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Sample records for adenosine diphosphate adp

  1. Mapping of the nucleotide-binding sites in the ADP/ATP carrier of beef heart mitochondria by photolabeling with 2-azido[alpha-32P]adenosine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Dalbon, P; Brandolin, G; Boulay, F; Hoppe, J; Vignais, P V

    1988-07-12

    2-Azido[alpha-32P]adenosine diphosphate (2-azido[alpha-32P]ADP) has been used to photolabel the ADP/ATP carrier in beef heart mitochondria. In reversible binding assays carried out in the dark, this photoprobe was found to inhibit ADP/ATP transport in beef heart mitochondria and to bind to two types of specific sites of the ADP/ATP carrier characterized by high-affinity binding (Kd = 20 microM) and low-affinity binding (Kd = 400 microM). In contrast, it was unable to bind to specific carrier sites in inverted submitochondrial particles. Upon photoirradiation of beef heart mitochondria in the presence of 2-azido[alpha-32P]ADP, the ADP/ATP carrier was covalently labeled. After purification, the photolabeled carrier protein was cleaved chemically by acidolysis or cyanogen bromide and enzymatically with the Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In the ADP/ATP carrier protein, which is 297 amino acid residues in length, two discrete regions extending from Phe-153 to Met-200 and from Tyr-250 to Met-281 were labeled by 2-azido[alpha-32P]ADP. The peptide fragments corresponding to these regions were sequenced, and the labeled amino acids were identified. As 2-azido-ADP is not transported into mitochondria and competes against transport of externally added ADP, it is concluded that the two regions of the carrier which are photolabeled are facing the cytosol. Whether the two photolabeled regions are located in a single peptide chain of the carrier or in different peptide chains of an oligomeric structure is discussed.

  2. Mapping of the nucleotide-binding sites in the ADP/ATP carrier of beef heart mitochondria by photolabeling with 2-azido(. cap alpha. -/sup 32/P)adenosine diphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Dalbon, P.; Brandolin, G.; Boulay, F.; Hoppe, J.; Vignais, P.V.

    1988-07-12

    2-Azido(..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)adenosine diphosphate (2-azido(..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)ADP) has been used to photolabel the ADP/ATP carrier in beef heart mitochondria. In reversible binding assays carried out in the dark, this photoprobe was found to inhibit ADP/ATP transport in beef heart mitochondria and to bind to two types of specific sites of the ADP/ATP carrier characterized by high-affinity binding (K/sub d/ = 20 ..mu..M) and low-affinity binding (K/sub d/ = 400 ..mu..M). In contrast, it was unable to bind to specific carrier sites in inverted submitochondrial particles. Upon photoirradiation of beef heart mitochondria in the presence of 2-azido(..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)ADP, the ADP/ATP carrier was covalently labeled. After purification, the photolabeled carrier protein was cleaved chemically by acidolysis or cyanogen bromide and enzymatically with the Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In the ADP/ATP carrier protein, which is 297 amino acid residues in length, two discrete regions extending from Phe-153 to Met-200 and from Tyr-250 to Met-281 were labeled by 2-azido(..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)ADP. The peptide fragments corresponding to these regions were sequenced, and the labeled amino acids were identified. As 2-azido-ADP is not transported into mitochondria and competes against transport of externally added ADP, it is concluded that the two regions of the carrier which are photolabeled are facing the cytosol. Whether the two photolabeled regions are located in a single peptide chain of the carrier or in different peptide chains of an oligomeric structure is discussed.

  3. Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)-Ribosylation of the Guanosine Triphosphatase (GTPase) Rho in Resting Peripheral Blood Human T Lymphocytes Results in Pseudopodial Extension and the Inhibition of  T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woodside, Darren G.; Wooten, David K.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    1998-01-01

    Scrape loading Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme into primary peripheral blood human T lymphocytes (PB T cells) efficiently adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylates and thus inactivates the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rho. Basal adhesion of PB T cells to the β1 integrin substrate fibronectin (Fn) was not inhibited by inactivation of Rho, nor was upregulation of adhesion using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 10 ng/ml) or Mn++ (1 mM) affected. Whereas untreated PB T cells adherent to Fn remain spherical, C3-treated PB T cells extend F-actin–containing pseudopodia. Inactivation of Rho delayed the kinetics of PMA-dependent PB T cell homotypic aggregation, a process involving integrin αLβ2. Although C3 treatment of PB T cells did not prevent adhesion to the β1 integrin substrate Fn, it did inhibit β1 integrin/CD3-mediated costimulation of proliferation. Analysis of intracellular cytokine production at the single cell level demonstrated that ADP-ribosylation of Rho inhibited β1 integrin/ CD3 and CD28/CD3 costimulation of IL-2 production within 6 h of activation. Strikingly, IL-2 production induced by PMA and ionomycin was unaffected by C3 treatment. Thus, the GTPase Rho is a novel regulator of T lymphocyte cytoarchitecture, and functional Rho is required for very early events regulating costimulation of IL-2 production in PB T cells. PMID:9763600

  4. Cyclic aristeromycin diphosphate ribose: a potent and poorly hydrolysable Ca(2+)-mobilising mimic of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose.

    PubMed

    Bailey, V C; Fortt, S M; Summerhill, R J; Galione, A; Potter, B V

    1996-02-01

    Cyclic aristeromycin diphosphate ribose, a carbocyclic analogue of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, was synthesised using a chemo-enzymatic route involving activation of aristeromycin 5'-phosphate by diphenyl phosphochloridate. The calcium-releasing properties of this novel analogue were investigated in sea urchin egg homogenates. While cyclic aristeromycin diphosphate ribose has a calcium release profile similar to that of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (EC50 values are 80 nM and 30 nM, respectively), it is degraded significantly more slowly (t1/2 values are 170 min and 15 min, respectively) and may, therefore, be a useful tool to investigate the activities of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose. PMID:8603694

  5. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-triphosphate dianions in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Schinle, Florian; Crider, Paul E; Vonderach, Matthias; Weis, Patrick; Hampe, Oliver; Kappes, Manfred M

    2013-05-14

    Doubly deprotonated adenosine 5'-diphosphate ([ADP-2H](2-)) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([ATP-2H](2-)) dianions were investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IR-MPD) and photoelectron spectroscopy. Vibrational spectra acquired in the X-H stretch region (X = C, N, O) and augmented by isotope-labelling were compared to density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/TZVPP level. This suggests that in [ATP-2H](2-) the two phosphate groups adjacent to the ribose ring are preferentially deprotonated. Photoelectron spectra recorded at 4.66 and 6.42 eV photon energies revealed adiabatic detachment energies of 1.35 eV for [ADP-2H](2-) and 3.35 eV for [ATP-2H](2-). Repulsive Coulomb barriers were estimated at ~2.2 eV for [ADP-2H](2-) and ~1.9 eV for [ATP-2H](2-). Time-dependent DFT calculations have been used to simulate the photoelectron spectra. Photodetachment occurs primarily from lone pair orbitals on oxygen atoms within the phosphate chain. PMID:23258289

  6. Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, and adenosine 5'-monophosphate detection by short-end injection capillary electrophoresis using methylcellulose as the effective electroosmostic flow suppressor.

    PubMed

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Pasciu, Valeria; Madeddu, Manuela; Leoni, Giovanni Giuseppe; Naitana, Salvatore; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco

    2008-07-01

    We present a new rapid CE method to measure adenine nucleotides adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in cells. The short-end injection mode allows a decrease in the analysis time by injecting samples at the outlet end of a silica capillary closest to the detection window, reducing the migration distance. Moreover, the use of methylcellulose (MC) as run buffer additive to suppress EOF permits to further reduce the migration times of analytes. Thus, when a capillary with an effective length of 10.2 cm was used with a 60 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer pH 3.80 in the presence of 0.01% of MC, the migration time of analytes were 1.35 min for ATP, 1.85 min for ADP, and 4.64 min for AMP. These conditions gave a good reproducibility for intra- and interassay (CV <4 and 8%, respectively) and all the procedure demonstrated an excellent analytical recovery (from 98.3 to 99 %). The method suitability was proved both on red blood cells and in spermatozoa. We compared our proposed method to a spectrophotometric assay, by measuring ATP levels in 40 spermatozoa samples. The obtained data were analyzed by the Passing and Bablok regression and Bland-Altman test. PMID:18551716

  7. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, L; Gombault, A; Fanny, M; Villeret, B; Savigny, F; Guillou, N; Panek, C; Le Bert, M; Lagente, V; Rassendren, F; Riteau, N; Couillin, I

    2015-01-01

    The NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a major component of the innate immune system, but its mechanism of activation by a wide range of molecules remains largely unknown. Widely used nano-sized inorganic metal oxides such as silica dioxide (nano-SiO2) and titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages similarly to silica or asbestos micro-sized particles. By investigating towards the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to nanoparticles, we show here that active adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine receptor signalling are required for inflammasome activation. Nano-SiO2 or nano-TiO2 caused a significant increase in P2Y1, P2Y2, A2A and/or A2B receptor expression, whereas the P2X7 receptor was downregulated. Interestingly, IL-1β secretion in response to nanoparticles is increased by enhanced ATP and ADP hydrolysis, whereas it is decreased by adenosine degradation or selective A2A or A2B receptor inhibition. Downstream of these receptors, our results show that nanoparticles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome via activation of PLC-InsP3 and/or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (ADCY)-cAMP pathways. Finally, a high dose of adenosine triggers inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion through adenosine cellular uptake by nucleotide transporters and by its subsequent transformation in ATP by adenosine kinase. In summary, we show for the first time that extracellular adenosine activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by two ways: by interacting with adenosine receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations and through cellular uptake by equilibrative nucleoside transporters at millimolar concentrations. These findings provide new molecular insights on the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and new therapeutic strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25654762

  8. Impact of aspirin dose on adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet activities. Results of an in vitro pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Thano, Estela; Rollini, Fabiana; Patel, Ronakkumar; Wilson, Ryan E; Muñiz-Lozano, Ana; Franchi, Francesco; Darlington, Andrew; Desai, Bhaloo; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2013-10-01

    Different aspirin dosing regimens have been suggested to impact outcomes when used in combination with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Prior investigations have shown that not only aspirin, but also potent ADP P2Y12 receptor blockade can inhibit thromboxane A2-mediated platelet activation. The impact of aspirin dosing on ADP mediated platelet activities is unknown and represents the aim of this in vitro pilot pharmacodynamic (PD) investigation. Twenty-six patients with stable coronary artery disease on aspirin 81 mg/day and P2Y12 naïve were enrolled. PD assessments were performed at baseline, while patients were on 81 mg/day aspirin and after switching to 325 mg/day for 7 ± 2 days with and without escalating concentrations (vehicle, 1, 3, and 10 μM) of prasugrel's active metabolite (P-AM). PD assays included flow cytometric assessment of VASP to define the platelet reactivity index (PRI) and the Multiplate Analyzer (MEA) using multiple agonists [ADP, ADP + prostaglandin (PGE1), arachidonic acid (AA), and collagen]. Escalating P-AM concentrations showed incremental platelet P2Y12 inhibition measured by VASP-PRI (p<0.001). However, there were no differences according to aspirin dosing regimen at any P-AM concentration (vehicle: p=0.899; 1 μM: p=0.888; 3 μM: p=0.524; 10 μM: p=0.548). Similar findings were observed in purinergic markers assessed by MEA (ADP and ADP+PGE1). P-AM addition significantly reduced AA and collagen induced platelet aggregation (p<0.001 for all measures), irrespective of aspirin dose. In conclusion, aspirin dosing does not appear to affect PD measures of ADP-mediated platelet reactivity irrespective of the degree of P2Y12 receptor blockade. P2Y12 receptor blockade modulates platelet reactivity mediated by alternative activators. PMID:23884248

  9. Adenosine diphosphate restricts the protein remodeling activity of the Hsp104 chaperone to Hsp70 assisted disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Kłosowska, Agnieszka; Chamera, Tomasz; Liberek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Hsp104 disaggregase provides thermotolerance in yeast by recovering proteins from aggregates in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone. Protein disaggregation involves polypeptide extraction from aggregates and its translocation through the central channel of the Hsp104 hexamer. This process relies on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Considering that Hsp104 is characterized by low affinity towards ATP and is strongly inhibited by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), we asked how Hsp104 functions at the physiological levels of adenine nucleotides. We demonstrate that physiological levels of ADP highly limit Hsp104 activity. This inhibition, however, is moderated by the Hsp70 chaperone, which allows efficient disaggregation by supporting Hsp104 binding to aggregates but not to non-aggregated, disordered protein substrates. Our results point to an additional level of Hsp104 regulation by Hsp70, which restricts the potentially toxic protein unfolding activity of Hsp104 to the disaggregation process, providing the yeast protein-recovery system with substrate specificity and efficiency in ATP consumption. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15159.001 PMID:27223323

  10. Consensus and future directions on the definition of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bonello, Laurent; Tantry, Udaya S; Marcucci, Rossella; Blindt, Ruediger; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Becker, Richard; Bhatt, Deepak L; Cattaneo, Marco; Collet, Jean Philippe; Cuisset, Thomas; Gachet, Christian; Montalescot, Gilles; Jennings, Lisa K; Kereiakes, Dean; Sibbing, Dirk; Trenk, Dietmar; Van Werkum, Jochem W; Paganelli, Franck; Price, Matthew J; Waksman, Ron; Gurbel, Paul A

    2010-09-14

    The addition of clopidogrel to aspirin treatment reduces ischemic events in a wide range of patients with cardiovascular disease. However, recurrent ischemic event occurrence during dual antiplatelet therapy, including stent thrombosis, remains a major concern. Platelet function measurements during clopidogrel treatment demonstrated a variable and overall modest level of P2Y(12) inhibition. High on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was observed in selected patients. Multiple studies have now demonstrated a clear association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP measured by multiple methods and adverse clinical event occurrence. However, the routine measurement of platelet reactivity has not been widely implemented and recommended in the guidelines. Reasons for the latter include: 1) a lack of consensus on the optimal method to quantify high on-treatment platelet reactivity and the cutoff value associated with clinical risk; and 2) limited data to support that alteration of therapy based on platelet function measurements actually improves outcomes. This review provides a consensus opinion on the definition of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP based on various methods reported in the literature and proposes how this measurement may be used in the future care of patients.

  11. Consensus and update on the definition of on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate associated with ischemia and bleeding.

    PubMed

    Tantry, Udaya S; Bonello, Laurent; Aradi, Daniel; Price, Matthew J; Jeong, Young-Hoon; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Stone, Gregg W; Curzen, Nick; Geisler, Tobias; Ten Berg, Jurrien; Kirtane, Ajay; Siller-Matula, Jolanta; Mahla, Elisabeth; Becker, Richard C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Waksman, Ron; Rao, Sunil V; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Marcucci, Rossella; Reny, Jean-Luc; Trenk, Dietmar; Sibbing, Dirk; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-17

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor blocker is a key strategy to reduce platelet reactivity and to prevent thrombotic events in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. In an earlier consensus document, we proposed cutoff values for high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) associated with post-percutaneous coronary intervention ischemic events for various platelet function tests (PFTs). Updated American and European practice guidelines have issued a Class IIb recommendation for PFT to facilitate the choice of P2Y12 receptor inhibitor in selected high-risk patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, although routine testing is not recommended (Class III). Accumulated data from large studies underscore the importance of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP as a prognostic risk factor. Recent prospective randomized trials of PFT did not demonstrate clinical benefit, thus questioning whether treatment modification based on the results of current PFT platforms can actually influence outcomes. However, there are major limitations associated with these randomized trials. In addition, recent data suggest that low on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP is associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Therefore, a therapeutic window concept has been proposed for P2Y12 inhibitor therapy. In this updated consensus document, we review the available evidence addressing the relation of platelet reactivity to thrombotic and bleeding events. In addition, we propose cutoff values for high and low on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP that might be used in future investigations of personalized antiplatelet therapy.

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of platelet adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Christopher N; Passacquale, Gabriella; Ferro, Albert

    2012-07-01

    Over the last two decades or more, anti-platelet therapy has become established as a cornerstone in the treatment of patients with ischaemic cardiovascular disease, since such drugs effectively reduce arterial thrombotic events. The original agent used in this context was aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) but, with the advent of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists, the use of dual anti-platelet therapy has resulted in further improvement in cardiovascular outcomes when compared with aspirin alone. The first group of platelet ADP receptor antagonists to be developed was the thienopyridine class, which comprise inactive pro-drugs that require in vivo metabolism to their active metabolites before exerting their inhibitory effect on the P2Y(12) receptor. Clopidogrel has been the principal ADP receptor antagonist in use over the past decade, but is limited by variability in its in vivo inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA). The pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel are unpredictable due to their vulnerability to multiple independent factors including genetic polymorphisms. Expression of the 3435T/T genetic variant encoding the MDR1 gene for the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter results in a significantly reduced maximum drug concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve as intestinal absorption of clopidogrel is reduced; and the expression of the mutant *2 allele of CYP2C19 results in similar pharmacokinetic effects as the two cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated steps required for the production of the active metabolite of clopidogrel are impaired. These variable pharmacokinetics lead to erratic pharmacodynamics and cannot reliably be overcome with increased dosing. Both prasugrel, a third-generation thienopyridine, and ticagrelor, a cyto-pentyl-triazolo-pyrimidine, have more predictable pharmacokinetics and enhanced pharmacodynamics than clopidogrel. Neither appears to be affected by the same genetic polymorphisms as clopidogrel; prasugrel requires

  13. Synthesis of the coenzymes adenosine diphosphate glucose, guanosine diphosphate glucose, and cytidine diphosphoethanolamine under primitive Earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mar, A.; Oro, J.

    1991-01-01

    The nonenzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG), guanosine diphosphate glucose (GDPG), and cytidine diphosphoethanolamine (CDP-ethanolamine) has been carried out under conditions considered to have been prevalent on the early Earth. The production of these compounds was performed by allowing simple precursor molecules to react under aqueous solutions, at moderate temperatures and short periods of time, with mediation by cyanamide or urea. These two condensing agents are considered to have been present in significant amounts on the primitive Earth and have been previously used in the nonenzymatic synthesis of several other important biochemical compounds. In our experiments, ADPG was obtained by heating glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) and ATP in the presence of cyanamide for 24 h at 70 degrees C. The reaction of G1P and GTP under the same conditions yielded GDPG. The cyanamide-mediated production of CDP-ethanolamine was carried out by reacting a mixture of ethanolamine phosphate and CTP for 24 h at 70 degrees C. The separation and identification of the reaction products was carried out by paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, high performance thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, both normal and reverse-phase, UV spectroscopy, enzymatic assays, and acid hydrolysis. Due to the mild conditions employed, and to the relative ease of these reactions, these studies offer a simple attractive system for the nonenzymatic synthesis of phosphorylated high-energy metabolic intermediates under conditions considered to have been prevalent on the ancient Earth.

  14. Release of adenosine triphosphate by adenosine diphosphate in whole blood and in erythrocyte suspensions.

    PubMed

    Knöfler, R; Weissbach, G; Kuhlisch, E

    1997-12-01

    In whole blood samples from thrombocytopenic patients, large amounts of ATP were released by ADP, exceeding the level obtained with samples from normal persons by far. Because we suspected that the high potential of ATP in erythrocytes would be the main source for this phenomenon, the release of ATP by ADP was measured in whole blood samples from normal, thrombocytopenic, and leukocytopenic persons and in suspensions of washed erythrocytes. The release was recorded by a Whole Blood Lumi-Aggregometer type 500 VS (Chrono-Log Corporation, Havertown, PA) using the luciferin-luciferase system. Not only in samples from thrombocytopenic persons but also with normal platelet count, increasing amounts of ATP were released with increasing ADP concentrations, finally exceeding the ATP releasable from thrombocytes by thrombin. The amounts of ADP required to match the ATP release of thrombin were closely correlated with the platelet counts in the samples. With lower platelet counts, the release mechanism from erythrocytes could be stimulated more easily by low concentrations of ADP. The binding of ADP to platelets occurred with ostensibly higher affinity. The phenomenon of overshooting ATP release was also observed in samples from extremely leukocytopenic patients. A very large release of ATP was also achieved in suspensions of washed erythrocytes. In this way our hypothesis of ATP release from erythrocytes by ADP was confirmed again. The mechanism of the release from erythrocytes remains unclear. We speculate that its purpose is to regulate extracellular nucleotides in the circulating blood.

  15. Quantification of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and creatine phosphate in sterlet spermatozoa during maturation.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, P; Dzyuba, B; Fedorova, G; Grabic, R; Cosson, J; Rodina, M

    2015-11-01

    Sturgeon spermatozoa maturation during their passage through the kidney is a prerequisite for initiation of motility. Samples of sterlet () testicular sperm (TS) were matured in vitro by incubation in seminal fluid (SF) or in SF supplemented with carbonyl cyanide -chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; a respiration uncoupling agent). Sperm was diluted in activation medium (AM) containing 10 m Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5) and 0.25% Pluronic, and spermatozoon motility was assessed. Samples were taken and fixed in 3 perchloric acid at 3 points in the incubation process. Quantification of ATP, ADP, and creatine phosphate (CrP) was conducted using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We observed a significant decrease in CrP during artificial maturation of TS in SF. In contrast, ATP and ADP were not significantly affected. Addition of CCCP to SF halted maturation and led to significantly lower CrP whereas ADP significantly increased and ATP was unaffected. Dilution of matured and immature TS with AM led to a significant decrease of ATP and CrP and an increase of ADP compared with their levels before dilution, although immature TS were not motile. Energy dependency of TS maturation in sturgeon was confirmed, which suggests that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is needed for maturation of sturgeon TS. PMID:26641041

  16. Adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of human platelets in flow through tubes: III. Shear and extrinsic fibrinogen-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, H L; Frojmovic, M M; Braovac, S; McIntosh, F; Wong, T

    1994-01-01

    The effect of shear rate and fibrinogen concentration on adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of suspensions of washed human platelets in Poiseuille flow at 23 degrees C was studied using a previously described double infusion technique and resistive particle counter size analysis. Using suspensions of multiple-centrifuged and -washed cells in Tyrodes-albumin [3 x 10(5) microliters-1; (17)] with [fibrinogen] from 0 to 1.2 microM, the rate and extent of aggregation with 0.7 microM ADP in Tyrodes-albumin were measured over a range of mean transit times from 0.2 to 43 s, and at mean tube shear rates, G, = 41.9, 335 and 1,335 s-1. As measured by the decrease in singlet concentration, aggregation at 1.2 microM fibrinogen increased with increasing G up to 1,335 s-1, in contrast to that previously reported in citrated plasma, in which aggregation reached a maximum at G = 335 s-1. Without added fibrinogen, there was no aggregation at G = 41.9 s-1; at G = 335 s-1, there was significant aggregation but with an initial lag time, aggregation increasing further at G = 1,335 s-1. Without added fibrinogen, aggregation was abolished at all G upon incubation with the hexapeptide GRGDSP, but was almost unaffected by addition of an F(ab')2 fragment of an antibody to human fibrinogen. Aggregation in the absence of added fibrinogen was also observed at 37 degrees C. The activation of the multiple-washed platelets was tested using flow cytometry with the fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibodies FITC-PAC1 and FITC-9F9. It was shown that 57% of single cells in unactivated PRT expressed maximal GPIIb-IIIa fibrinogen receptors (MoAb PAC1) and 54% expressed pre-bound fibrinogen (MoAb 9F9), with further increases on ADP activation. However, incubation with GRGDSP and the F(ab')2 fragment did not inhibit the prebound fibrinogen. Moreover, relatively unactivated cells (8% expressing receptor, 14% prebound fibrinogen), prepared from acidified cPRP by single centrifugation with 50 nM of

  17. Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Mesoporous Microspheres Using Adenosine 5'-Diphosphate and Application in pH-Responsive Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Herein we report a rapid and green strategy for the preparation of amorphous calcium phosphate mesoporous microspheres (ACP-MSs) using adenosine 5'-diphosphate disodium salt (ADP) as an organic phosphorus source by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the pH value, the reaction time, and temperature on the crystal phase and morphology of the product are investigated. The ADP biomolecules used in this strategy play an important role in the formation of ACP-MSs. The as-prepared ACP-MSs are efficient for anticancer drug delivery by using doxorubicin (Dox) as a model drug, and the Dox-loaded ACP-MSs show a high ability to damage cancer cells. Moreover, the ACP-MSs drug delivery system exhibits a pH-responsive drug-release behavior due to the degradation of ACP-MSs at a low pH value, thus, it is promising for applications in pH-responsive drug delivery.

  19. A 31P NMR spectroscopy study of Xenopus laevis heart perfused in vitro with creatinol-O-phosphate, phosphocreatine, adenosine triphosphate, fructose diphosphate and ouabain.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J I; Rossini, P; Schweizer, M P; Bernardi, M; Moretti, V; Re, L; Rossini, L

    1993-09-01

    Xenopus laevis heart was studied by 31P NMR using a 200 MHz proton spectrometer; hearts were perfused, at pH 7.35 and room temperature, with normal oxygenated or K(+)-enriched Ringer. Solution was later added with creatinol-O-phosphate (COP), phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) and ouabain. NMR spectra of the heart show organic phosphomono- and phosphodi-esters, inorganic phosphate, PCr, overlapping alpha-ATP/ADP and gamma-ATP/beta-ADP, and beta-ATP signals. Their chemical shift positions and areas showed no significant changes in the course of 1.5 h perfusions with either solution, except in a few preparations, whether the heart was beating or reversibly arrested. While COP reduced the signals in beating hearts, the same spectra exhibited no consistent, substantial changes under PCr, ATP and FDP 1 to 10 mM, pH 7.35 perfusion with either solution, nor when ouabain mumol was added. The spectra are briefly discussed in comparison with those observed in the perfused heart of mammals (mostly rat), and particularly with those obtained in the frog (Rana temporaria) heart, both by analysing the bioenergetic equilibria on the basis of total tissue substrate levels measured in extracts of freeze-clamped tissue, and by evaluating cytochrome-b, flavin and pyridine nucleotide in vitro oxido-reduction read-outs in separate, similar experimental settings.

  20. Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase using quinazolinone nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, K; Madhumitha, G

    2016-09-01

    Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a group of enzymes with several subtypes and it manages various ailment such as cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes mellitus, neuronal injury, HIV infection, Parkinsonism, aging, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Various PARP inhibitors share a common property of bicyclic lactam in its main structural frame. The core moiety containing bicyclic lactam rings are isoquinolinones, dihydroisoquinolinones, quinazolinediones, phthalazinones, quinazolinones, and phenanthridones. The quinazolinone with diverse substituents displayed low nanomolar inhibition. Quinazolinone is an important and vital molecule in the field of medicinal chemistry possessing multitude pharmacological actions. Though the chemistry of quinazolinones has been discussed through centuries, its concise role on PARP inhibition needed a special consideration. The aim of this review is to discover the effect of quinazolinone substitutents and its role in PARP inhibition. This precise review will discuss the effect of quinazolinones on PARP subtypes such as PARP-1, PARP-2, PARP-5a, and PARP-5b. In addition to its pharmacological actions, PARP inhibitors can also act as a chemosensitizing agent, and it is used in combination with the other anticancer agents. This summarization will definitely be a supportive report for the scientist working toward the novelty in the quinazolinone nucleus and its role in PARP inhibition. PMID:27470142

  1. Enhanced poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and gene expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.C.; Thraves, P.J.; Bhatia, K.G.; Smulson, M.E.; Dritschilo, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a highly malignant childhood bone tumor and is considered curable by moderate doses of radiotherapy. The addition of chemical inhibitors of the activity of the nuclear enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) (poly(ADPR)) polymerase to ES cells in culture results in increased cell killing, a phenomenon called inhibitor sensitization. Since poly(ADPR) polymerase is thought to be associated with DNA repair, it has been suggested that ES cells and other inhibitor-sensitized cells may have a reduced capacity for polymer synthesis resulting in deficient postirradiation recovery. We present here the unexpected observation that in comparison to other cell lines tested, ES cells exhibit a high enzyme activity, higher constitutive levels of the protein, and elevated levels of its mRNA transcript for poly(ADPR) polymerase. No gross amplifications or rearrangements of the gene were observed; however, regulation of poly(ADPR) polymerase in these tumor cells takes place at the level of the gene transcript.

  2. Synthesis of DNA and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose) in Normal and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Nathan A.; Adams, Jessie W.; Sikorski, Georgina W.; Petzold, Shirley J.; Shearer, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 9 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 12 normal control donors. The cells were assayed for synthesis of DNA and poly-(adenosine diphosphate ribose) (poly[ADPR]) immediately after isolation and on successive days following their treatment with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Two different techniques were used to measure DNA synthesis. In the standard technique, DNA synthesis was measured by incubating intact cells with [3H]deoxythymidine. In the new technique, the lymphocytes were first rendered permeable to nucleotides, then DNA synthesis was measured by incubating them with [3H]deoxythymidine triphosphate in the presence of deoxyATP, deoxyGTP, deoxyCTP, ATP, and Mg++. Both assays showed the anticipated rise in DNA synthesis after PHA stimulation of normal cells. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with CLL demonstrated low levels of DNA synthesis in both assay systems. The initial levels of poly(ADPR) synthesis were greater in CLL lymphocytes than in normal cells. Studies with a T-cell-depleted population of normal cells showed the same activity for poly(ADPR) synthesis that was demonstrated by the original population of normal cells. PHA stimulation produced an increase in poly(ADPR) synthesis in both the normal and CLL cells. The increase in poly(ADPR) synthesis in normal cells was coincident with the increase in DNA synthesis. The increase in poly(ADPR) synthesis in the CLL cells was dissociated from the delayed and diminished increase in DNA synthesis. Thus, CLL cells have higher than normal initial levels of poly(ADPR) synthesis. Poly(ADPR) synthesis is dissociated from DNA synthesis in CLL cells whereas it varies directly with DNA synthesis in normal lymphocytes. PMID:659624

  3. The regulation of respiration of guinea pig taenia coli in high-K medium: the role of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate and Ca++.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, S; Urakawa, N; Saito, Y; Fukami, J

    1975-10-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the regulation mechanism of respiration in the smooth muscle cell, we investigated the roles of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Ca++ in the muscle respiration using the tissues and subcellular fractions from guinea pig taenia coli. The tension in the strips of taenia coli increased with a concomitant increase in O2 consumption in high-K medium (40 mM K) containing 2.5 mM Ca. 10(-3) M amytal and 10(-5)M ouabain decreased the high-K induced tension and O2 consumption of the muscle. 10(-4)M 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) relieved the decreased respiration induced by ouabain, but not that with amytal. From these data it is suggested that NADH-linked respiration plays an important role in the respiration of the muscle. Ca++ in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mM in the high-K medium resulted in an increase in tension and in O2 concumption progressively. In spectrophotometric observations of subcellular fractions of the taenia coli, ADP increased in absorbance change at 340 m mu. Such occurred in mitochondrial fractions and was initiated by the addition of NADH. Therefore it is deduced that the increase in ADP level of the cytoplasm is primarily due to a contraction triggered by Ca++ thus stimulating respiration. On the other hand, at 0.1 mM of Ca++ concentration, the muscle strip increased O2 consumption without tension development in high-K medium. In the spectrophotometric observations, Ca++ and Sr++ increased the absorbance change in the homogenate and in the mitochondrial fraction. Hence, it seems that one part of the Ca++ entering into the smooth muscle treated with the high-K increased O2 consumption in mitochondia independent of an increase in muscle tension. From these results it is concluded that NADH-linked respiration plays an important role in the smooth muscle respiration in high-K medium and that ADP and Ca++ also play a role in regulating respiration. PMID:176493

  4. [Influence of ADP-ribose, AMP and adenosine on bioelectric activity of hibernating ground squirrel atrium and papillary muscle].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, V S; Abramochkin, D V; Sukhova, G S; Rozenshtraukh, L V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of work was to investigate effects of adenosine, AMP and ADP-ribose (1x10(-5)) on bioelectric activity of atrium and papillary muscle of nonhibernating (rat) and hibernating (Yakutian ground squirrel) animals. Action potential (AP) was registered with use of standard microelectrode technique. AP duration (APD) at level of 90% repolarisation in rat atrium in control experiments was 30+/-5 ms, APD at level of 50% repolarisation was 12+/-2 ms. APD at level of 90% repolarisation in rat papillary muscle was 56+/-7 ms, at level of 50% repolarisation was 18+/-2 ms. APD at level of 90% repolarisation in ground squirrel atrium was 77+/-6, APD at level of 50% repolarisation was 38+/-6 ms. APD at level of 90% repolarisation in ground squirrel papillary muscle was 105+/-9 ms, APD at level of 50% repolarisation was 42+/-8 ms. Purine nucleotides and nucleoside, that were tested in work, except ADP-ribose, act as inhibitory factors and decrease APD both in rat and hibernating ground squirrel heart. ADP-ribose decreases APD in papillary muscle of hibernator but did not in its atrium. In ground squirrel atrium AMP and adenosine decrease APD at level of 50% repolarisation by 10+/-3% and 18+/-3% respectively. AMP and adenosine decrease APD at level of 90% repolarisation by 9+/-2% and 11+/-2% respectively. In ground squirrel papillary muscle ADP-ribose, AMP and adenosine decrease APD at level of 50% repolarisation by 26+/-8%, 23+/-8% and 26+/-7%. ADP-ribose, AMP and adenosine decrease APD at level of 90% repolarisation by 12+/-3%, 10+/-3%, 13+/-3%. Thus, decrease of APD in ground squirrel papillary muscle at level of 90% repolarisation during nucleotides and adenosine action was 2-2.5 fold less, than the rat.

  5. Synthesis and discharge of the coupling factor.adenosine diphosphate complex in spinach chloroplast lamellae.

    PubMed

    Roy, H; Moudrianakis, E N

    1971-11-01

    The formation of a coupling factor.ADP complex is shown to be dependent on photoinduced electron transport, AMP, and P(i), and sensitive to arsenate and sulfate. The stability of the complex is unaffected by subsequent addition of arsenate, but is quite markedly sensitive to the addition of ADP. The data are discussed in relation to possible models of photophosphorylation, and in particular, to one in which coupling factor-bound, photosynthetically generated, ADP serves as a phosphoryl donor to substrate ADP. PMID:16591953

  6. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tze-Wen; Lin, Pei-Yi; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yen-Fung

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP) or FNP (clot/FNP) were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1 ± 14.0, 251.0 ± 9.8, and 326.5 ± 14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.6 ± 1.9, and 15.3 ± 1.5 mV (n=4), respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP), clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt%) were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc) of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), were significantly (P<0.05) (n=4) shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (clot/PBS) (63.6% ± 3.1%, 48.3% ± 6.2%, and 63.2% ± 4.7%, respectively). The ΔF2 values in the spectra of frequency shifts associated with the propagation of fibrin networks in the clot/ANPs and clot/FNPs were significantly lower than those of clot/PBS. Interestingly, texture profile analysis of the compressional properties showed significantly lower hardness and compressibility in clot/NPs and clot/ANPs (P<0.05 or better) (n=4) compared with

  7. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tze-Wen; Lin, Pei-Yi; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yen-Fung

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP) or FNP (clot/FNP) were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1±14.0, 251.0±9.8, and 326.5±14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1±0.5, 20.6±1.9, and 15.3±1.5 mV (n=4), respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with “undecorated” chitosan NPs (clot/NP), clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt%) were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc) of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), were significantly (P<0.05) (n=4) shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (clot/PBS) (63.6%±3.1%, 48.3%±6.2%, and 63.2%±4.7%, respectively). The ΔF2 values in the spectra of frequency shifts associated with the propagation of fibrin networks in the clot/ANPs and clot/FNPs were significantly lower than those of clot/PBS. Interestingly, texture profile analysis of the compressional properties showed significantly lower hardness and compressibility in clot/NPs and clot/ANPs (P<0.05 or better) (n=4) compared with clot/PBS and

  8. Blocking Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose-mediated Calcium Overload Attenuates Sepsis-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian-Yi; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Li-Na; Ai, Mei-Lin; Liu, Wei; Ai, Yu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of sepsis that is associated with high mortality. Intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced ALI, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38)/cADPR pathway has been found to play roles in multiple inflammatory processes but its role in sepsis-induced ALI is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway is activated in sepsis-induced ALI and whether blocking cADPR-mediated calcium overload attenuates ALI. Methods: Septic rat models were established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were divided into the sham group, the CLP group, and the CLP+ 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (8-Br-cADPR) group. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), cADPR, CD38, and intracellular Ca2+ levels in the lung tissues were measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after CLP surgery. Lung histologic injury, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. Results: NAD+, cADPR, CD38, and intracellular Ca2+ levels in the lungs of septic rats increased significantly at 24 h after CLP surgery. Treatment with 8-Br-cADPR, a specific inhibitor of cADPR, significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels (P = 0.007), attenuated lung histological injury (P = 0.023), reduced TNF-α and MDA levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and recovered SOD activity (P = 0.031) in the lungs of septic rats. Conclusions: The CD38/cADPR pathway is activated in the lungs of septic rats, and blocking cADPR-mediated calcium overload with 8-Br-cADPR protects against sepsis-induced ALI. PMID:27411462

  9. 2´,3´-Dialdehyde of ATP, ADP, and adenosine inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julieta; Valadao, Ana Luiza Chaves; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Rossi, Atila Duque; Arantes, Pablo Ricardo; Verli, Hugo; Quintana, Paula Gabriela; Heise, Norton; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-01-01

    The 2´3´-dialdehyde of ATP or oxidized ATP (oATP) is a compound known for specifically making covalent bonds with the nucleotide-binding site of several ATP-binding enzymes and receptors. We investigated the effects of oATP and other oxidized purines on HIV-1 infection and we found that this compound inhibits HIV-1 and SIV infection by blocking early steps of virus replication. oATP, oxidized ADP (oADP), and oxidized Adenosine (oADO) impact the natural activity of endogenous reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT) in cell free virus particles and are able to inhibit viral replication in different cell types when added to the cell cultures either before or after infection. We used UFLC-UV to show that both oADO and oATP can be detected in the cell after being added in the extracellular medium. oATP also suppresses RT activity and replication of the HIV-1 resistant variants M184V and T215Y. We conclude that oATP, oADP and oADO display anti HIV-1 activity that is at in least in part due to inhibitory activity on HIV-1 RT.

  10. The status of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in ovarian cancer, part 2: extending the scope beyond olaparib and BRCA1/2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rowan E; Ledermann, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown clinical activity in epithelial ovarian cancer, leading both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency to approve olaparib for tumors characterized by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that tumors that share molecular features with BRCA-mutant tumors-a concept known as BRCAness-also may exhibit defective homologous recombination DNA repair, and therefore will respond to PARP inhibition. A number of strategies have been proposed to identify BRCAness, including identifying defects in other genes that modulate homologous recombination and characterizing the mutational and transcriptional signatures of BRCAness. In addition to olaparib, a number of other PARP inhibitors are in clinical development. This article reviews the development of PARP inhibitors other than olaparib, and discusses the evidence for PARP inhibitors beyond BRCA1/2-mutant ovarian cancer. PMID:27673289

  11. Relaxation of isolated taenia coli of guinea-pig by enantiomers of 2-azido analogues of adenosine and adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Planker, M.

    1979-01-01

    1 2-Azido photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine have been synthesized and tested on guinea-pig taenia coli. 2 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP were approximately 20 times more potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli, and required prolonged washout times before recovery of the muscle. 3 2-Azido-AMP and 2-azidoadenosine were 2 to 12 times more potent than ATP, but took much longer (up to 100 s) to reach maximal relaxation. This behaviour is different from that of AMP and adenosine which were much less potent than ATP. 4 L-Enantiomers of adenosine and adenine nucleotides were also tested. L-ATP and L-ADP were 3 to 6 times less potent than ATP and ADP, and L-AMP and L-adenosine were inactive. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-ADP were approximately 120 times less potent than 2-Azido-ATP and 6 times less potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli. 2-Azido-L-AMP and 2-azidio-L-adenosine were almost inactive. 5 2-Azido derivatives are photolysed by u.v. irradiation to reactive intermediates. 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azidoadenosine might be suitable photoaffinity ligands for labelling putative P2 and P1 purine receptors respectively. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-adenosine could be useful controls for nonspecific labelling. PMID:497519

  12. The synthesis of nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide and poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) in various classes of rat liver nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Haines, M. E.; Johnston, I. R.; Mathias, A. P.; Ridge, D.

    1969-01-01

    1. The activities of NMN adenylyltransferase and an enzyme that synthesizes poly (ADP-ribose) from NAD were investigated in the various classes of rat liver nuclei fractionated by zonal centrifugation. 2. The highest specific activities of these two nuclear enzymes occur in different classes of nuclei. In very young and in mature rats it was shown that a correlation exists between DNA synthesis and NMN adenylyltransferase activity, but in rats of intermediate age this correlation is less evident. The highest activities of the enzyme that catalyses formation of poly (ADP-ribose) are in the nuclei involved in the synthesis of RNA. 3. The significance of these results in relation to NAD metabolism is discussed. PMID:4311824

  13. Poly(Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibition Counteracts Multiple Manifestations of Experimental Type 1 Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Drel, Viktor R.; Xu, Weizheng; Zhang, Jie; Pavlov, Ivan A.; Shevalye, Hanna; Slusher, Barbara; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the role for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in early nephropathy associated with type 1 diabetes. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were maintained with or without treatment with one of two structurally unrelated PARP inhibitors, 1,5-isoquinolinediol (ISO) and 10-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-2H-7-oxa-1,2-diaza-benzo[de] anthracen-3-one (GPI-15427), at 3 mg/kg−1 · d−1 ip and 30 mg/kg−1 · d−1, respectively, for 10 wk after the first 2 wk without treatment. PARP activity in the renal cortex was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins. Variables of diabetic nephropathy in urine and renal cortex were evaluated by ELISA, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and colorimetry. Urinary albumin excretion was increased about 4-fold in diabetic rats, and this increase was prevented by ISO and GPI-15427. PARP inhibition counteracted diabetes-associated increase in poly(ADP-ribose) immunoreactivities in renal glomeruli and tubuli and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated protein level. Renal concentrations of TGF-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelin-1, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, lipid peroxidation products, and nitrotyrosine were increased in diabetic rats, and all these changes as well as an increase in urinary TNF-α excretion were completely or partially prevented by ISO and GPI-15427. PARP inhibition counteracted diabetes-induced up-regulation of endothelin (B) receptor, podocyte loss, accumulation of collagen-α1 (IY), periodic acid-Schiff-positive substances, fibronectin, and advanced glycation end-products in the renal cortex. In conclusion, PARP activation is implicated in multiple changes characteristic for early nephropathy associated with type 1 diabetes. These findings provide rationale for development and further studies of PARP inhibitors and PARP inhibitor-containing combination therapies. PMID:19854869

  14. Kinetic studies of the reverse reaction catalysed by adenosine triphosphate–creatine phosphotransferase. The inhibition by magnesium ions and adenosine diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. F.; O'Sullivan, W. J.

    1965-01-01

    1. Kinetic investigations of the reaction catalysed by ATP–creatine phosphotransferase have been carried out. 2. No firm conclusions could be reached about the reaction of Mg2+ at the nucleotide-binding site of the enzyme. The value of the kinetic constant for this reaction depends on the value used for the apparent stability constant of the metal ion–nucleotide complex and, to a smaller extent, on the method of plotting the results. 3. At higher concentrations Mg2+ is a non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to both MgADP− and phosphocreatine. 4. ADP3− is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to MgADP− and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to phosphocreatine. 5. The concentration of phosphocreatine has little, if any, effect on the kinetic constants for the nucleotide reactants. PMID:14342234

  15. Expression of Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase and p53 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Their Role in Prognosis and Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Heidi; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Beck, Amy; Miller, Austin; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle

    2016-01-01

    Summary PARP, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, is a damage-sensing protein, which is essential for the repair of DNA single-strand breaks. PARP and p53 function synergistically in repairing DNA damage and suppressing chromosomal rearrangements. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PARP and p53 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to correlate their expression with clinicopathologic characteristics. PARP and p53 were evaluated using immunohistochemistry applied on a tissue microarray of 189 EOC and their expressions were correlated to clinicopathologic variables, including the age of diagnosis, stage, grade, histologic type, optimal debulking, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). PARP and p53 expressions were shown in 61% and 54% of cases, respectively. PARP-positive tumors are more likely to have higher grade (P = 0.03) and complete response to initial first-line chemotherapy (P = 0.009). Patients with positive p53 staining are more likely to be at the advanced stage disease (P = 0.004). Finally, there were no significant associations between PARP and p53 expression and no differences in progression-free survival and OS for PARP or p53 expressions. The overexpression of PARP and p53 in high grade, and advanced stage tumors indicated that these 2 markers might serve as an indicator of aggressive disease behavior. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the role of PARP and PARP inhibitors in the setting of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:21293287

  16. Identification of amino acid residues photolabeled with 2-azido(alpha-/sup 32/P)adenosine diphosphate in the beta subunit of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Garin, J.; Boulay, F.; Issartel, J.P.; Lunardi, J.; Vignais, P.V.

    1986-07-29

    When beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase is photoirradiated in the presence of 2-azido(alpha-/sup 32/P)adenosine diphosphate, the beta subunit of the enzyme is preferentially photolabeled (Dalbon, P., Boulay, F., and Vignais, P. V. (1985) FEBS Lett. 180, 212-218). The site of photolabeling of the beta subunit has been explored. After cyanogen bromide cleavage of the photolabeled beta subunit, only the peptide fragment extending from Gln-293 to Met-358 was found to be labeled. This peptide was isolated and digested by trypsin or Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. Digestion by trypsin yielded four peptides, one of which spanned residues Ala-338-Arg-356 and contained all the bound radioactivity. When trypsin was replaced by V8 protease, a single peptide spanning residues Leu-342-Met-358 was labeled. Edman degradation of the two labeled peptides showed that radioactivity was localized on the following four amino acids: Leu-342, Ile-344, Tyr-345, and Pro-346.

