK-3 activity and activate downstream signaling. APC regulation of GSK-3 also provides a novel mechanism for Wnt regulation of multiple downstream effectors, including β-catenin and mTOR. PMID:22184111

  8. The Adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor is essential for Axin complex assembly and function and opposes Axin's interaction with Dishevelled.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Bienz, Mariann

    2011-11-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer are linked to mutational inactivation of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor. APC downregulates Wnt signalling by enabling Axin to promote the degradation of the Wnt signalling effector β-catenin (Armadillo in flies). This depends on Axin's DIX domain whose polymerization allows it to form dynamic protein assemblies ('degradasomes'). Axin is inactivated upon Wnt signalling, by heteropolymerization with the DIX domain of Dishevelled, which recruits it into membrane-associated 'signalosomes'. How APC promotes Axin's function is unclear, especially as it has been reported that APC's function can be bypassed by overexpression of Axin. Examining apc null mutant Drosophila tissues, we discovered that APC is required for Axin degradasome assembly, itself essential for Armadillo downregulation. Degradasome assembly is also attenuated in APC mutant cancer cells. Notably, Axin becomes prone to Dishevelled-dependent plasma membrane recruitment in the absence of APC, indicating a crucial role of APC in opposing the interaction of Axin with Dishevelled. Indeed, co-expression experiments reveal that APC displaces Dishevelled from Axin assemblies, promoting degradasome over signalosome formation in the absence of Wnts. APC thus empowers Axin to function in two ways-by enabling its DIX-dependent self-assembly, and by opposing its DIX-dependent copolymerization with Dishevelled and consequent inactivation. PMID:22645652

  9. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, JL; Alexander, J; Pirone, A; Palka, CD; Lee, S-Y; Mebane, L; Haydon, PG; Jacob, MH

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disabilities (IDs) and autism spectrum disorders link to human APC inactivating gene mutations. However, little is known about adenomatous polyposis coli’s (APC’s) role in the mammalian brain. This study is the first direct test of the impact of APC loss on central synapses, cognition and behavior. Using our newly generated APC conditional knock-out (cKO) mouse, we show that deletion of this single gene in forebrain neurons leads to a multisyndromic neurodevelopmental disorder. APC cKO mice, compared with wild-type littermates, exhibit learning and memory impairments, and autistic-like behaviors (increased repetitive behaviors, reduced social interest). To begin to elucidate neuronal changes caused by APC loss, we focused on the hippocampus, a key brain region for cognitive function. APC cKO mice display increased synaptic spine density, and altered synaptic function (increased frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic currents, modestly enhanced long-term potentiation). In addition, we found excessive β-catenin levels and associated changes in canonical Wnt target gene expression and N-cadherin synaptic adhesion complexes, including reduced levels of presenilin1. Our findings identify some novel functional and molecular changes not observed previously in other genetic mutant mouse models of co-morbid cognitive and autistic-like disabilities. This work thereby has important implications for potential therapeutic targets and the impact of their modulation. We provide new insights into molecular perturbations and cell types that are relevant to human ID and autism. In addition, our data elucidate a novel role for APC in the mammalian brain as a hub that links to and regulates synaptic adhesion and signal transduction pathways critical for normal cognition and behavior. PMID:24934177

  10. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Deletion in Efferent Olivocochlear Neurons Perturbs Afferent Synaptic Maturation and Reduces the Dynamic Range of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Tyler T.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Normal hearing requires proper differentiation of afferent ribbon synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that carry acoustic information to the brain. Within individual IHCs, presynaptic ribbons show a size gradient with larger ribbons on the modiolar face and smaller ribbons on the pillar face. This structural gradient is associated with a gradient of spontaneous rates and threshold sensitivity, which is essential for a wide dynamic range of hearing. Despite their importance for hearing, mechanisms that direct ribbon differentiation are poorly defined. We recently identified adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) as a key regulator of interneuronal synapse maturation. Here, we show that APC is required for ribbon size heterogeneity and normal cochlear function. Compared with wild-type littermates, APC conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit decreased auditory brainstem responses. The IHC ribbon size gradient is also perturbed. Whereas the normal-developing IHCs display ribbon size gradients before hearing onset, ribbon sizes are aberrant in APC cKOs from neonatal ages on. Reporter expression studies show that the CaMKII-Cre used to delete the floxed APC gene is present in efferent olivocochlear (OC) neurons, not IHCs or SGNs. APC loss led to increased volumes and numbers of OC inhibitory dopaminergic boutons on neonatal SGN fibers. Our findings identify APC in efferent OC neurons as essential for regulating ribbon heterogeneity, dopaminergic terminal differentiation, and cochlear sensitivity. This APC effect on auditory epithelial cell synapses resembles interneuronal and nerve–muscle synapses, thereby defining a global role for APC in synaptic maturation in diverse cell types. Significance Statement This study identifies novel molecules and cellular interactions that are essential for the proper maturation of afferent ribbon synapses in sensory cells of the inner ear, and for normal hearing. PMID:26085645

  11. different Roles for the axin interactions with the SAMP versus the second twenty amino acid repeat of adenomatous polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Schneikert, Jean; Ruppert, Jan Gustav; Behrens, Jürgen; Wenzel, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signalling is prevented by the proteosomal degradation of β-catenin, which occurs in a destruction complex containing adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), APC-like (APCL), Axin and Axin2. Truncating mutations of the APC gene result in the constitutive stabilisation of β-catenin and the initiation of colon cancer, although tumour cells tolerate the expression of wild-type APCL. Using the colocalisation of overexpressed Axin, APC and APCL constructs as a readout of interaction, we found that Axin interacted with the second twenty amino acid repeat (20R2) of APC and APCL. This interaction involved a domain adjacent to the C-terminal DIX domain of Axin. We identified serine residues within the 20R2 of APCL that were involved in Axin colocalisation, the phosphorylation of truncated APCL and the down-regulation of β-catenin. Our results indicated that Axin, but not Axin2, displaced APC, but not APCL, from the cytoskeleton and stimulated its incorporation into bright cytoplasmic dots that others have recognised as β-catenin destruction complexes. The SAMP repeats in APC interact with the N-terminal RGS domain of Axin. Our data showed that a short domain containing the first SAMP repeat in truncated APC was required to stimulate Axin oligomerisation. This was independent of Axin colocalisation with 20R2. Our data also suggested that the RGS domain exerted an internal inhibitory constraint on Axin oligomerisation. Considering our data and those from others, we discuss a working model whereby β-catenin phosphorylation involves Axin and the 20R2 of APC or APCL and further processing of phospho-β-catenin occurs upon the oligomerisation of Axin that is induced by binding the SAMP repeats in APC. PMID:24722208

  12. Destruction complex function in the Wnt signaling pathway of Drosophila requires multiple interactions between Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 and Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; Zhou, Meng-Ning; Zimmerman, Sandra; Molinar, Olivia; Zhouzheng, Fangyuan; Carter, Krista; Kapur, Megha; Cheatle, Alys; Decal, Richard; McCartney, Brooke M

    2012-03-01

    The tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) negatively regulates Wnt signaling through its activity in the destruction complex. APC binds directly to the main effector of the pathway, β-catenin (βcat, Drosophila Armadillo), and helps to target it for degradation. In vitro studies demonstrated that a nonphosphorylated 20-amino-acid repeat (20R) of APC binds to βcat through the N-terminal extended region of a 20R. When phosphorylated, the phospho-region of an APC 20R also binds βcat and the affinity is significantly increased. These distinct APC-βcat interactions suggest different models for the sequential steps of destruction complex activity. However, the in vivo role of 20R phosphorylation and extended region interactions has not been rigorously tested. Here we investigated the functional role of these molecular interactions by making targeted mutations in Drosophila melanogaster APC2 that disrupt phosphorylation and extended region interactions and deletion mutants missing the Armadillo binding repeats. We tested the ability of these mutants to regulate Wnt signaling in APC2 null and in APC2 APC1 double-null embryos. Overall, our in vivo data support the role of phosphorylation and extended region interactions in APC2's destruction complex function, but suggest that the extended region plays a more significant functional role. Furthermore, we show that the Drosophila 20Rs with homology to the vertebrate APC repeats that have the highest affinity for βcat are functionally dispensable, contrary to biochemical predictions. Finally, for some mutants, destruction complex function was dependent on APC1, suggesting that APC2 and APC1 may act cooperatively in the destruction complex. PMID:22174073

  13. Differential expression of c-myc gene and c-fos gene in premalignant and malignant tissues from patients with familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Sugio, K; Kurata, S; Sasaki, M; Soejima, J; Sasazuki, T

    1988-09-01

    The expression of 8 oncogenes and the structures of 19 oncogenes were analyzed in 15 adenocarcinomas (12 primary and 3 metastatic), 18 adenomatous polyps, and 18 normal colonic mucosae derived from 19 patients with familial polyposis coli. The expression of c-myc gene was most elevated in carcinoma, and moderately elevated in adenoma, compared with corresponding normal colonic mucosa. In contrast, the expression of c-fos gene was markedly decreased in all samples of adenoma and carcinoma, compared with that of normal colonic mucosa. These characteristic expression patterns of c-myc and c-fos genes were revealed not only in familial polyposis coli but also in cases of nonhereditary colon carcinoma. Structures of the 19 oncogenes were not modified in either adenoma or carcinoma, except for amplification of the c-myc gene detected in one carcinoma, but not in adenoma, from the same patient. Analyses of the amplified c-myc gene suggest that gene duplication may relate to the mechanism of gene amplification. Thus, the enhanced expression of c-myc gene in adenoma and carcinoma may reflect the proliferative activity, while the c-fos gene may be a prerequisite to stabilize the state of terminal differentiation of colonic epithelial cells. PMID:2842040

  14. HectD1 E3 ligase modifies adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with polyubiquitin to promote the APC-axin interaction.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoanh; Bustos, Daisy; Yeh, Ronald; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Lam, Cynthia; Shriver, Stephanie; Zilberleyb, Inna; Lee, Michelle W; Phu, Lilian; Sarkar, Anjali A; Zohn, Irene E; Wertz, Ingrid E; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Polakis, Paul

    2013-02-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein functions as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. In this capacity, APC forms a "destruction complex" with Axin, CK1α, and GSK3β to foster phosphorylation of the Wnt effector β-catenin earmarking it for Lys-48-linked polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. APC is conjugated with Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin, but it is unclear whether this modification promotes the APC-Axin interaction or confers upon APC an alternative function in the destruction complex. Here we identify HectD1 as a candidate E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies APC with Lys-63 polyubiquitin. Knockdown of HectD1 diminished APC ubiquitylation, disrupted the APC-Axin interaction, and augmented Wnt3a-induced β-catenin stabilization and signaling. These results indicate that HectD1 promotes the APC-Axin interaction to negatively regulate Wnt signaling. PMID:23277359

  15. Duodenal adenoma surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Sulbaran, Marianny; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disorder caused by Adenomatous Polyposis Gene mutations that lead to the development of colorectal polyps with great malignant risk throughout life. Moreover, numerous extracolonic manifestations incorporate different clinical features to produce varied individual phenotypes. Among them, the occurrence of duodenal adenomatous polyps is considered an almost inevitable event, and their incidence rates increase as a patient’s age advances. Although the majority of patients exhibit different grades of duodenal adenomatosis as they age, only a small proportion (1%-5%) of patients will ultimately develop duodenal carcinoma. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to review the data regarding the epidemiology, classification, genetic features, endoscopic features, carcinogenesis, surveillance and management of duodenal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:26265988

  16. Tissue-Specific Effects of Reduced β-catenin Expression on Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation-Instigated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Colon and Ovarian Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ying; Sakamoto, Naoya; Wu, Rong; Liu, Jie-yu; Wiese, Alexandra; Green, Maranne E.; Green, Megan; Akyol, Aytekin; Roy, Badal C.; Zhai, Yali; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) inactivating mutations are present in most human colorectal cancers and some other cancers. The APC protein regulates the β-catenin protein pool that functions as a co-activator of T cell factor (TCF)-regulated transcription in Wnt pathway signaling. We studied effects of reduced dosage of the Ctnnb1 gene encoding β-catenin in Apc-mutation-induced colon and ovarian mouse tumorigenesis and cell culture models. Concurrent somatic inactivation of one Ctnnb1 allele, dramatically inhibited Apc mutation-induced colon polyposis and greatly extended Apc-mutant mouse survival. Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose markedly inhibited increases in β-catenin levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus following Apc inactivation in colon epithelium, with attenuated expression of key β-catenin/TCF-regulated target genes, including those encoding the EphB2/B3 receptors, the stem cell marker Lgr5, and Myc, leading to maintenance of crypt compartmentalization and restriction of stem and proliferating cells to the crypt base. A critical threshold for β-catenin levels in TCF-regulated transcription was uncovered for Apc mutation-induced effects in colon epithelium, along with evidence of a feed-forward role for β-catenin in Ctnnb1 gene expression and CTNNB1 transcription. The active β-catenin protein pool was highly sensitive to CTNNB1 transcript levels in colon cancer cells. In mouse ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (OEAs) arising from Apc- and Pten-inactivation, while Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose affected β-catenin levels and some β-catenin/TCF target genes, Myc induction was retained and OEAs arose in a fashion akin to that seen with intact Ctnnb1 gene dose. Our findings indicate Ctnnb1 gene dose exerts tissue-specific differences in Apc mutation-instigated tumorigenesis. Differential expression of selected β-catenin/TCF-regulated genes, such as Myc, likely underlies context-dependent effects of Ctnnb1 gene dosage in tumorigenesis. PMID:26528816

  17. Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 blocks adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated nuclear export and degradation of beta-catenin. Regulation by histone deacetylase 1.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Beric R; Galea, Melanie; Schuechner, Stefan; Leung, Louie

    2002-07-01

    The oncogenic protein beta-catenin is overexpressed in many cancers, frequently accumulating in nuclei where it forms active complexes with lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1)/T-cell transcription factors, inducing genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1. In normal cells, nuclear beta-catenin levels are controlled by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein through nuclear export and cytoplasmic degradation. Transient expression of LEF-1 is known to increase nuclear beta-catenin levels by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that APC and LEF-1 compete for nuclear beta-catenin with opposing consequences. APC can export nuclear beta-catenin to the cytoplasm for degradation. In contrast, LEF-1 anchors beta-catenin in the nucleus by blocking APC-mediated nuclear export. LEF-1 also prevented the APC/CRM1-independent nuclear export of beta-catenin as revealed by in vitro assays. Importantly, LEF-1-bound beta-catenin was protected from degradation by APC and axin in SW480 colon cancer cells. The ability of LEF-1 to trap beta-catenin in the nucleus was down-regulated by histone deacetylase 1, and this correlated with a decrease in LEF1 transcription activity. Our findings identify LEF-1 as key regulator of beta-catenin nuclear localization and stability and suggest that overexpression of LEF-1 in colon cancer and melanoma cells may contribute to the accumulation of oncogenic beta-catenin in the nucleus. PMID:11986304

  18. ABT-888 and quinacrine induced apoptosis in metastatic breast cancer stem cells by inhibiting base excision repair via adenomatous polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Siddharth, Sumit; Nayak, Deepika; Nayak, Anmada; Das, Sarita; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2016-09-01

    PARP inhibitors in combination with other agents are in clinical trial against cancer, but its effect on cancer stem cells (CSCs) is limited. CSCs are responsible for drug resistance, metastasis and cancer relapse due to high DNA repair capacity. Here, we present preclinical effects of Quinacrine (QC) with ABT-888, a PARP inhibitor, on highly metastatic breast cancer stem cells (mBCSCs). An increased level of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was noted after treatment with ABT-888 in QC pre-treated mBCSCs cells. Increased APC physically interacts with PARP-1 and inhibits PARylation causing the non assembly of base excision repair (BER) multiprotein complex, resulting in an irreparable DNA damage and subsequent apoptosis. Knockdown of APC in mBCSCs inhibited DNA damage, increased BER and PARylation, reduces apoptosis while the over-expression of APC in BT20 (APC low expressing) cells reversed the effect. Thus, combination of QC and ABT-888 decreased mBCSCs growth by activating APC and inhibiting BER within the cells. PMID:27334689

  19. Drosophila Homologues of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) and the Formin Diaphanous Collaborate by a Conserved Mechanism to Stimulate Actin Filament Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Richa; Stepanik, Vince; Rankova, Aneliya; Molinar, Olivia; Goode, Bruce L.; McCartney, Brooke M.

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a large multidomain protein that regulates the cytoskeleton. Recently, it was shown that vertebrate APC through its Basic domain directly collaborates with the formin mDia1 to stimulate actin filament assembly in the presence of nucleation barriers. However, it has been unclear whether these activities extend to homologues of APC and Dia in other organisms. Drosophila APC and Dia are each required to promote actin furrow formation in the syncytial embryo, suggesting a potential collaboration in actin assembly, but low sequence homology between the Basic domains of Drosophila and vertebrate APC has left their functional and mechanistic parallels uncertain. To address this question, we purified Drosophila APC1 and Dia and determined their individual and combined effects on actin assembly using both bulk fluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that APC1, similar to its vertebrate homologue, bound to actin monomers and nucleated and bundled filaments. Further, Drosophila Dia nucleated actin assembly and protected growing filament barbed ends from capping protein. Drosophila APC1 and Dia directly interacted and collaborated to promote actin assembly in the combined presence of profilin and capping protein. Thus, despite limited sequence homology, Drosophila and vertebrate APCs exhibit highly related activities and mechanisms and directly collaborate with formins. These results suggest that APC-Dia interactions in actin assembly are conserved and may underlie important in vivo functions in a broad range of animal phyla. PMID:23558679

  20. Reversible modification of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with K63-linked polyubiquitin regulates the assembly and activity of the β-catenin destruction complex.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoanh; Polakis, Paul

    2012-08-17

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor forms a complex with Axin and GSK3β to promote the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin, a key co-activator of Wnt-induced transcription. Here, we establish that APC is modified predominantly with K63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin in unstimulated HEK293 cells. Wnt3a stimulation induced a time-dependent loss of K63-polyubiquitin adducts from APC, an effect synchronous with the dissociation of Axin from APC and the stabilization of cytosolic β-catenin. RNAi-mediated depletion of Axin or β-catenin, which negated the association between APC and Axin, resulted in the absence of K63-adducts on APC. Overexpression of wild-type and phosphodegron-mutant β-catenin, combined with analysis of thirteen human cancer cell lines that harbor oncogenic mutations in APC, Axin, or β-catenin, support the hypothesis that a fully assembled APC-Axin-GSK3β-phospho-β-catenin complex is necessary for the K63-polyubiquitylation of APC. Intriguingly, the degree of this modification on APC appears to correlate inversely with the levels of β-catenin in cells. Together, our results indicate that K63-linked polyubiquitin adducts on APC regulate the assembly and/or efficiency of the β-catenin destruction complex. PMID:22761442

  1. The two SAMP repeats and their phosphorylation state in Drosophila Adenomatous polyposis coli-2 play mechanistically distinct roles in negatively regulating Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; Von Kleeck, Ryan A; Greaves, Bradford D; Vinson, David; Roberts, David M; McCartney, Brooke M

    2015-12-01

    The tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) plays a key role in regulating the canonical Wnt signaling pathway as an essential component of the β-catenin destruction complex. C-terminal truncations of APC are strongly implicated in both sporadic and familial forms of colorectal cancer. However, many questions remain as to how these mutations interfere with APC's tumor suppressor activity. One set of motifs frequently lost in these cancer-associated truncations is the SAMP repeats that mediate interactions between APC and Axin. APC proteins in both vertebrates and Drosophila contain multiple SAMP repeats that lack high sequence conservation outside of the Axin-binding motif. In this study, we tested the functional redundancy between different SAMPs and how these domains are regulated, using Drosophila APC2 and its two SAMP repeats as our model. Consistent with sequence conservation-based predictions, we show that SAMP2 has stronger binding activity to Axin in vitro, but SAMP1 also plays an essential role in the Wnt destruction complex in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that the phosphorylation of SAMP repeats is a potential mechanism to regulate their activity. Overall our findings support a model in which each SAMP repeat plays a mechanistically distinct role but they cooperate for maximal destruction complex function. PMID:26446838

  2. The two SAMP repeats and their phosphorylation state in Drosophila Adenomatous polyposis coli-2 play mechanistically distinct roles in negatively regulating Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; Von Kleeck, Ryan A.; Greaves, Bradford D.; Vinson, David; Roberts, David M.; McCartney, Brooke M.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) plays a key role in regulating the canonical Wnt signaling pathway as an essential component of the β-catenin destruction complex. C-terminal truncations of APC are strongly implicated in both sporadic and familial forms of colorectal cancer. However, many questions remain as to how these mutations interfere with APC’s tumor suppressor activity. One set of motifs frequently lost in these cancer-associated truncations is the SAMP repeats that mediate interactions between APC and Axin. APC proteins in both vertebrates and Drosophila contain multiple SAMP repeats that lack high sequence conservation outside of the Axin-binding motif. In this study, we tested the functional redundancy between different SAMPs and how these domains are regulated, using Drosophila APC2 and its two SAMP repeats as our model. Consistent with sequence conservation–based predictions, we show that SAMP2 has stronger binding activity to Axin in vitro, but SAMP1 also plays an essential role in the Wnt destruction complex in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that the phosphorylation of SAMP repeats is a potential mechanism to regulate their activity. Overall our findings support a model in which each SAMP repeat plays a mechanistically distinct role but they cooperate for maximal destruction complex function. PMID:26446838

  3. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob; Chun, Hong Sung; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  4. Apical Membrane Localization of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Tumor Suppressor Protein and Subcellular Distribution of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is implicated in the majority of hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. APC is known to function as a tumor suppressor through downregulation of β-catenin as part of a high molecular weight complex known as the β-catenin destruction complex. The molecular composition of the intact complex and its site of action in the cell are still not well understood. Reports on the subcellular localization of APC in various cell systems have differed significantly and have been consistent with an association with a cytosolic complex, with microtubules, with the nucleus, or with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. To better understand the role of APC and the destruction complex in colorectal cancer, we have begun to characterize and isolate these complexes from confluent polarized human colon epithelial cell monolayers and other epithelial cell types. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that a predominant fraction of APC associates tightly with the apical plasma membrane in a variety of epithelial cell types. This apical membrane association is not dependent on the mutational status of either APC or β-catenin. An additional pool of APC is cytosolic and fractionates into two distinct high molecular weight complexes, 20S and 60S in size. Only the 20S fraction contains an appreciable portion of the cellular axin and small but detectable amounts of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and β-catenin. Therefore, it is likely to correspond to the previously characterized β-catenin destruction complex. Dishevelled is almost entirely cytosolic, but does not significantly cofractionate with the 20S complex. The disproportionate amount of APC in the apical membrane and the lack of other destruction complex components in the 60S fraction of APC raise questions about whether these pools of APC take part in the degradation of β-catenin, or alternatively, whether they could be involved in other functions of the protein that

  5. The postsynaptic adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) multiprotein complex is required for localizing neuroligin and neurexin to neuronal nicotinic synapses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Madelaine M; Yang, Fang; Mohn, Jesse L; Storer, Elizabeth K; Jacob, Michele H

    2010-08-18

    Synaptic efficacy requires that presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations align precisely and mature coordinately. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, however. We propose that adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) is a key coordinator of presynaptic and postsynaptic maturation. APC organizes a multiprotein complex that directs nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) localization at postsynaptic sites in avian ciliary ganglion neurons in vivo. We hypothesize that the APC complex also provides retrograde signals that direct presynaptic active zones to develop in register with postsynaptic nAChR clusters. In our model, the APC complex provides retrograde signals via postsynaptic neuroligin that interacts extracellularly with presynaptic neurexin. S-SCAM (synaptic cell adhesion molecule) and PSD-93 (postsynaptic density-93) are scaffold proteins that bind to neuroligin. We identify S-SCAM as a novel component of neuronal nicotinic synapses. We show that S-SCAM, PSD-93, neuroligin and neurexin are enriched at alpha3*-nAChR synapses. PSD-93 and S-SCAM bind to APC and its binding partner beta-catenin, respectively. Blockade of selected APC and beta-catenin interactions, in vivo, leads to decreased postsynaptic accumulation of S-SCAM, but not PSD-93. Importantly, neuroligin synaptic clusters are also decreased. On the presynaptic side, there are decreases in neurexin and active zone proteins. Further, presynaptic terminals are less mature structurally and functionally. We define a novel neural role for APC by showing that the postsynaptic APC multiprotein complex is required for anchoring neuroligin and neurexin at neuronal synapses in vivo. APC human gene mutations correlate with autism spectrum disorders, providing strong support for the importance of the association, demonstrated here, between APC, neuroligin and neurexin. PMID:20720115

  6. Oncogenic mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) activate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mice and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Valvezan, Alexander J.; Huang, Jian; Lengner, Christopher J.; Pack, Michael; Klein, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Truncating mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are strongly linked to colorectal cancers. APC is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway and constitutive Wnt activation mediated by enhanced Wnt–β-catenin target gene activation is believed to be the predominant mechanism responsible for APC mutant phenotypes. However, recent evidence suggests that additional downstream effectors contribute to APC mutant phenotypes. We previously identified a mechanism in cultured human cells by which APC, acting through glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), suppresses mTORC1, a nutrient sensor that regulates cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that truncating Apc mutations should activate mTORC1 in vivo and that mTORC1 plays an important role in Apc mutant phenotypes. We find that mTORC1 is strongly activated in apc mutant zebrafish and in intestinal polyps in Apc mutant mice. Furthermore, mTORC1 activation is essential downstream of APC as mTORC1 inhibition partially rescues Apc mutant phenotypes including early lethality, reduced circulation and liver hyperplasia. Importantly, combining mTORC1 and Wnt inhibition rescues defects in morphogenesis of the anterior-posterior axis that are not rescued by inhibition of either pathway alone. These data establish mTORC1 as a crucial, β-catenin independent effector of oncogenic Apc mutations and highlight the importance of mTORC1 regulation by APC during embryonic development. Our findings also suggest a new model of colorectal cancer pathogenesis in which mTORC1 is activated in parallel with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:24092877

  7. A case of multiple endocrine adenomatosis with primary amenorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Vandeweghe, M.; Braxel, K.; Schutyser, J.; Vermeulen, A.

    1978-01-01

    A well documented sporadic case of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) type I, with the pituitary tumour presenting as a prolactinoma, is described in a 28-year-old female. Primary amenorrhoea, resulting from hyperprolactinaemia, was the first symptom of the polyglandular neoplasia. A gastrinoma was removed from the head of the pancreas and latent hyperparathyroidism appeared to be present. Treatment with bromocriptine was poorly tolerated; neurosurgical intervention was refused by the patient. The possibility that a serum prolactin determination may be useful in detecting pituitary involvement in MEA deserves consideration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:31610

  8. HAMARTOMATOUS POLYPOSIS SYNDROMES

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Amanda; Jasperson, Kory; Kohlmann, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes are a diverse group of inherited conditions grouped together because they exhibit hamartomatous rather than epithelial polyp histology. Each syndrome exhibits characteristic polyp histology, gastrointestinal polyp distribution, gastrointestinal cancer risks, extra-intestinal benign findings and often extra-intestinal cancer risks. Identifying individuals at risk for these syndromes and accurately defining the precise diagnosis is necessary for planning surveillance and management in order to prevent the benign and malignant complications. Characteristic syndrome features including gastrointestinal findings, pathology, genetics, and management options for the three most common hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, and juvenile polyposis will be presented in this review. PMID:19414148

  9. Hereditary Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes are a rare group of hereditary autosomal dominant disorders that comprise less than 1% of all hereditary colorectal cancers. Hamartomatous polyps, in and of themselves, are benign entities; however, these hamartomatous polyposis syndromes have a malignant potential for the development of colorectal cancer as well as extracolonic cancers. Early detection and proper surveillance are vital to minimizing the risk of carcinoma. This article provides a critical review of the clinical presentation, pathology, genetics, and screening and surveillance guidelines of juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. PMID:20567567

  10. [Juvenile recto-colonic polyposis. Apropos of a case in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Alandry, G; Le Quellec, B; Philippon, G; Gouot, E; Ribault, L

    1987-01-01

    The authors relate the first case of juvenile polyposis coli noticed in Madagascar. It is a sporadic case developing a serious clinic picture with an accidentally fatal end in a 7 years old Malagasy girl. They recall the principal epidemiological, anatomopathological, clinic and evolutive features which are typical of this polyposis. They wish that the way to medical progress will soon lead to better knowledge of the place of the intestinal polyposis in African countries. PMID:3586969

  11. HAMARTOMATOUS POLYPOSIS SYNDROMES

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Daniel; Howe, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Since the histological description of the hamartomatous polyp in 1957 by Horrilleno et al., several different syndromes have been described with the propensity to develop these polyps in the upper and lower GI tracts. These include Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome, and the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes), which are autosomal-dominantly inherited, and Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, which is acquired. The clinical aspects, the molecular pathogenesis, the organ systems affected, the risks of cancer, and the management of these hamartomatous polyposis syndromes will be reviewed in this paper. Although the incidence of these syndromes is low, it is important for clinicians to recognize these disorders in order to prevent morbidity and mortality in these patients, and to perform presymptomatic testing in patients at risk. PMID:18672141

  12. Glycogenosis storage type I diseases and evolutive adenomatosis: an indication for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lerut, Jan P; Ciccarelli, Olga; Sempoux, Christine; Danse, Etienne; deFlandre, Jacques; Horsmans, Yves; Sokal, Etienne; Otte, Jean-Bernard

    2003-12-01

    We report on two cases of type I glycogen storage disease (GSD) complicated by malignant tumors. A 23-year-old man had GSD Ia with adenomatosis. He underwent transplantation for rapidly growing and radiologically changing adenomata. At histological examination, one adenoma had become a hepatocellular carcinoma. A 22-year-old, HBV-infected woman had GSD type Ib with adenomatosis. At follow-up, several tumors showed changing morphological characteristics. Pre-transplant laparotomy confirmed the presence of a metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. Liver transplantation should be considered in GSD type I patients with adenomatosis, especially when tumor characteristics change. Regular detailed Doppler ultrasound and magnetic nuclear resonance screening during childhood and adolescence are, therefore, mandatory in order for the timing of transplantation to be optimized. PMID:12904843

  13. Galangin suppresses the proliferation of β-catenin response transcription-positive cancer cells by promoting adenomatous polyposis coli/Axin/glycogen synthase kinase-3β-independent β-catenin degradation.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jungsug; Oh, Jingyo; Cho, Munju; Bae, Soo Kyung; Song, Im-Sook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Jeong, Yongsu; Kim, Dong-Eun; Chung, Young-Hwa; Oh, Sangtaek

    2011-06-01

    Galangin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid with anticancer activity against certain human cancers, yet little is known about its mechanism of action. Here, we used a chemical biology approach to reveal that galangin suppresses β-catenin response transcription (CRT), which is aberrantly up-regulated in colorectal and liver cancers, by promoting the degradation of intracellular β-catenin. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity or mutation of the GSK-3β-targeted sequence from β-catenin was unable to abrogate the galangin-mediated degradation of β-catenin. In addition, galangin down-regulated the intracellular β-catenin levels in cancer cells with inactivating mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin, which are components of the β-catenin destruction complex. Galangin repressed the expression of β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, and thus inhibited the proliferation of CRT-positive cancer cells. Structure-activity data indicated that the major structural requirements for galangin-mediated β-catenin degradation are hydroxyl groups at positions 3, 5, and 7. Our findings suggest that galangin exerts its anticancer activity by promoting APC/Axin/GSK-3β-independent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin. PMID:21406604

  14. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) membrane recruitment 3, a member of the APC membrane recruitment family of APC-binding proteins, is a positive regulator of Wnt-β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Brauburger, Katharina; Akyildiz, Senem; Ruppert, Jan G; Graeb, Michael; Bernkopf, Dominic B; Hadjihannas, Michel V; Behrens, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) membrane recruitment (Amer) family proteins Amer1/Wilms tumour gene on the X chromosome and Amer2 are binding partners of the APC tumour suppressor protein, and act as negative regulators in the Wnt signalling cascade. So far, nothing has been known about the third member of the family, Amer3. Here we show that Amer3 binds to the armadillo repeat domain of APC, similarly to Amer1 and Amer2. Amer3 also binds to the Wnt pathway regulator conductin/axin2. Furthermore, we identified Amer1 as binding partner of Amer3. Whereas Amer1 and Amer2 are linked to the plasma membrane by an N-terminal membrane localization domain, Amer3 lacks this domain. Amer3 localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of epithelial cells, and this is dependent on specific nuclear import and export sequences. Functionally, exogenous Amer3 enhances the expression of a β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent reporter gene, and knockdown of endogenous Amer3 reduces Wnt target gene expression in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, Amer3 acts as an activator of Wnt signalling, in contrast to Amer1 and Amer2, which are inhibitors, suggesting a nonredundant role of Amer proteins in the regulation of this pathway. Our data, together with those of previous studies, provide a comprehensive picture of similarities and differences within the Amer protein family. PMID:24251807

  15. Familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Half, Elizabeth; Bercovich, Dani; Rozen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been estimated at 1/11,300-37,600. Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops. Generally, cancers start to develop a decade after the appearance of the polyps. Nonspecific symptoms may include constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, palpable abdominal masses and weight loss. FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system). A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP), is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100), later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk. Some lesions (skull and mandible osteomas, dental abnormalities, and fibromas on the scalp, shoulders, arms and back) are indicative of the Gardner variant of FAP. Classic FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and results from a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis (APC) gene. Most patients (~70%) have a family history of colorectal polyps and cancer. In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is based on a suggestive family history

  16. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Half, Elizabeth; Bercovich, Dani; Rozen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been estimated at 1/11,300-37,600. Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops. Generally, cancers start to develop a decade after the appearance of the polyps. Nonspecific symptoms may include constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, palpable abdominal masses and weight loss. FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system). A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP), is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100), later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk. Some lesions (skull and mandible osteomas, dental abnormalities, and fibromas on the scalp, shoulders, arms and back) are indicative of the Gardner variant of FAP. Classic FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and results from a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis (APC) gene. Most patients (~70%) have a family history of colorectal polyps and cancer. In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is based on a suggestive family history

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of exons 1 to 6 of the APC gene in non-polyposis familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J A; Froggatt, N J; Davies, R; Evans, D G; Trembath, R; Barton, D E; Maher, E R

    1995-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis coli is caused by constitutional mutations in the APC gene. The hallmark of familial adenomatous polyposis coli is the presence of numerous (> 100) colorectal polyps, but mutations in the 5' end of the APC gene have been associated with familial colorectal cancer without florid polyposis. Although familial adenomatous polyposis coli accounts for only a minority of familial colorectal cancer cases, we hypothesised that APC mutations which were not associated with florid polyposis might make a significant contribution to nonpolyposis familial colorectal cancer. To investigate this possibility, we analysed 40 unrelated patients with familial colorectal cancer without classical familial adenomatous polyposis coli for mutations in exons 1 to 6 (codons 1 to 243) of the APC gene. No mutations were detected, but a C-->T polymorphism at nucleotide 333 (Arg-->Trp at codon 99) was identified. No 5' APC mutations were detected in two patients with desmoid tumours and a family history of colorectal cancer and polyps. We conclude that mutations in exons 1 to 6 of the APC gene are infrequent in patients with familial colorectal cancer who do not have many colorectal polyps. PMID:8835324

  18. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis with desmoids caused by an APC mutation.

    PubMed

    Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shimizu, Eigo; Kasuya, Shinichi; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Seira; Miyano, Satoru; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    We present here a case of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) with a family history of desmoids and thyroid tumors. This patient had no colonic polyps but did have multiple desmoids. Genetic analysis identified a 4-bp deletion in codon 2644 (c.7932_7935delTTAT: p.Tyr2645LysfsX14) of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. In cases with limited numbers of colonic polyps and desmoids, AFAP may be caused by a mutation in the 3' region of APC. PMID:27081525

  19. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis with desmoids caused by an APC mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shimizu, Eigo; Kasuya, Shinichi; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Seira; Miyano, Satoru; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    We present here a case of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) with a family history of desmoids and thyroid tumors. This patient had no colonic polyps but did have multiple desmoids. Genetic analysis identified a 4-bp deletion in codon 2644 (c.7932_7935delTTAT: p.Tyr2645LysfsX14) of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. In cases with limited numbers of colonic polyps and desmoids, AFAP may be caused by a mutation in the 3′ region of APC. PMID:27081525

  20. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes: A review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as Gorlin Syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B are sometimes referred to as HPS. HPS is characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract as well as several extra-intestinal findings such as dermatological and dysmorphic features or extra-intestinal cancer. The syndromes are rare and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The diagnosis of HPS has traditionally been based on clinical criteria, but can sometimes be difficult as the severity of symptoms range considerably from only a few symptoms to very severe cases - even within the same family. De novo cases are also frequent. However, because of the discovery of several associated germline-mutations as well as the rapid development in genetics it is now possible to use genetic testing more often in the diagnostic process. Management of the syndromes is different for each syndrome as extra-intestinal symptoms and types of cancers differs. Clinical awareness and early diagnosis of HPS is important, as affected patients and at-risk family members should be offered genetic counselling and surveillance. Surveillance in children with HPS might prevent or detect intestinal or extra-intestinal complications, whereas in adulthood surveillance is recommended due to an increased risk of cancer e.g. intestinal cancer or breast cancer. PMID:25022750

  1. Diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment strategies for familial adenomatous polyposis: rationale and update

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is characterized by the development of multiple (>100) colorectal adenomas throughout the colorectum. This disorder can be caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene and can be diagnosed either clinically or genetically. After diagnosis with the condition, patients should undergo prophylactic proctocolectomy with a neoreservoir, usually an ileoanal pouch, at an appropriate time. Individuals with a family history of this disease who have not been diagnosed should be advised to attend genetic counseling and to enroll in appropriate clinical and genetic surveillance programs. Recent progress in endoscopic technology, including high-resolution endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, and double-balloon endoscopy, has made possible more detailed and wide-ranging investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although there has been limited evidence, further studies on these new endoscopic technologies might alter the surveillance strategies for familial adenomatous polyposis. PMID:24161962

  2. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Gligore Sabin

    2015-01-01

    Because of the rarity of familial gastrointestinal cancer-predisposing syndromes, their exploration in literature is not extensive. In this review, an update of the clinicopathological and molecular criteria of gastrointestinal familial polyposis syndromes with potential malignant transformation is performed. In addition, a guide for screening and surveillance was synthesized and a distribution of gene mutations according to the specific syndromes and geographic distribution was included. The following inherited polyposes syndromes were analyzed: familial adenomatous polyposis, the hamartomatous familial polyposes (Juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and MUTYH-associated adenomatous polyposis. For proper medical care, subspecialization of gastroenterologists, pathologists, and genticists in the field of familial diseases should be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:26600934

  3. [Inflammatory mechanisms in nasal polyposis].

    PubMed

    Perić, Aleksandar; Vojvodić, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal sinuses mucosa, characterized by prolapse of edematous mucosa, most commonly from the area of anterior ethmoid. The mean histological characteristics are proliferation of pseudostratified respiratory epithelium, thickening of the basement membrane, focal fibrosis and eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria. Although etiology is unknown, two hypotheses are dominant among the scientists: "hypothesis of staphylococcal superantigens" and "hypothesis of immune barrier dysfunction". Although we have not yet achieved a full understanding of the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disease, it is known that nasal polyposis is associated with intensive chronic inflammation, followed by dysregulation of chemotaxis, migration, activation and function of eosinophils. A great number of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules are involved in the regulation of these complex mechanisms. After activation, eosinophils produce and release enzymes, which can lead to the damage of mucosa and tissue remodeling. Hyperactive eosinophils release a new amount of chemokines and cytokines, attracting new eosinophils into the site of inflammation, and may cause the persistence of chronic inflammation. PMID:25731009

  4. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  5. APC germline mutations in families with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    De Queiroz Rossanese, Lillian Barbosa; De Lima Marson, Fernando Augusto; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Coy, Claudio Saddy Rodrigues; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) germline mutations are responsible for the occurrence of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations lead to malignant transformation of adenomas. In this context, considering the significance of APC germline mutations in FAP, we aimed to identify APC germline mutations. In the present study, 20 FAP patients were enrolled. The determination of APC germline mutations was performed using sequencing, and the mutations were compared with clinical markers (gender, age at diagnosis, smoking habits, TNM stage, Astler‑Coller stage, degree of differentiation of adenocarcinoma). The data were compared using the SPSS program, with the Fisher's exact test and χ2 test, considering α=0.05. According to the main results in our sample, 16 alleles with deleterious mutations (80% of the patients) were identified while 7 (35%) patients had no deleterious mutations. There was a predominance of nonsense (45% of the patients) and frameshift (20% of the patients) mutations. There was no statistical significance between the APC germline mutations identified and the clinical variables considered in our study. Only TNM stage was associated with the presence of deleterious mutations. Patients with deleterious mutations had an OR, 0.086 (IC=0.001-0.984); TNM stage I+II in comparison with III+IV, when compared with the patients with no deleterious mutations identified. In this context, as a conclusion, we demonstrated the molecular heterogeneity of APC germline mutations in FAP and the difficulty to perform molecular diagnostics in a Brazilian population, considering the admixed population analyzed. PMID:23970361

  6. Chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Patrick M

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has always been first and foremost a surgical disease, whose treatment with colectomy has long been known to reduce risk of premature cancer death. The notion of reducing polyp burden and potentially delaying surgical intervention has spawned a host of "chemoprevention" trials. In this paper I selectively review the findings from these studies, highlighting trial design issues and in particular some of the limitations of historical and existing trial endpoint measures. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been the most commonly employed chemopreventive agents. Sulindac, largely by historical accident, has been the most extensively studied, and is widely considered the standard of care when a clinical decision to intervene medically is made. Newer trials are evaluating combinations of agents in order to take advantage of differing mechanisms of action, in the hope of achieving synergy, as no single agent predictably or completely suppresses adenoma growth. Some of these studies and other single-agent interventions are discussed, though an exploration of the various mechanisms of action is beyond the scope of this paper. It is essential that future trials focus on the issue of "clinical benefit", not simply because the US Food and Drug Administration has insisted on it, but because only real evidence-based advances can improve the standard of medical care for FAP patients. Hence my focus on issues of trial design and clinically relevant endpoints. PMID:27083160

  7. [A case of cap polyposis complicated with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Song, Limhwa; Jhun, Byung Woo; Park, Jihyeon; Kim, Damin; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Jae Jun; Kim, Jin Yong

    2011-11-25

    An optimal treatment for cap polyposis has not been established. Several treatment approaches, including anti-inflammatory agents, antibiotics, immunomodulators, and endoscopic therapy have been described. Surgical resection of the affected colon and rectum may be indicated for patients with persistent disease. Repeat surgery is indicated in cases of recurrence after surgery. However, symptomatic polyposis may still recur, and spontaneous resolution of cap polyposis is possible. We report a case of recurrent cap polyposis complicated with retroperitoneal fibrosis after inadequate low anterior resection with a positive resection margin. Surgical approaches for the treatment of cap polyposis should be carefully considered before treatment. PMID:22113045

  8. Inflammatory "Cap" Polyposis: A Case Report of a Rare Nonneoplastic Colonic Polyposis.

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Dhungel, Bal M; Chen, Longwen; Pasha, Shabana F

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory cap polyposis (ICP) is a rare nonneoplastic polyposis of the colon of unknown etiology that can be confused with prolapse-induced polyps and hyperplastic polyposis. We contribute a case of ICP from a 59-year-old woman who was affected by severe constipation and hematochezia. Numerous sessile and semipedunculated polyps were found in the colon, all with cap of whitish fibrin. Histology revealed erosion of the surface, superficial dilated crypts filled with mucoid inflammatory exudate, and minimal crypt serration, all findings typical of ICP. Only the largest polyps had smooth muscle in the mucosa. Ki-67 showed modest expansion and irregular distribution of the crypts proliferative areas. Low-degree positivity for p16, similar to that of hyperplastic polyps, was found. CK20 was expressed as in normal mucosa. Distinguishing between ICP and other polyposis is important because of difference in management. PMID:23994878

  9. Familial adenomatous polyposis in an adolescent with coexisting schizophrenia: treatment strategies and implications

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Luisa; Alvarez, Jose; Weinstein, Erica; Korenis, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear, studies implicate a multifactorial origin with genetic and environmental factors. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene has been associated with FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis), and studies have linked it to schizophrenia. However, there are few studies which examine the association between FAP and schizophrenia. Limited data exist regarding recommendations for genetic counseling of adolescents with comorbid psychiatric illness. A case of an adolescent with FAP who developed psychotic symptoms is presented. This case hopes to add to the literature about mental illness in those with FAP. A review of literature about the role of APC in schizophrenia as well as implications of genetic counseling on those who suffer with mental illness will be discussed. PMID:26436104

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of two Lawsonia intracellularis isolates associated with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy and porcine intestinal adenomatosis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yeh, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Aeran; Lee, Ji Youn; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Man; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2011-09-01

    This study represents the first published data on antimicrobial susceptibility of Asian isolates of Lawsonia intracellularis. We assessed MICs of 16 antimicrobials for two isolates of L. intracellularis recovered from diseased pigs in South Korea, one from a finisher pig with acute proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy in 2002 and the other from a grower pig with porcine intestinal adenomatosis in 2010. Tylosin and tilmicosin were found to be the most active against L. intracellularis both intracellularly (MICs, 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively) and extracellularly (MICs, 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively). PMID:21690283

  11. Gut bacteria and their metabolic activities in familiar polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bone, E; Drasar, B S; Hill, M J

    1975-05-17

    Earlier work had suggested that patients with large-bowel cancer can be characterized by carriage of clostridia capable of dehydrogenating the nucleus of steroids and by high faecal bile-acid concentrations. Familial polyposis is an inherited disease which untreated, will progress to cancer of the large bowel, and those affected might be expected to have these metabolic characteristics. However, enviromental factors seem to play no part in polyposis. Investigation of as yet unaffected children of known polyposis patients revealed that the gut flora of half of them did not degrade cholesterol in vivo andnor did flora from patients in whom polyposis had already been diagnosed. The reason for this is unknown, but if the same patients develop polyposis (i.e., they carry the abnormal gene) we would have a simple diagnostic test which could replace the continuing follow-up now required for the siblings and children of patients with polyposis. PMID:49475

  12. Repurposing the FDA-Approved Pinworm Drug Pyrvinium as a Novel Chemotherapeutic Agent for Intestinal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Giambelli, Camilla; Fei, Dennis Liang; Han, Lu; Hang, Brian I.; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Nose, Vania; Burlingame, Oname; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Orton, Darren; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the WNT-pathway regulator ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) promote aberrant activation of the WNT pathway that is responsible for APC-associated diseases such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and 85% of spontaneous colorectal cancers (CRC). FAP is characterized by multiple intestinal adenomas, which inexorably result in CRC. Surprisingly, given their common occurrence, there are few effective chemotherapeutic drugs for FAP. Here we show that the FDA-approved, anti-helminthic drug Pyrvinium attenuates the growth of WNT-dependent CRC cells and does so via activation of CK1α. Furthermore, we show that Pyrvinium can function as an in vivo inhibitor of WNT-signaling and polyposis in a mouse model of FAP: APCmin mice. Oral administration of Pyrvinium, a CK1α agonist, attenuated the levels of WNT-driven biomarkers and inhibited adenoma formation in APCmin mice. Considering its well-documented safe use for treating enterobiasis in humans, our findings suggest that Pyrvinium could be repurposed for the clinical treatment of APC-associated polyposes. PMID:25003333

  13. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Unresectable Liver Adenomatosis Associated with Congenital Absence of Portal Vein: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Brasoveanu, Vladislav; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Grigorie, Razvan; Mihaila, Mariana; Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Dumitru, Radu; Herlea, Vlad; Iorgescu, Andreea; Tomescu, Dana; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 21 Final Diagnosis: Unresectable liver adenomatosis associated with congenital absence of portal vein Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Living donor liver transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Rare disease Background: Abernethy malformation (AM), or congenital absence of portal vein (CAPV), is a very rare disease which tends to be associated with the development of benign or malignant tumors, usually in children or young adults. Case Report: We report the case of a 21-year-old woman diagnosed with type Ib AM (portal vein draining directly into the inferior vena cava) and unresectable liver adenomatosis. The patient presented mild liver dysfunction and was largely asymptomatic. Living donor liver transplantation was performed using a left hemiliver graft from her mother. Postoperatively, the patient attained optimal liver function and at 9-month follow-up has returned to normal life. Conclusions: We consider that living donor liver transplantation is the best therapeutic solution for AM associated with unresectable liver adenomatosis, especially because compared to receiving a whole liver graft, the waiting time on the liver transplantation list is much shorter. PMID:26386552

  14. Successful treatment of cap polyposis with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Bookman, Ian D; Redston, Mark S; Greenberg, Gordon R

    2004-06-01

    Cap polyposis is a disorder characterized by bloody diarrhea with rectosigmoid polyps covered by a cap of fibropurulent exudate. The pathogenesis is unknown, but histological features suggest that mucosal prolapse may play a role. Drug therapies are usually unsuccessful, and treatment requires sigmoid resection or, if the disease recurs after initial surgical resection, panproctocolectomy. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with characteristic clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of cap polyposis. Investigations included normal anorectal manometry and defecography, without evidence of prolapse. The patient's disease was unresponsive to treatment with mesalamine, antibiotics, lidocaine enemas, and corticosteroids. One infusion of infliximab 5 mg/kg provided dramatic symptomatic improvement but minimal endoscopic or histological change. After 4 infliximab infusions at 8-week intervals, endoscopy of the rectum and sigmoid colon was normal, and biopsies showed complete histological resolution of the inflammatory process. Well-being with normal endoscopy and histology has been maintained at 38 months, without further treatment. It was concluded that infliximab is effective therapy for cap polyposis and avoids the requirement for surgery. No clinical evidence was obtained to support mucosal prolapse as a causative factor, but the response to infliximab suggests a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:15188181

  15. Colonic polyp patterns in familial polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bartram, C I; Thornton, A

    1984-02-01

    The diagnosis of familial polyposis depends on there being more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the large bowel. The polyps are the result of intramucosal microadenomatous growth. The age at which this occurs varies, and in the early stages of polyp development relatively few larger polyps may be seen. The numbers and size of the polyps as seen on double-contrast barium enema were compared with the macroscopic findings on the resected specimens in 27 patients with proven polyposis. Of these patients, 23 (83%) were diagnosed when polyps were first found at sigmoidoscopy. Radiologically the predominant polyp size was more than 5 mm in only four cases, 2-5 mm in 22 (81%), and less than 2 mm in one. Of the 22 with predominately 2-5 mm polyps, eight had significant numbers of nodules smaller than 2 mm and three had considerable numbers of polyps larger than 5 mm. Eleven (41%) were thought to have fewer than 70 polyps. Pathologically the nodular pattern (less than 2 mm) predominated in 11 (41%) and 14 had polyps of 2-5 mm. More than 100 polyps were present in each case, with fewer than 500 polyps in eight. In the 11 patients thought radiologically to have fewer than 70 polyps, the nodular pattern predominated in nine. In the initial stages of polyp growth, the larger polyps are less numerous, and the background nodular pattern is a useful diagnostic feature of familial polyposis. PMID:6607595

  16. An AT-rich region in the APC gene may cause misinterpretation of familial adenomatous polyposis molecular screening.

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Ludovici, Giorgia; Leone, Barbara; Valente, Maria Giovanna; Alessandroni, Jhessica; Spila, Antonella; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2012-05-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant condition mainly due to a mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The present study reports evidence of a technical issue occurring during the mutational analysis of APC exon 4. Genetic conventional direct sequence analysis of a repetitive AT-rich region in the splice acceptor site of APC intron 3 could be misinterpreted as a pathogenetic frameshift result. However, this potential bias may be bypassed adopting a method for random mutagenesis of DNA based on the use of a triphosphate nucleoside analogues mixture. Using this method as a second-level analysis, we also demonstrated the nonpathogenic nature of the variant in the poly A trait in APC exon 4 region (c.423-4delA) that do not result in aberrant splicing of APC exons 3-4; conversely, we did not find a previously reported T deletion/insertion polymorphism. PMID:22447671

  17. Adenoma development in familial adenomatous polyposis and MUTYH-associated polyposis: somatic landscape and driver genes.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamunur; Fischer, Andrej; Wilson, Cathy H; Tiffen, Jessamy; Rust, Alistair G; Stevens, Philip; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maynard, Julie; Williams, Geraint T; Mustonen, Ville; Sampson, Julian R; Adams, David J

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) are inherited disorders associated with multiple colorectal adenomas that lead to a very high risk of colorectal cancer. The somatic mutations that drive adenoma development in these conditions have not been investigated comprehensively. In this study we performed analysis of paired colorectal adenoma and normal tissue DNA from individuals with FAP or MAP, sequencing 14 adenoma whole exomes (eight MAP, six FAP), 55 adenoma targeted exomes (33 MAP, 22 FAP) and germline DNA from each patient, and a further 63 adenomas by capillary sequencing (41 FAP, 22 MAP). With these data we examined the profile of mutated genes, the mutational signatures and the somatic mutation rates, observing significant diversity in the constellations of mutated driver genes in different adenomas, and loss-of-function mutations in WTX (9%; p < 9.99e-06), a gene implicated in regulation of the WNT pathway and p53 acetylation. These data extend our understanding of the early events in colorectal tumourigenesis in the polyposis syndromes. PMID:26414517

  18. Altered Interactions between the Gut Microbiome and Colonic Mucosa Precede Polyposis in APCMin/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Joshua S.; Khair, Shanawaj; Pettet, Donald W.; Ouyang, Nengtai; Tian, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhu, Wei; Mackenzie, Gerardo G.; Robertson, Charles E.; Ir, Diana; Frank, Daniel N.; Rigas, Basil; Li, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene), an early event in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, is present in 70-80% of sporadic human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. To test the hypothesis that mutation of the APC gene alters microbial interactions with host intestinal mucosa prior to the development of polyposis, culture-independent methods (targeted qPCR assays and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1V2 hypervariable region) were used to compare the intestinal microbial composition of 30 six-week old C57BL/6 APCMin/+ and 30 congenic wild type (WT) mice. The results demonstrate that similar to 12-14 week old APCMin/+ mice with intestinal neoplasia, 6 week old APCMin/+ mice with no detectable neoplasia, exhibit an increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp in the colon. Parallel mouse RNA sequence analysis, conducted on a subset of proximal colonic RNA samples (6 APCMin/+, 6 WT) revealed 130 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, fold change ≥ 2, FDR <0.05). Hierarchical clustering of the DEGs was carried out by using 1-r dissimilarity measurement, where r stands for the Pearson correlation, and Ward minimum variance linkage, in order to reduce the number of input variables. When the cluster centroids (medians) were included along with APC genotype as input variables in a negative binomial (NB) regression model, four of seven mouse gene clusters, in addition to APC genotype, were significantly associated with the increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp. Three of the four clusters include several downregulated genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions and non-protein coding RNAs. These results support the concept that mutation of the APC gene alters colonic-microbial interactions prior to polyposis. It remains to be determined whether interventions directed at ameliorating dysbiosis in APCMin/+mice, such as through probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics, could reduce tumor formation. PMID:26121046

  19. [Surgical aspects of indications and techniques for adenomatous polyposis variants].