  17. Adenosine/guanosine-3',5'-bis-phosphates as biocompatible and selective Zn2+-ion chelators. Characterization and comparison with adenosine/guanosine-5'-di-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Alon Haim; Blum, Eliav; Major, Dan Thomas; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Levi Hevroni, Bosmat; Fischer, Bilha

    2015-04-28

    Although involved in various physiological functions, nucleoside bis-phosphate analogues and their metal-ion complexes have been scarcely studied. Hence, here, we explored the solution conformation of 2′-deoxyadenosine- and 2′-deoxyguanosine-3′,5′-bisphosphates, 3 and 4, d(pNp), as well as their Zn(2+)/Mg(2+) binding sites and binding-modes (i.e. inner- vs. outer-sphere coordination), acidity constants, stability constants of their Zn(2+)/Mg(2+) complexes, and their species distribution. Analogues 3 and 4, in solution, adopted a predominant Southern ribose conformer (ca. 84%), gg conformation around C4'-C5' and C5'-O5' bonds, and glycosidic angle in the anti-region (213-270°). (1)H- and (31)P-NMR experiments indicated that Zn(2+)/Mg(2+) ions coordinated to P5' and P3' groups of 3 and 4 but not to N7 nitrogen atom. Analogues 3 and 4 formed ca. 100-fold more stable complexes with Zn(2+)vs. Mg(2+)-ions. Complexes of 3 and 4 with Mg(2+) at physiological pH were formed in minute amounts (11% and 8%, respectively) vs. Zn(2+) complexes (46% and 44%). Stability constants of Zn(2+)/Mg(2+) complexes of analogues 3 and 4 (log KML(M) = 4.65-4.75/2.63-2.79, respectively) were similar to those of the corresponding complexes of ADP and GDP (log KML(M) = 4.72-5.10/2.95-3.16, respectively). Based on the above findings, we hypothesized that the unexpectedly low log K values of Zn(2+)-d(pNp) as compared to Zn(2+)-NDP complexes, are possibly due to formation of outer-sphere coordination in the Zn(2+)-d(pNp) complex vs. inner-sphere in the NDP-Zn(2+) complex, in addition to loss of chelation to N7 nitrogen atom in Zn(2+)-d(pNp). Indeed, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of 1 and 3 for 100 ns supported this hypothesis. PMID:25797179

  18. Co-targeting Deoxyribonucleic Acid–Dependent Protein Kinase and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Promotes Accelerated Senescence of Irradiated Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Arun; Bukczynska, Patricia; Jackson, Susan; Haput, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen; McArthur, Grant A.; Solomon, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of combined blockade of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) on accelerated senescence in irradiated H460 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of KU5788 and AG014699 (inhibitors of DNA-PK and PARP-1, respectively) on clonogenic survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and accelerated senescence in irradiated cells were examined in vitro. For in vivo experiments, H460 xenografts established in athymic nude mice were treated with BEZ235 (a DNA-PK, ATM, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor) and AG014699 to determine effects on proliferation, DNA DSBs, and accelerated senescence after radiation. Results: Compared with either inhibitor alone, combination treatment with KU57788 and AG014699 reduced postradiation clonogenic survival and significantly increased persistence of Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) foci in irradiated H460 and A549 cells. Notably, these effects coincided with the induction of accelerated senescence in irradiated cells as reflected by positive β-galactosidase staining, G2-M cell-cycle arrest, enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, increased p21 expression, and senescence-associated cytokine secretion. In irradiated H460 xenografts, concurrent therapy with BEZ235 and AG014699 resulted in sustained Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) staining and prominent β-galactosidase activity. Conclusion: Combined DNA-PK and PARP-1 blockade increased tumor cell radiosensitivity and enhanced the prosenescent properties of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a rationale for further preclinical and clinical testing of this therapeutic combination.

  19. Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases SULT1B1 and SULT1C1 complexed with the cofactor product adenosine-3'- 5'-diphosphate (PAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrovski, Luidmila; Dong, Aiping; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.

    2008-09-17

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), often referred as Phase II enzymes of chemical defense, are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfonate group from 3{prime}-phosphoadenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an acceptor group of substrates. This reaction modulates the activities of a large array of small endogenous and foreign chemicals including drugs, toxic compounds, steroid hormones, and neurotransmitters. In some cases, however, SULTs activate certain food and environmental compounds to mutagenenic and carcinogenic metabolites. Twelve human SULTs have been identified, which are partitioned into three families: SULT1, SULT2 and SULT4. The SULT1 family is further divided in four subfamilies, A, B, C, and E, and comprises eight members (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 1C1, 1C2, 1C3, and 1E1). Despite sequence and structural similarity among the SULTs, the family and subfamily members appear to have different biological function. SULT1 family shows substrate-binding specificity for simple phenols, estradiol, and thyroid hormones, as well as environmental xenobiotics and drugs. Human SULT1B1 is expressed in liver, colon, small intestine, and blood leukocytes, and shows substrate-binding specificity to thyroid hormones and benzylic alcohols. Human SULT1C1 is expressed in the adult stomach, kidney, and thyroid, as well as in fetal kidney and liver. SULT1C1 catalyzes the sulfonation of p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in vitro. However, the in vivo function of the enzyme remains unknown. We intend to solve the structures for all of the SULTs for which structural information is not yet available, and compare the structural and functional features of the entire SULT superfamily. Here we report the structures of two members of SULT1 family, SULT1B1 and SULT1C1, both in complex with the product of the PAPS cofactor, adenosine-3{prime}-5{prime}-diphosphate (PAP).

  20. Imaging changes in the cytosolic ATP-to-ADP ratio.

    PubMed

    Tantama, Mathew; Yellen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a central metabolite that plays fundamental roles as an energy transfer molecule, a phosphate donor, and a signaling molecule inside the cells. The phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP provides a thermodynamic driving force for many metabolic reactions, and phosphorylation of both small metabolites and large proteins can serve as a regulatory modification. In the process of phosphoryl transfer from ATP, the diphosphate ADP is produced, and as a result, the ATP-to-ADP ratio is an important physiological control parameter. The ATP-to-ADP ratio is directly proportional to cellular energy charge and phosphorylation potential. Furthermore, several ATP-dependent enzymes and signaling proteins are regulated by ADP, and their activation profiles are a function of the ATP-to-ADP ratio. Finally, regeneration of ATP from ADP can serve as an important readout of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. We, therefore, developed a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor tuned to sense ATP-to-ADP ratios in the physiological range of healthy mammalian cells. Here, we present a protocol for using this biosensor to visualize energy status using live-cell fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Dietary adenine controls adult lifespan via adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK, and regulates the longevity benefit of caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Stenesen, Drew; Suh, Jae Myoung; Seo, Jin; Yu, Kweon; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Jong-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A common thread among conserved lifespan regulators lies within intertwined roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. We show that heterozygous mutations of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) biosynthetic enzymes extend Drosophila lifespan. The lifespan benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended lifespan, while AMPK RNAi reduced lifespan. Supplementing adenine, a substrate for AMP biosynthesis, to the diet of long-lived AMP biosynthesis mutants reversed lifespan extension. Remarkably, this simple change in diet also blocked the pro-longevity effects of dietary restriction. These data establish AMP biosynthesis, adenosine nucleotide ratios, and AMPK as determinants of adult lifespan, provide a mechanistic link between cellular anabolism and energy sensing pathways, and indicate that dietary adenine manipulations might alter metabolism to influence animal lifespan. PMID:23312286

  2. Structures of the Human Poly (ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Catalytic Domain Confirm Catalytic Mechanism and Explain Inhibition by ADP-HPD Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Julie A.; Bennett, Neil; Brassington, Claire; Durant, Stephen T.; Hassall, Giles; Holdgate, Geoff; McAlister, Mark; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Truman, Caroline; Watson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only enzyme known to catalyse hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages of ADP-ribose polymers, thereby reversing the effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. PARG deficiency leads to cell death whilst PARG depletion causes sensitisation to certain DNA damaging agents, implicating PARG as a potential therapeutic target in several disease areas. Efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors of PARG activity have until recently been hampered by a lack of structural information on PARG. We have used a combination of bio-informatic and experimental approaches to engineer a crystallisable, catalytically active fragment of human PARG (hPARG). Here, we present high-resolution structures of the catalytic domain of hPARG in unliganded form and in complex with three inhibitors: ADP-ribose (ADPR), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD) and 8-n-octyl-amino-ADP-HPD. Our structures confirm conservation of overall fold amongst mammalian PARG glycohydrolase domains, whilst revealing additional flexible regions in the catalytic site. These new structures rationalise a body of published mutational data and the reported structure-activity relationship for ADP-HPD based PARG inhibitors. In addition, we have developed and used biochemical, isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance assays to characterise the binding of inhibitors to our PARG protein, thus providing a starting point for the design of new inhibitors. PMID:23251397

  3. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  4. Deficiency of terminal ADP-ribose protein glycohydrolase TARG1/C6orf130 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Reza; Morra, Rosa; Denise Appel, C; Tallis, Michael; Chioza, Barry; Jankevicius, Gytis; Simpson, Michael A; Matic, Ivan; Ozkan, Ege; Golia, Barbara; Schellenberg, Matthew J; Weston, Ria; Williams, Jason G; Rossi, Marianna N; Galehdari, Hamid; Krahn, Juno; Wan, Alexander; Trembath, Richard C; Crosby, Andrew H; Ahel, Dragana; Hay, Ron; Ladurner, Andreas G; Timinszky, Gyula; Williams, R Scott; Ahel, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification implicated in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. A family of proteins that catalyse ADP-ribosylation reactions are the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs covalently attach an ADP-ribose nucleotide to target proteins and some PARP family members can subsequently add additional ADP-ribose units to generate a PAR chain. The hydrolysis of PAR chains is catalysed by PAR glycohydrolase (PARG). PARG is unable to cleave the mono(ADP-ribose) unit directly linked to the protein and although the enzymatic activity that catalyses this reaction has been detected in mammalian cell extracts, the protein(s) responsible remain unknown. Here, we report the homozygous mutation of the c6orf130 gene in patients with severe neurodegeneration, and identify C6orf130 as a PARP-interacting protein that removes mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation on glutamate amino acid residues in PARP-modified proteins. X-ray structures and biochemical analysis of C6orf130 suggest a mechanism of catalytic reversal involving a transient C6orf130 lysyl-(ADP-ribose) intermediate. Furthermore, depletion of C6orf130 protein in cells leads to proliferation and DNA repair defects. Collectively, our data suggest that C6orf130 enzymatic activity has a role in the turnover and recycling of protein ADP-ribosylation, and we have implicated the importance of this protein in supporting normal cellular function in humans. PMID:23481255

  5. Bound adenosine 5'-triphosphate formation, bound adenosine 5'-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate retention, and inorganic phosphate oxygen exchange by chloroplast adenosinetriphosphatase in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Boyer, P D

    1986-06-01

    When the heat-activated chloroplast F1 ATPase hydrolyzes [3H, gamma-32P]ATP, followed by the removal of medium ATP, ADP, and Pi, the enzyme has labeled ATP, ADP, and Pi bound to it in about equal amounts. The total of the bound [3H]ADP and [3H]ATP approaches 1 mol/mol of enzyme. Over a 30-min period, most of the bound [32P]Pi falls off, and the bound [3H]ATP is converted to bound [3H]ADP. Enzyme with such remaining tightly bound ADP will form bound ATP from relatively high concentrations of medium Pi with either Mg2+ or Ca2+ present. The tightly bound ADP is thus at a site that retains a catalytic capacity for slow single-site ATP hydrolysis (or synthesis) and is likely the site that participates in cooperative rapid net ATP hydrolysis. During hydrolysis of 50 microM [3H]ATP in the presence of either Mg2+ or Ca2+, the enzyme has a steady-state level of about one bound [3H]ADP per mole of enzyme. Because bound [3H]ATP is also present, the [3H]ADP is regarded as being present on two cooperating catalytic sites. The formation and levels of bound ATP, ADP, and Pi show that reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis can occur with either Ca2+ or Mg2+ present. They do not reveal why no phosphate oxygen exchange accompanies cleavage of low ATP concentrations with Ca2+ in contrast to Mg2+ with the heat-activated enzyme. Phosphate oxygen exchange does occur with either Mg2+ or Ca2+ present when low ATP concentrations are hydrolyzed with the octyl glucoside activated ATPase. Ligand binding properties of Ca2+ at the catalytic site rather than lack of reversible cleavage of bound ATP may underlie lack of oxygen exchange under some conditions. PMID:2873834

  6. Photorhabdus luminescens toxins ADP-ribosylate actin and RhoA to force actin clustering.

    PubMed

    Lang, Alexander E; Schmidt, Gudula; Schlosser, Andreas; Hey, Timothy D; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Sheets, Joel J; Mannherz, Hans G; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-02-26

    The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is mutualistically associated with entomopathogenetic nematodes. These nematodes invade insect larvae and release the bacteria from their intestine, which kills the insects through the action of toxin complexes. We elucidated the mode of action of two of these insecticidal toxins from P. luminescens. We identified the biologically active components TccC3 and TccC5 as adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferases, which modify unusual amino acids. TccC3 ADP-ribosylated threonine-148 of actin, resulting in actin polymerization. TccC5 ADP-ribosylated Rho guanosine triphosphatase proteins at glutamine-61 and glutamine-63, inducing their activation. The concerted action of both toxins inhibited phagocytosis of target insect cells and induced extensive intracellular polymerization and clustering of actin. Several human pathogenic bacteria produce related toxins. PMID:20185726

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Identification of 4″α-Azidoethyl-cyclic ADP-Carbocyclic-ribose as a Highly Potent Analogue of Cyclic ADP-Ribose, a Ca(2+)-Mobilizing Second Messenger.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Mizuki; Tsuzuki, Takayoshi; Takano, Satoshi; Murayama, Takashi; Sakurai, Takashi; Kameda, Tomoshi; Fukuda, Hayato; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi

    2016-08-11

    Cyclic adenosine diphosphate-carbocyclic-ribose (cADPcR, 2) is a stable equivalent of cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (cADPR, 1), a Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messenger. On the basis of the structure-activity relationship of cADPR-related compounds and three-dimensional structural modeling of cADPcR, we designed and synthesized cyclic-ADP-4″α-azidoethyl carbocyclic-ribose (N3-cADPcR, 3) to demonstrate that it has a highly potent Ca(2+)-mobilizing activity (EC50 = 24 nM). N3-cADPcR will be a useful precursor for the preparation of biological tools effective to investigate cADPR-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:27391373

  8. Chemical reporters for exploring ADP-ribosylation and AMPylation at the host-pathogen interface

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Nathan P.; Hang, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens secrete protein toxins and effectors that hijack metabolites to covalently modify key host proteins and interfere with their function during infection. Adenosine metabolites, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have in particular been co-opted by these secreted virulence factors to reprogram host pathways. While some host targets for secreted virulence factors have been identified, other toxin and effector substrates have been elusive, which require new methods for their characterization. In this review, we focus on chemical reporters based on NAD and ATP that should facilitate the discovery and characterization of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation and adenylylation/AMPylation in bacterial pathogenesis and cell biology. PMID:25461386

  9. Selective derivatization of nucleotide diphosphate (NDP)-4-keto sugars for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Gon; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Yoo, Dongwon; Sung, Changmin; Song, Eunjung; Lee, Jae-Hun; Choi, Yun-Hui; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2012-04-15

    Nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) sugars are widely present in antibiotics and glycoconjugates, such as protein- and lipid-linked oligosaccharides, where they act as substrates for glycosyltransferase in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Among NDP sugars, NDP-4-keto sugars are key intermediates in the synthesis of structurally diverse NDP sugars with different functional groups. However, the structural identification of the NDP-4-keto sugars via mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)) continues to be a challenge because of the carbonyl group in these sugars interferes with ionization process. In this study, we evaluated various hydroxylamine compounds for the derivatization of NDP-4-keto sugars, so that the detection of the sugars by ESI-MS is more efficient. As a result, O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine was found to be the most effective tagging molecule for the detection of NDP-4-keto sugars without being interfered by original MS. This method can be used for identifying NDP-4-keto sugars such as thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-, and cytosine diphosphate (CDP)-4-keto sugars as well as new NDP-4-keto-dehydratases.

  10. Effects of calcium ions and adenosine diphosphate on the activities of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscles of the whelk and flight muscles of insects.

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, V A; Newsholme, E A

    1976-01-01

    1. The activity of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscle of the whelk is higher than those in many vertebrate muscles and only slightly lower than in the flight muscles of insects. The enzyme activity from the whelk (Buccinum undatum) is stable for several hours after homogenization of the radular muscle, whereas that from insect flight muscle is very unstable. Consequently, the enzyme from the whelk muscle is suitable for a systematic investigation of the effects of Ca2+ and ADP. 2. The sigmoid response of the enzyme activity to isocitrate concentration is markedly increased by raising the Ca2+ concentration from 0.001 to 10 muM, but it is decreased by ADP. The inhibitory effect of Ca2+ is most pronounced at pH7.1; it is not observed at pH 6.5. Similar effects are observed for the enzyme from the flight muscle of the locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and the water bug (Lethocerus cordofanus). The percentage activation by ADP of the enzyme from either the whelk or the insects is greater at 10 muM-Ca2+, and 50% of the maximum activation is obtained at 0.10 and 0.16 mM-ADP for the enzyme from whelk and locust respectively at this Ca2+ concentration. At 10 muM-Ca2+ in the absence of added ADP, the apparent Km for isocitrate is markedly higher than in other conditions. Ca2+ concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 muM cause 50% inhibition of maximum activity of the enzyme from the muscles of the whelk, locust and water bug respectively. 3. Recent work has indicated that mitochondria may play a complementary role to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the control of the distribution of Ca2+ in muscle. The opposite effects of Ca2+ on the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase from muscle tissue are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in the intracellular distribution of Ca2+ control the activities of these two enzymes in order to stimulate energy production for the contraction process in the muscle

  11. Effects of calcium ions and adenosine diphosphate on the activities of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscles of the whelk and flight muscles of insects.

    PubMed

    Zammit, V A; Newsholme, E A

    1976-03-15

    1. The activity of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the radular muscle of the whelk is higher than those in many vertebrate muscles and only slightly lower than in the flight muscles of insects. The enzyme activity from the whelk (Buccinum undatum) is stable for several hours after homogenization of the radular muscle, whereas that from insect flight muscle is very unstable. Consequently, the enzyme from the whelk muscle is suitable for a systematic investigation of the effects of Ca2+ and ADP. 2. The sigmoid response of the enzyme activity to isocitrate concentration is markedly increased by raising the Ca2+ concentration from 0.001 to 10 muM, but it is decreased by ADP. The inhibitory effect of Ca2+ is most pronounced at pH7.1; it is not observed at pH 6.5. Similar effects are observed for the enzyme from the flight muscle of the locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and the water bug (Lethocerus cordofanus). The percentage activation by ADP of the enzyme from either the whelk or the insects is greater at 10 muM-Ca2+, and 50% of the maximum activation is obtained at 0.10 and 0.16 mM-ADP for the enzyme from whelk and locust respectively at this Ca2+ concentration. At 10 muM-Ca2+ in the absence of added ADP, the apparent Km for isocitrate is markedly higher than in other conditions. Ca2+ concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 muM cause 50% inhibition of maximum activity of the enzyme from the muscles of the whelk, locust and water bug respectively. 3. Recent work has indicated that mitochondria may play a complementary role to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the control of the distribution of Ca2+ in muscle. The opposite effects of Ca2+ on the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase from muscle tissue are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in the intracellular distribution of Ca2+ control the activities of these two enzymes in order to stimulate energy production for the contraction process in the muscle

  12. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Naoyuki; Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Hideaki; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-02-19

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V{sub max}) and the michaelis constant (k{sub m}) of PARG reaction were 4.46 {mu}M and 128.33 {mu}mol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 {mu}M. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  13. 2'-deoxy cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose derivatives: importance of the 2'-hydroxyl motif for the antagonistic activity of 8-substituted cADPR derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wagner, Gerd K; Weber, Karin; Garnham, Clive; Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony; Guse, Andreas H; Potter, Barry V L

    2008-03-27

    The structural features needed for antagonism at the cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) receptor are unclear. Chemoenzymatic syntheses of novel 8-substituted 2'-deoxy-cADPR analogues, including 8-bromo-2'-deoxy-cADPR 7, 8-amino-2'-deoxy-cADPR 8, 8- O-methyl-2'-deoxy-cADPR 9, 8-phenyl-2'-deoxy-cADPR 10 and its ribose counterpart 8-phenyl-cADPR 5 are reported, including improved syntheses of established antagonists 8-amino-cADPR 2 and 8-bromo-cADPR 3. Aplysia californica ADP-ribosyl cyclase tolerates even the bulky 8-phenyl-nicotinamide adenine 5'-dinucleotide as a substrate. Structure-activity relationships of 8-substituted cADPR analogues in both Jurkat T-lymphocytes and sea urchin egg homogenate (SUH) were investigated. 2'-OH Deletion decreased antagonistic activity (at least for the 8-amino series), showing it to be an important motif. Some 8-substituted 2'-deoxy analogues showed agonist activity at higher concentrations, among which 8-bromo-2'-deoxy-cADPR 7 was, unexpectedly, a weak but almost full agonist in SUH and was membrane-permeant in whole eggs. Classical antagonists 2 and 3 also showed previously unobserved agonist activity at higher concentrations in both systems. The 2'-OH group, without effect on the Ca (2+)-mobilizing ability of cADPR itself, is an important motif for the antagonistic activities of 8-substituted cADPR analogues. PMID:18303825

  14. Neurochemical Measurement of Adenosine in Discrete Brain Regions of Five Strains of Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Amar K.; Jiao, Yun; Sample, Kenneth J.; Smeyne, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO), a non-classical neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, and its metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), have been shown to play an important role in a number of biochemical processes. Although their signaling is well described, it has been difficult to directly, accurately and simultaneously quantitate these purines in tissue or fluids. Here, we describe a novel method for measuring adenosine (ADO) and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Using this chromatographic technique, we examined baseline levels of ADO and ATP, ADP and AMP in 6 different brain regions of the C57BL/6J mouse: stratum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra and cerebellum and compared ADO levels in 5 different strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss-Webster, FVB/NJ, 129P/J, and BALB/c). These studies demonstrate that baseline levels of purines vary significantly among the brain regions as well as between different mouse strains. These dissimilarities in purine concentrations may explain the variable phenotypes among background strains described in neurological disease models. PMID:24642754

  15. Adenosine diphosphate ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase and adenylylation of glutamine synthetase control ammonia excretion in ethylenediamine-resistant mutants of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Tripathi, A K

    2006-10-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing, root-colonizing bacterium that brings about plant-growth-promoting effects mainly because of its ability to produce phytohormones. Ethylenediamine (EDA)-resistant mutants of A. brasilense were isolated and screened for their higher ability to decrease acetylene and release ammonia in the medium. One of the mutants showed considerably higher levels of acetylene decrease and ammonia excretion. Nitrogenase activity of this mutant was relatively resistant to inhibition by NH(4)Cl. Adenosine triphosphate ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in the mutant did not increase even in presence of 10 mM NH(4)Cl. Although the mutant showed decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, neither the levels of GS synthesized by the mutant nor the NH (4) (+) -binding site in the GS differed from those of the parent. The main reason for the release of ammonia by the mutant seems to be the fixation of higher levels of nitrogen than its GS can assimilate, as well as higher levels of adenylylation of GS, which may decrease ammonia assimilation.

  16. Dual activity of certain HIT-proteins: A. thaliana Hint4 and C. elegans DcpS act on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as hydrolases (forming AMP) and as phosphorylases (forming ADP).

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna Maria; Zimny, Jarosław; Wypijewska, Anna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Bieganowski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Histidine triad (HIT)-family proteins interact with different mono- and dinucleotides and catalyze their hydrolysis. During a study of the substrate specificity of seven HIT-family proteins, we have shown that each can act as a sulfohydrolase, catalyzing the liberation of AMP from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS or SO(4)-pA). However, in the presence of orthophosphate, Arabidopsis thaliana Hint4 and Caenorhabditis elegans DcpS also behaved as APS phosphorylases, forming ADP. Low pH promoted the phosphorolytic and high pH the hydrolytic activities. These proteins, and in particular Hint4, also catalyzed hydrolysis or phosphorolysis of some other adenylyl-derivatives but at lower rates than those for APS cleavage. A mechanism for these activities is proposed and the possible role of some HIT-proteins in APS metabolism is discussed. PMID:19896942

  17. The Rickettsia prowazekii invasion gene homolog (invA) encodes a Nudix hydrolase active on adenosine (5')-pentaphospho-(5')-adenosine.

    PubMed

    Gaywee, Jariyanart; Xu, WenLian; Radulovic, Suzana; Bessman, Maurice J; Azad, Abdu F

    2002-03-01

    The genomic sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii, the obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for epidemic typhus, reveals an uncharacterized invasion gene homolog (invA). The deduced protein of 18,752 Da contains a Nudix signature, the specific motif found in the Nudix hydrolase family. To characterize the function of InvA, the gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity and subsequently tested for its enzymatic activity against a series of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. The purified InvA exhibits hydrolytic activity toward dinucleoside oligophosphates (Np(n)N; n > or = 5), a group of cellular signaling molecules. At optimal pH 8.5, the enzyme actively degrades adenosine (5')-pentaphospho-(5')-adenosine into ATP and ADP with a K(m) of 0.1 mM and k(cat) of 1.9 s(-1). Guanosine (5')-pentaphospho-(5')-guanosine and adenosine-(5')-hexaphospho (5')-adenosine are also substrates. Similar to other Nudix hydrolases, InvA requires a divalent metal cation, Mg(2+) or Zn(2+), for optimal activity. These data suggest that the rickettsial invasion protein likely plays a role in controlling the concentration of stress-induced dinucleoside oligophosphates following bacterial invasion.

  18. ADP is a vasodilator component from Lasiodora sp. mygalomorph spider venom.

    PubMed

    Horta, C C; Rezende, B A; Oliveira-Mendes, B B R; Carmo, A O; Capettini, L S A; Silva, J F; Gomes, M T; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Bravo, C E S; Lemos, V S; Kalapothakis, E

    2013-09-01

    Members of the spider genus Lasiodora are widely distributed in Brazil, where they are commonly known as caranguejeiras. Lasiodora spider venom is slightly harmful to humans. The bite of this spider causes local pain, edema and erythema. However, Lasiodora sp. spider venom may be a source of important pharmacological tools. Our research group has described previously that Lasiodora sp. venom produces bradycardia in the isolated rat heart. In the present work, we sought to evaluate the vascular effect of Lasiodora sp. venom and to isolate the vasoactive compounds from the venom. The results showed that Lasiodora spider venom induced a concentration-dependent vasodilation in rat aortic rings, which was dependent on the presence of a functional endothelium and abolished by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME. Western blot experiments revealed that the venom also increased endothelial NOS function by increasing phosphorylation of the Ser¹¹⁷⁷ residue. Assay-directed fractionation isolated a vasoactive fraction from Lasiodora sp. venom. Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays identified a mixture of two compounds: adenosine diphosphate (ADP, approximately 90%) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP, approximately 10%). The vasodilator effects of Lasiodora sp. whole venom, as well as ADP, were significantly inhibited by suramin, which is a purinergic P2-receptor antagonist. Therefore, the results of the present work indicate that ADP is a main vasodilator component of Lasiodora sp. spider venom.

  19. Synthesis of cyclic adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose analogues: a C2′ endo/syn “southern” ribose conformation underlies activity at the sea urchin cADPR receptor† †This paper is part of an Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry web theme issue on chemical biology.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Christelle; Ashamu, Gloria A.; Bailey, Victoria C.; Galione, Antony; Guse, Andreas H.

    2011-01-01

    Novel 8-substituted base and sugar-modified analogues of the Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger cyclic adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (cADPR) were synthesized using a chemoenzymatic approach and evaluated for activity in sea urchin egg homogenate (SUH) and in Jurkat T-lymphocytes; conformational analysis investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that a C2′ endo/syn conformation of the “southern” ribose is crucial for agonist or antagonist activity at the SUH-, but not at the T cell-cADPR receptor. PMID:20976353

  20. Insights into the mechanism of ADP action on flagellar motility derived from studies on bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Lesich, Kathleen A; Pelle, Dominic W; Lindemann, Charles B

    2008-07-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is known to have interesting effects on flagellar motility. Permeabilized and reactivated bull sperm exhibit a marked reduction in beating frequency and a greatly increased beat amplitude in the presence of 1-4 mM ADP. In this study we examined the force production of sperm reactivated with 0.1 mM ATP with and without 1 mM ADP and found that there is little or no resulting change in the stalling force produced by a bull sperm flagella in response to ADP. Because bull sperm bend to a higher curvature after ADP treatment we explored the possibility that ADP-treated sperm flagella are more flexible. We measured the stiffness of 50 muM sodium vanadate treated bull sperm in the presence of 4 mM ADP, but found no change in the passive flagellar stiffness. When we analyzed the torque that develops in ADP-treated sperm at the point of beat reversal we found that the torque developed by the flagellum is significantly increased. Our torque estimates also allow us to calculate the transverse force (t-force) acting on the flagellum at the point of beat direction reversal. We find that the t-force at the switch-point of the beat is increased significantly in the ADP treated condition, averaging 0.7 +/- 0.29 nN/microm in 0.1 mM ATP and increasing to 2.9 +/- 1.2 nN/microm in 0.1 mM ATP plus 4 mM ADP. This suggests that ADP is exerting its effect on the beat by increasing the tenacity of dynein attachment at the B-subtubule. This could be a direct result of a regulatory effect of ADP on the binding affinity of dynein for the B-subtubule of the outer doublets. This result could also help to explain a number of previous experimental observations, as discussed. PMID:18375503

  1. Insights into the Mechanism of ADP Action on Flagellar Motility Derived from Studies on Bull Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Lesich, Kathleen A.; Pelle, Dominic W.; Lindemann, Charles B.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is known to have interesting effects on flagellar motility. Permeabilized and reactivated bull sperm exhibit a marked reduction in beating frequency and a greatly increased beat amplitude in the presence of 1–4 mM ADP. In this study we examined the force production of sperm reactivated with 0.1 mM ATP with and without 1 mM ADP and found that there is little or no resulting change in the stalling force produced by a bull sperm flagella in response to ADP. Because bull sperm bend to a higher curvature after ADP treatment we explored the possibility that ADP-treated sperm flagella are more flexible. We measured the stiffness of 50 μM sodium vanadate treated bull sperm in the presence of 4 mM ADP, but found no change in the passive flagellar stiffness. When we analyzed the torque that develops in ADP-treated sperm at the point of beat reversal we found that the torque developed by the flagellum is significantly increased. Our torque estimates also allow us to calculate the transverse force (t-force) acting on the flagellum at the point of beat direction reversal. We find that the t-force at the switch-point of the beat is increased significantly in the ADP treated condition, averaging 0.7 ± 0.29 nN/μm in 0.1 mM ATP and increasing to 2.9 ± 1.2 nN/μm in 0.1 mM ATP plus 4 mM ADP. This suggests that ADP is exerting its effect on the beat by increasing the tenacity of dynein attachment at the B-subtubule. This could be a direct result of a regulatory effect of ADP on the binding affinity of dynein for the B-subtubule of the outer doublets. This result could also help to explain a number of previous experimental observations, as discussed. PMID:18375503

  2. GTP but not GDP analogues promote association of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa protein activators of cholera toxin, with phospholipids and PC-12 cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M W; Bobak, D A; Tsai, S C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-02-15

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins initially identified by their ability to enhance cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in the presence of GTP. ARFs have been purified from both membrane and cytosolic fractions. ARF purified from bovine brain cytosol requires phospholipid plus detergent for high affinity guanine nucleotide binding and for optimal enhancement of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The phospholipid requirements, combined with a putative role for ARF in vesicular transport, suggested that the soluble protein might interact reversibly with membranes. A polyclonal antibody against purified bovine ARF (sARF II) was used to detect ARF by immunoblot in membrane and soluble fractions from rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell homogenates. ARF was predominantly cytosolic but increased in membranes during incubation of homogenates with nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), guanylyl-(beta gamma-imido)-diphosphate, and guanylyl-(beta gamma-methylene)-diphosphate, and to a lesser extent, adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). GTP, GDP, GMP, and ATP were inactive. Cytosolic ARF similarly associated with added phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, or cardiolipin in GTP gamma S-dependent fashion. ARF binding to phosphatidylserine was reversible and coincident with stimulation of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. These observations may reflect a mechanism by which ARF could cycle between soluble and membrane compartments in vivo.

  3. Purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G C; Schmalstieg, F C; Trimmer, K B; Goldman, A S; Goldblum, R M

    1976-01-01

    Purine and pyrimidine metabolites were measured in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of a 5-month-old infant with adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) deficiency. Adenosine and adenine were measured using newly devised ion exchange separation techniques and a sensitive fluorescence assay. Plasma adenosine levels were increased, whereas adenosine was normal in erythrocytes and not detectable in urine. Increased amounts of adenine were found in erythrocytes and urine as well as in the plasma. Erythrocyte adenosine 5'-monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate concentrations were normal, but adenosine triphosphate content was greatly elevated. Because of the possibility of pyrimidine starvation, pyrimidine nucleotides (pyrimidine coenzymes) in erythrocytes and orotic acid in urine were measured. Pyrimidine nucleotide concentrations were normal, while orotic acid was not detected. These studies suggest that the immune deficiency associated with adenosine deaminase deficiency may be related to increased amounts of adenine, adenosine, or adenine nucleotides. PMID:1066699

  4. Full activation of mouse platelets requires ADP secretion regulated by SERCA3 ATPase-dependent calcium stores.

    PubMed

    Elaïb, Ziane; Adam, Frédéric; Berrou, Eliane; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Prévost, Nicolas; Bobe, Régis; Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe

    2016-08-25

    The role of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) 3 (SERCA3) in platelet physiology remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SERCA3 knockout (SERCA3(-/-)) mice exhibit prolonged tail bleeding time and rebleeding. Thrombus formation was delayed both in arteries and venules in an in vivo ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model. Defective platelet adhesion and thrombus growth over collagen was confirmed in vitro. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) removal by apyrase diminished adhesion and thrombus growth of control platelets to the level of SERCA3(-/-) platelets. Aggregation, dense granule secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization of SERCA3(-/-) platelets induced by low collagen or low thrombin concentration were weaker than controls. Accordingly, SERCA3(-/-) platelets exhibited a partial defect in total stored Ca(2+) and in Ca(2+) store reuptake following thrombin stimulation. Importantly ADP, but not serotonin, rescued aggregation, secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization in SERCA3(-/-) platelets, suggesting specificity. Dense granules appeared normal upon electron microscopy, mepacrine staining, and total serotonin content, ruling out a dense granule defect. ADP induced normal platelet aggregation, excluding a defect in ADP activation pathways. The SERCA3-specific inhibitor 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone diminished both Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion of control platelets, as opposed to the SERCA2b inhibitor thapsigargin. This confirmed the specific role of catalytically active SERCA3 in ADP secretion. Accordingly, SERCA3-dependent Ca(2+) stores appeared depleted in SERCA3(-/-) platelets. Finally, αIIbβ3 integrin blockade did not affect SERCA3-dependent secretion, therefore proving independent of αIIbβ3 engagement. Altogether, these results show that SERCA3-dependent Ca(2+) stores control a specific ADP secretion pathway required for full platelet secretion induced by agonists at low concentration and independent

  5. Host Cell Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Is Crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L.; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Alonso, Guillermo D.; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. PMID:23776710

  6. Host cell poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi infection cycle.

    PubMed

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Alonso, Guillermo D; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:23776710

  7. A Mononuclear Zinc Complex for Selective Detection of Diphosphate via Fluorescence ESIPT Turn-On

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Weihua; Liu, Xiumin; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2014-01-01

    A mononuclear zinc complex has been found to exhibit unexpected selectivity for biologically important diphosphate anions (PPi and ADP). The diphosphate binding could turn-on the ESIPT, whose study reveals mechanistic insight to aid the future design of new sensors. PMID:24999430

  8. ADP-induced platelet aggregation after addition of tramadol in vitro in fed and fasted horses plasma.

    PubMed

    Casella, S; Giannetto, C; Giudice, E; Marafioti, S; Fazio, F; Assenza, A; Piccione, G

    2013-04-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in fed and fasted horses after addition of tramadol hydrochloride was evaluated in vitro. On 10 horses citrated blood samples were collected 2h after feeding (fed animals) and 21 h after feeding (fasted animals). Final concentrations of ADP 1 and 0.5 μM, and tramadol hydrochloride (1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after the addition of tramadol) were used to determine the maximum degree and initial velocity of platelet aggregation. Repeated measures multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the effect of feeding/fasting condition, ADP concentration and addition of tramadol. Findings showed statistical differences (P≤0.05) on studied parameters after addition of tramadol to different ADP concentrations in fed and fasted horses. The clinical relevance of these results is that tramadol provides many advantages as a therapeutic option; in fact, it is an inexpensive and a relatively new analgesic in equine veterinary medicine. Further investigations would be appropriate to compare the effects of different opioids but also using different concentrations of tramadol associated with other drugs in order to have substances which can regulate the functional activity of the platelets and to extend the knowledges on equine platelet aggregation. PMID:23031839

  9. Macro Domain from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Is an Efficient ADP-ribose Binding Module: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Hsuan; Chuang, Chien-Ying; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The newly emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) encodes the conserved macro domain within non-structural protein 3. However, the precise biochemical function and structure of the macro domain is unclear. Using differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterized the MERS-CoV macro domain as a more efficient adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose binding module than macro domains from other CoVs. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the MERS-CoV macro domain was determined at 1.43-Å resolution in complex with ADP-ribose. Comparison of macro domains from MERS-CoV and other human CoVs revealed structural differences in the α1 helix alters how the conserved Asp-20 interacts with ADP-ribose and may explain the efficient binding of the MERS-CoV macro domain to ADP-ribose. This study provides structural and biophysical bases to further evaluate the role of the MERS-CoV macro domain in the host response via ADP-ribose binding but also as a potential target for drug design.

  10. The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on the Efficacy of ADP Receptor Blockers in Patients with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Marián; Kovář, František; Galajda, Peter; Bolek, Tomáš; Stančiaková, Lucia; Fedorová, Jana; Staško, Ján; Kubisz, Peter; Mokáň, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to validate the impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on the platelet reactivity in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor blockers. Methods. A pilot prospective study was performed. Totally 67 patients were enrolled. 21 patients had T2D. Among all study population, 33 patients received clopidogrel and 34 patients received prasugrel. The efficacy of ADP receptor blocker therapy had been tested in two time intervals using light transmission aggregometry with specific inducer and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P) flow cytometry assay. Results. There were no significant differences in platelet aggregability among T2D and nondiabetic (ND) group. The platelet reactivity index of VASP-P did not differ significantly between T2D and ND group (59.4 ± 30.9% versus 60.0 ± 25.2% and 33.9 ± 25.3% versus 38.6 ± 29.3% in second testing). The number of ADP receptor blocker nonresponders did not differ significantly between T2D and ND patients. The time interval from ADP receptor blocker loading dosing to the blood sampling was similar in T2D and ND patients in both examinations. Conclusion. This prospective study did not confirm the higher platelet reactivity and higher prevalence of ADP receptor blocker nonresponders in T2D acute STEMI patients. PMID:27493970

  11. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Joanna C.; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E.; Garnett, James A.; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J.; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck–WIP–N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose. PMID:25523213

  12. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna C; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E; Garnett, James A; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Matthews, Stephen J; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck-WIP-N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose.

  13. Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate alpha, beta-phosphorylase from yeast supports nucleoside diphosphate-phosphate exchange.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, A; Blanquet, S

    1986-05-01

    Homogeneous diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate alpha, beta-phosphorylase (Ap4A-phosphorylase), the enzyme recently found in yeast (Guranowski, A., and Blanquet, S. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3542-3547) catalyzes an exchange reaction between the beta-phosphate of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) and orthophosphate from the medium (Pi). The common purine and pyrimidine ribonucleoside diphosphates as well as ADP analogs modified either in aglycone, sugar, or at the anhydride bond beta-position are substrates. The Km and rate values for the NDP-Pi exchange reaction were estimated at pH optima. These optima are 6.5 for UDP, 7.0 for ADP or CDP, and 8.0 for GDP. In the presence of 10 mM K2HPO4, 0.1 mM EDTA, and 100 mM Hepes/KOH (pH 7.0), the Km for ADP is 0.7 mM with a rate constant at saturating ADP of 96 s-1. The Km value for orthophosphate is 2 mM. In the NDP-Pi exchange reaction, phosphate can be substituted with arsenate and apparent arsenolysis of NDPs yields corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. The same pH optimum of 6.5 is found for arsenolysis of ADP, GDP, and CDP. Whereas the Ap4A phosphorylase sulfhydryl groups are essential for catalyzing the Ap4A phosphorolysis, the NDP-Pi exchange reactions, and the arsenolysis of NDPs, the divalent metal ions (Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Co2+, and Cd2+), which had been shown to be essential cofactors of the former reaction, are not required for the two latter ones. Used at concentrations which are optimum for Ap4A phosphorolysis, the cations (particularly Mg2+ and Cd2+) inhibit the NDP-Pi exchange and the arsenolysis of NDPs. Interestingly, the Ap4A phosphorylase exhibits higher specificity for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) than for any other NDP tested. The V/Km ratio is almost 5-fold higher with APS than with ADP. However, in the presence of orthophosphate, the APS is irreversibly converted to ADP. Thus, the enzyme displays a property already attributed to ADP-sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.5), (Grunberg-Manago, M., Del Campillo

  14. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicholas D; Regan, John M

    2015-12-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD(+), respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP(+), respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190 mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  15. Adhesion of platelets to purified solid-phase von Willebrand factor: effects of wall shear rate, ADP, thrombin, and ristocetin.

    PubMed

    Olson, J D; Zaleski, A; Herrmann, D; Flood, P A

    1989-07-01

    When platelets are stimulated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin, or ristocetin, they bind soluble von Willebrand factor (vWF). In contrast, platelets adhere to solid-phase vWF without apparent stimulus. This work characterizes the adhesion of washed human platelets to highly purified solid-phase human vWF. VWF (iodine 125-labeled vWF) was demonstrated to bind in a quantifiable fashion to the internal surfaces of glass capillary tubes, saturating at a surface density of 3.0 mg/ml. The multimeric structure of bound vWF was the same as that of normal vWF. Platelets were washed, labeled with indium 111, and resuspended with washed red blood cells (RBCs) in balanced salt solution containing Ca++, Mg++, and apyrase. The washed platelet RBC suspension was aspirated through capillary tubes to which vWF was adsorbed. Adhesion of platelets to adsorbed vWF was directly dependent on the surface density of vWF. Increasing wall shear rate (100 to 5000 sec-1) produced increasing platelet adhesion to maximum reached at 2500 sec-1. Platelets bound to the solid-phase vWF in an irreversible fashion, and, as demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy, they spread on the surface. When used to stimulate the platelets, ADP, thrombin, and ristocetin all increased the platelet adhesion to solid-phase vWF. ADP- and thrombin-stimulated reactions were inhibited by prior treatment of the platelets with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine. This inhibitor of ADP binding had no effect on the baseline platelet adhesion reaction (without ADP or thrombin). Adenosine in concentration up to 1 mmol/L failed to inhibit adhesion. The data demonstrate that washed platelets adhere to solid-phase vWF without added agonists, that the reaction is dependent on surface density vWF and wall shear rate, that they bind irreversibly, and that they demonstrate surface spreading. In addition, these platelets can be stimulated to increase their adherence to vWF by using ADP, thrombin, and ristocetin.

  16. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.

  17. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  18. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  19. P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists: Days of future and past

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Marc; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of the therapeutic arsenal in coronary artery disease. Thanks to a better understanding in physiology, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics huge progress were made in the field of platelet reactivity inhibition thus allowing the expansion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent implantation requires the combination of two antiplatelet agents acting in a synergistic way. Asprin inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of platelet activation while clopidogrel is a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist. This dual antiplatelet therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of stented patients. However, due to pharmacological limitations of clopidogrel (interindividual variability in its biological efficacy, slow onset of action, mild platelet reactivity inhibition) ischemic recurrences remained high following stent implantation especially in acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, more potent P2Y12-ADP receptor inhibitors were developped including prasugrel, ticagrelor and more recently cangrelor to overcome these pitfalls. These new agents reduced the rate of thrombotic events in acute coronary syndrome patients at the cost of an increased bleeding risk. The abundance in antiplatelet agents allow us to tailor our strategy based on the thrombotic/bleeding profile of each patient. Recently, the ACCOAST trial cast a doubt on the benefit of pre treatment in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The aim of the present review is to summarize the results of the main studies dealing with antiplatelet therapy in stented/acute coronary syndromes patients. PMID:27231519

  20. P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists: Days of future and past.

    PubMed

    Laine, Marc; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent

    2016-05-26

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of the therapeutic arsenal in coronary artery disease. Thanks to a better understanding in physiology, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics huge progress were made in the field of platelet reactivity inhibition thus allowing the expansion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent implantation requires the combination of two antiplatelet agents acting in a synergistic way. Asprin inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of platelet activation while clopidogrel is a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist. This dual antiplatelet therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of stented patients. However, due to pharmacological limitations of clopidogrel (interindividual variability in its biological efficacy, slow onset of action, mild platelet reactivity inhibition) ischemic recurrences remained high following stent implantation especially in acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, more potent P2Y12-ADP receptor inhibitors were developped including prasugrel, ticagrelor and more recently cangrelor to overcome these pitfalls. These new agents reduced the rate of thrombotic events in acute coronary syndrome patients at the cost of an increased bleeding risk. The abundance in antiplatelet agents allow us to tailor our strategy based on the thrombotic/bleeding profile of each patient. Recently, the ACCOAST trial cast a doubt on the benefit of pre treatment in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The aim of the present review is to summarize the results of the main studies dealing with antiplatelet therapy in stented/acute coronary syndromes patients. PMID:27231519

  1. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M.; Wen, Matthew G.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  2. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Fu, Kai; Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M; Wen, Matthew G; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y; Wan, Fengyi

    2016-09-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  3. Impaired Erectile Function in CD73-deficient Mice with Reduced Endogenous Penile Adenosine Production

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Adenosine has been implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection. However, a direct role of endogenous adenosine in erectile physiology and pathology has not been established. Aim To determine the functional role of endogenous adenosine production in erectile function. Methods CD73-deficient mice (CD73−/−) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Some WT mice were treated with alpha, beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (APCP), a CD73-specific inhibitor. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure adenosine levels in mouse penile tissues. In vivo assessment of intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the cavernous nerve was used. Main Outcome Measurement The main outcome measures of this study were the in vivo assessment of initiation and maintenance of penile erection in WT mice and mice with deficiency in CD73 (ecto-5′-nucleotidase), a key cell-surface enzyme to produce extracellular adenosine. Results Endogenous adenosine levels were elevated in the erected state induced by ES of cavernous nerve compared to the flaccid state in WT mice but not in CD73−/− mice. At cellular levels, we identified that CD73 was highly expressed in the neuronal, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in mouse penis. Functionally, we found that the ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in CD73−/− mice was reduced from 0.48 ± 0.03 to 0.33 ± 0.05 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.30 ± 0.13 mm Hg/s to 0.15 ± 0.05 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). The ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in APCP-treated WT mice was reduced from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.06 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.29 ± 0.11 mm Hg/s to 0.19 ± 0.04 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). Conclusion Overall, our findings demonstrate that CD73-dependent production of endogenous adenosine plays a direct role in initiation and maintenance of penile erection. PMID:21595838

  4. Thiamin diphosphate in biological chemistry: new aspects of thiamin metabolism, especially triphosphate derivatives acting other than as cofactors.

    PubMed

    Bettendorff, Lucien; Wins, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Prokaryotes, yeasts and plants synthesize thiamin (vitamin B1) via complex pathways. Animal cells capture the vitamin through specific high-affinity transporters essential for internal thiamin homeostasis. Inside the cells, thiamin is phosphorylated to higher phosphate derivatives. Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) is the best-known thiamin compound because of its role as an enzymatic cofactor. However, in addition to ThDP, at least three other thiamin phosphates occur naturally in most cells: thiamin monophosphate, thiamin triphosphate (ThTP) and the recently discovered adenosine thiamin triphosphate. It has been suggested that ThTP has a specific neurophysiological role, but recent data favor a much more basic metabolic function. During amino acid starvation, Escherichia coli accumulate ThTP, possibly acting as a signal involved in the adaptation of the bacteria to changing nutritional conditions. In animal cells, ThTP can phosphorylate some proteins, but the physiological significance of this mechanism remains unknown. Adenosine thiamin triphosphate, recently discovered in E. coli, accumulates during carbon starvation and might act as an alarmone. Among the proteins involved in thiamin metabolism, thiamin transporters, thiamin pyrophosphokinase and a soluble 25-kDa thiamin triphosphatase have been characterized at the molecular level, in contrast to thiamin mono- and diphosphatases whose specificities remain to be proven. A soluble enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of adenosine thiamin triphosphate from ThDP and ADP or ATP has been partially characterized in E. coli, but the mechanism of ThTP synthesis remains elusive. The data reviewed here illustrate the complexity of thiamin biochemistry, which is not restricted to the cofactor role of ThDP.

  5. Cooperative binding of MgATP and MgADP in the trimeric P(II) protein GlnK2 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    PubMed

    Helfmann, Sarah; Lü, Wei; Litz, Claudia; Andrade, Susana L A

    2010-09-10

    P(II)-like proteins, such as GlnK, found in a wide variety of organisms from prokaryotes to plants constitute a family of cytoplasmic signaling proteins that play a central regulatory role in the assimilation of nitrogen for biosyntheses. They specifically bind and are modulated by effector molecules such as adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and 2-oxoglutarate. Their highly conserved, trimeric structure suggests that cooperativity in effector binding might be the basis for the ability to integrate and respond to a wide range of concentrations, but to date no direct quantification of this cooperative behavior has been presented. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus contains three GlnK proteins, functionally associated with ammonium transport proteins (Amt). We have characterized GlnK2 and its interaction with effectors by high-resolution X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of adenosine nucleotides resulted in distinct, cooperative behavior for ATP and ADP. While 2-oxoglutarate has been shown to interact with other GlnK proteins, GlnK2 was completely insensitive to this key indicator of a low level of intracellular nitrogen. These findings point to different regulation and modulation patterns and add to our understanding of the flexibility and versatility of the GlnK family of signaling proteins.

  6. Dynamic coupling between the LID and NMP domain motions in the catalytic conversion of ATP and AMP to ADP by adenylate kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Biman; Adkar, Bharat V.; Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by adenylate kinase (ADK) involves large amplitude, ligand induced domain motions, involving the opening and the closing of ATP binding domain (LID) and AMP binding domain (NMP) domains, during the repeated catalytic cycle. We discover and analyze an interesting dynamical coupling between the motion of the two domains during the opening, using large scale atomistic molecular dynamics trajectory analysis, covariance analysis, and multidimensional free energy calculations with explicit water. Initially, the LID domain must open by a certain amount before the NMP domain can begin to open. Dynamical correlation map shows interesting cross-peak between LID and NMP domain which suggests the presence of correlated motion between them. This is also reflected in our calculated two-dimensional free energy surface contour diagram which has an interesting elliptic shape, revealing a strong correlation between the opening of the LID domain and that of the NMP domain. Our free energy surface of the LID domain motion is rugged due to interaction with water and the signature of ruggedness is evident in the observed root mean square deviation variation and its fluctuation time correlation functions. We develop a correlated dynamical disorder-type theoretical model to explain the observed dynamic coupling between the motion of the two domains in ADK. Our model correctly reproduces several features of the cross-correlation observed in simulations.

  7. Dynamic coupling between the LID and NMP domain motions in the catalytic conversion of ATP and AMP to ADP by adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biman; Adkar, Bharat V; Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-21

    The catalytic conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by adenylate kinase (ADK) involves large amplitude, ligand induced domain motions, involving the opening and the closing of ATP binding domain (LID) and AMP binding domain (NMP) domains, during the repeated catalytic cycle. We discover and analyze an interesting dynamical coupling between the motion of the two domains during the opening, using large scale atomistic molecular dynamics trajectory analysis, covariance analysis, and multidimensional free energy calculations with explicit water. Initially, the LID domain must open by a certain amount before the NMP domain can begin to open. Dynamical correlation map shows interesting cross-peak between LID and NMP domain which suggests the presence of correlated motion between them. This is also reflected in our calculated two-dimensional free energy surface contour diagram which has an interesting elliptic shape, revealing a strong correlation between the opening of the LID domain and that of the NMP domain. Our free energy surface of the LID domain motion is rugged due to interaction with water and the signature of ruggedness is evident in the observed root mean square deviation variation and its fluctuation time correlation functions. We develop a correlated dynamical disorder-type theoretical model to explain the observed dynamic coupling between the motion of the two domains in ADK. Our model correctly reproduces several features of the cross-correlation observed in simulations.

  8. Binding of nucleotides to nucleoside diphosphate kinase: a calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, L; Lascu, I; Xu, Y; Gonin, P; Morr, M; Merouani, M; Janin, J; Giartosio, A

    2001-04-17

    The source of affinity for substrates of human nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases is particularly important in that its knowledge could be used to design more effective antiviral nucleoside drugs (e.g., AZT). We carried out a microcalorimetric study of the binding of enzymes from two organisms to various nucleotides. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been used to characterize the binding in terms of Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees. Thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of ADP with the hexameric NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum and with the tetrameric enzyme from Myxococcus xanthus, at 20 degrees C, were similar and, in both cases, binding was enthalpy-driven. The interactions of ADP, 2'deoxyADP, GDP, and IDP with the eukaryotic enzyme differed in enthalpic and entropic terms, whereas the Delta G degrees values obtained were similar due to enthalpy--entropy compensation. The binding of the enzyme to nonphysiological nucleotides, such as AMP--PNP, 3'deoxyADP, and 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP, appears to differ in several respects. Crystallography of the protein bound to 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP showed that the drug was in a distorted position, and was unable to interact correctly with active site side chains. The interaction of pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates with the hexameric enzyme is characterized by a lower affinity than that with purine nucleotides. Titration showed the stoichiometry of the interaction to be abnormal, with 9--12 binding sites/hexamer. The presence of supplementary binding sites might have physiological implications. PMID:11294625

  9. The effects of Ca2+ and ADP on dynein switching during the beat cycle of reactivated bull sperm models.

    PubMed

    Lesich, Kathleen A; dePinho, Tania G; Dionne, Benjamin J; Lindemann, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    Calcium regulation of flagellar motility is the basis for chemotaxis, phototaxis, and hyperactivation responses in eukaryotic flagellates and spermatozoa. Ca2+ is the internal messenger for these responses, but the coupling between Ca2+ and the motor mechanism that generates the flagellar beat is incompletely understood. We examined the effects of Ca2+ on the flagellar curvature at the switch-points of the beat cycle in bull sperm. The sperm were detergent extracted and reactivated with 0.1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). With their heads immobilized and their tails beating freely it is possible to calculate the bending torque and the transverse force acting on the flagellum at the switch-points. An increase in the free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 to pCa 4) significantly decreased the development of torque and t-force in the principal bending direction, while having negligible effect on the reverse bend. The action of Ca2+ was more pronounced when the sperm were also treated with 4 mM adenosine diphosphate (ADP); it was sufficient to change the direction of bending that reaches the greater curvature. We also observed that the curvature of the distal half of the flagellum became locked in one direction in the presence of Ca2+ . This indicates that a subset of the dynein becomes continuously activated by Ca2+ and fails to switch with the beat cycle. Our evidence suggests this subset of dyneins is localized to doublets #1-4 of the axoneme.

  10. Self-assembled copper(II) metallacycles derived from asymmetric Schiff base ligands: efficient hosts for ADP/ATP in phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Rampal; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mrigendra; Mohammed, Akbar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2015-10-21

    Novel asymmetric Schiff base ligands 2-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-phenol (H2L(1)) and 1-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-naphthalen-2-ol (H2L(2)) possessing dissimilar N,O-chelating sites and copper(ii) metallacycles (CuL(1))4 (1) and (CuL(2))4 (2) based on these ligands have been described. The ligands and complexes have been thoroughly characterized by satisfactory elemental analyses, and spectral (IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS, UV/vis) and electrochemical studies. Structures of H2L(2) and 1 have been unambiguously determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. The crystal structure of H2L(2) revealed the presence of two distinct N,O-chelating sites on dissimilar cores (naphthalene and β-ketoaminato groups) offering a diverse coordination environment. Metallacycles 1 and 2 having a cavity created by four Cu(ii) centres coordinated in a homo- and heteroleptic fashion with respective ligands act as efficient hosts for adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) respectively, over other nucleoside polyphosphates (NPPs). The disparate sensitivity of these metallacycles toward ADP and ATP has been attributed to the size of the ligands assuming diverse dimensions and spatial orientations. These are attuned for π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions suitable for different guest molecules under analogous conditions, metallacycle 1 offers better orientation for ADP, while 2 for ATP. The mechanism of the host-guest interaction has been investigated by spectral and electrochemical studies and supported by molecular docking studies. PMID:26373609

  11. Self-assembled copper(II) metallacycles derived from asymmetric Schiff base ligands: efficient hosts for ADP/ATP in phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Rampal; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mrigendra; Mohammed, Akbar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2015-10-21

    Novel asymmetric Schiff base ligands 2-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-phenol (H2L(1)) and 1-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-naphthalen-2-ol (H2L(2)) possessing dissimilar N,O-chelating sites and copper(ii) metallacycles (CuL(1))4 (1) and (CuL(2))4 (2) based on these ligands have been described. The ligands and complexes have been thoroughly characterized by satisfactory elemental analyses, and spectral (IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS, UV/vis) and electrochemical studies. Structures of H2L(2) and 1 have been unambiguously determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. The crystal structure of H2L(2) revealed the presence of two distinct N,O-chelating sites on dissimilar cores (naphthalene and β-ketoaminato groups) offering a diverse coordination environment. Metallacycles 1 and 2 having a cavity created by four Cu(ii) centres coordinated in a homo- and heteroleptic fashion with respective ligands act as efficient hosts for adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) respectively, over other nucleoside polyphosphates (NPPs). The disparate sensitivity of these metallacycles toward ADP and ATP has been attributed to the size of the ligands assuming diverse dimensions and spatial orientations. These are attuned for π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions suitable for different guest molecules under analogous conditions, metallacycle 1 offers better orientation for ADP, while 2 for ATP. The mechanism of the host-guest interaction has been investigated by spectral and electrochemical studies and supported by molecular docking studies.

  12. Shrimp oncoprotein nm23 is a functional nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Castillo-Yañez, Francisco J; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nucleoside triphosphates is critical for bioenergetics and nucleic acid replication, and this is achieved by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK). As an emerging biological model and the global importance of shrimp culture, we have addressed the study of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) NDK. We demonstrated its activity and affinity towards deoxynucleoside diphosphates. Also, the quaternary structure obtained by gel filtration chromatography showed that shrimp NDK is a trimer. Affinity was in the micro-molar range for dADP, dGDP, dTDP and except for dCDP, which presented no detectable interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry, as described previously for Plasmodium falciparum NDK. This information is particularly important, as this enzyme could be used to test nucleotide analogs that can block white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral replication and to study its bioenergetics role during hypoxia and fasting.

  13. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition reverses vascular dysfunction after {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, Carsten J. . E-mail: Carsten.Beller@urz.uni-heidelberg.de; Radovits, Tamas; Seres, Leila; Kosse, Jens; Krempien, Robert; Gross, Marie-Luise; Penzel, Roland; Berger, Irina; Huber, Peter E.; Hagl, Siegfried; Szabo, Csaba; Szabo, Gabor

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The generation of reactive oxygen species during {gamma}-irradiation may induce DNA damage, leading to activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) culminating in endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of PARP inhibition on changes in vascular function after acute and short-term irradiation. Methods and Materials: In the acute experiments, aortic rings were exposed to 20 Gy of {gamma}-irradiation. The aortae were harvested after 1 or 7 days. Two additional groups received the ultrapotent PARP inhibitor, INO-1001, for 1 or 7 days after irradiation. The aortic rings were precontracted by phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were studied. Results: The vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine was significantly lower both acutely and 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was not impaired acutely after irradiation. One and seven days after irradiation, vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was significantly enhanced. Treatment with INO-1001 reversed vascular dysfunction after irradiation. Conclusion: Vascular dysfunction was observed 1 and 7 days after irradiation, as evidenced by reduced vasoconstriction, coupled with endothelium-dependent and -independent hyperrelaxation. PARP inhibition restored vascular function and may, therefore, be suitable to reverse vascular dysfunction after irradiation.

  14. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, and Fusion in Early Stage of Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Gu, Dong Ryun; Lee, Soo Young; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2015-01-01

    Small G-protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factors (ARFs) regulate a variety of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling, plasma membrane reorganization, and vesicular transport. Here, we propose the functional roles of ARF1 in multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. ARF1 was upregulated during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and transiently activated in an initial stage of their differentiation. Differentiation of ARF1-deficient osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts temporarily increased in pre-maturation stage of osteoclasts followed by reduced formation of mature osteoclasts, indicating that ARF1 regulates the osteoclastogenic process. ARF1 deficiency resulted in reduced osteoclast precursor proliferation and migration as well as increasing cell-cell fusion. In addition, ARF1 silencing downregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, osteopontin, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-receptor c-Fms as well as upregulating several fusion-related genes including CD44, CD47, E-cadherin, and meltrin-α. Collectively, we showed that ARF1 stimulated proliferation and migration of osteoclast precursors while suppressing their fusion, suggesting that ARF1 may be a plausible inter-player that mediates the transition to osteoclast fusion at multiple steps during osteoclast differentiation PMID:26690137

  15. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, and Fusion in Early Stage of Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Gu, Dong Ryun; Lee, Soo Young; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2015-12-09

    Small G-protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factors (ARFs) regulate a variety of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling, plasma membrane reorganization, and vesicular transport. Here, we propose the functional roles of ARF1 in multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. ARF1 was upregulated during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and transiently activated in an initial stage of their differentiation. Differentiation of ARF1-deficient osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts temporarily increased in pre-maturation stage of osteoclasts followed by reduced formation of mature osteoclasts, indicating that ARF1 regulates the osteoclastogenic process. ARF1 deficiency resulted in reduced osteoclast precursor proliferation and migration as well as increasing cell-cell fusion. In addition, ARF1 silencing downregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, osteopontin, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-receptor c-Fms as well as upregulating several fusion-related genes including CD44, CD47, E-cadherin, and meltrin-α. Collectively, we showed that ARF1 stimulated proliferation and migration of osteoclast precursors while suppressing their fusion, suggesting that ARF1 may be a plausible inter-player that mediates the transition to osteoclast fusion at multiple steps during osteoclast differentiation.

  16. Effect of PD 128763, a new potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, on X-ray-induced cellular recovery processes in Chinese hamster V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel-Suto, C.M.; Scavone, S.V.; Turner, W.R.; Suto, M.J.; Sebolt-Leopold, J.S. )

    1991-06-01

    The modifying effects of PD 128763 (3,4-dihydro-5-methyl-1(2H)-isoquinolinone), a potent inhibitor of poly(adenosine-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase, on radiation-induced cell killing were examined in Chinese hamster V79 cells. This compound has an IC50 value against the purified enzyme approximately 50X lower than 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a widely used specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to a noncytotoxic concentration (0.5 mM) of PD 128763 for 2 h immediately following X irradiation increased their radiation sensitivity, modifying both the shoulder and the slope of the survival curve. When recovery from sublethal damage and potentially lethal damage was examined in exponential and plateau-phase cells, respectively, postirradiation incubation with 0.5 mM PD 128763 was found not only to inhibit both these processes fully, but also to enhance further the level of radiation-induced cell killing. This is in contrast to the slight effect seen with the less potent inhibitor, 3-AB. The results presented suggest that the mechanism of radiosensitization by PD 128763 is related to the potent inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by this compound.

  17. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of chloroquine diphosphate in a murine model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Du; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Deng, Xiao-Qiang; Mao, Yong-Qiu; Shi, Wei; Tang, Qing-Qing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Zheng, Yu-Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Yong; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2010-11-01

    Metastatic breast cancers are hard to treat and almost always fatal. Chloroquine diphosphate, a derivative of quinine, has long been used as a potent and commonly used medicine against different human diseases. We therefore investigated the effects of chloroquine diphosphate on a highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In vitro treatment of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells with chloroquine diphosphate resulted in significant inhibition of cellular proliferation and viability, and induction of apoptosis in 4T1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further analysis indicated that induction of apoptosis was associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The effect of chloroquine diphosphate was then examined using a mice model in which 4T1 cells were implanted subcutaneously. Chloroquine diphosphate (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg, respectively) significantly inhibited the growth of the implanted 4T1 tumor cells and induced apoptosis in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the metastasis of tumor cells to the lungs was inhibited significantly and the survival of the mice enhanced. These data suggested that chloroquine diphosphate might have chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer including inhibition of metastasis. PMID:20888174

  18. Direct visualization by electron microscopy of the weakly bound intermediates in the actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, T D; Bhandari, D; Maupin, P; Wachsstock, D; Weeds, A G; Zot, H G

    1993-01-01

    We used a novel stopped-flow/rapid-freezing machine to prepare the transient intermediates in the actin-myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) cycle for direct observation by electron microscopy. We focused on the low affinity complexes of myosin-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and myosin-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-Pi with actin filaments since the transition from these states to the high affinity actin-myosin-ADP and actin-myosin states is postulated to generate the molecular motion that drives muscle contraction and other types of cellular movements. After rapid freezing and metal replication of mixtures of myosin subfragment-1, actin filaments, and ATP, the structure of the weakly bound intermediates is indistinguishable from nucleotide-free rigor complexes. In particular, the average angle of attachment of the myosin head to the actin filament is approximately 40 degrees in both cases. At all stages in the ATPase cycle, the configuration of most of the myosin heads bound to actin filaments is similar, and the part of the myosin head preserved in freeze-fracture replicas does not tilt by more than a few degrees during the transition from the low affinity to high affinity states. In contrast, myosin heads chemically cross-linked to actin filaments differ in their attachment angles from ordered at 40 degrees without ATP to nearly random in the presence of ATP when viewed by negative staining (Craig, R., L.E. Greene, and E. Eisenberg. 1985. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 82:3247-3251, and confirmed here), freezing in vitreous ice (Applegate, D., and P. Flicker. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:6856-6863), and in replicas of rapidly frozen samples. This suggests that many of the cross-linked heads in these preparations are dissociated from but tethered to the actin filaments in the presence of ATP. These observations suggest that the molecular motion produced by myosin and actin takes place with the myosin head at a point some distance from the actin binding site or does not

  19. Structural and Enzymatic Characterization of a Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar Hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Duong-ly, Krisna C.; Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Pizarro-Dupuy, Mario A.; Zarr, Melissa; Pineiro, Silvia A.; Amzel, L. Mario; Gabelli, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Given the broad range of substrates hydrolyzed by Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to X) enzymes, identification of sequence and structural elements that correctly predict a Nudix substrate or characterize a family is key to correctly annotate the myriad of Nudix enzymes. Here, we present the structure determination and characterization of Bd3179 –- a Nudix hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus–that we show localized in the periplasmic space of this obligate Gram-negative predator. We demonstrate that the enzyme is a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (NDPSase) and has a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to a canonical ADP-ribose hydrolase and to a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (1.4 and 1.3 Å Cα RMSD respectively). Examination of the structural elements conserved in both types of enzymes confirms that an aspartate-X-lysine motif on the C-terminal helix of the α-β-α NDPSase fold differentiates NDPSases from ADPRases. PMID:26524597

  20. ADP-Ribose Pyrophosphatase Reaction in Crystalline State Conducted by Consecutive Binding of Two Manganese(II) Ions as Cofactors.

    PubMed

    Furuike, Yoshihiko; Akita, Yuka; Miyahara, Ikuko; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2016-03-29

    Adenosine diphosphate ribose pyrophosphatase (ADPRase), a member of the Nudix family proteins, catalyzes the metal-induced and concerted general acid-base hydrolysis of ADP ribose (ADPR) into AMP and ribose-5'-phosphate (R5P). The ADPR-hydrolysis reaction of ADPRase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtADPRase) requires divalent metal cations such as Mn(2+), Zn(2+), or Mg(2+) as cofactors. Here, we report the reaction pathway observed in the catalytic center of TtADPRase, based on cryo-trapping X-ray crystallography at atomic resolutions around 1.0 Å using Mn(2+) as the reaction trigger, which was soaked into TtADPRase-ADPR binary complex crystals. Integrating 11 structures along the reaction timeline, five reaction states of TtADPRase were assigned, which were ADPRase alone (E), the ADPRase-ADPR binary complex (ES), two ADPRase-ADPR-Mn(2+) reaction intermediates (ESM, ESMM), and the postreaction state (E'). Two Mn(2+) ions were inserted consecutively into the catalytic center of the ES-state and ligated by Glu86 and Glu82, which are highly conserved among the Nudix family, in the ESM- and ESMM-states. The ADPR-hydrolysis reaction was characterized by electrostatic, proximity, and orientation effects, and by preferential binding for the transition state. A new reaction mechanism is proposed, which differs from previous ones suggested from structure analyses with nonhydrolyzable substrate analogues or point-mutated ADPRases.

  1. The effects of Ca2+ and ADP on dynein switching during the beat cycle of reactivated bull sperm models.

    PubMed

    Lesich, Kathleen A; dePinho, Tania G; Dionne, Benjamin J; Lindemann, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    Calcium regulation of flagellar motility is the basis for chemotaxis, phototaxis, and hyperactivation responses in eukaryotic flagellates and spermatozoa. Ca2+ is the internal messenger for these responses, but the coupling between Ca2+ and the motor mechanism that generates the flagellar beat is incompletely understood. We examined the effects of Ca2+ on the flagellar curvature at the switch-points of the beat cycle in bull sperm. The sperm were detergent extracted and reactivated with 0.1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). With their heads immobilized and their tails beating freely it is possible to calculate the bending torque and the transverse force acting on the flagellum at the switch-points. An increase in the free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 to pCa 4) significantly decreased the development of torque and t-force in the principal bending direction, while having negligible effect on the reverse bend. The action of Ca2+ was more pronounced when the sperm were also treated with 4 mM adenosine diphosphate (ADP); it was sufficient to change the direction of bending that reaches the greater curvature. We also observed that the curvature of the distal half of the flagellum became locked in one direction in the presence of Ca2+ . This indicates that a subset of the dynein becomes continuously activated by Ca2+ and fails to switch with the beat cycle. Our evidence suggests this subset of dyneins is localized to doublets #1-4 of the axoneme. PMID:25355469

  2. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 protects from oxidative stress induced endothelial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, Catherine; Staehli, Barbara E.; Shi, Yi; Camici, Giovanni G.; Akhmedov, Alexander; Hoegger, Lisa; Lohmann, Christine; Matter, Christian M.; Hassa, Paul O.; Hottiger, Michael O.; Malinski, Tadeusz; Luescher, Thomas F.; and others

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear enzyme PARP-1 is a downstream effector of oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PARP-1 protects from oxidative stress induced endothelial dysfunction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated through inhibition of vasoconstrictor prostanoid production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, PARP-1 may play a protective role as antioxidant defense mechanism. -- Abstract: Background: Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key feature of vascular disease. Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a downstream effector of oxidative stress. Methods: PARP-1(-/-) and PARP-1(+/+) mice were injected with paraquat (PQ; 10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce intracellular oxidative stress. Aortic rings were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording to analyze vascular function. Results: PQ treatment markedly impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in PARP-1(-/-), but not PARP-1(+/+) mice (p < 0.0001). Maximal relaxation was 45% in PQ treated PARP-1(-/-) mice compared to 79% in PARP-1(+/+) mice. In contrast, endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were not altered. After PQ treatment, L-NAME enhanced contractions to norepinephrine by 2.0-fold in PARP-1(-/-) mice, and those to acetylcholine by 3.3-fold, respectively, as compared to PARP-1(+/+) mice. PEG-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PEG-catalase prevented the effect of PQ on endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in PARP-1(-/-) mice (p < 0.001 vs. PQ treated PARP-1(+/+) mice. Indomethacin restored endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in PQ treated PARP-1(-/-) mice (p < 0.05 vs. PQ treated PARP-1(+/+). Conclusion: PARP-1 protects from acute intracellular oxidative stress induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting ROS induced production of vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

  3. Halobacterial adenosine triphosphatases and the adenosine triphosphatase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Sadler, Martha H.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared from various members of the genus Halobacterium contained a Triton X-l00 activated adenosine triphosphatase. The enzyme from Halobacterium saccharovorum was unstable in solutions of low ionic strength and maximally active in the presence of 3.5 M NaCl. A variety of nucleotide triphosphates was hydrolyzed. MgADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, was not hydrolyzed and was a competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum was composed of at least 2 and possibly 4 subunits. The 83-kDa and 60-kDa subunits represented about 90 percent of total protein. The 60-kDa subunit reacted with dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide when inhibition was carried out in an acidic medium. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum, possesses properties of an F(1)F(0) as well as an E(1)E(2) ATPase.

  4. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand (3H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ((3H)CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that (3H) CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for (3H) CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific (3H)CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid).

  5. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  6. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Dias, Ana Sofia; Pelletier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders. PMID:25210228

  7. ADP's ABCs of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company's core competence is processing data, it is sometimes easy to lose sight of the obvious--the information right under its nose. In the case of Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP), a business outsourcing company specializing in human resources, payroll, tax, and benefits administrations solutions, that is not a problem. Through…

  8. Evidence for the presence of phosphoriboisomerase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase in extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M; Barton, L L

    1977-07-01

    Cell extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris were found to incorporate 14CO2 into acid-stable products when ribose-5-phosphate or ribulose-1,5-diphosphate was used as a substrate. This CO2 fixation required adenosine triphosphate and produced 3-phosphoglyceric acid as one of the products. The assimilation of CO2 by pentose phosphates was unrelated to the pyruvate-CO2 exchange reaction. The pyruvate-CO2 exchange did not require adenosine triphosphate, did not produce phosphorylated compounds, and, unlike the pentose phosphate system, required an acidic protein fraction for activity.

  9. Comparative studies on antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) in rabbits and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Y; Sugimura, T

    1981-01-01

    Immunochemical studies were made on the antibodies induced in rabbits against poly(ADP-ribose) and naturally-occurring antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Antibodies against poly(ADP-ribose) could also be induced in rabbits by oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with rat liver histones and by a complex of poly(ADP-ribose) with methylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA). The two types of antibody were inhibited to the same extent by poly(ADP-ribose). However, the antibody induced by oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with histones was inhibited by oligo(ADP-ribose) with an average chain length if 4 ADP-ribosyl units and by phosphoribosyl adenosine monophosphate (PR-AMP) but not by mono ADP-ribose, whereas that induced by poly(ADP-ribose) was practically not inhibited by these related compounds even in excess amounts. The sera of ten cases of systemic lupus erythematosus showing high antibody activity against poly(ADP-ribose) were also examined immunochemically. It was found that the antibodies of three patients showed a similar inhibitory pattern to that of antibody induced in rabbits by oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with histones, those of three patients showed a similar pattern to that of antibody produced in rabbits by poly(ADP-ribose), and the remainder did not show either pattern. These findings suggest that oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with histones may serve as antigen to elicit naturally-occuring antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:7251045

  10. K channel activation by nucleotide diphosphates and its inhibition by glibenclamide in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Beech, D J; Zhang, H; Nakao, K; Bolton, T B

    1993-10-01

    1. Whole-cell and inside-out patch recordings were made from single smooth muscle cells that had been isolated enzymatically and mechanically from the rabbit portal vein. 2. In whole-cells the inclusion in the recording pipette solution of nucleotide diphosphates (NDPs), but not tri- or monophosphates, induced a K-current that developed gradually over 5 to 15 min. Intracellular 1 mM guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) induced a slowly developing outward K-current at -37 mV that reached a maximum on average of 72 +/- 4 pA (n = 40). Half maximal effect was estimated to occur with about 0.2 mM GDP. Except for ADP, other NDPs had comparable effects. At 0.1 mM, ADP was equivalent to GDP but at higher concentration ADP was less effective. ADP induced its maximum effect at 1 mM but had almost no effect at 10 mM. 3. In 14% of inside-out patches exposed to 1 mM GDP at the intracellular surface, characteristic K channel activity was observed which showed long (> 1 s) bursts of openings separated by longer closed periods. The current-voltage relationship for the channel was linear in a 60 mM:130 mM K-gradient and the unitary conductance was 24 pS. 4. Glibenclamide applied via the extracellular solution was found to be a potent inhibitor of GDP-induced K-current (IK(GDP)) in the whole-cell. The Kd was 25 nM and the inhibition was fully reversible on wash-out. 5. IK(GDP) was not evoked if Mg ions were absent from the pipette solution. In contrast the omission of extracellular Mg ions had no effect on outward or inward IK(GDP). 6. Inclusion of 1 mM ATP in the recording pipette solution reduced IK(GDP) and also attenuated its decline during long (25 min) recordings. 7. When perforated-patch whole-cell recording was used, metabolic poisoning with cyanide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced a glibenclamide-sensitive K-current. This current was not observed when conventional whole-cell recording was used. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed. 8. These K channels appear similar to

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial adenosinetriphosphatase by 2-azidoadenosine 5'-(alpha-32P)diphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Boulay, F.; Dalbon, P.; Vignais, P.V.

    1985-12-03

    2-Azidoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (2-azido-ADP) labeled with 32P in the alpha-position was prepared and used to photolabel the nucleotide binding sites of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The native F1 prepared by the procedure of Knowles and Penefsky (Knowles, A. F., and Penefsky, H. S. (1972)) contained an average of 2.9 mol of tightly bound ADP plus ATP per mole of enzyme. Short-term incubation of F1 with micromolar concentrations of (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP in the dark in a Mg2+-supplemented medium resulted in the rapid supplementary binding of 3 mol of label/mol of F1, consistent with the presence of six nucleotide binding sites per F1. The Kd relative to the reversible binding of (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP to mitochondrial F1 in the dark was 5 microM in the presence of MgCl2 and 30 microM in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A linear relationship between the percentage of inactivation of F1 and the extent of covalent photolabeling by (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP was observed for percentages of inactivation up to 90%, extrapolating to 2 mol of covalently bound (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP/mol of F1. Under these conditions, only the beta subunit was photolabeled. Covalent binding of one photolabel per beta subunit was ascertained by electrophoretic separation of labeled and unlabeled beta subunits based on charge differences and by mapping studies showing one major radioactive peptide segment per photolabeled beta subunit.

  12. Chemoelectrical energy conversion of adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Sarles, Stephen Andrew; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-04-01

    Plant and animal cell membranes transport charged species, neutral molecules and water through ion pumps and channels. The energy required for moving species against established concentration and charge gradients is provided by the biological fuel - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -synthesized within the cell. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPases) in a plant cell membrane hydrolyze ATP in the cell cytoplasm to pump protons across the cell membrane. This establishes a proton gradient across the membrane from the cell exterior into the cell cytoplasm. This proton motive force stimulates ion channels that transport nutrients and other species into the cell. This article discusses a device that converts the chemical energy stored in adenosine triphosphate into electrical power using a transporter protein, ATPase. The V-type ATPase proteins used in our prototype are extracted from red beet(Beta vulgaris) tonoplast membranes and reconstituted in a bilayer lipid membrane or BLM formed from POPC and POPS lipids. A pH7 medium that can support ATP hydrolysis is provided on both sides of the membrane and ATP is dissolved in the pH7 buffer on one side of the membrane. Hydrolysis of ATP results in the formation of a phosphate ion and adenosine diphosphate. The energy from the reaction activates ATPase in the BLM and moves a proton across the membrane. The charge gradient established across the BLM due to the reaction and ion transport is converted into electrical current by half-cell reference electrodes. The prototype ATPase cell with an effective BLM area of 4.15 mm2 carrying 15 μl of ATPase proteins was observed to develop a steady state peak power output of 70 nW, which corresponds to a specific power of 1.69 μW/cm2 and a current density of 43.4 μA/cm2 of membrane area.

  13. Targeting the A2B adenosine receptor during gastrointestinal ischemia and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eltzschig, Holger K; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Colgan, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine functions as an endogenous distress signal via activation of four distinct adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3). Conditions of limited oxygen availability or acute inflammation lead to elevated levels of extracellular adenosine and enhanced signaling events. This relates to a combination of four mechanisms: i) increased production of adenosine via extracellular phosphohydrolysis of precursor molecules (particularly ATP and ADP); ii) increased expression and signaling via hypoxia-induced adenosine receptors, particularly the A2B adenosine receptor; iii) attenuated uptake from the extracellular towards the intracellular compartment; and iv) attenuated intracellular metabolism. Due to their large surface area, mucosal organs are particularly prone to hypoxia and ischemia associated inflammation. Therefore, it is not surprising that adenosine production and signaling plays a central role in attenuating tissue inflammation and injury during intestinal ischemia or inflammation. In fact, recent studies combining pharmacological and genetic approaches demonstrated that adenosine signaling via the A2B adenosine receptor dampens mucosal inflammation and tissue injury during intestinal ischemia or experimental colitis. This review outlines basic principles of extracellular adenosine production, signaling, uptake and metabolism. In addition, we discuss the role of this pathway in dampening hypoxia-elicited inflammation, specifically in the setting of intestinal ischemia and inflammation. PMID:19769545

  14. Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar-Starch Glucosyl Transferase Activity of wx Starch Granules 1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Chourey, Prem S.; Chang, Ming Tu

    1978-01-01

    Starch granule preparations from the endosperm tissue of all waxy maize (Zea mays L.) mutants tested have low and approximately equal capability to incorporate glucose from adenosine diphosphate glucose into starch. As the substrate concentration is reduced, however, the activity of waxy preparations relative to nonmutant increases until, at the lowest substrate concentration utilized (0.1 μM), the activity of the waxy preparations is nearly equal to that of the nonmutant preparation. The apparent Km (adenosine diphosphate glucose) for starch granule preparations from wx-C/wx-C/wx-C endosperms was 7.1 × 10−5 M, which is compared to 3 × 10−3 M for preparations from nonwaxy endosperms. Starch granule preparations from three other waxy mutants of independent mutational origin have levels of enzymic activity approximately equal to wx-C at a given substrate concentration giving rise to similar apparent Km estimates. We conclude that there is in maize endosperm starch granules a second starch granule-bound glycosyl transferase, whose presence is revealed when mutation eliminates activity of the more active glucosyl transferase catalyzing the same reaction. PMID:16660522

  15. ADP computer security classification program

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    CG-ADP-1, the Automatic Data Processing Security Classification Guide, provides for classification guidance (for security information) concerning the protection of Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor Automatic Data Processing (ADP) systems which handle classified information. Within the DOE, ADP facilities that process classified information provide potentially lucrative targets for compromise. In conjunction with the security measures required by DOE regulations, necessary precautions must be taken to protect details of those ADP security measures which could aid in their own subversion. Accordingly, the basic principle underlying ADP security classification policy is to protect information which could be of significant assistance in gaining unauthorized access to classified information being processed at an ADP facility. Given this policy, classification topics and guidelines are approved for implementation. The basic program guide, CG-ADP-1 is broad in scope and based upon it, more detailed local guides are sometimes developed and approved for specific sites. Classification topics are provided for system features, system and security management, and passwords. Site-specific topics can be addressed in local guides if needed.

  16. Effects of adenosine metabolism in astrocytes on central nervous system oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ya-nan; Wang, Zhong-zhuang; Xu, Wei-gang; Li, Run-ping; Zhang, Jun-dong

    2016-03-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is widely used in military operations, especially underwater missions. However, prolonged and continuous inhalation of HBO can cause central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT), which greatly limits HBO's application. The regulation of astrocytes to the metabolism of adenosine is involved in epilepsy. In our study, we aimed to observe the effects of HBO exposure on the metabolism of adenosine in the brain. Furthermore, we aimed to confirm the possible mechanism underlying adenosine's mediation of the CNS-OT. Firstly, anesthetized rats exposed to 5 atm absolute HBO for 80 min. The concentrations of extracellular adenosine, ATP, ADP, and AMP were detected. Secondly, free-moving rats were exposed to HBO at the same pressure for 20 min, and the activities of 5'-nucleotidase and ADK in brain tissues were measured. For the mechanism studies, we observed the effects of a series of different doses of drugs related to adenosine metabolism on the latency of CNS-OT. Results showed HBO exposure could increase adenosine content by inhibiting ADK activity and improving 5'-nucleotidase activity. And adenosine metabolism during HBO exposure may be a protective response against HBO-induced CNS-OT. Moreover, the improvement of adenosine concentration, activation of adenosine A1R, or suppression of ADK and adenosine A2AR, which are involved in the prevention of HBO-induced CNS-OT. This is the first study to demonstrate HBO exposure regulated adenosine metabolism in the brain. Adenosine metabolism and adenosine receptors are related to HBO-induced CNS-OT development. These results will provide new potential targets for the termination or the attenuation of CNS-OT. PMID:26806404

  17. Cloning and characterization of bifunctional enzyme farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isoprenoids are the most diverse and abundant group of natural products. In Plasmodium falciparum, isoprenoid synthesis proceeds through the methyl erythritol diphosphate pathway and the products are further metabolized by farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), turning this enzyme into a key branch point of the isoprenoid synthesis. Changes in FPPS activity could alter the flux of isoprenoid compounds downstream of FPPS and, hence, play a central role in the regulation of a number of essential functions in Plasmodium parasites. Methods The isolation and cloning of gene PF3D7_18400 was done by amplification from cDNA from mixed stage parasites of P. falciparum. After sequencing, the fragment was subcloned in pGEX2T for recombinant protein expression. To verify if the PF3D7_1128400 gene encodes a functional rPfFPPS protein, its catalytic activity was assessed using the substrate [4-14C] isopentenyl diphosphate and three different allylic substrates: dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate or farnesyl diphosphate. The reaction products were identified by thin layer chromatography and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. To confirm the product spectrum formed of rPfFPPS, isoprenic compounds were also identified by mass spectrometry. Apparent kinetic constants KM and Vmax for each substrate were determined by Michaelis–Menten; also, inhibition assays were performed using risedronate. Results The expressed protein of P. falciparum FPPS (rPfFPPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate, as well as geranylgeranyl diphosphate, being therefore a bifunctional FPPS/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) enzyme. The apparent KM values for the substrates dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate were, respectively, 68 ± 5 μM, 7.8 ± 1.3 μM and 2.06 ± 0.4 μM. The protein is expressed constitutively in all intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum, demonstrated by using transgenic

  18. Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok

    2011-08-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s⁻¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ∼10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common α/β barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism. PMID:21511036

  19. Fluorometric Determination of Adenosine Nucleotide Derivatives as Measures of the Microfouling, Detrital, and Sedimentary Microbial Biomass and Physiological Status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William M.; White, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine, adenine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), AMP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were recovered quantitatively from aqueous portions of lipid extracts of microfouling, detrital, and sedimentary microbial communities. These could be detected quantitatively in the picomolar range by forming their 1-N6-etheno derivatives and analyzing by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Lipid extraction and subsequent analysis allowed the simultaneous measurement of the microbial community structure, total microbial biomass with the quantitative recovery of the adenine-containing cellular components, which were protected from enzymatic destruction. This extraction and fluorescent derivatization method showed equivalency with the luciferin-luciferase method for bacterial ATP measurements. Quick-freezing samples in the field with dry ice-acetone preserved the ATP and energy charge (a ratio of adenosine nucleotides) for analysis at remote laboratories. The metabolic lability of ATP in estuarine detrital and microfouling communities, as well as bacterial monocultures of constant biomass, showed ATP to be a precarious measure of biomass under some conditions. Combinations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides gave better correlations with microbial biomass measured as extractable lipid phosphate in the detrital and microfouling microbial communities than did ATP alone. Stresses such as anoxia or filtration are reflected in the rapid accumulation of intracellular adenosine and the excretion of adenosine and AMP into the surrounding milieu. Increases in AMP and adenosine may prove to be more sensitive indicators of metabolic status than the energy charge. PMID:16345633

  20. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  1. An Adenosine-Mediated Glial-Neuronal Circuit for Homeostatic Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bjorness, Theresa E.; Dale, Nicholas; Mettlach, Gabriel; Sonneborn, Alex; Sahin, Bogachan; Fienberg, Allen A.; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Bibb, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep homeostasis reflects a centrally mediated drive for sleep, which increases during waking and resolves during subsequent sleep. Here we demonstrate that mice deficient for glial adenosine kinase (AdK), the primary metabolizing enzyme for adenosine (Ado), exhibit enhanced expression of this homeostatic drive by three independent measures: (1) increased rebound of slow-wave activity; (2) increased consolidation of slow-wave sleep; and (3) increased time constant of slow-wave activity decay during an average slow-wave sleep episode, proposed and validated here as a new index for homeostatic sleep drive. Conversely, mice deficient for the neuronal adenosine A1 receptor exhibit significantly decreased sleep drive as judged by these same indices. Neuronal knock-out of AdK did not influence homeostatic sleep need. Together, these findings implicate a glial-neuronal circuit mediated by intercellular Ado, controlling expression of homeostatic sleep drive. Because AdK is tightly regulated by glial metabolic state, our findings suggest a functional link between cellular metabolism and sleep homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The work presented here provides evidence for an adenosine-mediated regulation of sleep in response to waking (i.e., homeostatic sleep need), requiring activation of neuronal adenosine A1 receptors and controlled by glial adenosine kinase. Adenosine kinase acts as a highly sensitive and important metabolic sensor of the glial ATP/ADP and AMP ratio directly controlling intracellular adenosine concentration. Glial equilibrative adenosine transporters reflect the intracellular concentration to the extracellular milieu to activate neuronal adenosine receptors. Thus, adenosine mediates a glial-neuronal circuit linking glial metabolic state to neural-expressed sleep homeostasis. This indicates a metabolically related function(s) for this glial-neuronal circuit in the buildup and resolution of our need to sleep and suggests potential therapeutic targets

  2. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  3. Inhibition of Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation by Adenosine and Inosine: Studies on Their Relative Contribution and Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego; Alarcón, Marcelo; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background The inhibitory effect of adenosine on platelet aggregation is abrogated after the addition of adenosine-deaminase. Inosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside degraded from adenosine. Objectives The mechanisms of antiplatelet action of adenosine and inosine in vitro and in vivo, and their differential biological effects by molecular modeling were investigated. Results Adenosine (0.5, 1 and 2 mmol/L) inhibited phosphatidylserine exposure from 52±4% in the control group to 44±4 (p<0.05), 29±2 (p<0.01) and 20±3% (p<0.001). P-selectin expression in the presence of adenosine 0.5, 1 and 2 mmol/L was inhibited from 32±4 to 27±2 (p<0.05), 14±3 (p<0.01) and 9±3% (p<0.001), respectively. At the concentrations tested, only inosine to 4 mmol/L had effect on platelet P-selectin expression (p<0.05). Adenosine and inosine inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release stimulated by ADP and collagen. Adenosine and inosine reduced collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregate formation under flow. At the same concentrations adenosine inhibited platelet aggregation, decreased the levels of sCD40L and increased intraplatelet cAMP. In addition, SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ZM241385 (a potent adenosine receptor A2A antagonist) attenuated the effect of adenosine on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Adenosine and inosine significantly inhibited thrombosis formation in vivo (62±2% occlusion at 60 min [n = 6, p<0.01] and 72±1.9% occlusion at 60 min, [n = 6, p<0.05], respectively) compared with the control (98±2% occlusion at 60 min, n = 6). A2A is the adenosine receptor present in platelets; it is known that inosine is not an A2A ligand. Docking of adenosine and inosine inside A2A showed that the main difference is the formation by adenosine of an additional hydrogen bond between the NH2 of the adenine group and the residues Asn253 in H6 and Glu169 in EL2 of the A2A receptor. Conclusion Therefore

  4. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  5. Role of Adenosine Signaling on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Schaefer, Isabel da Costa; Frantz, Juliana Zanetti; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is a well-known endogenous modulator of neuronal excitability with anticonvulsant properties. Thus, the modulation exerted by adenosine might be an effective tool to control seizures. In this study, we investigated the effects of drugs that are able to modulate adenosinergic signaling on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased the latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure stage. Both the adenosine A2A receptor agonist and antagonist, CGS 21680 and ZM 241385, respectively, did not promote changes in seizure parameters. Pretreatment with the ecto-5′nucleotidase inhibitor adenosine 5′-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (AMPCP) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. However, when pretreated with the adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (EHNA), or with the nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitors, dipyridamole and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), animals showed longer latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure status. Finally, our molecular analysis of the c-fos gene expression corroborates these behavioral results. Our findings indicate that the activation of adenosine A1 receptors is an important mechanism to control the development of seizures in zebrafish. Furthermore, the actions of ecto-5′-nucleotidase, ADA, and NTs are directly involved in the control of extracellular adenosine levels and have an important role in the development of seizure episodes in zebrafish. PMID:25560904

  6. Role of adenosine signaling on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; da Costa Schaefer, Isabel; Frantz, Juliana Zanetti; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-04-01

    Adenosine is a well-known endogenous modulator of neuronal excitability with anticonvulsant properties. Thus, the modulation exerted by adenosine might be an effective tool to control seizures. In this study, we investigated the effects of drugs that are able to modulate adenosinergic signaling on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased the latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure stage. Both the adenosine A2A receptor agonist and antagonist, CGS 21680 and ZM 241385, respectively, did not promote changes in seizure parameters. Pretreatment with the ecto-5'nucleotidase inhibitor adenosine 5'-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (AMPCP) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. However, when pretreated with the adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (EHNA), or with the nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitors, dipyridamole and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), animals showed longer latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure status. Finally, our molecular analysis of the c-fos gene expression corroborates these behavioral results. Our findings indicate that the activation of adenosine A1 receptors is an important mechanism to control the development of seizures in zebrafish. Furthermore, the actions of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA, and NTs are directly involved in the control of extracellular adenosine levels and have an important role in the development of seizure episodes in zebrafish.