    PubMed

    Möslein, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Due to the advances in molecular genetic diagnostics of adenomatous polyposis variants, identification of patients with a genetic predisposition and their at risk relatives is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Precise knowledge of the specific risk profile is gaining significance especially for surgeons and requires a clinically differentiated approach in order to correctly identify the indications for prophylactic surgery. In this article reference will be made to the technical details of the pouch operation rather than the decision-making process per se, since this has become common knowledge for specialized colorectal surgeons. Besides the more commonly known polyposis syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), surgeons should nowadays at least be able to clinically distinguish between attenuated and classical variants of FAP, be aware of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and also the new polyposis syndrome polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). Surgeons should be familiar with the specific indications and extent of surgery for prophylactic organ removal in the lower gastrointestinal tract in order to be able to competently advise patients. PMID:27339646

  20. Celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid co-treatment inhibits cell growth in familial adenomatous polyposis derived LT97 colon adenoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heumen, Bjorn W.H. van; Roelofs, Hennie M.J.; Morsche, Rene H.M. te; Marian, Brigitte; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Peters, Wilbert H.M.

    2012-04-15

    Chemoprevention would be a desirable strategy to avoid duodenectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) suffering from duodenal adenomatosis. We investigated the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 expression of the potential chemopreventives celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). HT-29 colon cancer cells and LT97 colorectal micro-adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, were exposed to low dose celecoxib and UDCA alone or in combination with tauro-cholic acid (CA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), mimicking bile of FAP patients treated with UDCA. In HT-29 cells, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA resulted in a decreased cell growth (14-17%, p < 0.01). A more pronounced decrease (23-27%, p < 0.01) was observed in LT97 cells. Cell growth of HT-29 cells exposed to 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, was decreased (p < 0.001), either in the absence or presence of celecoxib. In LT97 cells incubated with 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, cell growth was decreased only in the presence of celecoxib (p < 0.05). No clear evidence was found for involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, caspase-3, or COX-2 in the cellular processes leading to the observed changes in cell growth. In conclusion, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA has growth inhibitory effects on colorectal adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, and further research on this combination as promising chemopreventive strategy is desired. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Celecoxib and UDCA acid co-treatment decreases cell growth in colon tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDCA enriched 'artificial bile' decreases LT-97 cell growth only in presence of celecoxib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCNA, caspase-3, nor COX-2 seem to be involved in the observed changes in cell growth.

  1. A kindred with MYH-associated polyposis and pilomatricomas.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, Silvana; Melean, German; Gensini, Francesca; Santucci, Marco; Scatizzi, Marco; Papi, Laura; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2005-04-15

    MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is a recently described autosomal recessive form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) associated with susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma (CRC). MAP is caused by biallelic inactivating mutations of the MYH gene, a component of the base excision repair (BER) machinery, whose dysfunction leads to an increase in the rate of G > T transversions following DNA oxidative damage. MAP patients can present with either classic or attenuated polyposis. However, the MAP colonic and extracolonic phenotype has yet to be defined. We report on two siblings, born from consanguineous parents, who were found to be homozygotes for an MYH frameshift mutation. The propositus presented with a low number of colonic lesions and an early-onset CRC. Both siblings had a history of pilomatricomas, benign tumors derived from hair follicles, in childhood. The findings presented provide further evidence of phenotypic variability in MAP, and suggest that multiple pilomatricomas may be a useful cutaneous marker of MAP. PMID:15690400

  2. Mutator gene and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    2008-02-05

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  3. [Familial adenomatous polyposis: establishing a registry and genetic and molecular analysis].

    PubMed

    Shomrat, R; Bruchim, R; Galanty, Y; Samuel, Z; Legum, C; Rabau, M; Rozen, P

    1997-01-15

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a dominantly inherited disease, is caused by a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene in chromosome 5q21. The gene has 15 exons, a physical length of 10 Kb and an open reading frame of 8.5 Kb. Exon 15 codes 66% of the mRNA and has a mutation cluster region which accounts for over 50% of mutations. The disease usually leads to the appearance of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the transverse and descending colon between puberty and age 20 years and to colon cancer before the age of 40. Early detection is essential to prevent the development of metastasizing cancer. Since 1994 we have recruited 23 families for genetic counseling. DNA was obtained from 19 unrelated FAP patients and 219 high risk relatives in 19 unrelated families following confirmation of the diagnosis. In addition to linkage studies, direct mutational analysis was performed using the protein truncation test for most of exon 15 and single strand conformation polymorphism analysis for the other exons. These exons account for most of the mutations identified to date. Of 19 unrelated probands, 14 had detectable mutations. Exon 15 accounted for 6 families, exons 5, 7 and 14 for 1 each, exon 9 for 3, and exon 8 for 2. Combined mutational and linkage analysis identified 18 presymptomatic carriers who received genetic and clinical counseling. Our FAP patients did not differ significantly from those of larger studies in other countries with regard to the distribution of the mutations, gender and genotype-phenotype correlation, or ethnic distribution. PMID:9119305

  4. Multidetector CT diagnosis of massive hemobilia due to gallbladder polyposis in a child with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Matthew R; Karmazyn, Boaz; Fan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Hemobilia secondary to gallbladder polyposis is rare in children but has been reported in a few children with metachromatic leukodystrophy. We present a case with preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) diagnosis of massive hemobilia caused by gallbladder polyposis in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy. Our report highlights the importance of both awareness of the association of gallbladder polyposis with other syndromes such as metachromatic leukodystrophy as well as the possibility of this entity presenting with life-threatening bleeding. PMID:26160127

  5. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing. PMID:27056662

  6. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Challenges and Pitfalls of Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Satish K.; Kalady, Matthew F.

    2012-01-01

    Surgical management of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is complex and requires both sound judgment and technical skills. Because colorectal cancer risk approaches 100%, prophylactic colorectal surgery remains a cornerstone of management. Both patient factors and disease characteristics influence surgical decision-making regarding the timing of prophylactic surgery, the extent of resection, and types of reconstruction. Making appropriate choices can be challenging and there is continued debate regarding optimal strategies. This chapter reviews the controversies in colorectal surgery for FAP. PMID:23730222

  7. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis-Associated Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah Suhaimi, Shahrun Niza; Nazri, Nadzrin; Nani Harlina, Mat Latar; Md. Isa, Nurismah; Muhammad, Rohaizak

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is rare. It is usually associated with the cribriform-morular variant of PTC, with unusual patterns on detailed histology examination. This variant is known to have a good prognosis. Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with FAP commonly occurs in females in their 30s and rarely in the elderly. We report a case of a 69-year-old female presenting with thyroid swelling and a history of FAP. PMID:26715910

  8. Slow progression of periampullary neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Moozar, Kouros L; Madlensky, Lisa; Berk, Terri; Gallinger, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Variable endoscopic surveillance protocols and treatment strategies have been proposed for periampullary neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), primarily because of the lack of long-term, prospective natural history data. A total of 115 patients with FAP were followed prospectively for 10 years with periodic side-viewing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by a single surgeon. The appearance of the duodenum was classified as stages 1 to 5. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance for age comparisons between stage groupings and Kaplan-Meier analysis for the lifetime risks of having a particular stage of duodenal polyposis. Eighty-seven patients had multiple endoscopies over an average of 6.6 years. Thirty-three subjects had a change in stage, within an average time of 3.9 years at an average age of 41 years. The risk of having stage 3 or 4 duodenal neoplasia increased exponentially after the age of 40. The degree of dysplasia did not correlate with stage at initial classification. Progression of neoplasia in the duodenum of patients with FAP is slow. The severity of duodenal polyposis increases with age and is not influenced by the initial stage. The average time for progression of adenoma to carcinoma is likely long. PMID:12504221

  9. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:25918379

  10. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Rebecca L.; Doerner, Stephanie K.; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M.; Dawson, Emily P.; Lanza, Denise G.; Berger, Nathan A.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Heaney, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in ApcMin/+ polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in ApcMin/+ polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:25918379

  11. Ulcerative colitis with inflammatory polyposis in a teenage boy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jin-Shan; Ye, Ying; Guo, Can-Can; Luo, Bo-Tao; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis in addition to inflammatory polyposis is common. The benign sequel of ulcerative colitis can sometimes mimic colorectal carcinoma. This report describes a rare case of inflammatory polyposis with hundreds of inflammatory polyps in ulcerative colitis which was not easy to distinguish from other polyposis syndromes. A 16-year-old Chinese male suffering from ulcerative colitis for 6 mo underwent colonoscopy, and hundreds of polyps were observed in the sigmoid, causing colonic stenosis. The polyps were restricted to the sigmoid. Although rectal inflammation was detected, no polyps were found in the rectum. A diagnosis of inflammatory polyposis and ulcerative colitis was made. The patient underwent total colectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis. The patient recovered well and was discharged on postoperative day 8. Endoscopic surveillance after surgery is crucial as ulcerative colitis with polyposis is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Recognition of polyposis requires clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic correlation, and helps with chemoprophylaxis of colorectal cancer, as the drugs used postoperatively for colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis and polyposis are different. PMID:25624746

  12. Chemotherapy for desmoid tumours in association with familial adenomatous polyposis: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa; Blackstein, Martin; Berk, Terri; McLeod, Robin S.; Gallinger, Steven; Madlensky, Lisa; Cohen, Zane

    1996-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for inoperable desmoid tumours associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Design A review of three cases of unresectable desmoid tumours and of the literature on the subject. Setting The Steven Atanas Stavro Polyposis Registry at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto. Patients Three patients with symptomatic, unresectable desmoid tumours associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and unresponsive to conventional hormone therapy. Intervention A chemotherapy regimen of seven cycles of doxorubicin (dose ranging from 60 to 90 mg/m2) and dacarbazine (1000 mg/m2), followed by carboplatin (400 mg/m2) and dacarbazine. Outcome Measures Clinical improvement and tumour regression demonstrated by computed tomography. Results In each of the three cases significant tumour regression was seen clinically and radiologically. Conclusions Cytotoxic chemotherapy is an effective treatment for desmoid tumours associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. The chemotherapy should be started early in cases of symptomatic desmoid tumour unresponsive to conventional medical therapy. PMID:8640627

  13. [Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Report of four siblings].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Alejandro; Alvarez, Karin; Wielandt, Ana María; Hevia, Montserrat; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Carvallo, Pilar; López-Köstner, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch Syndrome is an autosomic dominant syndrome involving 596-1096 of colorectal cancer patients. Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 genes account for most cases. These two genes participate in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Therefore mutation carriers show microsatellite instability (MSI) in tumors. This syndrome is characterized by the early development of colorectal cancer (before 50 years) and an increased incidence of cancer in other organs. We report four siblings from a family diagnosed with HNPCC. All of them were subjected to colonic surgery for colorectal cancer Moreover, one patient developed an ampulloma after her colon surgery. The molecular-genetic analysis revealed three brothers with microsatellite instability in the tumor tissue, the absence of the MLH1 protein, and the presence of a germ line mutation localized in introm 15 of the MLH1 gene. PMID:18769833

  14. Inflammatory cap polyposis in a 42-year-old male

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Meredith; Faizi, Syed Adeel; Fischer, Edgar; Rajput, Ashwani

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inflammatory cap polyposis (CP) is an uncommon, non-malignant condition whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Initial presentation of CP may mimic other gastrointestinal conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, pseudomembranous colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and colon cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 42-year-old male presented with symptoms of constipation, abdominal pain and weight loss, which were suggestive of a malignancy. DISCUSSION Since the symptoms of CP resemble closely those of other gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colon cancer, making the initial diagnosis can be challenging and it is often delayed. The mainstay of initial treatment is conservative, however symptomatic and complicated cases require prompt surgical intervention with close clinical follow-up. CONCLUSION We chose to report this case because it represents a rare and unique disease process that may masquerade as a colon cancer. It is important for surgeons to be aware of this non-malignant condition since inadequate surgery usually results in recurrence. PMID:23416507

  15. Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome Identified with a BRAF Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyung Su; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yoo, Hee Yong; Kim, Hwa Jong; Ko, Bong Min; Lee, Moon Sung

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of numerous hyperplastic polyps (HPs) in the colon and rectum. Patients with HPS have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This link is associated with gene mutations, especially B type Raf kinase (BRAF). However, a case of HPS associated with gene mutations has seldom been reported in Korea. Here, we describe a case of HPS in which a BRAF mutation was present in a 34-year-old woman. She had more than 110 HPs in the stomach and colorectum, which we removed. All of the polyps were diagnosed histologically as HPs, and no adenomatous or malignant changes were noted. We performed a BRAF and K-ras mutation analysis as well as a microsatellite analysis on the resected colon polyps. BRAF mutations were found in the resected colon polyps, but there was no evidence of K-RAS mutation or microsatellite instability. PMID:22570761

  16. Infection and HLA-G Molecules in Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Roberta; Malagutti, Nicola; Bortolotti, Daria; Gentili, Valentina; Rotola, Antonella; Fainardi, Enrico; Pezzolo, Teresa; Aimoni, Claudia; Pelucchi, Stefano; Di Luca, Dario; Pastore, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Sinonasal polyposis (SNP) is a chronic inflammatory pathology with an unclear aetiopathogenesis. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one candidate for the development of SNP for its epithelial cell trophism, hyperproliferative effect, and the induction of immune-modulatory molecules as HLA-G. We enrolled 10 patients with SNP without concomitant allergic diseases (SNP-WoAD), 10 patients with SNP and suffering from allergic diseases (SNP-WAD), and 10 control subjects who underwent rhinoplasty. We analyzed the presence of high- and low-risk HPV DNA and the expression of membrane HLA-G (mHLA-G) and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) and of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) and IL-10 by polyp epithelial cells. The results showed the presence of HPV-11 in 50% of SNP-WoAD patients (OR:5.5), all characterized by a relapsing disease. HPV-11 infection was absent in nonrelapsing SNP-WoAD patients, in SNP-WAD patients and in controls, supporting the hypothesis that HPV-11 increases risk of relapsing disease. HPV-11 positive SNP-WoAD patients presented with mHLA-G and IL-10R on epithelial cells from nasal polyps and showed secretion of sHLA-G and IL-10 in culture supernatants. No HLA-G expression was observed in HPV negative polyps. These data highlight new aspects of polyposis aetiopathogenesis and suggest HPV-11 and HLA-G/IL-10 presence as prognostic markers in the follow-up of SNP-WoAD. PMID:24741599

  17. Effects of Preoperative Clarithromycin Administration in Patients with Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Perić, A; Baletić, N; Milojević, M; Sotirović, J; Živić, L; Perić, AV; Vojvodić, D

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: In recent years, various investigators have shown considerable interest in the use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of preoperative long-term, low-dose clarithromycin administration in patients with nasal polyposis. Methods: Eighty nasal polyp patients (42 non-atopic and 38 atopic) were included in this prospective, non-placebo controlled investigation and randomized equally to either the combined clarithromycin-surgical or surgical group. Forty patients received 500 mg of clarithromycin daily for eight weeks, and, after evaluation, they were treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). The other 40 patients were treated only surgically. The nasal symptom scores and endoscopic scores after macrolide treatment/surgical treatment, and after six and 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. Results: After clarithromycin therapy, we found improvement in symptom scores in 25/40, and improvement in endoscopic scores in 19/40 patients. We found no significant difference in nasal symptom score between allergic and non-allergic patients regarding the outcome to macrolide (p = 0.352) or surgical treatment (p = 0.396). When we compared differences between endoscopic scores at the time points of 12 months and six months postoperatively (ESt12 minus ESt6), we found statistically lower differences in the clarithromycin-surgery group than in the surgery group (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Preoperative clarithromycin administration postponed nasal polyp relapse after FESS. Allergies have no influence on the clinical efficacy of clarithromycin therapy and on the efficacy of FESS. PMID:25867579

  18. Berberine potently attenuates intestinal polyps growth in ApcMin mice and familial adenomatous polyposis patients through inhibition of Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfang; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Bing; Cao, Hanwei; Xu, Xiuqin; Ruan, Hang; Yi, Tingting; Tan, Li; Qu, Rui; Song, Gang; Wang, Bangmao; Hu, Tianhui

    2013-01-01

    As a traditional anti-inflammatory Chinese herbal medicine, Alkaloid berberine has been recently reported to exhibit anti-tumour effects against a wide spectrum of cancer. However, the mechanism was largely unknown. Gene chip array reveals that with berberine treatment, c-Myc, the target gene of Wnt pathway, was down-regulated 5.3-folds, indicating that berberine might inhibit Wnt signalling. TOPflash analysis revealed that Wnt activity was significantly reduced after berberine treatment, and the mechanism of which might be that berberine disrupted β-catenin transfer to nucleus through up-regulating the expression of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and stabilized APC-β-catenin complex. Berberine administration in ApcMin/+ mice exhibited fewer and smaller polyps in intestine, along with reduction in cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression. In clinical practice, oral administration of berberine also significantly reduced the familial adenomatous polyposis patients' polyp size along with the inhibition of cyclin D1 expression in polyp samples. These observations indicate that berberine inhibits colon tumour formation through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling and berberine might be a promising drug for the prevention of colon cancer. PMID:24015932

  19. Inducible loss of one Apc allele in Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells results in multiple distal colonic tumors with features of familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Anne E.; Vlacich, Gregory; Zhao, Zhen-Yang; McKinley, Eliot T.; Washington, M. Kay; Manning, H. Charles

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) harbor a germline mutation in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). The major clinical manifestation is development of multiple colonic tumors at a young age due to stochastic loss of the remaining APC allele. Extracolonic features, including periampullary tumors, gastric abnormalities, and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, may occur. The objective of this study was to develop a mouse model that simulates these features of FAP. We combined our Lrig1-CreERT2/+ mice with Apcfl/+ mice, eliminated one copy of Apc in leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (Lrig1)-positive (Lrig1+) progenitor cells with tamoxifen injection, and monitored tumor formation in the colon by colonoscopy and PET. Initial loss of one Apc allele in Lrig1+ cells results in a predictable pattern of preneoplastic changes, culminating in multiple distal colonic tumors within 50 days of induction, as well as the extracolonic manifestations of FAP mentioned above. We show that tumor formation can be monitored by noninvasive PET imaging. This inducible stem cell-driven model recapitulates features of FAP and offers a tractable platform on which therapeutic interventions can be monitored over time by colonoscopy and noninvasive imaging. PMID:24833705

  20. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... at CDC Foodborne disease Travelers' Health: Safe Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  1. Germline deletions in the tumour suppressor gene FOCAD are associated with polyposis and colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Weren, Robbert D A; Venkatachalam, Ramprasath; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Farin, Henner F; Kets, C Marleen; de Voer, Richarda M; Vreede, Lilian; Verwiel, Eugène T P; van Asseldonk, Monique; Kamping, Eveline J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Neveling, Kornelia; Aben, Katja K H; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Schackert, Hans K; Clevers, Hans; van de Wetering, Marc; Tomlinson, Ian P; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Geurts van Kessel, Ad; Kuiper, Roland P

    2015-06-01

    Heritable genetic variants can significantly affect the lifetime risk of developing cancer, including polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC). Variants in genes currently known to be associated with a high risk for polyposis or CRC, however, explain only a limited number of hereditary cases. The identification of additional genetic causes is, therefore, crucial to improve CRC prevention, detection and treatment. We have performed genome-wide and targeted DNA copy number profiling and resequencing in early-onset and familial polyposis/CRC patients, and show that deletions affecting the open reading frame of the tumour suppressor gene FOCAD are recurrent and significantly enriched in CRC patients compared with unaffected controls. All patients carrying FOCAD deletions exhibited a personal or family history of polyposis. RNA in situ hybridization revealed FOCAD expression in epithelial cells in the colonic crypt, the site of tumour initiation, as well as in colonic tumours and organoids. Our data suggest that monoallelic germline deletions in the tumour suppressor gene FOCAD underlie moderate genetic predisposition to the development of polyposis and CRC. PMID:25712196

  2. Overview of screening and management of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, M; Bradburn, D M

    1992-01-01

    The rarity of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) means that many clinicians may be unaware of the major advances that have taken place in screening for the condition over the past five years. This review is not only to document the current scene but also to give details of those involved in establishing registries throughout the country. FAP is a hereditary disorder which carries with it almost a 100% risk of colorectal cancer. The aim of screening is to detect gene carriers before they present with symptoms attributable to colonic polyps. In this way the incidence of colorectal cancer can be greatly reduced. The use of gene probes to identify patients with FAP is in its infancy but in selected pedigrees gene carriers can be identified using a venous blood sample. The recognition that congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium is an extracolonic manifestation of FAP in most pedigrees allows non-invasive ophthalmological screening of relatives at risk. The combination of these new screening methods with an effective regional registry for FAP can increase the number of patients detected by screening rather than by symptoms. This facilitates appropriate prophylactic surgery and reduces mortality related to colorectal cancer. Images Figure 2 PMID:1310949

  3. Surgical treatment for nasal polyposis: predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Marko Velimir; Ćupić, Hrvoje; Kalogjera, Livije; Baudoin, Tomislav

    2015-12-01

    Nasal polyps recur in approximately one-third of patients after surgical treatment. It would be beneficial to be able to predict the patients in whom we might expect recurrence and to predict the clinical outcome after surgery. The study included 30 patients operated for nasal polyps. Removed polyps were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis for IL-5, IgE, vascular endothelial growth factor and eosinophilic infiltration. These parameters together with preoperative CT score were used as independent variables, and subjective score improvement after 2 years was used as a dependent variable in multiple linear regression analysis. Furthermore, the patients were divided into two groups: low and high polyp tissue immunoreactivity. The Chi-squared test was used to determine whether polyp immunoreactivity influences polyp recurrence and subjective score. Preoperative CT score had a slightly positive correlation with subjective score after 2 years. High eosinophil infiltration significantly predicted a higher risk for polyp recurrence. High IL-5 positivity was related to greater risk for polyp recurrence than low IL-5 reactivity but not significantly. IgE and VEGF reactivity in polyp specimens did not have any effect on polyp recurrence. High eosinophilic infiltration in polyps can predict worse outcome after surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. IgE and VEGF do not have prognostic significance to polyp recurrence after surgery. The preoperative extent of disease measured by CT score had a slightly positive correlation with worse outcome after surgery. PMID:25634061

  4. Pathogenesis and management of nasal polyposis in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Jochen G; Koitschev, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in preschool age, during their lives, up to 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients experience obstructing nasal polyposis (NP), which is rare in non-CF children. Pathogenetic factors of NP in general and especially in CF are still obscure. However, defective epithelial ion transport from mucosal glands plays a central role in CF, and viscous secretions impair mucociliary clearance, promoting chronic pathogen colonization and neutrophil-dominated chronic inflammation. Presently, CF-NP is not curable but can be clinically stabilized, though the large variety of proposed treatment modalities indicates a lack of standardization and of evidence of treatment efficacy. When conservative measures are exhausted, surgical intervention combining individually adapted endoscopic sinus surgery and supportive conservative treatment is performed. Topical steroids, approved as the gold standard for non-CF NP, may be beneficial, but they are discussed to be less effective in neutrophilic inflammation, and CF-specific antimicrobial and mucolytic therapy, as is true of all treatment modalities, urgently requires evaluation by controlled clinical trials within interdisciplinary networks. PMID:22350539

  5. Pathogenesis and management of nasal polyposis in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Jochen G; Koitschev, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in preschool age, during their lives, upto 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients experience obstructing nasal polyposis (NP), which is rare in non-CF children. Pathogenetic factors of NP in general and especially in CF are still obscure. However, defective epithelial ion transport from mucosal glands plays a central role in CF, and viscous secretions impair mucociliary clearance, promoting chronic pathogen colonization and neutrophil-dominated chronic inflammation.Presently, CF-NP is not curable but can be clinically stabilized,though the large variety of proposed treatment modalities indicates a lack of standardization and of evidence of treatment efficacy. When conservative measures are exhausted, surgical intervention combining individually adapted endoscopic sinus surgery and supportive conservative treatment is performed. Topical steroids, approved as the gold standard for non-CF NP, may be beneficial, but they are discussed to be less effective in neutrophilic inflammation,and CF-specific antimicrobial and mucolytic therapy, as is true of all treatment modalities, urgently requires evaluation by controlled clinical trials within interdisciplinary networks. PMID:23520643

  6. Surgical treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis: dilemmas and current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme

    2014-11-28

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by multiple adenomatous polyps (predisposing to colorectal cancer development) and numerous extracolonic manifestations. The underlying genetic burden generates variable clinical features that may influence operative management. As a precancerous hereditary condition, the rationale of performing a prophylactic surgery is a mainstay of FAP management. The purpose of the present paper is to bring up many controversial aspects regarding surgical treatment for FAP, and to discuss the results and perspectives of the operative choices and approaches. Preferably, the decision-making process should not be limited to the conventional confrontation of pros and cons of ileorectal anastomosis or restorative proctocolectomy. A wide discussion with the patient may evaluate issues such as age, genotype, family history, sphincter function, the presence or risk of desmoid disease, potential complications of each procedure and chances of postoperative surveillance. Therefore, the definition of the best moment and the choice of appropriate procedure constitute an individual decision that must take into consideration patient's preferences and full information about the complex nature of the disease. All these facts reinforce the idea that FAP patients should be managed by experienced surgeons working in specialized centers to achieve the best immediate and long-term results. PMID:25469031

  7. The genetic basis of familial adenomatous polyposis and its implications for clinical practice and risk management

    PubMed Central

    Leoz, Maria Liz; Carballal, Sabela; Moreira, Leticia; Ocaña, Teresa; Balaguer, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited disorder that represents the most common gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Germline mutations in the APC gene were initially identified as responsible for FAP, and later, several studies have also implicated the MUTYH gene as responsible for this disease, usually referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). FAP and MAP are characterized by the early onset of multiple adenomatous colorectal polyps, a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and in some patients the development of extracolonic manifestations. The goal of colorectal management in these patients is to prevent CRC mortality through endoscopic and surgical approaches. Individuals with FAP and their relatives should receive appropriate genetic counseling and join surveillance programs when indicated. This review is focused on the description of the main clinical and genetic aspects of FAP associated with germline APC mutations and MAP. PMID:25931827

  8. E. Coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... E. coli is short for the medical term Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots ... cause a very serious infection. Someone who has E. coli infection may have these symptoms: bad stomach cramps and ...

  9. Methylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in human placenta and hypermethylation in choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, N C; Novakovic, B; Weinrich, B; Dewi, C; Andronikos, R; Sibson, M; Macrae, F; Morley, R; Pertile, M D; Craig, J M; Saffery, R

    2008-09-01

    Methylation of the human APC gene promoter is associated with several different types of cancers and has also been documented in some pre-cancerous tissues. We have examined the methylation of APC gene promoters in human placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. This revealed a general hypomethylation of the APC-1b promoter and a pattern with monoallelic methylation of the APC-1a promoter in full term placental tissue. However, there was no evidence of a parent-of-origin effect, suggesting random post zygotic origin of methylation. Increased methylation of this promoter was observed in all choriocarcinoma-derived trophoblast cell lines, suggesting a trophoblastic origin of placental APC methylation and implicating APC hypermethylation in the development of this group of gestational tumours. Our demonstration of placental methylation of the APC-1a promoter represents the first observation of monoallelic methylation of this gene in early development, and provides further support for a role of canonical Wnt signalling in placental trophoblast invasiveness. This also implicates tumour suppressor gene silencing as an integral part of normal human placental development. PMID:18485586

  10. Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli and p53 genes in a child with Turcot's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barel, D; Cohen, I J; Mor, C; Stern, S; Shapiro, R; Shomrat, R; Galanti, Y; Legum, C; Zaizov, R; Avigad, S

    1998-10-23

    Turcot's syndrome is a rare heritable complex that is characterized by an association between a primary neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system and multiple colonic polyps. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic alterations in a case of Turcot's syndrome in a 10.5-year-old boy in whom a colorectal tumor developed 3.5 years following astrocytoma. An APC germline non-sense mutation at codon 1284 leading to a truncated protein was identified, as was a somatic p53 mutation in the colorectal carcinoma in exon 7, codon 244. The latter was not identified in the primary astrocytoma. However, immunohistochemistry revealed high p53 protein expression in both tumors, suggesting an additional p53 mutation in the primary astrocytic tumor. The diverse p53 mutations observed in this unique syndrome in two different sites and stages of the disease may shed light on the multistep progression of the malignant events. PMID:10397462

  11. Bmp signaling in colonic mesenchyme regulates stromal microenvironment and protects from polyposis initiation.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Joannie M; Roy, Sébastien A B; Ouellet, Camille; Lemieux, Étienne; Jones, Christine; Paquet, Marilène; Boudreau, Francois; Perreault, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In the colon, myofibroblasts are primary contributors in the establishment of the microenvironment involved in tissue homeostasis. Alterations in myofibroblast functions lead to changes resulting in a toxic microenvironment nurturing tumorigenesis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are morphogens known to play key roles in adult gut homeostasis. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in all cell layers leads to the development of gut polyposis. In contrast, our studies showed that loss of Bmp exclusively in the gastrointestinal epithelium resulted in increased epithelial proliferation without polyposis initiation, thus suggesting a key role for mesenchymal Bmp signaling in polyposis initiation. In order to identify the role of mesenchymal Bmp signaling on the microenvironment and its impact on colonic mucosa, a mouse model was generated with suppression of Bmp signaling exclusively in myofibroblasts (Bmpr1aΔMES). Bmpr1aΔMES mice exhibited increased subepithelial proliferation with changes in cellular composition leading to the development of a primed stroma with modulation of extracellular matrix proteins, immune cells and cytokines as early as 90 days of age. This microenvironmental deregulation was associated with increased polyposis initiation at one year of age. These results are the first to demonstrate that mesenchymal Bmpr1a inactivation alone is sufficient to prompt an expansion of myofibroblasts leading to the development of a reactive mesenchyme that contributes to polyposis initiation in the colon. These findings support the novel concept that inhibition of Bmp signaling in mesenchymal cells surrounding the normal epithelium leads to important changes instructing a toxic microenvironment sufficient to induce colonic polyposis. PMID:26773796

  12. Large mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moschos, John; Tzilves, Dimitrios; Paikos, Dimitrios; Tagarakis, Georgios; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Antonopoulos, Zissis; Kadis, Savvas; Katsos, Ioannis; Tarpagos, Anestis

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with severe debilitation, anemia and diarrhea over two months. Colonoscopy revealed many (>100) polyps (familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome). Abdominal CT scan showed a large mass at the left upper abdomen in conjunction with the splenic flexure. Total colectomy with mesenteric mass and adjacent small bowel removal and ileoanal pouch was performed. Examination of the resected mesenteric mass showed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with scarce mitosis and infiltration of the adjacent small bowel. We describe for the first time in medical literature the coexistence of familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome and GIST in a 30-year-old man. PMID:16855925

  13. Clinicopathological features of familial adenomatous polyposis in Korean patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Min; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byeong; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify prognostic factors and to correlate APC mutations with clinical features, including extracolic manifestations. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent surgical procedures for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were included. FAP was diagnosed when the number of adenomatous polyps was > 100. Data related to patient, extracoloic manifestations, cancer characteristics, operative procedure, follow up and surveillance were collected. APC mutation testing was performed in the 30 most recent patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and polymerase chain reaction products using 31 primer pairs on APC gene were sequenced. A retrospective study was performed to investigate a causal relationship between prognosis and feature of patient. RESULTS: The mean age of the 51 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) was older than that of those without CRC (30.5 vs 36.9, P = 0.002). Older individuals were more likely to have colon cancer at the time of FAP diagnosis [odds ratio, 4.75 (95%CI: 1.71-13.89) and 5.91(1.76-22.12) for 40-49 years and age > 50 vs age < 30). The number of confirmed deaths was 13 and the median age at death was 40 years (range, 27 to 85 years). Ten of the deaths (76.9%) were from CRC. Another cause of two cases of death were desmoid tumors (15.4%). Development of cancer on remnant rectal or ileal mucosa after surgery was not observed. The APC mutation testing revealed 23 pathogenic mutations and one likely pathogenic mutation, among which were four novel mutations. The correlation between mutational status and clinical manifestations was investigated. Mutations that could prodict poor prognosis were at codon 1309 which located on mutation cluster region, codon 1465 and codon 1507. CONCLUSION: Identification of APC mutations should aid in the diagnosis and counseling of family members in terms of early diagnosis and management of FAP. PMID:27158207

  14. 77 FR 34052 - Pfizer, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Indication for CELEBREX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) indication for CELEBREX (celecoxib) Capsules held by Pfizer, Inc. (Pfizer), 235 East 42nd St., New York, NY 10017-5755. Pfizer has voluntarily requested that approval of this indication be withdrawn, thereby waiving its opportunity for a...

  15. Duodenal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): results of a 10 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Groves, C J; Saunders, B P; Spigelman, A D; Phillips, R K S

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duodenal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. An endoscopic surveillance programme was therefore initiated in 1988, the outcome of which is described in this paper. Methods: We report the 10 year follow up of 114 patients with FAP who were prospectively screened for the presence and severity of duodenal adenomas. Results: Six of 114 patients (median age 67 years) developed duodenal adenocarcinoma. Four of these were from 11 patients who originally had Spigelman stage IV disease (advanced duodenal polyposis), which gives a 36% risk within this group of developing cancer. One case of duodenal cancer arose from 41 patients who originally had stage III disease (2%) and one cancer arose from 44 patients with original stage II disease (2%). All six patients have died: five were inoperable and one had recurrence three years after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. There was no association between duodenal cancer and site of germline mutation of the APC gene. Conclusions: Surveillance for duodenal adenocarcinoma and subsequent early referral for curative surgery has not been effective. Selection of patients with advanced but benign (Spigelman stage IV) duodenal polyposis for prophylactic pancreaticoduodenectomy should therefore be considered and can now be justified on the basis of these results. More comprehensive endoscopic surveillance of high risk (stage III and IV) patients is needed in an attempt to avoid underestimating the severity of duodenal polyposis, and to evaluate the role of endoscopic therapy in preventing advanced disease. PMID:11950808

  16. A deleterious RNF43 germline mutation in a severely affected serrated polyposis kindred

    PubMed Central

    Taupin, Douglas; Lam, Wesley; Rangiah, David; McCallum, Larissa; Whittle, Belinda; Zhang, Yafei; Andrews, Daniel; Field, Matthew; Goodnow, Christopher C; Cook, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    We report a germline nonsense mutation within the extracellular domain of the RING finger ubiquitin ligase RNF43, segregating with a severe form of serrated polyposis within a kindred. The finding provides evidence that inherited RNF43 mutations define a familial cancer syndrome. PMID:27081527

  17. Colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes: Genetic determinism, clinical presentation and recommendations for care.

    PubMed

    Buecher, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal adenomatous polyposis constitutes a diverse group of disorders with different modes of inheritance. Molecular diagnosis of this condition has become more complex. In fact, somatic mosaicism for APC mutations now appears to be more frequent than previously thought and rare germline alterations of this gene may be implicated in patients tested negative for "classical" APC mutations (point mutations and large genomic rearrangements). Moreover, the knowledge concerning several aspects of the MUTYH-associated polyposis has improved since its first description in 2002 and germline mutations in new genes have recently been implicated in some cases of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Genetic testing in probands and their relatives should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling. The recent advent of New Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques affords the opportunity to rapidly screen patients for a comprehensive panel of colorectal cancer susceptibility genes in a cost-effective fashion. This type of approach will probably replace the classical sequential approach based on clinical presumptive diagnoses in the near future. The risk of colorectal cancer is very high in affected patients in the absence of appropriate care. Clinical management is complex and should be provided in centers with special expertise in these diseases. This review focuses on the various colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes with special attention to more innovative and important aspects. PMID:26805944

  18. Exome sequencing identifies potential novel candidate genes in patients with unexplained colorectal adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Spier, Isabel; Kerick, Martin; Drichel, Dmitriy; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Altmüller, Janine; Laner, Andreas; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Peters, Sophia; Adam, Ronja; Zhao, Bixiao; Becker, Tim; Lifton, Richard P; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Perner, Sven; Thiele, Holger; Nöthen, Markus M; Hoffmann, Per; Timmermann, Bernd; Schweiger, Michal R; Aretz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In up to 30% of patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutation in the known genes APC, causing familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH, causing MUTYH-associated polyposis, and POLE or POLD1, causing Polymerase-Proofreading-associated polyposis can be identified, although a hereditary etiology is likely. To uncover new causative genes, exome sequencing was performed using DNA from leukocytes and a total of 12 colorectal adenomas from seven unrelated patients with unexplained sporadic adenomatous polyposis. For data analysis and variant filtering, an established bioinformatics pipeline including in-house tools was applied. Variants were filtered for rare truncating point mutations and copy-number variants assuming a dominant, recessive, or tumor suppressor model of inheritance. Subsequently, targeted sequence analysis of the most promising candidate genes was performed in a validation cohort of 191 unrelated patients. All relevant variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. The analysis of exome sequencing data resulted in the identification of rare loss-of-function germline mutations in three promising candidate genes (DSC2, PIEZO1, ZSWIM7). In the validation cohort, further variants predicted to be pathogenic were identified in DSC2 and PIEZO1. According to the somatic mutation spectra, the adenomas in this patient cohort follow the classical pathways of colorectal tumorigenesis. The present study identified three candidate genes which might represent rare causes for a predisposition to colorectal adenoma formation. Especially PIEZO1 (FAM38A) and ZSWIM7 (SWS1) warrant further exploration. To evaluate the clinical relevance of these genes, investigation of larger patient cohorts and functional studies are required. PMID:26780541

  19. Smell Decline as a good Predictor of Sinonasal Polyposis Recurrence after Endoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Ghazizadeh, Amir Hossain; Nahid, Kianoosh; Jalaeian Samani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the most sensitive symptom to predict early recurrence of nasal polyposis. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Tertiary university referral center with accredited otorhinolaryngology residency programs. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, we evaluated 62 patients with diffuse nasal polyposis. All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The author-devised questionnaire relating to the four major symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis were answered by patients at the pre-operative visit and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Patients were followed up with serial endoscopic examinations, and a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed if indicated.  Results: All 62 patients (37 male, 25 female) completed the study. The mean age was 41.24 ± 12.47 years. All major symptoms showed significant improvement after surgery (P=0.000); however, the severity of symptoms gradually increased in patients with a recurrence of polyposis, but at different points in time (P= 0.008). Sense of smell was the first symptom to deteriorate in patients with relapse (mean, 6 months) followed by nasal secretion (12 months), obstruction and pain(24 months). Patients with asthma, Samter’s triad, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) and allergic rhinitis showed symptoms of recurrence sooner than other patients (P<0.05).  Conclusion: The most sensitive symptom for the early detection of recurrence of nasal polyposis is a decrease in the sense of smell. Nasal obstruction and facial pain were observed in the late stage of relapse when frank polyposis formation was established. PMID:27280099

  20. The molecular characteristics of colonic neoplasms in serrated polyposis: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Emily Y.; Wyld, Lucy; Sloane, Mathew A.; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serrated polyposis is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of multiple serrated polyps in the large intestine, and an increased personal and familial risk of colorectal cancer. Knowledge of the molecular characteristics of colonic lesions which develop in this syndrome is fragmented, making it difficult to understand the underlying genetic basis of this condition. We conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of all studies which evaluated the molecular characteristics of colorectal neoplasms found in individuals with serrated polyposis. We identified 4561 potentially relevant studies, but due to a lack of consensus in the reporting of findings, only fourteen studies were able to be included in the meta‐analysis. BRAF mutation was found in 73% (95% CI 65–80%) of serrated polyps, 0% (95% CI 0–3%) of conventional adenomas and 49% (95%CI 33–64%) of colorectal cancers. In contrast, KRAS mutation was present in 8% (95% CI 5–11%) of serrated polyps, 3% (95% CI 0–13%) of conventional adenomas and 6% (95% CI 0–13%) of colorectal cancers. Absence of MLH1 immunostaining was found in 3% (95% CI 0–10%) of serrated polyps and 53% (95% CI 36–71%) of colorectal cancers. Overall, microsatellite instability was found in 40% (95% CI 18–64%) of colorectal cancers arising in the setting of serrated polyposis. Our results indicate that diverse molecular pathways are likely to contribute to the increased predisposition for colorectal cancer in individuals with serrated polyposis. We also propose a set of minimum standards for the reporting of future research in serrated polyposis as this is a rare syndrome and collation of research findings from different centres will be essential to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:27499922

  1. Nasal irrigation for chronic sinus symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and nasal polyposis: a hypothesis generating study

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David P.; Guerard, Emily; Bukstein, Don

    2009-01-01

    Background Rhinosinusitis is a common, expensive disorder with a significant impact on patients' quality-of-life. Chronic sinus symptoms are associated with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and nasal polyposis. Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for rhinosinusitis and sinus symptoms. Prior studies suggest that HSNI may be effective for symptoms associated with allergy, asthma and nasal polyposis. Objective To assess the degree to which subjects using nasal irrigation for chronic sinus symptoms also reported improvements in symptoms related to allergy, asthma or nasal polyposis. Design Qualitative study using in-depth long interviews. Participants 28 participants in a prior qualitative nasal irrigation study. Intervention Daily nasal irrigation. Outcome Qualitative transcripts Results Transcripts of interviews were systematically examined. Twelve of 21 subjects with allergic rhinitis spontaneously reported that HSNI improved symptoms. Two of seven subjects with asthma and one of two subjects with nasal polyposis reported a positive association between HSNI use and asthma or nasal polyposis symptoms. Transcript content was organized into themes which included: 1) HSNI resulted in improvement of allergic rhinitis and asthma symptoms, and 2) HSNI should be used for symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Conclusions This hypothesis generating study offers suggestive qualitative evidence that in patients with frequent rhinosinusitis and daily sinus symptoms, symptoms of concomitant allergic rhinitis, asthma or polyposis may also improve with HSNI. The parent studies offer strong evidence that HSNI is an effective adjunctive treatment for symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Larger prospective studies are needed in patients with these diagnoses. PMID:18593081

  2. Point Mutations in Exon 1B of APC Reveal Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach as a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Variant.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Woods, Susan L; Healey, Sue; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lee, Jason S; Sivakumaran, Haran; Wayte, Nicci; Nones, Katia; Waterfall, Joshua J; Pearson, John; Patch, Anne-Marie; Senz, Janine; Ferreira, Manuel A; Kaurah, Pardeep; Mackenzie, Robertson; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Hansford, Samantha; Lannagan, Tamsin R M; Spurdle, Amanda B; Simpson, Peter T; da Silva, Leonard; Lakhani, Sunil R; Clouston, Andrew D; Bettington, Mark; Grimpen, Florian; Busuttil, Rita A; Di Costanzo, Natasha; Boussioutas, Alex; Jeanjean, Marie; Chong, George; Fabre, Aurélie; Olschwang, Sylviane; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Bellos, Evangelos; Coin, Lachlan; Rioux, Kevin; Bathe, Oliver F; Wen, Xiaogang; Martin, Hilary C; Neklason, Deborah W; Davis, Sean R; Walker, Robert L; Calzone, Kathleen A; Avital, Itzhak; Heller, Theo; Koh, Christopher; Pineda, Marbin; Rudloff, Udo; Quezado, Martha; Pichurin, Pavel N; Hulick, Peter J; Weissman, Scott M; Newlin, Anna; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Sampson, Jone E; Hamman, Kelly; Goldgar, David; Poplawski, Nicola; Phillips, Kerry; Schofield, Lyn; Armstrong, Jacqueline; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Suthers, Graeme K; Huntsman, David G; Foulkes, William D; Carneiro, Fatima; Lindor, Noralane M; Edwards, Stacey L; French, Juliet D; Waddell, Nicola; Meltzer, Paul S; Worthley, Daniel L; Schrader, Kasmintan A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2016-05-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present. PMID:27087319

  3. [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association].

    PubMed

    Brevet, Marie; Brehant, Olivier; Dumont, Frédéric; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Chatelain, Denis

    2007-04-01

    We report one case of adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder in a 57 year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome presenting with cholangitis. On gross examination the gallbladder contained two calculi and numerous flat or polypoid adenomas less than 1 cm in size. On microscopic examination, the adenomas showed low and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Only 10 cases of gallbladder adenomas have been reported in the literature in patients presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Cholecystectomy is usually performed for cholecystitis or cholangitis. These adenomatous gallbladder lesions are discovered late, often when the patient is older than 40. Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomas is still unclear. It is difficult to assess the risk of malignancy: only 6 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas have been reported in patients with FAP. PMID:17483782

  4. Controversies in the surgery of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Church, James M

    2016-07-01

    Dominantly inherited syndromes of colorectal cancer predisposition are characterized by multifocal neoplasia with an early age of onset. The risk of colorectal cancer is high in affected patients and care of the patients is based on the aims of cancer prevention and cancer cure. At the same time, quality of life should be disturbed as little as possible. Because patients are generally young, the stakes are high. Injudicious decision-making can have unfortunate effects on patients and families. In this article the controversial aspects of surgery in familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome are discussed. Specifically the controversies in familial adenomatous polyposis include the timing and the type of surgery while for Lynch syndrome discussion revolves about prophylactic surgery, primary, secondary and tertiary. PMID:26869170

  5. A rare presentation and diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Henry C; Fiorino, Kristin N; Blick, Carly; Anupindi, Sudha A

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia overlap syndrome. The patient was found to have polyps on colonoscopy leading to genetic testing revealing an SMAD4 mutation. In children with SMAD4 mutation and juvenile polyposis, this overlap syndrome needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis and prompt the clinician to look for telangiectasias on examination and consider surveillance imaging to look for arteriovenous malformations. Our case highlights this clinical relationship and shows how nontraditional imaging using computed tomography colonography (CTC) can provide complimentary information along with colonoscopy. Despite low-dose techniques, CTC does add a radiation burden in the evaluation of these children who are at high risk for malignancy and should be used cautiously. PMID:25432397

  6. [Future of the remaining rectum after treatment of familial polyposis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aboulola, M; Boukheloua, B; Bouhadef, A; Illoul, G

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of familial polyposis the conservation of the rectum is essential to assure a convenient control and rhythm of defecation. Meanwhile the future of resting polyps deserves the attention of the surgeon. Certain authors are optimistic and claim that spontaneous regression of the polyps is possible. Our experience illustrates that the rectal mucosa tends to fabricate new crops of polyps. The prolonged post operative observation of more than 4 years of polyposis in one family has permitted us to follow the evolution of the rectal mucosa and to deduce that gravity of the lesion is quite variable. The polypotique character of the rectal mucosa must influence the choice of certain surgical technic specially that nine of them achieve entire satisfaction yet. PMID:709703

  7. In the Beginning There Was Colectomy: Current Surgical Options in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Multiple colonic polyps, almost guaranteed colorectal cancer by the age of forty-five and an increased risk of non-colonic cancers characterise the autosomal dominant condition Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) [1]. The patients and families faced with such a diagnosis present many difficult management challenges, both surgical and non-surgical. We discuss the current surgical options for treatment of the more significant manifestations of FAP arising in the colorectum and duodenum as well as desmoid disease PMID:20233459

  8. A prospective investigation of predictive parameters for post-surgical recurrences in sinonasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Brescia, Giuseppe; Marioni, Gino; Franchella, Sebastiano; Ramacciotti, Giulia; Giacomelli, Luciano; Marino, Filippo; Martini, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Even after appropriate surgical therapy, a significant number of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) experience recurrences. The end-point of this prospective study was to apply univariate and multivariate statistical models to identify clinical, pathological, and laboratory variables that could predict CRSwNP recurrence after endoscopic sinus surgery. The study enrolled 143 patients between 2010 and 2013, who were all treated by the same surgeon for CRSwNP. Twenty-one patients developed recurrent polyposis. The recurrence rate was significantly higher for the eosinophilic than for the non-eosinophilic type (p = 0.020). Among the patients who developed a recurrence, the disease-free interval was significantly shorter for those with eosinophilic-type polyposis (p = 0.003). Univariate statistical analysis disclosed significant associations between CRSwNP recurrence and age (p = 0.035), allergy (p = 0.014), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (p = 0.01). The multivariate model showed that only histological evidence of the eosinophilic type of CRSwNP retained an independent prognostic significance in relation to recurrent polyposis (p = 0.033). Judging from our results, it is reasonable to consider both stricter follow-up protocols and postoperative adjuvant medical treatments for patients with a histological diagnosis of eosinophilic-type CRSwNP. PMID:25763571

  9. Resolution of Fundic Gland Polyposis following Laparoscopic Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation and Subsequent Cessation of Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Joel R.; Connolly, Erin E.; Wittchow, Richard J.; Kothari, Shanu N.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur from a variety of sources and are found commonly on upper endoscopy. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who presented for evaluation for antireflux surgery with a history of fundic gland polyposis who required twice-daily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for control of her gastric reflux. After verifying that she met criteria for surgery, she underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation placement. With the cessation of PPIs following surgery, the fundic gland polyposis resolved. Fundic gland polyps may occur sporadically or within certain syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis. Multiple possible inciting factors exist, including the use of PPIs. This is the first reported case of the resolution of numerous fundic gland polyps following the completion of laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation. PMID:26600954

  10. Identification of a novel mutation associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Zheng; Yan, Peng; Shao, Xin; Deng, Xia; Sam, Christine; Chen, Ying-Gang; Xu, Yong-Peng; Wang, Xi-Shan; Wang, Gui-Yu; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most fatal forms of solid tumor in men and women. While the majority of diagnosed CRC cases are sporadic, 15‑25% of patients have a family history of adenomatous polyposis and CRC; however, the associated gene mutations remain largely unidentified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genomes of a four‑generational Chinese Han family with familial adenomatous polyposis and CRC to identify the potential genetic anomalies associated with the disease. Diagnoses were made by physical and enteroscopic examinations of all the family members. Mutational analyses of the potential CRC‑associated genes were carried out by direct gene sequencing, and the statistically significant differences in polymorphisms between normal and diseased populations were determined. Multiple sequence alignment and protein modeling were conducted using the Vector NTI and DNAMAN software tools. Clinical and pathological features of all the examined patients were consistent with typical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome. From the genomes of these family members, a 131564T>C (p.1125Val>Ala) mutation was identified in exon 15 of the APC gene, and a 1126G>C (p.324Gln>His) mutation was identified in exon 12 of the MUTYH gene. The 131564T>C mutation co‑segregated with the affected individuals in the family and was specifically associated with the incidence of CRC (P=0.018<0.05). The 1125Val residue was highly conserved in the APC protein, and the p.1125Val>Ala mutation led to changes in the secondary structure and hydrophilicity of the APC protein. In conclusion, the APC gene mutation 131564T>C is associated with FAP and the pathogenesis of CRC. PMID:26252958

  11. Does oral prednisolone increase the efficacy of subsequent nasal steroids in treating nasal polyposis?

    PubMed Central

    Wongsritrang, Krongthong; Ruttanaphol, Suwalee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although combined oral and nasal steroid therapy is widely used in nasal polyposis, a subset of patients show an unfavorable therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to evaluate whether oral prednisolone produces any additive effects on subsequent nasal steroid therapy and to evaluate if any clinical variables can predict therapeutic outcome. Methods: Using a 3:2 randomization ratio, 67 patients with nasal polyposis received 50 mg of prednisolone and 47 patients received placebo daily for 2 weeks, followed by mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) at 200 micrograms twice daily for 10 weeks. Clinical response was evaluated by nasal symptom score (NSS), peak expiratory flow index (PEFI), and total nasal polyps score (TNPS). Potential predictor variables were assessed by clinical history, nasal endoscopy, allergy skin test, and sinus radiography. Results: At the end of the 2-week oral steroid phase, the prednisolone group showed significantly greater improvements in all nasal symptoms, nasal airflow, and polyp size than the placebo group. In the nasal steroid phase, while the MFNS maintained the outcome improvements in the prednisolone group, all outcome variables in the placebo group showed continuing improvements. At the end of the nasal steroid phase, there were no significant differences of most outcome improvements between the two groups, except in hyposmia, PEFI, and TNPS (p = 0.049, p = 0.029, and p = 0.005, respectively). In the prednisolone group, patients with polyps grade 3 and endoscopic signs of meatal discharge showed significantly less improvement in total NSS, PEFI, and TNPS than patients with grade 1–2 size and negative metal discharge. Conclusion: In the 12-week treatment evaluation of nasal polyposis, pretreatment with oral steroids had no significant advantage for most nasal symptoms other than earlier relief; however, combined oral and nasal steroid therapy more effectively improved hyposmia, polyps size, and nasal airflow. Polyps size

  12. Thoracic Aortic Disease in Two Patients with Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome and SMAD4 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Teekakirikul, Polakit; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Miller, David T.; Lacro, Ronald V.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Rosales, Ana Maria; Ryan, Daniel P.; Toler, Tomi L.; Lin, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    Dilation or aneurysm of the ascending aorta can progress to acute aortic dissection (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissections, TAAD). Mutations in genes encoding TGF-β related proteins (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, FBN1, and SMAD3) cause syndromic and inherited TAAD. SMAD4 mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis (JPS) and a combined JPS-hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) known as JPS-HHT. A family with JPS-HHT was reported to have aortic root dilation and mitral valve abnormalities. We report on two patients with JPS-HHT with SMAD4 mutations associated with thoracic aortic disease. The first patient, an 11-year-old boy without Marfan syndrome features, had JPS and an apparently de novo SMAD4 mutation (c.1340_1367dup28). Echocardiography showed mild dilation of the aortic annulus and aortic root, and mild dilation of the sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Computed tomography confirmed aortic dilation and showed small pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). The second patient, a 34-year-old woman with colonic polyposis, HHT, and Marfan syndrome, had a SMAD4 mutation (c.1245_1248delCAGA). Echocardiography showed mild aortic root dilation. She also had PAVM and hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia. Her family history was significant for polyposis, HHT, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and dissection and skeletal features of Marfan syndrome in her father. These two cases confirm the association of thoracic aortic disease with JPS-HHT resulting from SMAD4 mutations. We propose that the thoracic aorta should be screened in patients with SMAD4 mutations to prevent untimely death from dissection. This report also confirms that SMAD4 mutations predispose to TAAD. PMID:23239472

  13. Exome Sequencing Identifies Biallelic MSH3 Germline Mutations as a Recessive Subtype of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ronja; Spier, Isabel; Zhao, Bixiao; Kloth, Michael; Marquez, Jonathan; Hinrichsen, Inga; Kirfel, Jutta; Tafazzoli, Aylar; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Uhlhaas, Siegfried; Stienen, Dietlinde; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Altmüller, Janine; Laner, Andreas; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Peters, Sophia; Kayser, Katrin; Thiele, Holger; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Marra, Giancarlo; Kristiansen, Glen; Nöthen, Markus M; Büttner, Reinhard; Möslein, Gabriela; Betz, Regina C; Brieger, Angela; Lifton, Richard P; Aretz, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    In ∼30% of families affected by colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutations have been identified in the previously implicated genes APC, MUTYH, POLE, POLD1, and NTHL1, although a hereditary etiology is likely. To uncover further genes with high-penetrance causative mutations, we performed exome sequencing of leukocyte DNA from 102 unrelated individuals with unexplained adenomatous polyposis. We identified two unrelated individuals with differing compound-heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) germline mutations in the mismatch-repair gene MSH3. The impact of the MSH3 mutations (c.1148delA, c.2319-1G>A, c.2760delC, and c.3001-2A>C) was indicated at the RNA and protein levels. Analysis of the diseased individuals' tumor tissue demonstrated high microsatellite instability of di- and tetranucleotides (EMAST), and immunohistochemical staining illustrated a complete loss of nuclear MSH3 in normal and tumor tissue, confirming the LoF effect and causal relevance of the mutations. The pedigrees, genotypes, and frequency of MSH3 mutations in the general population are consistent with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. Both index persons have an affected sibling carrying the same mutations. The tumor spectrum in these four persons comprised colorectal and duodenal adenomas, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and an early-onset astrocytoma. Additionally, we detected one unrelated individual with biallelic PMS2 germline mutations, representing constitutional mismatch-repair deficiency. Potentially causative variants in 14 more candidate genes identified in 26 other individuals require further workup. In the present study, we identified biallelic germline MSH3 mutations in individuals with a suspected hereditary tumor syndrome. Our data suggest that MSH3 mutations represent an additional recessive subtype of colorectal adenomatous polyposis. PMID:27476653

  14. A case of cap polyposis remission by betamethasone enema after antibiotics therapy including Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideo; Sato, Masashi; Akutsu, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Sato, Taiki; Mizokami, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to frequent bloody mucus diarrhea. She was diagnosed with cap polyposis based on typical endoscopic and histological findings. Colonoscopy revealed multiple, reddish, mucus-capped polypoid lesions from the rectum to the sigmoid colon. A pathological examination revealed that the polyps were covered by erosive and inflamed granulation tissue with decreased crypt cells. Laboratory data indicated positive values for Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody and hypoproteinemia. Metronidazole, H. pylori eradication, and levofloxacin therapies were not effective; however, the subsequent administration of betamethasone enema dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The hypoproteinemia was normalized after the therapy. The dose of the betamethasone enema was tapered gradually, and no recurrence was observed 6 months after discontinuation of the treatment. This case suggests that betamethasone enema may be considered as the second treatment choice for cap polyposis patients after H. pylori eradication, metronidazole or levofloxacin therapy. PMID:24949613

  15. Culture-independent analysis of the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer and polyposis.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Pauline D; Shanahan, Fergus; Clune, Yvonne; Collins, John K; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; O'Riordan, Micheal; Holmes, Elaine; Wang, Yulan; Marchesi, Julian R

    2008-03-01

    A role for the intestinal microbiota is routinely cited as a potential aetiological factor in colorectal cancer initiation and progression. As the majority of bacteria in the gut are refractory to culture we investigated this ecosystem in subjects with colorectal cancer and with adenomatous polyposis who are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer, using culture-independent methods. Twenty colorectal cancer and 20 polypectomized volunteers were chosen for this analysis. An exploration of the diversity and temporal stability of the dominant bacteria and several bacterial subgroups was undertaken using 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Metabonomic analysis of the distal gut microbiota's environment was also undertaken. A significantly reduced temporal stability and increased diversity for the microbiota of subjects with colorectal cancer and polyposis was evident. A significantly increased diversity of the Clostridium leptum and C. coccoides subgroups was also noted for both disease groups. A clear division in the metabonome was observed for the colorectal cancer and polypectomized subjects compared with control volunteers. The intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are significantly altered in both colorectal cancer and polypectomized subjects compared with controls. PMID:18237311

  16. Azithromycin for the treatment of eosinophilic nasal polyposis: Clinical and histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borges Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; dos Reis, Diego Carlos; Rodrigues, Danilo Santana; Nunes, Flavio Barbosa; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Macrolides used as immunomodulators are a promising tool for chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP) is still considered a disease that is difficult to control with the currently standardized treatments. Objectives: To evaluate prolonged treatment with low-dose azithromycin for ENP based on clinical and histopathologic variables. Methods: The present investigation was a self-paired case study of 33 patients with ENP. A comparison was performed between patients before and after treatment with azithromycin for 8 weeks. The patients were subjected to clinical examinations, staging (three-dimensional imaging by endoscopy), application of the questionnaire, and biopsy of nasal polyps at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Results: The treatment yielded a clinical improvement regarding the two variables studied: polyposis staging (69.7%) and questionnaire (57.6%). We did not find significant differences in the inflammatory pattern and in the percentage or absolute number of eosinophils per field between samples obtained before and after the treatment (p > 0.05). There was no difference between the answers obtained from groups with and without asthma and/or aspirin intolerance (p > 0.3). The patients with advanced initial staging exhibited lower subjective improvement index and staging reduction (p = 0.031 and p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion: Based on this study, azithromycin may be considered as another therapeutic option for ENP. However, further studies are necessary to define the real mechanism of action involved. PMID:27465667

  17. Colorectal cancer risk variants on 11q23 and 15q13 are associated with unexplained adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Hes, Frederik J; Ruano, Dina; Nieuwenhuis, Marry; Tops, Carli M; Schrumpf, Melanie; Nielsen, Maartje; Huijts, Petra E A; Wijnen, Juul T; Wagner, Anja; Gómez García, Encarna B; Sijmons, Rolf H; Menko, Fred H; Letteboer, Tom G W; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Harryvan, Jan; Kampman, Ellen; Morreau, Hans; Vasen, Hans F A; van Wezel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is frequently caused by germline mutations in APC or MUTYH. However, in about 20–30% of patients no underlying gene defect can be identified. In this study, we tested if recently identified CRC risk variants play a role in patients with >10 adenomas. Methods We analysed a total of 16 SNPs with a reported association with CRC in a cohort of 252 genetically unexplained index patients with >10 colorectal adenomas and 745 controls. In addition, we collected detailed clinical information from index patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRs). Results We found a statistically significant association with two of the variants tested: rs3802842 (at chromosome 11q23, OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0) and rs4779584 (at chromosome 15q13, OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9). The majority of index patients (84%) had between 10 and 100 adenomas and 15% had >100 adenomas. Only two index patients (1%), both with >100 adenomas, had FDRs with polyposis. Forty-one per cent of the index patients had one or more FDRs with CRC. Conclusions These SNPs are the first common, low-penetrant variants reported to be associated with adenomatous polyposis not caused by a defect in the APC, MUTYH, POLD1 and POLE genes. Even though familial occurrence of polyposis was very rare, CRC was over-represented in FDRs of polyposis patients and, if confirmed, these relatives will therefore benefit from surveillance. PMID:24253443

  18. High proportion of large genomic deletions and a genotype–phenotype update in 80 unrelated families with juvenile polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, S; Stienen, D; Uhlhaas, S; Stolte, M; Entius, M M; Loff, S; Back, W; Kaufmann, A; Keller, K‐M; Blaas, S H; Siebert, R; Vogt, S; Spranger, S; Holinski‐Feder, E; Sunde, L; Propping, P; Friedl, W

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) the frequency of large genomic deletions in the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes was unknown. Methods Mutation and phenotype analysis was used in 80 unrelated patients of whom 65 met the clinical criteria for JPS (typical JPS) and 15 were suspected to have JPS. Results By direct sequencing of the two genes, point mutations were identified in 30 patients (46% of typical JPS). Using MLPA, large genomic deletions were found in 14% of all patients with typical JPS (six deletions in SMAD4 and three deletions in BMPR1A). Mutation analysis of the PTEN gene in the remaining 41 mutation negative cases uncovered a point mutation in two patients (5%). SMAD4 mutation carriers had a significantly higher frequency of gastric polyposis (73%) than did patients with BMPR1A mutations (8%) (p<0.001); all seven cases of gastric cancer occurred in families with SMAD4 mutations. SMAD4 mutation carriers with gastric polyps were significantly older at gastroscopy than those without (p<0.001). In 22% of the 23 unrelated SMAD4 mutation carriers, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) was also diagnosed clinically. The documented histologic findings encompassed a wide distribution of different polyp types, comparable with that described in hereditary mixed polyposis syndromes (HMPS). Conclusions Screening for large deletions raised the mutation detection rate to 60% in the 65 patients with typical JPS. A strong genotype‐phenotype correlation for gastric polyposis, gastric cancer, and HHT was identified, which should have implications for counselling and surveillance. Histopathological results in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes must be critically interpreted. PMID:17873119

  19. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider. What is E. coli? E. coli (Escherichia coli) is a bacterium that lives in your colon ( ... 10):1411-1413. Jones B, et al. 2004. Escherichia coli: a growing problem in early onset neonatal sepsis. ...

  20. E. Coli Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is E. coli? E. coli is short for Escherichia coli -- bacteria (germs) that cause severe cramps and diarrhea. E. ... and especially in people who have another illness. E. coli infection is more common during the summer months and ...

  1. Phenotype and polyp landscape in serrated polyposis syndrome: a series of 100 patients from genetics clinics.

    PubMed

    Rosty, Christophe; Buchanan, Daniel D; Walsh, Michael D; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Pavluk, Erika; Walters, Rhiannon J; Clendenning, Mark; Spring, Kevin J; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung K; Hopper, John L; Sweet, Kevin; Frankel, Wendy L; Aronson, Melyssa; Gallinger, Steve; Goldblatt, Jack; Woodall, Sonja; Arnold, Julie; Walker, Neal I; Jass, Jeremy R; Parry, Susan; Young, Joanne P

    2012-06-01

    Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), also known as hyperplastic polyposis, is a syndrome of unknown genetic basis defined by the occurrence of multiple serrated polyps in the large intestine and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). There are a variety of SPS presentations, which may encompass a continuum of phenotypes modified by environmental and genetic factors. To explore the phenotype of SPS, we recorded the histologic and molecular characteristics of multiple colorectal polyps in patients with SPS recruited between 2000 and 2010 from genetics clinics in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Three specialist gastrointestinal pathologists reviewed the polyps, which they classified into conventional adenomas or serrated polyps, with various subtypes, according to the current World Health Organization criteria. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS and mismatch repair protein expression were determined in a subset of polyps. A total of 100 patients were selected for the study, of whom 58 were female and 42 were male. The total polyp count per patient ranged from 6 to 150 (median 30). The vast majority of patients (89%) had polyposis affecting the entire large intestine. From this cohort, 406 polyps were reviewed. Most of the polyps (83%) were serrated polyps: microvesicular hyperplastic polyps (HP) (n=156), goblet cell HP (n=25), sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P) (n=110), SSA/P with cytologic dysplasia (n=28), and traditional serrated adenomas (n=18). A further 69 polyps were conventional adenomas. BRAF mutation was mainly detected in SSA/P with dysplasia (95%), SSA/P (85%), microvesicular HP (76%), and traditional serrated adenoma (54%), whereas KRAS mutation was present mainly in goblet cell HP (50%) and in tubulovillous adenoma (45%). Four of 6 SSA/Ps with high-grade dysplasia showed loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression. CRC was diagnosed in 39 patients who were more often found to have a conventional adenoma compared with patients

  2. Regulation of intracellular beta-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Munemitsu, S; Albert, I; Souza, B; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P

    1995-01-01

    The APC tumor-suppressor protein associates with beta-catenin, a cell adhesion protein that is upregulated by the WNT1 oncogene. We examined the effects of exogenous APC expression on the distribution and amount of beta-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell containing only mutant APC. Expression of wild-type APC caused a pronounced reduction in total beta-catenin levels by eliminating an excessive supply of cytoplasmic beta-catenin indigenous to the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line. This reduction was due to an enhanced rate of beta-catenin protein degradation. Truncated mutant APC proteins, characteristic of those associated with cancer, lacked this activity. Mutational analysis revealed that the central region of the APC protein, which is typically deleted or severely truncated in tumors, was responsible for the down-regulation of beta-catenin. These results suggest that the tumor-suppressor activity of mutant APC may be compromised due to a defect in its ability to regulate beta-catenin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708772

  3. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  4. E. coli

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure that ground beef has reached a safe internal temperature of 160° F. Wash hands before preparing food, after diapering infants, and after contact with cows, sheep, or goats, their food or treats, or their living environment . General Information E. coli Infections (NIH MedlinePlus) Trusted ...

  5. Germ-line mutations of the APC gene in 53 familial adenomatous polyposis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Y; Ando, H; Nagase, H; Nishisho, I; Horii, A; Miki, Y; Mori, T; Utsunomiya, J; Baba, S; Petersen, G

    1992-01-01

    We searched for germ-line mutations of the APC gene in 79 unrelated patients with familial adenomatous polyposis using a ribonuclease protection analysis coupled with polymerase chain reaction amplifications of genomic DNA. Mutations were found in 53 patients (67%); 28 of the mutations were small deletions and 2 were 1- to 2-base-pair insertions; 19 were point mutations resulting in stop codons and only 4 were missense point mutations. Thus, 92% of the mutations were predicted to result in truncations of the APC protein. More than two-thirds (68%) of the mutations were clustered in the 5' half of the last exon, and nearly two-fifths of the total mutations occurred at one of five positions. This information has significant implications for understanding the role of APC mutation in inherited forms of colorectal neoplasia and for designing effective methods for genetic counseling and presymptomatic diagnosis. Images PMID:1316610

  6. Colonic epithelial cell proliferation in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Green, S; Chapman, P; Burn, J; Burt, A; Bennett, M; Appleton, D; Varma, J; Mathers, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Despite the recent discovery of four genes responsible for up to 90% of all cases of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), there will still be families in whom predictive testing is not possible. A phenotypic biomarker would therefore be useful. An upwards shift of the proliferative compartment in colonic crypts is reported to be one of the earliest changes in premalignant mucosa. 
Aims—To assess the role of crypt cell proliferation as a phenotypic biomarker in HNPCC. 
Patients—Thirty five patients at 50% risk of carrying the HNPCC gene (21 of whom subsequently underwent predictive testing and hence gene carrier status was known) and 18controls. 
Methods—Crypt cell proliferation was measured at five sites in the colon using two different techniques. Labelling index was determined using the monoclonal antibody MIB1 and whole crypt mitotic index was measured using the microdissection and crypt squash technique. The distribution of proliferating cells within the crypts was also assessed. 
Results—There were no significant differences in the total labelling index or mean number of mitoses per crypt, nor in the distribution of proliferating cells within the crypt, between the study and control groups at any site. When the 21 patients in whom gene carrier status was known were analysed separately there were no significant differences in the measured indices of proliferation between the HNPCC gene carriers and non-gene carriers. 
Conclusion—Crypt cell proliferation is not a discriminative marker of gene carriage in HNPCC. 

 Keywords: cell proliferation; hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer PMID:9771410

  7. Copy number variants associated with 18p11.32, DCC and the promoter 1B region of APC in colorectal polyposis patients

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Amy L.; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A.; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; McElduff, Patrick; Spigelman, Allan D.; Hannan, Garry N.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2015-01-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is the second most common inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colon and rectum. Mutations in APC are found in ~ 80% polyposis patients with FAP. In the remaining 20% no genetic diagnosis can be provided suggesting other genes or mechanisms that render APC inactive may be responsible. Copy number variants (CNVs) remain to be investigated in FAP and may account for disease in a proportion of polyposis patients. A cohort of 56 polyposis patients and 40 controls were screened for CNVs using the 2.7M microarray (Affymetrix) with data analysed using ChAS (Affymetrix). A total of 142 CNVs were identified unique to the polyposis cohort suggesting their involvement in CRC risk. We specifically identified CNVs in four unrelated polyposis patients among CRC susceptibility genes APC, DCC, MLH1 and CTNNB1 which are likely to have contributed to disease development in these patients. A recurrent deletion was observed at position 18p11.32 in 9% of the patients screened that was of particular interest. Further investigation is necessary to fully understand the role of these variants in CRC risk given the high prevalence among the patients screened. PMID:26909336

  8. Copy number variants associated with 18p11.32, DCC and the promoter 1B region of APC in colorectal polyposis patients.

    PubMed

    Masson, Amy L; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; McElduff, Patrick; Spigelman, Allan D; Hannan, Garry N; Scott, Rodney J

    2016-02-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is the second most common inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colon and rectum. Mutations in APC are found in ~ 80% polyposis patients with FAP. In the remaining 20% no genetic diagnosis can be provided suggesting other genes or mechanisms that render APC inactive may be responsible. Copy number variants (CNVs) remain to be investigated in FAP and may account for disease in a proportion of polyposis patients. A cohort of 56 polyposis patients and 40 controls were screened for CNVs using the 2.7M microarray (Affymetrix) with data analysed using ChAS (Affymetrix). A total of 142 CNVs were identified unique to the polyposis cohort suggesting their involvement in CRC risk. We specifically identified CNVs in four unrelated polyposis patients among CRC susceptibility genes APC, DCC, MLH1 and CTNNB1 which are likely to have contributed to disease development in these patients. A recurrent deletion was observed at position 18p11.32 in 9% of the patients screened that was of particular interest. Further investigation is necessary to fully understand the role of these variants in CRC risk given the high prevalence among the patients screened. PMID:26909336

  9. The comparative study of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) and aspirin in the prevention of intestinal adenomatous polyposis in APC(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Wang, Yan; Gao, Zuhua; Qu, Xianjun

    2014-02-01

    Acetyl-11-keto-beta-BA (AKBA), a component of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata, has been recognized as a promising agent for the prevention of intestinal tumorigenesis. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has also been considered to have the activity against intestinal tumorigenesis. However, the prevention of colonic cancer is insufficient and no definitive recommendation has been made for clinic use. Herein, we compared the efficacy of AKBA with that of aspirin in an adenomatous polyposis coli intestinal neoplasia consecutive weeks. Mice were sacrificed by anesthetizing. The whole intestine was removed from each mouse. The number, size and histopathology of intestinal adenomatous polyps were examined under microscopy. The adenomatous polyps were removed for further analysis by the assays of western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. AKBA significantly prevented the formation of intestinal adenomatous polyps without toxicity to mice. Statistical analysis indicated that AKBA's activity both in the prevention of small intestinal and colonic polyps was more potently than aspirin. Histopathologic examination revealed that AKBA's effect, that is the reduction of polyp size and degree of dysplasia, was more prominent in larger sized polyps, especially those originating in colon. These effects of AKBA were associated with its role in the induction of apoptosis in carcinomas. The assays of western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining indicated that the efficacy of AKBA might arise from its activity in the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and NF-κB/COX-2 pathway in adenomatous polyps. Conclusion, AKBA by oral application prevented intestinal tumorigenesis more potential than aspirin. PMID:24647155

  10. MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), the syndrome implicating base excision repair in inherited predisposition to colorectal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; D'Agostino, Vito G.; Ranzani, Guglielmina N.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Al-Tassan and co-workers described for the first time a recessive form of inherited polyposis associated with germline mutations of MUTYH, a gene encoding a base excision repair (BER) protein that counteracts the DNA damage induced by the oxidative stress. MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is now a well-defined cancer susceptibility syndrome, showing peculiar molecular features that characterize disease progression. However, some aspects of MAP, including diagnostic criteria, genotype-phenotype correlations, pathogenicity of variants, as well as relationships between BER and other DNA repair pathways, are still poorly understood. A deeper knowledge of the MUTYH expression pattern is likely to refine our understanding of the protein role and, finally, to improve guidances for identifying and handling MAP patients. PMID:22876359

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of Gardner syndrome with gastric polyposis: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Li; Wang, Shi-Lin; Wei, Xue-Ming; Bai, Li

    2008-01-01

    Gardner syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of colonic polyposis, osteoma and soft tissue tumors. It is regarded as a clinical subgroup of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and may present at any age from 2 mo to 70 years with a variety of symptoms, either colonic or extracolonic. We present a case of a 23-year-old female patient with GS who presented with gastric polyposis and was successively treated with restorative proctocolectomy in combination with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC/IPAA), ileostomy, ileostomy closure operation, snare polypectomy during 8 mo. After operation, the patient took oral traditional Chinese medicine pills made of Fructus mume and Bombyx batryticatu for about 6 mo. The innutrition and anaemia of this patient were gradually improved. Gastroscopy showed that the remnant gastric polypi gradually decreased and finally disappeared 19 mo after the first operation. The patient had 2-3 times of solid stool per day at the time we wrote this paper. PMID:18395919

  12. Juvenile polyposis of infancy associated with paracentric inversion and deletion of chromosome 10 in a Hispanic patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vargas-González, Roberto; de la Torre-Mondragón, Luis; Aparicio-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Paniagua-Morgan, Froylan; López-Hernández, Gerardo; Garrido-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Nuñez-Barrera, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis of infancy is a rare genetic disorder, involving multiple hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, which usually has a very aggressive clinical course and is often fatal. It is characterized by early onset (during the 1st months of life) and by diffuse juvenile polyposis with anemia, recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, rectal prolapse, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy, starvation, and malnutrition. There is a hypothesis that mutation of the tumor-suppressor genes BMPR1A and PTEN, located on the long arm of chromosome 10, is associated with the development of this disease. Medical treatment for this disorder is challenging and should be conservative whenever possible. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with juvenile polyposis of infancy who eventually died from mesenteric artery thrombosis during surgical colectomy. Karyotype of the patient showed a paracentric inversion in 10q and a deletion in 10p. We will briefly comment on some genetic considerations of this disease. PMID:20334546

  13. Scarce evidence of the causal role of germline mutations in UNC5C in hereditary colorectal cancer and polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Pilar; Elena, Sánchez-Cuartielles; Aussó, Susanna; Aiza, Gemma; Rafael, Valdés-Mas; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Brunet, Joan; Urioste, Miguel; Lázaro, Conxi; Moreno, Victor; Capellá, Gabriel; Puente, Xose S.; Valle, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations in UNC5C have been suggested to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, thus causing hereditary CRC. However, the evidence gathered thus far is insufficient to include the study of the UNC5C gene in the routine genetic testing of familial CRC. Here we aim at providing a more conclusive answer about the contribution of germline UNC5C mutations to genetically unexplained hereditary CRC and/or polyposis cases. To achieve this goal we sequenced the coding region and exon-intron boundaries of UNC5C in 544 familial CRC or polyposis patients (529 families), using a technique that combines pooled DNA amplification and massively parallel sequencing. A total of eight novel or rare variants, all missense, were identified in eight families. Co-segregation data in the families and association results in case-control series are not consistent with a causal effect for 7 of the 8 identified variants, including c.1882_1883delinsAA (p.A628K), previously described as a disease-causing mutation. One variant, c.2210G > A (p.S737N), remained unclassified. In conclusion, our results suggest that the contribution of germline mutations in UNC5C to hereditary colorectal cancer and to polyposis cases is negligible. PMID:26852919

  14. Upper tract juvenile polyps in juvenile polyposis patients: dysplasia and malignancy are associated with foveolar, intestinal, and pyloric differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS), a hereditary autosomal dominant hamartomatous polyposis syndrome, are at increased risk for colorectal adenocarcinoma. The upper gastrointestinal tract is less often involved by JPS than the colorectum, and, consequently, upper tract juvenile polyps (JPs) are not well studied. We reviewed upper endoscopies and corresponding biopsies in JPS patients documented in our Polyposis Registry. A total of 199 upper gastrointestinal biopsies from 69 endoscopies were available in 22 of 41 (54%) JPS patients. Thirteen of the 22 patients (59%) had ≥1 gastric JP; 5 also had 6 small bowel JPs. Gastric JP was identified as early as age 7 in a patient with an SMAD4 gene mutation. Two patients (9%) had high-grade dysplasia in gastric JP. Invasive adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in the gastrectomy specimen of 1 patient. Five patients had a huge gastric polyp burden; 3 underwent total gastrectomy. Three patients died of complications associated with extensive upper JP. Histologically, 8 of the 56 (14%) gastric JPs identified had dysplasia. All of the 8 polyps demonstrated intestinalized and pyloric gland differentiation intermixed with foveolar epithelium. Dysplasia was seen arising in all 3 types of epithelium. The flat gastric mucosa in 11 patients was unremarkable without inflammation or intestinal metaplasia. The 6 small bowel JPs had no dysplasia. Our findings suggest that JPS patients are at increased risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. Detection of malignancy in syndromic gastric JP indicates that the current screening procedures are insufficient in removal of precursor lesions to prevent progression to carcinoma. PMID:25390638

  15. Somatic c.34G>T KRAS mutation: a new prescreening test for MUTYH-associated polyposis?

    PubMed

    Aimé, Adeline; Coulet, Florence; Lefevre, Jeremie H; Colas, Chrystelle; Cervera, Pascale; Flejou, Jean-François; Lascols, Olivier; Soubrier, Florent; Parc, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the somatic c.34G>T KRAS transversion as a marker suggestive of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We compared 86 adenomas and 19 colorectal cancers (CRCs) of 30 MAP patients to 135 adenomas and five CRCs of 47 familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. The c.34G>T mutation was investigated by DNA sequencing. Secondly, the germline MUTYH gene sequence was analyzed in patients carrying c.34G>T in CRCs diagnosed between 2008 and 2012. The c.34G>T was present in 39.7% of MAP adenomas versus 1.6% of FAP adenomas (P < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting MAP were 39.7% and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity increased with the number of adenomas tested (P = 0.039). KRAS exon 2 analysis was performed on 2239 CRC and 2.2% harbored the c.34G>T transversion. Among 28 carriers of the c.34G>T mutation, biallelic MUTYH mutations were detected in seven patients (25%). One patient did not have any polyp or family history and did not fulfill criteria for MUTYH testing. With high specificity, the c.34G>T mutation seems to be a useful and promising test for MAP. For polyposis, it may guide genetic testing toward APC or MUTYH. If routinely performed in CRC patients, it could help to diagnose MUTYH-mutation carriers, even when they don't fulfill genetic testing criteria. PMID:26056087

  16. E. coli enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Traveler's diarrhea - E. coli ; Food poisoning - E. coli ; E. coli diarrhea; Hamburger disease ... infected. The most common symptom is sudden, severe diarrhea that is often bloody. Other symptoms may include: ...

  17. Detection of familial adenomatous polyposis with polarized spectroscopic imaging and oral vascular density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, Ali; Edelstein, Daniel L.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple colonic polyps at younger age with a near 100% lifetime risk of colorectal cancer in later years. The determination of FAP is made after extensive clinical evaluation and genetic testing of at risk individuals. Genetic testing is expensive and in some cases deleterious mutations are not found in all patients with a clinical diagnosis of FAP. As such, the early identification of affected individuals could substantially eliminate associated morbidity and mortality. We investigated a novel spectro-polarimetric imaging system to capture images of the oral mucosa at different wavelengths in an attempt to distinguish patients with FAP from controls. Total diffused oral mucosal reflectance (OMR) and oral mucosal vascular density (OMVD) were calculated from spectral data collected from 33 patients with gene positive FAP, 5 patients who tested negative for FAP, and 45 controls. A statistically significant difference in OMVD (p < 0.001) was observed between individuals with FAP and controls. Analysis of OMR showed no significant difference between the two subject groups.

  18. Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer): current concepts and approaches to management.

    PubMed

    Ricciardiello, Luigi; Boland, C Richard

    2005-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is among the most frequent causes of cancer death worldwide. An inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, Lynch syndrome-- also called hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer--is probably the most frequent cause of hereditary cancer and is often found in a colon cancer patient and traced through other family members. However, this syndrome is not only characterized by the early onset of colon cancers but also by a predisposition to a constellation of extraintestinal cancers that tend to be misdiagnosed. With new diagnostic technologies, the incidence of familial/inherited versus sporadic cases may appear to increase, due to the recognition of cancers in families that do not fulfill clinical guidelines developed prior to knowledge of the genetic basis of this disease. We now have the ability and the responsibility to detect and prevent this disease, and equally important, to direct patients to specifically targeted treatment. Specialists should be aware of the significance of inherited colon cancer and should become familiar with the molecular diagnostic tests now widely available. PMID:16168241

  19. Prevalence of serrated polyposis syndrome and its association with synchronous advanced adenoma and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    TOYOSHIMA, NAOYA; SAKAMOTO, TAKU; MAKAZU, MAKOMO; NAKAJIMA, TAKESHI; MATSUDA, TAKAHISA; KUSHIMA, RYOJI; SHIMODA, TADAKAZU; FUJII, TAKAHIRO; INOUE, HARUHIRO; KUDO, SHIN-EI; SAITO, YUTAKA

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) and the incidence of advanced adenoma/colorectal cancer (CRC). We prospectively enrolled 249 consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy at the National Cancer Center Hospital over a 6-month period. All the polyps were diagnosed using magnification colonoscopy and resection/biopsy. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups, i) those with ≥5 histologically diagnosed hyperplastic polyps (HPs) proximal to the sigmoid colon, with at least 2 polyps >10 mm in diameter and ii) those with ≥20 HPs distributed throughout the colon. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared, including lifestyle, family history of CRC and colonoscopic findings. HPs were identified in 228 patients, of whom 21 (8.4%) had SPS. All 21 patients had ≥20 HPs distributed throughout the colon, with none having >2 HPs ≥1 cm in diameter in the right colon. Synchronous advanced adenoma/CRC was diagnosed in 76/249 (30.5%) patients. The prevalence of advanced adenoma/CRC was higher among patients with compared to those without SPS (P=0.075). SPS was also associated with older age and higher body mass index (BMI). Our results suggested that older age and higher BMI are independent risk factors for SPS. Advanced adenoma/CRC tended to occur more frequently among patients with compared to those without SPS, although the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:25469272

  20. The challenge of developmentally appropriate care: predictive genetic testing in young people for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rony E; Gillam, Lynn; Savulescu, Julian; Williamson, Robert; Rogers, John G; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-03-01

    Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence. While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges, it is possible to ensure that the test is offered in such a way that it actively acknowledges and facilitates young people's developing autonomy and psychosocial well-being. In this paper we present findings from ten in-depth interviews with young people who have undergone predictive genetic testing for FAP (four male, six female; five gene-positive, five gene-negative; aged 10-17 years at the time of their predictive test; aged 12-25 years at the time of their research interview). We present five themes that emerged from the interviews which highlight key ethical challenges associated with such testing. These are: (1) the significance of the test; (2) young people's lack of involvement in the decision to be tested; (3) young people's limited understanding; (4) provision of the blood test at the first visit; and (5) group testing of family members. We draw on these themes to make eight recommendations for future practice. Together, these recommendations highlight the importance of providing developmentally appropriate care to young people undergoing predictive genetic testing for FAP. PMID:19760114

  1. Current and future treatment options for adult chronic rhinosinusitis: Focus on nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bachert, Claus; Zhang, Luo; Gevaert, Phillippe

    2015-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects more than 10% of the population in the United States and Europe. Recent findings point to a considerable variation of inflammatory subtypes in patients with CRS with nasal polyps and patients with CRS without nasal polyps. According to current guidelines, glucocorticosteroids and antibiotics are the principle pharmacotherapeutic approaches; however, they fail in a group of patients who share common clinical and laboratory markers. Several clinical phenotypes often leading to uncontrolled disease, including adult nasal polyposis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, are characterized by a common endotype: a TH2 bias is associated with a higher likelihood of comorbid asthma and recurrence after surgical treatment. As a consequence, several innovative approaches targeting the TH2 bias with humanized mAbs have been subjected to proof-of-concept studies in patients with CRS with nasal polyps with or without comorbid asthma: omalizumab, reslizumab, mepolizumab, and recently dupilumab. Future concepts using upstream targets, such as GATA-3, also focus on this endotype. This current development might result in advantages in the treatment of patients with the most severe CRS. PMID:26654192

  2. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer without Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay; Xicola, Rosa M.; Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong; Doyle, Brian J; Sohn, Vanessa R.; Bandipalliam, Prathap; Reyes, Josep; Cordero, Carmen; Balaguer, Francesc; Castells, Antoni; Jover, Rodrigo; Andreu, Montserrat; Syngal, Sapna; Boland, C. Richard; Llor, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Approximately half of the families that fulfill Amsterdam criteria for Lynch syndrome or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) do not have evidence of the germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations that define this syndrome and result in microsatellite instability. The carcinogenic pathways and the best diagnostic approaches to detect microsatellite stable (MSS) HNPCC tumors are unclear. We investigated the contribution of epigenetic alterations to development of MSS HNPCC tumors. Methods Colorectal cancers were divided in four groups: 1. Microsatellite stable, Amsterdam positive (MSS HNPCC) (N=22); 2. Lynch syndrome cancers (identified mismatch repair mutations) (N=21); 3. Sporadic MSS (N=92); 4. Sporadic MSI (N=46). Methylation status was evaluated for CACNAG1, SOCS1, RUNX3, NEUROG1, MLH1, and LINE-1. KRAS and BRAF mutations status was analyzed. Results MSS HNPCC tumors displayed a significantly lower degree of LINE-1 methylation, marker for global methylation, than any other group. Whereas most MSS HNPCC tumors had some degree of CpG island methylation, none presented a high index of methylation. MSS HNPCC tumors had KRAS mutations exclusively in codon 12, but none harbored V600E BRAF mutations. Conclusions Tumors from Amsterdam-positive patients without mismatch repair deficiency (MSS HNPCC) have certain molecular features, including global hypomethylation that distinguish them from all other colorectal cancers. These characteristics could have an important impact on tumor behavior or treatment response. Studies are underway to further assess the cause and effects of these features. PMID:20102720

  3. Tracheal section is an independent predictor of asthma in patients with nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bokov, Plamen; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Al Dandachi, Ghanima; Londner, Cécile; Plantier, Laurent; Bonfils, Pierre; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Airway anatomy could be a risk factor for asthma in susceptible patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. This anatomy can be described by only two parameters, the tracheal cross-sectional area and the homothety ratio, which describes the reduction of calibre at each subsequent generation. Thus, we hypothesized that the tracheal area would be linked to the risk of asthma presence. Tracheal area (measured by acoustic reflexion method) and airway responsiveness to metacholine (expressed as Dose Response Slope) were evaluated in 71 consecutive adult patients with nasal polyposis and normal baseline lung function. Hyperresponsiveness was evidenced in 30/71 patients (42%), and 20/71 patients (28%) were asthmatics. Forced expiratory flows were related to tracheal areas (mean value: 3.22±1.32cm(2)). In a logistic multivariate analysis, tracheal area and the degree of responsiveness were independent predictors of asthma. In conclusion, this study suggests that airway anatomy, crudely assessed by tracheal section, is an independent determinant of asthma. PMID:25174298

  4. Cold snare polypectomy effectively reduces polyp burden in familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nedhi J.; Ponugoti, Prasanna L.; Rex, Douglas K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is generally managed by colectomy, but in some cases surgery is delayed and polyp burdens are managed endoscopically. We aimed to describe the use of cold snare polypectomy to control the polyp burden in selected patients with FAP. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Polyps were counted and the range of polyp size recorded at each examination. Patients with a reduction in polyp number and mean size were considered to have successful endoscopic reduction of their polyp burdens. Results: Of 79 patients with FAP, 21 had an attempt at delaying surgery by cold snaring of at least 30 adenomas, and had at least one follow-up at our institution. Ten patients had intact colons, 6 had intact rectums, and 5 had heavy polyp burdens in an ileo-anal pouch. Among the 21 patients, the mean number of polyps resected at the first examination was 85, range 30 – 342. Nineteen of 21 patients had fewer polyps at the second examination, and of those, only one had any persistence of adenomas ≥ 1 cm in size. During follow-up, two patients underwent surgical resection and the remainder had reductions in their polyp burdens at follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions: Cold snare polypectomy effectively reduces polyp burden in selected FAP patients. PMID:27092331

  5. Protein-losing enteropathy in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis and advanced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yoshihiko; Muguruma, Naoki; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Sogabe, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kohno, Seiya; Nakasono, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hiroshige; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 29-year-old female visited a hospital because of increasingly severe lower leg edema. She was diagnosed as having multiple polyps in the stomach and colon by gastroscopy and sigmoidoscopy as well as multiple liver tumors by abdominal CT. She was referred to our hospital for further examination. Total colonoscopy revealed a type 2 tumor in the transverse colon and more than 200 polyps distributed throughout the colorectum. Biopsies of the tumor and polyps showed histological characteristics of adenocarcinoma and tubulovillous adenoma, respectively. Thus, she was diagnosed as having metastatic colon cancer derived from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Laboratory tests showed a marked hypoalbuminemia of 1.1 g/dl. The fecal alpha-1 anti-trypsin test showed abnormal clearance (62.1 ml/day), and scintigraphy using 99mTc-human serum albumin revealed protein loss in the whole colon. Multiple ligation probe amplification analysis of the APC gene identified a germline duplication of exons 11-13. Direct sequencing of the reverse transcription PCR products of APC mRNA revealed a deletion of 25 base pairs and a tandem duplication of exons 11-13. This case was considered to be protein-losing enteropathy resulting from numerous colonic tubulovillous adenomas and advanced colon cancer in a FAP patient with unusual mutational events in APC. PMID:27170298

  6. Manifestations of juvenile polyposis syndrome in SMAD4 mutation carriers of a kindred.

    PubMed

    Schwetz, Verena; Uhrig, Sabine; Spuller, Ekkehard; Deutschmann, Andrea; Högenauer, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) leads to the development of multiple hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and is a precancerous condition. In a large family with a newly identified SMAD4 mutation (c.543delC), we describe the clinical manifestations of JPS. Nine affected SMAD4 mutation-positive family members were screened and treated for manifestations of JPS. Two family members were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis; seven were asymptomatic - independent of the severity of the manifestation. Each mutation carrier presented with colonic juvenile polyps, seven out of nine with additional gastric manifestations. One asymptomatic patient had early gastric cancer; another patient had a villous adenoma with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the colon. Three patients had biliary lesions including a bile duct hamartoma in one and gallbladder polyps in two. Three patients had gastrointestinal vascular malformations. All mutation carriers were affected by JPS. Interestingly, the manifestations and their severity differed considerably between the patients, suggesting secondary factors influencing JPS manifestations such as Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:22617360