  7. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74 and the conditions of this subpart and to determine the efficiency, economy and... claim provisions of 45 CFR part 95, subpart A; and (iv) The service agreement was not previously... of Federal ADP systems and information processing. (2) ADP Security Program. State ADP...

  8. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR part... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ADP reviews. 95.621 Section 95.621 Public Welfare....621 ADP reviews. The Department will conduct periodic onsite surveys and reviews of State and...

  9. Adenosine and the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Housley, Gary D; Thorne, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine is a signalling molecule that modulates cellular activity in the central nervous system and peripheral organs via four G protein-coupled receptors designated A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. This review surveys the literature on the role of adenosine in auditory function, particularly cochlear function and its protection from oxidative stress. The specific tissue distribution of adenosine receptors in the mammalian cochlea implicates adenosine signalling in sensory transduction and auditory neurotransmission although functional studies have demonstrated that adenosine stimulates cochlear blood flow, but does not alter the resting and sound-evoked auditory potentials. An interest in a potential otoprotective role for adenosine has recently evolved, fuelled by the capacity of A1 adenosine receptors to prevent cochlear injury caused by acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. The balance between A1 and A2A receptors is conceived as critical for cochlear response to oxidative stress, which is an underlying mechanism of the most common inner ear pathologies (e.g. noise-induced and age-related hearing loss, drug ototoxicity). Enzymes involved in adenosine metabolism, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase, are also emerging as attractive targets for controlling oxidative stress in the cochlea. Other possible targets include ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine from extracellular ATP, and nucleoside transporters, which regulate adenosine concentrations on both sides of the plasma membrane. Developments of selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists that can cross the blood-cochlea barrier are bolstering efforts to develop therapeutic interventions aimed at ameliorating cochlear injury. Manipulations of the adenosine signalling system thus hold significant promise in the therapeutic management of oxidative stress in the cochlea. PMID:20190966

  10. Arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 promotes angiogenesis in colorectal cancer via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Xiao, Ming; Li, Xian; Tang, Yi; Wang, Ya-Lan

    2016-03-01

    Arginine adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyl-transferase 1 (ART1) is known to play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that ART1 promotes proliferation, invasion and metastasis in colon carcinoma. However, it was unclear whether ART1 is involved in angiogenesis in cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, lentiviral vector‑mediated ART1‑cDNA or ART1-shRNA were transfected into LoVo cells, and the LoVo cells transfected with ART1-cDNA or ART1-shRNA were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to determine the influence of ART1 on HUVECs. The proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of HUVECs were monitored using a cell counting kit-8 assay, a Transwell migration assay and immunohistochemical analysis in intrasplenic allograft tumors, respectively. Hypoxia‑inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), total (t-)Akt, phosphorylated (p-)Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression levels were detected via western blot analysis. Our results revealed that HUVECs which were co-cultured with ART1-cDNA LoVo cells showed higher proliferation, migration and angiogenic abilities, but a reduction was noted in those cultured with ART1-shRNA LoVo cells; p-Akt, HIF-1α, VEGF and bFGF expression was increased in HUVECs cultured with ART1‑cDNA-transfected LoVo cells, but reduced in ART1-shRNA-transfected LoVo cells. In a mouse xenograft model, we noted that the tumor microvessel density (MVD) was significantly increased in intrasplenic transplanted ART1‑cDNA CT26 tumors but decreased in intrasplenic transplanted ART1‑shRNA tumors. These data suggest that ART1 promoted the expression of HIF-1α via the Akt pathway in tumor cells. It also upregulated VEGF and bFGF and enhanced angiogenesis in HUVECs. Thus, we suggest that ART1 plays an important role in the invasion of CRC cells and the metastasis of CRC.

  11. ADP Signaling in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Connie Ng; Kou, Ruqin; Johnson, Rosalyn P.; Li, Gordon K.; Michel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    ADP responses underlie therapeutic approaches to many cardiovascular diseases, and ADP receptor antagonists are in widespread clinical use. The role of ADP in platelet biology has been extensively studied, yet ADP signaling pathways in endothelial cells remain incompletely understood. We found that ADP promoted phosphorylation of the endothelial isoform of nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) at Ser1179 and Ser635 and dephosphorylation at Ser116 in cultured endothelial cells. Although eNOS activity was stimulated by both ADP and ATP, only ADP signaling was significantly inhibited by the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 or by knockdown of P2Y1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). ADP activated the small GTPase Rac1 and promoted endothelial cell migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rac1 blocked ADP-dependent eNOS Ser1179 and Ser635 phosphorylation, as well as eNOS activation. We analyzed pathways known to regulate eNOS, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, ERK1/2, Src, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ) using the inhibitors wortmannin, PD98059, PP2, and STO-609, respectively. None of these inhibitors altered ADP-modulated eNOS phosphorylation. In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibited ADP-dependent eNOS Ser635 phosphorylation and eNOS activity but did not affect eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. Importantly, the AMPK enzyme inhibitor compound C had no effect on ADP-stimulated eNOS activity, despite completely blocking AMPK activity. CaMKKβ knockdown suppressed ADP-stimulated eNOS activity, yet inhibition of CaMKKβ kinase activity using STO-609 failed to affect eNOS activation by ADP. These data suggest that the expression, but not the kinase activity, of AMPK and CaMKKβ is necessary for ADP signaling to eNOS. PMID:19783664

  12. Adenosine diphosphate ribulose in human erythrocytes: a new metabolite with membrane binding properties.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Guida, L; Zocchi, E; Silvestro, L; Benatti, U; De Flora, A

    1993-02-15

    Incubation of ADPribose with yeast phosphoriboisomerase resulted in the formation of an adenylic nucleotide that was identified with ADPribulose by mass spectrometry. Synthesis of [32P]ADPribulose from [32P]NAD+ by the combined activities of commercial NAD+ glycohydrolase and phosphoriboisomerase allowed us to use it as a labeled internal standard throughout the procedure of purification from trichloroacetic acid extracts of human red blood cells. ADPribulose was purified by means of three sequential reverse phase HPLC separations and its concentration in human erythrocytes was estimated to be 0.11 +/- 0.1 microM. Unsealed erythrocyte ghosts did not transform ADPribulose, which bound to specific membrane proteins with a trichloroacetic and formic acid-resistant binding. The labeled proteins were identified as spectrin, bands 3, 4.1, 4.2 and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase on the basis of their relative mobilities on SDS-PAGE.

  13. Adenosine and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bjorness, Theresa E; Greene, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several decades the idea that adenosine (Ado) plays a role in sleep control was postulated due in large part to pharmacological studies that showed the ability of Ado agonists to induce sleep and Ado antagonists to decrease sleep. A second wave of research involving in vitro cellular analytic approaches and subsequently, the use of neurochemical tools such as microdialysis, identified a population of cells within the brainstem and basal forebrain arousal centers, with activity that is both tightly coupled to thalamocortical activation and under tonic inhibitory control by Ado. Most recently, genetic tools have been used to show that Ado receptors regulate a key aspect of sleep, the slow wave activity expressed during slow wave sleep. This review will briefly introduce some of the phenomenology of sleep and then summarize the effect of Ado levels on sleep, the effect of sleep on Ado levels, and recent experiments using mutant mouse models to characterize the role for Ado in sleep control and end with a discussion of which Ado receptors are involved in such control. When taken together, these various experiments suggest that while Ado does play a role in sleep control, it is a specific role with specific functional implications and it is one of many neurotransmitters and neuromodulators affecting the complex behavior of sleep. Finally, since the majority of adenosine-related experiments in the sleep field have focused on SWS, this review will focus largely on SWS; however, the role of adenosine in REM sleep behavior will be addressed. PMID:20190965

  14. A versatile photoactivatable probe designed to label the diphosphate binding site of farnesyl diphosphate utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Henry, Olivier; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Agger, Sean A; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Sen, Stephanie; Shintani, David; Cornish, Katrina; Distefano, Mark D

    2009-07-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) is a substrate for a diverse number of enzymes found in nature. Photoactive analogues of isoprenoid diphosphates containing either benzophenone, diazotrifluoropropionate or azide groups have been useful for studying both the enzymes that synthesize FPP as well as those that employ FPP as a substrate. Here we describe the synthesis and properties of a new class of FPP analogues that links an unmodified farnesyl group to a diphosphate mimic containing a photoactive benzophenone moiety; thus, importantly, these compounds are photoactive FPP analogues that contain no modifications of the isoprenoid portion of the molecule that may interfere with substrate binding in the active site of an FPP utilizing enzyme. Two isomeric compounds containing meta- and para-substituted benzophenones were prepared. These two analogues inhibit Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein farnesyltransferase (ScPFTase) with IC(50) values of 5.8 (meta isomer) and 3.0 microM (para isomer); the more potent analogue, the para isomer, was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of ScPFTase with respect to FPP with a K(I) of 0.46 microM. Radiolabeled forms of both analogues selectively labeled the beta-subunit of ScPFTase. The para isomer was also shown to label Escherichia coli farnesyl diphosphate synthase and Drosophila melanogaster farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Finally, the para isomer was shown to be an alternative substrate for a sesquiterpene synthase from Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120, a cyanobacterial source; the compound also labeled the purified enzyme upon photolysis. Taken together, these results using a number of enzymes demonstrate that this new class of probes should be useful for a plethora of studies of FPP-utilizing enzymes. PMID:19447628

  15. Rat cardiac myocyte adenosine transport and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.A.; Rovetto, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the importance of myocardial adenosine and adenine nucleotide metabolism, the adenosine salvage pathway in ventricular myocytes was studied. Accurate estimates of transport rates, separate from metabolic fllux, were determined. Adenosine influx was constant between 3 and 60 s. Adenosine metabolism maintained intracellular adenosine concentrations < 10% of the extracellular adenosine concentrations and thus unidirectional influx could be measured. Myocytes transported adenosine via saturable and nonsaturable processes. A minimum estimate of the V/sub max/ of myocytic adenosine kinase indicated the saturable component of adenosine influx was independent of adenosine kinase activity. Saturable transport was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine and verapamil. Extracellular adenosine taken up myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine taken up by myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine nucleotides. Not all extracellular adenosine, though, was phosphorylated on entering myocytes, since free, as opposed to protein-bound, intracellular adenosine was detected after digitonin extraction of cells in the presence of 1 mM ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid.

  16. Purification and properties of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase from Crithidia fasciculata. Automodification and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Dolores; García-Herreros, María I; Cannata, Joaquín J B; Stoppani, Andrés O M; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2004-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase has been purified more than 160000-fold from Crithidia fasciculata. This is the first PARP isolated to apparent homogeneity from trypanosomatids. The purified enzyme absolutely required DNA for catalytic activity and histones enhanced it 2.5-fold, when the DNA:histone ratio was 1:1.3. The enzyme required no magnesium or any other metal ion cofactor. The apparent molecular mass of 111 kDa, determined by gel filtration would correspond to a dimer of two identical 55-kDa subunits. Activity was inhibited by nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide, theophylline, thymidine, xanthine and hypoxanthine but not by adenosine. The enzyme was localized to the cell nucleus. Our findings suggest that covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP itself or DNA topoisomerase I resulted in the inhibition of their activities and provide an initial biochemical characterization of this covalent post-translational modification in trypanosomatids.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) deficiency is a disorder characterized by abnormal ...

  18. Construction of Functional Monomeric Type 2 Isopentenyl Diphosphate:Dimethylallyl Diphosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Neti, Syam Sundar; Eckert, Debra M; Poulter, C Dale

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme from Streptomyces pneumoniae (spIDI-2) is a homotetramer in solution with behavior, including a substantial increase in the rate of FMN reduction by NADPH in the presence of IPP, suggesting that substrate binding at one subunit alters the kinetic and binding properties of another. We now report the construction of catalytically active monomeric spIDI-2. The monomeric enzyme contains a single-point mutation (N37A) and a six-residue C-terminal deletion that preserves the secondary structure of the subunits in the wild-type (wt) homotetramer. UV-vis spectra of the enzyme-bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor in FMNox, FMNred, and FMNred·IPP/DMAPP states are the same for monomeric and wt homotetrameric spIDI-2. The mutations in monomeric IDI-2 lower the melting temperature of the protein by 20 °C and reduce the binding affinities of FMN and IDI by 40-fold but have a minimal effect on kcat. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of monomeric spIDI-2 showed that the rate of reduction of FMN by NADH (k = 1.64 × 10(-3) s(-1)) is substantially faster when IPP is added to the monomeric enzyme (k = 0.57 s(-1)), similar to behavior seen for wt-spIDI-2. Our results indicate that cooperative interactions among subunits in the wt homotetramer are not responsible for the increased rate of reduction of spIDI-2·FMN by NADH, and two possible scenarios for the enhancement are suggested. PMID:27379573

  19. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of 2'-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine and the 5'-Diphosphate Derivative as Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, D.; Xu, H.; Wijerathna, S.R.; Dealwis, C.; Lee, R.E.

    2010-08-27

    Analysis of the recently solved X-ray crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribonucleotide reductase I (ScRnr1) in complex with effectors and substrates led to the discovery of a conserved water molecule located at the active site that interacted with the 2'-hydroxy group of the nucleoside ribose. In this study 2'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine 1 and the 5'-diphosphate derivative 2 were designed and synthesized to see if the conserved water molecule could be displaced by a hydroxymethylene group, to generate novel RNR inhibitors as potential antitumor agents. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues 1 and 2, and the co-crystal structure of adenosine diphosphate analogue 2 bound to ScRnr1, which shows the conserved water molecule is displaced as hypothesized.

  20. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 attenuates the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Banasik, Marek; Stedeford, Todd; Strosznajder, Robert P; Takehashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Seigo; Ueda, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is routinely used as a model compound for eliciting centrilobular hepatotoxicity. It can be bioactivated to the trichloromethyl radical, which causes extensive lipid peroxidation and ultimately cell death by necrosis. Overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can rapidly reduce the levels of (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and adenosine triphosphate and ultimately promote necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of PARP-1 could decrease CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, as measured by degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation,and oxidative DNA damage. For this purpose, male ICR mice were administered intraperitoneally a hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 with or without 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, a potent inhibitor of PARP-1. Animals treated with CCl4 exhibited extensive poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in centrilobular hepatocytes, elevated serum levels of LDH, and increased lipid peroxidation. In contrast, animals treated concomitantly with CCl4 and 6(5H)-phenanthridinone showed significantly lower levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation, serum LDH, and lipid peroxidation. No changes were observed in the levels of oxidative DNA damage regardless of treatment. These results demonstrated that the hepatotoxicity of CCl4is dependent on the overactivation of PARP-1 and that inhibition of this enzyme attenuates the hepatotoxicity of CCl4. PMID:21395487

  1. Role of CNPase in the oligodendrocytic extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Bansal, Rashmi; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP) is an endogenous source of localized adenosine production in many organs. Recent studies suggest that extracellular 2',3'-cAMP (positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) is also a source of adenosine, particularly in the brain in vivo post-injury. Moreover, in vitro studies show that both microglia and astrocytes can convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to adenosine. Here, we examined the ability of primary mouse oligodendrocytes and neurons to metabolize extracellular 2',3'-cAMP and their respective adenosine monophosphates (2'-AMP and 3'-AMP). Cells were also isolated from mice deficient in 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Oligodendrocytes metabolized 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP with 10-fold greater efficiency than did neurons (and also more than previously examined microglia and astrocytes); whereas, the production of 3'-AMP was minimal in both oligodendrocytes and neurons. The production of 2'-AMP from 2',3'-cAMP was reduced by 65% in CNPase -/- versus CNPase +/+ oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes also converted 2'-AMP to adenosine, and this was also attenuated in CNPase -/- oligodendrocytes. Inhibition of classic 3',5'-cAMP-3'-phosphodiesterases with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine did not block metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP and inhibition of classic ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) with α,β-methylene-adenosine-5'-diphosphate did not attenuate the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine. These studies demonstrate that oligodendrocytes express the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP → 2'-AMP → adenosine). This pathway is more robustly expressed in oligodendrocytes than in all other CNS cell types because CNPase is the predominant enzyme that metabolizes 2',3'-cAMP to 2-AMP in CNS cells. By reducing levels of 2',3'-cAMP (a mitochondrial toxin) and increasing levels of adenosine (a neuroprotectant), oligodendrocytes may protect axons from injury. PMID:23922219

  2. Adenosine Phosphates in Germinating Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreland, Donald E.; Hussey, Griscelda G.; Shriner, Carole R.; Farmer, Fred S.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP), oxygen utilization, and fresh weights were measured during the first 48 hours after imbibition of water by quiescent radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) at 22.5 C. The changes in ATP concentrations, oxygen utilization, and fresh weights followed a triphasic time course, characterized by a rapid initial increase, which extended from 0 to approximately 1.5 hours, a lag phase from 1.5 to 16 hours, and a sharp linear increase from 16 to 48 hours. In unimbibed seeds, the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP were <0.1, 0.9, and 2.2 nmoles/seed, respectively. After imbibition of water by the quiescent seeds, for 1 hour, the ATP concentration had increased to 2.5, and ADP and AMP concentrations had decreased to 0.3 and 0.1 nmole/seed, respectively. These early changes occurred also in seeds maintained under anaerobic conditions (argon), or when treated with either 5 mm fluoroacetate, or 5 mm iodoacetate. The concentrations of ADP and AMP did not change significantly from 1 to 48 hours. The termination of the lag phase at 16 hours correlated with radicle emergence. Cell division in the radicles was initiated at approximately 28 hours. ATP concentrations in seeds maintained under argon or treated with fluoroacetate remained relatively constant from approximately 2 to 48 hours. In contrast, the ATP concentration of iodoacetate-treated seeds decreased curvilinearly from 4 to 48 hours. Oxidative phosphorylation was estimated to have contributed 15, 20, and 65% of the pool ATP at 1.5, 16, and 48 hours, respectively. PMID:16658928

  3. Substrate specificities of wild and mutated farnesyl diphosphate synthases from Bacillus stearothermophilus with artificial substrates.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, Masahiko; Nakada, Minori; Musashi, Tohru; Kawakami, Jun; Ohya, Norimasa; Kurihara, Masayo; Maki, Yuji; Nishino, Tokuzo; Koyama, Tanetoshi

    2007-07-01

    To determine the substrate specificities of wild and mutated types of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthases from Bacillus stearothermophilus, we examined the reactivities of 8-hydroxygeranyl diphosphate (HOGPP) and 8-methoxygeranyl diphosphate (CH(3)OGPP) as allylic substrate homologs. The wild-type FPP synthase reaction of HOGPP (and CH(3)OGPP) with isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) gave hydroxyfarnesyl- (and methoxyfarnesyl-) diphosphates that stopped at the first stage of condensation. On the other hand, with mutated type FPP synthase (Y81S), the former gave hydroxygeranylgeranyl diphosphate as the main double-condensation product together with hydroxyfarnesyl diphosphate as a single-condensation product and a small amount of hydroxygeranylfarnesyl diphosphate as a triple-condensation product. Moreover, the latter gave a double-condensation product, methoxygeranylgeranyl diphosphate, as the main product and only a trace of methoxyfarnesyl diphosphate was obtained. PMID:17617711

  4. Unique energetic properties of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate in comparison to similar compounds using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraszko, Kevin; Halloran, Thomas; Malinovskaya, Svetlana; Leopold, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is arguably the most critical compound to all life known on Earth, serving as the main energy transport and storage in cellular biology. Why in particular did nature ``choose'' ATP instead of a similar compound? We are seeking to answer this question by comparing the energetic properties of ATP to similar compounds. We discuss 3-D models for ATP, variants of the molecule based on all of the separate nucleobases, and ATP's twin molecule Adenosine Di-Phosphate. All calculations were done using Density Functional Theory. The results showed that purine compounds like Adenosine and Guanosine produce similar bond angles, making these viable unlike the other nucleobases. We have analyzed the chiral properties of ATP by comparing the ground-state-energies of ATP-cis and ATP-trans and have shown that ATP-cis is the more energetically favorable of the two. This is consistent with observations in nature.

  5. Imaging Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Megha; Dane, Eric; Conley, Jason; Tantama, Mathew

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a universal mediator of metabolism and signaling across unicellular and multicellular species. There is a fundamental interdependence between the dynamics of ATP and the physiology that occurs inside and outside the cell. Characterizing and understanding ATP dynamics provide valuable mechanistic insight into processes that range from neurotransmission to the chemotaxis of immune cells. Therefore, we require the methodology to interrogate both temporal and spatial components of ATP dynamics from the subcellular to the organismal levels in live specimens. Over the last several decades, a number of molecular probes that are specific to ATP have been developed. These probes have been combined with imaging approaches, particularly optical microscopy, to enable qualitative and quantitative detection of this critical molecule. In this review, we survey current examples of technologies available for visualizing ATP in living cells, and identify areas where new tools and approaches are needed to expand our capabilities. PMID:27638696

  6. Imaging Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Megha; Dane, Eric; Conley, Jason; Tantama, Mathew

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a universal mediator of metabolism and signaling across unicellular and multicellular species. There is a fundamental interdependence between the dynamics of ATP and the physiology that occurs inside and outside the cell. Characterizing and understanding ATP dynamics provide valuable mechanistic insight into processes that range from neurotransmission to the chemotaxis of immune cells. Therefore, we require the methodology to interrogate both temporal and spatial components of ATP dynamics from the subcellular to the organismal levels in live specimens. Over the last several decades, a number of molecular probes that are specific to ATP have been developed. These probes have been combined with imaging approaches, particularly optical microscopy, to enable qualitative and quantitative detection of this critical molecule. In this review, we survey current examples of technologies available for visualizing ATP in living cells, and identify areas where new tools and approaches are needed to expand our capabilities.

  7. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the efficiency, economy and effectiveness of the equipment or service. (e) State Agency Maintenance of... appropriate ADP security requirements based on recognized industry standards or standards governing security... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR...

  8. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the efficiency, economy and effectiveness of the equipment or service. (e) State Agency Maintenance of... appropriate ADP security requirements based on recognized industry standards or standards governing security... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR...

  9. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC...) Physical security of ADP resources; (B) Equipment security to protect equipment from theft and unauthorized...; (G) Emergency preparedness; and, (H) Designation of an Agency ADP Security Manager. (iii)...

  10. Properties of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase immobilized on porous glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.; Hanson, C. L.; Lyding, J. M.; Reilly, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase from spinach has been bound to arylamine porous glass with a diazo linkage and to alklamine porous glass with glutaraldehyde. Stability at elevated temperatures and responses to changes of pH and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, Mg(2+), and dithiothreitol concentrations were not significantly different from the soluble enzyme, though stability at 4 C was somewhat improved.

  11. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. IV. Regulation by phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Ryan, F J; Tolbert, N E

    1975-06-10

    The stimulation or inhibition of ribulose diphosphate oxygenase by a variety of compounds is compared with the reported effects on these compounds on the ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity. A possible transition state analog of ribulose diphosphate, 2-carboxyribitol 1, 5-diphosphate, at a molar ratio of inhibitor to enzyme of 10 to 1, irreversibly inactivates the oxygenase and carboxylase activities. This is consistent with the hypothesis that there may be a single active site for both the carboxylase and oxygenase activities. Several compounds of the reductive pentose photosynthetic carbon cycle act as effectors of the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase in a manner complementary to their reported effect upon the carboxylase. Ribose 5-phosphate inhibits the oxygenase with an apparent Ki of 1.8 mM, but it is reported to activate the carboxylase; fructose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate act similarly but are less effective than ribose 5-phosphate. Fructose 1. 6-diphosphate stimulates the oxygenase at low magnesium ion concentrations. The stimulatory effect of 6-phosphogluconate on the oxygenase is associated with a 3-fold reduction of the Km (Mg2+). ATP inhibits the oxygenase but has been reported to stimulate the carboxylase; pyrophosphate acts in an opposite manner. From these results it appears that the ratio of carboxylase to oxygenase activity may be a variable factor with predictable subsequent alteration in the ratio between photosynthetic CO2 fixation and photorespiration.

  12. Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors: antibacterial drug leads.

    PubMed

    Sinko, William; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Feixas, Ferran; Cox, Courtney L; Mitchell, Douglas A; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-07-10

    There is a significant need for new antibiotics due to the rise in drug resistance. Drugs such as methicillin and vancomycin target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have now arisen and are of major concern. Inhibitors acting on new targets in cell wall biosynthesis are thus of particular interest since they might also restore sensitivity to existing drugs, and the cis-prenyl transferase undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), essential for lipid I, lipid II, and thus, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, is one such target. We used 12 UPPS crystal structures to validate virtual screening models and then assayed 100 virtual hits (from 450,000 compounds) against UPPS from S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The most promising inhibitors (IC50 ∼2 μM, Ki ∼300 nM) had activity against MRSA, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp. with MIC or IC50 values in the 0.25-4 μg/mL range. Moreover, one compound (1), a rhodanine with close structural similarity to the commercial diabetes drug epalrestat, exhibited good activity as well as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.1 with methicillin against the community-acquired MRSA USA300 strain, indicating strong synergism. PMID:24827744

  13. Adenosine-Associated Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156

  14. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions.

  15. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2005-03-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions. PMID:15738467

  16. Identification of the bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) in plants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kosaku; Kasai, Koji; Ochi, Kozo

    2004-03-23

    Stringent control mediated by the bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) is a key regulatory process governing bacterial gene expression. By devising a system to measure ppGpp in plants, we have been able to identify ppGpp in the chloroplasts of plant cells. Levels of ppGpp increased markedly when plants were subjected to such biotic and abiotic stresses as wounding, heat shock, high salinity, acidity, heavy metal, drought, and UV irradiation. Abrupt changes from light to dark also caused a substantial elevation in ppGpp levels. In vitro, chloroplast RNA polymerase activity was inhibited in the presence of ppGpp, demonstrating the existence of a bacteria-type stringent response in plants. Elevation of ppGpp levels was elicited also by treatment with plant hormones jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and ethylene, but these effects were blocked completely by another plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid. On the basis of these findings, we propose that ppGpp plays a critical role in systemic plant signaling in response to environmental stresses, contributing to the adaptation of plants to environmental changes.

  17. Content of Adenosine Phosphates and Adenylate Energy Charge in Germinating Ponderosa Pine Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Ching, Kim K.

    1972-01-01

    An average of 540 picomoles of total adenosine phosphates was found in the embryo of mature seeds of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and 1140 picomoles in the gametophyte. Adenylate energy charges were 0.44 and 0.26, respectively. After stratification, total adenosine phosphates increased 7-fold and 6-fold in embryo and gametophyte, respectively, and energy charges rose to 0.85 and 0.75. During germination, total adenosine phosphates increased to a 20-fold peak on the 9th day in gametophytic tissue, parallel with the peak of reserve regradation and organellar synthesis, and then decreased. In embryo and seedling, total adenosine phosphates elevated 80-fold with two distinct oscillating increases of AMP and ADP. The oscillating increases occurred before the emergence of radicle and cotyledons during which the highest mitotic index prevailed in all tissues. Energy charges fluctuated between 0.65 at the rapid cell dividing stage to 0.85 at the fully differentiated stage of the seedling, while energy charges remained around 0.75 in the gametophyte. These data indicated that the content of adenosine phosphates of germinating seeds reflects growth, organogenesis, and morphogenesis, and that a compartmentalized energy metabolism must exist in dividing and growing plant cells. PMID:16658212

  18. Nucleotide Binding Site Communication in Arabidopsis thaliana Adenosine 5;-Phosphosulfate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-08-31

    Adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of adenosine 3{prime}-phosphate 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which is an essential metabolite for sulfur assimilation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana, we examine the energetics of nucleotide binary and ternary complex formation and probe active site features that coordinate the order of ligand addition. Calorimetric analysis shows that binding can occur first at either nucleotide site, but that initial interaction at the ATP/ADP site was favored and enhanced affinity for APS in the second site by 50-fold. The thermodynamics of the two possible binding models (i.e. ATP first versus APS first) differs and implies that active site structural changes guide the order of nucleotide addition. The ligand binding analysis also supports an earlier suggestion of intermolecular interactions in the dimeric APSK structure. Crystallographic, site-directed mutagenesis, and energetic analyses of oxyanion recognition by the P-loop in the ATP/ADP binding site and the role of Asp136, which bridges the ATP/ADP and APS/PAPS binding sites, suggest how the ordered nucleotide binding sequence and structural changes are dynamically coordinated for catalysis.

  19. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  20. 5'-Adenosine monophosphate and adenosine metabolism, and adenosine responses in mouse, rat and guinea pig heart.

    PubMed

    Headrick, J P; Peart, J; Hack, B; Garnham, B; Matherne, G P

    2001-11-01

    We examined myocardial 5'-adenosine monophosphate (5'-AMP) catabolism, adenosine salvage and adenosine responses in perfused guinea pig, rat and mouse heart. MVO(2) increased from 71+/-8 microl O(2)/min per g in guinea pig to 138+/-17 and 221+/-15 microl O(2)/min per g in rat and mouse. VO(2)/beat was 0.42+/-0.03, 0.50+/-0.03 and 0.55+/-0.04 microl O(2)/g in guinea pig, rat and mouse, respectively. Resting and peak coronary flows were highest in mouse vs. rat and guinea pig, and peak ventricular pressures and Ca(2+) sensitivity declined as heart mass increased. Net myocardial 5'-AMP dephosphorylation increased significantly as mass declined (3.8+/-0.5, 9.0+/-1.4 and 11.0+/-1.6 nmol/min per g in guinea pig, rat and mouse, respectively). Despite increased 5'-AMP catabolism, coronary venous [adenosine] was similar in guinea pig, rat and mouse (45+/-8, 69+/-10 and 57+/-14 nM, respectively). Comparable venous [adenosine] was achieved by increased salvage vs. deamination: 64%, 41% and 39% of adenosine formed was rephosphorylated while 23%, 46%, and 50% was deaminated in mouse, rat and guinea pig, respectively. Moreover, only 35-45% of inosine and its catabolites derive from 5'-AMP (vs. IMP) dephosphorylation in all species. Although post-ischemic purine loss was low in mouse (due to these adaptations), functional tolerance to ischemia decreased with heart mass. Cardiovascular sensitivity to adenosine also differed between species, with A(1) receptor sensitivity being greatest in mouse while A(2) sensitivity was greatest in guinea pig. In summary: (i) cardiac 5'-AMP dephosphorylation, VO(2), contractility and Ca(2+) sensitivity all increase as heart mass falls; (ii) adaptations in adenosine salvage vs. deamination limit purine loss and yield similar adenosine levels across species; (iii) ischemic tolerance declines with heart mass; and (iv) cardiovascular sensitivity to adenosine varies, with increasing A(2) sensitivity relative to A(1) sensitivity in larger hearts.

  1. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  2. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  3. NMR spectroscopy of native and in vitro tissues implicates polyADP ribose in biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Chow, W Ying; Rajan, Rakesh; Muller, Karin H; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Wong, Wai Ching; Brooks, Roger A; Green, Maggie; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W; Slatter, David A; Shanahan, Catherine M; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-05-16

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is useful to determine molecular structure in tissues grown in vitro only if their fidelity, relative to native tissue, can be established. Here, we use multidimensional NMR spectra of animal and in vitro model tissues as fingerprints of their respective molecular structures, allowing us to compare the intact tissues at atomic length scales. To obtain spectra from animal tissues, we developed a heavy mouse enriched by about 20% in the NMR-active isotopes carbon-13 and nitrogen-15. The resulting spectra allowed us to refine an in vitro model of developing bone and to probe its detailed structure. The identification of an unexpected molecule, poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose), that may be implicated in calcification of the bone matrix, illustrates the analytical power of this approach. PMID:24833391

  4. Characterization and Mechanistic Studies of Type II Isopentenyl Diphosphate:Dimethylallyl Diphosphate Isomerase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kittleman, William; Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Liu, Yung-nan; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Hung-wen

    2008-01-01

    The recently identified type II isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP):dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) isomerase (IDI-2) is a flavoenzyme that requires FMN and NAD(P)H for activity. IDI-2 is an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in several pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis, and thus is considered as a potential new drug target to battle bacterial infections. One notable feature of the IDI-2 reaction is that there is no net change in redox state between the substrate (IPP) and product (DMAPP), indicating that the FMN cofactor must start and finish each catalytic cycle in the same redox state. Here, we report the characterization and initial mechanistic studies of the S. aureus IDI-2. The steady-state kinetic analyses under aerobic and anaerobic conditions show that FMN must be reduced to be catalytically active and the overall IDI-2 reaction is O2 sensitive. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that NADPH is needed only in catalytic amounts to activate the enzyme for multiple turnovers of IPP to DMAPP. The hydride transfer from NAD(P)H to reduce FMN is determined to be pro-S stereospecific. Photoreduction and oxidation-reduction potential studies reveal that the S. aureus IDI-2 can stabilize significant amounts of the neutral FMN semiquinone. In addition, reconstitution of apo-IDI-2 with 5-deazaFMN resulted in a dead enzyme, whereas reconstitution with 1-deazaFMN led to the full recovery of enzyme activity. Taken together, these studies of S. aureus IDI-2 support a catalytic mechanism in which the reduced flavin coenzyme mediates a single electron transfer to and from the IPP substrate during catalysis. PMID:17585782

  5. Taxodione and arenarone inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase by binding to the isopentenyl diphosphate site

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Lindert, Steffen; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Ke; McCammon, J. Andrew; Oldfield, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We used in silico methods to screen a library of 1,013 compounds for possible binding to the allosteric site in farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS). Two of the 50 predicted hits had activity against either human FPPS (HsFPPS) or Trypanosoma brucei FPPS (TbFPPS), the most active being the quinone methide celastrol (IC50 versus TbFPPS ∼20 µM). Two rounds of similarity searching and activity testing then resulted in three leads that were active against HsFPPS with IC50 values in the range of ∼1–3 µM (as compared with ∼0.5 µM for the bisphosphonate inhibitor, zoledronate). The three leads were the quinone methides taxodone and taxodione and the quinone arenarone, compounds with known antibacterial and/or antitumor activity. We then obtained X-ray crystal structures of HsFPPS with taxodione+zoledronate, arenarone+zoledronate, and taxodione alone. In the zoledronate-containing structures, taxodione and arenarone bound solely to the homoallylic (isopentenyl diphosphate, IPP) site, not to the allosteric site, whereas zoledronate bound via Mg2+ to the same site as seen in other bisphosphonate-containing structures. In the taxodione-alone structure, one taxodione bound to the same site as seen in the taxodione+zoledronate structure, but the second located to a more surface-exposed site. In differential scanning calorimetry experiments, taxodione and arenarone broadened the native-to-unfolded thermal transition (Tm), quite different to the large increases in ΔTm seen with biphosphonate inhibitors. The results identify new classes of FPPS inhibitors, diterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, that bind to the IPP site and may be of interest as anticancer and antiinfective drug leads. PMID:24927548

  6. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for monitoring adenosine 5'-monophosphate production.

    PubMed

    First, Eric A

    2015-08-15

    A number of biologically important enzymes release adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a product, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like ligases, DNA ligases, coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, polyA deadenylases, and ribonucleases. In contrast to the abundance of assays available for monitoring the conversion of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to ADP, there are relatively few assays for monitoring the conversion of ATP (or cAMP) to AMP. In this article, we describe a homogeneous assay that continuously monitors the production of AMP. Specifically, we have coupled the conversion of AMP to inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) (by AMP deaminase) to the oxidation of IMP (by IMP dehydrogenase). This results in the reduction of oxidized nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH), allowing AMP formation to be monitored by the change in the absorbance at 340 nm. Changes in AMP concentrations of 5 μM or more can be reliably detected. The ease of use and relatively low expense make the AMP assay suitable for both high-throughput screening and kinetic analyses. PMID:25957126

  7. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency adenosine ...

  8. Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase from Freshly Ruptured Spinach Chloroplasts Having an in Vivo Km[CO(2)].

    PubMed

    Bahr, J T; Jensen, R G

    1974-01-01

    The properties of a form of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase having a high affinity for CO(2) have been studied. Its apparent Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 0.5 to 0.8 mm (pH 7.8) and calculated Km(CO(2)) of 11 to 18 mum are comparable to the values exhibited by intact chloroplasts during photosynthesis. This form of the enzyme was released from chloroplasts in hypotonic media and was unstable, rapidly converting to a form having a high Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 20 to 25 mm similar to that for the purified enzyme. Incubation of the enzyme with MgCl(2) and HCO(3) (-) yielded a third form with an intermediate Km(HCO(3) (-)) of 2.5 to 3.0 mm.The low Km form had sufficient activity both at air levels of CO(2) and at saturating CO(2) to account for the rates of photosynthesis by intact chloroplasts. The low Km form could be stabilized in the presence of ribose 5-phosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and MgCl(2), at low temperatures for up to 2 hours.

  9. Characterization of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase from Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. J.; Johnson, M. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1968-01-01

    Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase activity in chemosynthetic autotrophs Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus, noting sedimentation and gel filtration characteristics

  10. A review on the chemical synthesis of pyrophosphate bonds in bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong

    2015-09-15

    Currently, there is an ongoing interest in the synthesis of nucleoside diphosphate analogs as important regulators in catabolism/anabolism, and their potential applications as mechanistic probes and chemical tools for bioassays. However, the pyrophosphate bond formation step remains as the bottleneck. In this Digest, the chemical synthesis of the pyrophosphate bonds of representative bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs, i.e. phosphorus-modified analogs, nucleoside cyclic diphosphates, and nucleoside diphosphate conjugates, will be described.

  11. Proteomics Approaches to Identify Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vivelo, Christina A.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by mass spectrometry using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD+ analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  12. Proteomics approaches to identify mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins.

    PubMed

    Vivelo, Christina A; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by MS using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD(+) analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  13. A conserved loop in polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) essential for both RNA and ADP/phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Mazzantini, Elisa; Nardini, Marco; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Greco, Claudio; Briani, Federica; De Gioia, Luca; Dehò, Gianni; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) reversibly catalyzes RNA phosphorolysis and polymerization of nucleoside diphosphates. Its homotrimeric structure forms a central channel where RNA is accommodated. Each protomer core is formed by two paralogous RNase PH domains: PNPase1, whose function is largely unknown, hosts a conserved FFRR loop interacting with RNA, whereas PNPase2 bears the putative catalytic site, ∼20 Å away from the FFRR loop. To date, little is known regarding PNPase catalytic mechanism. We analyzed the kinetic properties of two Escherichia coli PNPase mutants in the FFRR loop (R79A and R80A), which exhibited a dramatic increase in Km for ADP/Pi binding, but not for poly(A), suggesting that the two residues may be essential for binding ADP and Pi. However, both mutants were severely impaired in shifting RNA electrophoretic mobility, implying that the two arginines contribute also to RNA binding. Additional interactions between RNA and other PNPase domains (such as KH and S1) may preserve the enzymatic activity in R79A and R80A mutants. Inspection of enzyme structure showed that PNPase has evolved a long-range acting hydrogen bonding network that connects the FFRR loop with the catalytic site via the F380 residue. This hypothesis was supported by mutation analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of PNPase domains and RNase PH suggests that such network is a unique feature of PNPase1 domain, which coevolved with the paralogous PNPase2 domain.

  14. Non-enzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes, uridine diphosphate glucose and cytidine diphosphate choline, and other phosphorylated metabolic intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mar, A.; Dworkin, J.; Oro, J.

    1987-01-01

    Using urea and cyanamide, the two condensing agents considered to have been present on the primitive earth, uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG), cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) were synthesized under simulated prebiotic conditions. The reaction products were separated and identified using paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, enzymatic analyses, and ion-pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The possibility of nonenzymatic synthesis of metabolic intermediates on the primitive earth from simple precursors was thus demonstrated.

  15. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  16. Protective mechanisms of adenosine 5'-monophosphate in platelet activation and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, E; Badimon, L; Caballero, J; Padró, T; Vilahur, G; Alarcón, M; Pérez, P; Palomo, I

    2014-03-01

    Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of acute thrombotic events. We sought to examine adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) mechanisms of action in preventing platelet activation, thrombus formation and platelet-related inflammatory response. We assessed the effect of AMP on 1) P-selectin expression and GPIIb/IIIa activation by flow cytometry; 2) Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, convulxin and thrombin; 3) Platelet rolling and firm adhesion, and platelet-leukocyte interactions under flow-controlled conditions; and, 4) Platelet cAMP levels, sP-selectin, sCD40L, IL-1β, TGF-β1 and CCL5 release, PDE3A activity and PKA phosphorylation. The effect of AMP on in vivo thrombus formation was also evaluated in a murine model. The AMP docking with respect to A2 adenosine receptor was determined by homology. AMP concentration-dependently (0.1 to 3 mmol/l) inhibited P-selectin expression and GPIIb/IIIa activation, platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and convulxin, and diminished platelet rolling and firm adhesion. Furthermore, AMP induced a marked increase in the rolling speed of leukocytes retained on the platelet surface. At these concentrations AMP significantly decreased inflammatory mediator from platelet, increased intraplatelet cAMP levels and inhibited PDE3A activity. Interestingly, SQ22536, ZM241385 and SCH58261 attenuated the antiplatelet effect of AMP. Docking experiments revealed that AMP had the same orientation that adenosine inside the A2 adenosine receptor binding pocket. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. Considering the successful use of combined antiplatelet therapy, AMP may be further developed as a novel antiplatelet agent. PMID:24306059

  17. Features of adenosine metabolism of mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Deussen, Andreas; Weichsel, Johannes; Pexa, Annette

    2006-11-01

    Adenosine metabolism and transport were evaluated in the isolated perfused mouse heart and compared with the well-established model of isolated perfused guinea pig heart. Coronary venous release of adenosine under well-oxygenated conditions in the mouse exceeds that in the guinea pig threefold when related to tissue mass. Total myocardial adenosine production rate under this condition was approximately 2 nmol/min per gramme and similar in both species. Coronary resistance vessels of mice are highly sensitive to exogenous adenosine, and the threshold for adenosine-induced vasodilation is approximately 30 nmol/l. Adenosine membrane transport was largely insensitive to nitrobenzyl-thioinosine (NBTI) in mouse heart, which is in contrast to guinea pig and several other species. This indicates the dominance of NBTI-insensitive transporters in mouse heart. For future studies, the assessment of cytosolic and extracellular adenosine metabolism and its relationship with coronary flow will require the use of more effective membrane transport blockers.

  18. Biosynthesis of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine: hydrogen exchange at C-2' and oxygen exchange at C-3' of adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Suhadolnik, R.J.; Pornbanlualap, S.; Wu, J.M.; Baker, D.C.; Hebbler, A.K.

    1989-04-01

    The data presented here describe new findings related to the bioconversion of adenosine to 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) by Streptomyces antibioticus by in vivo investigations and with a partially purified enzyme. First, in double label in vivo experiments with (2'-18O)- and (U-14C)adenosine, the 18O:14C ratio of the ara-A isolated does not change appreciably, indicating a stereospecific inversion of the C-2' hydroxyl of adenosine to ara-A with retention of the 18O at C-2'. In experiments with (3'-18O)- and (U-14C)-adenosine, (U-14C)ara-A was isolated; however, the 18O at C-3' is below detection. The adenosine isolated from the RNA from both double label experiments has essentially the same ratio of 18O:14C. Second, an enzyme has been isolated and partially purified from extracts of S. antibioticus that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine, but not AMP, ADP, ATP, inosine, guanosine, or D-ribose, to ara-A. In a single label enzyme-catalyzed experiment with (U-14C)adenosine, there was a 9.9% conversion to (U-14C)ara-A; with (2'-3H)-adenosine, there was a 8.9% release of the C-2' tritium from (2'-3H)adenosine which was recovered as 3H2O. Third, the release of 3H as 3H2O from (2'-3H)adenosine was confirmed by incubations of the enzyme with 3H2O and adenosine. Ninety percent of the tritium incorporated into the D-arabinose of the isolated ara-A was in C-2 and 8% was in C-3. The enzyme-catalyzed conversion of adenosine to ara-A occurs without added cofactors, displays saturation kinetics, a pH optimum of 6.8, a Km of 8 X 10(-4) M, and an inhibition by heavy metal cations. The enzyme also catalyzes the stereospecific inversion of the C-2' hydroxyl of the nucleoside antibiotic, tubercidin to form 7-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-4-aminopyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine. The nucleoside antibiotic, sangivamycin, in which the C-5 hydrogen is replaced with a carboxamide group, is not a substrate.

  19. On the role, inactivation and origin of endogenous adenosine at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, J A; Sebastião, A M

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of adenosine deaminase, inosine, alkylxanthines (8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), theophylline and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX], dipyridamole, alpha, beta-methylene ADP (AOPCP) and ATP analogues (alpha, beta-methylene ATP and beta, gamma-methylene ATP) on evoked end-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were investigated in innervated sartorius muscles of the frog, in which twitches had been prevented with tubocurarine. The effects of 8-PT and IBMX on the amplitude and quantal content of e.p.p.s were also investigated in innervated sartorius muscles of the frog, in which twitches had been prevented with high-magnesium solutions. 2. Adenosine deaminase reversibly increased the amplitude of e.p.p.s and prevented the reduction caused by exogenously applied adenosine on e.p.p. amplitude. The increase caused by adenosine deaminase was equivalent to the decrease caused by 12 +/- 5.8 microM-adenosine on e.p.p. amplitude. 3. Inosine, the product of adenosine deamination, was virtually devoid of effect on e.p.p.s. 4. The adenosine receptor antagonists at the frog neuromuscular junction, 8-PT and theophylline, increased in a concentration-dependent manner the amplitude of e.p.p.s in the presence of tubocurarine. 8-PT increased the amplitude and quantal content of e.p.p.s in the presence of high magnesium. IBMX, which does not behave as an adenosine receptor antagonist at the frog neuromuscular junction, decreased the amplitude of e.p.p.s in the presence of tubocurarine or high-magnesium solutions. 5. Dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake blocker, decreased the amplitude of e.p.p.s, and in a concentration that did not affect neuromuscular transmission potentiated the depressing effect of adenosine, but not that of 2-chloroadenosine, on the amplitude of e.p.p.s. 6. AOPCP, an inhibitor of 5'-nucleotidase, increased the amplitude of e.p.p.s and markedly attenuated the depressing effect of ATP, but not that of adenosine, on e.p.p. amplitude. 7. The ATP analogue, alpha, beta

  20. 45 CFR 95.619 - Use of ADP systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic... Conditions for Ffp § 95.619 Use of ADP systems. ADP systems designed, developed, or installed with FFP...

  1. Fluorescent ligands for adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field.

  2. Dielectric, thermal and mechanical properties of ADP doped PVA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Jagadish; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Rathod, Sunil G.; Sheela, T.; Naik, Ishwar

    2015-06-01

    Polymer composites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), doped with different concentrations of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) has been prepared by solution casting. The formation of complexation between ADP and PVA was confirmed with the help of Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows thermal stability of the prepared composites. Impedance analyzer study revealed the increase in dielectric constant and loss with increase the ADP concentration and the strain rate of the prepared composites decreases with ADP concentration.

  3. Nonnucleoside inhibitors of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Gomtsyan, Arthur; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous inhibitory neuromodulator that increases nociceptive thresholds in response to tissue trauma and inflammation. Adenosine kinase (AK) is a key intracellular enzyme regulating intra- and extracellular concentrations of ADO. AK inhibition selectively amplifies extracellular ADO levels at cell and tissue sites where accelerated release of ADO occurs. AK inhibitors have been shown to provide effective antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and anticonvulsant activity in animal models, thus suggesting their potential therapeutic utility for pain, inflammation, epilepsy and possibly other central and peripheral nervous system diseases associated with cellular trauma and inflammation. This beneficial outcome may potentially lack nonspecific effects associated with the systemic administration of ADO receptor agonists. Until recently all of the reported AK inhibitors contained adenosine-like structural motif. The present review will discuss design, synthesis and analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the novel nonnucleoside AK inhibitors that do not have close structural resemblance with the natural substrate ADO. Two classes of the nonnucleoside AK inhibitors are built on pyridopyrimidine and alkynylpyrimidine cores.

  4. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)--known to target Axin for proteolysis-regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  5. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P.; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)—known to target Axin for proteolysis—regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  6. ADP--A Must in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majernik, John A.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for including automated data processing (ADP) in secondary schools is given. ADP instruction: prepares students for data processing employment and for advanced ADP study, aids all students preparing for business careers, aids students in choosing a career, provides consumer information, and adds realism to other classroom…

  7. Bacopa monniera recombinant mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase: Biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Shakeel J; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Patel, Parth; Kumari, Uma; Khan, Bashir M

    2015-08-01

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD; EC 4.1.1.33) is an important enzyme in the mevalonic acid pathway catalyzing the Mg(2+)-ATP dependant decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP) to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Bacopa monniera recombinant MDD (BmMDD) protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and purified to apparent homogeneity. Km and Vmax for MVAPP were 144 μM and 52 U mg(-1) respectively. The values of turnover (kcat) and kcat/Km for mevalonate 5-diphosphate were determined to be 40s(-1) and 2.77×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and kcat and kcat/Km values for ATP were found to be 30 s(-1) and 2.20×10(4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. pH activity profile indicated the involvement of carboxylate ion, lysine and arginine for the activity of enzyme. The apparent activation energy for the BmMDD catalyzed reaction was 12.7 kJ mol(-1). Optimum pH and temperature for the forward reaction was found to be 8.0 and 45 °C. The enzyme was most stable at pH 7 at 20 °C with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) of 1.69×10(-4) and half life (t1/2) of 68 h. The cation studies suggested that BmMDD is a cation dependant enzyme and optimum activity was achieved in the presence of Mg(2+).

  8. A continuous fluorescent assay for protein prenyltransferases measuring diphosphate release.

    PubMed

    Pais, June E; Bowers, Katherine E; Stoddard, Andrea K; Fierke, Carol A

    2005-10-15

    Protein farnesyltransferase and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I catalyze the transfer of a 15- and a 20-carbon prenyl group, respectively, from a prenyl diphosphate to a cysteine residue at the carboxyl terminus of target proteins, with the concomitant release of diphosphate. Common substrates include oncogenic Ras proteins, which are implicated in up to 30% of all human cancers, making prenyltransferases a viable target for chemotherapeutic drugs. A coupled assay has been developed to measure the rate constant of diphosphate (PPi) dissociation during the prenyltransferase reaction under both single and multiple turnover conditions. In this assay, the PPi group produced in the prenyltransferase reaction is rapidly cleaved by inorganic pyrophosphatase to form phosphate (Pi), which is then bound by a coumarin-labeled phosphate binding protein from Escherichia coli, resulting in a fluorescence increase. The observed rate constant for PPi release is equal to the rate constant of prenylation of the peptide, as measured by other assays, so that this nonradioactive assay can be used to measure prenyltransferase activity under either single or multiple turnover conditions. This assay can be adapted for high-throughput screening for potential prenyltransferase substrates and inhibitors.

  9. Effects of adenosine on polymorphonuclear leucocyte function, cyclic 3': 5'-adenosine monophosphate, and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Nielson, C. P.; Vestal, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    1. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function by adenosine was studied with respect to effects of adenosine on intracellular cyclic AMP and calcium during the PMN respiratory burst. 2. The adenosine analogue 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide-adenosine (NECA) and L-N6-phenyl-isopropyl-adenosine (L-PIA) inhibited PMN oxygen metabolite generation with relative potencies (NECA greater than adenosine greater than L-PIA) characteristic of an A2 receptor. 3. The respiratory burst was inhibited by adenosine when PMN were activated by calcium ionophore or chemotactic peptide but not when cells where activated by oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol (OAG). 4. Adenosine increased intracellular cyclic AMP during the PMN respiratory burst regardless of whether cells were stimulated by ionophore, chemotactic peptide or OAG. 5. To determine whether the differences in cell inhibition by adenosine were related to differences in intracellular calcium mobilization by each activating agent, calcium was evaluated with the fluorescent probe, indo-1. Adenosine suppressed the increase in intracellular calcium following PMN activation by calcium ionophore or chemotactic peptide. In contrast, calcium did not increase in PMN activated by OAG and adenosine did not affect intracellular calcium changes following this stimulus. 6. These results demonstrate that physiological concentrations of adenosine inhibit the PMN respiratory burst in association with an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP and reduction of intracellular calcium. PMID:2547490

  10. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  11. Formation of a Novel Macrocyclic Alkaloid from the Unnatural Farnesyl Diphosphate Analogue Anilinogeranyl Diphosphate by 5-Epi-Aristolochene Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Kathleen A.; Crenshaw, Charisse M.; Koo, Hyun Jo; Subramanian, Thangaiah; Chehade, Kareem A. H.; Starks, Courtney; Allen, Keith D.; Andres, Douglas A.; Spielmann, H. Peter; Noel, Joseph P.; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to identify substrate analogs suitable for helping to resolve structural features important for terpene synthases, the inhibition of 5-epi-aristolochene biosynthesis from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by the tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase incubated with anilinogeranyl diphosphate (AGPP) was examined. The apparent noncompetitive nature of the inhibition supported further assessment of how AGPP might be bound to crystallographic forms of the enzyme. Surprisingly, the bound form of the inhibitor appeared to have undergone a cyclization event consistent with the native mechanism associated with FPP catalysis. Biocatalytic formation of a novel 13-membered macrocyclic paracyclophane alkaloid was confirmed by high-resolution GC-MS and NMR analysis. This work provides insights into new biosynthetic means for generating novel, functionally diversified, medium-sized terpene alkaloids. PMID:25897591

  12. Presence of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii.

    PubMed

    Werner, E; Sohst, S; Gropp, F; Simon, D; Wagner, H; Kröger, H

    1984-02-15

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase have been detected in chromatin extracts from the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase was detected by the liberation of ADP-ribose from poly(ADP-ribose). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was proved by (a) demonstration of phosphoribosyl-AMP in the phosphodiesterase digest of the reaction product, (b) demonstration of ADP-ribose oligomers by fractionation of the reaction product on DEAE-Sephadex. The (ADP-ribose)-protein transfer is dependent on DNA; it is inhibited by nicotinamide, thymidine, theophylline and benzamide. The protein-(ADP-ribose bond is susceptible to 0.1 M NaOH (70%) and 0.4 M NH2OH (33%). Dinoflagellates, nucleated protists, are unique in that their chromatin lacks histones and shows a conformation like bacterial chromatin [Loeblich, A. R., III (1976) J. Protozool. 23, 13--28]; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, however, has been found only in eucaryotes. Thus our results suggest that histones were not relevant to the establishment of poly(ADP-ribose) during evolution.

  13. Unexpected reactivity of 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate in the active site of crystalline 2-methylisoborneol synthase

    PubMed Central

    Köksal, Mustafa; Chou, Wayne K. W.; Cane, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of 2-methylisoborneol synthase (MIBS) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) has been determined in its unliganded state and in complex with 2 Mg2+ ions and cis-2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate at 1.85 Å and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively. Under normal circumstances, MIBS catalyzes the cyclization of the naturally-occurring, non-canonical 11-carbon isoprenoid substrate, 2-methylgeranyl diphosphate, which first undergoes an ionization-isomerization-ionization sequence through the tertiary diphosphate intermediate 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate to enable subsequent cyclization chemistry. MIBS does not exhibit catalytic activity with 2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate, and we recently reported the crystal structure of MIBS complexed with this unreactive substrate analogue [Köksal, M., Chou, W. K. W., Cane, D. E., Christianson, D. W. (2012) Biochemistry 51, 3011–3020]. However, cocrystallization of MIBS with the fluorinated analogue of the tertiary allylic diphosphate intermediate, 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, reveals unexpected reactivity for the intermediate analogue and yields the crystal structure of the complex with the primary allylic diphosphate, 2-fluoroneryl diphosphate. Comparison with the structure of the unliganded enzyme reveals that the crystalline enzyme active site remains partially open, presumably due to the binding of only 2 Mg2+ ions. Assays in solution indicate that MIBS catalyzes the generation of (1R)-(+)-camphor from the substrate 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, suggesting that both 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate and 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate follow the identical cyclization mechanism leading to 2-substituted isoborneol products; however, the initially generated 2-fluoroisoborneol cyclization product is unstable and undergoes elimination of hydrogen fluoride to yield (1R)-(+)-camphor. PMID:23844678

  14. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of adenosine phosphates in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Zhang, Tianbin; Cheng, Yechun; Jia, Qiong

    2014-07-01

    A polymer monolith microextraction method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine monophosphate. The monolithic column was synthesized inside fused-silica capillaries using thermal initiation free-radical polymerization with glycidyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, cyclohexanol, and 1-dodecanol as the porogen. N-Methylolacrylamide, an important hydrophilic monomer, was incorporated into the polymerization mixture to enhance the hydrophilicity of the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) column. The obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Optimum conditions for the preconcentration and separation of the target adenosines were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good relative standard deviations. The developed polymer monolith microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method exhibited a good performance with recovery values in the range of 76.9-104.7% when applied to the determination of the adenosines in five royal jelly samples.

  15. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems.

  16. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems. PMID:25027823

  17. Regulation of Cardiovascular Development by Adenosine and Adenosine-Mediated Embryo Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rivkees, Scott A.; Wendler, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Few signaling molecules have the potential to influence the developing mammal as the nucleoside adenosine. Adenosine levels increase rapidly with tissue hypoxia and inflammation. Adenosine antagonists include the methlyxanthines caffeine and theophylline. The receptors that transduce adenosine action are the A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). We examined how adenosine acts via A1ARs to influence embryo development. Transgenic mice were studied along with embryo cultures. Embryos lacking A1ARs were markedly growth retarded following intrauterine hypoxia exposure. Studies of mice selectively lacking A1AR in the heart identify the heart as a key site of adenosines embryo protective effects. Studies of isolated embryos showed that adenosine plays a key role in modulating embryo cardiac function, especially in the setting of hypoxia. When pregnant mice were treated during embryogenesis with the adenosine antagonist caffeine, adult mice had abnormal heart function. Adenosine acts via A1ARs to play an essential role in protecting the embryo against intra uterine stress, and adenosine antagonists, including caffeine, may be an unwelcome exposure for the embryo. PMID:22423036

  18. Pyridopyrimidine analogues as novel adenosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Lee, C; Pratt, J K; Perner, R J; Jiang, M Q; Gomtsyan, A; Matulenko, M A; Mao, Y; Koenig, J R; Kim, K H; Muchmore, S; Yu, H; Kohlhaas, K; Alexander, K M; McGaraughty, S; Chu, K L; Wismer, C T; Mikusa, J; Jarvis, M F; Marsh, K; Kowaluk, E A; Bhagwat, S S; Stewart, A O

    2001-08-20

    A novel series of pyridopyrimidine analogues 9 was identified as potent adenosine kinase inhibitors based on the SAR and computational studies. Substitution of the C7 position of the pyridopyrimidino core with C2' substituted pyridino moiety increased the in vivo potency and enhanced oral bioavailability of these adenosine kinase inhibitors.

  19. Crystal structures of Escherichia coli RecA in complex with MgADP and MnAMP-PNP.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xu; Bell, Charles E

    2004-12-28

    RecA catalyzes the DNA pairing and strand-exchange steps of homologous recombination, an important mechanism for repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The binding of RecA to DNA is modulated by adenosine nucleotides. ATP increases the affinity of RecA for DNA, while ADP decreases the affinity. Previously, the crystal structures of E. coli RecA and its complex with ADP have been determined to resolutions of 2.3 and 3.0 A, respectively, but the model for the RecA-ADP complex did not include magnesium ion or side chains. Here, we have determined the crystal structures of RecA in complex with MgADP and MnAMP-PNP, a nonhydrolyzable analogue of ATP, at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.1 A, respectively. Both crystals grow in the same conditions and have RecA in a right-handed helical form with a pitch of approximately 82 A. The crystal structures show the detailed interactions of RecA with the nucleotide cofactors, including the metal ion and the gamma phosphate of AMP-PNP. There are very few conformational differences between the structures of RecA bound to ADP and AMP-PNP, which differ from uncomplexed RecA only in a slight opening of the P-loop residues 66-73 upon nucleotide binding. To interpret the functional significance of the structure of the MnAMP-PNP complex, a coprotease assay was used to compare the ability of different nucleotides to promote the active, extended conformation of RecA. Whereas ATPgammaS and ADP-AlF(4) facilitate a robust coprotease activity, ADP and AMP-PNP do not activate RecA at all. We conclude that the crystal structure of the RecA-MnAMP-PNP complex represents a preisomerization state of the RecA protein that exists after ATP has bound but before the conformational transition to the active state. PMID:15610008

  20. Bis(benzyl­ammonium) di­hydrogen diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Ahlem Ben; Elboulali, Adel; Ratel-Ramond, Nicolas; Mohamed, Rzaigui; Toumi, Samah Akriche

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C6H5CH2NH3 +·H2P2O7 2−, contains two independent benzyl­ammonium cations and a di­hydrogen diphosphate dianion. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). Within this network, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:24526977

  1. Dissolution of phosphate matrices based on the thorium phosphate diphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacheux, N.; Thomas, A. C.; Brandel, V.; Genet, M.

    2000-07-01

    Several authors have reported the use of phosphate matrices like apatites, monazites or NZP for the immobilization of actinides coming from an advanced reprocessing or for the final disposal of the excess plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons. The thorium phosphate diphosphate Th4(PO4)4P2O7 (namely TPD) was also proposed for this purpose. Indeed, its structure allows the replacement of large amounts of tetravalent actinides like uranium, neptunium or plutonium leading to the obtention of solid solutions. The maximum weight loading was estimated to be equal to about 48% for uranium, 33% for neptunium and 26% for plutonium.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based quantification of organic diphosphates.

    PubMed

    Lenevich, Stepan; Distefano, Mark D

    2011-01-15

    Phosphorylated compounds are ubiquitous in life. Given their central role, many such substrates and analogs have been prepared for subsequent evaluation. Prior to biological experiments, it is typically necessary to determine the concentration of the target molecule in solution. Here we describe a method where concentrations of stock solutions of organic diphosphates and bisphosphonates are quantified using (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with standard instrumentation using a capillary tube with a secondary standard. The method is specific and is applicable down to a concentration of 200 μM. The capillary tube provides the reference peak for quantification and deuterated solvent for locking. PMID:20833124

  3. Optical Aptasensors for Adenosine Triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Stella; Lim, Hui Si; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids are among the most researched and applied biomolecules. Their diverse two- and three-dimensional structures in conjunction with their robust chemistry and ease of manipulation provide a rare opportunity for sensor applications. Moreover, their high biocompatibility has seen them being used in the construction of in vivo assays. Various nucleic acid-based devices have been extensively studied as either the principal element in discrete molecule-like sensors or as the main component in the fabrication of sensing devices. The use of aptamers in sensors - aptasensors, in particular, has led to improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and multiplexing capacity for a wide verity of analytes like proteins, nucleic acids, as well as small biomolecules such as glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This article reviews the progress in the use of aptamers as the principal component in sensors for optical detection of ATP with an emphasis on sensing mechanism, performance, and applications with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. PMID:27446501

  4. ADP-ribosylation of histones by ARTD1: an additional module of the histone code?

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O

    2011-06-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a covalent post-translational protein modification catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and is involved in important processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, replication or transcription. Histones are ADP-ribosylated by ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 at specific amino acid residues, in particular lysines, of the histones tails. Specific ADP-ribosyl hydrolases and poly-ADP-ribose glucohydrolases degrade the ADP-ribose polymers. The ADP-ribose modification is read by zinc finger motifs or macrodomains, which then regulate chromatin structure and transcription. Thus, histone ADP-ribosylation may be considered an additional component of the histone code.

  5. ADP Analysis project for the Human Resources Management Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The ADP (Automated Data Processing) Analysis Project was conducted for the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) of NASA's Langley Research Center. The three major areas of work in the project were computer support, automated inventory analysis, and an ADP study for the Division. The goal of the computer support work was to determine automation needs of Division personnel and help them solve computing problems. The goal of automated inventory analysis was to find a way to analyze installed software and usage on a Macintosh. Finally, the ADP functional systems study for the Division was designed to assess future HRMD needs concerning ADP organization and activities.

  6. Adenosine Kinase: Exploitation for Therapeutic Gain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphotransferase that converts the purine ribonucleoside adenosine into 5′-adenosine-monophosphate. This enzymatic reaction plays a fundamental role in determining the tone of adenosine, which fulfills essential functions as a homeostatic and metabolic regulator in all living systems. Adenosine not only activates specific signaling pathways by activation of four types of adenosine receptors but it is also a primordial metabolite and regulator of biochemical enzyme reactions that couple to bioenergetic and epigenetic functions. By regulating adenosine, ADK can thus be identified as an upstream regulator of complex homeostatic and metabolic networks. Not surprisingly, ADK dysfunction is involved in several pathologies, including diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Consequently, ADK emerges as a rational therapeutic target, and adenosine-regulating drugs have been tested extensively. In recent attempts to improve specificity of treatment, localized therapies have been developed to augment adenosine signaling at sites of injury or pathology; those approaches include transplantation of stem cells with deletions of ADK or the use of gene therapy vectors to downregulate ADK expression. More recently, the first human mutations in ADK have been described, and novel findings suggest an unexpected role of ADK in a wider range of pathologies. ADK-regulating strategies thus represent innovative therapeutic opportunities to reconstruct network homeostasis in a multitude of conditions. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology of ADK and will then focus on pathologies and therapeutic interventions. Challenges to translate ADK-based therapies into clinical use will be discussed critically. PMID:23592612

  7. The adenosine neuromodulation system in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rial, Daniel; Lara, Diogo R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    The management of schizophrenia endophenotypes, namely positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms is still an open goal, justifying the search of novel therapeutic avenues. We now review the evidence supporting the interest in targeting the adenosine modulation system to counteract the core features of schizophrenia. This interest is forwarded by the combined ability of strategies aimed at bolstering adenosine levels together with the increasingly recognized impact of adenosine A2A receptors to control dopaminergic signaling, working memory, and behavioral sensitization; this is further heralded by the suggested clinical effectiveness of therapies increasing extracellular adenosine such as dipyridamole and allopurinol and the emergent recognition of a role for adenosine in neurodevelopment. Finally, the combined role of A1 and A2A receptors in assisting the implementation of adaptive changes and encoding of information salience in neuronal circuits together with the adaptive alterations of A1 and A2A receptor density upon brain dysfunction prompts the novel working hypothesis that the parallel imbalance of adenosine formation and of A1 and A2A receptors blurs the adequate encoding of information salience in neuronal circuits, which we propose to be a core pathogenic feature in the development of schizophrenia endophenotypes. This proposal should also provide a rationale to assist the design of future therapeutic intervention targeting the adenosine modulation system to manage schizophrenia endophenotypes: these should not be based only on an attempt to target adenosine kinase-A1 receptors or only A2A receptors, but should instead simultaneously target these two arms of the adenosine modulation system. PMID:25175974

  8. Reexamination of magnetic isotope and field effects on adenosine triphosphate production by creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Darragh; Silkstone, Gary; Poddar, Soumya; Ranson, Richard; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Wilson, Michael T.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of isotopically enriched magnesium on the creatine kinase catalyzed phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate is examined in two independent series of experiments where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were determined by a luciferase-linked luminescence end-point assay or a real-time spectrophotometric assay. No increase was observed between the rates of ATP production with natural Mg, 24Mg, and 25Mg, nor was any significant magnetic field effect observed in magnetic fields from 3 to 1,000 mT. Our results are in conflict with those reported by Buchachenko et al. [J Am Chem Soc 130:12868–12869 (2008)], and they challenge these authors’ general claims that a large (two- to threefold) magnetic isotope effect is “universally observable” for ATP-producing enzymes [Her Russ Acad Sci 80:22–28 (2010)] and that “enzymatic phosphorylation is an ion-radical, electron-spin-selective process” [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10793–10796 (2005)]. PMID:22198842

  9. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    PubMed

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27273565

  10. Silver indium diphosphate, AgInP(2)O(7).

    PubMed

    Zouihri, Hafid; Saadi, Mohamed; Jaber, Boujemaa; El Ammari, Lehcen

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline material of the title compound, AgInP(2)O(7), was synthesized by traditional high-temperature solid-state methods and single crystals were grown from the melt of a mixture of AgInP(2)O(7) and B(2)O(3) as flux in a platinium crucible. The structure consists of InO(6) octa-hedra, which are corner-shared to PO(4) tetra-hedra into a three-dimensional network with hexa-gonal channels running parallel to the c axis. The silver cation, located in the channel, is bonded to seven O atoms of the [InP(2)O(7)] framework with Ag-O distances ranging from 2.370 (2) to 3.015 (2) Å. The P(2)O(7) diphosphate anion is characterized by a P-O-P angle of 137.27 (9) and a nearly eclipsed conformation. AgInP(2)O(7) is isotypic with the M(I)FeP(2)O(7) (M(I) = Na, K, Rb, Cs and Ag) diphosphate family. PMID:21522510

  11. A procedure for the preparation and isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Heidi J; Bolt, Hannah L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tris[bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium] pyrophosphate (PPN pyrophosphate) was used in the SN2 displacements of the tosylate ion from 5’-tosylnucleosides to afford nucleoside-5’-diphosphates. Selective precipitation permitted the direct isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates from crude reaction mixtures. PMID:25977720

  12. Structure and Function of a "Head-to-Middle" Prenyltransferase: Lavandulyl Diphosphate Synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meixia; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Lu; Xiao, Xiansha; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Jian-Wen; Liu, Weidong; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Feng, Xinxin; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-04-01

    We report the first X-ray structure of the unique "head-to-middle" monoterpene synthase, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS). LPPS catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form lavandulyl diphosphate, a precursor to the fragrance lavandulol. The structure is similar to that of the bacterial cis-prenyl synthase, undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), and contains an allylic site (S1) in which DMAPP ionizes and a second site (S2) which houses the DMAPP nucleophile. Both S-thiolo-dimethylallyl diphosphate and S-thiolo-isopentenyl diphosphate bind intact to S2, but are cleaved to (thio)diphosphate, in S1. His78 (Asn in UPPS) is essential for catalysis and is proposed to facilitate diphosphate release in S1, while the P1 phosphate in S2 abstracts a proton from the lavandulyl carbocation to form the LPP product. The results are of interest since they provide the first structure and structure-based mechanism of this unusual prenyl synthase. PMID:26922900

  13. Specific Activation of A3, A2A and A1 Adenosine Receptors in CD73-Knockout Mice Affects B16F10 Melanoma Growth, Neovascularization, Angiogenesis and Macrophage Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Koszałka, Patrycja; Gołuńska, Monika; Urban, Aleksandra; Stasiłojć, Grzegorz; Stanisławowski, Marcin; Majewski, Marceli; Składanowski, Andrzej C.; Bigda, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase), a cell surface enzyme hydrolyzing AMP to adenosine, was lately demonstrated to play a direct role in tumor progression including regulation of tumor vascularization. It was also shown to stimulate tumor macrophage infiltration. Interstitial adenosine, accumulating in solid tumors due to CD73 enzymatic activity, is recognized as a main mediator regulating the production of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, but the engagement of specific adenosine receptors in tumor progression in vivo is still poorly researched. We have analyzed the role of high affinity adenosine receptors A1, A2A, and A3 in B16F10 melanoma progression using specific agonists (CCPA, CGS-21680 and IB-MECA, respectively). We limited endogenous extracellular adenosine background using CD73 knockout mice treated with CD73 chemical inhibitor, AOPCP (adenosine α,β-methylene 5’-diphosphate). Activation of any adenosine receptor significantly inhibited B16F10 melanoma growth but only at its early stage. At 14th day of growth, the decrease in tumor neovascularization and MAPK pathway activation induced by CD73 depletion was reversed by all agonists. Activation of A1AR primarily increased angiogenic activation measured by expression of VEGF-R2 on tumor blood vessels. However, mainly A3AR activation increased both the microvessel density and expression of pro-angiogenic factors. All agonists induced significant increase in macrophage tumor infiltration, with IB-MECA being most effective. This effect was accompanied by substantial changes in cytokines regulating macrophage polarization between pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic phenotype. Our results demonstrate an evidence that each of the analyzed receptors has a specific role in the stimulation of tumor angiogenesis and confirm significantly more multifaceted role of adenosine in its regulation than was already observed. They also reveal previously unexplored consequences to extracellular adenosine signaling depletion in

  14. Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors — either directly or indirectly — have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent — the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma) — has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges. PMID:23535933

  15. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

  16. Regulation of RNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. III. Degradation of guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate in cold-shocked cells.

    PubMed

    Raué, H A; Cashel, M

    1975-03-21

    Cold-shocked cells of Escherichia coli can degrade intracellularly accumulated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp). The rate of ppGpp degradation is governed, as in whole cells, by the spoT gene; a rapid breakdown reaction is associated with the presence of the spoT+ allele and at least a five-fold slower decay occurs in spoT-minus mutants. The two degradation reactions in shocked cells display the following similarities: (i) the rates of degradation are equivalent to whole cell estimates, (ii) both require a full complement of activated amino acids, (iii) both are dependent upon supplements in the reaction mixture which stimulate the availability of energy-rich compounds and (iv) neither is inhibited by concentrations of ribosomal antibiotics which severely restrict protein synthesis. Apart from characteristic rate differences, decay of ppGpp in shocked cells derived from spoT-minus strains is discerned from spoT+ mediated decay in shocked cells by sensitivity to high concentrations of tetracycline and by manganese ion dependence.

  17. Mast Cell Adenosine Receptors Function: A Focus on the A3 Adenosine Receptor and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rudich, Noam; Ravid, Katya; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells (MCs), as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b, and A3) of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R) in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in MCs, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human MCs. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed. PMID:22675325

  18. [Adenosine deaminase in experimental trypanosomiasis: future implications].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Mary Carmen; Rondón-Mercado, Rocío

    2015-09-01

    The adenosine deaminase represents a control point in the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels, thus playing a critical role in the modulation of purinergic responses to certain pathophysiological events. Several studies have shown that serum and plasma enzyme levels are elevated in some diseases caused by microorganisms, which may represent a compensatory mechanism due to the elevated levels of adenosine and the release of inflammatory mediators. Recent research indicates that adenosine deaminase activity decreases and affects hematological parameters of infected animals with Trypanosoma evansi, so that such alterations could have implications in the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the enzyme has been detected in this parasite; allowing the inference that it could be associated with the vital functions of the same, similar to what occurs in mammals. This knowledge may be useful in the association of chemotherapy with specific inhibitors of the enzyme in future studies.

  19. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  20. Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

  1. Oxidant stress and damage in post-ischemic mouse hearts: effects of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Hack, Benjamin; Witting, Paul K; Rayner, Benjamin S; Stocker, Roland; Headrick, John P

    2006-07-01

    Despite the general understanding that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) promotes oxidant stress, specific contributions of oxidant stress or damage to myocardial I/R injury remain poorly defined. Moreover, whether endogenous 'cardioprotectants' such as adenosine act via limiting this oxidant injury is unclear. Herein we characterized effects of 20 min ischemia and 45 min reperfusion on cardiovascular function, oxidative stress and damage in isolated perfused mouse hearts (with glucose or pyruvate as substrate), and examined whether 10 microM adenosine modified these processes. In glucose-perfused hearts post-ischemic contractile function was markedly impaired (< 50% of pre-ischemia), cell damage assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was increased (12 +/- 2 IU/g vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 IU/g in normoxic hearts), endothelial-dependent dilation in response to ADP was impaired while endothelial-independent dilation in response to nitroprusside was unaltered. Myocardial oxidative stress increased significantly, based on decreased glutathione redox status ([GSSG]/[GSG + GSSH] = 7.8 +/- 0.3% vs. 1.3 +/- 0.1% in normoxic hearts). Tissue cholesterol, native cholesteryl esters (CE) and the lipid-soluble antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH, the most biologically active form of vitamin E) were unaffected by I/R, whereas markers of primary lipid peroxidation (CE-derived lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxides; CE-O(O)H) increased significantly (14 +/- 2 vs. 2 +/- 1 pmol/mg in normoxic hearts). Myocardial alpha -tocopherylquinone (alpha-TQ; an oxidation product of alpha -TOH) also increased (10.3 +/- 1.0 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg in normoxic hearts). Adenosine treatment improved functional recovery and vascular function, and limited LDH efflux. These effects were associated with an anti-oxidant effect of adenosine, as judged by inhibition of I/R-mediated changes in glutathione redox status (by 60%), alpha-TQ (80%) and CE-O(O)H (100%). Provision of 10 mM pyruvate as sole substrate (to

  2. 28 kDa adenosine-binding proteins of brain and other tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Ravid, K; Rosenthal, R A; Doctrow, S R; Lowenstein, J M

    1989-01-01

    Membranes prepared from calf brain were solubilized and chromatographed on a column containing 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine covalently linked to agarose through the 5'-amino group. When the column was eluted with adenosine, a pure protein emerged with subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa. The protein was extracted from the membranes with sodium cholate, but not with 100 microM-adenosine or 0.5 M-NaCl. A similar 28 kDa protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of calf brain. The yield of membrane-bound and soluble 28 kDa protein per gram of tissue was about the same. The 28 kDa protein was also found in membrane and soluble fractions of rabbit heart, rat liver and vascular smooth muscle from calf aorta. The yield per gram of tissue fell into the order brain greater than heart approximately vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the membrane fraction, and brain approximately heart greater than vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction. Polyclonal antibodies to pure 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes cross-reacted with the 28 kDa protein from calf brain soluble fraction and with 28 kDa proteins isolated from other tissues. The 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes was also eluted from the affinity column by AMP and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, but at a concentration higher than that at which adenosine eluted the protein, but N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, ADP, ATP, GTP, NAD+, cyclic AMP and inosine failed to elute the protein at concentrations up to 1 mM. The 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction was not eluted by 3 mM-AMP or 1 mM-N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine,-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or -cyclic AMP. Unexpectedly, the soluble 28 kDa protein was eluted by AMP in the presence of sodium cholate. Soluble 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD for adenosine of 12 microM. Membrane 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD of 14 microM in the

  3. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  4. A Clickable Aminooxy Probe for Monitoring Cellular ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Rory K.; Cohen, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is essential for cell function, yet there is a dearth of methods for detecting this post-translational modification in cells. Here, we describe a clickable aminooxy alkyne (AO-alkyne) probe that can detect cellular ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids following Cu-catalyzed conjugation to an azide-containing reporter. Using AO-alkyne, we show that PARP10 and PARP11 are auto-ADP-ribosylated in cells. We also demonstrate that AO-alkyne can be used to monitor stimulus-induced ADP-ribosylation in cells. Functional studies using AO-alkyne support a previously unknown mechanism for ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids, wherein a glutamate or aspartate at the initial C1′-position of ADP-ribose transfers to the C2′ position. This new mechanism for ADP-ribosylation has important implications for how glutamyl/aspartyl-ADP-ribose is recognized by proteins in cells. PMID:25978521

  5. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES General... ADP expenditures for the design, development, or installation of mechanized claims processing and... procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part...

  6. Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors With Unique Ligand-Binding Geometries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an important drug target for bone resorption, cancer, and some infectious diseases. Here, we report five new structures including two having unique bound ligand geometries. The diamidine inhibitor 7 binds to human FPPS close to the homoallylic (S2) and allosteric (S3) sites and extends into a new site, here called S4. With the bisphosphonate inhibitor 8, two molecules bind to Trypanosoma brucei FPPS, one molecule in the allylic site (S1) and the other close to S2, the first observation of two bisphosphonate molecules bound to FPPS. We also report the structures of apo-FPPS from T. brucei, together with two more bisphosphonate-bound structures (2,9), for purposes of comparison. The diamidine structure is of particular interest because 7 could represent a new lead for lipophilic FPPS inhibitors, while 8 has low micromolar activity against T. brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:25815158

  7. Optical properties of lutetium diphosphates powders doped by ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjaoui, A.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Hraiech, S.; Férid, M.

    2013-12-01

    Sodium lutetium diphosphates doped with Yb3+ ions, NaLu1-xYbxP2O7 (x = 0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10%), were synthesized by solid state reaction. These samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The obtained powders are formed by single monoclinic phase of condensed diphosphate NaLuP2O7 crystallized with P21/n space group. The evolution of crystal lattice parameters varied as a function of the ytterbium concentration in these host lattices. Near infrared (NIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopies of Yb3+ in NaLuP2O7 powders, at room temperature (RT), are carried out. In the IR range, a broad band relative to the Stark levels of the Yb 4f configuration. Four Stark levels of the ground 2F7/2 state are located on the emission spectra between 970 nm and 1060 nm. It was shown that spectroscopic properties of investigated samples depend on the concentration ratio of Yb3+ ions. The decay times of infrared Yb3+ (2F5/2 excited state) fluorescence were in the range of 2.78-2.91 ms. The registered decay times of the emission at 1006 nm, under excitation with length 925 nm showed low sensibility to the Yb3+ concentration in NaLuP2O7. In the UV-Visible spectra, double band emission for the charge transfer band (CTB) luminescence of Yb3+ are observed under 266 nm excitation.

  8. Structure and Mechanism of the Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Implications for Drug Design

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelli,S.; McLellan, J.; Montalvetti, A.; Oldfield, E.; Docampo, R.; Amzel, L.

    2006-01-01

    Typanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has recently been shown to be sensitive to the action of the bisphosphonates currently used in bone resorption therapy. These compounds target the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, FPPS), the enzyme that condenses the diphosphates of C{sub 5} alcohols (isopentenyl and dimethylallyl) to form C{sub 10} and C{sub 15} diphosphates (geranyl and farnesyl). The structures of the T. cruzi FPPS (TcFPPS) alone and in two complexes with substrates and inhibitors reveal that following binding of the two substrates and three Mg2+ ions, the enzyme undergoes a conformational change consisting of a hinge-like closure of the binding site. In this conformation, it would be possible for the enzyme to bind a bisphosphonate inhibitor that spans the sites usually occupied by dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and the homoallyl moiety of isopentenyl diphosphate. This observation may lead to the design of new, more potent anti-trypanosomal bisphosphonates, because existing FPPS inhibitors occupy only the DMAPP site. In addition, the structures provide an important mechanistic insight: after its formation, geranyl diphosphate can swing without leaving the enzyme, from the product site to the substrate site to participate in the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate.

  9. Adenosine modulation of [Ca2+]i in cerebellar granular cells: multiple adenosine receptors involved.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Javier; Fernández, Mercedes; Ros, Manuel; Blanco, Pablo

    2003-12-01

    Elimination of adenosine by addition of adenosine deaminase (ADA) to the media leads to alterations in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in cerebellar granular cells. Adenosine deaminase brings about increases or decreases in [Ca(2+)](i) depending on the previous activation state of the cell. These effects are dependent on the catalytic activity of adenosine deaminase, since its previous catalytic inactivation with Hg(2+) prevents the above-mentioned changes in intracellular calcium. Extracellular calcium is required for the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) promoted by ADA. This rise is insensitive to thapsigargin, but sensitive to micromolar concentrations of Ni(2+). Toxins specific for L, N and P/Q calcium channels do not overtly reduce this effect. N(6)-Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an A(1) receptor agonist, produces a partial reversion of ADA effects, while CGS21680, A(2A)/A(2B) receptor agonist, slightly enhances them. Expression of A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) adenosine receptor mRNAs was detected in cerebellar granular cell cultures. These results suggest that adenosine modulate [Ca(2+)](i) in cerebellar granule cells through different adenosine receptor subtypes which, at least in part, seem to act through R-type calcium channels.

  10. Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

  11. Isolated noncatalytic and catalytic subunits of F1-ATPase exhibit similar, albeit not identical, energetic strategies for recognizing adenosine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Guillermo; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The function of F1-ATPase relies critically on the intrinsic ability of its catalytic and noncatalytic subunits to interact with nucleotides. Therefore, the study of isolated subunits represents an opportunity to dissect elementary energetic contributions that drive the enzyme's rotary mechanism. In this study we have calorimetrically characterized the association of adenosine nucleotides to the isolated noncatalytic α-subunit. The resulting recognition behavior was compared with that previously reported for the isolated catalytic β-subunit (N.O. Pulido, G. Salcedo, G. Pérez-Hernández, C. José-Núñez, A. Velázquez-Campoy, E. García-Hernández, Energetic effects of magnesium in the recognition of adenosine nucleotides by the F1-ATPase β subunit, Biochemistry 49 (2010) 5258-5268). The two subunits exhibit nucleotide-binding thermodynamic signatures similar to each other, characterized by enthalpically-driven affinities in the μM range. Nevertheless, contrary to the catalytic subunit that recognizes MgATP and MgADP with comparable strength, the noncatalytic subunit much prefers the triphosphate nucleotide. Besides, the α-subunit depends more on Mg(II) for stabilizing the interaction with ATP, while both subunits are rather metal-independent for ADP recognition. These binding behaviors are discussed in terms of the properties that the two subunits exhibit in the whole enzyme.

  12. Structures, mechanisms and inhibitors of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase: a cis-prenyltransferase for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kuo-Hsun; Liang, Po-Huang

    2012-08-01

    Isoprenoids are an intensive group of compounds made from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), catalyzed by prenyltransferases such as farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) cyclases, squalene synthase, protein farnesyltransferases and geranylgeranyltransferases, aromatic prenyltransferases as well as a group of prenyltransferases (cis- and trans-types) catalyzing consecutive condensation reactions of FPP with specific numbers of IPP to generate linear products with designate chain lengths. These prenyltransferases play significant biological functions and some of them are drug targets. In this review, structures, mechanisms, and inhibitors of a cis-prenyltransferase, undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS) that mediates bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, are summarized for comparison with the most related trans-prenyltransferases and other prenyltransferases.

  13. Hyperglycemia alters E-NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ectosolic and cytosolic adenosine deaminase activities and expression from encephala of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main feature for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Some studies have demonstrated the relationship between DM and dysfunction on neurotransmission systems, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis and adenosine deamination activities from encephalic membranes of hyperglycemic zebrafish. A significant decrease in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolyses was observed at 111-mM glucose-treated group, which returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. A significant increase in ecto-adenosine deaminase activity was observed in 111-mM glucose group, which remain elevated after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. The soluble-adenosine deaminase activity was significantly increased just after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. We also evaluated the gene expressions of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA, and adenosine receptors from encephala of adult zebrafish. The entpd 2a.1, entpd 2a.2, entpd 3, and entpd 8 mRNA levels from encephala of adult zebrafish were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expressions of adenosine receptors (adora 1 , adora 2aa , adora 2ab , and adora 2b ) were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expression of ADA (ada 2a.1) was decreased in glucose withdrawal group. Maltodextrin, used as a control, did not affect the expression of adenosine receptors, ADA and E-NTPDases 2, 3, and 8, while the expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase was slightly increased and the E-NTPDases 1 decreased. These findings demonstrated that hyperglycemia might affect the ecto-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish, probably through a mechanism involving the osmotic effect, suggesting that the modifications caused on purinergic system may also contribute to the diabetes-induced progressive cognitive impairment.