  7. Characterization of adenocarcinoma of the lung in a familial adenomatous polyposis patient.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masaya; Yamada, Hidetaka; Tao, Hong; Goto, Masanori; Kamo, Takaharu; Nagura, Kiyoko; Kageyama, Shinji; Kato, Motohiro; Ogawa, Seishi; Maekawa, Masato; Takamochi, Kazuya; Suzuki, Kazuya; Nakamura, Toshio; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2008-11-01

    The incidence of several extracolonic tumors, such as duodenal carcinoma, is higher in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients than in the general population, but there is little information about lung carcinoma in FAP. A 43-year-old woman presented with a lung tumor 17 years after total colectomy for FAP. Pathohistological analysis of the lung tumor demonstrated mixed adenocarcinoma consisting of a papillary adenocarcinoma component and a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma component. Sequencing analysis indicated a germline APC mutation from TCA to TGA (stop) at codon 1110, but no pathogenic germline MYH mutations. The other APC allele in the lung carcinoma was not inactivated by somatic mutations, promoter methylation, or chromosomal deletion. No somatic mutations in any of the coding regions of the p53 gene or in the mutation hot spot regions of the K-ras or EGFR genes were detected in the carcinoma. Amplification, however, of three chromosome regions, 5p, 8q, and 12q14-12q21, was identified in the carcinoma on genome-wide high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. The present results suggest that the chromosomal copy number alterations detected on SNP microarray were involved in the carcinogenesis of the adenocarcinoma of the lung in the present FAP patient. PMID:18844936

  8. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome in Korea: Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Seo, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Shin, Ok-Ran; Ahn, Chang Hyuck

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a rare condition characterized by multiple serrated polyps throughout the colon and rectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of SPS in Koreans. Methods. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed using information from the endoscopy, clinical records, and pathology database system of Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital. Consecutive patients satisfying the updated 2010 World Health Organization criteria for SPS between June 2011 and May 2014 were enrolled. Results. Of the 17,552 patients who underwent colonoscopies during the study period, 11 (0.06%) met the criteria for SPS. The mean age of these patients was 55.6 years. Ten patients (91%) were males. None had a family history of CRC or a first-degree relative with SPS. Seven patients (64%) had synchronous advanced adenoma. One patient had coexistence of SPS with CRC that was diagnosed at the initial colonoscopy. Five patients (45%) had more than 30 serrated polyps. One of the patients underwent surgery and 10 underwent endoscopic resection. Conclusion. The prevalence of SPS in this study cohort was comparable to that in Western populations. Considering the high risk of CRC, correct diagnosis and careful follow-up for SPS are necessary. PMID:26064099

  9. Zileuton, 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor, Acts as a Chemopreventive Agent in Intestinal Polyposis, by Modulating Polyp and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heiferman, Jeffrey R.; Shrivastav, Manisha; Vitello, Dominic; Blatner, Nichole R.; Knab, Lawrence M.; Phillips, Joseph D.; Cheon, Eric C.; Grippo, Paul J.; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.; Bentrem, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leukotrienes and prostaglandins, products of arachidonic acid metabolism, sustain both systemic and lesion-localized inflammation. Tumor-associated Inflammation can also contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have increased risk of developing colon cancer. The levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the key enzyme for leukotrienes production, are increased in colon cancer specimens and colonic dysplastic lesions. Here we report that Zileuton, a specific 5-LO inhibitor, can prevent polyp formation by efficiently reducing the tumor-associated and systemic inflammation in APCΔ468 mice. Experimental Design In the current study, we inhibited 5-LO by dietary administration of Zileuton in the APCΔ468 mouse model of polyposis and analyzed the effect of in vivo 5-LO inhibition on tumor-associated and systemic inflammation. Results Zileuton-fed mice developed fewer polyps and displayed marked reduction in systemic and polyp-associated inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory innate and adaptive immunity cells were reduced both in the lesions and systemically. As part of tumor-associated inflammation Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), product of 5-LO activity, is increased focally in human dysplastic lesions. The 5-LO enzymatic activity was reduced in the serum of Zileuton treated polyposis mice. Conclusions This study demonstrates that dietary administration of 5-LO specific inhibitor in the polyposis mouse model decreases polyp burden, and suggests that Zileuton may be a potential chemo-preventive agent in patients that are high-risk of developing colon cancer. PMID:25747113

  10. Common colorectal cancer risk alleles contribute to the multiple colorectal adenoma phenotype, but do not influence colonic polyposis in FAP.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Barclay, Ella; Casey, Graham; Saunders, Brian; Thomas, Huw; Clark, Sue; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    The presence of multiple (5-100) colorectal adenomas suggests an inherited predisposition, but the genetic aetiology of this phenotype is undetermined if patients test negative for Mendelian polyposis syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We investigated whether 18 common colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could help to explain some cases with multiple adenomas who phenocopied FAP or MAP, but had no pathogenic APC or MUTYH variant. No multiple adenoma case had an outlying number of CRC SNP risk alleles, but multiple adenoma patients did have a significantly higher number of risk alleles than population controls (P=5.7 × 10(-7)). The association was stronger in those with ≥10 adenomas. The CRC SNPs accounted for 4.3% of the variation in multiple adenoma risk, with three SNPs (rs6983267, rs10795668, rs3802842) explaining 3.0% of the variation. In FAP patients, the CRC risk score did not differ significantly from the controls, as we expected given the overwhelming effect of pathogenic germline APC variants on the phenotype of these cases. More unexpectedly, we found no evidence that the CRC SNPs act as modifier genes for the number of colorectal adenomas in FAP patients. In conclusion, common colorectal tumour risk alleles contribute to the development of multiple adenomas in patients without pathogenic germline APC or MUTYH variants. This phenotype may have 'polygenic' or monogenic origins. The risk of CRC in relatives of multiple adenoma cases is probably much lower for cases with polygenic disease, and this should be taken into account when counselling such patients. PMID:24801760

  11. Colonic polyposis in a 15 year-old boy: Challenges and lessons from a rural resource-poor area

    PubMed Central

    Kakembo, Nasser; Kisa, Phyllis; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Ozgediz, Doruk; Sekabira, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal polyps usually present with rectal bleeding and are associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. Evaluation and management in resource-poor areas present unique challenges. Presentation of case This 15 year-old boy presented with 9 years of painless rectal bleeding and 2 years of a prolapsing rectal mass after passing stool. He had 3 nephews with similar symptoms. On clinical assessment and initial exam under anesthesia, an impression of a polyposis syndrome was made and a biopsy taken from the mass that revealed inflammatory polyps with no dysplasia. He was identified during a pediatric surgical outreach to a rural area with no endoscopy, limited surgical services, and no genetic testing available, even at a tertiary center. He subsequently had a three-stage proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis with good outcome after referral to a tertiary care center. The surgical specimen showed many polyps scattered through the colon. Discussion In the absence of endoscopic surveillance and diagnostic services including advanced pathology and genetic testing, colorectal polyposis syndromes are a significant challenge if encountered in these settings. Reports from similar settings have not included this surgical treatment, often opting for partial colectomy. Nonetheless, good outcomes can be achieved even given these constraints. The case also illustrates the complexity of untreated chronic pediatric surgical disease in rural resource-poor areas with limited health care access. Conclusion Polyposis syndromes in children present unique challenges in rural resource-poor settings. Good outcomes can be achieved with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis. PMID:27144002

  12. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for the Complete Resection of the Rectal Remnant Mucosa in a Patient With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman underwent prophylactic subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) 18 years ago. She underwent 5 transanal endoscopic microsurgeries for rectal remnant polyps, and was referred for the treatment of rectal remnant polyp recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed to remove multiple polypoid lesions that circumferentially extended throughout the rectal remnant with lesions spreading onto the anastomotic site. The rectal remnant mucosa was resected in 2 pieces without complication. Specimens showed high-grade adenoma but no malignancy. Follow-up colonoscopy showed no recurrence. PMID:27144195

  13. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for the Complete Resection of the Rectal Remnant Mucosa in a Patient With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naoki; Akiyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman underwent prophylactic subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) 18 years ago. She underwent 5 transanal endoscopic microsurgeries for rectal remnant polyps, and was referred for the treatment of rectal remnant polyp recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed to remove multiple polypoid lesions that circumferentially extended throughout the rectal remnant with lesions spreading onto the anastomotic site. The rectal remnant mucosa was resected in 2 pieces without complication. Specimens showed high-grade adenoma but no malignancy. Follow-up colonoscopy showed no recurrence. PMID:27144195

  14. Risk of thyroid cancer among Caribbean Hispanic patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Casellas-Cabrera, Nicolás; Díaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Carlo-Chévere, Víctor J; González-Pons, María; Rodríguez-Mañón, Natalia; Pérez-Mayoral, Julyann; Bertrán-Rodríguez, Carlos; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Giardiello, Francis M; Rodríguez-Quilichini, Segundo; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-04-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited form of colorectal cancer characterized by hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. FAP is also associated with thyroid cancer (TC), but the lifetime risk is still unclear. This study reports the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TC in Hispanic FAP patients. TC incidence rates in patients with FAP between the periods of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013 were compared with the general population through direct database linkage from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry (PRCCR) and the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (PURIFICAR). The study population consisted of 51 Hispanic patients with FAP and 3239 with TC from the general population. The SIR was calculated using the Indirect Method, defined as observed TC incidence among patients with FAP in PURIFICAR's cohort (2006-2013) divided by the expected TC incidence based on the PR population rates (2006-2010). SIR values were estimated by sex (male, female, and overall). This study received IRB approval (protocol #A2210207). In Hispanic patients with FAP, the SIR (95% CI) for TC was 251.73 (51.91-735.65), with higher risk for females 461.18 (55.85-1665.94) than males 131.91 (3.34-734.95). Hispanic FAP patients are at a high risk for TC compared to the general population. Our incidence rates are higher than previous studies, suggesting that this community may be at a higher risk for TC than previously assumed. Implementation of clinical surveillance guidelines and regular ultrasound neck screening in Hispanic FAP patients is recommended. PMID:26690363

  15. Genotype and phenotype factors as determinants of desmoid tumors in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bertario, L; Russo, A; Sala, P; Eboli, M; Giarola, M; D'amico, F; Gismondi, V; Varesco, L; Pierotti, M A; Radice, P

    2001-03-20

    Desmoids represent the most important cause of death, after colorectal cancer, in patients affected with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease due to mutations in the APC gene. The aims of our study were to estimate the risk of developing desmoids in FAP patients and to evaluate the association between desmoids and different risk factors. The occurrence of desmoids, colorectal cancer and other extra-colonic manifestations were assessed in 897 FAP patients, 653 of whom were also investigated for APC mutations. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using an unconditional multiple logistic regression model. Desmoids developed in 107 patients (11.9%), with a cumulative risk of 20.6%. Females had a significantly higher risk than males (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.1). Family history of desmoids (OR = 8.75; 95% CI 5.66-13.51), osteomas (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and epidermoid cysts (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.2) was also significantly associated with the occurrence of disease. Subjects with APC mutations beyond codon 1444 had a 12-fold increased risk, compared with patients with mutations located upstream. Mutations beyond codon 1309 conferred a 17-fold higher risk, compared with mutations upstream codon 452. Multivariate analysis identified as independent predictors mutation beyond codon 1444 (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 2.5-15.8), family history of desmoids (OR = 5.8; 95% CI 3.1-10.6), female gender (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and the presence of osteomas (OR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Our results indicate that integrating genetic and clinical data is helpful in defining subgroups of patients at higher risk for desmoids, who may benefit from specific prevention programs. PMID:11241320

  16. Genotype and Phenotype Factors as Determinants for Rectal Stump Cancer in Patients With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Bertario, Lucio; Russo, Antonio; Radice, Paolo; Varesco, Liliana; Eboli, Marco; Spinelli, Pasquale; Reyna, Arturo; Sala, Paola

    2000-01-01

    Objective To identify factors influencing the occurrence of cancer in the rectal remnant in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) after colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (IRA). Summary Background Data The risk for rectal cancer in patients with FAP after colectomy and IRA remains a major concern. Methods Between 1955 and 1997, 371 patients (206 men, 165 women) from the Registry of Hereditary Colorectal Tumors underwent colectomy and IRA as a primary surgical procedure. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the relative excess risk of rectal cancer and to control for confounding factors. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the relation between cancer risk in the rectum and sex, age, number of rectal polyps, colon cancer, and APC germline mutation. Results Median follow-up was 81 months. Eighty-nine patients (24%) had colon cancer at the time of surgery. The APC mutation was found in 200 patients. In 27 patients, cancer developed in the retained rectum 1 to 26 years after surgery. The incidence of rectal carcinoma appears to increase with time: at 10, 15, and 20 years after surgery, the cumulative risk was 7.7%, 13.1%, and 23.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified as independent predictors the presence of colon cancer at IRA and a mutation occurring between codons 1250 and 1464; both factors increased the risk nine times. Conclusions The presence of cancer at IRA and APC mutation type are the most important risk factors for the future development of cancer in the rectal remnant in patients with FAP. PMID:10749615

  17. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  18. [A Case of Carcinoma of the Uterine Body, Right Ovary, and Duodenum in a Patient with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Chika, Noriyasu; Tajima, Yusuke; Suzuki, Okihide; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kumagai, Yoichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Iwama, Takeo; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of 4 carcinomas of the uterine body, right ovary, and duodenum in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Her mother's family line carries FAP. She underwent proctocolectomy with ileoanal anastomosis for FAP when she was 20 years old. She was diagnosed with carcinoma of the uterine body and right ovary, and underwent abdominal total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy at 48 years of age. The pathological examination revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine body (Stage ⅠB) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the right ovary (Stage ⅠA). Her diagnosis was Stage Ⅳ according to the Spigelman classification of duodenal polyposis, and she underwent pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy at 50 years of age. The pathological examination was conclusive for 2 carcinomas in the adenoma, which were 20 mm and 25 mm in diameter, respectively. She has been well without any evidence of cancer recurrence 20 months after the pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy. PMID:26805148

  19. Comparison of proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis to colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, L; Mustonen, H; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L; Järvinen, H J; Lepistö, A

    2015-06-01

    Prophylactic surgical options for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are either colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The aim of this study was to analyse the short-term and long-term outcomes of these two operative techniques. All patients with FAP in Finland have been prospectively recorded in a database since 1963 were retrospectively reviewed in this analysis. Altogether 140 (61%) colectomies with IRA and 88 (39%) proctocolectomies with IPAA have been performed. Complications occurred in 28 (21%) patients after IRA and in 26 (30%) patients after IPAA. There were 15 (11%) severe complications for IRA and 5 (6%) for IPAA. Twenty-one (15%) patients of the IRA group ended up in conventional ileostomy whereas 3 (3.4%) patients of the IPAA group had their ileal reservoir converted to an ileostomy (p = 0.01). Cumulative survival for IRA was lower than for the IPAA (p = 0.03), but if accounting only for operations made after the IPAA era had commenced, there was no significant difference. IPAA was associated with improved long-term survival without an increase in postoperative complications. The risk of death after colectomy and IRA seemed to be predominantly related to the remaining risk of rectal cancer. Therefore, we favour proctocolectomy with IPAA as the prophylactic surgical procedure for FAP with intermediate or severe polyposis. PMID:25504366

  20. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults with weak immune systems. You can get E. coli infections by eating foods containing the bacteria. Symptoms of ... pool contaminated with human waste. Most cases of E. coli infection get better without treatment in 5 to 10 ...

  1. Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were

  2. Colonic and duodenal flat adenomas in children with classical familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marta; Thomson, Mike; Taylor, Chris; Donatone, Jorge; Quijano, Graciela; Drut, Ricardo

    2006-04-01

    Flat adenomas of the colon and duodenum have been described as associating with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), its attenuated variant, and the so-called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. There seem to be no report on the occurrence of flat adenomas in pediatric patients with family history of FAP. We are reporting 4 children from 2 cancer-prone families in whom colonic and duodenal moderately dysplastic flat adenomas were found. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies were performed in 3 female siblings (7, 9, and 11 years old) and 1 male (9 years old) when referred for screening owing to familial history of bowel cancer (family 1) or evidence of bilateral congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), which is known to be associated with FAP (family 2). Endoscopic visualization of the mucosa was improved by use of 0.2% indigo carmine solution spray. Biopsies were routinely processed for H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. Present patients were asymptomatic, with the exception of 2 weeks rectal bleeding in 1 of them. The colonic videoendoscopy showed in 2/3 siblings hundreds of flat or slightly raised plaques less than 1 cm in diameter as well as some classic polyps throughout the colon. The other sibling showed 40 flat-topped lesions with minimal elevation and central umbilication in the cecum. Upper endoscopy demonstrated a few flat lesions in the nonperiampullary area of the duodenum in 2/4 patients. The colonic videoendoscopy performed on the 9-year-old boy revealed multiple small sessile polyps. Microscopic study demonstrated tubular adenomas with a few neoplastic crypts, slight disarray of the overall architecture, and moderate (low-grade) dysplasia of the epithelium. These features were more obvious at the center and superficial areas of the adenomas. The 4 children had multiple flat adenomas of the colon and duodenum (2/4) matching with those described in adult patients. Flat adenomas in the context of FAP probably

  3. Effects of celecoxib on prostanoid biosynthesis and circulating angiogenesis proteins in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Dovizio, Melania; Tacconelli, Stefania; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Bruno, Annalisa; Maier, Thorsten Jürgen; Anzellotti, Paola; Di Francesco, Luigia; Sala, Paola; Signoroni, Stefano; Bertario, Lucio; Dixon, Dan A; Lawson, John A; Steinhilber, Dieter; FitzGerald, Garret A; Patrignani, Paola

    2012-04-01

    Vascular cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-dependent prostacyclin (PGI(2)) may affect angiogenesis by preventing endothelial activation and platelet release of angiogenic factors present in platelet α-granules. Thus, a profound inhibition of COX-2-dependent PGI(2) might be associated with changes in circulating markers of angiogenesis. We aimed to address this issue by performing a clinical study with celecoxib in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In nine patients with FAP and healthy controls, pair-matched for gender and age, we compared systemic biosynthesis of PGI(2), thromboxane (TX) A(2), and prostaglandin (PG) E(2), assessing their urinary enzymatic metabolites, 2,3-dinor-6-keto PGF(1α) (PGI-M), 11-dehydro-TXB(2) (TX-M), and 11-α-hydroxy-9,15-dioxo-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostane-1,20-dioic acid (PGE-M), respectively. The impact of celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d. for 7 days) on prostanoid biosynthesis and 14 circulating biomarkers of angiogenesis was evaluated in FAP. Intestinal tumorigenesis was associated with enhanced urinary TX-M levels, but unaffected by celecoxib, suggesting the involvement of a COX-1-dependent pathway, presumably from platelets. This was supported by the finding that in cocultures of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) and platelets enhanced TXA(2) generation was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment of platelets with aspirin, a preferential inhibitor of COX-1. In FAP, celecoxib profoundly suppressed PGE(2) and PGI(2) biosynthesis that was associated with a significant increase in circulating levels of most proangiogenesis proteins but also the antiangiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2. Urinary PGI-M, but not PGE-M, was negatively correlated with circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 and angiogenin. In conclusion, inhibition of tumor COX-2-dependent PGE(2) by celecoxib may reduce tumor progression. However, the coincident depression of vascular PGI(2), in a context of enhanced TXA(2) biosynthesis, may modulate

  4. Presence of c.3956delC mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis patients from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Alcântara, Diego di Felipe Ávila; Lima-Júnior, Sérgio Figueiredo; Cavalléro, Sandro Roberto de Araújo; Rey, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; de Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize APC gene mutations and correlate them with patient phenotypes in individuals diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in northern Brazil. METHODS: A total of 15 individuals diagnosed with FAP from 5 different families from the north of Brazil were analyzed in this study. In addition to patients with histopathological diagnosis of FAP, family members who had not developed the disease were also tested in order to identify mutations and for possible genetic counseling. All analyzed patients or their guardians signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital (Belem, Brazil). DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of a member of each of the affected families was subjected to direct sequencing. The proband of each family was sequenced to identify germline mutations using the Ion Torrent platform. To validate the detected mutations, Sanger sequencing was also performed. The samples from all patients were also tested for the identification of mutations by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the amplification refractory mutation system. RESULTS: Through interviews with relatives and a search of medical records, it was possible to construct genograms for three of the five families included in the study. All 15 patients from the five families with FAP exhibited mutations in the APC gene, and all mutations were detected in exon 15 of the APC gene. In addition to the patients with a histological diagnosis of FAP, family members without disease symptoms showed the mutation in the APC gene. In the present study, we detected two of the three most frequent germline mutations in the literature: the mutation at codon 1309 and the mutation at codon 1061. The presence of c.3956delC mutation was found in all families from this study, and suggests that this mutation was introduced in the population of the State of Pará through ancestor immigration (i.e., a de novo

  5. Epithelial turnover in duodenal familial adenomatous polyposis: A possible role for estrogen receptors?

    PubMed Central

    Di Leo, Alfredo; Nesi, Gabriella; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Piscitelli, Domenico; Girardi, Bruna; Pricci, Maria; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Iannone, Andrea; Ierardi, Enzo; Tonelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate estrogen receptors expression in duodenal familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and any relationship with epithelial proliferation/apoptosis markers. METHODS: Twenty-two patients affected by FAP undergoing duodenal resection for malignancies were recruited. Controls were 15 healthy subjects undergoing endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. ER-α, ER-α, Ki-67, TUNEL and caspase 3 expression (labeling index: percentage of positive cells) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence and examined by light or confocal microscopy. Samples were assigned to four groups: normal tissue, low (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD), adenocarcinoma (AC). One-way analysis of variance, corrected by Bonferroni’s test, and Pearson’s correlation test were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: ER-beta showed a progressive decline: normal tissue (23.5 ± 4.9), LGD (21.1 ± 4.8), HGD (9.3 ± 3.5), AC (7.1 ± 3.1). The normal tissue of FAP subjects expressed ER-beta like the controls (23.9 ± 6.2). Conversely, ER-α showed a progressive increase from normal tissue (24.8 ± 5.6) to AC (52.0 ± 8.2); the expression in normal tissue was similar to controls (22.5 ± 5.3). Ki67 demonstrated a statistically significant progressive increase at each disease stage up to AC. TUNEL did not reveal differences between controls and normal tissue of FAP subjects, but progressive decreases were observed in LGD, through HGD to AC. Pearson’s correlation test showed a direct relationship between ER-β and TUNEL LI (r = 0.8088, P < 0.0001). Conversely, ER-α was inversely correlated with TUNEL LI (r = - 0.7257, P < 0.0001). The co-expression of ER-β and caspase 3 declined progressively from normal to neoplastic tissue. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that ER-β is strongly decreased in duodenal FAP carcinomas, declining in a multiple step fashion, thereby suggesting a putative anti-carcinogenic effect. ER-α showed the opposite trend. ER-β/caspase 3 co

  6. Effect of Sulindac and Erlotinib vs Placebo on Duodenal Neoplasia in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Samadder, N. Jewel; Neklason, Deborah W.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Byrne, Kathryn R.; Kanth, Priyanka; Samowitz, Wade; Jones, David; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Done, Michelle W.; Berry, Therese; Jasperson, Kory; Pappas, Lisa; Smith, Laurel; Sample, Danielle; Davis, Rian; Topham, Matthew K.; Lynch, Patrick; Strait, Elena; McKinnon, Wendy; Burt, Randall W.; Kuwada, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are at markedly increased risk for duodenal polyps and cancer. Surgical and endoscopic management of duodenal neoplasia is difficult and chemoprevention has not been successful. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a combination of sulindac and erlotinib on duodenal adenoma regression in patients with FAP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 92 participants with FAP, conducted from July 2010 through June 2014 at Huntsman Cancer Institute in Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERVENTIONS Participants with FAP were randomized to sulindac (150 mg) twice daily and erlotinib (75 mg) daily (n = 46) vs placebo (n = 46) for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The total number and diameter of polyps in the proximal duodenum were mapped at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was change in total polyp burden at 6 months. Polyp burden was calculated as the sum of the diameters of polyps. The secondary outcomes were change in total duodenal polyp count, change in duodenal polyp burden or count stratified by genotype and initial polyp burden, and percentage of change from baseline in duodenal polyp burden. RESULTS Ninety-two participants (mean age, 41 years [range, 24–55]; women, 56 [61%]) were randomized when the trial was stopped by the external data and safety monitoring board because the second preplanned interim analysis met the prespecified stopping rule for superiority. Grade 1 and 2 adverse events were more common in the sulindac-erlotinib group, with an acne-like rash observed in 87% of participants receiving treatment and 20% of participants receiving placebo (P < .001). Only 2 participants experienced grade 3 adverse events. OutcomeBaseline6-moFollow-upMedianChangeBetween-GroupDifference (95% CI)PValueMedian Duodenal Polyp Burden, mmSulindac-erlotinib29.019.5−8.5−19.0 (−32.0 to −10.9)<.001Placebo23.031.08.0Median Duodenal Polyp Count, No

  7. Importance of CT Scan of Paranasal Sinuses in the Evaluation of the Anatomical Findings in Patients Suffering from Sinonasal Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Himanshu; Varshney, Jitendra; Biswas, Subhradev; Ghosh, S K

    2016-06-01

    Sinonasal polyps are benign lesions arising from nose and/or sinuses mucosa. Paranasal sinuses computed tomogram (CT) scan are important for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) as their information assist the surgeon in pre-operative planning. This study aimed to show importance of CT scan in evaluation of anatomical variations to prove a correlation with disease process and extent of disease in sinonasal polyposis patients. A study was done from Sept, 2010 to Sept, 2011 with 33 patients presenting with nasal polyps. All recruited patients, after thorough history, general examination and thorough ENT examination, were examined by nasal endoscopy and sinus CT scans. All scans were carried out using a 3 mm thickness in axial and coronal planes with sagittal reconstruction. An analysis was then carried out to see anatomical variations and disease extent in CT scans. Maxillary sinus was the most commonly and most severely affected sinus, while the sphenoid sinus was the least involved sinus. Ostiomeatal complex (OMC) was found to be blocked in 84.85 % cases. There were few anatomic variations (57.58 %) found as hypertrophied uncinate process (30.30 %), septal deviation (21.21 %), skull base type-2, Concha bullosa, Haller's cell, Paradoxical middle turbinate, Onodi cell, pneumatized crista galli and dehiscent skull base. Hyperdense and heterogeneous opacification in paranasal sinuses was seen in 12.12 % patients. Importance of CT scans is to know anatomical variations as etiology, fungal etiology, to know extent of polyposis and anatomical variations to prevent complications during FESS and Navigation sinus surgery. PMID:27340631

  8. Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kaper, James B; Nataro, James P; Mobley, Harry L

    2004-02-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly, pathogen. Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extraintestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes. PMID:15040260

  9. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome With Diffuse Gastrointestinal Polyposis: Three Cases in a Family With Different Manifestations and No Evidence of Malignancy During 14 Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Matini, Esfandiar; Houshangi, Hooman; Jangholi, Ehsan; Farjad Azad, Pantea; Najibpour, Reza; Farshad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare disorder characterized by mucocutaneous perioral pigmentation, gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis, and an increased risk of malignancy. Families with PJS may show a variable spectrum of manifestations in spite of their consecutive generations. A probable explanation is novel mutations in contributing genes. Case Presentation: This report describes 3 cases of a family. Two daughters presented the classic PJS, while their father only manifested mucocutaneous perioral pigmentation. The junior daughter was underwent 3 and the eldest daughter 2 laparotomies for intussusception. The patients were visited annually and their medical findings were recorded during a follow-up period of 14 years. They were periodically examined in our hospital and despite conveying diffuse polyposis from the esophagus throughout the rectum in these three cases, even a simple hyperplasia was not found in obtained specimens. Conclusions: The patients with diffuse PJS may be asymptomatic and without gastrointestinal or extragastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:26756003

  10. Targeted therapy for hereditary cancer syndromes: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    Cancer genetics has rapidly evolved in the last two decades. Understanding and exploring the several genetic pathways in the cancer cell is the foundation of targeted therapy. Several genomic aberrations have been identified and their role in carcinogenesis is being explored. In contrast to most cancers where these mutations are acquired, patients with hereditary cancer syndromes have inherited genomic aberrations. The understanding of the molecular pathobiology in hereditary cancer syndromes has advanced dramatically. In addition, many molecularly targeted therapies have been developed that could have potential roles in the treatment of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes. In this review, we outline the presentation, molecular biology, and possible targeted therapies for two of the most widely recognized hereditary cancer syndromes -- hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (Lynch syndrome). We will also discuss other syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (TP53). PMID:25549704

  11. Characterization of an APC Promoter 1B deletion in a Patient Diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis via Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kalbfleisch, Ted; Brock, Pamela; Snow, Angela; Neklason, Deborah; Gowans, Gordon; Klein, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deletions have been identified and published as causal for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis in the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.  Those deletions were measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  Here, we present and characterize an ~11kb deletion identified by whole genome shotgun sequencing.  The deletion occurred in a patient diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, and was located on chr5, between bases 112,034,824 and 112,045,845, fully encompassing the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.   Results are presented here that include the sequence evidence supporting the presence of the deletion as well as base level characterization of the deletion site.  These results demonstrate the capacity of whole genome sequencing for the detection of large structural variants in single individuals. PMID:26213617

  12. Characterization of an APC Promoter 1B deletion in a Patient Diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis via Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Ted; Brock, Pamela; Snow, Angela; Neklason, Deborah; Gowans, Gordon; Klein, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deletions have been identified and published as causal for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis in the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.  Those deletions were measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  Here, we present and characterize an ~11kb deletion identified by whole genome shotgun sequencing.  The deletion occurred in a patient diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, and was located on chr5, between bases 112,034,824 and 112,045,845, fully encompassing the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.   Results are presented here that include the sequence evidence supporting the presence of the deletion as well as base level characterization of the deletion site.  These results demonstrate the capacity of whole genome sequencing for the detection of large structural variants in single individuals. PMID:26213617

  13. POLE and POLD1 mutations in 529 kindred with familial colorectal cancer and/or polyposis: review of reported cases and recommendations for genetic testing and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bellido, Fernando; Pineda, Marta; Aiza, Gemma; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; Navarro, Matilde; Puente, Diana A.; Pons, Tirso; González, Sara; Iglesias, Silvia; Darder, Esther; Piñol, Virginia; Soto, José Luís; Valencia, Alfonso; Blanco, Ignacio; Urioste, Miguel; Brunet, Joan; Lázaro, Conxi; Capellá, Gabriel; Puente, Xose S.; Valle, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 have been recently associated with polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the phenotypic characteristics of this syndrome to establish specific criteria for POLE and POLD1 mutation screening and to help define the clinical management of mutation carriers. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Methods: The exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 were studied in 529 kindred, 441 with familial nonpolyposis CRC and 88 with polyposis, by using pooled DNA amplification and massively parallel sequencing. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Results: Seven novel or rare genetic variants were identified. In addition to the POLE p.L424V recurrent mutation in a patient with polyposis, CRC and oligodendroglioma, six novel or rare POLD1 variants (four of them, p.D316H, p.D316G, p.R409W, and p.L474P, with strong evidence for pathogenicity) were identified in nonpolyposis CRC families. Phenotypic data from these and previously reported POLE/POLD1 carriers point to an associated phenotype characterized by attenuated or oligo-adenomatous colorectal polyposis, CRC, and probably brain tumors. In addition, POLD1 mutations predispose to endometrial and breast tumors. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Conclusion: Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of the POLE/POLD1-associated syndrome and identify novel pathogenic variants. We propose guidelines for genetic testing and surveillance recommendations. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. PMID:26133394

  14. Overlap of Juvenile polyposis syndrome and Cowden syndrome due to de novo chromosome 10 deletion involving BMPR1A and PTEN: implications for treatment and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Adebisi; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren A; Stettner, Amy; Caldera, Freddy; Weiss, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    We describe a patient with a severe juvenile polyposis phenotype, due to a de novo deletion of chromosome 10q22.3-q24.1. He was initially diagnosed with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) at age four after presenting with hematochezia due to multiple colonic juvenile polyps. He then re-presented at 23 years with recurrent hematochezia from juvenile polyps in his ileoanal pouch. He is one of the earliest reported cases of JPS associated with a large deletion of chromosome 10. Since his initial diagnosis of JPS further studies have confirmed an association between JPS and mutations in BMPR1A in chromosome band 10q23.2, which is in close proximity to PTEN. Mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and other PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Due to the chromosome 10 deletion involving contiguous portions of BMPR1A and PTEN in our patient, he may be at risk for CS associated cancers and features, in addition to the polyps associated with JPS. This case presents new challenges in developing appropriate surveillance algorithms to account for the risks associated with each syndrome and highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and transitional care between pediatric and adult gastroenterology for patients with hereditary polyposis syndromes. PMID:25846706

  15. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  16. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  17. One-hit effects in cancer: Altered proteome of morphologically normal colon crypts in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Anthony T.; Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Li, Xin-Ming; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Coudry, Renata A.; Cooper, Harry S.; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Boman, Bruce M.; Zhang, Tao; Litwin, Samuel; Ross, Eric A.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Knudson, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and validation by 2D gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention. PMID:18794146

  18. Upper GI tract lesions in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): enrichment of pyloric gland adenomas and other gastric and duodenal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Salaria, Safia N; Cruise, Michael W; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the APC gene, develop neoplasms in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To clarify the upper GI tract lesions in FAP patients in a tertiary care setting, we reviewed specimens from 321 endoscopies in 66 patients with FAP. Tubular adenomas in the small bowel were the most common neoplasms (present in 89% of patients), although only 1 patient developed invasive carcinoma of the small bowel. Several types of gastric neoplasms were identified--65% of patients had at least 1 fundic gland polyp, and 23% of patients had at least 1 gastric foveolar-type gastric adenoma. Pyloric gland adenomas were also enriched, occurring in 6% of patients--this is a novel finding in FAP patients. Despite the high frequency of gastric neoplasms, only 1 patient developed carcinoma in the stomach. The very low frequency of carcinoma in these patients suggests that current screening procedures prevent the vast majority of upper GI tract carcinomas in patients with FAP, at least in the tertiary care setting. PMID:24525509

  19. A Novel SMAD4 Mutation Causing Severe Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome with Protein Losing Enteropathy, Immunodeficiency, and Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Joel; Sahin, Christofer; Pestoff, Rebecka; Ignatova, Simone; Forsberg, Pia; Edsjö, Anders; Ekstedt, Mattias; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by juvenile polyps of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a new pathogenic mutation of the SMAD4 gene and illustrate the need for a multidisciplinary health care approach to facilitate the correct diagnosis. The patient, a 47-year-old Caucasian woman, was diagnosed with anaemia at the age of 12. During the following 30 years, she developed numerous gastrointestinal polyps. The patient underwent several operations, and suffered chronic abdominal pain, malnutrition, and multiple infections. Screening of the SMAD4 gene revealed a novel, disease-causing mutation. In 2012, the patient suffered hypoalbuminemia and a large polyp in the small bowel was found. Gamma globulin was given but the patient responded with fever and influenza-like symptoms and refused more treatment. The patient underwent surgery in 2014 and made an uneventful recovery. At follow-up two months later albumin was 38 g/L and IgG was 6.9 g/L. Accurate diagnosis is essential for medical care. For patients with complex symptomatology, often with rare diseases, this is best provided by multidisciplinary teams including representatives from clinical genetics. Patients with a SMAD4 mutation should be followed up both for JPS and haemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia and may develop protein loosing enteropathy and immunodeficiency. PMID:25705527

  20. Risk of colon cancer in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer patients as predicted by fuzzy modeling: Influence of smoking

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Rhonda M; Jones, David D; Lynch, Henry T; Brand, Randall E; Watson, Patrice; Ashwathnayaran, Ramesh; Roy, Hemant K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether a fuzzy logic model could predict colorectal cancer (CRC) risk engendered by smoking in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients. METHODS: Three hundred and forty HNPCC mismatch repair (MMR) mutation carriers from the Creighton University Hereditary Cancer Institute Registry were selected for modeling. Age-dependent curves were generated to elucidate the joint effects between gene mutation (hMLH1 or hMSH2), gender, and smoking status on the probability of developing CRC. RESULTS: Smoking significantly increased CRC risk in male hMSH2 mutation carriers (P < 0.05). hMLH1 mutations augmented CRC risk relative to hMSH2 mutation carriers for males (P < 0.05). Males had a significantly higher risk of CRC than females for hMLH1 non smokers (P < 0.05), hMLH1 smokers (P < 0.1) and hMSH2 smokers (P < 0.1). Smoking promoted CRC in a dose-dependent manner in hMSH2 in males (P < 0.05). Females with hMSH2 mutations and both sexes with the hMLH1 groups only demonstrated a smoking effect after an extensive smoking history (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CRC promotion by smoking in HNPCC patients is dependent on gene mutation, gender and age. These data demonstrate that fuzzy modeling may enable formulation of clinical risk scores, thereby allowing individualization of CRC prevention strategies. PMID:16874859

  1. Colorectal cancer survivors undergoing genetic testing for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: motivational factors and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Esplen, M J; Madlensky, L; Aronson, M; Rothenmund, H; Gallinger, S; Butler, K; Toner, B; Wong, J; Manno, M; McLaughlin, J

    2007-11-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) represents about 1-3% of all cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objectives of the study were to examine motivational factors, expectations and psychosocial functioning in a sample of CRC survivors undergoing genetic testing for HNPCC. A cross-sectional survey of 314 colorectal cancer patients recruited through a population-based colon cancer family registry was conducted. Motivations for genetic testing for hereditary cancer were similar to those of clinic-based samples of CRC patients and included learning of the increased risk to offspring and finding out if additional screening was needed. While age at diagnosis and sex were associated with psychological functioning, significant predictors of post-counseling distress were perceived lower satisfaction with social support, an escape-avoidant coping style and the anticipation of becoming depressed if a mutation was present. Most cancer survivors anticipated disclosing test results to relatives and physicians. Cancer survivors reported several motivations for genetic testing for HNPCC that varied by sex. A subgroup of survivors with lower satisfaction with social support and an escape-avoidant coping style were worried about the potential impact of genetic test results and demonstrated more distress following counseling. Findings have implications for future research and potential support needs during the genetic counseling and testing process. PMID:17892499

  2. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can also get the infection by swallowing water in a swimming pool contaminated with human waste. Most cases of E. coli infection get better without treatment in 5 to 10 days. NIH: National Institute ...

  3. [Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsushi; Shirano, Michinori

    2012-08-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. Some strains however, such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), can cause severe foodborne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw meal. EHEC produces toxins, known as verotoxins. EHEC that induces bloody diarrhea leads to HUS in 10% of cases. The clinical manifestations of post-diarrheal HUS include acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The verocytotoxin can directly damage renal and endothelial cells. Thrombocytopenia occurs as platelets are consumed by clotting. Hemolytic anemia results from intravascular fibrin deposition, increased fragility of red blood cells, and fragmentation. PMID:22894069

  4. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  5. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma at pediatric age - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brehar, Andreea Cristiana; Terzea, Dana Cristina; Ioachim, Dumitru Lucian; Procopiuc, Camelia; Brehar, Felix Mircea; Bulgăr, Alexandra Cătălina; Ghemigian, Mircea Vasile; Dumitrache, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMV-PTC) is a rare tumor, which exceptionally occurs at pediatric age. CMV-PTC may develop in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or may be a sporadic tumor. The authors present a case of CMV-PTC in a 10-year-old girl patient without FAP history, who presented with a left neck mass. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection. Histopathological diagnosis was compatible with cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunostaining was positive for thyroglobulin, β-catenin, CD10 and p53. Molecular test showed the absence of BRAF, K-RAS mutations, deletions or duplications of APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) gene and showed the presence of RET÷PTC (rearranged during transfection÷papillary thyroid carcinoma) rearrangements. At 32 months follow-up, the patient was without signs of recurrence. This particular form of thyroid carcinoma should raise suspicion of a possible familial cancer syndrome, therefore early diagnosis and thoroughly evaluation, which includes colonoscopy and genetic screening are mandatory. PMID:27516030

  6. Evidence that the familial adenomatous polyposis gene is involved in a subset of colon cancers with a complementable defect in c-myc regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Erisman, M.D.; Scott, J.K.; Astrin, S.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Human colorectal carcinomas frequently express elevated levels of c-myc mRNA in the absence of a gross genetic change at the c-myc locus. To test the hypothesis that these tumors are defective in a gene function necessary for the regulation of c-myc expression, the authors fused an osteosarcoma cell line that exhibits normal c-myc regulation with two colon carcinoma cell lines that express deregulated levels of c-myc mRNA. Since rates of c-myc mRNA turnover in the colon carcinoma cells were found to be comparable to those in normal cells, increased message stability cannot account for the increased steady-state levels of transcripts. These finding suggest that loss of function of a trans-acting regulator is responsible for the deregulation of c-myc expression in a major fraction of colorectal carcinomas. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in tumor/normal tissue pairs from patients with primary colorectal lesions indicated that deregulation of c-myc expression in the tumors is correlated with frequent loss of alleles of syntenic markers on chromosome 5q. Chromosome 5q is the region known to contain the gene for familial adenomatous polyposis, an inherited predisposition to colon cancer. These findings, together with the arlier finding that the colonic distribution of tumors exhibiting deregulated c-myc expression is similar to that reported for familial polyposis, provide evidence that loss of function of the familial adenomatous polyposis gene is involved in a subset of colorectal cancers in which c-myc expression is deregulated.

  7. Global Quantitative Assessment of Colorectal Polyp Burden in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Using a Web-based Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Patrick M.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Ross, William A.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Posadas, Juan; Khalaf, Rossa; Weber, Diane M.; Sepeda, Valerie O.; Levin, Bernard; Shureiqi, Imad

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate measures of total polyp burden in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are lacking. Current assessment tools include polyp quantitation in limited-field photographs and qualitative total colorectal polyp burden by video. Objective To develop global quantitative tools of FAP colorectal adenoma burden. Design and Interventions A single-arm phase II trial in 27 FAP patients treated with celecoxib for 6 months, with pre- and post-treatment videos posted to intranet with interactive site for scoring. Main outcome measurements Global adenoma counts and sizes (grouped into categories: <2 mm, 2–4 mm, and >4 mm) were scored from videos using a novel web-based tool. Baseline and end-of-study adenoma burdens results were summarized using five models. Correlations between pairs of reviewers were analyzed for each model. RESULTS Interobserver agreement was high for all 5 measures of polyp burden. Measures employing both polyp count and polyp size had better interobserver agreement than measures based only on polyp count. The measure in which polyp counts were weighted according to diameter, calculated as (1) × (no. of polyps <2 mm) + (3) × (no. of polyps 2–4 mm) + (5) × (no. of polyps >4 mm) had the highest interobserver agreement. (Pearson r = 0.978 for two gastroenterologists, 0.786 and 0.846 for the surgeon vs each gastroenterologist). Treatment reduced polyp burden by these measurements in 70–89% subjects (p<0.001). Limitations Phase II study. Conclusions This novel web-based polyp scoring method provides a convenient and reproducible way to quantify global colorectal adenoma burden in FAP patients and a framework for developing a clinical staging system for FAP. PMID:23332604

  8. Can supplementation of phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers help the management of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Carlo; Rizzello, Fernando; Gionchetti, Paolo; Calafiore, Andrea; Pagano, Nico; De Fazio, Luigia; Valerii, Maria Chiara; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Poggioli, Gilberto; Campieri, Massimo; Spisni, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, and prophylactic colectomy has been shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Duodenal cancer and desmoids are now the leading causes of death in FAP. We evaluate whether 3 months of oral supplementation with a patented blend of phytoestrogens and indigestible insoluble fibers (ADI) help the management of FAP patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). In a prospective open label study, we enrolled 15 FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in gene expression in polyp mucosa, whereas the secondary endpoint was the reduction in polyp number and size. After 3 months of ADI treatment, all patients showed a reduction in the number and size of duodenal polyps (P = 0.021). Analysis of the expression of CRC promoting/inhibiting genes in duodenal polyps biopsies demonstrated that different CRC-promoting genes (PCNA, MUC1 and COX-2) were significantly downregulated, whereas CRC-inhibiting genes (ER-β and MUC2) were significantly upregulated after ADI treatment. In conclusion, ADI proved to be safe and effective, and its long-term effects on FAP patients need further investigation. Judging from the results we observed on COX-2 and miR-101 expression, the short-term effects of ADI treatment could be comparable with those obtained using COX-2 inhibitors, with the advantage of being much more tolerable in chronic therapies and void of adverse events. PMID:27207660

  9. Mismatch repair mRNA and protein expression in intestinal adenocarcinoma in sika deer (Cervus nippon) resembling heritable non-polyposis colorectal cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Jahns, H; Browne, J A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas seen in an inbred herd of farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) morphologically resembled human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Features common to both included multiple de novo sites of tumourigenesis in the proximal colon, sessile and non-polyposis mucosal changes, the frequent finding of mucinous type adenocarcinoma, lymphocyte infiltration into the neoplastic tubules and Crohn's-like lymphoid follicles at the deep margin of the tumour. HNPCC is defined by a germline mutation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes resulting in their inactivation and loss of expression. To test the hypothesis that similar MMR gene inactivation occurs in the deer tumours, the expression of the four most important MMR genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, was examined at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (n = 12) and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (n = 40) in tumour and control tissues. All four genes were expressed equally in normal and neoplastic tissues, so MMR gene inactivation could not be implicated in the carcinogenesis of this tumour in sika deer. PMID:25678423

  10. Genetic recombination. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    The molecular pathways of gene recombination are explored and compared in studies of the model organisms, Escherichia coli and phase lambda. In the discussion of data from these studies it seems that recombination varies with the genetic idiosyncrasies of the organism and may also vary within a single organism.

  11. Investigating the Potential Role of Genetic and Epigenetic Variation of DNA Methyltransferase Genes in Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Drini, Musa; Wong, Nicholas C.; Scott, Hamish S.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Dobrovic, Alexander; Hewitt, Chelsee A.; Dow, Christofer; Young, Joanne P.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Saffery, Richard; Macrae, Finlay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (HPS) is a condition associated with multiple serrated polyps, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). At least half of CRCs arising in HPS show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), potentially linked to aberrant DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. CIMP is associated with methylation of tumor suppressor genes including regulators of DNA mismatch repair (such as MLH1, MGMT), and negative regulators of Wnt signaling (such as WIF1). In this study, we investigated the potential for interaction of genetic and epigenetic variation in DNMT genes, in the aetiology of HPS. Methods We utilized high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to screen 45 cases with HPS for novel sequence variants in DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L. 21 polyps from 13 patients were screened for BRAF and KRAS mutations, with assessment of promoter methylation in the DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L MLH1, MGMT, and WIF1 gene promoters. Results No pathologic germline mutations were observed in any DNA-methyltransferase gene. However, the T allele of rs62106244 (intron 10 of DNMT1 gene) was over-represented in cases with HPS (p<0.01) compared with population controls. The DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B promoters were unmethylated in all instances. Interestingly, the DNMT3L promoter showed low levels of methylation in polyps and normal colonic mucosa relative to matched disease free cells with methylation level negatively correlated to expression level in normal colonic tissue. DNMT3L promoter hypomethylation was more often found in polyps harbouring KRAS mutations (p = 0.0053). BRAF mutations were common (11 out of 21 polyps), whilst KRAS mutations were identified in 4 of 21 polyps. Conclusions Genetic or epigenetic alterations in DNMT genes do not appear to be associated with HPS, but further investigation of genetic variation at rs62106244 is justified given the high frequency of the minor allele in this case series. PMID:21347319

  12. Conversion Therapy Using mFOLFOX6 With Panitumumab for Unresectable Liver Metastases From Multiple Colorectal Cancers With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kitajima, Takahito; Okigami, Masato; Kawamura, Mikio; Kawamoto, Aya; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Jyunichiro; Tanaka, Koji; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old man received a diagnosis of unresectable multiple liver metastases from multiple colorectal cancers with familial adenomatous polyposis. After construction of an ileostomy, modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) with panitumumab was administrated because rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer are KRAS wild type. The 13 courses of chemotherapy resulted in a marked reduction in the size of liver metastases and sigmoid colon cancer. Consequently, curative resection with total colectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis, and liver metastasis resection with radiofrequency ablation was performed. Progression of KRAS wild-type rectal cancer after chemotherapy suggested that each clone from rectal and sigmoid colon cancer might have a different sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed loss of PTEN expression in rectal cancer compared with liver metastases from sigmoid colon cancer, showing that the difference of mFOLFOX6 with panitumumab might be related to activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. PMID:25437589

  13. Clinical trial design, nasal allergen challenge models, and considerations of relevance to pediatrics, nasal polyposis, and different classes of medication.

    PubMed

    Akerlund, Anders; Andersson, Morgan; Leflein, Jeffrey; Lildholdt, Torben; Mygind, Niels

    2005-03-01

    to allergen exposure. To model this, repeated low-dose daily allergen exposure has been used to generate these mucosal changes artificially, and early studies suggest that this may be a more valid model for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory therapy. However, little has been published with this model. Different disease groups are associated with their own specific issues in clinical trials. The pediatric population, in which allergic rhinitis is common, has different requirements for education, quality of life evaluation, and adverse-event monitoring; nasal polyposis, because of the nature of the disease, requires additional means of assessment, such as nasal endoscopy and imaging (eg, computerized tomography scanning), as well as attention to additional outcome measures (eg, the measurement of sense of smell). Within clinical trial design, there are important questions to be considered in relationship to the therapeutic intervention. Should this be given topically or systemically? What are the appropriate timing and frequency of medication? Does the disease itself modify the treatment efficacy, and does combination therapy afford better clinical outcome than single-modality therapy? These issues are discussed, and the influences of current therapies on objective outcome measures in allergic rhinitis are reviewed. PMID:15746883

  14. Pathogenesis of nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, K. E.; Stevens, W. W.; Tan, B. K.; Schleimer, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex inflammatory condition that affects a large proportion of the population world-wide and is associated with high cost of management and significant morbidity. Yet, there is a lack of population-based epidemiologic studies using current definitions of CRSwNP, and the mechanisms that drive pathogenesis in this disease remain unclear. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for the plethora of factors that likely contribute to CRSwNP pathogenesis. Defects in the innate function of the airway epithelial barrier, including diminished expression of antimicrobial products and loss of barrier integrity, combined with colonization by fungi and bacteria likely play a critical role in the development of chronic inflammation in CRSwNP. This chronic inflammation is characterized by elevated expression of many key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-5, thymic stromal lymphopoietin and CCL11, that help to initiate and perpetuate this chronic inflammatory response. Together, these factors likely combine to drive the influx of a variety of immune cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells and lymphocytes, which participate in the chronic inflammatory response within the nasal polyps. Importantly, however, future studies are needed to demonstrate the necessity and sufficiency of these potential drivers of disease in CRSwNP. In addition to the development of new tools and models to aid mechanistic studies, the field of CRSwNP research also needs the type of robust epidemiologic data that has served the asthma community so well. Given the high prevalence, costs and morbidity, there is a great need for continued research into CRS that could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment for patients who suffer from this disease. PMID:25482020

  15. Pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Hulse, K E; Stevens, W W; Tan, B K; Schleimer, R P

    2015-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex inflammatory condition that affects a large proportion of the population world-wide and is associated with high cost of management and significant morbidity. Yet, there is a lack of population-based epidemiologic studies using current definitions of CRSwNP, and the mechanisms that drive pathogenesis in this disease remain unclear. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for the plethora of factors that likely contribute to CRSwNP pathogenesis. Defects in the innate function of the airway epithelial barrier, including diminished expression of antimicrobial products and loss of barrier integrity, combined with colonization by fungi and bacteria likely play a critical role in the development of chronic inflammation in CRSwNP. This chronic inflammation is characterized by elevated expression of many key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-5, thymic stromal lymphopoietin and CCL11, that help to initiate and perpetuate this chronic inflammatory response. Together, these factors likely combine to drive the influx of a variety of immune cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells and lymphocytes, which participate in the chronic inflammatory response within the nasal polyps. Importantly, however, future studies are needed to demonstrate the necessity and sufficiency of these potential drivers of disease in CRSwNP. In addition to the development of new tools and models to aid mechanistic studies, the field of CRSwNP research also needs the type of robust epidemiologic data that has served the asthma community so well. Given the high prevalence, costs and morbidity, there is a great need for continued research into CRS that could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment for patients who suffer from this disease. PMID:25482020

  16. Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the same gene mutation. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with AFAP? The cancer risks ... high, but less than 100%, if not treated Estimated digestive tract cancer risks for classic FAP. It ...

  17. Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can help diagnose HMPS. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HMPS? People with HMPS ... but the amount of risk has not been estimated. What are the screening options for HMPS? There ...

  18. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or symptoms that suggests JPS. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with JPS? People with JPS ... stomach, small intestine, and pancreatic cancers . The overall estimated cancer risk associated with JPS is 9% to ...

  19. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a medical procedure done in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It allows people who carry a specific known genetic mutation to have children who do not carry the mutation. A woman’s eggs are removed and fertilized in a laboratory. When the embryos reach a certain ...

  20. MYH-Associated Polyposis

    MedlinePlus

    ... polyps and colorectal cancer can be passed from generation to generation in a family. A mutation is an alteration ... is no history of colon problems in previous generations. MAP is diagnosed when a person is found ...

  1. Emerging Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Irino, Kinue; Girão, Dennys M.; Girão, Valéria B.C.; Guth, Beatriz E.C.; Vaz, Tânia M.I.; Moreira, Fabiana C.; Chinarelli, Silvia H.; Vieira, Mônica A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of nonenteropathogenic serogroups carrying eae but lacking the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences were isolated from patients (children, adults, and AIDS patients) with and without diarrhea in Brazil. Although diverse in phenotype and genotype, some strains are potentially diarrheagenic. PMID:15504277

  2. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd gene of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains.

  3. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules such as those found in coal, by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd genes of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains. 1 tab.

  4. Investigating polymorphisms by bioinformatics is a potential cost-effective method to screen for germline mutations in Chinese familial adenomatous polyposis patients

    PubMed Central

    YANG, JUN; LIU, WEI QING; LI, WEN LIANG; CHEN, CHENG; ZHU, ZHU; HONG, MIN; WANG, ZHI QIANG; DONG, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate germline mutations of the APC, MUTYH and AXIN2 genes in Chinese patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and further assess the value of bioinformatics in screening the pathogenic changes predisposing to FAP. APC genes from 11 unrelated FAP patients in Yunnan province in China were firstly examined by exon-specific DNA sequencing. For samples without already known pathogenic changes predisposing to FAP in the APC gene, whole-gene sequencing of MUTYH and AXIN2 was performed. Mutational analysis of each gene was performed by bioinformatics. Eleven different types of APC polymorphisms were observed in the cohort of families analyzed. Of these polymorphisms, four were missense substitutions (V1822D, V1173G, P1760H and K2057), one was a nonsense substitution (S1196X), and six were silent substitutions (Y486Y, T449T, T1493T, G1678G, S1756S and P1960P). One missense mutation (Q335H) and two intronic substitutions (c.264+11G>A and c.420+35A>G) were detected in the MUTYH gene, and four synonymous mutations (I144I, P455P, P462P and L688L) and three intonic mutations (c.1060–77G>T, c.1060–287A>G and c.1060–282 A>G) of the AXIN2 gene were observed. In addition to the already reported pathogenic mutations, by using function assessment tools and databases, the synonymous substitutions observed in the APC gene of our samples were predicted to affect splicing regulation in the translation of mRNA, while the missense mutations observed in the APC gene and MUTYH gene were predicted to be disease-related polymorphisms; however, no functional effect of the mutations was observed in the AXIN2 gene. Comprehensive screening for germline mutations in APC, MUTYH and AXIN2 genes followed by prediction of pathogenicity using bioinformatic tools contributes to a cost-effective way of screening germline mutations in Chinese familial adenomatous polyposis patients. PMID:27347161

  5. Pneumatosis coli in a dog.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nicholas J; Tyrrell, Dayle; Irwin, Peter J; Beck, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old, castrated male Maltese was presented with chronic polyphagia and a 2-week history of tenesmus, diarrhea, hematochezia, weight loss, and ribbon-like feces. Pneumatosis coli was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Concurrent hyperadrenocorticism was suspected. The clinical signs of colorectal disease resolved within 2 days of initiating a lowresidue diet and oral metronidazole. Pneumatosis coli should be considered as a differential diagnosis for colorectal disease in dogs. PMID:18175797

  6. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Adhesins.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Brian D; Torres, Alfredo G

    2014-06-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbria) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this article have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:26103974

  7. Germline MLH1 and MSH2 mutational spectrum including frequent large genomic aberrations in Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families: Implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta E; Olah, Edith

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence of germline MLH1 and MSH2 gene mutations and evaluate the clinical characteristics of Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. METHODS: Thirty-six kindreds were tested for mutations using conformation sensitive gel electrophoreses, direct sequencing and also screening for genomic rearrangements applying multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: Eighteen germline mutations (50%) were identified, 9 in MLH1 and 9 in MSH2. Sixteen of these sequence alterations were considered pathogenic, the remaining two were non-conservative missense alterations occurring at highly conserved functional motifs. The majority of the definite pathogenic mutations (81%, 13/16) were found in families fulfilling the stringent Amsterdam I/II criteria, including three rearrangements revealed by MLPA (two in MSH2 and one in MLH1). However, in three out of sixteen HNPCC-suspected families (19%), a disease-causing alteration could be revealed. Furthermore, nine mutations described here are novel, and none of the sequence changes were found in more than one family. CONCLUSION: Our study describes for the first time the prevalence and spectrum of germline mismatch repair gene mutations in Hungarian HNPCC and suspected-HNPCC families. The results presented here suggest that clinical selection criteria should be relaxed and detection of genomic rearrangements should be included in genetic screening in this population. PMID:17569143

  8. Reduced expression of APC-1B but not APC-1A by the deletion of promoter 1B is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Shimizu, Eigo; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Arai, Masami; Hatakeyama, Seira; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Ueno, Masashi; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to the DNA of a sporadic FAP patient in which we did not find any pathological APC mutations by direct sequencing. WGS identified a promoter deletion of approximately 10 kb encompassing promoter 1B and exon1B of APC. Additional allele-specific expression analysis by deep cDNA sequencing revealed that the deletion reduced the expression of the mutated APC allele to as low as 11.2% in the total APC transcripts, suggesting that the residual mutant transcripts were driven by other promoter(s). Furthermore, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) demonstrated that the deleted promoter 1B region is responsible for the great majority of APC transcription in many tissues except the brain. The deletion decreased the transcripts of APC-1B to 39-45% in the patient compared to the healthy controls, but it did not decrease those of APC-1A. Different deletions including promoter 1B have been reported in FAP patients. Taken together, our results strengthen the evidence that analysis of structural variations in promoter 1B should be considered for the FAP patients whose pathological mutations are not identified by conventional direct sequencing. PMID:27217144

  9. Comparative effectiveness of next generation genomic sequencing for disease diagnosis: Design of a randomized controlled trial in patients with colorectal cancer/polyposis syndromes✩

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Carlos J.; Bennette, Caroline S.; Heagerty, Patrick; Comstock, Bryan; Horike-Pyne, Martha; Hisama, Fuki; Amendola, Laura M.; Bennett, Robin L.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Grady, William M.; Fullerton, S. Malia; Trinidad, Susan B.; Regier, Dean A.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Burke, Wylie; Patrick, Donald L.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Veenstra, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Whole exome and whole genome sequencing are applications of next generation sequencing transforming clinical care, but there is little evidence whether these tests improve patient outcomes or if they are cost effective compared to current standard of care. These gaps in knowledge can be addressed by comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research. We designed a randomized controlled trial that incorporates these research methods to evaluate whole exome sequencing compared to usual care in patients being evaluated for hereditary colorectal cancer and polyposis syndromes. Approximately 220 patients will be randomized and followed for 12 months after return of genomic findings. Patients will receive findings associated with colorectal cancer in a first return of result visit, and findings not associated with colorectal cancer (incidental findings) during a second return of result visit. The primary outcome is efficacy to detect mutations associated with these syndromes; secondary outcomes include psychosocial impact, cost-effectiveness and comparative costs. The secondary outcomes will be obtained via surveys before and after each return visit. The expected challenges in conducting this randomized controlled trial include the relatively low prevalence of genetic disease, difficult interpretation of some genetic variants, and uncertainty about which incidental findings should be returned to patients. The approaches utilized in this study may help guide other investigators in clinical genomics to identify useful outcome measures and strategies to address comparative effectiveness questions about the clinical implementation of genomic sequencing in clinical care. PMID:24997220

  10. Reduced expression of APC-1B but not APC-1A by the deletion of promoter 1B is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Shimizu, Eigo; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Arai, Masami; Hatakeyama, Seira; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Ueno, Masashi; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to the DNA of a sporadic FAP patient in which we did not find any pathological APC mutations by direct sequencing. WGS identified a promoter deletion of approximately 10 kb encompassing promoter 1B and exon1B of APC. Additional allele-specific expression analysis by deep cDNA sequencing revealed that the deletion reduced the expression of the mutated APC allele to as low as 11.2% in the total APC transcripts, suggesting that the residual mutant transcripts were driven by other promoter(s). Furthermore, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) demonstrated that the deleted promoter 1B region is responsible for the great majority of APC transcription in many tissues except the brain. The deletion decreased the transcripts of APC-1B to 39–45% in the patient compared to the healthy controls, but it did not decrease those of APC-1A. Different deletions including promoter 1B have been reported in FAP patients. Taken together, our results strengthen the evidence that analysis of structural variations in promoter 1B should be considered for the FAP patients whose pathological mutations are not identified by conventional direct sequencing. PMID:27217144

  11. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli. PMID:26004641

  12. Experimental evolution of E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengshi

    The evolution from unicellular to multicellular behavior is an essential step in the history of life. Our aim is to investigate the emergence of collective behavior in the model organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) and its selection advantages, such as better utilization of public goods. Our preliminary results suggest that the evolution of collective behavior may be a natural response to stressed conditions. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: mengshi0928@gmail.com.

  13. Serogroups of Escherichia coli from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, P W; Tewari, Suman

    2007-07-01

    Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC). All the pathogenic serotypes showed resistance to bacitracin and multiple heavy metal ions. Resistance to streptomycin and cotrimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. Transfer of resistances to drugs and metallic ions was observed in 9 out of 12 strains studied. Resistances to bacitracin were transferred in all nine strains. Among heavy metals resistance to As(3+) followed by Cr(6+) were transferred more frequently. PMID:17057960

  14. Advances in the study of Lynch syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun-Yu; Sheng, Jian-Qiu

    2015-06-14

    Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. During the last decades, there have been great advances in research on Chinese Lynch syndrome. This review mainly focuses on the genetic basis, clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, intervention, chemoprevention, and surveillance of Lynch syndrome in China. In addition to frequently altered MMR genes, such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and MLH3, other MMR-associated genes, such as those encoding human exonuclease 1, transforming growth factor β receptor 2, and alanine aminopeptidase, metastasis-associated protein 2, adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1, and hepatic and glial cell adhesion molecule have also been implicated in Chinese Lynch syndrome. Most Chinese researchers focused on the clinicopathologic features of Lynch syndrome, and it is noticeable that the most frequent extracolonic tumor in northeast China is lung cancer, which is different from other areas in China. The Chinese diagnostic criteria for Lynch syndrome have been established to identify gene mutation or methylation. With regard to chemoprevention, celecoxib may be effective to prevent polyps relapse in Lynch syndrome carriers. Additionally, a colonoscopy-based surveillance strategy for the prevention and early detection of neoplasms in Lynch-syndrome carriers has been proposed. PMID:26078562

  15. Endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice attenuated intestinal polyposis by either inhibiting COX-2/β-catenin signaling or activating 15-PGDH/IL-18.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age. Small intestines were collected for gross and pathologic evaluation, including assessment of polyp number and size, followed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After administration of various concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, PUFA levels were measured in small intestine tissue by GC/MS/MS analysis to compare with PUFA synthesis of between C57BL6 and fat-1mice. As a result, ω-3 PUFAs significantly attenuated Apc mutation-induced intestinal polyposis accompanied with significant inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, COX-2 and PGE2, but induced significant levels of 15-PGDH. In addition, significant induction of the inflammasome-related substrates as IL-1β and IL-18 and activation of caspase-1 was observed in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. Administration of at least 3 g/60 kg ω-3 PUFAs was equivalent to ω-3 PUFAs produced in fat-1 mice and resulted in significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, caspase-3 and IL-18, as seen in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. We conclude that ω-3PUFAs can prevent intestinal polyp formation by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but increased levels of 15-PGDH and IL-18. PMID:26650508

  16. Molecular Ecology of Waterborne E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a common inhabitant of surface and ground waters in the developed and developing worlds. The majority of the E coli present in water are not particularly pathogenic to humans; however, there are E coli present in small proportion, that possess virulence genes that allow them to c...

  17. An Individual with Both MUTYH-Associated Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome Identified by Multi-Gene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie A; Tan, Christopher A; Bisson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of next-generation sequencing technology to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously is being utilized more frequently in hereditary cancer testing. While this has benefits of reducing cost and allowing clinicians to cast a wide net in the elucidation of their patient's cancer, panel testing has the potential to reveal unexpected information. We report on a proband with pathogenic variants resulting in two different hereditary colon cancer syndromes. A 39-year-old male with a history of colon cancer, more than 20 colon polyps and a family history of colon cancer presented for genetic counseling. Testing with a 7-gene high-risk hereditary colon cancer panel identified a homozygous pathogenic variant, c.1187G>A (p.Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and a likely pathogenic duplication of exon 7 in MSH2. Since this test result, the proband's mother was diagnosed with colon cancer; subsequent genetic testing confirmed she also carries the likely pathogenic duplication in the MSH2 gene. Although the cancer risk in individuals who carry multiple pathogenic variants has not been established for combined biallelic MUTYH-associated polyposis and Lynch syndrome, the identification of multiple pathogenic variants does allow for screening for cancers associated with both syndromes and has implications for cancer risk for family members. In particular, this has significant impact on those who test negative for a known familial pathogenic variant, yet could be still be at risk for cancer due to a second pathogenic variant in a family. More information is needed on the frequency of occurrence of multiple pathogenic variants, as well as the phenotypic spectrum when multiple pathogenic variants are present. PMID:27014339

  18. Genome-wide CNV analysis in 221 unrelated patients and targeted high-throughput sequencing reveal novel causative candidate genes for colorectal adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Horpaopan, Sukanya; Spier, Isabel; Zink, Alexander M; Altmüller, Janine; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Laner, Andreas; Vogt, Stefanie; Uhlhaas, Siegfried; Heilmann, Stefanie; Stienen, Dietlinde; Pasternack, Sandra M; Keppler, Kathleen; Adam, Ronja; Kayser, Katrin; Moebus, Susanne; Draaken, Markus; Degenhardt, Franziska; Engels, Hartmut; Hofmann, Andrea; Nöthen, Markus M; Steinke, Verena; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Herms, Stefan; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Fröhlich, Holger; Thiele, Holger; Hoffmann, Per; Aretz, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    To uncover novel causative genes in patients with unexplained adenomatous polyposis, a model disease for colorectal cancer, we performed a genome-wide analysis of germline copy number variants (CNV) in a large, well characterized APC and MUTYH mutation negative patient cohort followed by a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Genomic DNA from 221 unrelated German patients was genotyped on high-resolution SNP arrays. Putative CNVs were filtered according to stringent criteria, compared with those of 531 population-based German controls, and validated by qPCR. Candidate genes were prioritized using in silico, expression, and segregation analyses, data mining and enrichment analyses of genes and pathways. In 27% of the 221 unrelated patients, a total of 77 protein coding genes displayed rare, nonrecurrent, germline CNVs. The set included 26 candidates with molecular and cellular functions related to tumorigenesis. Targeted high-throughput sequencing found truncating point mutations in 12% (10/77) of the prioritized genes. No clear evidence was found for autosomal recessive subtypes. Six patients had potentially causative mutations in more than one of the 26 genes. Combined with data from recent studies of early-onset colorectal and breast cancer, recurrent potential loss-of-function alterations were detected in CNTN6, FOCAD (KIAA1797), HSPH1, KIF26B, MCM3AP, YBEY and in three genes from the ARHGAP family. In the canonical Wnt pathway oncogene CTNNB1 (β-catenin), two potential gain-of-function mutations were found. In conclusion, the present study identified a group of rarely affected genes which are likely to predispose to colorectal adenoma formation and confirmed previously published candidates for tumor predisposition as etiologically relevant. PMID:25219767

  19. Progression of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) colonic cells after transfer of the src or polyoma middle T oncogenes: cooperation between src and HGF/Met in invasion.

    PubMed Central

    Empereur, S.; Djelloul, S.; Di Gioia, Y.; Bruyneel, E.; Mareel, M.; Van Hengel, J.; Van Roy, F.; Comoglio, P.; Courtneidge, S.; Paraskeva, C.; Chastre, E.; Gespach, C.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the the signalling pathways driving the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence in human colonic epithelial cells. Accumulation and activation of the src tyrosine kinase in colon cancer suggest a potential role of this oncogene in this early progression. Therefore, we introduced either activated src (m-src), polyoma-MT alone or combined with normal c-src in the adenoma PC/AA/C1 cell line (PC) to define the function and phenotypic transformations induced by these oncogenes in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) colonic epithelial cells. Functional expression of these oncoproteins induced the adenoma-to-carcinoma conversion, overexpression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor Met, but failed to confer invasiveness in vivo and in vitro, or to produce alterations in cell proliferation and differentiation. In contrast, PC-msrc cells became susceptible to the HGF-induced invasion of collagen gels and exhibited sustained activation of the pp60src tyrosine kinase and Tyr phosphorylation of the 120-kDa E-cadherin, which was further increased by HGF Transcripts of HGF were clearly identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot in the parental and transformed PC cells, suggesting an autocrine mechanism. Taken together, the data indicate that: (1) experimental activation of src and PyMT pathways directly induces tumorigenicity and Met upregulation in a colon adenoma cell line; (2) HGF-activated Met and src cooperate in inducing invasion; (3) in view of the molecular associations between catenins and cadherin or the tumour-suppressor gene product APC, the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin may constitute a downstream effector of src and Met. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9010033

  20. An Individual with Both MUTYH-Associated Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome Identified by Multi-Gene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephanie A.; Tan, Christopher A.; Bisson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of next-generation sequencing technology to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously is being utilized more frequently in hereditary cancer testing. While this has benefits of reducing cost and allowing clinicians to cast a wide net in the elucidation of their patient's cancer, panel testing has the potential to reveal unexpected information. We report on a proband with pathogenic variants resulting in two different hereditary colon cancer syndromes. A 39-year-old male with a history of colon cancer, more than 20 colon polyps and a family history of colon cancer presented for genetic counseling. Testing with a 7-gene high-risk hereditary colon cancer panel identified a homozygous pathogenic variant, c.1187G>A (p.Gly396Asp) in MUTYH, and a likely pathogenic duplication of exon 7 in MSH2. Since this test result, the proband's mother was diagnosed with colon cancer; subsequent genetic testing confirmed she also carries the likely pathogenic duplication in the MSH2 gene. Although the cancer risk in individuals who carry multiple pathogenic variants has not been established for combined biallelic MUTYH-associated polyposis and Lynch syndrome, the identification of multiple pathogenic variants does allow for screening for cancers associated with both syndromes and has implications for cancer risk for family members. In particular, this has significant impact on those who test negative for a known familial pathogenic variant, yet could be still be at risk for cancer due to a second pathogenic variant in a family. More information is needed on the frequency of occurrence of multiple pathogenic variants, as well as the phenotypic spectrum when multiple pathogenic variants are present. PMID:27014339

  1. Vitamin D decreases the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in fibroblasts derived from Taiwanese patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Feng; Tai, Chih-Feng; Chien, Chen-Yu; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D and its derivatives have modulatory effects in immunological and inflammatory responses. Such properties suggest that they might have an impact on chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including nasal polyposis. The aim of this study was to understand the role of vitamin D in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) by investigating its effect on the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts. Two primary fibroblast cultures were established from nasal polyp tissues obtained during surgery. The nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 10 ng/mL) for 24 hours, followed by replacement with media alone or with vitamin D derivatives (calcitriol or tacalcitol; 10μM) and incubated for another 24 hours. After the treatments, the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secreted were evaluated by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. ELISA results revealed that TNF-α could substantially stimulate the secretion of MMP-2 (p < 0.01) and MMP-9 (p < 0.001) in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts. More importantly, such stimulatory effect was significantly suppressed by adding calcitriol (p ≤ 0.01 for MMP-2 and p < 0.001 for MMP-9) or tacalcitol (p < 0.005 for both MMP-2 and MMP-9). The ELISA results were also confirmed by Western blot analysis. The inhibitory effect of vitamin D derivatives on MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion could potentiate their application in pharmacotherapy of Taiwanese CRSwNP patients. PMID:25910558

  2. Contrasting effects of Deadend1 (Dnd1) gain and loss of function mutations on allelic inheritance, testicular cancer, and intestinal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Certain mutations in the Deadend1 (Dnd1) gene are the most potent modifiers of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility in mice and rats. In the 129 family of mice, the Dnd1Ter mutation significantly increases occurrence of TGCT-affected males. To test the hypothesis that he Dnd1Ter allele is a loss-of-function mutation; we characterized the consequences of a genetically-engineered loss-of-function mutation in mice, and compared these results with those for Dnd1Ter. Results We found that intercrossing Dnd1+/KO heterozygotes to generate a complete loss-of-function led to absence of Dnd1KO/KO homozygotes and significantly reduced numbers of Dnd1+/KO heterozygotes. Further crosses showed that Dnd1Ter partially rescues loss of Dnd1KO mice. We also found that loss of a single copy of Dnd1 in Dnd1KO/+ heterozygotes did not affect baseline occurrence of TGCT-affected males and that Dnd1Ter increased TGCT risk regardless whether the alternative allele was loss-of-function (Dnd1KO) or wild-type (Dnd1+). Finally, we found that the action of Dnd1Ter was not limited to testicular cancer, but also significantly increased polyp number and burden in the Apc+/Min model of intestinal polyposis. Conclusion These results show that Dnd1 is essential for normal allelic inheritance and that Dnd1Ter has a novel combination of functions that significantly increase risk for both testicular and intestinal cancer. PMID:23773267

  3. EXTRAINTESTINAL PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (EXPEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possess virulence traits that allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Human diseases caused by ExPEC include urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, surgic...

  4. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  5. Clinical Implications of Enteroadherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including non-intimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called “enteroadherent E. coli ” categories subsequently produced toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  6. Clinical implications of enteroadherent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M P; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including nonintimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called "enteroadherent E. coli" categories subsequently produce toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  7. Relationship between Fecal Content of Fatty Acids and Cyclooxygenase mRNA Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Duodenal Biopsies, Serum Lipoproteins, and Dietary Fat in Colectomized Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almendingen, K.; Høstmark, A. T.; Larsen, L. N.; Fausa, O.; Bratlie, J.; Aabakken, L.

    2010-01-01

    A few familial adenomatous polyposis studies have focused upon faecal sterols and bile acids but none has analysed the fecal content of fatty acids. We report here findings of an observational study on 29 colectomized familial adenomatous polyposis patients that describe the fecal content of fatty acids, and relate this to the proportions of fatty acids and levels of cyclooxygenase mRNA expression in duodenal biopsies, levels of serum lipoproteins, and diet. In the ileostomy group separately (n = 12), the fecal content of arachidonic acid was correlated negatively to the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Total serum-cholesterol was negatively correlated to the fecal content of saturates and monounsaturates. The fecal palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid ratio was positively correlated to the levels of cyclooxygease-2 expression in duodenal biopsies.In the ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis group separately (n = 17), significant correlations were found between the fecal contents of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, and the proportions of myristic acid, oleic acid and eicosaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Dietary monounsaturates were positively correlated to different fecal fatty acids. Future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms relevant to fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in addition to nutrition. PMID:21052495

  8. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur-containing heterocyclic molecules by mutant strains of Escherichia coli K-12. We have previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which had gained the capacity to oxidize thiophene compounds and their furan analogs. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research, as this appears to be in a regulatory gene central to the thiophene/furan oxidation system. The thdF gene appears to be more directly involved in the oxidation reactions, whereas thdC and thdD are apparently required for increased protection against the toxic effects of thiophene and furan compounds. 4 tabs.

  9. Human mismatch-repair protein MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) interacts with Escherichia coli MutL and MutS in vivo and in vitro: a simple genetic system to assay MLH1 function.

    PubMed Central

    Quaresima, Barbara; Alifano, Pietro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Avvedimento, Enrico V; Costanzo, Francesco S; Venuta, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    A simple genetic system has been developed to test the effect of over-expression of wild-type or mutated human MutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) proteins on methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) in Escherichia coli. The system relies on detection of Lac(+) revertants using MMR-proficient or MMR-deficient E. coli strains carrying a lac +1 frameshift mutation expressing hMLH1 proteins. We report that expression of wild-type hMLH1 protein causes an approx. 19-fold increase in mutation rates. The mutator phenotype was due to the ability of hMLH1 protein to interact with bacterial MutL and MutS proteins, thereby interfering with the formation of complexes between MMR proteins and mismatched DNA. Conversely, expression of proteins encoded by alleles deriving from hereditary-non-polyposis-colon-cancer (HNPCC) families decreases mutation rates, depending on the specific amino acid substitutions. These effects parallel the MutL-and MutS-binding and ATP-binding/hydrolysis activities of the mutated proteins. PMID:12513688

  10. Serrated polyposis associated with a family history of colorectal cancer and/or polyps: The preferential location of polyps in the colon and rectum defines two molecular entities.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Cristina; Lage, Pedro; Fontes, Vanessa; Fonseca, Ricardo; Vitoriano, Inês; Filipe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Paula; Moita, Susana; Ferreira, Sara; Sousa, Rita; Claro, Isabel; Nobre Leitão, Carlos; Chaves, Paula; Dias Pereira, António

    2016-09-01

    Serrated polyposis (SPP) is characterized by the development of multiple serrated polyps and an increased predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to characterize, at a clinical and molecular level, a cohort of SPP patients with or without a family history of SPP and/or polyps/CRC (SPP-FHP/CRC). Sixty-two lesions from 12 patients with SPP-FHP/CRC and 6 patients with sporadic SPP were included. The patients with SPP-FHP/CRC presented with an older mean age at diagnosis (p=0.027) and a more heterogeneous histological pattern of lesions (p=0.032) than the patients with sporadic SPP. We identified two molecular forms of SPP-FHP/CRC, according to the preferential location of the lesions: proximal/whole-colon or distal colon. Mismatch repair (MMR) gene methylation [mutS homolog 6 (MSH6)/mutS homolog 3 (MSH3)] or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of D2S123 (flanking MSH6) were detected exclusively in the former (p=3.0x10-7), in most early lesions. Proximal/whole‑colon SPP-FHP/CRC presented a higher frequency of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation/LOH, microsatellite instability (MSI) and Wnt mutations (19/29 vs. 7/17; 16/23 vs. 1/14, p=2.2x10-4; 15/26 vs. 2/15, p=0.006; 14/26 vs. 4/20, p=0.02) but a lower frequency of B-raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutations (7/30 vs. 12/20, p=0.0089) than the distal form. CRC was more frequent in cases of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-associated proximal/whole-colon SPP-FHP/CRC than in the remaining cases (4/4 vs. 1/8, p=0.01). Thus, SPP-FHP/CRC appears to be a specific entity, presenting two forms, proximal/whole-colon and distal, which differ in the underlying tumor initiation pathways. Early MGMT and MMR gene deficiency in the former may underlie an inherited susceptibility to genotoxic stress. PMID:27430658

  11. Serrated polyposis associated with a family history of colorectal cancer and/or polyps: The preferential location of polyps in the colon and rectum defines two molecular entities

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Cristina; Lage, Pedro; Fontes, Vanessa; Fonseca, Ricardo; Vitoriano, Inês; Filipe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Paula; Moita, Susana; Ferreira, Sara; Sousa, Rita; Claro, Isabel; Leitão, Carlos Nobre; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, António Dias

    2016-01-01

    Serrated polyposis (SPP) is characterized by the development of multiple serrated polyps and an increased predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to characterize, at a clinical and molecular level, a cohort of SPP patients with or without a family history of SPP and/or polyps/CRC (SPP-FHP/CRC). Sixty-two lesions from 12 patients with SPP-FHP/CRC and 6 patients with sporadic SPP were included. The patients with SPP-FHP/CRC presented with an older mean age at diagnosis (p=0.027) and a more heterogeneous histological pattern of lesions (p=0.032) than the patients with sporadic SPP. We identified two molecular forms of SPP-FHP/CRC, according to the preferential location of the lesions: proximal/whole-colon or distal colon. Mismatch repair (MMR) gene methylation [mutS homolog 6 (MSH6)/mutS homolog 3 (MSH3)] or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of D2S123 (flanking MSH6) were detected exclusively in the former (p=3.0×10−7), in most early lesions. Proximal/whole-colon SPP-FHP/CRC presented a higher frequency of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation/LOH, microsatel-lite instability (MSI) and Wnt mutations (19/29 vs. 7/17; 16/23 vs. 1/14, p=2.2×10−4; 15/26 vs. 2/15, p=0.006; 14/26 vs. 4/20, p=0.02) but a lower frequency of B-raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutations (7/30 vs. 12/20, p=0.0089) than the distal form. CRC was more frequent in cases of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-associated proximal/whole-colon SPP-FHP/CRC than in the remaining cases (4/4 vs. 1/8, p=0.01). Thus, SPP-FHP/CRC appears to be a specific entity, presenting two forms, proximal/whole-colon and distal, which differ in the underlying tumor initiation pathways. Early MGMT and MMR gene deficiency in the former may underlie an inherited susceptibility to genotoxic stress. PMID:27430658

  12. 5-Fluorouracil mediated anti-cancer activity in colon cancer cells is through the induction of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: Implication of the long-patch base excision repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipon; Preet, Ranjan; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Tamir, Tigist; Jain, Vaibhav; Bharatam, Prasad V.; Wyatt, Michael D.; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with APC mutations do not benefit from 5-FU therapy. It was reported that APC physically interacts with POLβ and FEN1, thus blocking LP-BER via APC’s DNA repair inhibitory (DRI) domain in vitro. The aim of this study was to elucidate how APC status affects BER and the response of CRC to 5-FU. HCT-116, HT-29, and LOVO cells varying in APC status were treated with 5-FU to evaluate expression, repair, and survival responses. HCT-116 expresses wild-type APC; HT-29 expresses an APC mutant that contains DRI domain; LOVO expresses an APC mutant lacking DRI domain. 5-FU increased the expression of APC and decreased the expression of FEN1 in HCT-116 and HT-29 cells, which were sensitized to 5-FU when compared to LOVO cells. Knockdown of APC in HCT-116 rendered cells resistant to 5-FU, and FEN1 levels remained unchanged. Re-expression of full-length APC in LOVO cells caused sensitivity to 5-FU, and decreased expression of FEN1. These knockdown and addback studies confirmed that the DRI domain is necessary for the APC-mediated reduction in LP-BER and 5-FU. Modelling studies showed that 5-FU can interact with the DRI domain of APC via hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. 5-FU resistance in CRC occurs with mutations in APC that disrupt or eliminate the DRI domain’s interaction with LP-BER. Understanding the type of APC mutation should better predict 5-FU resistance in CRC than simply characterizing APC status as wild-type or mutant. PMID:25460919

  13. Transcription of foreign DNA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Warren, René L.; Freeman, John D.; Levesque, Roger C.; Smailus, Duane E.; Flibotte, Stephane; Holt, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of heterologous DNA in E. coli host cells is central to molecular biology. DNA constructs are often engineered for expression of recombinant protein in E. coli, but the extent of incidental transcription arising from natural regulatory sequences in cloned DNA remains underexplored. Here, we have used programmable microarrays and RT-PCR to measure, comprehensively, the transcription of H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, and human DNA propagating in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes. We find evidence that at least half of all H. influenzae genes are transcribed in E. coli. Highly transcribed genes are principally involved in energy metabolism, and their proximal promoter regions are significantly enriched with E. coli σ70 (also known as RpoD) binding sites. H. influenzae genes acquired from an ancient bacteriophage Mu insertion are also highly transcribed. Compared with H. influenzae, a smaller proportion of P. aeruginosa genes are transcribed in E. coli, and in E. coli there is punctuated transcription of human DNA. The presence of foreign DNA in E. coli disturbs the host transcriptional profile, with expression of the E. coli phage shock protein operon and the flagellar gene cluster being particularly strongly up-regulated. While cross-species transcriptional activation is expected to be enabling for horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, incidental expression of toxic genes can be problematic for DNA cloning. Ongoing characterization of cross-expression will help inform the design of biosynthetic gene clusters and synthetic microbial genomes. PMID:18701636

  14. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  15. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  16. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  17. Diagnosisand Investigation of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nataro, J P; Martinez, J

    1998-01-01

    Although most Escherichia coli are harmless commensals of the human intestine, certain specific, highly-adapted E. coli strains are capable of causing urinary tract, systemic or enteric/diarrheagenic infection. Diarrheagenic E coli are divided into six distinct categories, or pathotypes, each with a distinct pathogenic scheme (Table 1). Combined, diarrheagenic E coli have emerged as perhaps the most important enteric pathogens of man. In the developing world, the E coli categories account for more cases of gastroenteiltis among infants than any other cause (1) In addition, E coli are also the most common cause of traveller's diarrhea, which afflicts more than one million travellers to the developing world annually (1). Enterohemorrhagic E coli (EHEC) are the cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which has become a major foodborne threat in many parts of the developed world (2). Table 1 Categories of Diarrheagenic E. coli Category Toxins Invasion Virulence plasmid Adhesin Clinical syndrome ETEC LT, ST - Many CFA/I, CFA/II, CFA/IV, others Watery diarrhea EPEC - + 60 MDa Bundle-forming pilus Watery diarrhea of infants EHEC SLT-1, SLT-2 - 60 MDa( a ) Intimin, Fimbriae( a ) Hemorrhagic colitis, HUS EAEC EAST1( a ) ? 65 MDa( a ) AAF/I, AAF/I Watery, persistent diarrhea EIEC EIET( a ) +++ 140 MDa Ipa's(?) Watery diarrhea, dysentery DAEC ? ? ? F1845( a ) Watery diarrhea ( a )Role in pathogenesis unproven. PMID:21390758

  18. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  19. Third International E. coli genome meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Proceedings of the Third E. Coli Genome Meeting are provided. Presentations were divided into sessions entitled (1) Large Scale Sequencing, Sequence Analysis; (2) Databases; (3) Sequence Analysis; (4) Sequence Divergence in E. coli Strains; (5) Repeated Sequences and Regulatory Motifs; (6) Mutations, Rearrangements and Stress Responses; and (7) Origins of New Genes. The document provides a collection of abstracts of oral and poster presentations.

  20. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, Karl A.; Goldwater, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted. PMID:26191064

  1. Nonchemotactic Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John B.; Adler, Julius; Dahl, Margaret M.

    1967-01-01

    We have isolated 40 mutants of Escherichia coli which are nonchemotactic as judged by their failure to swarm on semisolid tryptone plates or to make bands in capillary tubes containing tryptone broth. All the mutants have normal flagella, a fact shown by their shape and reaction with antiflagella serum. All are fully motile under the microscope and all are sensitive to the phage chi. Unlike its parent, one of the mutants, studied in greater detail, failed to show chemotaxis toward oxygen, glucose, serine, threonine, or aspartic acid. The failure to exhibit chemotaxis does not result from a failure to use the chemicals. The swimming of this mutant was shown to be random. The growth rate was normal under several conditions, and the growth requirements were unchanged. Images PMID:5335897

  2. Gas signatures from Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli-inoculated human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gaseous headspace above naïve Escherichia Coli (E. coli) cultures and whole human blood inoculated with E. coli were collected and analyzed for the presence of trace gases that may have the potential to be used as novel, non-invasive markers of infectious disease. Methods The naïve E. coli culture, LB broth, and human whole blood or E. coli inoculated whole blood were incubated in hermetically sealable glass bioreactors at 37°C for 24 hrs. LB broth and whole human blood were used as controls for background volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The headspace gases were collected after incubation and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system with multiple column/detector combinations. Results Six VOCs were observed to be produced by E. coli-infected whole blood while there existed nearly zero to relatively negligible amounts of these gases in the whole blood alone, LB broth, or E. coli-inoculated LB broth. These VOCs included dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), ethanol, acetaldehyde, methyl butanoate, and an unidentified gas S. In contrast, there were several VOCs significantly elevated in the headspace above the E. coli in LB broth, but not present in the E. coli/blood mixture. These VOCs included dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), methyl propanoate, 1-propanol, methylcyclohexane, and unidentified gases R2 and Q. Conclusions This study demonstrates 1) that cultivated E. coli in LB broth produce distinct gas profiles, 2) for the first time, the ability to modify E. coli-specific gas profiles by the addition of whole human blood, and 3) that E. coli-human whole blood interactions present different gas emission profiles that have the potential to be used as non-invasive volatile biomarkers of E. coli infection. PMID:23842518

  3. Structure of Escherichia coli tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shao Yang; Yip, Patrick; Howell, P Lynne

    2006-07-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the alpha-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the alpha-proton of the substrate for beta-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal. PMID:16790938

  4. Structure of Escherichia Coli Tryptophanase

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Howell, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the {alpha}-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the {alpha}-proton of the substrate for {beta}-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  5. Survival of pathogenic Escherichia coli on basil, lettuce, and spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...

  6. Advances in genoserotyping and subtyping of Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. coli plays an important role as a member of the gut microbiota; however, pathogenic strains also exist, including various diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli that cause illness outside of the GI-tract. E. coli have traditionally been serotyped using antisera a...

  7. Biofuels from E. Coli: Engineering E. coli as an Electrofuels Chassis for Isooctane Production

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-16

    Electrofuels Project: Ginkgo Bioworks is bypassing photosynthesis and engineering E. coli to directly use carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biofuels. E. coli doesn’t naturally metabolize CO2, but Ginkgo Bioworks is manipulating and incorporating the genes responsible for CO2 metabolism into the microorganism. By genetically modifying E. coli, Ginkgo Bioworks will enhance its rate of CO2 consumption and liquid fuel production. Ginkgo Bioworks is delivering CO2 to E. coli as formic acid, a simple industrial chemical that provides energy and CO2 to the bacterial system.

  8. First international E. coli genome meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This volume is a collection of abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions of studies reported at the First International E. Coli Genome Meeting, held September 10-14, 1992 at the University of Wisconsin.

  9. First international E. coli genome meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume is a collection of abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions of studies reported at the First International E. Coli Genome Meeting, held September 10-14, 1992 at the University of Wisconsin.

  10. Escherichia coli bacteriuria and contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Hooton, T M; Hillier, S; Johnson, C; Roberts, P L; Stamm, W E

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contraceptive method on the occurrence of bacteriuria and vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli in 104 women who were evaluated prior to having sexual intercourse, the morning after intercourse, and 24 hours later. After intercourse, the prevalence of E coli bacteriuria increased slightly in oral contraceptive users but dramatically in both foam and condom users and diaphragm-spermicide users. Twenty-four hours later, the prevalence of bacteriuria remained significantly elevated only in the latter two groups. Similarly, vaginal colonization with E coli was more dramatic and persistent in users of diaphragm-spermicide and foam and condoms. Vaginal colonization with Candida species, enterococci, and staphylococci also increased significantly in diaphragm-spermicide users after intercourse. We conclude that use of the diaphragm with spermicidal jelly or use of a spermicidal foam with a condom markedly alters normal vaginal flora and strongly predisposes users to the development of vaginal colonization and bacteriuria with E coli. PMID:1859519

  11. Adhesion behaviors of Escherichia coli on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Takahashi, Shohei; Yokoi, Taishi; Inoue, Chihiro; Ioku, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Optimum design of support materials for microorganisms is required for the construction of bioreactors. However, the effects of support materials on microorganisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on hydroxyapatite (HA), polyurethane (PU), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon (Carbon) to obtain basic knowledge for the design of support materials. The total metabolic activity and number of E. coli adhering on the samples followed the order of HA ≈ Carbon>PVC>PU. On the other hand, the water contact angle of the pellet surfaces followed the order of HAcoli. The results implied that HA has a potential as a support material for microorganisms used in bioreactors. PMID:26838837

  12. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed Central

    Pinegar, J. A.; Cooke, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  13. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, J A; Cooke, E M

    1985-08-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  14. Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates inhibit uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Fabrice; Brassart, Dominique; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Servin, Alain L

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus jensenii KS119.1 and KS121.1, and Lactobacillus gasserii KS120.1 and KS124.3 strains isolated from the vaginal microflora of healthy women, against uropathogenic, diffusely adhering Afa/Dr Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains IH11128 and 7372 involved in recurrent cystitis. We observed that some of the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of E. coli IH11128 and 7372. In addition, we observed that adhering Lactobacillus strains inhibited adhesion of E. coli IH11128 onto HeLa cells, and inhibited internalization of E. coli IH11128 within HeLa cells. PMID:16553843

  15. FTIR nanobiosensors for Escherichia coli detection

    PubMed Central

    Greppi, Gianfranco; Marongiu, Maria Laura; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Ravindranath, Sandeep P; Mauer, Lisa J; Schibeci, Nicoletta; Perria, Francesco; Piccinini, Massimo; Innocenzi, Plinio; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli) have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane) and GA (glutaraldehyde) were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples. PMID:23019542

  16. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  17. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  18. Natural plasmid transformation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Suh-Der; Fang, Suh-Sen; Chen, Mei-Jye; Chien, Jun-Yi; Lee, Chih-Chun; Tsen, Darwin Han-Lin

    2002-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli does not have a natural transformation process, strains of E. coli can incorporate extracellular plasmids into cytoplasm 'naturally' at low frequencies. A standard method was developed in which stationary phase cells were concentrated, mixed with plasmids, and then plated on agar plates with nutrients which allowed cells to grow. Transformed cells could then be selected by harvesting cells and plating again on selective agar plates. Competence developed in the lag phase, but disappeared during exponential growth. As more plasmids were added to the cell suspension, the number of transformants increased, eventually reaching a plateau. Supercoiled monomeric or linear concatemeric DNA could transform cells, while linear monomeric DNA could not. Plasmid transformation was not related to conjugation and was recA-independent. Most of the E. coli strains surveyed had this process. All tested plasmids, except pACYC184, could transform E. coli. Insertion of a DNA fragment containing the ampicillin resistance gene into pACYC184 made the plasmid transformable. By inserting random 20-base-pair oligonucleotides into pACYC184 and selecting for transformable plasmids, a most frequent sequence was identified. This sequence resembled the bacterial interspersed medium repetitive sequence of E. coli, suggesting the existence of a recognition sequence. We conclude that plasmid natural transformation exists in E. coli. PMID:12065899

  19. Systems Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-05-01

    Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass. PMID:27223822

  20. Mechanism of Sperm Immobilization by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vijay; Sandhu, Ravneet; Kaur, Siftjit; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Sarwal, Abha; Mavuduru, Ravimohan S.; Singh, Shravan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To explore the influence of Escherichia coli on the motility of human spermatozoa and its possible mechanism. Methods. Highly motile preparations of spermatozoa from normozoospermic patients were coincubated with Escherichia coli for 4 hours. At 1, 2 and 4 hours of incubation, sperm motility was determined. The factor responsible for sperm immobilization without agglutination was isolated and purified from filtrates. Results. This report confirms the immobilization of spermatozoa by E. coli and demonstrates sperm immobilization factor (SIF) excreted by E. coli. Further this factor was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel permeation chromatography, and ion-exchange chromatography. Purified SIF (56 kDa) caused instant immobilization without agglutination of human spermatozoa at 800 μg/mL and death at 2.1 mg/mL. Spermatozoa incubated with SIF revealed multiple and profound alterations involving all superficial structures of spermatozoa as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Conclusion. In conclusion, these results have shown immobilization of spermatozoa by E. coli and demonstrate a factor (SIF) produced and secreted by E. coli which causes variable structural damage as probable morphological correlates of immobilization. PMID:20379358

  1. Succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  2. E. coli on the move

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calne, S.

    2012-04-01

    Lynn Grove High School in Great Yarmouth, UK has been awarded a Royal Society partnership grant. Lynn Grove pupils aged between 11 and 16 years will carry out an investigation collaborating with scientists at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK to investigate the distribution of E.coli and other coliform bacteria within a school. The information will be used as an evidence base to educate pupils about the transmission of microbes and about methods of control. Through this work pupils will gain an appreciation of the diversity of microbial biochemistry and the chemistry behind chromogenic detection methodologies for specific bacterial enzymes. Inferences from the use of diagnostic selective media will be confirmed by carrying out DNA isolation and PCR to identify the genes responsible for the biochemical reactions. PCR will also be used to identify species of coliforms by reference to genomic sequence databases. These techniques will allow pupils to look into an unseen world in a way which has direct relevance to their everyday lives. Furthermore this partnership study will demonstrate to pupils that solving scientific questions requires the integration of a variety of scientific disciplines. The project will run from January 2012 until June 2012. We will present our preliminary results from the investigation and outline our future plans.