  14. Hyperglycemia alters E-NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ectosolic and cytosolic adenosine deaminase activities and expression from encephala of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main feature for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Some studies have demonstrated the relationship between DM and dysfunction on neurotransmission systems, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis and adenosine deamination activities from encephalic membranes of hyperglycemic zebrafish. A significant decrease in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolyses was observed at 111-mM glucose-treated group, which returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. A significant increase in ecto-adenosine deaminase activity was observed in 111-mM glucose group, which remain elevated after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. The soluble-adenosine deaminase activity was significantly increased just after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. We also evaluated the gene expressions of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA, and adenosine receptors from encephala of adult zebrafish. The entpd 2a.1, entpd 2a.2, entpd 3, and entpd 8 mRNA levels from encephala of adult zebrafish were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expressions of adenosine receptors (adora 1 , adora 2aa , adora 2ab , and adora 2b ) were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expression of ADA (ada 2a.1) was decreased in glucose withdrawal group. Maltodextrin, used as a control, did not affect the expression of adenosine receptors, ADA and E-NTPDases 2, 3, and 8, while the expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase was slightly increased and the E-NTPDases 1 decreased. These findings demonstrated that hyperglycemia might affect the ecto-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish, probably through a mechanism involving the osmotic effect, suggesting that the modifications caused on purinergic system may also contribute to the diabetes-induced progressive cognitive impairment. PMID:26769247

  15. Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Ju; Shiang, Yen-Chun; Chen, Li-Yi; Hsu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a simple and selective nanosensor for the optical detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using globular actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods (G-actin-Au/Ag NRs). By simply mixing G-actin and Au/Ag NRs (length ˜56 nm and diameter ˜12 nm), G-actin-Au/Ag NRs were prepared which were stable in physiological solutions (25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5.0 mM KCl, 3.0 mM MgCl2 and 1.0 mM CaCl2; pH 7.4). Introduction of ATP into the G-actin-Au/Ag NR solutions in the presence of excess G-actin induced the formation of filamentous actin-conjugated Au/Ag NR aggregates through ATP-induced polymerization of G-actin. When compared to G-actin-modified spherical Au nanoparticles having a size of 13 nm or 56 nm, G-actin-Au/Ag NRs provided better sensitivity for ATP, mainly because the longitudinal surface plasmon absorbance of the Au/Ag NR has a more sensitive response to aggregation. This G-actin-Au/Ag NR probe provided high sensitivity (limit of detection 25 nM) for ATP with remarkable selectivity (>10-fold) over other adenine nucleotides (adenosine, adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate) and nucleoside triphosphates (guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate). It also allowed the determination of ATP concentrations in plasma samples without conducting tedious sample pretreatments; the only necessary step was simple dilution. Our experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained from a commercial luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Our simple, sensitive and selective approach appears to have a practical potential for the clinical diagnosis of diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) associated with changes in ATP concentrations.

  16. Molecular cloning of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, G.; Yeeyung Charng; Iglesias, A.; McIntosh, L. )

    1991-05-01

    Bacterial and higher plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase differ in structure (homotetramer vs heterotetramer respectively) and allosteric activator and inhibitor. However, highly conserved regions can be identified when sequence comparisons are made between ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases from diverse species. The fructose 1,6 bisphosphate binding site (activator site) in E. coli is highly conserved in all species for which ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase has been sequenced. A second conserved region, which is labeled by 8-azido-ATP, is also highly conserved in bacteria and higher plants. In previously cloned ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases the two conserved regions are separated by approximately 80 amino acids. The authors have used these conserved amino acid sequences to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) of part of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase geae. A predicted 240 bp fragment is amplified in PCR reactions using Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 genomic DNA as template. The deduced amino acid sequence from the 240 bp Anabaena fragment shares 75 and 76% identity to that of the rice endosperm and spinach leaf ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases respectively. The Anabaena amino acid sequence shares 42% identity in amino acid sequence to the E. coli enzyme. At the nucleotide level there is 66% identity of the Anabaena sequence to rice endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and 54% to the E. coli gene. The PCR amplified fragments are being used to screen respective Anabaena and Synechocystis genomic gene libraries.

  17. MOLECULAR PROBES FOR EXTRACELLULAR ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Ukena, Dieter; Padgett, William; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of adenosine receptor agonists (N6-phenyladenosines) and antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-phenylxanthines) bearing functionalized chains suitable for attachment to other molecules have been reported [Jacobson et al., J. med. Chem. 28, 1334 and 1341 (1985)]. The “functionalized congener” approach has been extended to the synthesis of spectroscopic and other probes for adenosine receptors that retain high affinity (Ki ~ 10−9 −10−8 M) in A1-receptor binding. The probes have been synthesized from an antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and an adenosine amine congener (ADAC). [3H]ADAC has been synthesized and found to bind highly specifically to A1-adenosine receptors of rat and calf cerebral cortical membranes with KD values of 1.4 and 0.34 nM respectively. The higher affinity in the bovine brain, seen also with many of the probes derived from ADAC and XAC, is associated with phenyl substituents. The spectroscopic probes contain a reporter group attached at a distal site of the functionalized chain. These bifunctional ligands may contain a spin label (e.g. the nitroxyl radical TEMPO) for electron spin resonance spectroscopy, or a fluorescent dye, including fluorescein and 4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), or labels for 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Potential applications of the spectroscopic probes in characterization of adenosine receptors are discussed. PMID:3036153

  18. Determination of adenosine effects and adenosine receptors in murine corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Giachini, Fernanda R C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Leite, Romulo; Inscho, Edward W; Webb, R Clinton

    2007-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adenosine, in murine corpora cavernosa, produces direct relaxation of smooth muscle cells and inhibition of contractile responses mediated by sympathetic nerve stimulation. Penes were excised from anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice, dissected, and cavernosal strips were mounted to record isometric force. Adenosine, 2-chloroadenosine (stable analog of adenosine), and 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV1808) (A2(A)/A2(B) agonist) produced concentration-dependent relaxations of phenylephrine-contracted tissues. Relaxation to 2-chloroadenosine was inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, by 2-(2-furanyl)-7-(2-phenylethyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine (SCH58261; A2(A) antagonist; 10(-9)-10(-6) M) and N-(4-acetylphenyl)-2-[4-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-1,3-dipropyl-1H-purin-8-yl)phenoxy]acetamida (MRS1706; A2(B) antagonist; 10(-8)-10(-6) M). The combination of both antagonists abrogated 2-chloroadenosine-induced relaxation. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) of adrenergic nerves produced frequency-dependent contractions that were inhibited by compounds that increase adenosine levels, such as 5'-iodotubercidin (adenosine kinase inhibitor), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (adenosine deaminase inhibitor), and dipyridamole (inhibitor of adenosine transport). The adenosine A1 receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (C8031) right-shifted contractile responses to EFS, with a significant inhibitory effect at 10(-6) M. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (C101) (10(-7) M) enhanced contractile responses to EFS and eliminated the inhibitory effects of 5'-iodotubercidin. Dipyridamole and 5'-iodotubercidin had no effect on adenosine-mediated relaxation. In summary, adenosine directly relaxes cavernosal smooth muscle cells, by the activation of A2(A)/A2(B) receptor subtypes. In addition, adenosine negatively modulates sympathetic neurotransmission, by A1 receptor

  19. Development of ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase in castor bean cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Dockerty, A; Lord, J M; Merrett, M J

    1977-06-01

    Light was not essential for the development of ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase protein or catalytic activity in the photosynthetic cotyledons of germinating castor beans (Ricinus communis). Cotyledons developing in the dark showed higher activity than those in the light. Returning cotyledons developing in the light to darkness resulted in a significant increase in ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase activity compared to cotyledons in continuous light.

  20. Working memory and the homeostatic control of brain adenosine by adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; McGarrity, S; Shen, H-Y; Boison, D; Yee, B K

    2012-06-28

    The neuromodulator adenosine maintains brain homeostasis and regulates complex behaviour via activation of inhibitory and excitatory adenosine receptors (ARs) in a brain region-specific manner. AR antagonists such as caffeine have been shown to ameliorate cognitive impairments in animal disease models but their effects on learning and memory in normal animals are equivocal. An alternative approach to reduce AR activation is to lower the extracellular tone of adenosine, which can be achieved by up-regulating adenosine kinase (ADK), the key enzyme of metabolic adenosine clearance. However, mice that globally over-express an Adk transgene ('Adk-tg' mice) were devoid of a caffeine-like pro-cognitive profile; they instead exhibited severe spatial memory deficits. This may be mechanistically linked to cortical/hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction because the motor response to acute MK-801 was also potentiated in Adk-tg mice. Here, we evaluated the extent to which the behavioural phenotypes of Adk-tg mice might be modifiable by up-regulating adenosine levels in the cortex/hippocampus. To this end, we investigated mutant 'fb-Adk-def' mice in which ADK expression was specifically reduced in the telencephalon leading to a selective increase in cortical/hippocampal adenosine, while the rest of the brain remained as adenosine-deficient as in Adk-tg mice. The fb-Adk-def mice showed an even greater impairment in spatial working memory and a more pronounced motor response to NMDAR blockade than Adk-tg mice. These outcomes suggest that maintenance of cortical/hippocampal adenosine homeostasis is essential for effective spatial memory and deviation in either direction is detrimental with increased expression seemingly more disruptive than decreased expression.

  1. KIF1A Alternately Uses Two Loops to Bind Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Ryo; Kikkawa, Masahide; Okada, Yasushi; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2004-07-01

    The motor protein kinesin moves along microtubules, driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. However, it remains unclear how kinesin converts the chemical energy into mechanical movement. We report crystal structures of monomeric kinesin KIF1A with three transition-state analogs: adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-vanadate, and ADP-AlFx (aluminofluoride complexes). These structures, together with known structures of the ADP-bound state and the adenylyl-(β,γ-methylene) diphosphate (AMP-PCP)-bound state, show that kinesin uses two microtubule-binding loops in an alternating manner to change its interaction with microtubules during the ATP hydrolysis cycle; loop L11 is extended in the AMP-PNP structure, whereas loop L12 is extended in the ADP structure. ADP-vanadate displays an intermediate structure in which a conformational change in two switch regions causes both loops to be raised from the microtubule, thus actively detaching kinesin.

  2. Pain-relieving prospects for adenosine receptors and ectonucleotidases

    PubMed Central

    Zylka, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine receptor agonists have potent antinociceptive effects in diverse preclinical models of chronic pain. In contrast, the efficacy of adenosine or adenosine receptor agonists at treating pain in humans is unclear. Two ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive neurons were recently identified. When injected spinally, these enzymes have long-lasting adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-dependent antinociceptive effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that spinal adenosine A2A receptor activation can enduringly inhibit neuropathic pain symptoms. Collectively, these studies suggest the possibility of treating chronic pain in humans by targeting specific adenosine receptor subtypes in anatomically defined regions with agonists or with ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine. PMID:21236731

  3. Studies on the roles of ATP, adenosine and nitric oxide in mediating muscle vasodilatation induced in the rat by acute systemic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M R; Marshall, J M

    1996-09-01

    1. In Saffan-anaesthetized rats, we have further investigated the mechanisms underlying the vasodilatation induced by adenosine in skeletal muscle by acute systemic hypoxia (breathing 8% O2 for 5 min). 2. In eleven rats the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) reduced the increase in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) induced by hypoxia by approximately 50%. L-NAME had similar effects on the increase in FVC induced by intra-arterial (I.A.) infusion of adenosine (at 1.2 mg kg-1 min-1 for 5 min via the tail artery) and by ATP (I.A., 1 mg kg-1 min-1 for 5 min). Subsequent administration of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-sulphophenyl theophylline (8-SPT, 20 mg kg-1, i.v.) virtually abolished the adenosine- and ATP-induced increase in FVC. 3. In a further nine rats, 8-SPT reduced the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia by approximately 50%. This remaining increase in FVC was substantially reduced by L-NAME. 4. In an additional nine rats, alpha,beta-methyleneADP (160 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) which inhibits the 5'-ectonucleotidase that degrades AMP to adenosine, reduced the peripheral vasodilatation (fall in arterial blood pressure, ABP) induced by ATP infusion, but had no effect on the increase in FVC or decrease in ABP evoked by systemic hypoxia. 5. These results provide the first evidence that the muscle vasodilatation induced by adenosine during systemic hypoxia is mainly dependent on NO synthesis. They also suggest that adenosine is released as such rather than being formed extracellularly from AMP. Given evidence that extraluminal adenosine acts in an NO-independent fashion we propose that hypoxia releases adenosine from the endothelium. Our results also indicate that hypoxia induces muscle vasodilatation that is adenosine independent but NO dependent: they allow the possibility that this is partly mediated by ATP released from the endothelium. PMID:8887765

  4. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase synthesis in euglena: increased enzyme activity after transferring regreening cells to darkness.

    PubMed

    Lord, J M; Merrett, M J

    1975-05-01

    The transfer of dark-grown cultures of Euglena gracilis Klebs strain Z regreening in the light back into darkness resulted in a dramatic increase in ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity. On a culture volume basis activity increased 4-fold over a 24-hour dark period, although on a protein basis activity declined because of rapid cell division. Mixed assays with light- and dark-growing cell extracts provided no evidence for the removal of an inhibitor of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase upon transferring regreening cells back to darkness. Although ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity increased over a 24-hour dark period, there was no concomitant increase in the potential of the cells for photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation.Higher light intensities than the optimum for ribulose diphosphate carboxylase synthesis during regreening resulted in a greater relative rate of synthesis on transfer to darkness so that the maximum activity of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase reached in the dark was constant, regardless of light intensity during regreening. A tentative hypothesis to explain these results is that the synthesis of the large and small subunits of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase occur at different stages of cell development, light being necessary for the synthesis of the large subunit and also for regulating the synthesis of the small subunit.

  5. Stereochemical control over Mn(II)-Thio versus Mn(II)-Oxy coordination in adenosine 5 prime -O-(1-thiodiphosphate) complexes at the active site of creatine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Smithers, G.W.; Sammons, R.D.; Goodhart, P.J.; LoBrutto, R.; Reed, G.H. )

    1989-02-21

    The stereochemical configurations of the Mn(II) complexes with the resolved epimers of adenosine 5{prime}-O-(1-thiodiphosphate) (ADP{alpha}S), bound at the active site of creatine kinase, have been determined in order to assess the relative strengths of enzymic stereoselectivity versus Lewis acid/base preferences in metal-ligand binding. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data have been obtained for Mn(II) in anion-stabilized, dead-end (transition-state analogue) complexes, in ternary enzyme-Mn{sup II}ADP{alpha}S complexes, and in the central complexes of the equilibrium mixture. The modes of coordination of Mn(II) at P{sub alpha} in the nitrate-stabilized, dead-end complexes with each epimer of ADP{alpha}S were ascertained by EPR measurements with (R{sub p})-({alpha}-{sup 17}O)ADP{alpha}S and (S{sub p})-({alpha}-{sup 17}O)ADP{alpha}S. A reduction in the magnitude of the {sup 55}Mn hyperfine coupling constant in the spectrum for the complex containing (S{sub p})-ADP{alpha}S is indicative of Mn(II)-thio coordination at P{sub alpha}. The results indicate that a strict discrimination for a unique configuration of the metal-nucleotide substrate is expressed upon binding of all of the substrates to form the active complex (or an analogue thereof). This enzymic stereoselectivity provides sufficient binding energy to overcome an intrinsic preference for the hard Lewis acid Mn(II) to coordinate to the hard Lewis base oxygen.

  6. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  7. ADP study of the structure of the IUE halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1992-01-01

    Results of a two year ADP study of gas in the Galactic halo are presented. This is partly a summary of 2 papers which were published in referred journals and partly a discussion of work currently underway.

  8. PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation: Fifty Years… and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over 50 years ago, the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) set a new field of science in motion - the field of poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases (PARPs) and ADP-ribosylation. The field is still flourishing today. The diversity of biological processes now known to require PARPs and ADP-ribosylation was practically unimaginable even two decades ago. From an initial focus on DNA damage detection and repair in response to genotoxic stresses, the field has expanded to include the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and RNA processing in a wide range of biological systems, including reproduction, development, aging, stem cells, inflammation, metabolism, and cancer. This special focus issue of Molecular Cell includes a collection of three Reviews, three Perspectives, and a SnapShot, which together summarize the current state of the field and suggest where it may be headed. PMID:26091339

  9. Investigation into effects of antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase in zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kelly Juliana; Oliveira, Renata da Luz; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Senger, Mario Roberto; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Antipsychotic agents are used for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with several brain disorders, such as schizophrenia. Atypical and typical antipsychotics differ regarding their clinical and side-effects profile. Haloperidol is a representative typical antipsychotic drug and has potent dopamine receptor antagonistic functions; however, atypical antipsychotics have been developed and characterized an important advance in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, constitute a ubiquitous class of extracellular signaling molecules crucial for normal functioning of the nervous system. Indirect findings suggest that changes in the purinergic system, more specifically in adenosinergic activity, could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by an analysis of gene expression patterns in zebrafish brain. Haloperidol treatment (9 µM) was able to decrease ATP hydrolysis (35%), whereas there were no changes in hydrolysis of ADP and AMP in brain membranes after antipsychotic exposure. Adenosine deamination in membrane fractions was inhibited (38%) after haloperidol treatment when compared to the control; however, no changes were observed in ADA soluble fractions after haloperidol exposure. Sulpiride (250 µM) and olanzapine (100 µM) did not alter ectonucleotidase and ADA activities. Haloperidol also led to a decrease in entpd2_mq, entpd3 and adal mRNA transcripts. These findings demonstrate that haloperidol is an inhibitor of NTPDase and ADA activities in zebrafish brain, suggesting that purinergic signaling may also be a target of pharmacological effects promoted by this drug.

  10. Asymmetric Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasparyan, Elena; Richter, Michael; Dresen, Carola; Walter, Lydia S; Fuchs, Georg; Leeper, Finian J; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kolter, Geraldine; Pohl, Martina; Müller, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is an almost unexplored transformation for biocatalysts. Previously reported thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent PigD from Serratia marcescens is the first enzyme identified to catalyze the Stetter reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (Michael acceptor substrates) and α-keto acids. PigD is involved in the biosynthesis of the potent cytotoxic agent prodigiosin. Here, we describe the investigation of two new ThDP-dependent enzymes, SeAAS from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and HapD from Hahella chejuensis. Both show a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of PigD (39 and 51 %, respectively). The new enzymes were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, and the yield of soluble protein was enhanced by co-expression of the chaperone genes groEL/ES. SeAAS and HapD catalyze intermolecular Stetter reactions in vitro with high enantioselectivity. The enzymes possess a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates. This provides support for a new type of ThDP-dependent enzymatic activity, which is abundant in various species and not restricted to prodigiosin biosynthesis in different strains. Moreover, PigD, SeAAS, and HapD are also able to catalyze asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of aldehydes and α-keto acids, resulting in 2-hydroxy ketones.

  11. Automated Data Processing (ADP) research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F.U.; Kohlhepp, V.N.; Leach, R.R. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) will require screening tens of thousands of seismic events each year. Reliable automated data analysis will be essential in keeping up with the continuous stream of events that a global monitoring network will detect. We are developing automated event location and identification algorithms by looking at the gaps and weaknesses in conventional ADP systems and by taking advantage of modem computational paradigms. Our research focus is on three areas: developing robust algorithms for signal feature extraction, integrating the analysis of critical measurements, and exploiting joint estimation techniques such as using data from acoustic, hydroacoustic, and seismic sensors. We identify several important problems for research and development; e.g., event location with approximate velocity models and event identification in the presence of outliers. We are employing both linear and nonlinear methods and advanced signal transform techniques to solve these event monitoring problems. Our goal is to increase event-interpretation throughput by employing the power and efficiency of modem computational techniques, and to improve the reliability of automated analysis by reducing the rates of false alarms and missed detections.

  12. Adenosine induced coronary spasm – A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, P.; Bhatia, V.; Arora, M.; Kaul, U.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is commonly used as a pharmacological agent in myocardial perfusion imaging, as an antiarrhythmic agent, and in Cath Lab. during PCI for treating no reflow phenomenon. Coronary spasm has been reported following adenosine injection during stress imaging. We report a rare complication with ST segment elevation, following adenosine injection, given for treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. PMID:24581102

  13. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O.; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  14. Inhibiting poly(ADP-ribosylation) improves axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Alexandra B; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Sekine, Yuichi; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Miller, David M; Hammarlund, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a neuron to regenerate its axon after injury depends in part on its intrinsic regenerative potential. Here, we identify novel intrinsic regulators of axon regeneration: poly(ADP-ribose) glycohodrolases (PARGs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARGs, which remove poly(ADP-ribose) from proteins, act in injured C. elegans GABA motor neurons to enhance axon regeneration. PARG expression is regulated by DLK signaling, and PARGs mediate DLK function in enhancing axon regeneration. Conversely, PARPs, which add poly(ADP-ribose) to proteins, inhibit axon regeneration of both C. elegans GABA neurons and mammalian cortical neurons. Furthermore, chemical PARP inhibitors improve axon regeneration when administered after injury. Our results indicate that regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) levels is a critical function of the DLK regeneration pathway, that poly-(ADP ribosylation) inhibits axon regeneration across species, and that chemical inhibition of PARPs can elicit axon regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12734.001 PMID:27697151

  15. Effects of the chaperonin GroE on the refolding of tryptophanase from Escherichia coli. Refolding is enhanced in the presence of ADP.

    PubMed

    Mizobata, T; Akiyama, Y; Ito, K; Yumoto, N; Kawata, Y

    1992-09-01

    The refolding of the tetrameric enzyme tryptophanase was facilitated by the chaperonin GroE. Maximum refolding yield of tryptophanase molecules (about 80%) was attained in the presence of a 15-fold excess of GroE 21-mer over tryptophanase monomer. The GroEL subunit was required for this improvement in refolding yield, whereas the GroES subunit was not. Light scattering experiments of the refolding reaction revealed that GroE bound to tryptophanase folding intermediates and suppressed their aggregation. The presence of ATP was required for the efficient dissociation of tryptophanase from GroEL. However, our experiments indicated that tryptophanase dissociated readily from GroEL in the presence of not only ATP, but also in the presence of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogues such as ATP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) and AMP-PNP (adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) as well. Surprisingly, the release of tryptophanase from GroEL was facilitated in the presence of ADP as well. We concluded that the binding of nucleotides such as ATP and ADP changed the conformation of GroEL and facilitated the dissociation of tryptophanase molecules. The conformation formed in the presence of ADP was distinct from the conformation formed in the presence of ATP, as shown by the selective dissociation of various folding proteins from the two conformations.

  16. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

  17. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2015-06-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions.

  18. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibits the proinflammatory nucleotide uridine diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hamarneh, Sulaiman R.; Mohamed, Mussa M. Rafat; Ramasamy, Sundaram; Yammine, Halim; Patel, Palak; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Alam, Sayeda N.; Muhammad, Nur; Moaven, Omeed; Teshager, Abeba; Malo, Nondita S.; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Warren, H. Shaw; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Malo, Madhu S.; Hodin, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate (UDP) is a proinflammatory nucleotide implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a gut mucosal defense factor capable of inhibiting intestinal inflammation. We used the malachite green assay to show that IAP dephosphorylates UDP. To study the anti-inflammatory effect of IAP, UDP or other proinflammatory ligands (LPS, flagellin, Pam3Cys, or TNF-α) in the presence or absence of IAP were applied to cell cultures, and IL-8 was measured. UDP caused dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release by immune cells and two gut epithelial cell lines, and IAP treatment abrogated IL-8 release. Costimulation with UDP and other inflammatory ligands resulted in a synergistic increase in IL-8 release, which was prevented by IAP treatment. In vivo, UDP in the presence or absence of IAP was instilled into a small intestinal loop model in wild-type and IAP-knockout mice. Luminal contents were applied to cell culture, and cytokine levels were measured in culture supernatant and intestinal tissue. UDP-treated luminal contents induced more inflammation on target cells, with a greater inflammatory response to contents from IAP-KO mice treated with UDP than from WT mice. Additionally, UDP treatment increased TNF-α levels in intestinal tissue of IAP-KO mice, and cotreatment with IAP reduced inflammation to control levels. Taken together, these studies show that IAP prevents inflammation caused by UDP alone and in combination with other ligands, and the anti-inflammatory effect of IAP against UDP persists in mouse small intestine. The benefits of IAP in intestinal disease may be partly due to inhibition of the proinflammatory activity of UDP. PMID:23306083

  19. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, (/sup 3/H)NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine.

  20. 2-Alkynyl derivatives of adenosine-5'-N-ethyluronamide: selective A2 adenosine receptor agonists with potent inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, G; Volpini, R; Vittori, S; Camaioni, E; Monopoli, A; Conti, A; Dionisotti, S; Zocchi, C; Ongini, E

    1994-05-27

    A series of new 2-alkynyl and 2-cycloalkynyl derivatives of adenosine-5'-N-ethyluronamide (NECA) and of N-ethyl-1'-deoxy-1'-(6-amino-2-hexynyl-9H-purin-9-yl)-beta-D- ribofuranuronamide (1, HE-NECA), bearing hydroxy, amino, chloro, and cyano groups in the side chain, were synthesized. The compounds were studied in binding and functional assays to assess their potency for the A2 compared to A1 adenosine receptor. The presence of an alpha-hydroxyl group in the alkynyl chain of NECA derivatives accounts for the A2 agonist potency, leading to compounds endowed with sub-nanomolar affinity in binding studies. However, these analogues also possess good A1 receptor affinity resulting in low A2 selectivity. From functional experiments the 4-hydroxy-1-butynyl (6) and the 4-(2-tetrahydro-2H-pyranyloxy)-1-butynyl (16) derivatives appear to be very potent in inducing vasorelaxation without appreciable effect on heart rate. The new compounds were also tested as inhibitors of platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Introduction of an alpha-hydroxyl group in the alkynyl side chain caused a greater increase in antiaggregatory activity than either NECA or HE-NECA, resulting in the most potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation so far known in the nucleoside series. The presence of an alpha-quaternary carbon such as the 3-hydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-1-hexynyl (12) and the 3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-1-butynyl (15) derivatives markedly reduced the antiaggregatory potency without affecting the A2 affinity. The hydrophobicity index (k') of the new nucleosides barely correlated with the binding data, whereas high k' values were associated with increased A2 vs A1 selectivity but with reduced activity in all functional assays. Some of the compounds synthesized possess interesting pharmacological properties. Compounds having an appropriate balance between vasorelaxation and antiplatelet activity, if confirmed in vivo, deserve further development for the treatments of cardiovascular disorders.

  1. Examination of the thiamin diphosphate binding site in yeast transketolase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Meshalkina, L; Nilsson, U; Wikner, C; Kostikowa, T; Schneider, G

    1997-03-01

    The role of two conserved amino acid residues in the thiamin diphosphate binding site of yeast transketolase has been analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of E162, which is part of a cluster of glutamic acid residues at the subunit interface, by alanine or glutamine results in mutant enzymes with most catalytic properties similar to wild-type enzyme. The two mutant enzymes show, however, significant increases in the K0.5 values for thiamin diphosphate in the absence of substrate and in the lag of the reaction progress curves. This suggests that the interaction of E162 with residue E418, and possibly E167, from the second subunit is important for formation and stabilization of the transketolase dimer. Replacement of the conserved residue D382, which is buried upon binding of thiamin diphosphate, by asparagine and alanine, results in mutant enzymes severely impaired in thiamin diphosphate binding and catalytic efficiency. The 25-80-fold increase in K0.5 for thiamin diphosphate suggests that D382 is involved in cofactor binding, probably by electrostatic compensation of the positive charge of the thiazolium ring and stabilization of a flexible loop at the active site. The decrease in catalytic activities in the D382 mutants indicates that this residue might also be important in subsequent steps in catalysis.

  2. A corpora allata farnesyl diphosphate synthase in mosquitoes displaying a metal ion dependent substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nyati, Pratik; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, it catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) with two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor of juvenile hormone (JH). In this study, we functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti FPPS (AaFPPS) expressed in the corpora allata. AaFPPS is the only FPPS gene present in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, it encodes a 49.6 kDa protein exhibiting all the characteristic conserved sequence domains on prenyltransferases. AaFPPS displays its activity in the presence of metal cofactors; and the product condensation is dependent of the divalent cation. Mg2+ ions lead to the production of FPP, while the presence of Co2+ ions lead to geranyl diphosphate (GPP) production. In the presence of Mg2+ the AaFPPS affinity for allylic substrates is GPP>DMAPP>IPP. These results suggest that AaFPPS displays “catalytic promiscuity”, changing the type and ratio of products released (GPP or FPP) depending on allylic substrate concentrations and the presence of different metal cofactors. This metal ion-dependent regulatory mechanism allows a single enzyme to selectively control the metabolites it produces, thus potentially altering the flow of carbon into separate metabolic pathways. PMID:26188328

  3. ADP1 affects plant architecture by regulating local auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixi; Li, Jieru; Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  4. Reprogramming cellular events by poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pic, Émilie; Ethier, Chantal; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that has led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions. PMID:23268355

  5. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah F.; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  6. Niacin status, NAD distribution and ADP-ribose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James B

    2009-01-01

    Dietary niacin deficiency, and pharmacological excesses of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide, have dramatic effects on cellular NAD pools, ADP-ribose metabolism, tissue function and health. ADP-ribose metabolism is providing new targets for pharmacological intervention, and it is important to consider how the supply of vitamin B3 may directly influence ADP-ribosylation reactions, or create interactions with other drugs designed to influence these pathways. In addition to its redox roles, NAD+ is used as a substrate for mono-, poly- and cyclic ADP-ribose formation. During niacin deficiency, not all of these processes can be maintained, and dramatic changes in tissue function and clinical condition take place. Conversely, these reactions may be differentially enhanced by pharmacological intakes of vitamin B3, and potentially by changing expression of specific NAD generating enzymes. A wide range of metabolic changes can take place following pharmacological supplementation of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. As niacin status decreases towards a deficient state, the function of other types of pharmaceutical agents may be modified, including those that target ADP-ribosylation reactions, apoptosis and inflammation. This article will explore what is known and yet to be learned about the response of tissues, cells and subcellular compartments to excessive and limiting supplies of niacin, and will discuss the etiology of the resulting pathologies.

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer between Fe(III) and adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates: Application to alkaline-phosphatase-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Yang, Ya-Chun; Shih, Ya-Chen; Hung, Szu-Ying; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-03-15

    Fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) analogs are often used as sensors for detecting various species because of their relatively high extinction coefficients, outstanding fluorescence quantum yields, photostability, and pH-independent fluorescence. However, there is little-to-no information in the literature that describes the use of BODIPY analogs for detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibition. This study discovered that the fluorescence of BODIPY-conjugated adenosine triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) was quenched by Fe(III) ions through photoinduced electron transfer. The ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of BODIPY-ATP resulted in the formation of BODIPY-adenosine and phosphate ions. The fluorescence of the generated BODIPY-adenosine was insensitive to the change in the concentration of Fe(III) ions. Thus, the Fe(III)-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP can be paired with its ALP-mediated dephosphorylation to design a turn-on fluorescence probe for ALP sensing. A method detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for ALP was estimated to be 0.02 units/L (~6 pM; 1 ng/mL). This probe was used for the screening of ALP inhibitors, including Na3VO4, imidazole, and arginine. Because ALP is widely used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the probe was coupled to an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay for the sensitive and selective detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The lowest detectable concentration for IgG in this system was 5 ng/mL. Compared with the use of 3,6-fluorescein diphosphate as a signal reporter in an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay, the proposed system provided comparable sensitivity, large linear range, and high stability over temperature and pH changes.

  8. Vibrational studies of phosphoryl transfer enzymes: ras- p21(*)magnesium-GTP and Myosin S1(*)magnesium-ADP- vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianghua

    1999-07-01

    We have measured the Raman spectra of monophosphate compounds in aqueous solution. The measured frequencies were correlated with P••O valence bond order by using a modification of the Hardcastle- Wachs procedure. The P••O bond order and bond length in phosphates can be determined from vibrational spectra by using the derived bond order/stretching frequency correlation and the bond length/bond order correlation of Brown and Wu. The Raman and infrared spectra of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) in aqueous solution were also examined. Frequency shifts were observed as Mg2+ complexes with GDP and GTP in aqueous solution. These results suggested that Mg2+ binds to GDP in a bidentate manner to the α,β P••O bonds and in a tridentate manner to the α,β and γ P••O bonds of Mg•GTP . We have analyzed the previously obtained isotope edited Raman difference spectra of 1:1 complexes of Mg•GDP and Mg•GTP in ras-p21. Frequency changes of the phosphate groups were observed when Mg•GDP , Mg•GTP bind to the protein. Employing both the previous empirical relationships between bond orders/lengths and frequencies as well as vibrational analysis from ab initio calculations, the spectral changes can be explained by the change of the Mg2+ binding sites and hydrogen-bonding. Implications of these structural results for the reaction mechanism of GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by the GTPase are discussed. We have analyzed previously obtained isotope edited Raman difference spectra of the non-bridging V••O bonds of vanadates, both in solution, and when bound to the myosin S1•MgADP complex. By use of ab initio calculations on a model of the vanadate binding site in myosin, the angles between the non-bridging V••O bonds and between these bonds and the apical bonds in the myosin S1•MgADP -Vi complex were determined. The summed bond order of the two apical bonds

  9. Adenosine Receptors: Expression, Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sandeep; Brito, Rafael; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) comprise a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) which mediate the physiological actions of adenosine. To date, four AR subtypes have been cloned and identified in different tissues. These receptors have distinct localization, signal transduction pathways and different means of regulation upon exposure to agonists. This review will describe the biochemical characteristics and signaling cascade associated with each receptor and provide insight into how these receptors are regulated in response to agonists. A key property of some of these receptors is their ability to serve as sensors of cellular oxidative stress, which is transmitted by transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, to regulate the expression of ARs. Recent observations of oligomerization of these receptors into homo- and heterodimers will be discussed. In addition, the importance of these receptors in the regulation of normal and pathological processes such as sleep, the development of cancers and in protection against hearing loss will be examined. PMID:24477263

  10. Adenosine-induced worsening of supraventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Kunnumpuram, Georgey Koshy; Patel, Ashfaq

    2012-01-01

    An approximately 20-year-old to 30-year-old patient presented with a haemodynamically stable supraventricular tachycardia . The patient was managed with intravenous adenosine primarily, with two bolus doses of 6 and 12 mg. This, however, caused a rare paradoxical surge of tachycardia with mild haemodynamic compromise. The patient further required a combination of Metoprolol and Verapamil administration to slow down and reverse the arrhythmia. Following this the patient remained stable with no further episodes till discharge. PMID:23230260

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a geranyl diphosphate-specific aromatic prenyltransferase from lemon.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Ryosuke; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Koeduka, Takao; Karamat, Fazeelat; Olry, Alexandre; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Takanashi, Kojiro; Dugrand, Audray; Froelicher, Yann; Tanaka, Ryo; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Azuma, Jun-Ichi; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-09-01

    Prenyl residues confer divergent biological activities such as antipathogenic and antiherbivorous activities on phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, coumarins, and xanthones. To date, about 1,000 prenylated phenolics have been isolated, with these compounds containing various prenyl residues. However, all currently described plant prenyltransferases (PTs) have been shown specific for dimethylallyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor, while most of the complementary DNAs encoding these genes have been isolated from the Leguminosae. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel PT gene from lemon (Citrus limon), ClPT1, belonging to the homogentisate PT family. This gene encodes a PT that differs from other known PTs, including flavonoid-specific PTs, in polypeptide sequence. This membrane-bound enzyme was specific for geranyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor and coumarin as the prenyl acceptor. Moreover, the gene product was targeted to plastid in plant cells. To our knowledge, this is the novel aromatic PT specific to geranyl diphosphate from citrus species.

  12. Localization and properties of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase from castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Osmond, C B; Akazawa, T; Beevers, H

    1975-02-01

    A substantial portion of the ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase activity in the endosperm of germinating castor beans (Ricinus communis var. Hale) is recovered in the proplastid fraction. The partially purified enzyme shows homology with the enzyme from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves, as evidenced by its reaction against antibodies to the native spinach enzyme and to its catalytic subunit. The enzyme from the endosperm of castor beans has a molecular weight of about 500,000 and, with the exception of a higher affinity for ribulose 1,5-diphosphate, has similar kinetic properties to the spinach enzyme. The castor bean carboxylase is inhibited by oxygen and also displays ribulose 1,5-diphosphate oxygenase activity with an optimum at pH 7.5.

  13. Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. )

    1993-07-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

  14. Fruit color mutants in tomato reveal a function of the plastidial isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI1) in carotenoid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoprenoids are a large class of compounds that are present in all living organisms. They are derived from the 5C building blocks isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In plants, IPP is synthesized in the cytoplasm from mevalonic acid via the “MVA pathway” a...

  15. Heteromeric geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint: construction of a functional fusion protein and inhibition by bisphosphonate substrate analogs.

    PubMed

    Burke, Charles; Klettke, Karin; Croteau, Rodney

    2004-02-01

    Geranyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)) with isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) to produce geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), the essential precursor of monoterpenes. The enzyme from peppermint and spearmint (Menthaxpiperita and Mentha spicata, respectively) functions as a heterodimer or heterotetramer consisting of a 40kDa subunit and 33kDa subunit. The DNAs encoding each subunit were joined with different sized linkers and in both possible orders, and expressed in Escherichia coli to yield the corresponding fused protein. The properties of the recombinant fused version, in which the small subunit was followed by the large subunit with a 10 amino acid linker, resembled those of the native heteromeric enzyme in kinetics, product chain-length specificity, and architecture, and this form thus provided a suitable single gene transcript for biotechnological purposes. Bisphosphonate substrate analogs of the type that inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase (C(15)) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (C(20)) also inhibited the fused geranyl diphosphate synthase, apparently by interacting at both the allylic and homoallylic co-substrate binding sites. The results of inhibition studies, along with the previously established role of the small subunit and related mutagenesis experiments, suggest that geranyl diphosphate synthase employs a different mechanism for chain-length determination than do other short-chain prenyltransferases.

  16. Effect of adenosine and adenosine analogs on ( sup 14 C)aminopyrine accumulation by rabbit parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, S.; Hiraishi, H.; Terano, A.; Mutoh, H.; Kurachi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Ivey, K.J.; Sugimoto, T. )

    1989-12-01

    Adenosine receptors that modulate adenylate cyclase activity have been identified recently in a number of tissues. Adenosine A2 receptor is stimulatory to adenylate cyclase, whereas adenosine A1 receptor is inhibitory to adenylate cyclase. We investigated the effect of adenosine and its analogs on (14C)aminopyrine accumulation by rabbit parietal cells. Rabbit gastric mucosal cells were isolated by enzyme digestion. Parietal cells were enriched by nonlinear percoll gradients. (14C)Aminopyrine accumulation was used as an indicator of acid secretion. The effect of 2-chloroadenosine on histamine-stimulated (14C)aminopyrine accumulation was studied. The effects of N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, stable analogs of adenosine, and adenosine on (14C)aminopyrine accumulation were assessed. Cyclic AMP content of parietal cells was determined by radioimmunoassay. Histamine and carbachol, known secretagogues, stimulated (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. 2-Chloroadenosine did not suppress histamine-stimulated (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. 2-Chloroadenosine, N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, and adenosine dose dependently increased (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. The order of potency was N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine. 8-Phenyltheophylline and theophylline, adenosine-receptor antagonists, or cimetidine did not have significant effects on the increase of AP uptake induced by 2-chloroadenosine. Coadministration of dipyridamole, and adenosine uptake inhibitor, augmented the effect of adenosine on (14C)aminopyrine accumulation. 2-Chloroadenosine, N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine, and adenosine each induced a significant increase in cellular cyclic AMP. We conclude that there may be adenosine A2 receptors on rabbit parietal cells which modulate gastric acid secretion.

  17. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  18. Platelet adhesiveness in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, S.; Pegrum, G. D.; Wolff, Sylvia; Ashton, W. L.

    1967-01-01

    Platelet adhesiveness has been assessed on whole blood from a series of 34 diabetics and 50 control subjects using adenosine diphosphate (A.D.P.) and by adherence to glass microspherules (ballotini). Using both techniques it was possible to demonstrate a significant increase in platelet adhesiveness in the diabetic patients. PMID:5614070

  19. Use of adenosine echocardiography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, W.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography combined with exercise is sensitive and specific in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) by demonstrating transient abnormalities in wall motion. Frequently, however, patients cannot achieve maximal exercise because of various factors. Pharmacologic stress testing with intravenous adenosine was evaluated as a means of detecting CAD in a noninvasive manner. Patients with suspected CAD underwent echocardiographic imaging and simultaneous thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography during the intravenous administration of 140 micrograms/kg/min of adenosine. An increase in heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, and increase in double product were observed during adenosine administration. Initial observations revealed that wall motion abnormalities were induced by adenosine in areas of perfusion defects. The adenosine infusion was well tolerated, and symptoms disappeared within 1 to 2 minutes after termination of the infusion. Therefore preliminary observations suggest that adenosine echocardiography appears to be useful in the assessment of CAD.

  20. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of (/sup 3/H)adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of (/sup 3/H)adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA.

  1. Role of adenosine receptor subtypes in methamphetamine reward and reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kevin A; Schreiner, Drew C; Levis, Sophia C; O'Neill, Casey E; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2015-02-01

    The neurobiology of methamphetamine (MA) remains largely unknown despite its high abuse liability. The present series of studies explored the role of adenosine receptors on MA reward and reinforcement and identified alterations in the expression of adenosine receptors in dopamine terminal areas following MA administration in rats. We tested whether stimulating adenosine A1 or A2A receptor subtypes would influence MA-induced place preference or MA self-administration on fixed and progressive ratio schedules in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulation of either adenosine A1 or A2A receptors significantly reduced the development of MA-induced place preference. Stimulating adenosine A1, but not A2A, receptors reduced MA self-administration responding. We next tested whether repeated experimenter-delivered MA administration would alter the expression of adenosine receptors in the striatal areas using immunoblotting. We observed no change in the expression of adenosine receptors. Lastly, rats were trained to self-administer MA or saline for 14 days and we detected changes in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor expression using immunoblotting. MA self-administration significantly increased adenosine A1 in the nucleus accumbens shell, caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex. MA self-administration significantly decreased adenosine A2A receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens shell, but increased A2A receptor expression in the amygdala. These findings demonstrate that MA self-administration produces selective alterations in adenosine receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and that stimulation of adenosine receptors reduces several behavioral indices of MA addiction. Together, these studies shed light onto the neurobiological alterations incurred through chronic MA use that may aid in the development of treatments for MA addiction.

  2. Caffeine intensifies taste of certain sweeteners: role of adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Diaz, C; Beeker, T G

    1986-03-01

    Caffeine, a potent antagonist of adenosine receptors, potentiates the taste of some but not all sweeteners. It significantly enhances the taste of acesulfam-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, d-tryptophan, thaumatin, stevioside, and sodium saccharin. Adenosine reverses the enhancement. Caffeine has no effect on aspartame, sucrose, fructose, and calcium cyclamate. These results suggest that the inhibitory A1 adenosine receptor plays an important local role in modulating the taste intensity of certain sweeteners and that several transduction mechanisms mediate sweet taste.

  3. A Metabolic Immune Checkpoint: Adenosine in Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Within tumors, some areas are less oxygenated than others. Since their home ground is under chronic hypoxia, tumor cells adapt to this condition by activating aerobic glycolysis; however, this hypoxic environment is very harsh for incoming immune cells. Deprivation of oxygen limits availability of energy sources and induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine in tumors. Extracellular adenosine, upon binding with adenosine receptors on the surface of various immune cells, suppresses pro-inflammatory activities. In addition, signaling through adenosine receptors upregulates a number of anti-inflammatory molecules and immunoregulatory cells, leading to the establishment of a long-lasting immunosuppressive environment. Thus, due to hypoxia and adenosine, tumors can discourage antitumor immune responses no matter how the response was induced, whether it was spontaneous or artificially introduced with a therapeutic intention. Preclinical studies have shown the significance of adenosine in tumor survival strategy by demonstrating tumor regression after inactivation of adenosine receptors, inhibition of adenosine-producing enzymes, or reversal of tissue hypoxia. These promising results indicate a potential use of the inhibitors of the hypoxia-adenosine pathway for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27066002

  4. Adenosine analogs inhibit fighting in isolated male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Palmour, R.M.; Lipowski, C.J.; Simon, C.K.; Ervin, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potent adenosine analogs N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) and phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) inhibit fighting and associated agonistic behaviors in isolated male mice. These effects are reversed by methylxanthines; moderate doses of NECA which inhibit fighting have minimal effects on spontaneous locomotor activity. At very low doses, both NECA and PIA increase fighting in parallel with previously reported increases of motor activity. Brain levels of (/sup 3/H)-NECA and (/sup 3/H)-PIA achieved at behaviorally effective doses suggest an involvement of adenosine receptors. The biochemical mechanism of adenosine receptor action with respect to fighting is unknown, but may include neuromodulatory effects on the release of other, more classical neurotransmitters.

  5. Adenosine signaling: good or bad in erectile function?

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiaming; Xia, Yang

    2012-04-01

    The erectile status of penile tissue is governed largely by the tone of cavernosal smooth muscle cells, which is determined by the balance of vascular relaxants and constrictors. Vascular relaxants play a key role in regulating the tone of cavernosal smooth muscle and thus the initiation and maintenance of penile erection. Early studies drew attention to the potential role of adenosine signaling in this process. However, the serendipitous discovery of the effect of sildenafil on erectile physiology drew more attention toward nitric oxide (NO) as a vasodilator in the process of penile erection, and a recently discovered, unexpected erectile phenotype of adenosine deaminase-deficient mice reemphasizes the importance of adenosine as a key regulatory of erectile status. Adenosine, like NO, is a potent and short-lived vasorelaxant that functions via cyclic nucleotide second messenger signaling to promote smooth muscle relaxation. Recent studies reviewed here show that adenosine functions to relax the corpus cavernosum and promote penile erection. Excess adenosine in penile tissue contributes to the disorder called priapism, and impaired adenosine signaling is associated with erectile dysfunction. More recent research summarized in this review reveals that adenosine functions as a key endogenous vasodilator in the initiation and maintenance of normal penile erection. This new insight highlights adenosine signaling pathways operating in penile tissue as significant therapeutic targets for the treatment of erectile disorders.

  6. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation.... Simultaneous measurements of platelet aggregation and ATP release are used to evaluate platelet...