  3. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Y; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is a human pathogen responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Conventional antimicrobials trigger an SOS response in EHEC that promotes the release of the potent Shiga toxin that is responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality associated with EHEC infection. Cattle are a natural reservoir of EHEC, and approximately 75% of EHEC outbreaks are linked to the consumption of contaminated bovine-derived products. This review will discuss how EHEC causes disease in humans but is asymptomatic in adult ruminants. It will also analyze factors utilized by EHEC as it travels through the bovine gastrointestinal (GI) tract that allow for its survival through the acidic environment of the distal stomachs, and for its ultimate colonization in the recto-anal junction (RAJ). Understanding the factors crucial for EHEC survival and colonization in cattle will aid in the development of alternative strategies to prevent EHEC shedding into the environment and consequent human infection. PMID:22919681

  4. Dihydropteridine reductase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, S G; Shaw, D C; Armarego, W L

    1988-01-01

    A dihydropteridine reductase from Escherichia coli was purified to apparent homogeneity. It is a dimeric enzyme with identical subunits (Mr 27000) and a free N-terminal group. It can use NADH (Vmax./Km 3.36 s-1) and NADPH (Vmax./Km 1.07 s-1) when 6-methyldihydro-(6H)-pterin is the second substrate, as well as quinonoid dihydro-(6H)-biopterin (Vmax./Km 0.69 s-1), dihydro-(6H)-neopterin (Vmax./Km 0.58 s-1), dihydro-(6H)-monapterin 0.66 s-1), 6-methyldihydro-(6H)-pterin and cis-6,7-dimethyldihydro-(6H)-pterin (Vmax./Km 0.66 s-1) when NADH is the second substrate. The pure reductase has a yellow colour and contains bound FAD. The enzyme also has pterin-independent NADH and NADPH oxidoreductase activities when potassium ferricyanide is the electron acceptor. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3060113

  5. COLONIZATION POTENTIALS OF MALE AND FEMALE E. COLI K 12 STRAINS E COLI B AND HUMAN FECAL E. COLI STRAINS IN THE MOUSE GI TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to compare the colonization potentials of individual Escherichia coli strains, the authors developed a simple animal system in which both freshly isolated human strains and laboratory strains (i.e. E. coli B and E. coli K 12 strains) survive in the large intestine for lo...

  6. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm2) following exposure to 50 μg/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm2). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations after 24 h when stored at 4°C compared with controls. Immersion of lettuce in suspensions containing high concentrations of EcoShield™ (9.8 log PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm2) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm2) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm2). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce. PMID:23819106

  7. Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome database.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Niki, Hironori; Kato, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome (PEC) database (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/pec/) is designed to allow E. coli researchers to efficiently access information from functional genomics studies. The database contains two principal types of data: gene essentiality and a large collection of E. coli genetic research resources. The essentiality data are based on data compilation from published single-gene essentiality studies and on cell growth studies of large-deletion mutants. Using the circular and linear viewers for both whole genomes and the minimal genome, users can not only gain an overview of the genome structure but also retrieve information on contigs, gene products, mutants, deletions, and so forth. In particular, genome-wide exhaustive mutants are an essential resource for studying E. coli gene functions. Although the genomic database was constructed independently from the genetic resources database, users may seamlessly access both types of data. In addition to these data, the PEC database also provides a summary of homologous genes of other bacterial genomes and of protein structure information, with a comprehensive interface. The PEC is thus a convenient and useful platform for contemporary E. coli researchers. PMID:18392982

  8. The unexhausted potential of E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Zachary D

    2015-01-01

    E. coli's hardiness, versatility, broad palate and ease of handling have made it the most intensively studied and best understood organism on the planet. However, research on E.coli has primarily examined it as a model organism, one that is abstracted from any natural history. But E. coli is far more than just a microbial lab rat. Rather, it is a highly diverse organism with a complex, multi-faceted niche in the wild. Recent studies of ‘wild’ E. coli have, for example, revealed a great deal about its presence in the environment, its diversity and genomic evolution, as well as its role in the human microbiome and disease. These findings have shed light on aspects of its biology and ecology that pose far-reaching questions and illustrate how an appreciation of E. coli's natural history can expand its value as a model organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05826.001 PMID:25807083

  9. Logarithmic Sensing in Escherichia coli Bacterial Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Yevgeniy V.; Jiang, Lili; Tu, Yuhai; Wu, Mingming

    2009-01-01

    We studied the response of swimming Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in a comprehensive set of well-controlled chemical concentration gradients using a newly developed microfluidic device and cell tracking imaging technique. In parallel, we carried out a multi-scale theoretical modeling of bacterial chemotaxis taking into account the relevant internal signaling pathway dynamics, and predicted bacterial chemotactic responses at the cellular level. By measuring the E. coli cell density profiles across the microfluidic channel at various spatial gradients of ligand concentration grad[L] and the average ligand concentration [L]¯near the peak chemotactic response region, we demonstrated unambiguously in both experiments and model simulation that the mean chemotactic drift velocity of E. coli cells increased monotonically with grad [L]/[L]¯ or ∼grad(log[L])—that is E. coli cells sense the spatial gradient of the logarithmic ligand concentration. The exact range of the log-sensing regime was determined. The agreements between the experiments and the multi-scale model simulation verify the validity of the theoretical model, and revealed that the key microscopic mechanism for logarithmic sensing in bacterial chemotaxis is the adaptation kinetics, in contrast to explanations based directly on ligand occupancy. PMID:19289068

  10. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  11. Mechanisms of Emerging Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Infection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed A.; Steiner, Ted S.

    2002-04-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli organisms are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless commensals, a few types have emerged that are capable of disrupting the normal physiology of the human gut, producing illness ranging from watery diarrhea to fatal hemorrhagic colitis. Diarrheagenic E. coli cause infection by a variety of complex mechanisms, some of which are incompletely understood. These include adherence, elaboration of toxigenic mediators, invasion of the intestinal mucosa, and transportation of bacterial proteins into the host cells. Specific components of the host-microbial interaction that cause damage have been identified, increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of diarrhea. This article reviews some of the recent findings about the pathogenesis and infectious processes involved in three emerging pathotypes of this fascinating gram-negative bacterium. PMID:11927041

  12. Molecular mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Croxen, Matthew A; Finlay, B Brett

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a remarkable and diverse organism. This normally harmless commensal needs only to acquire a combination of mobile genetic elements to become a highly adapted pathogen capable of causing a range of diseases, from gastroenteritis to extraintestinal infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream and central nervous system. The worldwide burden of these diseases is staggering, with hundreds of millions of people affected annually. Eight E. coli pathovars have been well characterized, and each uses a large arsenal of virulence factors to subvert host cellular functions to potentiate its virulence. In this Review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the different pathogenic mechanisms that are used by various E. coli pathovars and how they cause disease in humans. PMID:19966814

  13. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  14. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Danevčič, Tjaša; Borić Vezjak, Maja; Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria. PMID:27612193

  15. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  16. coliBASE: an online database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Khan, Arshad M.; Pallen, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    We have constructed coliBASE, a database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics available online at http://colibase.bham.ac.uk. Unlike other E.coli databases, which focus on the laboratory model strain K12, coliBASE is intended to reflect the full diversity of E.coli and its relatives. The database contains comparative data including whole genome alignments and lists of putative orthologous genes, together with numerous analytical tools and links to existing online resources. The data are stored in a relational database, accessible by a number of user-friendly search methods and graphical browsers. The database schema is generic and can easily be applied to other bacterial genomes. Two such databases, CampyDB (for the analysis of Campylobacter spp.) and ClostriDB (for Clostridium spp.) are also available at http://campy.bham.ac.uk and http://clostri.bham.ac.uk, respectively. An example of the power of E.coli comparative analyses such as those available through coliBASE is presented. PMID:14681417

  17. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-associated exotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli are a common cause of infectious disease outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Several independently evolved E. coli clades are common causes of urinary tract and blood stream infections. There is ample epidemiological and in vitro evidence that several different protein toxins common to many but not all of these strains are likely to aid the colonization and immune evasion ability of these bacteria. This review discusses our current knowledge and areas of ignorance concerning the contribution of the hemolysin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 and the autotransporters, Sat, Pic and Vat to extraintestinal human disease. PMID:27337488

  18. Production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Tomohisa; Sonoda, Hiroyuki; Kumada, Yoichi; Yamaji, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a host widely used in the industrial production of recombinant proteins. However, the expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli often encounters the formation of inclusion bodies, which are insoluble and nonfunctional protein aggregates. For the successful production of antibody fragments, which includes single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), we describe here the modification of linker, signal, and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, the coexpression of cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones, and a method for fed-batch cultivation with exponential feed. PMID:22907360

  19. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  20. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Associated Exotoxins.

    PubMed

    Welch, Rodney A

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli are a common cause of infectious disease outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Several independently evolved E. coli clades are common causes of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. There is ample epidemiological and in vitro evidence that several different protein toxins common to many, but not all, of these strains are likely to aid the colonization and immune-evasion ability of these bacteria. This review discusses our current knowledge and areas of ignorance concerning the contribution of the hemolysin; cytotoxic-necrotizing factor-1; and the autotransporters, Sat, Pic, and Vat, to extraintestinal human disease. PMID:27337488

  1. Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

  2. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCI TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium were inactivated by free chlorine and monochloramine. ndigenous E. coli and enterococci in wastewater effluents were also inactivated. elective bacteriological media specifically designed for the enumeration of the target...

  3. Spondylodiscitis and an aortic aneurysm due to Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Xavier; Dehecq, Caroline; Cattoen, Christian; Garnier, Laurence Destrieux; Bournet, Béatrice Sarraz; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Senneville, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is a rare cause of bacteremia. We report here the first case of C.coli spondylodiscitis complicated by an aortic aneurysm. Outcome was favourable with surgery and antibiotic therapy. PMID:20132561

  4. DIVERSITY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN A DAIRY FARM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle are known reservoirs of pathogenic E. coli, but little is known about the dynamics of E. coli in dairy cows or within the dairy farm environment. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between E. coli in water, feces, and manure composites from a dairy farm using pulse...

  5. Diversity of Escherichia coli in a Dairy Farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle are known reservoirs of pathogenic E. coli, but little is known about the dynamics of E. coli in dairy cows or within the dairy farm environment. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between E. coli in water, feces, and manure composites from a dairy farm using pulse...

  6. Draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli LCT-EC106.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianzhi; Pu, Fei; Yang, Rentao; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang; Guo, Na; Jiang, Xuege; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Changting

    2012-08-01

    Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli LCT-EC106, which was isolated from CGMCC 1.2385. PMID:22843582

  7. E. coli survival in waters: applicability of the Arrhenius equation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. coli is an important microorganism indicator used to show the presence of pathogens and fecal contamination in waters. Knowing E. coli survival rates is important for assessing the severity of contamination that has occurred and making appropriate management evaluations. E. coli survival rates ...

  8. Sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most common serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli, is responsible for numerous food- and water-borne infections worldwide. Conventional culture-based methods for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in foods and water sources are time-consuming, and results can be...

  9. The Biology of the Escherichia coli Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Hufnagel, David A.; DePas, William H.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Chapter Summary Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the world’s best-characterized organisms, as it has been extensively studied for over a century. However, most of this work has focused on E. coli grown under laboratory conditions that do not faithfully simulate its natural environments. Therefore, the historical perspectives on E. coli physiology and life cycle are somewhat skewed toward experimental systems that feature E. coli growing logarithmically in a test tube. Typically a commensal bacterium, E. coli resides in the lower intestines of a slew of animals. Outside of the lower intestine, E. coli can adapt and survive in a very different set of environmental conditions. Biofilm formation allows E. coli to survive, and even thrive, in environments that do not support the growth of planktonic populations. E. coli can form biofilms virtually everywhere; in the bladder during a urinary tract infection, on in-dwelling medical devices, and outside of the host on plants and in the soil. The E. coli extracellular matrix, primarily composed of the protein polymer named curli and the polysaccharide cellulose, promotes adherence to organic and inorganic surfaces, and resistance to desiccation, the host immune system and other antimicrobials. The pathways that govern E. coli biofilm formation, cellulose production, and curli biogenesis will be discussed in this book chapter, which concludes with insights into the future of E. coli biofilm research and potential therapies. PMID:26185090

  10. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying resistance genotypes of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Methods: Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured f...

  11. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, are important food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC that cause HC and HUS are also referred to as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (E...

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Escherichia coli 8739 in apple juice by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, G A; Zhang, Q H; Richter, E R

    1999-07-01

    The effect of high voltage pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli 8739 in apple juice was investigated. Fresh apple juice samples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli 8739 were treated by PEF with selected parameters including electric field strength, treatment time, and treatment temperature. Samples were exposed to bipolar pulses with electric field strengths of 30, 26, 22, and 18 kV/cm and total treatment times of 172, 144, 115, and 86 micros. A 5-log reduction in both cultures was determined by a standard nonselective medium spread plate laboratory procedure. Treatment temperature was kept below 35 degrees C. Results showed no difference in the sensitivities of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli 8739 against PEF treatment. PEF is a promising technology for the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli 8739 in apple juice. PMID:10419274

  13. Control of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by the heterochronic genes and the cellular asymmetry machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Omid F.; Ambros, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Transitions between asymmetric (self-renewing) and symmetric (proliferative) cell divisions are robustly regulated in the context of normal development and tissue homeostasis. To genetically assess the regulation of these transitions, we used the postembryonic epithelial stem (seam) cell lineages of Caenorhabditis elegans. In these lineages, the timing of these transitions is regulated by the evolutionarily conserved heterochronic pathway, whereas cell division asymmetry is conferred by a pathway consisting of Wnt (Wingless) pathway components, including posterior pharynx defect (POP-1)/TCF, APC related/adenomatosis polyposis coli (APR-1)/APC, and LIT-1/NLK (loss of intestine/Nemo-like kinase). Here we explore the genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying stage-specific transitions between self-renewing and proliferative behavior in the seam cell lineages. We show that mutations of genes in the heterochronic developmental timing pathway, including lin-14 (lineage defect), lin-28, lin-46, and the lin-4 and let-7 (lethal defects)-family microRNAs, affect the activity of LIT-1/POP-1 cellular asymmetry machinery and APR-1 polarity during larval development. Surprisingly, heterochronic mutations that enhance LIT-1 activity in seam cells can simultaneously also enhance the opposing, POP-1 activity, suggesting a role in modulating the potency of the cellular polarizing activity of the LIT-1/POP-1 system as development proceeds. These findings illuminate how the evolutionarily conserved cellular asymmetry machinery can be coupled to microRNA-regulated developmental pathways for robust regulation of stem cell maintenance and proliferation during the course of development. Such genetic interactions between developmental timing regulators and cell polarity regulators could underlie transitions between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell fates in other systems and could be deregulated in the context of developmental disorders and cancer. PMID:25561544

  14. Alterations in K-ras, APC and p53-multiple genetic pathway in colorectal cancer among Indians.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Pooja; Anwar, Mumtaz; Nanda, Neha; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Vaiphei, Kim; Mahmood, Safrun

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing rapidly in Asian countries during the past few decades, but no comprehensive analysis has been done to find out the exact cause of this disease. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) and p53 in tumor, adjoining and distant normal mucosa and to correlate these alterations with patients clinicopathological parameters as well as with the survival. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction digestion was used to detect mutations in K-ras and PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) followed by DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations in APC and p53 genes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 proteins. The frequencies of mutations of K-ras, APC and p53 in 30 tumor tissues samples were 26.7 %, 46.7 % and 20 %, respectively. Only 3.3 % of tumors contained mutations in all the three genes. The most common combination of mutation was APC and p53 whereas mutation in both p53 and K-ras were extremely rare. There was no association between the mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 (p>0.05). In Indians, the frequency of alterations of K-ras and APC is similar as in Westerns, whereas the frequency of p53 mutation is slightly lower. The lack of multiple mutations in tumor specimens suggests that these genetic alterations might have independent influences on CRC development and there could be multiple alternative genetic pathways to CRC in our present study cohort. PMID:23526092

  15. Expression of Signaling Components in Embryonic Eyelid Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinghang; Jin, Chang; Chen, Yinglei; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Closure of an epithelium opening is a critical morphogenetic event for development. An excellent example for this process is the transient closure of embryonic eyelid. Eyelid closure requires shape change and migration of epithelial cells at the tip of the developing eyelids, and is dictated by numerous signaling pathways. Here we evaluated gene expression in epithelial cells isolated from the tip (leading edge, LE) and inner surface epithelium (IE) of the eyelid from E15.5 mouse fetuses by laser capture microdissection (LCM). We showed that the LE and IE cells are different at E15.5, such that IE had higher expression of muscle specific genes, while LE acquired epithelium identities. Despite their distinct destinies, these cells were overall similar in expression of signaling components for the “eyelid closure pathways”. However, while the LE cells had more abundant expression of Fgfr2, Erbb2, Shh, Ptch1 and 2, Smo and Gli2, and Jag1 and Notch1, the IE cells had more abundant expression of Bmp5 and Bmpr1a. In addition, the LE cells had more abundant expression of adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (Apcdd1), but the IE cells had high expression of Dkk2. Our results suggest that the functionally distinct LE and IE cells have also differential expression of signaling molecules that may contribute to the cell-specific responses to morphogenetic signals. The expression pattern suggests that the EGF, Shh and NOTCH pathways are preferentially active in LE cells, the BMP pathways are effective in IE cells, and the Wnt pathway may be repressed in LE and IE cells via different mechanisms. PMID:24498290

  16. Ionizing radiation, inflammation, and their interactions in colon carcinogenesis in Mlh1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, Takamitsu; Miyoshi-Imamura, Tomoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kito, Seiji; Tokairin, Yutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Yoshimi, Naoki; Shimada, Yoshiya; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-01-01

    Genetic, physiological and environmental factors are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene, one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, are a main cause of hereditary colon cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. Long-term chronic inflammation is also a key risk factor, responsible for colitis-associated colorectal cancer; radiation exposure is also known to increase colorectal cancer risk. Here, we studied the effects of radiation exposure on inflammation-induced colon carcinogenesis in DNA mismatch repair-proficient and repair-deficient mice. Male and female Mlh1−/− and Mlh1+/+ mice were irradiated with 2 Gy X-rays when aged 2 weeks or 7 weeks and/or were treated with 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days at 10 weeks old to induce mild inflammatory colitis. No colon tumors developed after X-rays and/or DSS treatment in Mlh1+/+ mice. Colon tumors developed after DSS treatment alone in Mlh1−/− mice, and exposure to radiation prior to DSS treatment increased the number of tumors. Histologically, colon tumors in the mice resembled the subtype of well-to-moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human Lynch syndrome. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of both p53 and β-catenin and loss of p21 and adenomatosis polyposis coli proteins were observed at the later stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting a course of molecular pathogenesis distinct from typical sporadic or colitis-associated colon cancer in humans. In conclusion, radiation exposure could further increase the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by inflammation under the conditions of Mlh1 deficiency. PMID:25529563

  17. [Esophageal, gastric and colorectal tumors].

    PubMed

    Stolte, M

    2001-01-01

    The new WHO-classification of the tumours of the digestive System replaces the "blue books", and are now dealt with completely in a single book. In addition to the histological features of the lesions, the new classification also contains information on epidemiology, aetiology, endoscopy, genetic susceptibility, molecular genetics, prognosis and predictive factors. The erstwhile mostly black-and-white histological photographs have at last again been replaced by numerous colour photographs and supplemented by endoscopic and macroscopic pictures. The changes to the individual tumour classifications are only few. The former classification of the malignant lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract has now been replaced by the classification of these lesions that has long been in use. New additions are the gastrointestinal tract has long been in use. New additions are the gastrointestinal stroma tumours (GIST) and the gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour (GANT). To the epithelial tumours of the oesophagus have now been added the basaloid squamous cell tumours of the vermiform appendix and the colorectum have now been added the serrated adenoma and the small-cell carcinoma. The following new chapter have been included: adenocarcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction, secondary carcinomas of the stomach, secondary tumours of the small bowel and colon, the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis, familial adenomatosis coli, and HNPCC. For the first time the intra-epithelial neoplasias in chronic inflammatory bowel disease have been differentiated, i.e. adenomas distinguished from the dysplasias, while the latter term has now been replaced by the term "intra-epithelial neoplasias". In comparison with the former "blue books", the new WHO-classification, prepared by presentatives of numerous disciplines--for the first time including clinicians--has taken on the character of a text book. PMID:11894400

  18. Targeted apc;twist double-mutant mice: a new model of spontaneous osteosarcoma that mimics the human disease.

    PubMed

    Entz-Werlé, Natacha; Choquet, Philippe; Neuville, Agnès; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Clauss, François; Danse, Jean-Marc; Simo-Noumbissie, Pauline; Guérin, Eric; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Freund, Jean-Noel; Boehm, Nelly; Constantinesco, André; Lutz, Patrick; Guenot, Dominique; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne

    2010-01-01

    TWIST and adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC) are critical signaling factors in normal bone development. In previous studies examining a homogeneously treated cohort of pediatric osteosarcoma patients, we reported the frequent and concurrent loss of both TWIST and APC genes. On these bases, we created a related animal model to further explore the oncogenic cooperation between these two genes. We performed intercrosses between twist-null/+ and Apc1638N/+ mice and studied their progeny. The Apc1638N/+;twistnull/+ mice developed bone abnormalities observed by macroscopic skeletal analyses and in vivo imaging. Complementary histologic, cellular, and molecular analyses were used to characterize the identified bone tumors, including cell culture and immunofluorescence of bone differentiation markers. Spontaneous localized malignant bone tumors were frequently identified in Apc1638N/+;twist-null/+ mice by in vivo imaging evaluation and histologic analyses. These tumors possessed several features similar to those observed in human localized osteosarcomas. In particular, the murine tumors presented with fibroblastic, chondroblastic, and osteoblastic osteosarcoma histologies, as well as mixtures of these subtypes. In addition, cellular analyses and bone differentiation markers detected by immunofluorescence on tumor sections reproduced most murine and human osteosarcoma characteristics. For example, the early bone differentiation marker Runx2, interacting physically with hypophosphorylated pRb, was undetectable in these murine osteosarcomas, whereas phosphorylated retinoblastoma was abundant in the osteoblastic and chondroblastic tumor subtypes. These characteristics, similar to those observed in human osteosarcomas, indicated that our animal model may be a powerful tool to further understand the development of localized osteosarcoma. PMID:21151473

  19. Targeted Apc;Twist Double-Mutant Mice: A New Model of Spontaneous Osteosarcoma That Mimics the Human Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Entz-Werlé, Natacha; Choquet, Philippe; Neuville, Agnès; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Clauss, François; Danse, Jean-Marc; Simo-Noumbissie, Pauline; Guérin, Eric; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Freund, Jean-Noel; Boehm, Nelly; Constantinesco, André; Lutz, Patrick; Guenot, Dominique; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne

    2010-01-01

    TWIST and adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC) are critical signaling factors in normal bone development. In previous studies examining a homogeneously treated cohort of pediatric osteosarcoma patients, we reported the frequent and concurrent loss of both TWIST and APC genes. On these bases, we created a related animal model to further explore the oncogenic cooperation between these two genes. We performed intercrosses between twist-null/+ and Apc1638N/+ mice and studied their progeny. The Apc1638N/+;twistnull/+ mice developed bone abnormalities observed by macroscopic skeletal analyses and in vivo imaging. Complementary histologic, cellular, and molecular analyses were used to characterize the identified bone tumors, including cell culture and immunofluorescence of bone differentiation markers. Spontaneous localized malignant bone tumors were frequently identified in Apc1638N/+;twist-null/+ mice by in vivo imaging evaluation and histologic analyses. These tumors possessed several features similar to those observed in human localized osteosarcomas. In particular, the murine tumors presented with fibroblastic, chondroblastic, and osteoblastic osteosarcoma histologies, as well as mixtures of these subtypes. In addition, cellular analyses and bone differentiation markers detected by immunofluorescence on tumor sections reproduced most murine and human osteosarcoma characteristics. For example, the early bone differentiation marker Runx2, interacting physically with hypophosphorylated pRb, was undetectable in these murine osteosarcomas, whereas phosphorylated retinoblastoma was abundant in the osteoblastic and chondroblastic tumor subtypes. These characteristics, similar to those observed in human osteosarcomas, indicated that our animal model may be a powerful tool to further understand the development of localized osteosarcoma. PMID:21151473

  20. The role of APCDD1 in epithelial rearrangement in tooth morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sanjiv; Sohn, Wern-Joo; Gwon, Gi-Jeong; Kim, Ki-Rim; Lee, Sanggyu; An, Chang-Hyeon; Suh, Jo-Young; Shin, Hong-In; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Cho, Sung-Won; Lee, Youngkyun; Kim, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Adenomatosis polyposis coli downregulated 1 (APCDD1), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, was examined to understand detailed mechanisms underlying Wnt signaling tooth development. In situ hybridization showed that Apcdd1 was expressed in the condensed mesenchyme at the bud stage, and in the inner enamel epithelium (IEE), including enamel knot (EK) at the cap stage. In vitro organ cultivation by using Apcdd1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides was performed at E13.5 for 2 days to define the developmental functions of APCDD1 during tooth development. Analysis of histogenesis and cellular events such as cell adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial rearrangement after Apcdd1 knockdown showed altered morphogenesis of the tooth germ with decreased cell proliferation and altered localization of cell adhesion molecules. Actin filament staining and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) labeling of IEE cells showed that Apcdd1 knockdown enhanced epithelial rearrangement in the IEE and EK. To understand the precise signaling regulations of Apcdd1, we evaluated the altered expression patterns of signaling molecules, related with Wnt and enamel knot signalings using RT-qPCR. Tooth germs at cap stage were transplanted into the kidney capsules and were allowed to develop into calcified teeth for 3 weeks. Apcdd1 knockdown increased the number of ectopic cusps on the mesial side of the tooth. Our results suggested that APCDD1 modulates the gene expression of Wnt- and EK-related signaling molecules at the cap stage of tooth development, and is involved in tooth cusp patterning by modulating the epithelial rearrangement in the IEE. PMID:26170146

  1. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  2. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  3. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  4. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  5. Escherichia coli as a bioreporter in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Robbens, Johan; Dardenne, Freddy; Devriese, Lisa; De Coen, Wim; Blust, Ronny

    2010-11-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment relies to a large extent on the information gathered with surrogate species and the extrapolation of test results across species and different levels of biological organisation. Bacteria have long been used as a bioreporter for genotoxic testing and general toxicity. Today, it is clear that bacteria have the potential for screening of other toxicological endpoints. Escherichia coli has been studied for years; in-depth knowledge of its biochemistry and genetics makes it the most proficient prokaryote for the development of new toxicological assays. Several assays have been designed with E. coli as a bioreporter, and the recent trend to develop novel, better advanced reporters makes bioreporter development one of the most dynamic in ecotoxicology. Based on in-depth knowledge of E. coli, new assays are being developed or existing ones redesigned, thanks to the availability of new reporter genes and new or improved substrates. The technological evolution towards easier and more sensitive detection of different gene products is another important aspect. Often, this requires the redesign of the bacterium to make it compatible with the novel measuring tests. Recent advances in surface chemistry and nanoelectronics open the perspective for advanced reporter based on novel measuring platforms and with an online potential. In this article, we will discuss the use of E. coli-based bioreporters in ecotoxicological applications as well as some innovative sensors awaited for the future. PMID:20803141

  6. Gentamicin: effect on E. coli in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacena, M. A.; Todd, P.

    1999-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that liquid bacterial cultures grown in space flight were not killed as effectively by antibiotic treatments as were cultures grown on Earth. However, the cause for the decreased antibiotic effectiveness remains unknown. Possible explanations include modified cell proliferation and modified antibiotic transport in the culture medium. Escherichia coli cultures were grown in space flight (STS-69 and STS-73), with and without gentamicin, on a solid agar substrate thus eliminating fluid effects and reducing the unknowns associated with space-flight bacterial cultures in suspension. This research showed that E. coli cultures grown in flight on agar for 24 to 27 hours experienced a heightened growth compared to simultaneous controls. However, addition of gentamicin to the agar killed the bacteria such that both flight and ground control E. coli samples had similar final cell concentrations. Therefore, while the reported existence of a decrease in antibiotic effectiveness in liquid cultures remains unexplained, these data suggest that gentamicin in space flight was at least as effective as, if not more effective than, on Earth, when E. coli cells were grown on agar.

  7. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  8. Hybrid speciation in agricultural Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation but is constrained by epistatic fitness interactions. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other at an average of nearly 40 amino acids per gene. Nevertheless, they have...

  9. ECMDB: the E. coli Metabolome Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, An Chi; Jewison, Timothy; Wilson, Michael; Liu, Yifeng; Knox, Craig; Djoumbou, Yannick; Lo, Patrick; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Wishart, David S

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Metabolome Database (ECMDB, http://www.ecmdb.ca) is a comprehensively annotated metabolomic database containing detailed information about the metabolome of E. coli (K-12). Modelled closely on the Human and Yeast Metabolome Databases, the ECMDB contains >2600 metabolites with links to ∼1500 different genes and proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in the ECMDB has been collected from dozens of textbooks, journal articles and electronic databases. Each metabolite entry in the ECMDB contains an average of 75 separate data fields, including comprehensive compound descriptions, names and synonyms, chemical taxonomy, compound structural and physicochemical data, bacterial growth conditions and substrates, reactions, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data and numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. The ECMDB also includes an extensive collection of intracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from our own work as well as other published metabolomic studies. This information is further supplemented with thousands of fully assigned reference nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry spectra obtained from pure E. coli metabolites that we (and others) have collected. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of E. coli's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers but also to molecular biologists, systems biologists and individuals in the biotechnology industry. PMID:23109553

  10. Diarrhea, bacteremia and multiorgan dysfunction due to an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain with enteropathogenic E. coli genes

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H.; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:26410828

  11. Escherichia coli O157 and other Shiga toxin producting E. coli: detection by immunomagnetic particle-based assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome and are important food-borne pathogens that can contaminate various types of food. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service declared E. coli O157:H7 a...

  12. Diarrhea, bacteremia and multiorgan dysfunction due to an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain with enteropathogenic E. coli genes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A; Donnenberg, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:26410828

  13. Efficient production of indigoidine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuchao; Gage, David; Zhan, Jixun

    2015-08-01

    Indigoidine is a bacterial natural product with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its bright blue color resembles the industrial dye indigo, thus representing a new natural blue dye that may find uses in industry. In our previous study, an indigoidine synthetase Sc-IndC and an associated helper protein Sc-IndB were identified from Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BAP1 to produce the blue pigment at 3.93 g/l. To further improve the production of indigoidine, in this work, the direct biosynthetic precursor L-glutamine was fed into the fermentation broth of the engineered E. coli strain harboring Sc-IndC and Sc-IndB. The highest titer of indigoidine reached 8.81 ± 0.21 g/l at 1.46 g/l L-glutamine. Given the relatively high price of L-glutamine, a metabolic engineering technique was used to directly enhance the in situ supply of this precursor. A glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) was amplified from E. coli and co-expressed with Sc-indC and Sc-indB in E. coli BAP1, leading to the production of indigoidine at 5.75 ± 0.09 g/l. Because a nitrogen source is required for amino acid biosynthesis, we then tested the effect of different nitrogen-containing salts on the supply of L-glutamine and subsequent indigoidine production. Among the four tested salts including (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl, (NH4)2HPO4 and KNO3, (NH4)2HPO4 showed the best effect on improving the titer of indigoidine. Different concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 were added to the fermentation broths of E. coli BAP1/Sc-IndC+Sc-IndB+GlnA, and the titer reached the highest (7.08 ± 0.11 g/l) at 2.5 mM (NH4)2HPO4. This work provides two efficient methods for the production of this promising blue pigment in E. coli. PMID:26109508

  14. E. coli chemotaxis and super-diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobnikar, Jure; Matthäus, Franziska; Jagodic, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The bacteria E. coli actively propel by switching between clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation of the flagella attached to their cell membranes. This results in two modes of motion: tumbling and swimming. The switching between the two modes is coupled to the ligand sensing through the chemotactic signalling pathway inside the cell. We modelled the signalling pathway and performed numerical simulations of the chemotactic motion of a large number of E. coli bacteria under various external conditions. We have shown that under certain conditions the thermal noise in the level of receptor-bound CheR (an enzyme responsible for methylation of the receptor sites) leads to super-diffusive behaviour (L'evy walk) which is advantageous for the bacterial populations in environments with scarce food. Exerting external pressure we might observe evolution of the wild-type to the super-diffusive populations.

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Orchestrated host engagement.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James M; Munson, George M; Rasko, David A

    2013-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are a pervasive cause of serious diarrheal illness in developing countries. Presently, there is no vaccine to prevent these infections, and many features of the basic pathogenesis of these organisms remain poorly understood. Until very recently most pathogenesis studies had focused almost exclusively on a small subset of known "classical" virulence genes, namely fimbrial colonization factors and the heat-labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxins. However, recent investigations of pathogen-host interactions reveal a surprisingly complex and intricately orchestrated engagement involving the interplay of classical and "novel" virulence genes, as well as participation of genes highly conserved in the E. coli species. These studies may inform further rational approaches to vaccine development for these important pathogens. PMID:23892244

  16. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  17. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  18. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Manfred

    1989-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E.coli K12 available from the GENBANK and EMBO databases and over a period of several years independently from the literature. We have introduced all available genetic map data and have arranged the sequences accordingly. As far as possible the overlaps are deleted and a total of 940,449 individual bp is found to be determined till the beginning of 1989. This corresponds to a total of 19.92% of the entire E.coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by some extra 2% derived from the sequence of lysogenic bacteriophage lambda and the various insertion sequences. This compilation may be available in machine readable form from one of the international databanks in some future. PMID:2654890

  19. Novel compound for identifying Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R; Clavet, C R; Kelley-Reitz, D J; Burkhardt, W

    1988-01-01

    A new chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, was found to be useful for the rapid, specific, differential identification of Escherichia coli in the sanitary analysis of shellfish and wastewater. Of 1,025 presumptively positive colonies (blue) and 583 presumptively negative colonies (nonblue), only 1% false-negative and 5% false-positive results were found. PMID:3046494

  20. Virulence Gene Regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Jay L; Barron, Alex M S

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia colicauses three types of illnesses in humans: diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis in newborns. The acquisition of virulence-associated genes and the ability to properly regulate these, often horizontally transferred, loci distinguishes pathogens from the normally harmless commensal E. coli found within the human intestine. This review addresses our current understanding of virulence gene regulation in several important diarrhea-causing pathotypes, including enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic,enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregativeE. coli-EPEC, EHEC, ETEC and EAEC, respectively. The intensely studied regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of uropathogenicE. coli, or UPEC, is also reviewed, as is that of MNEC, a common cause of meningitis in neonates. Specific topics covered include the regulation of initial attachment events necessary for infection, environmental cues affecting virulence gene expression, control of attaching and effacing lesionformation, and control of effector molecule expression and secretion via the type III secretion systems by EPEC and EHEC. How phage control virulence and the expression of the Stx toxins of EHEC, phase variation, quorum sensing, and posttranscriptional regulation of virulence determinants are also addressed. A number of important virulence regulators are described, including the AraC-like molecules PerA of EPEC, CfaR and Rns of ETEC, and AggR of EAEC;the Ler protein of EPEC and EHEC;RfaH of UPEC;and the H-NS molecule that acts to silence gene expression. The regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of these greatly varied E. colipathotypes is complex, but common themes offerinsight into the signals and regulators necessary forE. coli disease progression. PMID:26443571

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In United States, it is estimated that non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause more illnesses than STEC O157:H7, and the majority of cases of non-O157 STEC infections is due to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, referred to as the top six non-O157 STEC. The diseas...

  2. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Prevalence in Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G.; Buckley, Ellen M.; Madden, Carolyn M.; Byrd, Charles P.; Donocoff, Rachel S.; Rodriguez, Loretta; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Fox, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit-origin enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) causes substantial diarrhea-associated morbidity and has zoonotic potential. A culture-based survey was undertaken to ascertain its prevalence. EPEC was isolated from 6/141 (4.3%) commercially-acquired laboratory rabbits. Three of these did not have diarrhea or EPEC-typical intestinal lesions; they instead had background plasmacytic intestinal inflammation. Asymptomatically infected rabbits may function as EPEC reservoirs. PMID:23391439

  3. Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Librado Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli), and particularly the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) pathotype, has been increasingly implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). E. coli strains with similar pathogenic features to AIEC have been associated with other intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, and coeliac disease, but AIEC prevalence in these diseases remains largely unexplored. Since AIEC was described one decade ago, substantial progress has been made in deciphering its mechanisms of pathogenicity. However, the molecular bases that characterize the phenotypic properties of this pathotype are still not well resolved. A review of studies focused on E. coli populations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presented here and we discuss about the putative role of this species on each IBD subtype. Given the relevance of AIEC in CD pathogenesis, we present the latest research findings concerning AIEC host-microbe interactions and pathogenicity. We also review the existing data regarding the prevalence and abundance of AIEC in CD and its association with other intestinal diseases from humans and animals, in order to discuss the AIEC disease- and host-specificity. Finally, we highlight the fact that dietary components frequently found in industrialized countries may enhance AIEC colonization in the gut, which merits further investigation and the implementation of preventative measures. PMID:25133024

  4. Endogenous prostaglandin in guinea pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Hitzig, B; Coburn, R F

    1976-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PGE) is synthesized in the guinea pig taenia coli. A low threshold concentration for an effect of exogenous PGE1 or PGE2 on spontaneous mechanical activity was demonstrated. The PG synthetase inhibitors aspirin, indomethacin, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, at concentrations that inhibited PGE efflux, had effects on spontaneous mechanical activity, membrane potential, membrane resistance, and evoked and spontaneous action potentials (single and double sucrose-gap methods) that were consistent with an action due to inhibition of membrane PGE concentration. The threshold concentration of indomethacin, which inhibited PGE efflux, was the same as the concentration that inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity. Pretreatment with ouabain (10(-6)-10(-5) g/ml) or elevated extracellular K+ (29 and 126 mM) made the guinea pig taenia coli entirely refractory to exogenous PGE1 or PGE2; the mechanical effects of the three prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors also were absent in the presence of elevated K+ or ouabain. The data are consistent with a hypothesis that, under conditions of our experiments, endogenous PGE has an effect on resting tension and spontaneous mechanical activity and on properties of the surface membrane of the guinea pig taenia coli. PMID:1251900

  5. Escherichia coli biofilm: development and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, S; Sharma, P; Chandola, D; Dang, S; Gupta, S; Gabrani, R

    2016-08-01

    Escherichia coli biofilm consists of a bacterial colony embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which protects the microbes from adverse environmental conditions and results in infection. Besides being the major causative agent for recurrent urinary tract infections, E. coli biofilm is also responsible for indwelling medical device-related infectivity. The cell-to-cell communication within the biofilm occurs due to quorum sensors that can modulate the key biochemical players enabling the bacteria to proliferate and intensify the resultant infections. The diversity in structural components of biofilm gets compounded due to the development of antibiotic resistance, hampering its eradication. Conventionally used antimicrobial agents have a restricted range of cellular targets and limited efficacy on biofilms. This emphasizes the need to explore the alternate therapeuticals like anti-adhesion compounds, phytochemicals, nanomaterials for effective drug delivery to restrict the growth of biofilm. The current review focuses on various aspects of E. coli biofilm development and the possible therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of biofilm-related infections. PMID:26811181

  6. Discrepancies in the enumeration of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ray, B; Speck, M L

    1973-04-01

    Stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli were enumerated by the pour plate method on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.3% yeast extract (TSYA), violet red-bile agar, and desoxycholate-lactose agar, and by the most-probable-number method in Brilliant Green-bile broth and lauryl sulfate broth. Maximum counts were assumed to be those on TSYA. In general, numbers detected were lower with the selective solid media and higher with the selective liquid media. Inhibitory effects, especially on selective solid media varied with the strains of E. coli. The lower detection on selective solid media was partly due to the stress induced in some cells by the temperature of the melted media used in the pour plate method. These cells apparently failed to repair and form colonies in the selective media. Improved detection on the selective solid media was achieved by using 1% nonfat milk solids, 1% peptone, or 1% MgSO(4).7H(2)O in the dilution blanks. Higher detection on selective agar media was effected by surface plating or by surface-overlay plating of the cells. The surface-overlay method appeared to be superior for the direct enumeration of E. coli in foods. PMID:4572980

  7. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela Kr

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  8. [Population genomic researches of Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y R; Yang, R F; Cui, Y J

    2016-06-01

    Population genomics, an interdiscipline of genomics and population genetics, is booming in recent years with the rapid growth number of deciphered genomes and revolutionizes the understanding of bacterial population diversity and evolution dynamics. It also largely improves the prevention and control of infectious disease through providing more accurate genotyping and source-tracing results and more comprehensive characteristics of emerging pathogens. In this review, taking one of the best characterized bacteria, Escherichia coli, as model, we reviewed the phylogenetic relationship across its five major populations (designated A, B1, B2, D and E); and summarized researches on molecular mutation rate, selection signals, and patterns of adaptive evolution. We also described the application of population genomics in responding against large-scale outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O104:H4. These results indicated that, although being a novel discipline, population genomics has played an important role in deciphering bacterial population structures, exploring evolutionary patterns and combating emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27256740

  9. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  10. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela KR

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  11. Recent advances in adherence and invasion of pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Anjana; Hu, Jia; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Colonization of the host epithelia by pathogenic Escherichia coli is influenced by the ability of the bacteria to interact with host surfaces. Because the initial step of an E. coli infection is to adhere, invade, and persist within host cells, some strategies used by intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli to infect host cell are presented. Recent findings This review highlights recent progress understanding how extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains express specific adhesins/invasins that allow colonization of the urinary tract or the meninges, while intestinal E. coli strains are able to colonize different regions of the intestinal tract using other specialized adhesins/invasins. Finally, evaluation of, different diets and environmental conditions regulating the colonization of these pathogens is discussed. Summary Discovery of new interactions between pathogenic E. coli and the host epithelial cells unravels the need of more mechanistic studies that can provide new clues in how to combat these infections. PMID:25023740

  12. Virulence attributes of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy heifer feces.

    PubMed

    Cray, W C; Thomas, L A; Schneider, R A; Moon, H W

    1996-12-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from 1,305 (of 6,894) fecal samples collected during the 1991-1992 USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Health Monitoring System, Diary Heifer Evaluation Project were tested for virulence attributes associated with human enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and the enterotoxin commonly associated with diarrhoea in newborn calves. Single, random isolates from each heifer were hybridized to probes derived from the 60 mDa EHEC plasmid (CVD 419), E. coli attaching and effacing gene (eae), Shiga-like toxin (slt) genes I and II, and E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin a (STaP). Seventy-seven of the 1305 isolates (5.9%) were slt-positive. Most (81.8%) slt-positive E. coli were also CVD 419 and eae-positive. Only 2 of the slt-positive E. coli isolates were STaP-positive. PMID:9008347

  13. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M; Boinett, Christine J; Madé, Laure F; Ouko, Tom T; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomson, Nicholas R; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  14. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Samuel M.; Boinett, Christine J.; Madé, Laure F.; Ouko, Tom T.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain NB8.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xing-Bei; Mi, Zu-Huang; Wang, Chun-Xin; Zhu, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli NB8 is a clinical pyelonephritis isolate. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic E. coli NB8, which contains drug resistance genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, colistin, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. NB8 infects the kidney and bladder, making it an important tool for studying E. coli pathogenesis. PMID:27609920

  16. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  17. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  18. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in exonuclease VII.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J W; Richardson, C C

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli having reduced levels of exonuclease VII activity have been isolated by a mass screening procedure. Nine mutants, five of which are known to be of independent origin, were obtained and designated xse. The defects in these strains lie at two or more loci. One of these loci, xseA, lies in the interval between purG and purC; it is 93 to 97% co-transducible with guaA. The order of the genes in this region is purG-xseA guaA,B-purC. The available data do not allow xseA to be ordered with respect to guaA,B. Exonuclease VII purified from E. coli KLC3 xseA3 is more heat labile than exonuclease VII purified from the parent, E. coli PA610 xse+. Therefore, xseA is the structural gene for exonuclease VII. Mutants with defects in the xseA gene show increased sensitivity to nalidixic acid and have an abnormally high frequency of recombination (hyper-Rec phenotype) as measured by the procedure of Konrad and Lehlman (1974). The hyper-Rec character of xseA strains is approximately one-half that of the polAex1 mutant defective in the 5' leads to 3' hydrolytic activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I. The double mutant, polAex1 xseA7, is twice as hyper-Rec as the polAex1 mutant alone. The xseA- strains are slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation than the parent strain. Bacteriophages T7, fd, and lambdared grow normally in xseA- strains. Images PMID:320198

  19. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Enteropathogenic E. coli and Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhaj, N.; Mariana, N. S.; Raha, A. R.; Ishak, Z.

    A PCR for detection of two categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. This method proved to be specific and rapid in detecting virulence genes from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (eae and bfp) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (stx1, stx2 and eae) from seventy isolates of various sources. Present results confirm that it is possible and feasible to perform a simultaneous amplification of the virulence genes from two categories of diarrheagenic E. coli (STEC, EPEC) and that this technique becoming a novel diagnostic tool for future water food-borne outbreaks studies.

  1. Cyanide degradation by an Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M M; Ciminelli, V S; de Andrade, M C; Linardi, V R

    1996-05-01

    Chemical formation of a glucose-cyanide complex was necessary for metabolic degradation of cyanide at concentrations up to 50.0 mg/L by a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from gold extraction circuit liquids. Ammonia accumulating during the culture log phase as the sole nitrogen by-product was further utilized for bacterial growth. Washed (intact) cells, harvested at different periods of bacterial growth on cyanide, consumed oxygen in presence of cyanide. These findings suggest that metabolism of cyanide involved a dioxygenase enzyme that converted cyanide directly to ammonia, without the formation of cyanate. PMID:8640610

  2. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  3. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P.; Dimmic, Matt; Hubisz, Melissa; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence for positive selection, such as the enigmatic rhs elements and transposases. Based on structural evidence, we hypothesize that the selection acting on transposases is related to the genomic conflict between transposable elements and the host genome. PMID:17675366

  4. Independence of replisomes in Escherichia coli chromosomalreplication

    SciTech Connect

    Breier, Adam M.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2005-03-13

    In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.

  5. gltBDF operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, I; Bastarrachea, F; Covarrubias, A A

    1988-01-01

    A 2.0-kilobase DNA fragment carrying antibiotic resistance markers was inserted into the gltB gene of Escherichia coli previously cloned in a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the chromosomal gltB+ gene by the gltB225::omega mutation led to cells unable to synthesize glutamate synthase, utilize growth rate-limiting nitrogen sources, or derepress their glutamine synthetase. The existence of a gltBDF operon encoding the large (gltB) and small (gltD) subunits of glutamate synthase and a regulatory peptide (gltF) at 69 min of the E. coli linkage map was deduced from complementation analysis. A plasmid carrying the entire gltB+D+F+ operon complemented cells for all three of the mutant phenotypes associated with the polar gltB225::omega mutation in the chromosome. By contrast, plasmids carrying gltB+ only complemented cells for glutamate synthase activity. A major tricistronic mRNA molecule was detected from Northern (RNA blot) DNA-RNA hybridization experiments with DNA probes containing single genes of the operon. A 30,200-dalton polypeptide was identified as the gltF product, the lack of which was responsible for the inability of cells to use nitrogen-limiting sources associated with gltB225::omega. Images PMID:2448295

  6. Thiol-sensitive genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Javor, G T

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1-thioglycerol on the expression of genes of Escherichia coli was investigated. Pulse-labeled proteins from aerobically growing, 1-thioglycerol-treated E. coli were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and their radioactivities were compared with those of identical proteins from nontreated cells. The first 10 min of exposure to thiol stimulated the synthesis of 10% of the observed proteins and inhibited the production of 16% of the proteins. After 30 min of growth with thiol, the synthesis of 44% of the observed proteins was inhibited and synthesis of 18% of the proteins was stimulated. In general, the expression of genes of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein biosynthesis were inhibited, while nucleic acid synthetic and repair gene expressions showed mixed responses. Synthesis of transport proteins was not affected. Transient stimulation of oxidative-stress proteins and sustained stimulation of the expressions of trxB, ompA, and ompB genes and those of several unidentified gene products were also observed. Whether these complex responses merely reflect adjustments by cellular subsystems to a suddenly reducing environment or whether they are manifestations of a reductive-stress regulon will have to await genetic analysis of this phenomenon. Images PMID:2676982

  7. Molecular Serotyping of Escherichia coli O111:H8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate Escherichia coli serotyping is critical for pathogen diagnosis and surveillance of non-O157 shiga-toxigenic strains, however, few laboratories have this capacity. The molecular serotyping protocol described in this paper targets the somatic and flagellar antigens of E. coli O111:H8 used in...

  8. Properties and Transport Behavior among 12 Different Environmental Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism for detecting the presence of fecal-borne pathogenic microorganisms in water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to numerous studies looking at cell properties and transport behavior of this microorganism. In man...

  9. Complete Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli JF733.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Gabriele R M; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Kalinowski, Jörn; Wertz, John E; Friehs, Karl

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Escherichia coliJF733 is a strain with a long history in research on membrane proteins and processes. However, tracing back the strain development raises some questions concerning the correct genotype of JF733. Here, we present the complete draft genome of ITALIC! E. coliJF733 in order to resolve any remaining uncertainties. PMID:27103723

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Myophage Murica

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Joseph N.; Lancaster, Jacob C.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Murica is an rv5-like myophage that infects enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic E. coli strains are responsible for many intestinal diseases, and phages that infect these bacteria may prove useful in preventing severe health issues. The following is a report of the complete genome sequence of Murica and its important features. PMID:26430048

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Myophage Murica.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Joseph N; Lancaster, Jacob C; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Murica is an rv5-like myophage that infects enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic E. coli strains are responsible for many intestinal diseases, and phages that infect these bacteria may prove useful in preventing severe health issues. The following is a report of the complete genome sequence of Murica and its important features. PMID:26430048

  12. Complete Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli JF733

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Gabriele R. M.; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Wertz, John E.; Friehs, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli JF733 is a strain with a long history in research on membrane proteins and processes. However, tracing back the strain development raises some questions concerning the correct genotype of JF733. Here, we present the complete draft genome of E. coli JF733 in order to resolve any remaining uncertainties. PMID:27103723

  13. Characterization of enterohemorrhagic E. coli on veal hides and carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared to E....

  14. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  15. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  16. Molecular serotyping of Escherichia coli: A verification and reclassification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Serotyping of E. coli, based on the O- (polysaccharide side chain) and H- (flagellar) antigens using antisera is a common practice for diagnostics, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological surveillance. The full set of E. coli serogroups comprises O-groups O1 to O181, with several O...

  17. Use of bacteriophages in controlling E. coli in leafy vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriophages are viruses that can infect and lys (kill) bacteria. These viruses are not harmful to humans and are present in the environment and many foods. Enterohemmorhagic E. coli (EHEC), like E. coli O157:H7, have been associated with contaminated bagged leafy green commodities. Outbreaks o...

  18. EFFECT OF MANURE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI ATTACHMENT TO SOIL FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commonly used as indicators of fecal contamination in the environment. Attachment of bacteria to soil and sediment is an important retardation factor of bacterial transport with runoff water. Despite the fact that E. coli are derived exclusively from feces/manure, the effect of ...

  19. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples.

    PubMed

    Coura, Fernanda Morcatti; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  20. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    PubMed Central

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  1. Isolation of an Aptamer that Binds Specifically to E. coli.

    PubMed

    Marton, Soledad; Cleto, Fernanda; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Cardoso, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species found ubiquitously in the intestinal flora of animals, although pathogenic variants cause major public health problems. Aptamers are short oligonucleotides that bind to targets with high affinity and specificity, and have great potential for use in diagnostics and therapy. We used cell-based Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) to isolate four single stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers that bind strongly to E. coli cells (ATCC generic strain 25922), with Kd values in the nanomolar range. Fluorescently labeled aptamers label the surface of E. coli cells, as viewed by fluorescent microscopy. Specificity tests with twelve different bacterial species showed that one of the aptamers-called P12-31-is highly specific for E. coli. Importantly, this aptamer binds to Meningitis/sepsis associated E. coli (MNEC) clinical isolates, and is the first aptamer described with potential for use in the diagnosis of MNEC-borne pathologies. PMID:27104834

  2. Effects of low concentrations of antibiotics on Escherichia coli adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Vosbeck, K; Mett, H; Huber, U; Bohn, J; Petignat, M

    1982-01-01

    We have previously shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics may influence the adhesion of Escherichia coli SS142 to human epithelioid tissue culture cells. This report shows that these effects are not limited to E. coli SS142 or to our tissue culture system. Most of the 10 E. coli strains studied showed decreased adhesion to Intestine 407 tissue culture cells after growth in 25% of the minimum inhibitory concentration of streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprimsulfametrole, chloramphenicol, and clindamycin. Nalidixic acid at 25% of the minimum inhibitory concentration caused an increase of adhesion. The hemagglutinating activity of the five hemagglutinating strains and the adhesiveness of E. coli SS142 to human buccal cells were similarly affected by low concentrations of the above-mentioned antibiotics. We conclude that E. coli adhesion to human epithelioid tissue culture cells is a valid model of bacterial adhesion because of its high accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:7051972

  3. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Strains Share Physiological Properties Associated with Intestinal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli isolates(72 commensal and 10 O157:H7 isolates) were compared with regard to physiological and growth parameters related to their ability to survive and persist in the gastrointestinal tract and found to be similar. We propose that in nonhuman hosts E. coli O157:H7 strains function ...

  4. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of E. coli dose on the pathophysiological response of dairy calves following an intravenous challenge. Eighteen 3-week old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 of 6 doses of E. coli. The challenge doses included 0, 105, 106, 107, 108,...

  5. Molecular typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli colonies originating from outbreaks of E. coli peritonitis syndrome in chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Buter, G J; Dijkman, R; van Eck, J H H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli colonies isolated from the bone marrow of fresh dead hens of laying flocks with the E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS) were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Typing is important from an epidemiological point of view and also if the use of autogenous (auto)vaccines is considered. Birds with EPS originated from one house of each of three layer farms and one broiler breeder farm. Farms were considered as separate epidemiological units. In total, six flocks were examined including two successive flocks of one layer farm and the broiler breeder farm. E. coli colonies (one per bird) from nine to 16 hens of each flock were genotyped. The clonality of E. coli within birds was studied using five colonies of each of nine to 14 birds per flock. E. coli genotypes, which totalled 15, differed between farms and flocks except for two successive layer flocks that shared three genotypes. One to five genotypes were found per flock with one or two genotypes dominating each outbreak. Within hens, E. coli bacteria were always clonal. Colonies of the same PFGE type always had the same multilocus sequence type. However, four PFGE types shared sequence type 95. Neither PFGE types nor multilocus sequence types were unambiguously related to avian pathogenic E. coli from EPS. In cases where persistence of E. coli strains associated with EPS is found to occur frequently, routine genotyping to select strains for autovaccines should be considered. PMID:24944080

  6. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot pen soils are a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM)....

  7. A DNA structural atlas for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A G; Jensen, L J; Brunak, S; Staerfeldt, H H; Ussery, D W

    2000-06-16

    We have performed a computational analysis of DNA structural features in 18 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes using models for DNA curvature, DNA flexibility, and DNA stability. The structural values that are computed for the Escherichia coli chromosome are significantly different from (and generally more extreme than) that expected from the nucleotide composition. To aid this analysis, we have constructed tools that plot structural measures for all positions in a long DNA sequence (e.g. an entire chromosome) in the form of color-coded wheels (http://www.cbs.dtu. dk/services/GenomeAtlas/). We find that these "structural atlases" are useful for the discovery of interesting features that may then be investigated in more depth using statistical methods. From investigation of the E. coli structural atlas, we discovered a genome-wide trend, where an extended region encompassing the terminus displays a high of level curvature, a low level of flexibility, and a low degree of helix stability. The same situation is found in the distantly related Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that the phenomenon is biologically relevant. Based on a search for long DNA segments where all the independent structural measures agree, we have found a set of 20 regions with identical and very extreme structural properties. Due to their strong inherent curvature, we suggest that these may function as topological domain boundaries by efficiently organizing plectonemically supercoiled DNA. Interestingly, we find that in practically all the investigated eubacterial and archaeal genomes, there is a trend for promoter DNA being more curved, less flexible, and less stable than DNA in coding regions and in intergenic DNA without promoters. This trend is present regardless of the absolute levels of the structural parameters, and we suggest that this may be related to the requirement for helix unwinding during initiation of transcription, or perhaps to the previously observed

  8. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Boyacioglu, Olcay; Sharma, Manan; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a bacteriophage cocktail (EcoShield™) that is specific against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated against a nalidixic acid-resistant enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 RM4407 (EHEC) strain on leafy greens stored under either (1) ambient air or (2) modified atmosphere (MA; 5% O2/35% CO2/60% N2). Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2) of leafy greens (lettuce and spinach) inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 EHEC were sprayed with EcoShield™ (6.5 log PFU/cm2). Samples were stored at 4 or 10°C for up to 15 d. On spinach, the level of EHEC declined by 2.38 and 2.49 log CFU/cm2 at 4 and 10°C, respectively, 30 min after phage application (p ≤ 0.05). EcoShield™ was also effective in reducing EHEC on the surface of green leaf lettuce stored at 4°C by 2.49 and 3.28 log units in 30 min and 2 h, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). At 4°C under atmospheric air, the phage cocktail significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered the EHEC counts in one day by 1.19, 3.21 and 3.25 log CFU/cm2 on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively compared with control (no bacteriophage) treatments. When stored under MA at 4°C, phages reduced (p ≤ 0.05) EHEC populations by 2.18, 3.50 and 3.13 log CFU/cm2, on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce. At 10°C, EHEC reductions under atmospheric air storage were 1.99, 3.90 and 3.99 log CFU/cm2 (p ≤ 0.05), while population reductions under MA were 3.08, 3.89 and 4.34 logs on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively, compared with controls (p ≤ 0.05). The results of this study showed that bacteriophages were effective in reducing the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on fresh leafy produce, and that the reduction was further improved when produce was stored under the MA conditions. PMID:23819107

  9. Phosphoglucomutase Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Sankar; Schwartz, Maxime

    1971-01-01

    Bacteria with strongly depressed phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) activity are found among the mutants of Escherichia coli which, when grown on maltose, accumulate sufficient amylose to be detectable by iodine staining. These pgm mutants grow poorly on galactose but also accumulate amylose on this carbon source. Growth on lactose does not produce high amylose but, instead, results in the induction of the enzymes of maltose metabolism, presumably by accumulation of maltose. These facts suggest that the catabolism of glucose-1-phosphate is strongly depressed in pgm mutants, although not completely abolished. Anabolism of glucose-1-phosphate is also strongly depressed, since amino acid- or glucose-grown pgm mutants are sensitive to phage C21, indicating a deficiency in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphoglucose or uridine diphosphogalactose, or both. All pgm mutations isolated map at about 16 min on the genetic map, between purE and the gal operon. PMID:4942754

  10. Structure of common pili from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, J C; Ou, J T

    1979-01-01

    Several important properties of the common pili from Escherichia coli are discussed. These pili were resistant to the gentle Folin-Ciocalteau reagent methods for protein detection and were not readily solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate. They were found to contain a reducing sugar but not peptidoglycan. The pilin had multiple conformations in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, and the appearance of multiple bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels did not necessarily indicate heterogeneity of the preparation. The ilus subunit was found to be a different protein than outer membrane III, which has the same apparent molecular weight. In addition, we conformed the results of Brinton (Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci 27:1003-1054, 1965): that there is a dramatic change in the properties of pili after they are heated at pH values below 2. Images PMID:37233

  11. Novel antigens for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James; Sheikh, Alaullah; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in developing countries where they lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in children. These organisms are a leading cause of diarrheal illness in travelers to endemic countries. ETEC pathogenesis, and consequently vaccine approaches, have largely focused on plasmid-encoded enterotoxins or fimbrial colonization factors. To date these approaches have not yielded a broadly protective vaccine. However, recent studies suggest that ETEC pathogenesis is more complex than previously appreciated and involves additional plasmid and chromosomally encoded virulence molecules that can be targeted in vaccines. Here, we review recent novel antigen discovery efforts, potential contribution of these proteins to the molecular pathogenesis of ETEC and protective immunity, and the potential implications for development of next generation vaccines for important pathogens. These proteins may help to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines by making them simpler and possibly broadly protective because of their conserved nature. PMID:24702311

  12. Selective translation during stress in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Isabella; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial stress response, a strategy to cope with environmental changes, is generally known to operate on the transcriptional level. Here, we discuss a novel paradigm for stress adaptation at the post-transcriptional level, based on the recent discovery of a stress-induced modified form of the translation machinery in Escherichia coli that is generated by MazF, the toxin component of the toxin–antitoxin (TA) module mazEF. Under stress, the induced endoribonuclease MazF removes the 3′-terminal 43 nucleotides of the 16S rRNA of ribosomes and, concomitantly, the 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific transcripts. This elegant mechanism enables selective translation due to the complementary effect of MazF on ribosomes and mRNAs, and also represents the first example of functional ribosome heterogeneity based on rRNA alteration. PMID:22939840

  13. Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme: purification and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Snapka, R.M.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Researchers have purified large quantities of Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme to apparent homogeneity and have studied its physical and chemical properties. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 36,800 and a S/sub 20,w//sup 0/ of 3.72 S. Amino acid analysis revealed an apparent absence of tryptophan, a low content of aromatic residues, and the presence of no unusual amino acids. The N terminus is arginine. The purified enzyme contained up to 13% carbohydrate by weight. The carbohydrate was composed of mannose, galactose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme is also associated with RNA containing uracil, adenine, guanine, and cytosine with no unusual bases detected.

  14. Glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Loomis, W F; Magasanik, B

    1967-04-01

    Growth of Escherichia coli in medium containing glucose, at a concentration insufficient to support full growth, and containing lactose, is diauxic. A mutation in the gene, CR, which determines catabolite repression specific to the lac operon, was found to relieve glucose-lactose but not glucose-maltose diauxie. Furthermore, a high concentration of lactose was shown to overcome diauxie in a CR(+) strain. Studies on the induction of beta-galactosidase by lactose suggested that glucose inhibits induction by 10(-2)m lactose. Preinduction of the lac operon was found to overcome this effect. The ability of glucose to prevent expression of the lac operon by reducing the internal concentration of inducer as well as by catabolite repression is discussed. PMID:5340309

  15. Direct Upstream Motility in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Tolga; Koser, Hur

    2012-01-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration of positive rheotaxis (rapid and continuous upstream motility) in wild-type Escherichia coli freely swimming over a surface. This hydrodynamic phenomenon is dominant below a critical shear rate and robust against Brownian motion and cell tumbling. We deduce that individual bacteria entering a flow system can rapidly migrate upstream (>20 μm/s) much faster than a gradually advancing biofilm. Given a bacterial population with a distribution of sizes and swim speeds, local shear rate near the surface determines the dominant hydrodynamic mode for motility, i.e., circular or random trajectories for low shear rates, positive rheotaxis for moderate flow, and sideways swimming at higher shear rates. Faster swimmers can move upstream more rapidly and at higher shear rates, as expected. Interestingly, we also find on average that both swim speed and upstream motility are independent of cell aspect ratio. PMID:22500751

  16. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-04-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. PMID:1551829

  17. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-01-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. Images PMID:1551829

  18. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of a soluble protein from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation, and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. In addition, the purification procedure serves as an example of how to use classical protein purifications methods, which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  19. Genetic Analysis of an Escherichia coli Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lennette, Evelyne T.; Apirion, David

    1971-01-01

    A mutant strain of Escherichia coli that fails to recover from prolonged (72 hr) starvation also fails to grow at 43 C. Extracts of this mutant strain show an increased ribonuclease II activity as compared to extracts of the parental strain, and stable ribonucleic acid is degraded to a larger extent in this strain during starvation. Ts+ transductants and revertants were tested for all the above-mentioned phenotypes. All the Ts+ transductants and revertants tested behaved like the Ts+ parental strain, which suggests that all the observed phenotypes are caused by a single sts (starvation-temperature sensitivity) mutation. The reversion rate from sts− to sts+ is rather low but is within the range of reversion rates for other single-site mutations. Three-point transduction crosses located this sts mutation between the ilv and rbs genes. The properties of sts+/sts− merozygotes suggested that the Ts− phenotype of this mutation is recessive. PMID:4945197

  20. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of soluble proteins from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. Also, the purification procedure serves as an example of how use classical protein purifications methods which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  1. Identification of Coli Surface Antigen 23, a novel adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Canto, Felipe; Botkin, Douglas J; Valenzuela, Patricio; Popov, Vsevolod; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P; Levine, Myron M; Stine, O Colin; Pop, Mihai; Torres, Alfredo G; Vidal, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea, mainly in developing countries. Although there are 25 different ETEC adhesins described in strains affecting humans, between 15% and 50% of the clinical isolates from different geographical regions are negative for these adhesins, suggesting that additional unidentified adhesion determinants might be present. Here, we report the discovery of Coli Surface Antigen 23 (CS23), a novel adhesin expressed by an ETEC serogroup O4 strain (ETEC 1766a), which was negative for the previously known ETEC adhesins, albeit it has the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. CS23 is encoded by an 8.8-kb locus which contains 9 open reading frames (ORFs), 7 of them sharing significant identity with genes required for assembly of K88-related fimbriae. This gene locus, named aal (adhesion-associated locus), is required for the adhesion ability of ETEC 1766a and was able to confer this adhesive phenotype to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 strain. The CS23 major structural subunit, AalE, shares limited identity with known pilin proteins, and it is more closely related to the CS13 pilin protein CshE, carried by human ETEC strains. Our data indicate that CS23 is a new member of the diverse adhesin repertoire used by ETEC strains. PMID:22645287

  2. Identification of Coli Surface Antigen 23, a Novel Adhesin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Del Canto, Felipe; Botkin, Douglas J.; Valenzuela, Patricio; Popov, Vsevolod; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P.; Levine, Myron M.; Stine, O. Colin; Pop, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea, mainly in developing countries. Although there are 25 different ETEC adhesins described in strains affecting humans, between 15% and 50% of the clinical isolates from different geographical regions are negative for these adhesins, suggesting that additional unidentified adhesion determinants might be present. Here, we report the discovery of Coli Surface Antigen 23 (CS23), a novel adhesin expressed by an ETEC serogroup O4 strain (ETEC 1766a), which was negative for the previously known ETEC adhesins, albeit it has the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. CS23 is encoded by an 8.8-kb locus which contains 9 open reading frames (ORFs), 7 of them sharing significant identity with genes required for assembly of K88-related fimbriae. This gene locus, named aal (adhesion-associated locus), is required for the adhesion ability of ETEC 1766a and was able to confer this adhesive phenotype to a nonadherent E. coli HB101 strain. The CS23 major structural subunit, AalE, shares limited identity with known pilin proteins, and it is more closely related to the CS13 pilin protein CshE, carried by human ETEC strains. Our data indicate that CS23 is a new member of the diverse adhesin repertoire used by ETEC strains. PMID:22645287

  3. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ∼19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ∼25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with

  4. The N-degradome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Surkov, Serhiy; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Jenkins, Lisa M.; Maurizi, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule is a conserved mechanism found in Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes for marking proteins to be degraded by ATP-dependent proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target a protein to the degradation machinery. In Escherichia coli, the adaptor ClpS binds an N-degron and delivers the protein to ClpAP for degradation. As ClpS recognizes N-terminal Phe, Trp, Tyr, and Leu, which are not found at the N terminus of proteins translated and processed by the canonical pathway, proteins must be post-translationally modified to expose an N-degron. One modification is catalyzed by Aat, an enzyme that adds leucine or phenylalanine to proteins with N-terminal lysine or arginine; however, such proteins are also not generated by the canonical protein synthesis pathway. Thus, the mechanisms producing N-degrons in proteins and the frequency of their occurrence largely remain a mystery. To address these issues, we used a ClpS affinity column to isolate interacting proteins from E. coli cell lysates under non-denaturing conditions. We identified more than 100 proteins that differentially bound to a column charged with wild-type ClpS and eluted with a peptide bearing an N-degron. Thirty-two of 37 determined N-terminal peptides had N-degrons. Most of the proteins were N-terminally truncated by endoproteases or exopeptidases, and many were further modified by Aat. The identities of the proteins point to possible physiological roles for the N-end rule in cell division, translation, transcription, and DNA replication and reveal widespread proteolytic processing of cellular proteins to generate N-end rule substrates. PMID:23960079

  5. The evolution of metabolic networks of E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of numerous complete genome sequences from E. coli strains, published genome-scale metabolic models exist only for two commensal E. coli strains. These models have proven useful for many applications, such as engineering strains for desired product formation, and we sought to explore how constructing and evaluating additional metabolic models for E. coli strains could enhance these efforts. Results We used the genomic information from 16 E. coli strains to generate an E. coli pangenome metabolic network by evaluating their collective 76,990 ORFs. Each of these ORFs was assigned to one of 17,647 ortholog groups including ORFs associated with reactions in the most recent metabolic model for E. coli K-12. For orthologous groups that contain an ORF already represented in the MG1655 model, the gene to protein to reaction associations represented in this model could then be easily propagated to other E. coli strain models. All remaining orthologous groups were evaluated to see if new metabolic reactions could be added to generate a pangenome-scale metabolic model (iEco1712_pan). The pangenome model included reactions from a metabolic model update for E. coli K-12 MG1655 (iEco1339_MG1655) and enabled development of five additional strain-specific genome-scale metabolic models. These additional models include a second K-12 strain (iEco1335_W3110) and four pathogenic strains (two enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 and two uropathogens). When compared to the E. coli K-12 models, the metabolic models for the enterohemorrhagic (iEco1344_EDL933 and iEco1345_Sakai) and uropathogenic strains (iEco1288_CFT073 and iEco1301_UTI89) contained numerous lineage-specific gene and reaction differences. All six E. coli models were evaluated by comparing model predictions to carbon source utilization measurements under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and to batch growth profiles in minimal media with 0.2% (w/v) glucose. An ancestral genome

  6. Hemolytic E. coli Promotes Colonic Tumorigenesis in Females.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Tang, Senwei; Li, Weilin; Ng, Siew Chien; Chan, Michael W Y; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yu, Jun

    2016-05-15

    Bacterial infection is linked to colorectal carcinogenesis, but the species that contribute to a protumorigenic ecology are ill-defined. Here we report evidence that α-hemolysin-positive (hly(+)) type I Escherichia coli (E. coli) drives adenomagenesis and colorectal cancer in human females but not males. We classified E. coli into four types using a novel typing method to monitor fimH mutation patterns of fecal isolates from adenoma patients (n= 59), colorectal cancer patients (n= 83), and healthy subjects (n= 85). hly(+) type I E. coli was found to be relatively more prevalent in stools from females with adenoma and colorectal cancer, correlating with poor survival in colorectal cancer patients. In mechanistic studies in female mice, we found that hly(+) type 1 E. coli activated expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 and repressed expression of the tumor suppressor BIM. hly-encoded alpha hemolysin partially accounted for these effects by elevating the levels of HIF1α. Notably, colon tumorigenesis in mice could be promoted by feeding hly(+) type I E. coli to female but not male subjects. Collectively, our findings point to hemolytic type I E. coli as a candidate causative factor of colorectal cancer in human females, with additional potential as a biomarker of disease susceptibility. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2891-900. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27013198

  7. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from Libya.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mostafa Mohamed M; Mohamed, Zienat Kamel; Klena, John D; Ahmed, Salwa Fouad; Moussa, Tarek A A; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2012-05-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are important enteric pathogens that cause a wide variety of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly in children. Escherichia coli isolates cultured from 243 diarrheal stool samples obtained from Libyan children and 50 water samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genes characteristic of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). The DEC were detected in 21 (8.6%) children with diarrhea; 10 (4.1%) cases were identified as EAEC, 3 (1.2%) as EPEC, and 8 (3.3%) were ETEC; EHEC, and EIEC were not detected. All DEC were grouped phylogenetically by PCR with the majority (> 70%) identified as phylogenetic groups A and B1. The EAEC isolates were also tested for eight genes associated with virulence using PCR. Multi-virulence (≥ 3 virulence factors) was found in 50% of EAEC isolates. Isolated EAEC possessed different virulence traits and belonged to different phylogenetic groups indicating their heterogeneity. PMID:22556089

  8. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics. PMID:24246520

  9. Molecular Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from Libya

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mostafa Mohamed M.; Mohamed, Zienat Kamel; Klena, John D.; Ahmed, Salwa Fouad; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2012-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are important enteric pathogens that cause a wide variety of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly in children. Escherichia coli isolates cultured from 243 diarrheal stool samples obtained from Libyan children and 50 water samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genes characteristic of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). The DEC were detected in 21 (8.6%) children with diarrhea; 10 (4.1%) cases were identified as EAEC, 3 (1.2%) as EPEC, and 8 (3.3%) were ETEC; EHEC, and EIEC were not detected. All DEC were grouped phylogenetically by PCR with the majority (> 70%) identified as phylogenetic groups A and B1. The EAEC isolates were also tested for eight genes associated with virulence using PCR. Multi-virulence (≥ 3 virulence factors) was found in 50% of EAEC isolates. Isolated EAEC possessed different virulence traits and belonged to different phylogenetic groups indicating their heterogeneity. PMID:22556089

  10. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Kwang-Ho; Mueller, Joachim D.

    2015-01-01

    The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell. PMID:26099032

  11. Dexamethazone protects against Escherichia coli induced sickness behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Hanaa-Mansour, A; Hassan, Wedad A; Georgy, Gehan S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic bacterial infection results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in blood that can lead to multiple organ failure, shock, and potentially death. Other impact, LPS exposure produces robust increase in anxiety-like behavior, suppression of locomotor, exploratory activity, and reduced social behavior. The therapeutic use of glucocorticoids in septic shock remains one of the first-aid approaches for their anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of dexamethazone (DEX), the most commonly used corticosteroid, against Escherichia coli (E. coli) immunohistochemical changes and neurobehavioral dysfunction. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; (1) Control group (2) E. coli infected group, where animals received 0.2 ml of 24 h growth of E. coli suspension in nutrient broth containing approximately 1.8×10(8) cfu/ml i.p for once, 48 h before sacrificing (3) DEX (20 mg/kg, i.p, 3 days) treated group (4) DEX and E. coli treated group. The results revealed that DEX significantly protected animals against most E. coli-induced behavioral deficits, reduced signs of cognitive impairment. DEX also reduced the LPS-evoked rise in C-reactive protein (CRP), Interferon gamma (IFγ), as well as, expression of Caspase-3. In conclusion, DEX provides neuroprotection against E. coli-associated neurobehavioral and immunological changes via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26541583

  12. Pathotyping blaCTX-M Escherichia coli from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Choudhary, Suman; Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H.; Olayemi, Albert B.; Anjum, Muna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli have become the enterobacteriaceae species most affected by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in view of the emergence of CTX-M-type ESBLs. These CTX-M-positive E. coli have been reported in numerous regions worldwide. Virulence determinants of already reported CTX-M-positive E. coli were investigated. Methodology: To gain insights into the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we assessed serogroup, susceptibility pattern and diversity of virulence profiles within a collection of nine blaCTX-M-positive E. coli strains and their virulent determinant using miniaturized DNA microarray techniques. The nine ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were from eight male and one female patient(s) selected for study based on previous work. Virulence potential was inferred by detection of 63 virulence factor (VF) genes. Results: Four (44.4%) of the 9 E. coli isolates exhibited the same set of core characteristics: serotype O8:Hnt, while all were positive for OXA-1, ciprofloxacin resistance. Five of the isolates exhibited highly similar (91% to 100%) VF profiles. Conclusion: The findings describe a broadly disseminated, blaCTX-M-positive and virulent E. coli serogroup with highly homogeneous virulence genotypes, suggesting recent emergence in this zone. Understanding how this clone has emerged and successfully disseminated within the hospital and community, including across national boundaries, should be a public health priority. PMID:24265928

  13. Advances in molecular serotyping and subtyping of Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fratamico, Pina M.; DebRoy, Chitrita; Liu, Yanhong; Needleman, David S.; Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Feng, Peter

    2016-05-03

    Escherichia coli plays an important role as a member of the gut microbiota; however, pathogenic strains also exist, including various diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli that cause illness outside of the GI-tract. E. coli have traditionally been serotyped using antisera against the ca. 186 O-antigens and 53 H-flagellar antigens. Phenotypic methods, including bacteriophage typing and O- and H- serotyping for differentiating and characterizing E. coli have been used for many years; however, these methods are generally time consuming and not always accurate. Advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to develop genetic-based subtypingmore » and molecular serotyping methods for E. coli, which are more discriminatory compared to phenotypic typing methods. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of E. coli is replacing established subtyping methods such as pulsedfield gel electrophoresis, providing a major advancement in the ability to investigate food-borne disease outbreaks and for trace-back to sources. Furthermore, a variety of sequence analysis tools and bioinformatic pipelines are being developed to analyze the vast amount of data generated by WGS and to obtain specific information such as O- and H-group determination and the presence of virulence genes and other genetic markers.« less

  14. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2012-01-01

    Feedlot pen soil is a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM). A feedlot pen was identified in which naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 was prevalent and evenly distributed in the FSM. Forty plots 3 by 3 m were randomly assigned such that five plots of each of the solarization times of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks were examined. Temperature loggers were placed 7.5 cm below the surface of each plot, and plots to be solarized were covered with clear 6-mil polyethylene. At each sampling time, five FSM samples were collected from each of five solarized and five unsolarized plots. E. coli concentrations and E. coli O157:H7 presence by immunomagnetic separation and plating were determined for each FSM sample. Initial percentages of E. coli O157:H7-positive samples in control and solarized FSM were 84 and 80%, respectively, and did not differ (P > 0.05). E. coli O157:H7 was no longer detectable by 8 weeks of solarization, but was still detected in unsolarized FSM at 10 weeks. The average initial concentration of E. coli in FSM was 5.56 log CFU/g and did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05). There was a 2.0-log decrease of E. coli after 1 week of solarization, and a >3.0-log reduction of E. coli by week 6 of solarization (P, 0.05). E. coli levels remained unchanged in unsolarized FSM (P > 0.05). Daily peak FSM temperatures were on average 8.7°C higher for solarized FSM compared with unsolarized FSM, and reached temperatures as high as 57°C. Because soil solarization reduces E. coli O157:H7, this technique may be useful for reduction of persistence and transmission of this pathogen in cattle production, in addition to remediation of E. coli O157:H7-contaminated soil used to grow food crops. PMID:22221349

  15. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. )

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  16. Escherichia coli heme oxygenase modulates host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Maharshak, Nitsan; Ryu, Hyungjin Sally; Fan, Ting-Jia; Onyiah, Joseph C.; Schulz, Stephanie; Otterbein, Sherrie L.; Wong, Ron; Hansen, Jonathan; Otterbein, Leo E; Carroll, Ian; Plevy, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Induction of mammalian heme oxygenase-1 and exposure of animals to carbon monoxide ameliorates experimental colitis. When enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are exposed to low iron conditions, they express an heme oxygenase-like enzyme, chuS, and metabolize heme into iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide. Given the abundance of enteric bacteria residing in the intestinal lumen, we hypothesized that commensal intestinal bacteria may be a significant source of carbon monoxide, with the consequence that enteric bacteria expressing chuS and other heme oxygenase -like molecules suppress inflammatory immune responses through release of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide exposed mice have altered enteric bacterial composition and increased E. coli 16S and chuS DNA by real-time PCR. Moreover, severity of experimental colitis correlates with increased E. coli chuS expression in IL-10 deficient mice. To explore functional roles, E. coli were genetically modified to overexpress chuS or the chuS gene was deleted. Co-culture of chuS-overexpressing E. coli with bone marrow derived macrophages results in decreased IL-12 p40 and increased IL-10 secretion compared to wild-type or chuS-deficient E. coli. Mice infected with chuS-overexpressing E. coli have increased levels of hepatic carbon monoxide and decreased serum IL-12 p40 compared to mice infected with chuS-deficient E. coli. Thus, carbon monoxide alters the composition of the commensal intestinal microbiota and expands E. coli populations harboring the chuS gene. These bacteria are capable of attenuating innate immune responses through expression of chuS. Bacterial heme oxygenase -like molecules and bacterial-derived carbon monoxide may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory conditions. PMID:26146866

  17. Expression of the Serratia marcescens lipoproteins gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, N; Nakamura, K; Inouye, M

    1981-01-01

    The lipoprotein gene (lpp) of Serratia marcescens was cloned in a lambda phage vector (K. Nakamura and M. Inouye, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 1369-1373, 1980). This lpp gene was recloned in plasmid vectors pBR322 and pSC101. When a lipoprotein-deficient (lpp) mutant of Escherichia coli was transformed with pBR322 carrying the S. marcescens lpp gene, cells became nonleaky for ribonuclease, resistant to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and sensitive to globomycin. The lipoprotein was found exclusively in the outer membrane fraction. These results indicate that the S. marcescens lipoprotein was normally secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane, modified, and assembled in the E. coli outer membrane. The amount of the free-form lipoprotein produced in this system was three times higher than that produced in lpp + C. coli cells, whereas there was no difference in the amount of the bound-form lipoprotein. On the other hand, lpp E. coli cells which harbored pSC101 carrying the S. marcescens lpp gene produced only one-third of the free-form lipoprotein produced in lpp E. coli cells which harbored pSC101 carrying the E. coli lpp gene. One of the major factors causing this difference in efficiency of gene expression between the lpp genes of S. marcescens and E. coli appears to be a deletion mutation at the transcription termination region found in the cloned S. marcescens lpp gene. The functional half-life of the S. marcescens lpp messenger ribonucleic acid in E. coli was found to be found half that of the E. coli lpp messenger ribonucleic acid. Images PMID:7016834

  18. An integrated database to support research on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Dunham, G.; Matsuda, Hideo; Michaels, G.; Taylor, R.; Overbeek, R.; Rudd, K.E. ); Ginsburg, A.; Joerg, D.; Kazic, T. . Dept. of Genetics); Hagstrom, R.; Zawada, D. ); Smith, C.; Yoshida, Kaoru )

    1992-01-01

    We have used logic programming to design and implement a prototype database of genomic information for the model bacterial organism Escherichia coli. This report presents the fundamental database primitives that can be used to access and manipulate data relating to the E. coli genome. The present system, combined with a tutorial manual, provides immediate access to the integrated knowledge base for E. coli chromosome data. It also serves as the foundation for development of more user-friendly interfaces that have the same retrieval power and high-level tools to analyze complex chromosome organization.

  19. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  20. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  1. Characterization of pili associated with Escherichia coli O18ac.

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, P; Picken, R; Schmidt, G; Jann, B; Jann, K; Golecki, J R; Kist, M

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Escherichia coli O18ac isolated from the stool sample of a patient with diarrhea was found to agglutinate human erythrocytes. From the results presented it is suggested that this hemagglutination is mediated by pili. Isolated pilus preparations agglutinated human erythrocytes, whereas pilus-negative mutants did not. The serological and chemical analyses indicate that the pili associated with E. coli O18ac are distinct from other types found with E. coli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6111534

  2. The quantitative and condition-dependent Escherichia coli proteome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander; Kochanowski, Karl; Vedelaar, Silke; Ahrné, Erik; Volkmer, Benjamin; Callipo, Luciano; Knoops, Kèvin; Bauer, Manuel; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heinemann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precise concentrations of proteins can provide insights into biological processes. Here, we use efficient protein extraction and sample fractionation and state-of-the-art quantitative mass spectrometry techniques to generate a comprehensive, condition-dependent protein abundance map of Escherichia coli. We measure cellular protein concentrations for 55% of predicted E. coli genes (>2300 proteins) under 22 different experimental conditions and identify methylation and N-terminal protein acetylations previously not known to be prevalent in bacteria. We uncover system-wide proteome allocation, expression regulation, and post-translational adaptations. These data provide a valuable resource for the systems biology and broader E. coli research communities. PMID:26641532

  3. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  4. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli on coriander.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Segovia-Cruz, Jesús A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes on coriander was determined. One hundred coriander samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli were determined using the most probable number procedure. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to sixteen antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEPs strains by standard test. The behavior of multidrug-resistant DEPs isolated from coriander was determined on coriander leaves and chopped coriander at 25°± 2 °C and 3°± 2 °C. Generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 43 and 7% of samples. Nine DEPs strains were isolated from positive coriander samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 4%) enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 1%). All isolated DEPs strains exhibited multi-resistance to antibiotics. On inoculated coriander leaves stored at 25°± 2 °C or 3°± 2 °C, no growth was observed for multidrug-resistant DEPs strains. However, multidrug-resistant DEPs strains grew in chopped coriander: after 24 h at 25° ± 2 °C, DEPs strains had grown to approximately 3 log CFU/g. However, at 3°± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence and behavior of multidrug-resistant STEC, ETEC and EPEC on coriander and chopped coriander. PMID:27375249

  5. Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Enteric Infections Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Roberto; Vidal, Maricel; Lagos, Rossana; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex PCR for detection of three categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. With this method, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli were identified in fecal samples from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, watery diarrhea, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome and from food-borne outbreaks. PMID:15071051

  6. Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Associated with Muscle Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins, referred to as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E. coli O157:H7 is the most common cause of STEC infection; however, numerous non-O157 STECs b...

  7. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: detection and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins, referred to as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are important food-borne pathogens that cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E. coli O157:H7 is a common cause of STEC infection; ho...

  8. Persistence of enterohemorrhagic and non-pathogenic E. coli on spinach leaves and in rhizosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Outbreaks associated with leafy greens have focused attention on the persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on produce. Ecological interactions of E. coli O157:H7 and spinach require detailed characterization. Purpose: Survival of E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli was evalua...

  9. Analysis of plasmids cloned from a virulent avian Escherichia coli and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha.

    PubMed

    Wooley, R E; Gibbs, P S; Dickerson, H W; Brown, J; Nolan, L K

    1996-01-01

    Three of four plasmids from a virulent wild-type avian Escherichia coli were cloned or transformed into an avirulent laboratory recipient E. coli DH5 alpha and tested for the ability to confer a virulence phenotype. The three plasmids transformed into E. coli DH5 alpha were 5, 6, and 56 kb. A fourth plasmid of 64 kb was not successfully transformed. Parameters used to measure virulence included presence of type 1 pili and a smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, motility, production of Colicin V, resistance to host complement, and embryo lethality. The 5-kb plasmid encoded for ampicillin resistance, whereas the 6-kb plasmid encoded for tetracycline resistance. The 56-kb plasmid encoded for streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline resistance. Twelve-day embryos inoculated with 467 colony-forming units of E. coli DH5 alpha containing the 56-kb plasmid had increased death rates (45%) in the embryo lethality assay and a decreased weight of surviving embryos with cranial hemorrhages as compared with embryos inoculated with similar amounts of E. coli DH5 alpha (0%) and phosphate-buffered saline (0%). Embryos inoculated with the wild-type virulent E. coli had 90% deaths. The 56-kb plasmid also had homology with a probe for Colicin V production (cvaC). No differences in LPS layer, complement resistance, motility, Colicin V activity, type 1 pili, cell-free supernatant proteins, or outer membrane proteins were observed in the transformants when compared with nontransformed E. coli DH5 alpha. PMID:8883780

  10. Simple and rapid multiplex PCR for identification of the main human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Vutukuru, Sreekanth-Reddy

    2012-10-12

    Establishment of a simple and rapid multiplex PCR system for identification of the main diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli, is described. This two-step multiplex PCR system allows the identification by targeting CVD432, LT, STh, STp, Eae, Bfp, Stx1, and Stx2. By applying the developed multiplex PCR system, categorization of E. coli isolates isolated from stool samples of infants with diarrhea into the main diarrheagenic E. coli categories is also shown. PMID:22192837

  11. Treatment of nasal polyposis in Byzantine times.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J G; Segas, J V; Assimakopoulos, D A

    2000-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques used during Byzantine times (AD 324-1453) for a disease that has occupied physicians since antiquity: nasal polyps. The original Greek-language texts of the Byzantine medical writers, most of which were published after the 17th century, were studied in order to identify the early knowledge of the definition, symptoms, conservative treatments, and surgical intervention in cases of this disease. A considerable number of conservative treatments, etiologic and local (with inunctions or blowing of caustic substances), with evident influence from Roman medicine, were identified even in the early Byzantine medical texts (4th century). Further, some surgical techniques were described that seem to constitute evolution of the Hippocratic tradition. From the study of the original texts of Byzantine medical writers, their interest in the rhinological diseases is evident; in the case of nasal polyps, new techniques were mentioned. The first meticulous intranasal surgical removal of polyps was described. These techniques, obviously developed during the Hellenistic period, initially influenced European medicine and later the rest of the world. PMID:11007093

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial adenomatous polyposis

    MedlinePlus

    ... R215-6. Review. Citation on PubMed Cheadle JP, Sampson JR. Exposing the MYtH about base excision repair ... 21(20):2525-38. Review. Citation on PubMed Sampson JR, Dolwani S, Jones S, Eccles D, Ellis A, Evans ...

  13. Oral Therapeutics for Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Alt, Jeremiah A

    2016-01-01

    Oral therapeutics for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) include oral corticosteroids (OCS), antibiotics, antifungals and anti-leukotrienes. Of these treatments, the strongest evidence exists to support the use of a short course of OCS for treatment of CRSwNP, and OCS are the most consistently recommended oral therapy in practice guidelines. Antibiotics have demonstrated some utility, which appears more likely related to an anti-inflammatory rather than antimicrobial effect. The non-macrolide antibiotics lack sufficient evidence to support their use, though among this class doxycycline has some limited evidence of benefit in CRSwNP. Greater evidence exists for the use of macrolide antibiotics which have shown reduction of subjective and objective measures of CRSwNP severity. A short course of a macrolide should be considered as an option. Oral antifungals are not recommended in the treatment of CRSwNP given disappointing results and known potential adverse effects, except in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis where they may play a role. Leukotriene antagonists have demonstrated some promise in the treatment of CRSwNP, though studies are limited, but should be considered a potentially useful oral therapeutic. The current level of evidence for these oral therapeutic options for CRSwNP is reviewed in this chapter. PMID:27466856

  14. Positive control of sulphate reduction in Escherichia coli. Isolation, characterization and mapping oc cysteineless mutants of E. coli K12.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1968-12-01

    To determine to what extent the biosynthesis of cysteine in Escherichia coli resembles that in Salmonella typhimurium, the following experiments were performed. (1) Mutants of E. coli K 12 deficient in the biosynthesis of cysteine were isolated. (2) These mutants were classified by nutritional and biochemical criteria; some mutants lacked a single enzyme of sulphate reduction, other mutants appeared to lack two or more enzymes. (3) The genetic map predicted from the biochemical data alone is shown to be incorrect, and an alternative map, consistent with the genetic data, is proposed for the cys mutants of E. coli. PMID:4882981

  15. Positive control of sulphate reduction in Escherichia coli. Isolation, characterization and mapping of cysteineless mutants of E. coli K 12

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Mortimer, M. C.

    1968-01-01

    To determine to what extent the biosynthesis of cysteine in Escherichia coli resembles that in Salmonella typhimurium, the following experiments were performed. (1) Mutants of E. coli K 12 deficient in the biosynthesis of cysteine were isolated. (2) These mutants were classified by nutritional and biochemical criteria; some mutants lacked a single enzyme of sulphate reduction, other mutants appeared to lack two or more enzymes. (3) The genetic map predicted from the biochemical data alone is shown to be incorrect, and an alternative map, consistent with the genetic data, is proposed for the cys mutants of E. coli. PMID:4882981

  16. Quantitative detection of E. coli, E. coli O157 and other shiga toxin producing E. coli in water samples using a culture method combined with real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Leo; Medema, Gertjan

    2006-12-01

    Recent water related outbreaks of shiga toxin producing E. coli O157 have resulted in increased attention of the water industry to this potentially deadly pathogen. Current methods to detect E. coli O157 and its virulence genes are laborious and time-consuming. Specificity, sensitivity and simple use of a real-time PCR method makes it an attractive alternative for the detection of STEC E. coli O157. This study describes the development and application of real-time PCR methods for the detection of E. coli O157, shiga toxin genes (Stx1 and Stx2) and E. coli. The specificity of the methods was confirmed by performing colony-PCR assays on characterized bacterial isolates, demonstrating the applicability of these assays as rapid tests to confirm the presence of E. coli or E. coli O157 colonies on culture plates. Sensitive culture-PCR methods were developed by combining culture enrichment with real-time PCR detection. This rapid method allowed detection of low concentrations of E. coli O157 in the presence of high concentrations of non-O157-E. coli (1:104). Culture-PCR methods were applied to 27 surface water and 4 wastewater samples. E. coli O157 and both Stx genes were detected in two wastewater samples, whereas only E. coli O157 was detected in two surface water samples. Culture-PCR methods were not influenced by matrix effects and also enabled quantitative (MPN) detection of E. coli in these samples. PMID:17176819

  17. A comprehensive library of fluorescent transcriptional reporters for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zaslaver, Alon; Bren, Anat; Ronen, Michal; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Kikoin, Ilya; Shavit, Seagull; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Surette, Michael G; Alon, Uri

    2006-08-01

    E. coli is widely used for systems biology research; there exists a need, however, for tools that can be used to accurately and comprehensively measure expression dynamics in individual living cells. To address this we present a library of transcriptional fusions of gfp to each of about 2,000 different promoters in E. coli K12, covering the great majority of the promoters in the organism. Each promoter fusion is expressed from a low-copy plasmid. We demonstrate that this library can be used to obtain highly accurate dynamic measurements of promoter activity on a genomic scale, in a glucose-lactose diauxic shift experiment. The library allowed detection of about 80 previously uncharacterized transcription units in E. coli, including putative internal promoters within previously known operons, such as the lac operon. This library can serve as a tool for accurate, high-resolution analysis of transcription networks in living E. coli cells. PMID:16862137

  18. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food-borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  19. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  20. Evolution in the Lab: Biocide Resistance in E.coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welden, Charles W.; Hossler, Rex A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on resistance to teach about evolution and issues of misuse of antimicrobial compounds. Investigates Escherichia coli's response to treatment of triclosan, a biocide used in consumer products. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  1. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic E scherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales‐Siles, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Enterotoxigenic E scherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food‐borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  2. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in raw and cooked food.