  7. Impact of Dabigatran versus Phenprocoumon on ADP Induced Platelet Aggregation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation with or without Concomitant Clopidogrel Therapy (the Dabi-ADP-1 and Dabi-ADP-2 Trials)

    PubMed Central

    Martischnig, Amadea M.; Mehilli, Julinda; Pollak, Janina; Petzold, Tobias; Fiedler, Anette K.; Mayer, Katharina; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Sibbing, Dirk; Massberg, Steffen; Kastrati, Adnan; Sarafoff, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. A relevant number of patients receive triple therapy with clopidogrel, aspirin, and oral anticoagulation. Clopidogrel's efficacy on ADP induced platelet function may be influenced by concomitant antithrombotic therapies. Data regarding the effect of dabigatran on platelet function is limited to in vitro studies and healthy individuals. Methods. The “Dabi-ADP-1” and “Dabi-ADP-2” trials randomized patients with atrial fibrillation to either dabigatran or phenprocoumon for a 2-week period. In Dabi-ADP-1 (n = 70) patients with clopidogrel therapy were excluded and in Dabi-ADP-2 (n = 46) patients had to be treated concomitantly with clopidogrel. The primary endpoint was ADP-induced platelet aggregation between dabigatran and phenprocoumon at 14 days. Secondary endpoints were ADPtest HS-, TRAP-, and COL-induced platelet aggregation. Results. There was no significant difference regarding the primary endpoint between both groups in either trial (Dabi-ADP-1: Dabigatran: 846 [650–983] AU × min versus phenprocoumon: 839 [666–1039] AU × min, P = 0.90 and Dabi-ADP-2: 326 [268–462] versus 350 [214–535], P = 0.70) or regarding the secondary endpoints, ADPtest HS-, TRAP-, and COL-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusion. Dabigatran as compared to phenprocoumon has no impact on ADP-induced platelet aggregation in atrial fibrillation patients neither with nor without concomitant clopidogrel therapy. PMID:26229963

  8. Crystal structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiangshu; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H

    2005-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria. It is the enzymatic site for regulation of storage polysaccharide accumulation in plants and bacteria, being allosterically activated or inhibited by metabolites of energy flux. We report the first atomic resolution structure of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Crystals of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase α subunit were grown in high concentrations of sulfate, resulting in the sulfate-bound, allosterically inhibited form of the enzyme. The N-terminal catalytic domain resembles a dinucleotide-binding Rossmann fold and the C-terminal domain adopts a left-handed parallel β helix that is involved in cooperative allosteric regulation and a unique oligomerization. We also report structures of the enzyme in complex with ATP and ADP-glucose. Communication between the regulator-binding sites and the active site is both subtle and complex and involves several distinct regions of the enzyme including the N-terminus, the glucose-1-phosphate-binding site, and the ATP-binding site. These structures provide insights into the mechanism for catalysis and allosteric regulation of the enzyme. PMID:15692569

  9. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... other State agencies that have similar characteristics such as whether they are urban or rural,...

  10. ADP correspondence system: Unsolicited proposal evaluation tracking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. A.; Goodwin, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A complete description of a correspondence control system, designed to be used by non-ADP clerical personnel is provided. In addition to operating instructions, sufficient design and conceptual information is provided to allow use or adaption of the system in related applications. The complete COBOL program and documentation are available.

  11. Crystal structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangshu; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H

    2005-02-23

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria. It is the enzymatic site for regulation of storage polysaccharide accumulation in plants and bacteria, being allosterically activated or inhibited by metabolites of energy flux. We report the first atomic resolution structure of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Crystals of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase alpha subunit were grown in high concentrations of sulfate, resulting in the sulfate-bound, allosterically inhibited form of the enzyme. The N-terminal catalytic domain resembles a dinucleotide-binding Rossmann fold and the C-terminal domain adopts a left-handed parallel beta helix that is involved in cooperative allosteric regulation and a unique oligomerization. We also report structures of the enzyme in complex with ATP and ADP-glucose. Communication between the regulator-binding sites and the active site is both subtle and complex and involves several distinct regions of the enzyme including the N-terminus, the glucose-1-phosphate-binding site, and the ATP-binding site. These structures provide insights into the mechanism for catalysis and allosteric regulation of the enzyme.

  12. Abiogenic Photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP Sensitized by Flavoproteinoid Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Michael P.; Telegina, Taisiya A.; Lyudnikova, Tamara A.; Kritsky, Mikhail S.

    2008-06-01

    A model for abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP by orthophosphate to yield ATP was studied. The model is based on the photochemical activity of flavoproteinoid microspheres that are formed by aggregation in an aqueous medium of products of thermal condensation of a glutamic acid, glycine and lysine mixture (8:3:1) and contain, along with amino acid polymers (proteinoids), abiogenic isoalloxazine (flavin) pigments. Irradiation of aqueous suspensions of microspheres with blue visible light or ultraviolet in the presence of ADP and orthophosphate resulted in ATP formation. The yield of ATP in aerated suspensions was 10 20% per one mol of starting ADP. Deaeration reduced the photophosphorylating activity of microspheres five to 10 times. Treatment of aerated microsphere suspensions with superoxide dismutase during irradiation partially suppressed ATP formation. Deaerated microspheres restored completely their photophosphorylating activity after addition of hydrogen peroxide to the suspension. The photophosphorylating activity of deaerated suspensions of flavoproteinoid microspheres was also recovered by introduction of Fe3+-cytochrome c, an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen. On the basis of the results obtained, a chemical mechanism of phosphorylation is proposed in which the free radical form of reduced flavin sensitizer left( {{text{FlH}}^ bullet } right) and ADP are involved.

  13. American Diploma Project (ADP) End-of-Course Exams: 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    To assess the raised expectations of college and career readiness for all students, a group of American Diploma Project (ADP) Network states formed the ADP Assessment Consortium in 2005. The Consortium created Algebra I and II end-of-course exams, based in large part on Achieve's ADP mathematics benchmarks, which would provide an honest assessment…

  14. The effects of vincristine on platelet aggregation studied by a filter loop technique in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bee, D.; Leach, E.; Martin, J. F.; Suggett, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    1 A method for measuring aggregation of platelets of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is described using a filter inserted into the flowing aortic blood in the rat. 2 Repeated infusions of ADP resulted in a fall in the calculated aggregation index without significant changes in the platelet count. 3 Vincristine (0.05 mg/kg) intravenously caused significant inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. 4 Infusion of ADP caused some peripheral vasodilatation though it is unlikely that this contributed to the effects seen to any great extent. PMID:7437636

  15. Cytosolic monoterpene biosynthesis is supported by plastid-generated geranyl diphosphate substrate in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Gutensohn, Michael; Orlova, Irina; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Sitrit, Yaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2013-08-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of most monoterpenes, is synthesized in plastids from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate by GPP synthases (GPPSs). In heterodimeric GPPSs, a non-catalytic small subunit (GPPS-SSU) interacts with a catalytic large subunit, such as geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and determines its product specificity. Here, snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS-SSU was over-expressed in tomato fruits under the control of the fruit ripening-specific polygalacturonase promoter to divert the metabolic flux from carotenoid formation towards GPP and monoterpene biosynthesis. Transgenic tomato fruits produced monoterpenes, including geraniol, geranial, neral, citronellol and citronellal, while exhibiting reduced carotenoid content. Co-expression of the Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase (GES) gene with snapdragon GPPS-SSU led to a more than threefold increase in monoterpene formation in tomato fruits relative to the parental GES line, indicating that the produced GPP can be used by plastidic monoterpene synthases. Co-expression of snapdragon GPPS-SSU with the O. basilicum α-zingiberene synthase (ZIS) gene encoding a cytosolic terpene synthase that has been shown to possess both sesqui- and monoterpene synthase activities resulted in increased levels of ZIS-derived monoterpene products compared to fruits expressing ZIS alone. These results suggest that re-direction of the metabolic flux towards GPP in plastids also increases the cytosolic pool of GPP available for monoterpene synthesis in this compartment via GPP export from plastids.

  16. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2014-12-26

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12-0.16 μg h(-1) g(-1) fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate.

  17. [Formation of ribuloso-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase by Thiocapsa roseopersicina under different growth conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhukov, V G

    1976-01-01

    Contrary to other photosynthetic and some chemoautotrophic bacteria, formation of ribuloso-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase by the cells of Thiocapsa roseopersicina, strain BBS, is not inhibited by oxygen which is present in the medium. The intensity of light and the presence of organic substances in the medium produce only a minor effect on synthesis of the enzyme by the microorganism. PMID:1004280

  18. Chrysanthemyl Diphosphate Synthase Operates in Planta as a Bifunctional Enzyme with Chrysanthemol Synthase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1′-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12–0.16 μg h−1 g−1 fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

  19. Cytosolic monoterpene biosynthesis is supported by plastid-generated geranyl diphosphate substrate in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Gutensohn, Michael; Orlova, Irina; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Sitrit, Yaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2013-08-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of most monoterpenes, is synthesized in plastids from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate by GPP synthases (GPPSs). In heterodimeric GPPSs, a non-catalytic small subunit (GPPS-SSU) interacts with a catalytic large subunit, such as geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and determines its product specificity. Here, snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS-SSU was over-expressed in tomato fruits under the control of the fruit ripening-specific polygalacturonase promoter to divert the metabolic flux from carotenoid formation towards GPP and monoterpene biosynthesis. Transgenic tomato fruits produced monoterpenes, including geraniol, geranial, neral, citronellol and citronellal, while exhibiting reduced carotenoid content. Co-expression of the Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase (GES) gene with snapdragon GPPS-SSU led to a more than threefold increase in monoterpene formation in tomato fruits relative to the parental GES line, indicating that the produced GPP can be used by plastidic monoterpene synthases. Co-expression of snapdragon GPPS-SSU with the O. basilicum α-zingiberene synthase (ZIS) gene encoding a cytosolic terpene synthase that has been shown to possess both sesqui- and monoterpene synthase activities resulted in increased levels of ZIS-derived monoterpene products compared to fruits expressing ZIS alone. These results suggest that re-direction of the metabolic flux towards GPP in plastids also increases the cytosolic pool of GPP available for monoterpene synthesis in this compartment via GPP export from plastids. PMID:23607888

  20. Introduction to Adenosine Receptors as Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator in response to stress to an organ or tissue. Although short-lived in the circulation, it can activate four sub-types of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs): A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. The alkylxanthines caffeine and theophylline are the prototypical antagonists of ARs, and their stimulant actions occur primarily through this mechanism. For each of the four AR subtypes, selective agonists and antagonists have been introduced and used to develop new therapeutic drug concepts. ARs are notable among the GPCR family in the number and variety of agonist therapeutic candidates that have been proposed. The selective and potent synthetic AR agonists, which are typically much longer lasting in the body than adenosine, have potential therapeutic applications based on their anti-inflammatory (A2A and A3), cardioprotective (preconditioning by A1 and A3 and postconditioning by A2B), cerebroprotective (A1 and A3), and antinociceptive (A1) properties. Potent and selective AR antagonists display therapeutic potential as kidney protective (A1), antifibrotic (A2A), neuroprotective (A2A), and antiglaucoma (A3) agents. AR agonists for cardiac imaging and positron-emitting AR antagonists are in development for diagnostic applications. Allosteric modulators of A1 and A3 ARs have been described. In addition to the use of selective agonists/antagonists as pharmacological tools, mouse strains in which an AR has been genetically deleted have aided in developing novel drug concepts based on the modulation of ARs. PMID:19639277

  1. Lactose and D-galactose metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus. IV. Isolation and properties of a class I D-ketohexose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase that catalyzes the cleavage of D-tagatose 1,6-diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bissett, D L; Anderson, R L

    1980-09-25

    The inducible D-ketohexose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase that functions in the metabolism of lactose and D-galactose in Staphylococcus aurues was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from an extract of D-galactose-grown cells. At saturating substrate concentrations, D-tagatose 1,6-diphosphate was cleaved to dihydroxyacetone phosphate plus D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate at twice the rate of D-fructose 1,6-diphosphate; Km values for D-tagatose 1,6-diphosphate and D-fructose 12,6-diphosphate were 1.5 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively. The enzyme catalyzed the aldol condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield a mixture of the 1,6-diphosphate derivatives of D-tagatose, D-fructose, D-sorbose, and D-psicose, indicating that it also catalyzes the cleavage of all four D-2-ketohexose 1,6-diphosphates. The enzyme was not inhibited by EDTA and it had no divalent metal ion requirement, but it did exhibit substrate-dependent inactivation by NaBH4, indicating that it is a Class I (Schiff's base) aldolase. Density gradient centrifugation and gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that the enzyme exists as a monomer with amolecular weight of about 37,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 3.4 S. Data on the stability, pH optimum, and inducibility of the enzyme are also presented.

  2. CD73-generated extracellular adenosine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia creates local conditions counteracting drug-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Sara; Horenstein, Alberto L.; Vaisitti, Tiziana; Brusa, Davide; Rossi, Davide; Laurenti, Luca; D'Arena, Giovanni; Coscia, Marta; Tripodo, Claudio; Inghirami, Giorgio; Robson, Simon C.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Malavasi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine (ADO), generated from ATP or ADP through the concerted action of the ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73, elicits autocrine and paracrine effects mediated by type 1 purinergic receptors. We have tested whether the expression of CD39 and CD73 by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells activates an adenosinergic axis affecting growth and survival. By immunohistochemistry, CD39 is widely expressed in CLL lymph nodes, whereas CD73 is restricted to proliferation centers. CD73 expression is highest on Ki-67+ CLL cells, adjacent to T lymphocytes, and is further localized to perivascular areas. CD39+/CD73+ CLL cells generate ADO from ADP in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In peripheral blood, CD73 expression occurs in 97/299 (32%) CLL patients and pairs with CD38 and ZAP-70 expression. CD73-generated extracellular ADO activates type 1 purinergic A2A receptors that are constitutively expressed by CLL cells and that are further elevated in proliferating neoplastic cells. Activation of the ADO receptors increases cytoplasmic cAMP levels, inhibiting chemotaxis and limiting spontaneous drug-induced apoptosis of CLL cells. These data are consistent with the existence of an autocrine adenosinergic loop, and support engraftment of leukemic cells in growth-favorable niches, while simultaneously protecting from the action of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:21998208

  3. Dietary Supplementation of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes Modulates Platelets Ectonucleotidase and Adenosine Deaminase Activities in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Morsch, Vera Maria; Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Goularte, Jeferson Ferraz; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is associated with platelet alterations that could contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications. Several studies have reported antiplatelet aggregation properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) with limited scientific basis. Hence, this study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of these rhizomes on platelet ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Animals were divided into seven groups (n = 10): normotensive control rats; induced (l-NAME hypertensive) rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10 mg/kg/day); normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day). The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in platelet ADA activity and ATP hydrolysis with a concomitant decrease in ADP and AMP hydrolysis of l-NAME hypertensive rats when compared with the control. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations by modulating the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP and AMP with a concomitant decrease in ADA activity. Thus, these activities could suggest some possible mechanism of the rhizomes against hypertension-derived complications associated to platelet hyperactivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151061

  4. Adenosine signaling in normal and sickle erythrocytes and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujin; Xia, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating hemolytic genetic disorder with high morbidity and mortality affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although SCD was discovered more than a century ago, no effective mechanism-based prevention and treatment are available due to poorly understood molecular basis of sickling, the fundamental pathogenic process of the disease. SCD patients constantly face hypoxia. One of the best-known signaling molecules to be induced under hypoxic conditions is adenosine. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia-mediated elevated adenosine signaling plays an important role in normal erythrocyte physiology. In contrast, elevated adenosine signaling contributes to sickling and multiple life threatening complications including tissue damage, pulmonary dysfunction and priapism. Here, we summarize recent research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal and sickle erythrocytes, progression of the disease and therapeutic implications. In normal erythrocytes, both genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrate that adenosine can enhance 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) production via A2B receptor (ADORA2B) activation, suggesting that elevated adenosine has an unrecognized role in normal erythrocytes to promote O2 release and prevent acute ischemic tissue injury. However, in sickle erythrocytes, the beneficial role of excessive adenosine-mediated 2,3-BPG induction becomes detrimental by promoting deoxygenation, polymerization of sickle hemoglobin and subsequent sickling. Additionally, adenosine signaling via the A2A receptor (ADORA2A) on invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells inhibits iNKT cell activation and attenuates pulmonary dysfunction in SCD mice. Finally, elevated adenosine coupled with ADORA2BR activation is responsible for priapism, a dangerous complication seen in SCD. Overall, the research reviewed here reveals a differential role of elevated adenosine in normal erythrocytes, sickle erythrocytes, iNK cells and progression

  5. Characterization of adenosine binding proteins in human placental membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized two adenosine binding proteins in human placenta. In membranes, one site is detected with ({sup 3}H) -N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). This site is similar to the adenosine A{sub 2} receptor. We call this site the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. In detergent extracts, the second site is detected and has the characteristics of an adenosine A{sub 1} receptor. The soluble adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site cannot be detected without a rapid assay. Binding to the adenosine A{sub 1} receptor with ({sup 3}H)-2-chloroadenosine and ({sup 3}H)NECA is time dependent, saturable, and reversible. Equilibrium displacement analysis with adenosine agonists reveals an A{sub 1} specificity: 2-chloroadenosine > R-phenylisopropyladenosine > 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. The antagonist potency order is 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine > isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline. Competition analysis of membranes with the A,-selective ligands ({sup 3}H)-cyclohexyladenosine ({sup 3}H) cylopentylxanthine revealed adenosine A{sub 1} agonist and antagonist potency orders. We have purified the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site is an ubiquitous major cellular protein. It is glycosylated, highly asymmetric, and acidic. The native protein is an homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 98 kDa. The sedimentation coefficient and partial specific volume of the binding complex are 6.9 s and 0.698 ml/g, respectively. The Stokes' radius is 70 {Angstrom}. The native molecular mass of the detergent-protein complex is 230 kDa. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site has an agonist potency order of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > 2-chloroadenosine >> R-phenylisopropyladenosine and an antagonist potency order of isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline >> 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine.

  6. Two solanesyl diphosphate synthases with different subcellular localizations and their respective physiological roles in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Sasaki, Kanako; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Long chain prenyl diphosphates are crucial biosynthetic precursors of ubiquinone (UQ) in many organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans, as well as precursors of plastoquinone in photosynthetic organisms. The cloning and characterization of two solanesyl diphosphate synthase genes, OsSPS1 and OsSPS2, in Oryza sativa is reported here. OsSPS1 was highly expressed in root tissue whereas OsSPS2 was found to be high in both leaves and roots. Enzymatic characterization using recombinant proteins showed that both OsSPS1 and OsSPS2 could produce solanesyl diphosphates as their final product, while OsSPS1 showed stronger activity than OsSPS2. However, an important biological difference was observed between the two genes: OsSPS1 complemented the yeast coq1 disruptant, which does not form UQ, whereas OsSPS2 only very weakly complemented the growth defect of the coq1 mutant. HPLC analyses showed that both OsSPS1 and OsSPS2 yeast transformants produced UQ9 instead of UQ6, which is the native yeast UQ. According to the complementation study, the UQ9 levels in OsSPS2 transformants were much lower than that of OsSPS1. Green fluorescent protein fusion analyses showed that OsSPS1 localized to mitochondria, while OsSPS2 localized to plastids. This suggests that OsSPS1 is involved in the supply of solanesyl diphosphate for ubiquinone-9 biosynthesis in mitochondria, whereas OsSPS2 is involved in providing solanesyl diphosphate for plastoquinone-9 formation. These findings indicate that O. sativa has a different mechanism for the supply of isoprenoid precursors in UQ biosynthesis from Arabidopsis thaliana, in which SPS1 provides a prenyl moiety for UQ9 at the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:20421194

  7. Structure and function of the ARH family of ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Masato; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification, in which ADP-ribose is transferred from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to specific acceptors, thereby altering their activities. The ADP-ribose transfer reactions are divided into mono- and poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Cellular ADP-ribosylation levels are tightly regulated by enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose to acceptor proteins (e.g. ADP-ribosyltransferases, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP)) and those that cleave the linkage between ADP-ribose and acceptor (e.g. ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases (ARH), poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases (PARG)), thereby constituting an ADP-ribosylation cycle. This review summarizes current findings related to the ARH family of proteins. This family comprises three members (ARH1-3) with similar size (39 kDa) and amino acid sequence. ARH1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated arginine. ARH3 hydrolyzes poly-(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The different substrate specificities of ARH1 and ARH3 contribute to their unique roles in the cell. Based on a phenotype analysis of ARH1−/− and ARH3−/− mice, ARH1 is involved in the action by bacterial toxins as well as in tumorigenesis. ARH3 participates in the degradation of PAR that is synthesized by PARP1 in response to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage; this hydrolytic reaction suppresses PAR-mediated cell death, a pathway termed parthanatos. PMID:24746921

  8. Frontalin pheromone biosynthesis in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and the role of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Chiu, Christine C; Aw, Tidiane; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Tittiger, Claus; Weng, Hong-Biao; Blomquist, Gary J; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2013-11-19

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most destructive pest of western North American pine forests. Adult males produce frontalin, an eight-carbon antiaggregation pheromone, via the mevalonate pathway, as part of several pheromones that initiate and modulate the mass attack of host trees. Frontalin acts as a pheromone, attractant, or kairomone in most Dendroctonus species, other insects, and even elephants. 6-Methylhept-6-en-2-one, a frontalin precursor, is hypothesized to originate from 10-carbon geranyl diphosphate (GPP), 15-carbon farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), or 20-carbon geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) via a dioxygenase- or cytochrome P450-mediated carbon-carbon bond cleavage. To investigate the role of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in pheromone biosynthesis, we characterized a bifunctional GPP/FPP synthase and a GGPP synthase in the mountain pine beetle. The ratio of GPP to FPP produced by the GPP/FPP synthase was highly dependent on the ratio of the substrates isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate used in the assay. Transcript levels in various tissues and life stages suggested that GGPP rather than GPP or FPP is used as a precursor to frontalin. Reduction of transcript levels by RNA interference of the isoprenyl diphosphate synthases identified GGPP synthase as having the largest effect on frontalin production, suggesting that frontalin is derived from a 20-carbon isoprenoid precursor rather than from the 10- or 15-carbon precursors.

  9. Norepinephrines effect on adenosine transport in the proximal straight tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, D.W.; McCann, W.P.; Katholi, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of norepinephrine on C/sup 14/-adenosine transport in the rabbit proximal tubule (S/sub 2/) was studied. The transepithelial transport of adenosine (0.02 mM0 from lumin to bathing solution was measured by its rate of appearance (J/sub A/) in the bathing solution and by its disappearances (J/sub D/) from the luminal fluid. Norepinephrine (0.24 ..mu..M) was added to the bathing solution after a control flux period. After three samples from the experiment period the tubules were quickly harvested and the cellular concentration of C/sup 14/-adenosine was determined. The high cellular adenosine concentration and th marked difference in adenosine appearance rate in the bathing solution compared to the luminal disappearance rate indicates the absorbed adenosine is trapped in the cells. This trapping may be due to adenosine metabolism or difficulty of crossing the basolateral membrane. Whichever is the case, norepinephrine appears to stimulate movement of adenosine or its metabolites into the bathing solution across the basolateral membrane.

  10. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is Adenosine the Common Link?

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the ‘adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities’ implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic ‘comorbidity model’, in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain comorbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  11. Effect of theophylline on adenosine production in the canine myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, J.E.; Steffen, R.P.; Haddy, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is thought to participate in local regulation of coronary blood flow. However, competitive antagonists of adenosine fail to block myocardial active hyperemia. The authors examined the effect of locally administered theophylline on active hyperemia and myocardial adenosine production during intracoronary isoproterenol infusion in the dog heart. Isoproterenol decreased coronary resistance and increased myocardial adenosine production. Infusion of theophylline at a rate that attenuated the vasodilator response to exogenously administered adenosine failed to attenuate the increase in coronary blood flow produced by isoproterenol. However, theophylline plus isoproterenol production greater increases in myocardial adensine production than isoproterenol alone. The curves relating resistance and adenosine in the presence of theophylline fell to the right of those in the absence of theophylline. These findings suggest that the failure of theophylline to attenuate isoproterenol hyperemia in the dog heart results at least in part from an increase in adenosine concentration at the arteriole to a level beyond that blocked by this competitive antagonist and that adenosine may in fact play a role in isoproterenol-induced active hyperemia.

  12. Proximal ADP-ribose Hydrolysis in Trypanosomatids is Catalyzed by a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification utilized by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for several cellular functions, such as DNA repair, proliferation, and cell signaling. Higher eukaryotes, such as humans, utilize various enzymes to reverse the modification and to regulate ADP-ribose dependent signaling. In contrast, some lower eukaryotes, including trypanosomatids, lack many of these enzymes and therefore have a much more simplified ADP-ribose metabolism. Here we identified and characterized ADP-ribose hydrolases from Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, which are homologous to human O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylases MacroD1 and MacroD2. The enzymes are capable for hydrolysis of protein linked ADP-ribose and a product of sirtuin-mediated lysine deacetylation, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. Crystal structures of the trypanosomatid macrodomains revealed a conserved catalytic site with distinct differences to human MacroD1 and MacroD2. PMID:27064071

  13. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    SciTech Connect

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  14. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in the regulation of nuclear functions.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amours, D; Desnoyers, S; D'Silva, I; Poirier, G G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:10455009

  15. Adenosine (ADO) receptors in the PC12 phenochromocytoma cell line: characterization by radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Abreu, M.; Noronha-Blob, L.

    1986-03-01

    PC12 cells contain an ado-sensitive adenylate cyclase which is exclusively A-2 in nature. Binding of A-1 selective radioligands (Cyclohexylado; CHA and Cyclopentylado; CPA) to PC12 membranes is minimal and irreproducible. In contrast, the non-selective A-1/A-2 agonist NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoado) binds with high affinity to two sites in adenosine-deaminase pretreated PC12 membranes. Using computerized curve fitting, the first site had a Kd value of 5.2 +/- 1.5 nM (mean +/- s.d.; n = 8) and an apparent Bmax of 205 fmoles/mg prot. Due to large increases in non-specific binding, the second site could not be resolved but had a Kd in the range of 1 ..mu..M. Pharmacological analysis of specific NECA binding (5 nM) gave the rank order activity profile: NECA < MECA = 2-CADO > CHA > R-PIA > CPA S-PIA > AMP = ADP = ATP. Binding was also xanthine sensitive with PACPX > 8-PT > 8-PST. The ratio of activity for the R and S diastereomers of PIA was 10, consistent with the labeling of A-2-type ado receptors in the PC12 cell line.

  16. Identification of the distribution of adenosine phosphates, nucleosides and nucleobases in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wei, Yue; Wang, Yong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Xiaofeng

    2015-04-15

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases play a greater role in the physiological activity of organisms which are highly present in royal jelly (RJ). The objective of the present study is to develop a HPLC method to simultaneous determine nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in RJ and access them in fresh and commercial RJ samples. The LOD and LOQ were 12.2-99.6 μg/L and 40.8-289.4 μg/L, respectively with nearly 100.9% recoveries. Except uric acid, all other compounds were found in RJ samples. Significant difference in the average content of compounds in fresh (2682.93 mg/kg) and commercial samples (3152.78 mg/kg) were observed. AMP, adenosine and adenine were found predominant in all the samples. Significant higher levels of ATP, ADP and AMP was seen in fresh RJ samples, and IMP, uridine, guanosine, and thymidine was seen in commercial RJ samples. The investigated compounds can be used as indexes for assessment RJ freshness and quality.

  17. The 1994 NASA/USRA/ADP Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas; Richardson, Joseph; Tryon, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/USRA/ADP Design Projects from Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (1994) are enclosed in this final report. Design projects include: (1) Protein Crystal Growth, both facilities and methodology; (2) ACES Deployable Space Boom; (3) Hybrid Launch System designs for both manned and unmanned systems; (4) LH2 Fuel Tank design (SSTO); (5) SSTO design; and (6) Pressure Tank Feed System design.

  18. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  4. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in cutaneous anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Material/Methods Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Results Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between ADA activity and lymphocyte counts (r=0.589, p=0.021) in the patient group. Conclusions This study suggests that serum ADA could be used as a biochemical marker in cutaneous anthrax. PMID:24997584

  5. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73(+/+)) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73(-/-)) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73(+/+) mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73(+/+) mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg(2+) conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73(-/-) mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  6. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73+/+) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73−/−) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73+/+ mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73+/+ mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg2+ conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73−/− mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  7. Identification of possible adenosine receptors in vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Doctrow, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Adenosine is a vasodilator and has been implicated in increased blood flow in tissues that undergo energy deficiency. During conditions such as hypoxia and ischemia, adenosine is produced and is said to increase blood flow by relaxing the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) lining the resistance vessels. The goal of this research was to identify receptors that might be responsible for adenosine-mediated VSM relaxation. When an insoluble fraction from calf aortic VSM was incubated with /sup 32/P-ATP, two components were phosphorylated. One was identified as myosin light chain by MW, pl, and immunoprecipitation. The other product was identified as phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (DPI) by tic. Both phosphorylations were inhibited by adenosine and by 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine (Cl-Ado). DPI production was much more sensitive to the nucleosides than was myosin phosphorylation. Neither inhibition involved change in cAMP production. Phosphatidylinositol (Pl) kinase in the VSM membranes required magnesium, was activated and solubilized by Triton X-100, and phosphorylated both endogenous and exogenous Pl. Cl-Ado inhibited Pl kinase in a manner competitive with respect to ATP and noncompetitive with respect to Pl. Adenosine and adenosine analogs modified in the ribose ring were inhibitors with potencies comparable to that of Cl-Ado. Adenine nucleotides and purine-modified adenosine analogs were weaker inhibitors than Cl-Ado.

  8. Dynamic Structure and Inhibition of a Malaria Drug Target: Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase.

    PubMed

    G Ricci, Clarisse; Liu, Yi-Liang; Zhang, Yonghui; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

    2016-09-13

    We report a molecular dynamics investigation of the structure, function, and inhibition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), a potential drug target, from the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. We discovered several GGPPS inhibitors, benzoic acids, and determined their structures crystallographically. We then used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the dynamics of three such inhibitors and two bisphosphonate inhibitors, zoledronate and a lipophilic analogue of zoledronate, as well as the enzyme's product, GGPP. We were able to identify the main motions that govern substrate binding and product release as well as the molecular features required for GGPPS inhibition by both classes of inhibitor. The results are of broad general interest because they represent the first detailed investigation of the mechanism of action, and inhibition, of an important antimalarial drug target, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and may help guide the development of other, novel inhibitors as new drug leads. PMID:27564465

  9. The Promise of Proteomics for the Study of ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Ong, Shao-En; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification where single units (mono-ADP-ribosylation) or polymeric chains (poly-ADP-ribosylation) of ADP-ribose are conjugated to proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases. This post-translational modification and the ADP-ribosyltransferases (also known as PARPs) responsible for its synthesis have been found to play a role in nearly all major cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription, translation, cell signaling and cell death. Furthermore, dysregulation of ADP-ribosylation has been linked to diseases including cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and heart failure, leading to the development of therapeutic PARP inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials. The study of this therapeutically important modification has recently been bolstered by the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, arguably the most powerful tool for the unbiased analysis of protein modifications. Unfortunately, progress has been hampered by the inherent challenges that stem from the physicochemical properties of ADP-ribose which as a post-translational modification is highly charged, heterogeneous (linear or branched polymers, as well as monomers), labile, and found on a wide range of amino acid acceptors. In this perspective, we discuss the progress that has been made in addressing these challenges, including the recent breakthroughs in proteomics techniques to identify ADP-ribosylation sites, and future developments to provide a proteome-wide view of the many cellular processes regulated by ADP-ribosylation. PMID:26091340

  10. Submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration is impaired in ZDF rats and recovered by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brennan K; Perry, Christopher G R; Herbst, Eric A F; Ritchie, Ian R; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Smith, Jeffrey C; Neufer, P Darrell; Wright, David C; Holloway, Graham P

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the aetiology of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, although there is considerable controversy regarding these concepts. Mitochondrial function has been traditionally assessed in the presence of saturating ADP, but ATP turnover and the resultant ADP is thought to limit respiration in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the potential link between submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates, ROS generation and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the ZDF rat. Utilizing permeabilized muscle fibres we observed that submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates (250-2000 μm ADP) were lower in ZDF rats than in lean controls, which coincided with decreased adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) protein content. This decrease in submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration occurred in the absence of a decrease in electron transport chain function. Treating ZDF rats with resveratrol improved skeletal muscle insulin resistance and this was associated with elevated submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates as well as an increase in ANT2 protein content. These results coincided with a greater ability of ADP to attenuate mitochondrial ROS emission and an improvement in cellular redox balance. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in skeletal muscle insulin resistance when assessed at submaximal ADP concentrations and that ADP dynamics may influence skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through alterations in the propensity for mitochondrial ROS emission.

  11. Linear free energy relationships demonstrate a catalytic role for the flavin mononucleotide coenzyme of the type II isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J; Chang, Wei-chen; Liu, Hung-wen

    2010-07-28

    The type II isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of the two ubiquitous isoprene units, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), which are required to initiate the biosynthesis of all isoprenoid compounds found in nature. The overall chemical transformation catalyzed by IDI-2 involves a net 1,3-proton addition/elimination reaction. Surprisingly, IDI-2 requires a reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN) coenzyme to carry out this redox neutral isomerization. The exact function of FMN in catalysis has not yet been clearly defined. To provide mechanistic insight into the role of the reduced flavin in IDI-2 catalysis, several FMN analogues with altered electronic properties were chemoenzymatically prepared, and their effects on the kinetic properties of the IDI-2 catalyzed reaction were investigated. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between the electronic properties of the flavin and the steady state kinetic parameters of the IDI-2 catalyzed reaction were observed. The LFER studies are complemented with kinetic isotope effect studies and kinetic characterization of an active site mutant enzyme (Q154N). Cumulatively, the data presented in this work (and in other studies) suggest that the reduced FMN coenzyme of IDI-2 functions as an acid/base catalyst, with the N5 atom of the flavin likely playing a critical role in the deprotonation of IPP en route to DMAPP formation. Several potential chemical mechanisms involving the reduced flavin as an acid/base catalyst are presented and discussed.

  12. Tyrosine O-prenyltransferases TyrPT and SirD displaying similar behavior toward unnatural alkyl or benzyl diphosphate as their natural prenyl donor dimethylallyl diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huili; Liebhold, Mike; Xie, Xiulan; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and contribute as modification enzymes significantly to structural diversity of natural products. They show usually broad specificity toward their aromatic substrates with regiospecific prenylations on aromatic rings. However, most members of this superfamily exhibit a high specificity toward their prenyl donors and usually accept exclusively dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Recently, several indole prenyltransferases from this family were also demonstrated to accept unnatural DMAPP analogs such as methylallyl, 2-pentenyl and benzyl diphosphate for alkylation, or benzylation of the indole ring. Partial or complete shift of the substitution position was observed for these enzymes. In this study, we report the acceptance of these DMAPP analogs by two tyrosine O-prenyltransferases TyrPT from Aspergillus niger and SirD from Leptosphaeria maculans for alkylation or benzylation of tyrosine and derivatives. NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of nine isolated enzyme products confirmed the regiospecific O- or N-alkylation or benzylation at position C-4 of the aromatic ring, which is the same prenylation position of these enzymes in the presence of DMAPP.

  13. Enantioselective Inhibition of Squalene Synthase by Aziridine Analogues of Presqualene Diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Koohang, Ali; Bailey, Jessica L.; Erickson, Hans K.; Owen, David; Poulter, C. Dale

    2013-01-01

    Squalene synthase catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate to squalene via the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP). Since this novel reaction constitutes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, there has been considerable interest and research on the stereochemistry and mechanism of the process and in the design of selective inhibitors of the enzyme. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of five racemic and two enantiopure aziridine analogues of PSPP and the evaluation of their potencies as inhibitors of recombinant yeast squalene synthase. The key aziridine-2-methanol intermediates (6-OH, 7-OH, and 8-OH) were obtained by N-alkylations or by an N-acylation–reduction sequence of (±)-, (2R,3S)-, and (2S,3R)-2,3-aziridinofarnesol (9-OH) protected as tert-butyldi-methylsilyl ethers. SN2 displacements of the corresponding methanesulfonates with pyrophosphate and methanediphosphonate anions afforded aziridine 2-methyl diphosphates and methanediphosphonates bearing N-undecyl, N-bishomogeranyl, and N-(α-methylene)bishomogeranyl substituents as mimics for the 2,6,10-trimethylundeca-2,5,9-trienyl side chain of PSPP. The 2R,3S diphosphate enantiomer bearing the N-bishomogeranyl substituent corresponding in absolute stereochemistry to PSPP proved to be the most potent inhibitor (IC50 1.17 ± 0.08 μM in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate), a value 4-fold less than that of its 2S,3R stereoisomer. The other aziridine analogues bearing the N-(α-methylene)bishomogeranyl and N-undecyl substituents, and the related methanediphosphonates, exhibited lower affinities for recombinant squalene synthase. PMID:20545375

  14. A cesium copper vanadyl-diphosphate: Synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shvanskaya, Larisa; Yakubovich, Olga; Bychkov, Andrey; Shcherbakov, Vasiliy; Golovanov, Alexey; Zvereva, Elena; Volkova, Olga; Vasiliev, Alexander

    2015-02-15

    A non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic diphosphate, Cs{sub 2}Cu{sub 1+x}(VO){sub 2−x}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2} (x=0.1) with a=13.7364(2) Å, b=9.2666(2) Å, c=11.5678(2) Å, Z=4, has been isolated. Its 3D framework is built from Cu atoms in square pyramidal and square planar coordination, VO{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate groups, sharing vertices. Large channels are fulfilled by cesium atoms. The ESR study reveals a similarity in behaviour of two paramagnetic (Cu and V) subsystems. The temperature dependences of the ESR linewidth and static magnetic susceptibility data present evidences for a cluster type magnetic ordering in the title compound at T⁎=22 K. The weakness of the relevant anomalies reflects presumably obvious Cu{sup 2+} ions and (VO){sup 2+} units disorder in the system. It is supposed that the charge and geometry of the framework are controlled by the Cu{sup 2+}/(VO){sup 2+} ratio; its variation may lead to a design of new materials. - Graphical abstract: A microporous 3D anionic framework of the first copper vanadium-diphosphate Cs{sub 2}Cu{sub 1.1}(VO){sub 1.9}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}. The similarity in behaviour of Cu and V paramagnetic subsystems revealed by ESR study. - Highlights: • The first copper vanadium-diphosphate Cs{sub 2}Cu{sub 1.1}(VO){sub 1.9}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2} is reported. • A 3D anionic framework is characterized by disorder in distribution of Cu and V atoms. • Structural relations with topologically similar compounds are discussed. • The similarity in behaviour of Cu and V paramagnetic subsystems has been revealed.

  15. Structure and Mechanism of the Diterpene Cyclase ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) reveals three α-helical domains (α, β, γ), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the βγ domains in CPS but exclusively in the α domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions. PMID:21602811

  16. Expression pattern of the coparyl diphosphate synthase gene in developing rice anthers.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ari; Nemoto, Keisuke; Chono, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamagishi, Junko; Maekawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2004-08-01

    Rice anthers contain high concentrations of gibberellins A(4) and A(7). To understand their physiological roles, we examined the site of their biosynthesis by analyzing the expression pattern of a gene (OsCPS) encoding coparyl diphosphate synthase in developing rice flowers. Expression was apparent in the anthers 1-2 days before flowering, and CPS mRNA accumulated in the maturing pollen.

  17. Role of arginine-304 in the diphosphate-triggered active site closure mechanism of trichodiene synthase.

    PubMed

    Vedula, L Sangeetha; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2005-09-27

    The X-ray crystal structures of R304K trichodiene synthase and its complexes with inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) and aza analogues of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate are reported. The R304K substitution does not cause large changes in the overall structure in comparison with the wild-type enzyme. The complexes with (R)- and (S)-azabisabolenes and PP(i) bind three Mg2+ ions, and each undergoes a diphosphate-triggered conformational change that caps the active site cavity. This conformational change is only slightly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type enzyme complexed with Mg2+(3)-PP(i), in which R304 donates hydrogen bonds to PP(i) and D101. In R304K trichodiene synthase, K304 does not engage in any hydrogen bond interactions in the unliganded state and it donates a hydrogen bond to only PP(i) in the complex with (R)-azabisabolene; K304 makes no hydrogen bond contacts in its complex with PP(i) and (S)-azabisabolene. Thus, although the R304-D101 hydrogen bond interaction stabilizes diphosphate-triggered active site closure, it is not required for Mg2+(3)-PP(i) binding. Nevertheless, since R304K trichodiene synthase generates aberrant cyclic terpenoids with a 5000-fold reduction in kcat/KM, it is clear that a properly formed R304-D101 hydrogen bond is required in the enzyme-substrate complex to stabilize the proper active site contour, which in turn facilitates cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate for the exclusive formation of trichodiene. Structural analysis of the R304K mutant and comparison with the monoterpene cyclase (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase suggest that the significant loss in activity results from compromised activation of the PP(i) leaving group. PMID:16171386

  18. Role of Arginine-304 in the Diphosphate-Triggered Active Site Closure Mechanism of Trichodiene Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula,L.; Cane, D.; Christianson, D.

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of R304K trichodiene synthase and its complexes with inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and aza analogues of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate are reported. The R304K substitution does not cause large changes in the overall structure in comparison with the wild-type enzyme. The complexes with (R)- and (S)-azabisabolenes and PPi bind three Mg2+ ions, and each undergoes a diphosphate-triggered conformational change that caps the active site cavity. This conformational change is only slightly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type enzyme complexed with Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i}, in which R304 donates hydrogen bonds to PP{sub i} and D101. In R304K trichodiene synthase, K304 does not engage in any hydrogen bond interactions in the unliganded state and it donates a hydrogen bond to only PP{sub i} in the complex with (R)-azabisabolene; K304 makes no hydrogen bond contacts in its complex with PP{sub i} and (S)-azabisabolene. Thus, although the R304-D101 hydrogen bond interaction stabilizes diphosphate-triggered active site closure, it is not required for Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i} binding. Nevertheless, since R304K trichodiene synthase generates aberrant cyclic terpenoids with a 5000-fold reduction in kcat/KM, it is clear that a properly formed R304-D101 hydrogen bond is required in the enzyme-substrate complex to stabilize the proper active site contour, which in turn facilitates cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate for the exclusive formation of trichodiene. Structural analysis of the R304K mutant and comparison with the monoterpene cyclase (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase suggest that the significant loss in activity results from compromised activation of the PP{sub i} leaving group.

  19. Proteomic investigation of phosphorylation sites in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Moreel, Xavier; Gagné, Pierre; Labelle, Yves; Droit, Arnaud; Chevalier-Paré, Mélissa; Bourassa, Sylvie; McDonald, Darin; Hendzel, Michael J; Prigent, Claude; Poirier, Guy G

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorylation is a very common post-translational modification event known to modulate a wide range of biological responses. Beyond the regulation of protein activity, the interrelation of phosphorylation with other post-translational mechanisms is responsible for the control of diverse signaling pathways. Several observations suggest that phosphorylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates its activity. There is also accumulating evidence to suggest the establishment of phosphorylation-dependent assembly of PARP-1-associated multiprotein complexes. Although it is relatively straightforward to demonstrate phosphorylation of a defined target, identification of the actual amino acids involved still represents a technical challenge for many laboratories. With the use of a combination of bioinformatics-based predictions tools for generic and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites, in vitro phosphorylation assays and mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the phosphorylation profile of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), two major enzymes responsible for poly(ADP-ribose) turnover. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the phosphorylation of several serine/threonine residues within important regulatory domains and motifs of both enzymes. With the use of in vivo microirradiation-induced DNA damage, we show that altered phosphorylation at specific sites can modify the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of PARP-1 at sites of DNA damage. By documenting and annotating a collection of known and newly identified phosphorylation sites, this targeted proteomics study significantly advances our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in the regulation of PARP-1 and PARG.

  20. Practical Experience of Discharge Measurement in Flood Conditions with ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate discharge estimation is important for an efficient river basin management and especially for flood forecasting. The traditional way of estimating the discharge in hydrological practice is to measure the water stage and to convert the recorded water stage values into discharge by using the single-valued rating curve .Relationship between the stage and discharge values of the rating curve for the extreme events are usually extrapolated by using different mathematical methods and are not directly measured. Our practice shows that by using the Accoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) instrument we can record the actual relation between the water stage and the flow velocity at the occurrence of flood waves very successfully. Measurement in flood conditions it is not easy task, because of high water surface velocity and large amounts of sediments in the water and floating objects on the surface like branches, bushes, trees, piles and others which can also easily damage ADP instrument. We made several measurements in such extreme events on the Sava River down to the nuclear power plant Kr\\vsko where we have install fixed cable way. During the several measurement with traditional "moving-boat" measurement technique a mowing bed phenomenon was clearly seen. Measuring flow accurately using ADP that uses the "moving-boat" technique, the system needs a reference against which to relate water velocities to. This reference is river bed and must not move. During flood events we detected difficulty finding a static bed surface to which to relate water velocities. This is caused by motion of the surface layer of bed material or also sediments suspended in the water near bed very densely. So these traditional »moving-boat« measurement techniques that we normally use completely fail. Using stationary measurement method to making individual velocity profile measurements, using an Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP), at certain time at fixed locations across the width of a stream gave

  1. Adenosine deaminase in disorders of purine metabolism and in immune deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tritsch, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of five parts and a section of poster papers. Some of the selection titles are: Adenosine Deaminase Impairment and Ribonucleotide Reductase in Human Cells; Adenosine Deaminase and Malignant Cells; Inhibition of Adenosine Deaminase to Increase the Antitumor Activity of Adenine Nucleoside Analogues; and Molecular Biology of the Adenosine Deaminase Gene and Messenger RNA.