    PubMed

    Norazah, A; Rahizan, I; Zainuldin, T; Rohani, M Y; Kamel, A G

    1998-03-01

    A total of 402 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from a variety of food samples and screened for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Screening was carried out using 15 specific monovalent antisera from Murex Diagnostic Limited. A total of 19 E. coli isolates were serotyped as EPEC. The EPEC strains were shown to belong to 8 serotypes. Eight out of 19 EPEC strains belonged to serotype 018C:K77 (B21). Seventeen out of 19 of the EPEC strains were isolated from cooked food. The presence of E. coli in cooked food is an indicator of fecal contamination and a sign of unhygienic food handling. The presence of EPEC in food could be a potential source of food-borne outbreak. Hygiene training for every food-handler is a necessity. PMID:9740276

  3. Global dissemination of a multidrug resistant Escherichia coli clone

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Nicola K.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Skippington, Elizabeth; Totsika, Makrina; Forde, Brian M.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Gomes Moriel, Danilo; Peters, Kate M.; Davies, Mark; Rogers, Benjamin A.; Dougan, Gordon; Rodriguez-Baño, Jesús; Pascual, Alvaro; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Upton, Mathew; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Schembri, Mark A.; Beatson, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant (MDR) clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with several factors, including resistance to fluoroquinolones, high virulence gene content, the possession of the type 1 fimbriae FimH30 allele, and the production of the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we used genome sequencing to examine the molecular epidemiology of a collection of E. coli ST131 strains isolated from six distinct geographical locations across the world spanning 2000–2011. The global phylogeny of E. coli ST131, determined from whole-genome sequence data, revealed a single lineage of E. coli ST131 distinct from other extraintestinal E. coli strains within the B2 phylogroup. Three closely related E. coli ST131 sublineages were identified, with little association to geographic origin. The majority of single-nucleotide variants associated with each of the sublineages were due to recombination in regions adjacent to mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The most prevalent sublineage of ST131 strains was characterized by fluoroquinolone resistance, and a distinct virulence factor and MGE profile. Four different variants of the CTX-M ESBL–resistance gene were identified in our ST131 strains, with acquisition of CTX-M-15 representing a defining feature of a discrete but geographically dispersed ST131 sublineage. This study confirms the global dispersal of a single E. coli ST131 clone and demonstrates the role of MGEs and recombination in the evolution of this important MDR pathogen. PMID:24706808

  4. Metabolic engineering for resveratrol derivative biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu Jeong; Woo, Su Gyeong; An, Chul Han; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Hong, Young-Soo; Kim, Young-Min; Ryu, Young Bae; Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Woo Song; Kim, Cha Young

    2015-04-01

    We previously reported that the SbROMT3syn recombinant protein catalyzes the production of the methylated resveratrol derivatives pinostilbene and pterostilbene by methylating substrate resveratrol in recombinant E. coli. To further study the production of stilbene compounds in E. coli by the expression of enzymes involved in stilbene biosynthesis, we isolated three stilbene synthase (STS) genes from rhubarb, peanut, and grape as well as two resveratrol O-methyltransferase (ROMT) genes from grape and sorghum. The ability of RpSTS to produce resveratrol in recombinant E. coli was compared with other AhSTS and VrSTS genes. Out of three STS, only AhSTS was able to produce resveratrol from p-coumaric acid. Thus, to improve the solubility of RpSTS, VrROMT, and SbROMT3 in E. coli, we synthesized the RpSTS, VrROMT and SbROMT3 genes following codon-optimization and expressed one or both genes together with the cinnamate/4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (CCL) gene from Streptomyces coelicolor. Our HPLC and LC-MS analyses showed that recombinant E. coli expressing both ScCCL and RpSTSsyn led to the production of resveratrol when p-coumaric acid was used as the precursor. In addition, incorporation of SbROMT3syn in recombinant E. coli cells produced resveratrol and its mono-methylated derivative, pinostilbene, as the major products from p-coumaric acid. However, very small amounts of pterostilbene were only detectable in the recombinant E. coli cells expressing the ScCCL, RpSTSsyn and SbROMT3syn genes. These results suggest that RpSTSsyn exhibits an enhanced enzyme activity to produce resveratrol and SbROMT3syn catalyzes the methylation of resveratrol to produce pinostilbene in E. coli cells. PMID:25715927

  5. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html PMID:9399799

  6. Plasmid replicon typing of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Johnson, Sara J; Logue, Catherine M; White, David G; Doetkott, Curt; Nolan, Lisa K

    2007-03-01

    Despite the critical role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, few studies have characterized plasmid relatedness among different bacterial populations. Recently, a multiplex PCR replicon typing protocol was developed for classification of plasmids occurring in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, a simplified version of this replicon typing procedure which requires only three multiplex panels to identify 18 plasmid replicons is described. This method was used to screen 1,015 Escherichia coli isolates of avian, human, and poultry meat origin for plasmid replicon types. Additionally, the isolates were assessed for their content of several colicin-associated genes. Overall, a high degree of plasmid variability was observed, with 221 different profiles occurring among the 1,015 isolates examined. IncFIB plasmids were the most common type identified, regardless of the source type of E. coli. IncFIB plasmids occurred significantly more often in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and retail poultry E. coli (RPEC) than in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian and human fecal commensal E. coli isolates (AFEC and HFEC, respectively). APEC and RPEC were also significantly more likely than UPEC, HFEC, and AFEC to possess the colicin-associated genes cvaC, cbi, and/or cma in conjunction with one or more plasmid replicons. The results suggest that E. coli isolates contaminating retail poultry are notably similar to APEC with regard to plasmid profiles, with both generally containing multiple plasmid replicon types in conjunction with colicin-related genes. In contrast, UPEC and human and avian commensal E. coli isolates generally lack the plasmid replicons and colicin-related genes seen in APEC and RPEC, suggesting limited dissemination of such plasmids among these bacterial populations. PMID:17277222

  7. Escherichia coli sequence type 131: epidemiology and challenges in treatment.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Zubair A; Doi, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 has emerged as a global epidemic, multidrug-resistant clone of E. coli causing extra-intestinal infections. It is now highly prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant and CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli isolates worldwide. Humans are likely the primary reservoir of ST131. Factors associated with its acquisition include residence in long-term care facilities and recent receipt of antimicrobial agents. E. coli ST131 causes a wide array of infections ranging from cystitis to life-threatening sepsis. Fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer adequate options for empiric therapy when E. coli ST131 is suspected from risk factors and local epidemiology. Expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are options to treat serious non-ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 infections, while carbapenems are indicated for ESBL-producing infections. There is a growing interest in reevaluating oral agents including fosfomycin and pivmecillinam for less serious infections such as uncomplicated cystitis. PMID:24694052

  8. An Escherichia coli Mutant That Makes Exceptionally Long Cells

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Elaine B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although Escherichia coli is a very small (1- to 2-μm) rod-shaped cell, here we describe an E. coli mutant that forms enormously long cells in rich media such as Luria broth, as long indeed as 750 μm. These extremely elongated (eel) cells are as long as the longest bacteria known and have no internal subdivisions. They are metabolically competent, elongate rapidly, synthesize DNA, and distribute cell contents along this length. They lack only the ability to divide. The concentration of the essential cell division protein FtsZ is reduced in these eel cells, and increasing this concentration restores division. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is usually a very small bacterium, 1 to 2 μm long. We have isolated a mutant that forms enormously long cells, 700 times longer than the usual E. coli cell. E. coli filaments that form under other conditions usually die within a few hours, whereas our mutant is fully viable even when it reaches such lengths. This mutant provides a useful tool for the study of aspects of E. coli physiology that are difficult to investigate with small cells. PMID:25691528

  9. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  10. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chandi D.; Parks, Adam; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Magnone, Joshua; Senecal, Andre; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Foods contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 cause more than 63,000 foodborne illnesses in the United States every year, resulting in a significant economic impact on medical costs and product liabilities. Efforts to reduce contamination with E. coli O157:H7 have largely focused on washing, application of various antibacterial chemicals, and gamma-irradiation, each of which has practical and environmental drawbacks. A relatively recent, environmentally-friendly approach proposed for eliminating or significantly reducing E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods is the use of lytic bacteriophages as biocontrol agents. We found that EcoShield™, a commercially available preparation composed of three lytic bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of the bacterium in experimentally contaminated beef by ≥ 94% and in lettuce by 87% after a five minute contact time. The reduced levels of bacteria were maintained for at least one week at refrigerated temperatures. However, the one-time application of EcoShield™ did not protect the foods from recontamination with E. coli O157:H7. Our results demonstrate that EcoShield™ is effective in significantly reducing contamination of beef and lettuce with E. coli O157:H7, but does not protect against potential later contamination due to, for example, unsanitary handling of the foods post processing. PMID:23275869

  11. Measuring Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Human Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) evolved by acquisition of pathogenicity islands, phage, plasmids, and DNA segments by horizontal gene transfer. Strains are heterogeneous but virulent uropathogenic isolates more often have specific fimbriae, toxins, and iron receptors than commensal strains. One may ask whether it is the virulence factors alone that are required to establish infection. While these virulence factors clearly contribute strongly to pathogenesis, bacteria must survive by metabolizing nutrients available to them. By constructing mutants in all major metabolic pathways and co-challenging mice transurethrally with each mutant and the wild type strain, we identified which major metabolic pathways are required to infect the urinary tract. We must also ask what else is E. coli doing in vivo? To answer this question, we examined the transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 in the murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as for E. coli strains collected and analyzed directly from the urine of patients attending either a urology clinic or a university health clinic for symptoms of UTI. Using microarrays and RNA-seq, we measured in vivo gene expression for these uropathogenic E. coli strains, identifying genes upregulated during murine and human UTI. Our findings allow us to propose a new definition of bacterial virulence. PMID:26784237

  12. Interaction of Escherichia coli and Soil Particles in Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, Richard William; Collins, Robert Peter; Bremer, Philip James

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory-scale model system was developed to investigate the transport mechanisms involved in the horizontal movement of bacteria in overland flow across saturated soils. A suspension of Escherichia coli and bromide tracer was added to the model system, and the bromide concentration and number of attached and unattached E. coli cells in the overland flow were measured over time. Analysis of the breakthrough curves indicated that the E. coli and bromide were transported together, presumably by the same mechanism. This implied that the E. coli was transported by advection with the flowing water. Overland-flow transport of E. coli could be significantly reduced if the cells were preattached to large soil particles (>45 μm). However, when unattached cells were inoculated into the system, the E. coli appeared to attach predominantly to small particles (<2 μm) and hence remained unattenuated during transport. These results imply that in runoff generated by saturation-excess conditions, bacteria are rapidly transported across the surface and have little opportunity to interact with the soil matrix. PMID:16672484

  13. Evolution ofE.coli tRNATrp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Bloch, David P.; Lacey, James C.

    1988-03-01

    Earlier studies (1) have shown there are direct correlations between the hydrophobicity ranking of most amino acids and their anticodonic nucleotides. However, four anticodonic assignments, i.e. those for Trp, Tyr, Ile and the XGA anticodons for Ser, did not correlate. It was our proposal that this failure to correlate was due to the fact that these assignments were made late, relative to the bulk of the assignments, in evolution through the mutation of existing tRNAs. We have shown (2) thatE. coli tRNAIle 1 and tRNAIle 2 were likely derived from tRNAVal 1 and tRNALys respectively andE. coli tRNATyr was possibly derived fromE. coli 5s rRNA or a common precursor with 5s rRNA (3). The fact that quite high homologies were observed in these comparisons is consistent with the late evolution of the tRNAs in question. We now examine the evolution ofE. coli tRNATrp by comparing its homology with otherE. coli tRNAs. The data suggest a possible evolutionary relationship withE. coli tRNAGly or tRNAArg. The data support the idea of the late assignment of anticodons to Trp.

  14. Transformation of Escherichia coli and protein expression using lipoplex mimicry.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chul-Ho; Bae, Chun-Sik; Ahn, Taeho

    2016-11-01

    We investigated a "one-step" method for transformation of and protein expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli) using a complex of n-stearylamine, a cationic lipid, and plasmid DNA, which mimics lipoplex-based approaches. When E. coli cells were treated with the cationic lipid-plasmid complex, the transformation efficiencies were in the range of approximately 2-3 × 10(6) colony-forming units. Further increase in the efficiency was obtained by co-treatment with calcium chloride (or rubidium chloride) and the complexes. Moreover, after DNA transfer, E. coli cells successfully expressed plasmid-encoded proteins such as cytochrome P450s and glutathione-S-transferase without overnight incubation of the cells to form colonies, an indispensable step in other bacterial transformation methods. In this study, we provide a simple method for E. coli transformation, which does not require the preparation of competent cells. The present method also shortens the overall procedures for transformation and gene expression in E. coli by omitting the colony-forming step. PMID:27416742

  15. The cobalamin (coenzyme B12) biosynthetic genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J G; Roth, J R

    1995-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli synthesizes cobalamin (coenzyme B12) only when provided with the complex intermediate cobinamide. Three cobalamin biosynthetic genes have been cloned from Escherichia coli K-12, and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. The three genes form an operon (cob) under the control of several promoters and are induced by cobinamide, a precursor of cobalamin. The cob operon of E. coli comprises the cobU gene, encoding the bifunctional cobinamide kinase-guanylyltransferase; the cobS gene, encoding cobalamin synthetase; and the cobT gene, encoding dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase. The physiological roles of these sequences were verified by the isolation of Tn10 insertion mutations in the cobS and cobT genes. All genes were named after their Salmonella typhimurium homologs and are located at the corresponding positions on the E. coli genetic map. Although the nucleotide sequences of the Salmonella cob genes and the E. coli cob genes are homologous, they are too divergent to have been derived from an operon present in their most recent common ancestor. On the basis of comparisons of G+C content, codon usage bias, dinucleotide frequencies, and patterns of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions, we conclude that the cob operon was introduced into the Salmonella genome from an exogenous source. The cob operon of E. coli may be related to cobalamin synthetic genes now found among non-Salmonella enteric bacteria. PMID:7592411

  16. EcoCyc: A comprehensive view of Escherichia coli biology

    PubMed Central

    Keseler, Ingrid M.; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Collado-Vides, Julio; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Gunsalus, Robert P.; Johnson, D. Aaron; Krummenacker, Markus; Nolan, Laura M.; Paley, Suzanne; Paulsen, Ian T.; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Shearer, Alexander Glennon; Karp, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    EcoCyc (http://EcoCyc.org) provides a comprehensive encyclopedia of Escherichia coli biology. EcoCyc integrates information about the genome, genes and gene products; the metabolic network; and the regulatory network of E. coli. Recent EcoCyc developments include a new initiative to represent and curate all types of E. coli regulatory processes such as attenuation and regulation by small RNAs. EcoCyc has started to curate Gene Ontology (GO) terms for E. coli and has made a dataset of E. coli GO terms available through the GO Web site. The curation and visualization of electron transfer processes has been significantly improved. Other software and Web site enhancements include the addition of tracks to the EcoCyc genome browser, in particular a type of track designed for the display of ChIP-chip datasets, and the development of a comparative genome browser. A new Genome Omics Viewer enables users to paint omics datasets onto the full E. coli genome for analysis. A new advanced query page guides users in interactively constructing complex database queries against EcoCyc. A Macintosh version of EcoCyc is now available. A series of Webinars is available to instruct users in the use of EcoCyc. PMID:18974181

  17. Escherichia coli EDL933 requires gluconeogenic nutrients to successfully colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Schinner, Silvia A C; Mokszycki, Matthew E; Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary; Conway, Tyrrell; Cohen, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Escherichia coli MG1655, a K-12 strain, uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively to colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice when it is the only E. coli strain present or when it is confronted with E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. In contrast, E. coli EDL933 uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively when it is the only E. coli strain in the intestine but switches in part to gluconeogenic nutrients when it colonizes mice precolonized with E. coli MG1655 (R. L. Miranda et al., Infect Immun 72:1666-1676, 2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.3.1666-1676.2004). Recently, J. W. Njoroge et al. (mBio 3:e00280-12, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00280-12) reported that E. coli 86-24, an O157:H7 strain, activates the expression of virulence genes under gluconeogenic conditions, suggesting that colonization of the intestine with a probiotic E. coli strain that outcompetes O157:H7 strains for gluconeogenic nutrients could render them nonpathogenic. Here we report that E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain, uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients to colonize the mouse intestine between 1 and 5 days postfeeding, appears to stop using gluconeogenic nutrients thereafter in a large, long-term colonization niche, but continues to use them in a smaller niche to compete with invading E. coli EDL933. Evidence is also presented suggesting that invading E. coli EDL933 uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients and needs the ability to perform gluconeogenesis in order to colonize mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. The data presented here therefore rule out the possibility that E. coli Nissle 1917 can starve the O157:H7 E. coli strain EDL933 of gluconeogenic nutrients, even though E. coli Nissle 1917 uses such nutrients to compete with E. coli EDL933 in the mouse intestine. PMID:25733524

  18. Energetics of glycylglycine transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cowell, J L

    1974-10-01

    The transport system for glycylglycine in Escherichia coli behaves like a shock-sensitive transport system. The initial rate of transport is reduced 85% by subjecting whole cells to osmotic shock, and glycylglycine is not transported by membrane vesicles. The energetics of transport was studied with strain ML 308-225 and its mutant DL-54, which is deficient in Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-stimulated adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3) activity. It is concluded that active transport of glycylglycine, like other shock-sensitive transport systems, has an obligatory requirement for phosphate bond energy, but not for respiration or the energized state of the membrane. The major evidence for this conclusion is as follows. (i) Uptake of glycylglycine is severely inhibited by arsenate. (ii) Oxidizable energy sources such as d-lactate, succinate, and ascorbate, which is mediated by N-methylphenazinium methylsulfate, cannot serve as energy sources for the transport of glycylglycine in DL-54, which lacks oxidative phosphorylation. (iii) When energy is supplied only from adenosine-5'-triphosphate produced by glycolysis (anaerobic transport assays with glucose as the energy source in DL-54), substantial uptake of glycylglycine is observed. (iv) When the Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity is absent but substrate-level phosphorylations and electron transport are operating (glucose as the energy source in DL-54), transport of glycylglycine shows significant resistance to the uncouplers, dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. PMID:4278690

  19. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  20. Optimal search in E. coli chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Subrata; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2015-04-01

    We study chemotaxis of a single E. coli bacterium in a medium where the nutrient chemical is also undergoing diffusion and its concentration has the form of a Gaussian whose width increases with time. We measure the average first passage time of the bacterium at a region of high nutrient concentration. In the limit of very slow nutrient diffusion, the bacterium effectively experiences a Gaussian concentration profile with a fixed width. In this case we find that there exists an optimum width of the Gaussian when the average first passage time is minimum, i.e., the search process is most efficient. We verify the existence of the optimum width for the deterministic initial position of the bacterium and also for the stochastic initial position, drawn from uniform and steady state distributions. Our numerical simulation in a model of a non-Markovian random walker agrees well with our analytical calculations in a related coarse-grained model. We also present our simulation results for the case when the nutrient diffusion and bacterial motion occur over comparable time scales and the bacterium senses a time-varying concentration field.

  1. Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Sakellaris, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease around the world. The major aspects of ETEC virulence are colonization of the small intestine and the secretion of enterotoxins which elicit diarrhea. Intestinal colonization is mediated, in part, by adhesins displayed on the bacterial cell surface. As colonization of the intestine is the critical first step in the establishment of an infection, it represents a potential point of intervention for the prevention of infections. Therefore, colonization factors (CFs) have been important subjects of research in the field of ETEC virulence. Research in this field has revealed that ETEC possesses a large array of serologically distinct CFs that differ in composition, structure, and function. Most ETEC CFs are pili (fimbriae) or related fibrous structures, while other adhesins are simple outer membrane proteins lacking any macromolecular structure. This chapter reviews the genetics, structure, function, and regulation of ETEC CFs and how such studies have contributed to our understanding of ETEC virulence and opened up potential opportunities for the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25596032

  2. ESCHERICHIA COLI Gene Induction by Alkylation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Volkert, Michael R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Beard, K. Christopher

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased β-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes. PMID:3080354

  3. Starvation-induced dormancy in E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, Emrah; Kim, Minsu

    Isogenic bacterial populations can exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity. Phenotypic heterogeneity is often viewed as a bet-hedging strategy to cope with environmental fluctuations, and believed to be under genetic control. The experimental evidence of this view, however, is limited. Here, we report experimental evidence that prompts reconsideration of this view. Observing how starved E. coli cells resume growth upon nutrient upshift at the single-cell level in real time, we revealed that physiological and metabolic state of starved cells, as well as growth resumption kinetics, vary from cell to cell. Upon nutrient upshift, a majority of cells resume growth instantly, but a small fraction maintain a non-growth state for several hours or days (i.e., long lag time). Hence they are dormant cells. The fraction strongly depends on the duration of starvation. The dormancy does not confer resistance to starvation. Oxidative damage accumulated during starvation leads to the appearance of dormant cells. Taken together, our data suggests that a dormant subpopulation appears as an inevitable consequence of starvation, rather than cellular decision to cope with starvation. Hence, the existence of a genetic program and adaptive value as a bet-hedging strategy to cope with starvation stress may not be needed to explain the emergence of bacterial dormancy.

  4. Routes for fructose utilization by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kornberg, H L

    2001-07-01

    There are three main routes for the utilization of fructose by Escherichia coli. One (Route A) predominates in the growth of wild-type strains. It involves the functioning of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) and a fructose operon, mapping at min. 48.7, containing genes for a membrane-spanning protein (fruA), a 1-phosphofructose kinase (fruK) and a diphosphoryl transfer protein (fruB), under negative regulation by a fruR gene mapping at min. 1.9. A second route (Route B) also involves the PTS and membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a variety of sugars possessing the 3,4,5-D-arabino-hexoseconfiguration but with primary specificity for mannose(manXYZ), mannitol (mtlA) and glucitol (gutA) and which, if over-produced, can transport also fructose. A third route (Route C), functioning in mutants devoid of Routes A and B, does not involve the PTS: fructose diffuses into the cell via an isoform (PtsG-F) of the major glucose permease of the PTS and is then phosphorylated by ATP and a manno(fructo)kinase (Mak+) specified by a normally cryptic 1032 bp ORF (yajF) of hitherto unknown function (Mak-o), mapping at min. 8.8 and corresponding to a peptide of 344 amino acids. Conversion of the Mak-o to the Mak+ phenotypeinvolves an A24D mutation in a putative regulatory region. PMID:11361065

  5. Genotoxicity of Graphene in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ananya

    Rapid advances in nanotechnology necessitate assessment of the safety of nanomaterials in the resulting products and applications. One key nanomaterial attracting much interest in many areas of science and technology is graphene. Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In addition to being extremely thin, graphene has several extraordinary physical properties such as its exceptional mechanical strength, thermal stability, and high electrical conductivity. Graphene itself is relatively chemically inert and therefore pristine graphene must undergo a process called functionalization, which is combination of chemical and physical treatments that change the properties of graphene, to make it chemically active. Functionalization of graphene is of crucial importance as the end application of graphene depends on proper functionalization. In the field of medicine, graphene is currently a nanomaterial of high interest for building biosensors, DNA transistors, and probes for cancer detection. Despite the promising applications of graphene in several areas of biomedicine, there have been only few studies in recent years that focus on evaluating cytotoxicity of graphene on cells, and almost no studies that investigate how graphene exposure affects cellular genetic material. Therefore, in this study we used a novel approach to evaluate the genotoxicity, i.e., the effects of graphene on DNA, using Escherichia coli as a prokaryotic model organism.

  6. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  7. The Escherichia coli divisome: born to divide.

    PubMed

    Natale, Paolo; Pazos, Manuel; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Septation in Escherichia coli involves complex molecular mechanisms that contribute to the accuracy of bacterial division. The proto-ring, a complex made up by the FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, forms at the beginning of the process and directs the assembly of the full divisome. Central to this complex is the FtsZ protein, a GTPase able to assemble into a ring-like structure that responds to several modulatory inputs including mechanisms to position the septum at midcell. The connection with the cell wall synthesising machinery stabilizes the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane. Although a substantial amount of evidence supports this description, many details on how individual divisome elements are structured or how they function are subjected to controversial interpretations. We discuss these discrepancies arising from incomplete data and from technical difficulties imposed by the small size of bacteria. Future work, including more powerful imaging and reconstruction technologies, will help to clarify the missing details on the architecture and function of the bacterial division machinery. PMID:23962168

  8. Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Komeda, Y

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with defects in 29 flagellar genes identified so far were examined by electron microscopy for possession of incomplete flagellar structures in membrane-associated fractions. The results are discussed in consideration of the known transcriptional interaction of flagellar genes. Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure. An intact basal body appeared in flaK mutants. Putative precursors of the basal body were detected in mutants with defects in flaM, flaU, flaV, and flaY. No structures homologous to the flagellar basal body or its parts were detected in mutants with defects in flaA, flaB, flaC, flaG, flaH, flaI, flaL, flaN, flaO, flaP, flaQ, flaR, flaW, flaX, flbA, flbB, and flbD. One flaZ mutant had an incomplete flagellar basal body structure and another formed no significant structure, suggesting that flaZ is responsible for both basal body assembly and the transcription of the hag gene. Images PMID:7007337

  9. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  10. Kasugamycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, E R

    1978-01-01

    Kasugamycin-dependent mutants have been isolated from Escherichia coli B. They were obtained through mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine in conjunction with an antibiotic underlay technique. In the case of nitrosoguanidine, dependent mutants were obtained at a frequency of about 3% of survivors growing up in the selection. In the case of ethyl methane sulfonate, the corresponding value was 1%. Nineteen mutants showing a kasugamycin-dependent phenotype were studied. In terms of response to various temperatures and antibiotic concentrations, they were very heterogeneous, although most fell into two general classes. Genetic analysis indicated that in at least some cases, the kasugamycin-dependent phenotype was the product of two mutations. Two-dimensional gel electropherograms revealed alterations in the ribosomal proteins of seven mutants. One mutant had an alteration in protein S13, and one had an alteration in protein L14. Three showed changes in protein S9. Each of two mutants had changes in two proteins, S18 and L11. Three of these mutants additionally had protein S18 occurring in a partly altered, partly unaltered form. Images PMID:363701

  11. The E. coli DNA Replication Fork.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J S; Jergic, S; Dixon, N E

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication in Escherichia coli initiates at oriC, the origin of replication and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in two replication forks that travel in opposite directions from the origin. Here, we focus on events at the replication fork. The replication machinery (or replisome), first assembled on both forks at oriC, contains the DnaB helicase for strand separation, and the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) for DNA synthesis. DnaB interacts transiently with the DnaG primase for RNA priming on both strands. The Pol III HE is made up of three subassemblies: (i) the αɛθ core polymerase complex that is present in two (or three) copies to simultaneously copy both DNA strands, (ii) the β2 sliding clamp that interacts with the core polymerase to ensure its processivity, and (iii) the seven-subunit clamp loader complex that loads β2 onto primer-template junctions and interacts with the α polymerase subunit of the core and the DnaB helicase to organize the two (or three) core polymerases. Here, we review the structures of the enzymatic components of replisomes, and the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that ensure they remain intact while undergoing substantial dynamic changes as they function to copy both the leading and lagging strands simultaneously during coordinated replication. PMID:27241927

  12. Modeling the inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and uropathogenic E.coli in ground chicken by high pressure processing and thymol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease causing Escherichia coli commonly found in meat and poultry include intestinal pathogenic E. coli (iPEC) as well as extraintestinal types such as the Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In this study we compare the resistance of iPEC (O157:H7) to UPEC in chicken meat using High Pressure Processing...

  13. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...

  14. Difference between Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli: survival and growth in seasonings.

    PubMed

    Yokoigawa, K; Takikawa, A; Kawai, H

    1999-01-01

    We examined the survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells incubated with several seasonings, in comparison with those of non-pathogenic E. coli. The cells were incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 h with several concentrations of NaCl, sucrose, soy sauce, worcester sauce and tomato ketchup, and their survival ratios were determined. The E. coli O157:H7 strains showed relatively higher survival ratios in 0.5-1.0 M sucrose, 25% soy sauce and 12.5-50% worcester sauce than the non-pathogenic strains, but slightly lower survival ratios in 0.5-2.0 M NaCl. A noteworthy difference between E. coli O157:H7 and the non-pathogenic strains was that incubation in the presence of 12.5% soy sauce allowed the growth of E. coli O157:H7 strains but reduced the viable cell numbers of non-pathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:16232665

  15. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    PubMed

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  16. Widespread antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghabadi, Azam Fatahi; Ajami, Ali; Fadaei, Reza; Zandieh, Masoud; Heidari, Elham; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Ataei, Behrooz; Hoseini, Shervin Ghaffari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance of enteric pathogens particularly Shigella species, is a critical world-wide problem and monitoring their resistant pattern is essential, because the choice of antibiotics is absolutely dependent on regional antibiotic susceptibility patterns. During summer 2013, an unusual increase in number of diarrheal diseases was noticed in Isfahan, a central province of Iran. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species isolated were evaluated. Materials and Methods: According to the guideline on National Surveillance System for Foodborn Diseases, random samples from patients with acute diarrhea were examined in local laboratories of health centers and samples suspicious of Shigella spp. were further assessed in referral laboratory. Isolated pathogens were identified by standard biochemical and serologic tests and antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 1086 specimens were obtained and 58 samples suspicious of Shigella were specifically evaluated. The most prevalent isolated pathogen was Shigella sonnei (26/58) followed by E. coli (25/58) and Shigella flexneri (3/58). A large number of isolated bacteria were resistant to co-trimoxazole (Shigella spp: 100%, E. coli: 80%), azithromycin (Shigella spp: 70.4%, E. coli: 44.0%), ceftriaxone (Shigella spp: 88.9%, E. coli: 56.0%) and cefixime (Shigella spp: 85.2%, E. coli: 68.0%). About88.3% of S. sonnei isolates, one S. flexneri isolate, and 56% of E. coli strains were resistant to at least three antibiotic classes (multidrug resistant). Conclusion: Due to high levels of resistance to recommended and commonly used antibiotics for diarrhea, continuous monitoring of antibiotic resistance seems essential for determining best options of empirical therapy. PMID:25002896

  17. Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from rooks.

    PubMed

    Kmet, Vladimir; Drugdova, Zuzana; Kmetova, Marta; Stanko, Michal

    2013-01-01

    With regard to antibiotic resistance studies in various model animals in the urban environment, the presented study focused on the rook, many behavioural and ecological aspects of which are important from an epidemiological point of view. A total of 130 Escherichia coli strains isolated from rook faeces during a two-year period (2011-2012) were investigated for antibiotic resistance and virulence. Resistance to ampicillin (60%) and streptomycin (40%) were the most frequent, followed by resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin-22% and enrofloxacin-24%), tetracycline (18%), cotrimoxazol (17%) and florfenicol (14%). Ceftiofur resistance occured in 10.7% of strains and cefquinom resistance in 1.5% of strains. Twenty-five E.coli strains with a higher level of MICs of cephalosporins (over 2mg/L of ceftazidime and ceftriaxon) and fluoroquinolones were selected for detection of betalactamase genes (CTX-M, CMY), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnrS, integrase 1, and for APEC (avian pathogenic E.coli) virulence factors (iutA, cvaC, iss, tsh, ibeA, papC, kpsII). Genes of CTX-M1, CMY-2, integrase 1, papC, cvaC, iutA were detected in one strain of E.coli, and qnrS, integrase 1, iss, cvaC, tsh were detected in another E.coli. DNA microarray revealed the absence of verotoxin and enterotoxin genes and pathogenicity islands. The results show that rooks can serve as a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant E. coli with avian pathogenic virulence factors for the human population, and potentially transmit such E.coli over long distances. PMID:23772573

  18. Validation of the Soleris E. coli method for detection and semi-quantitative determination of Escherichia coli in foods.

    PubMed

    Foti, Debra; Romano, Leah; Alles, Susan; Mozola, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Soleris E. coli method was compared with that of the ISO 7251 most probable number (MPN) and detection reference methods for Escherichia coli. The Soleris E. coli method is a growth-based, rapid, automated system composed of temperature-controlled incubation chambers and photodiode-based optical detection devices for measurement of color changes in a prepared medium vial. A dilution of the test sample homogenate is inoculated directly into the vial. Products of E. coli metabolism alter the color of the medium over time, and this change is monitored by the Soleris instrument. The test is used in a dilute-to-specification or specification monitoring manner in which the result is positive or negative around a desired cutoff (in CFU/g) determined by the dilution and volume of sample homogenate added to the vial. Alternatively, the test is used for zero tolerance determinations (e.g., absence in 25 g) by performing an off-line pre-enrichment step followed by transfer of a portion of the pre-enrichment culture to the Soleris vial. Six E. coli strains originating from food sources were inoculated individually into six food commodities: frozen green beans, Echinacea powder, cocoa powder, sweetened condensed milk, pasteurized liquid egg, and shredded mozzarella cheese. Uninoculated samples were included in each trial. The results obtained by the ISO 7251 detection method and the Soleris E. coli method were shown to be in agreement by Chi-square analysis when the presence of E. coli was determined in 25 g of sample. Results from the Soleris E. coli dilute-to-specification method and the ISO 7251 MPN method were found to be in agreement by probability of detection statistical analysis. In inclusivity testing, 52 of 53 E. coli strains were detected within 24 h. Only a non-thermoduric strain of serotype O157:H43 was not detected. In exclusivity testing, all 31 strains tested produced negative results. Results of ruggedness experiments show that accurate

  19. The Melibiose Transporter of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, Oliver; Lin, Yibin; Granell, Meritxell; Leblanc, Gérard; Padrós, Esteve; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A.; Cladera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    We examine the role of Lys-377, the only charged residue in helix XI, on the functional mechanism of the Na+-sugar melibiose symporter from Escherichia coli. Intrinsic fluorescence, FRET, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy reveal that replacement of Lys-377 with either Cys, Val, Arg, or Asp disables both Na+ and melibiose binding. On the other hand, molecular dynamics simulations extending up to 200–330 ns reveal that Lys-377 (helix XI) interacts with the anionic side chains of two of the three putative ligands for cation binding (Asp-55 and Asp-59 in helix II). When Asp-59 is protonated during the simulations, Lys-377 preferentially interacts with Asp-55. Interestingly, when a Na+ ion is positioned in the Asp-55-Asp-59 environment, Asp-124 in helix IV (a residue essential for melibiose binding) reorients and approximates the Asp-55-Asp-59 pair, and all three acidic side chains act as Na+ ligands. Under these conditions, the side chain of Lys-377 interacts with the carboxylic moiety of these three Asp residues. These data highlight the crucial role of the Lys-377 residue in the spatial organization of the Na+ binding site. Finally, the analysis of the second-site revertants of K377C reveals that mutation of Ile-22 (in helix I) preserves Na+ binding, whereas that of melibiose is largely abolished according to spectroscopic measurements. This amino acid is located in the border of the sugar-binding site and might participate in sugar binding through apolar interactions. PMID:25971963

  20. Current World Status of Balantidium coli

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Frederick L.; Ramirez-Avila, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. Pigs are its reservoir hosts, and humans become infected through direct or indirect contact with pigs. In rural areas and in some developing countries where pig and human fecal matter contaminates the water supply, there is a greater likelihood that balantidiosis may develop in humans. The infection may be subclinical in humans, as it mostly is in pigs, or may develop as a fulminant infection with bloody and mucus-containing diarrhea; this can lead to perforation of the colon. The disease responds to treatment with tetracycline or metronidazole. Balantidiosis is a disease that need never exist given access to clean water and a public health infrastructure that monitors the water supply and tracks infections. Its spread can be limited by sanitary measures and personal hygiene, but it is a disease that will be around as long as there are pigs. Immunocompromised individuals have developed balantidiosis without any direct contact with pigs, perhaps with rats or contaminated produce as a possible source of infection. For the clinician, balanatidiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for persistent diarrhea in travelers to or from Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific islands, rural South America, or communities where close contact with domestic swine occurs. Warming of the earth's surface may provide a more favorable environment, even in the now-temperate areas of the world, for survival of trophic and cystic stages of Balantidium, and its prevalence may increase. Effective sanitation and uncontaminated water are the most useful weapons against infection. Fortunately, balantidiosis responds to antimicrobial therapy, and there have been no reports of resistance to the drugs of choice. PMID:18854484

  1. Systematic Mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli Genome†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yisheng; Durfee, Tim; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Qiu, Yu; Frisch, David; Winterberg, Kelly M.; Blattner, Frederick R.

    2004-01-01

    A high-throughput method has been developed for the systematic mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli genome. The system is based on in vitro transposition of a modified Tn5 element, the Sce-poson, into linear fragments of each open reading frame. The transposon introduces both positive (kanamycin resistance) and negative (I-SceI recognition site) selectable markers for isolation of mutants and subsequent allele replacement, respectively. Reaction products are then introduced into the genome by homologous recombination via the λRed proteins. The method has yielded insertion alleles for 1976 genes during a first pass through the genome including, unexpectedly, a number of known and putative essential genes. Sce-poson insertions can be easily replaced by markerless mutations by using the I-SceI homing endonuclease to select against retention of the transposon as demonstrated by the substitution of amber and/or in-frame deletions in six different genes. This allows a Sce-poson-containing gene to be specifically targeted for either designed or random modifications, as well as permitting the stepwise engineering of strains with multiple mutations. The promiscuous nature of Tn5 transposition also enables a targeted gene to be dissected by using randomly inserted Sce-posons as shown by a lacZ allelic series. Finally, assessment of the insertion sites by an iterative weighted matrix algorithm reveals that these hyperactive Tn5 complexes generally recognize a highly degenerate asymmetric motif on one end of the target site helping to explain the randomness of Tn5 transposition. PMID:15262929

  2. Routes of quinolone permeation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J S; Georgopapadakou, N H

    1988-01-01

    The uptake of quinolone antibiotics by Escherichia coli was investigated by using fleroxacin (RO 23-6240, AM 833) as a prototype compound. The uptake of fleroxacin was reduced and its MIC was increased in the presence of magnesium. Quinolones induced lipopolysaccharide release, increased cell-surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability to B-lactams, and sensitized cells to lysis by detergents. These effects were also antagonized by magnesium and were very similar to those seen with EDTA and gentamicin. MICs of quinolones in portin-deficient strains were increased relative to those of the parent strain, consistent with a porin pathway of entry. However, MICs were further increased in the presence of magnesium; the size of the additional increase showed a positive correlation with quinolone hydrophobicity in an OmpF- OmpC- OmpA- strain. When quinolones were mixed with divalent cations in solution, changes in quinolone fluorescence suggestive of metal chelation were observed. The addition of fleroxacin to a cell suspension resulted in a rapid initial association of fluorescence with cells, followed by a brief decrease and a final time-dependent linear increase in cell-associated fluorescence. We interpret these results as representing chelation of outer membrane-bound magnesium by fleroxacin and other quinolones, dissociation of the quinolone-magnesium complex from the outer membrane, and diffusion of the quinolone through both porins and exposed lipid domains on the outer membrane. For a given quinolone, the contribution of the porin and nonporin pathways to total uptake is influenced by the hydrophobicity of the quinolone. PMID:3132091

  3. Preliminary Characterization of the Transcriptional Response of the Porcine Intestinal Cell Line IPEC-J2 to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli, and E. coli Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Geens, Marisa M.; Niewold, Theo A.

    2010-01-01

    IPEC-J2, a promising in vitro model system, is not well characterized especially on the transcriptional level, in contrast to human counterparts. The aim of this study was to characterize the gene expression in IPEC-J2 cells when coincubated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), nonpathogenic E. coli, and E. coli endotoxin. Apical infection of polarized IPEC-J2 monolayers caused a time-dependent decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Microarray analysis showed up-regulation of interleukins when IPEC-J2 were cocultured with E. coli strains this has so far never been measured in this cell line. Highest IL8 expression was found with the ETEC strain possessing the F4 fimbrium, suggesting IPEC-J2 cells to be F4 receptor positive, confirmed in a brush border membrane adhesion assay. It is concluded that the innate immune responses to pathogens and LPS makes the IPEC-J2 cell line a suitable model for research on intestinal host pathogen interaction. PMID:21318186

  4. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Douglas J.; Galli, Lucía; Sankarapani, Vinoth; Soler, Michael; Rivas, Marta; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strain’s respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-γ) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-α, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2 × 104 CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms. PMID:22919600

  5. Production of 3-O-xylosyl quercetin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Malla, Sailesh; Simkhada, Dinesh; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2013-03-01

    Quercetin, a flavonol aglycone, is one of the most abundant flavonoids with high medicinal value. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of quercetin are influenced by the type of sugars attached to the molecule. To efficiently diversify the therapeutic uses of quercetin, Escherichia coli was harnessed as a production factory by the installation of various plant and bacterial UDP-xylose sugar biosynthetic genes. The genes encoding for the UDP-xylose pathway enzymes phosphoglucomutase (nfa44530), glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (galU), UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (calS8), and UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase (calS9) were overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) along with a glycosyltransferase (arGt-3) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, E. coli BL21(DE3)/∆pgi, E. coli BL21(DE3)/∆zwf, E. coli BL21(DE3)/∆pgi∆zwf, and E. coli BL21(DE3)/∆pgi∆zwf∆ushA mutants carrying the aforementioned UDP-xylose sugar biosynthetic genes and glycosyltransferase and the galU-integrated E. coli BL21(DE3)/∆pgi host harboring only calS8, calS9, and arGt-3 were constructed to enhance whole-cell bioconversion of exogeneously supplied quercetin into 3-O-xylosyl quercetin. Here, we report the highest production of 3-O-xylosyl quercetin with E. coli BL21 (DE3)/∆pgi∆zwf∆ushA carrying UDP-xylose sugar biosynthetic genes and glycosyltransferase. The maximum concentration of 3-O-xylosyl quercetin achieved was 23.78 mg/L (54.75 μM), representing 54.75 % bioconversion, which was an ~4.8-fold higher bioconversion than that shown by E. coli BL21 (DE3) with the same set of genes when the reaction was carried out in 5-mL culture tubes with 100 μM quercetin under optimized conditions. Bioconversion was further improved by 98 % when the reaction was scaled up in a 3-L fermentor at 36 h. PMID:23053089

  6. Selective detection of Escherichia coli DNA using fluorescent carbon spindles.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anurag; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Pramanik, Srikrishna; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-04-28

    We investigate the interaction of hydrophilic blue emitting carbon spindles with various deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) having different base pair compositions, such as Herring testes (HT), calf thymus (CT), Escherichia coli (EC) and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (ML) DNA, to understand the mode of interaction. Interestingly, the fluorescent carbon spindles selectively interacted with E. coli DNA resulting in enhanced fluorescence of the former. Interaction of the same carbon with other DNAs exhibited insignificant changes in fluorescence. In addition, in the presence of EC DNA, the D band in the Raman spectrum attributed to the defect state completely disappeared, resulting in enhanced crystallinity. Microscopy images confirmed the wrapping of DNA on the carbon spindles leading to the assembly of spindles in the form of flowers. Dissociation of double-stranded DNA occurred upon interaction with carbon spindles, resulting in selective E. coli DNA interaction. The carbon spindles also exhibited a similar fluorescence enhancement upon treating with E. coli bacteria. These results confirm the possibility of E. coli detection in water and other liquid foods using such fluorescent carbon. PMID:27081680

  7. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  8. Isolation of an Aptamer that Binds Specifically to E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Fernanda; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Cardoso, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species found ubiquitously in the intestinal flora of animals, although pathogenic variants cause major public health problems. Aptamers are short oligonucleotides that bind to targets with high affinity and specificity, and have great potential for use in diagnostics and therapy. We used cell-based Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) to isolate four single stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers that bind strongly to E. coli cells (ATCC generic strain 25922), with Kd values in the nanomolar range. Fluorescently labeled aptamers label the surface of E. coli cells, as viewed by fluorescent microscopy. Specificity tests with twelve different bacterial species showed that one of the aptamers–called P12-31—is highly specific for E. coli. Importantly, this aptamer binds to Meningitis/sepsis associated E. coli (MNEC) clinical isolates, and is the first aptamer described with potential for use in the diagnosis of MNEC-borne pathologies. PMID:27104834

  9. Comparative Genomic Indexing Reveals the Phylogenomics of Escherichia coli Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Muna F.; Lucchini, Sacha; Thompson, Arthur; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Woodward, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    The Escherichia coli O26 serogroup includes important food-borne pathogens associated with human and animal diarrheal disease. Current typing methods have revealed great genetic heterogeneity within the O26 group; the data are often inconsistent and focus only on verotoxin (VT)-positive O26 isolates. To improve current understanding of diversity within this serogroup, the genomic relatedness of VT-positive and -negative O26 strains was assessed by comparative genomic indexing. Our results clearly demonstrate that irrespective of virulence characteristics and pathotype designation, the O26 strains show greater genomic similarity to each other than to any other strain included in this study. Our data suggest that enteropathogenic and VT-expressing E. coli O26 strains represent the same clonal lineage and that VT-expressing E. coli O26 strains have gained additional virulence characteristics. Using this approach, we established the core genes which are central to the E. coli species and identified regions of variation from the E. coli K-12 chromosomal backbone. PMID:12874348

  10. Escherichia coli β-Lactamases: What Really Matters

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Singh, Nambram S.; Virdi, Jugsharan S.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains belonging to diverse pathotypes have increasingly been recognized as a major public health concern. The β-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully to treat infections caused by pathogenic E. coli. However, currently, the utility of β-lactams is being challenged severely by a large number of hydrolytic enzymes – the β-lactamases expressed by bacteria. The menace is further compounded by the highly flexible genome of E. coli, and propensity of resistance dissemination through horizontal gene transfer and clonal spread. Successful management of infections caused by such resistant strains requires an understanding of the diversity of β-lactamases, their unambiguous detection, and molecular mechanisms underlying their expression and spread with regard to the most relevant information about individual bacterial species. Thus, this review comprises first such effort in this direction for E. coli, a bacterial species known to be associated with production of diverse classes of β-lactamases. The review also highlights the role of commensal E. coli as a potential but under-estimated reservoir of β-lactamases-encoding genes. PMID:27065978

  11. Role of peripheral pooling in porcine Escherichia coli sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Teule, G.J.; von Lingen, A.; Verwey von Vught, M.A.; Kester, A.D.; Mackaay, R.C.; Bezemer, P.D.; Heidenal, G.A.; Thijs, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    In anesthesized pigs the effects of E. coli (2 X 10(8)/kg) on hemodynamics and red cell distribution were studied. After injection of 99m-Tc red cells (15 mCi), regional radioactivity was followed during 3 hours. Gated bloodpool studies were performed to measure end-diastolic volumes (EDV). Escherichia coli E. coli was infused in 14 pigs, while 7 animals served as controls. E. coli resulted in an early increase in pulmonary arterial pressure. Systemic arterial pressure decreased gradually, while cardiac output did not change significantly. The gated studies revealed that especially left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) declined, to 50% of the basal value. Regional radioactivity did not change over lungs, liver and abdomen. Splenic activity declined markedly. Over the hindlimb a significant increase (29 +/- 8%) was observed. It is concluded that E. coli infusion in pigs induces a hemodynamic pattern similar to human sepsis. The decrease in LVEDV is probably related to peripheral pooling and a change in right ventricle (RV) performance.

  12. Recent Advances in Understanding Enteric Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Croxen, Matthew A.; Law, Robyn J.; Scholz, Roland; Keeney, Kristie M.; Wlodarska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Although Escherichia coli can be an innocuous resident of the gastrointestinal tract, it also has the pathogenic capacity to cause significant diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Pathogenic variants of E. coli (pathovars or pathotypes) cause much morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, pathogenic E. coli is widely studied in humans, animals, food, and the environment. While there are many common features that these pathotypes employ to colonize the intestinal mucosa and cause disease, the course, onset, and complications vary significantly. Outbreaks are common in developed and developing countries, and they sometimes have fatal consequences. Many of these pathotypes are a major public health concern as they have low infectious doses and are transmitted through ubiquitous mediums, including food and water. The seriousness of pathogenic E. coli is exemplified by dedicated national and international surveillance programs that monitor and track outbreaks; unfortunately, this surveillance is often lacking in developing countries. While not all pathotypes carry the same public health profile, they all carry an enormous potential to cause disease and continue to present challenges to human health. This comprehensive review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:24092857

  13. Resistance and virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Silvie; Dolezalova, Magda; Holko, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chicken meat has become an important part of the human diet and besides contamination by pathogenic Escherichia coli there is a risk of antibiotic resistance spreading via the food chain. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of resistance against eight antibiotics and the presence of 14 virulence factors among 75 Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat in the Czech Republic after classification into phylogenetic groups by the multiplex PCR method. More than half of strains belonged to A phylogroup, next frequently represented was B1 phylogroup, which suggests the commensal strains. The other strains were classified into phylogroups B2 and D, which had more virulence factors. Almost half of all E. coli strains were resistant to at least one of eight-tested antibiotics. A multidrug resistance was observed in 13% of strains. The most prevalent virulence genes were iucD, iss and tsh. None of genes encoding toxins was detected. Most of E. coli strains isolated from chicken meat can be considered as nonpathogenic on the basis of analysis of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and phylogroups assignment. It can provide a useful tool for prediction of a potential risk from food contaminated by E. coli. PMID:25844863

  14. The Escherichia coli Proteome: Past, Present, and Future Prospects†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics has emerged as an indispensable methodology for large-scale protein analysis in functional genomics. The Escherichia coli proteome has been extensively studied and is well defined in terms of biochemical, biological, and biotechnological data. Even before the entire E. coli proteome was fully elucidated, the largest available data set had been integrated to decipher regulatory circuits and metabolic pathways, providing valuable insights into global cellular physiology and the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. With the recent advent of advanced proteomic technologies, the E. coli proteome has been used for the validation of new technologies and methodologies such as sample prefractionation, protein enrichment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein detection, mass spectrometry (MS), combinatorial assays with n-dimensional chromatographies and MS, and image analysis software. These important technologies will not only provide a great amount of additional information on the E. coli proteome but also synergistically contribute to other proteomic studies. Here, we review the past development and current status of E. coli proteome research in terms of its biological, biotechnological, and methodological significance and suggest future prospects. PMID:16760308

  15. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    PubMed

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture. PMID:20400597

  16. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G.; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin–producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli

  17. Infection by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A

    1989-01-01

    Verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a newly recognized group of enteric pathogens which are increasingly being recognized as common causes of diarrhea in some geographic settings. Outbreak studies indicate that most patients with VTEC infection develop mild uncomplicated diarrhea. However, a significant risk of two serious and potentially life-threatening complications, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome, makes VTEC infection a public health problem of serious concern. The main reservoirs of VTEC appear to be the intestinal tracts of animals, and foods of animal (especially bovine) origin are probably the principal sources for human infection. The term VT refers to a family of subunit exotoxins with high biological activity. Individual VTEC strains elaborate one or both of at least two serologically distinct, bacteriophage-mediated VTs (VT1 and VT2) which are closely related to Shiga toxin and are thus also referred to as Shiga-like toxins. The holotoxins bind to cells, via their B subunits, to a specific receptor which is probably the glycolipid, globotriosyl ceramide (Gb3). Binding is followed by internalization of the A subunit, which, after it is proteolytically nicked and reduced to the A1 fragment, inhibits protein synthesis in mammalian cells by inactivating 60S ribosomal subunits through selective structural modification of 28S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. The mechanism of VTEC diarrhea is still controversial, and the relative roles of locally acting VT and "attaching and effacing adherence" of VTEC to the mucosa have yet to be resolved. There is increasing evidence that hemolytic uremic syndrome and possibly hemorrhagic colitis result from the systemic action of VT on vascular endothelial cells. The role of antitoxic immunity in preventing the systemic complications of VTEC infection is being explored. Antibiotics appear to be contraindicated in the treatment of VTEC infection. The most common VTEC serotype associated

  18. Virulence of Shigella flexneri Hybrids Expressing Escherichia coli Somatic Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gemski, P.; Sheahan, D. G.; Washington, O.; Formal, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    The genes controlling either Escherichia coli somatic antigen 8 or 25 were conjugally transferred to virulent Shigella flexneri 2a recipients to determine whether the aquisition of these antigens would affect the virulence of the resulting hybrid. A high proportion of such hybrids were found to be rough and hence were avirulent. Some smooth S. flexneri hybrids which replaced their native group antigens with E. coli factor 25 were still virulent in the animal models employed. All S. flexneri O-8 hybrids were uniformly avirulent. Our finding, that S. flexneri hybrids with the chemically divergent E. coli O-8 repeat unit are avirulent whereas some hybrids with the chemically related O-25 repeat unit retain virulence, suggests that the chemical composition and structure of the O side chain of somatic antigens may represent one determining factor for bacterial penetration of mucosal epithelial cells, the primary step in the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery. Images PMID:4569915

  19. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  20. Reconstruction of a chromatic response system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sugie, Yoshimi; Hori, Mayuko; Oka, Shunsuke; Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Aiba, Hirofumi

    2016-07-14

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are involved in widespread cellular responses to diverse signals from bacteria to plants. Cyanobacteria have evolved photoperception systems for efficient photosynthesis, and some histidine kinases are known to function as photosensors. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct the photoperception system in Escherichia coli to make an easily controllable ON/OFF switch for gene expressions. For this purpose, a CcaS-CcaR two-component system from Nostoc punctiforme was expressed with phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing enzymes in E. coli which carries a G-box-controlled reporter gene. We succeeded to endow E. coli with a gene activation switch that is regulated in a light-color dependent manner. The possibility of such a switch for the development of synthetic biology is pointed out. PMID:27246537