  2. Efficient diterpene production in yeast by engineering Erg20p into a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Ignea, Codruta; Trikka, Fotini A; Nikolaidis, Alexandros K; Georgantea, Panagiota; Ioannou, Efstathia; Loupassaki, Sofia; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Kanellis, Angelos K; Roussis, Vassilios; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes have numerous applications, ranging from pharmaceuticals to fragrances and biofuels. With increasing interest in producing terpenes sustainably and economically, there has been significant progress in recent years in developing methods for their production in microorganisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, production of the 20-carbon diterpenes has so far proven to be significantly less efficient than production of their 15-carbon sesquiterpene counterparts. In this report, we identify the modular structure of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesis in yeast to be a major limitation in diterpene yields, and we engineer the yeast farnesyl diphosphate synthase Erg20p to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Using a combination of protein and genetic engineering, we achieve significant improvements in the production of sclareol and several other isoprenoids, including cis-abienol, abietadiene and β-carotene. We also report the development of yeast strains carrying the engineered Erg20p, which support efficient isoprenoid production and can be used as a dedicated chassis for diterpene production or biosynthetic pathway elucidation. The design developed here can be applied to the production of any GGPP-derived isoprenoid and is compatible with other yeast terpene production platforms.

  3. Adaptive evolution of the chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase gene involved in irregular monoterpene metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is a key enzyme in biosynthetic pathways producing pyrethrins and irregular monoterpenes. These compounds are confined to plants of the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, and play an important role in defending the plants against herbivorous insects. It has been proposed that the CDS genes arose from duplication of the farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS) gene and have different function from FDSs. However, the duplication time toward the origin of CDS and the evolutionary force behind the functional divergence of the CDS gene are still unknown. Results Two duplication events were detected in the evolutionary history of the FDS gene family in the Asteraceae, and the second duplication led to the origin of CDS. CDS occurred after the divergence of the tribe Mutisieae from other tribes of Asteraceae but before the birth of the Anthemideae tribe. After its origin, CDS accumulated four mutations in sites homologous to the substrate-binding and catalysis sites of FDS. Of these, two sites were involved in the binding of the nucleophilic substrate isopentenyl diphosphate in FDS. Maximum likelihood analyses showed that some sites in CDS were under positive selection and were scattered throughout primary sequences, whereas in the three-dimensional structure model they clustered in the large central cavity. Conclusion Positive selection associated with gene duplication played a major role in the evolution of CDS. PMID:23137178

  4. Biosynthesis of polysaccharides in Acetobacter xylinum. Sequential synthesis of a heptasaccharide diphosphate prenol.

    PubMed

    Couso, R O; Ielpi, L; Garcia, R C; Dankert, M A

    1982-04-01

    The sequential synthesis in vitro of a heptasaccharide diphosphate prenol, containing glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose in the ratio 4:1:1:1 is described. The enzyme preparation consisted of EDTA-treated Acetobacter xylinum cells and UDP-glucose, GDP-mannose, UDP-glucuronic acid and TDP-rhamnose were employed as sugar donors. The compounds soluble in chloroform/methanol/water (1:2:0.3) formed from incubations carried out under different conditions in the presence of a variety of combinations of the donors labeled with 14C, 3H or 32P were analysed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, gel filtration, partial acid hydrolysis, acetolysis, periodate oxidation, etc. The following structure is proposed for the most complex compound characterized: rhamnosyl-(1 leads to 6)-beta-glucosyl-(1 leads to 6)-alpha-glucosyl-(1 leads to 4)-beta-glucuronyl-(1 leads to 6)-beta-mannosyl-(1 leads to 3)-beta-glucosyl-(1 leads to 4)-alpha-glucosyl diphosphate prenol. The smaller oligosaccharide diphosphate prenols formed as intermediate steps are also characterized in this or in previous work [Garcia, R. C., Recondo, E. and Dankert, M. A. (1974) Eur. J. Biochem. 43, 93-105; Couso, R. O., Ielpi, L., and Dankert, M. A. (1980) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 204, 434-443]. The role of these compounds in the biosynthesis of a complex exopolysaccharide that this microorganism forms in addition to cellulose is discussed.

  5. A photoactive isoprenoid diphosphate analogue containing a stable phosphonate linkage: synthesis and biochemical studies with prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    DeGraw, Amanda J; Zhao, Zongbao; Strickland, Corey L; Taban, A Huma; Hsieh, John; Jefferies, Michael; Xie, Wenshuang; Shintani, David K; McMahan, Colleen M; Cornish, Katrina; Distefano, Mark D

    2007-06-22

    A number of biochemical processes rely on isoprenoids, including the post-translational modification of signaling proteins and the biosynthesis of a wide array of compounds. Photoactivatable analogues have been developed to study isoprenoid utilizing enzymes such as the isoprenoid synthases and prenyltransferases. While these initial analogues proved to be excellent structural analogues with good cross-linking capability, they lack the stability needed when the goals include isolation of cross-linked species, tryptic digestion, and subsequent peptide sequencing. Here, the synthesis of a benzophenone-based farnesyl diphosphate analogue containing a stable phosphonophosphate group is described. Inhibition kinetics, photolabeling experiments, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis with a protein prenyltransferase are described, verifying this compound as a good isoprenoid mimetic. In addition, the utility of this new analogue was explored by using it to photoaffinity label crude protein extracts obtained from Hevea brasiliensis latex. Those experiments suggest that a small protein, rubber elongation factor, interacts directly with farnesyl diphosphate during rubber biosynthesis. These results indicate that this benzophenone-based isoprenoid analogue will be useful for identifying enzymes that utilize farnesyl diphosphate as a substrate.

  6. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Darmody, Patrick T.; Walsh, John P.; Moon, Morgan L.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; McCusker, Robert H.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by two-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. PMID:24907587

  7. Transition state complexes of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase proteins. Spectroscopic properties of aluminium fluoride-stabilized and beryllium fluoride-stabilized MgADP complexes reveal conformational differences of the Fe protein.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W; Eady, R R; Fairhurst, S A; Gormal, C A; Smith, B E

    2001-02-01

    Stable inactive 2 : 1 complexes of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase components (Kp2/Kp1) were prepared with ADP or the fluorescent ADP analogue, 2'(3')-O-[N-methylanthraniloyl] ADP and AlF(4)(-) or BeF(3)(-) ions. By analogy with published crystallographic data [Schindelin et al. (1997) Nature 387, 370-376)], we suggest that the metal fluoride ions replaced phosphate at the two ATP-binding sites of the iron protein, Kp2. The beryllium (BeF(x)) and aluminium (AlF(4)(-)) containing complexes are proposed to correspond to the ATP-bound state and the hydrolytic transition states, respectively, by analogy with the equivalent complexes of myosin [Fisher et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 8960-8972]. (31)P NMR spectroscopy showed that during the initial stages of complex formation, MgADP bound to the complexed Kp2 in a manner similar to that reported for isolated Kp2. This process was followed by a second step that caused broadening of the (31)P NMR signals and, in the case of the AlF4- complex, slow hydrolysis of some of the excess ADP to AMP and inorganic phosphate. The purified BeFx complex contained 3.8 +/- 0.1 MgADP per mol Kp1. With the AlF(4)(-) complex, MgAMP and adenosine (from MgAMP hydrolysis) replaced part of the bound MgADP although four AlF(4)(-) ions were retained, demonstrating that full occupancy by MgADP is not required for the stability of the complex. The fluorescence emission maximum of 2'(3')-O-[N-methylanthraniloyl] ADP was blue-shifted by 6-8 nm in both metal fluoride complexes and polarization was 6-9 times that of the free analogue. The fluorescence yield of bound 2'(3')-O-[N-methylanthraniloyl] ADP was enhanced by 40% in the AlF(4)(-) complex relative to the solvent but no increase in fluorescence was observed in the BeFx complex. Resonance energy transfer from conserved tyrosine residues located in proximity to the Kp2 nucleotide-binding pocket was marked in the AlF(4)(-) complex but minimal in the BeFx fluoride complex, illustrating a clear

  8. In vitro studies of release of adenine nucleotides and adenosine from rat vascular endothelium in response to alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Shinozuka, K; Hashimoto, M; Masumura, S; Bjur, R A; Westfall, D P; Hattori, K

    1994-01-01

    1. Noradrenaline-induced release of endogenous adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) and adenosine from both rat caudal artery and thoracic aorta was characterized, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. 2. Noradrenaline, in a concentration-dependent manner, increased the overflow of ATP and its metabolites from the caudal artery. The noradrenaline-induced release of adenine nucleotides and adenosine from the caudal artery was abolished by bunazosin, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not by idazoxan, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. Clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, contracted caudal artery smooth muscle but did not induce release of adenine nucleotides or adenosine. 3. Noradrenaline also significantly increased the overflow of ATP and its metabolites from the thoracic aorta in the rat; however, the amount of adenine nucleotides and adenosine released from the aorta was considerably less than that released from the caudal artery. 4. Noradrenaline significantly increased the overflow of ATP and its metabolites from cultured endothelial cells from the thoracic aorta and caudal artery. The amount released from the cultured endothelial cells from the thoracic aorta and caudal artery. The amount released from the cultured endothelial cells from the aorta was also much less than that from cultured endothelial cells from the caudal artery. In cultured smooth muscle cells from the caudal artery, a significant release of ATP or its metabolites was not observed. 5. These results suggest that there are vascular endothelial cells that are able to release ATP by an alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated mechanism, but that these cells are not homogeneously distributed in the vasculature. PMID:7889273

  9. Kinetics of a self-amplifying substrate cycle: ADP-ATP cycling assay.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; Varón, R; García-Carmona, F

    2000-01-01

    A kinetic study of an ATP-ADP amplification cyclic system involving the enzymes adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase has been made. The stoichiometry of the cycle is 2:1, because two molecules of ADP are synthesized from one each of ATP and AMP, and one molecule of ADP is converted back into one of ATP at each turn of the cycle. This results in a continuous exponential increase in the concentrations of ATP and ADP in the reaction medium, according to the equations obtained. This is therefore a substrate cycle that amplifies itself, the cycling rate increasing continuously with time. The background signal of the reagent was reduced by using apyrase to degrade ATP and ADP in the reagent, permitting detection limits as low as 16 pmol of ATP and/or ADP in a continuous spectrophotometric assay. PMID:10926849

  10. Seasonal cycles of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity and oxidative capacities in trout oxidative muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; St Pierre, J

    1999-10-01

    Mitochondria from red myotomal muscle of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, showed seasonal cycles of their maximal rates of substrate oxidation (nmol.min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein) and their apparent ADP affinity (Kmapp), as well as in the thermal sensitivity of these properties. Increases in the maximal capacity of pyruvate oxidation were sufficient to compensate for seasonal changes in temperature, except during the winter months when rates at habitat temperature were depressed relative to other periods. The ADP affinity of isolated mitochondria was highest during cold months. Thus, the Kmapp for ADP at habitat temperature showed less seasonal variation than the ADP Kmapp at a given temperature. A loss in ADP affinity with decreasing temperature occurred through much of the year, and only was definitively suppressed in December and July. Both the ADP affinity and the maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria seem to be regulated parameters. PMID:10595316

  11. Adenosine receptor ligands: differences with acute versus chronic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; von Lubitz, Dag K. J. E.; Daly, John W.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine receptors have been the target of intense research with respect to potential use of selective ligands in a variety of therapeutic areas. Caffeine and theophylline are adenosine receptor antagonists, and over the past three decades a wide range of selective agonists and antagonists for adenosine receptor subtypes have been developed. A complication to the therapeutic use of adenosine receptor ligands is the observation that the effects of acute administration of a particular ligand can be diametrically opposite to the chronic effects of the same ligand. This ‘effect inversion’ is discussed here by Ken Jecobson and colleagues, and has been observed for effects on cognitive processes, seizures and ischaemic damage. PMID:8936347

  12. Extracellular Adenosine Mediates a Systemic Metabolic Switch during Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bajgar, Adam; Kucerova, Katerina; Jonatova, Lucie; Tomcala, Ales; Schneedorferova, Ivana; Okrouhlik, Jan; Dolezal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Immune defense is energetically costly, and thus an effective response requires metabolic adaptation of the organism to reallocate energy from storage, growth, and development towards the immune system. We employ the natural infection of Drosophila with a parasitoid wasp to study energy regulation during immune response. To combat the invasion, the host must produce specialized immune cells (lamellocytes) that destroy the parasitoid egg. We show that a significant portion of nutrients are allocated to differentiating lamellocytes when they would otherwise be used for development. This systemic metabolic switch is mediated by extracellular adenosine released from immune cells. The switch is crucial for an effective immune response. Preventing adenosine transport from immune cells or blocking adenosine receptor precludes the metabolic switch and the deceleration of development, dramatically reducing host resistance. Adenosine thus serves as a signal that the “selfish” immune cells send during infection to secure more energy at the expense of other tissues. PMID:25915062

  13. Regulatory properties of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase are required for adjustment of leaf starch synthesis in different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M

    2014-12-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5'-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated.

  14. Cyclic ADP-ribose and hydrogen peroxide synergize with ADP-ribose in the activation of TRPM2 channels.

    PubMed

    Kolisek, Martin; Beck, Andreas; Fleig, Andrea; Penner, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    The melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel TRPM2 is a plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable cation channel that is activated by intracellular adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR) binding to the channel's enzymatic Nudix domain. Channel activity is also seen with nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD+) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but their mechanisms of action remain unknown. Here, we identify cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR) as an agonist of TRPM2 with dual activity: at concentrations above 100 microM, cADPR can gate the channel by itself, whereas lower concentrations of 10 microM have a potentiating effect that enables ADPR to gate the channel at nanomolar concentrations. ADPR's breakdown product adenosine monophosphate (AMP) specifically inhibits ADPR, but not cADPR-mediated gating of TRPM2, whereas the cADPR antagonist 8-Br-cADPR exhibits the reverse block specificity. Our results establish TRPM2 as a coincidence detector for ADPR and cADPR signaling and provide a functional context for cADPR as a second messenger for Ca2+ influx.

  15. d-Propranolol prevents adenosine formation associated with myocardial hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Wangler, R D; Peterson, W P; Sparks, H V

    1989-03-01

    d-Propranolol eliminates the increased adenine nucleoside release from hypoperfused hearts [R. D. Wangler, D. F. DeWitt, and H. V. Sparks, Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 16): H330-H336, 1984]. To determine whether d-propranolol reduces adenosine formation or adenosine release into the vascular compartment, we measured myocardial tissue adenosine (TADO). Decreased formation would lower TADO, whereas decreased release would elevate TADO. Reduction of perfusion pressure by 50% reduced coronary flow (CF), venous oxygen tension (PVO2), and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) by approximately 40, 25, and 35%, respectively. Total adenosine and inosine released during 30 min of hypoperfusion increased 10- and 5-fold, respectively. Also, TADO increased from 2.68 +/- 0.37 to 5.17 +/- 0.67 nmol/g (P less than 0.05). In the presence of d-propranolol, the same reduction in perfusion pressure caused a similar decrease in CF and MVO2. d-Propranolol eliminated the release of adenosine and inosine associated with hypoperfusion. TADO after 30 min of hypoperfusion plus d-propranolol was not significantly increased (3.27 +/- 0.40 nmol/g) and was significantly less than hypoperfused hearts. When severe hypoperfusion was created by reducing perfusion pressure 75%, adenosine release still did not increase if d-propranolol was present. When adenosine release was plotted as a function of oxygen supply-consumption, they were related in a hyperbolic fashion. Despite the severity of hypoperfusion, in the presence of d-propranolol the supply-to-consumption ratio was similar to that of the control perfusion group (no drug). We conclude that d-propranolol blocks nucleoside formation during hypoperfusion by reducing oxygen demand such that a reduction of oxygen supply no longer stimulates adenosine formation. PMID:2923237

  16. A label-free fluorescent molecular beacon based on DNA-templated silver nanoclusters for detection of adenosine and adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Guo, Su-Miao; Li, Ying-Ru; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2012-06-01

    A simple and reliable fluorescent molecular beacon is developed utilizing DNA-templated silver nanoclusters as a signal indicator and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine deaminase as mechanical activators.

  17. The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alasdair R.; Banos-Pinero, Benito; Paschke, Peggy; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ariza, Antonio; Day, Joseph; Emrich, Mehera; Leys, David; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL). Structural analysis reveals that this permutated macrodomain retains features associated with ADP-ribose interactions and that APL is capable of binding poly(ADP-ribose) through this macrodomain. APL is enriched in chromatin in response to cisplatin treatment, an agent that induces DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This is dependent on the macrodomain of APL and the ART Adprt2, indicating a role for ADP-ribosylation in the cellular response to cisplatin. Although adprt2− cells are sensitive to cisplatin, ADP-ribosylation is evident in these cells owing to redundant signalling by the double-strand break (DSB)-responsive ART Adprt1a, promoting NHEJ-mediated repair. These data implicate ADP-ribosylation in DNA ICL repair and identify that NHEJ can function to resolve this form of DNA damage in the absence of Adprt2. PMID:27587838

  18. The rise and fall of poly(ADP-ribose): An enzymatic perspective.

    PubMed

    Pascal, John M; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Human cells respond to DNA damage with an acute and transient burst in production of poly(ADP-ribose), a posttranslational modification that expedites damage repair and plays a pivotal role in cell fate decisions. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and glycohydrolase (PARG) are the key set of enzymes that orchestrate the rise and fall in cellular levels of poly(ADP-ribose). In this perspective, we focus on recent structural and mechanistic insights into the enzymes involved in poly(ADP-ribose) production and turnover, and we highlight important questions that remain to be answered.

  19. Bovine spermatozoa incorporate 32Pi into ADP by an unknown pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, J A; Lardy, H A

    1992-03-15

    Intact ejaculated bovine sperm incorporate 32Pi into ADP to a specific activity two to three times higher than into ATP. This contrasts with other cell types where ATP specific activity is higher than that of ADP. Predominant labeling of ADP may be partially due to compartmentation of ATP, but removal of cytosolic ATP does not change the relative labeling of ADP and ATP. Dilution of extracellular 32Pi following labeling resulted in loss of 70% of label from ADP but only 50% loss from gamma-ATP at 26 min. ADP was labeled in the absence of detectable ATP in the presence of rotenone plus antimycin. Fractionation of ejaculated sperm yielded midpieces that are depleted of adenylate kinase and have coupled respiration. ATP was labeled with 32Pi, but ADP was not in midpieces. Evidence for mitochondrial substrate level phosphorylation-supported incorporation of 32Pi into nucleotides was observed for intact sperm incubated with pyruvate and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, but this activity did not occur in midpieces and does not appear to explain disproportionate labeling of ADP. We conclude that labeling of ADP in intact and permeabilized cells occurs by two pathways; one involves adenylate kinase, and the other is an unknown pathway which may be independent of ATP. PMID:1544901

  20. A selective adenosine sensor derived from a triplex DNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mayurbhai; Dutta, Avishek; Huang, Haidong

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a selective adenosine aptamer sensor using a rational approach. Unlike traditional RNA aptamers developed from SELEX, duplex DNA containing an abasic site can function as a general scaffold to rationally design aptamers for small aromatic molecules. We discovered that abasic site-containing triplex DNA can also function as an aptamer and provide better affinity than duplex DNA aptamers. A novel adenosine aptamer sensor was designed using such a triplex. The aptamer is modified with furano-dU in the binding site to sense the binding. The sensor bound adenosine has a dissociation constant of 400 nM, more than tenfold stronger than the adenosine aptamer developed from SELEX. The binding quenched furano-dU fluorescence by 40%. It was also demonstrated in this study that this sensor is selective for adenosine over uridine, cytidine, guanosine, ATP, and AMP. The detection limit of this sensor is about 50 nM. The sensor can be used to quantify adenosine concentrations between 50 nM and 2 μM. PMID:21547431

  1. Intrarenal blood flow distribution during adenosine-mediated vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Macias, J F; Fiksen-Olsen, M; Romero, J C; Knox, F G

    1983-01-01

    Intrarenal infusion of adenosine induces an initial vasoconstriction followed by a subsequent vasodilation. The intrarenal distribution of blood flow in the vasoconstriction phase is unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of intrarenal infusion of adenosine on intracortical distribution of renal blood flow during both the vasoconstriction and vasodilation phases. Renal blood flow distribution was measured with radiolabeled microspheres in anesthetized sodium-depleted dogs before and during the early vasoconstriction phase and the late vasodilation phase of intrarenal infusion of adenosine. During the vasoconstriction phase, there was a uniform decrease in blood flow in each renal cortical zone. In the late phase of adenosine infusion, there was a significant increase in deep cortical flow without significant changes in superficial cortical flow compared with control. The effects of adenosine were also compared with those exerted by norepinephrine in which decreased blood flow was demonstrated in all zones. We conclude that the vasoconstrictor phase of adenosine infusion is characterized by a uniform reduction of renal blood flow to all cortical zones, whereas the vasodilator phase is characterized by a selective deep cortical vasodilation.

  2. Detrimental effects of adenosine signaling in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Weiru; Grenz, Almut; Sun, Hong; Tao, Lijian; Lu, Guangxiu; Alexander, Danny C; Milburn, Michael V; Carter-Dawson, Louvenia; Lewis, Dorothy E; Zhang, Wenzheng; Eltzschig, Holger K; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Juneja, Harinder S; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia can act as an initial trigger to induce erythrocyte sickling and eventual end organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Many factors and metabolites are altered in response to hypoxia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Using metabolomic profiling, we found that the steady-state concentration of adenosine in the blood was elevated in a transgenic mouse model of SCD. Adenosine concentrations were similarly elevated in the blood of humans with SCD. Increased adenosine levels promoted sickling, hemolysis and damage to multiple tissues in SCD transgenic mice and promoted sickling of human erythrocytes. Using biochemical, genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR)-mediated induction of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an erythrocyte-specific metabolite that decreases the oxygen binding affinity of hemoglobin, underlies the induction of erythrocyte sickling by excess adenosine both in cultured human red blood cells and in SCD transgenic mice. Thus, excessive adenosine signaling through the A2BR has a pathological role in SCD. These findings may provide new therapeutic possibilities for this disease. PMID:21170046

  3. The transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier.

    PubMed

    Kunji, Edmund R S; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; King, Martin S; Majd, Homa; Ashton, Valerie L; Cerson, Elizabeth; Springett, Roger; Kibalchenko, Mikhail; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Crichton, Paul G; Ruprecht, Jonathan J

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix, which are key transport steps for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic organisms. The transport protein belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family, a large transporter family in the inner membrane of mitochondria. It is one of the best studied members of the family and serves as a paradigm for the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial carriers. Structurally, the carrier consists of three homologous domains, each composed of two transmembrane α-helices linked with a loop and short α-helix on the matrix side. The transporter cycles between a cytoplasmic and matrix state in which a central substrate binding site is alternately accessible to these compartments for binding of ADP or ATP. On both the cytoplasmic and matrix side of the carrier are networks consisting of three salt bridges each. In the cytoplasmic state, the matrix salt bridge network is formed and the cytoplasmic network is disrupted, opening the central substrate binding site to the intermembrane space and cytosol, whereas the converse occurs in the matrix state. In the transport cycle, tighter substrate binding in the intermediate states allows the interconversion of conformations by lowering the energy barrier for disruption and formation of these networks, opening and closing the carrier to either side of the membrane in an alternating way. Conversion between cytoplasmic and matrix states might require the simultaneous rotation of three domains around a central translocation pathway, constituting a unique mechanism among transport proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  4. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate are synthesized by yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, A; Günther Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1994-01-01

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (P4A) and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) from ATP and tri- or tetrapolyphosphate (P3 or P4), with relative velocities of 7:1, respectively. Of 12 nucleotides tested as potential donors of nucleotidyl moiety, only ATP, adenosine-5'-O-[3-thiotriphosphate], and acetyl-AMP were substrates, with relative velocities of 100, 62, and 80, respectively. The Km values for ATP, P3, and acetyl-AMP were 0.16, 4.7, and 1.8 mM, respectively. The synthesis of p4A could proceed in the absence of exogenous acetate but was stimulated twofold by acetate, with an apparent Km value of 0.065 mM. CoA did not participate in the synthesis of p4A (p5A) and inhibited the reaction (50% inhibitory concentration of 0.015 mM). At pH 6.3, which was optimum for formation of p4A (p5A), the rate of acetyl-CoA synthesis (1.84 mumol mg-1 min-1) was 245 times faster than the rate of synthesis of p4A measured in the presence of acetate. The known formation of p4A (p5A) in yeast sporulation and the role of acetate may therefore be related to acetyl-CoA synthetase. Images PMID:7910605

  5. Abscisic acid signaling through cyclic ADP-ribose in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan; Kuzma, J.; Marechal, E.

    1997-12-19

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the primary hormone that mediates plant responses to stresses such as cold, drought, and salinity. Single-cell microinjection experiments in tomato were used to identify possible intermediates involved in ABA signal transduction. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) was identified as a signaling molecule in the ABA response and was shown to exert its effects by way of calcium. Bioassay experiments showed that the amounts of cADPR in Arabidopsis thaliana plants increased in response to ABA treatment and before ABA-induced gene expression.

  6. Molecular bases of catalysis and ADP-ribose preference of human Mn2+-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase and conversion by mutagenesis to a preferential cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Alicia; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; López-Villamizar, Iralis; Fernández, Ascensión; Canales, José; Pinto, Rosa María; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Among metallo-dependent phosphatases, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatases form a protein family (ADPRibase-Mn-like) mainly restricted, in eukaryotes, to vertebrates and plants, with preferential expression, at least in rodents, in immune cells. Rat and zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn, the only biochemically studied, are phosphohydrolases of ADP-ribose and, somewhat less efficiently, of CDP-alcohols and 2´,3´-cAMP. Furthermore, the rat but not the zebrafish enzyme displays a unique phosphohydrolytic activity on cyclic ADP-ribose. The molecular basis of such specificity is unknown. Human ADPRibase-Mn showed similar activities, including cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase, which seems thus common to mammalian ADPRibase-Mn. Substrate docking on a homology model of human ADPRibase-Mn suggested possible interactions of ADP-ribose with seven residues located, with one exception (Cys253), either within the metallo-dependent phosphatases signature (Gln27, Asn110, His111), or in unique structural regions of the ADPRibase-Mn family: s2s3 (Phe37 and Arg43) and h7h8 (Phe210), around the active site entrance. Mutants were constructed, and kinetic parameters for ADP-ribose, CDP-choline, 2´,3´-cAMP and cyclic ADP-ribose were determined. Phe37 was needed for ADP-ribose preference without catalytic effect, as indicated by the increased ADP-ribose Km and unchanged kcat of F37A-ADPRibase-Mn, while the Km values for the other substrates were little affected. Arg43 was essential for catalysis as indicated by the drastic efficiency loss shown by R43A-ADPRibase-Mn. Unexpectedly, Cys253 was hindering for cADPR phosphohydrolase, as indicated by the specific tenfold gain of efficiency of C253A-ADPRibase-Mn with cyclic ADP-ribose. This allowed the design of a triple mutant (F37A+L196F+C253A) for which cyclic ADP-ribose was the best substrate, with a catalytic efficiency of 3.5´104 M-1s-1 versus 4´103 M-1s-1 of the wild type.

  7. Molecular Bases of Catalysis and ADP-Ribose Preference of Human Mn2+-Dependent ADP-Ribose/CDP-Alcohol Diphosphatase and Conversion by Mutagenesis to a Preferential Cyclic ADP-Ribose Phosphohydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, Alicia; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; López-Villamizar, Iralis; Fernández, Ascensión; Canales, José; Pinto, Rosa María; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Among metallo-dependent phosphatases, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatases form a protein family (ADPRibase-Mn-like) mainly restricted, in eukaryotes, to vertebrates and plants, with preferential expression, at least in rodents, in immune cells. Rat and zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn, the only biochemically studied, are phosphohydrolases of ADP-ribose and, somewhat less efficiently, of CDP-alcohols and 2´,3´-cAMP. Furthermore, the rat but not the zebrafish enzyme displays a unique phosphohydrolytic activity on cyclic ADP-ribose. The molecular basis of such specificity is unknown. Human ADPRibase-Mn showed similar activities, including cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase, which seems thus common to mammalian ADPRibase-Mn. Substrate docking on a homology model of human ADPRibase-Mn suggested possible interactions of ADP-ribose with seven residues located, with one exception (Cys253), either within the metallo-dependent phosphatases signature (Gln27, Asn110, His111), or in unique structural regions of the ADPRibase-Mn family: s2s3 (Phe37 and Arg43) and h7h8 (Phe210), around the active site entrance. Mutants were constructed, and kinetic parameters for ADP-ribose, CDP-choline, 2´,3´-cAMP and cyclic ADP-ribose were determined. Phe37 was needed for ADP-ribose preference without catalytic effect, as indicated by the increased ADP-ribose Km and unchanged kcat of F37A-ADPRibase-Mn, while the Km values for the other substrates were little affected. Arg43 was essential for catalysis as indicated by the drastic efficiency loss shown by R43A-ADPRibase-Mn. Unexpectedly, Cys253 was hindering for cADPR phosphohydrolase, as indicated by the specific tenfold gain of efficiency of C253A-ADPRibase-Mn with cyclic ADP-ribose. This allowed the design of a triple mutant (F37A+L196F+C253A) for which cyclic ADP-ribose was the best substrate, with a catalytic efficiency of 3.5´104 M-1s-1 versus 4´103 M-1s-1 of the wild type. PMID:25692488

  8. Adaptations in adenosine signaling in drug dependence: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Hack, Stephen P; Christie, Macdonald J

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine is an important endogenous purine neuromodulator in the central nervous system that modulates many important cellular processes in neurons. The physiological effects of adenosine are transduced through four pharmacologically classified receptor types i.e., A1, A2A, A2B and A3. All adenosine receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) of the type 1 variety. Adaptations in adenosine signaling have been implicated in a wide range of pathophysiological processes, such as epilepsies, sleep disorders, pain, and drug addictions. Knowledge relating to the etiology of addictive processes is far from complete, and as a result the therapeutic options to deal with drug dependence issues are limited. Drugs of abuse mediate their effects through many distinct cellular effectors, such as neurotransmitter transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins. However, a unifying feature of the major drugs of abuse-i.e., opiates, cocaine, and alcohol-is that they all directly or indirectly modulate adenosine signaling in neurons. Agents targeting adenosine receptors may therefore offer novel avenues for the development of therapies to manage or treat addictions. A consistent cellular adaptation to long-term drug use is the up- or down-regulation of signaling pathways driven by adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP (cAMP) in several brain regions linked to addiction. Withdrawal from mu-opioids or cocaine following their chronic administration leads to an upregulation of adenylyl cyclase-mediated signaling, resulting in high levels of cAMP. Cyclic AMP produced in this way acts as a substrate for the endogenous production of adenosine. Increased levels of endogenous adenosine interact with presynaptic A1 receptors to inhibit the excessive neuronal excitation often seen during morphine/cocaine withdrawal. These pre-clinical findings fit well with other data indicating that drugs which boost endogenous adenosine levels or directly interact with inhibitory A1 receptors can alleviate

  9. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole.

  10. Structure of trihydrated rare-earth acid diphosphates LnHP 2O 7·3H 2O ( Ln=La, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Moussa, S.; Ventemillas, S.; Cabeza, A.; Gutierrez-Puebla, E.; Sanz, J.

    2004-06-01

    In trihydrated lanthanum acid-diphosphates LnHP 2O 7·3H 2O, prepared from acid LnCl 3 and Na 4P 2O 7 solutions (pH=1), two crystal forms were obtained. Layered structures of two representative members of this family have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. In the case of orthorhombic LaHP 2O 7·3H 2O (type I), lanthanum cations are ninefold coordinated and diphosphate groups adopt a staggered (alternated) configuration. In the case of triclinic ErHP 2O 7·3H 2O (type II), erbium cations are eightfold coordinated and diphosphate groups adopt an eclipsed configuration. In agreement with Infrared (IR) spectroscopic data, a bended configuration for diphosphate groups has been deduced. In both structures, one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing rare-earth polyhedra are linked together by diphosphate groups to form the phosphate layers. In both diphosphates, PO 4 and HPO 4 environments have been identified by 31P MAS-NMR technique. In the two compounds, OH groups of HPO 4 tetrahedra point out of diphosphate planes interacting with adjacent layers. In La-diphosphate, the interaction between HPO 4 groups and water molecules of adjacent layers is favored; however, in Er-diphosphate, the interaction between phosphate acid groups of contiguous layers is produced. Based on structural information deduced, differences detected in IR and NMR spectra of two disphosphates are discussed.

  11. Competence of Thiamin Diphosphate-Dependent Enzymes with 2'-Methoxythiamin Diphosphate Derived from Bacimethrin, a Naturally Occurring Thiamin Anti-vitamin.

    PubMed

    Nemeria, Natalia S; Shome, Brateen; DeColli, Alicia A; Heflin, Kathryn; Begley, Tadhg P; Meyers, Caren Freel; Jordan, Frank

    2016-02-23

    Bacimethrin (4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methoxypyrimidine), a natural product isolated from some bacteria, has been implicated as an inhibitor of bacterial and yeast growth, as well as in inhibition of thiamin biosynthesis. Given that thiamin biosynthetic enzymes could convert bacimethrin to 2'-methoxythiamin diphosphate (MeOThDP), it is important to evaluate the effect of this coenzyme analogue on thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes. The potential functions of MeOThDP were explored on five ThDP-dependent enzymes: the human and Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDHc-h and PDHc-ec, respectively), the E. coli 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXPS), and the human and E. coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes (OGDHc-h and OGDHc-ec, respectively). Using several mechanistic tools (fluorescence, circular dichroism, kinetics, and mass spectrometry), it was demonstrated that MeOThDP binds in the active centers of ThDP-dependent enzymes, however, with a binding mode different from that of ThDP. While modest activities resulted from addition of MeOThDP to E. coli PDHc (6-11%) and DXPS (9-14%), suggesting that MeOThDP-derived covalent intermediates are converted to the corresponding products (albeit with rates slower than that with ThDP), remarkably strong activity (up to 75%) resulted upon addition of the coenzyme analogue to PDHc-h. With PDHc-ec and PDHc-h, the coenzyme analogue could support all reactions, including communication between components in the complex. No functional substitution of MeOThDP for ThDP was in evidence with either OGDH-h or OGDH-ec, shown to be due to tight binding of ThDP.

  12. Evidence for the involvement of acid/base chemistry in the reaction catalyzed by the type II isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J; Mansoorabadi, Steven O; Kittleman, William; Chang, Wei-chen; Liu, Hung-wen

    2008-02-26

    The type II isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), a reaction with no net change in redox state of the coenzyme or substrate. Here, UV-vis spectral analysis of the IDI-2 reaction revealed the accumulation of a reduced neutral dihydroflavin intermediate when the reduced enzyme was incubated with IPP or DMAPP. When IDI-2 was reconstituted with 1-deazaFMN and 5-deazaFMN, similar reduced neutral forms of the deazaflavin analogues were observed in the presence of IPP. Single turnover stopped-flow absorbance experiments indicated that this flavin intermediate formed and decayed at kinetically competent rates in the pre-steady-state and, thus, most likely represents a true intermediate in the catalytic cycle. UV-vis spectra of the reaction mixtures reveal trace amounts of a neutral semiquinone, but evidence for the presence of IPP-based radicals could not be obtained by EPR spectroscopy. Rapid-mix chemical quench experiments show no burst in DMAPP formation, suggesting that the rate determining step in the forward direction (IPP to DMAPP) occurs prior to DMAPP formation. A solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (D2OVmax = 1.5) was measured on vo in steady-state kinetic experiments at saturating substrate concentrations. A substrate deuterium kinetic isotope effect was also measured on the initital velocity (DVmax = 1.8) and on the decay rate of the flavin intermediate (Dks = 2.3) in single-turnover stopped-flow experiments using (R)-[2-2H]-IPP. Taken together, these data suggest that the C2-H bond of IPP is cleaved in the rate determining step and that general acid/base catalysis may be involved during turnover. Possible mechanisms for the IDI-2 catalyzed reaction are presented and discussed in terms of the available X-ray crystal structures.

  13. Fluoroaluminum and fluoroberyllium nucleoside diphosphate complexes as probes of the enzymatic mechanism of the mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Issartel, J P; Dupuis, A; Lunardi, J; Vignais, P V

    1991-05-14

    The mechanism by which fluoride and aluminum or beryllium in combination with ADP inhibit beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase was investigated. The kinetics of inhibition depended on the nature of the anion present in the F1-ATPase assay medium. Inhibition required the presence of Mg2+ and developed more rapidly with sulfite and sulfate than with chloride, i.e., with anions which activate F1-ATPase activity. The ADP-fluorometal complexes were bound quasi-irreversibly to F1, and each mole of the inhibitory nucleotide-fluorometal complex was tightly associated with 1 mol of Mg2+. One mole of nucleotide-fluorometal complex was able to inhibit the activity of 1 mol of catalytic site in F1. Direct measurements of bound fluoride, aluminum, beryllium, and ADP indicated that the F1-bound ADP-fluorometal complexes are of the following types: ADP1A11F4, ADP1Be1F1, ADP1Be1F2, or ADP1Be1F3. Fluoroaluminates or fluoroberyllates are isomorphous to Pi, and the inhibitory nucleotide-fluorometal complexes mimicked transient intermediates of nucleotides that appeared in the course of ATP hydrolysis. On the other hand, each mole of fully inhibited F1, retained 2 mol of inhibitory complexes. The same stoichiometry was observed when ADP was replaced by GDP, a nucleotide which, unlike ADP, binds only to the catalytic sites of F1. These results are discussed in terms of a stochastic model in which the three cooperative catalytic sites of F1 function in interactive pairs.

  14. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  15. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  16. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  17. Nitrogen Control of Atrazine Utilization in Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Vicente; Govantes, Fernando; Shaw, Liz J.; Burns, Richard G.; Santero, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP uses the herbicide atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. We have devised a simple atrazine degradation assay to determine the effect of other nitrogen sources on the atrazine degradation pathway. The atrazine degradation rate was greatly decreased in cells grown on nitrogen sources that support rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP compared to cells cultivated on growth-limiting nitrogen sources. The presence of atrazine in addition to the nitrogen sources did not stimulate degradation. High degradation rates obtained in the presence of ammonium plus the glutamine synthetase inhibitor MSX and also with an Nas− mutant derivative grown on nitrate suggest that nitrogen regulation operates by sensing intracellular levels of some key nitrogen-containing metabolite. Nitrate amendment in soil microcosms resulted in decreased atrazine mineralization by the wild-type strain but not by the Nas− mutant. This suggests that, although nitrogen repression of the atrazine catabolic pathway may have a strong impact on atrazine biodegradation in nitrogen-fertilized soils, the use of selected mutant variants may contribute to overcoming this limitation. PMID:14660340

  18. Adenosine triphosphatase localization in amphibian epidermis.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, M G; Palade, G E

    1966-08-01

    The localization of ATPase(1) activity has been studied by light and electron microscopy in the epidermis of Rana pipiens, Rana catesbiana, and Bufo marinus. The reaction was carried out on skin (glutaraldehyde-fixed or fresh) sectioned with or without freezing. Best results were obtained with nonfrozen sections of fixed tissue. The incubation mixture was either a Wachstein-Meisel medium, or a modification which approximates assay systems used in biochemical studies of transport ATPases. The reaction product was found localized in contact with the outer leaflet of all cell membranes facing the labyrinth of intercellular spaces of the epidermis. It was absent from: (a) membrane areas involved in cell junctions (desmosomes, zonulae and maculae occludentes); (b) cell membranes facing the external medium (i.e., those on the distal aspect of the ultimate cell layer in s. corneum); (c) cell membranes facing the dermis (those on the proximal aspect of cells in s. germinativum). In the presence of (Na(+) + K(+)) the localization did not change, but the reaction was not appreciably activated. A similar though less intense reaction was obtained with ITP, but not with ADP, AMP, and GP as substrates. The results are discussed in relation to available data on transport ATPases in general, and on the morphology and physiology of amphibian skin in particular. Assuming that the ATPase studied is related to transport ATPase, the findings suggest a series of modifications to the frog skin model proposed by Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing. The salient feature of this modified model is the localization of the Na(+) pump along all cell membranes facing the intercellular spaces of the epidermis. PMID:4226195

  19. Structure of geranyl diphosphate C-methyltransferase from Streptomyces coelicolor and implications for the mechanism of isoprenoid modification†

    PubMed Central

    Köksal, Mustafa; Chou, Wayne K. W.; Cane, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Geranyl diphosphate C-methyltransferase (GPPMT) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is the first methyltransferase discovered that modifies an acyclic isoprenoid diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate (GPP), to yield a non-canonical acyclic allylic diphosphate product, 2-methylgeranyl diphosphate, which serves as the substrate for a subsequent cyclization reaction catalyzed by a terpenoid cyclase, methylisoborneol synthase. Here, we report the crystal structures of GPPMT in complex with GPP or the substrate analogue geranyl-S-thiolodiphosphate (GSPP) along with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine in the cofactor binding site, resulting from in situ demethylation of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, at 2.05 Å and 1.82 Å resolution, respectively. These structures suggest that both GPP and GSPP can undergo catalytic methylation in crystalline GPPMT, followed by dissociation of the isoprenoid product. S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine remains bound in the active site, however, and does not exchange with a fresh molecule of cofactor S-adenosyl-l-methionine. These structures provide important clues regarding the molecular mechanism of the reaction, especially with regard to the face of the 2,3 double bond of GPP that is methylated as well as the stabilization of the resulting carbocation intermediate through cation-π interactions. PMID:22455498

  20. Role of A3 adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Heng; Zhang, Enshui; Feng, Chang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Although the A1 and A2A adenosine receptors are important pharmacological targets in alleviating diabetic neuropathy, the role of the A3 adenosine receptor remains unknown. Because the A3 adenosine receptor regulates pain induced by chronic constriction injury or chemotherapy, its stimulation might also attenuate diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the effects of systemic treatment with the A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamide (IB-MECA) on diabetic neuropathy and explores the putative mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects. We show that IB-MECA alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hypoalgesia in mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after streptozocin (STZ) treatment. Furthermore, IB-MECA prevented the reduction in sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. Similarly, IB-MECA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. These phenomena were associated with reduction of A3 adenosine receptor expression in the spinal cord after long-term diabetes. Our results suggest that the A3 adenosine receptor plays a critical role in regulating diabetic neuropathy and that reduction in A3 adenosine receptor expression/function might contribute to the progression of diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reaction of uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase with a suicide inactivator

    SciTech Connect

    Flentke, G.R.; Frey, P.A. )

    1990-03-06

    UDPgalactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli is rapidly inactivated by the compounds uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate chloroacetol (UDC) and uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate bromoacetol (UCB). Both UDC and UDB inactivate the enzyme in neutral solution concomitant with the appearance of chromophores absorbing maximally at 325 and 328 nm, respectively. The reaction of UDC with the enzyme follows saturation kinetics characterized by a K{sub D} of 0.110 mM and k{sub inact} of 0.84 min{sup {minus}1} at pH 8.5 and ionic strength 0.2 M. The inactivation by UDC is competitively inhibited by competitive inhibitors of UDPgalactose 4-epimerase, and it is accompanied by the tight but noncovalent binding of UDC to the enzyme in a stoichiometry of 1 mol of UDC/mol of enzyme dimer, corresponding to 1 mol of UDC/mol of enzyme-bound NAD{sup +}. The inactivation of epimerase by uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate ({sup 2}H{sub 2})chloroacetol proceeds with a primary kinetic isotope effect (k{sub H}/k{sub D}) of 1.4. The inactivation mechanism is proposed to involve a minimum of three steps: (a) reversible binding of UDC to the active site of UDPgalactose 4-epimerase; (b) enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of enzyme-bound UDC, catalyzed by an enzymic general base at the active site; (c) alkylation of the nicotinamide ring of NAD{sup +} at the active site by the chloroacetol enolate. The resulting adduct between UDC and NAD{sup +} is proposed to be the chromophore with {lambda}{sub max} at 325 nm. The enzymic general base required to facilitate proton transfer in redox catalysis by this enzyme may be the general base that facilitates enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of UDC in the inactivation reaction.

  2. Structural Basis for Nucleotide Binding and Reaction Catalysis in Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; McWhorter, William J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2012-09-17

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes the final step of the mevalonate pathway, the Mg{sup 2+}-ATP dependent decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP), producing isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Synthesis of IPP, an isoprenoid precursor molecule that is a critical intermediate in peptidoglycan and polyisoprenoid biosynthesis, is essential in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus spp.), and thus the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway are ideal antimicrobial targets. MDD belongs to the GHMP superfamily of metabolite kinases that have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, yet the crystallization of GHMP kinase ternary complexes has proven to be difficult. To further our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of GHMP kinases with the purpose of developing broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that target the substrate and nucleotide binding sites, we report the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant (S192A and D283A) ternary complexes of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD. Comparison of apo, MVAPP-bound, and ternary complex wild-type MDD provides structural information about the mode of substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. Structural characterization of ternary complexes of catalytically deficient MDD S192A and D283A (k{sub cat} decreased 10{sup 3}- and 10{sup 5}-fold, respectively) provides insight into MDD function. The carboxylate side chain of invariant Asp{sup 283} functions as a catalytic base and is essential for the proper orientation of the MVAPP C3-hydroxyl group within the active site funnel. Several MDD amino acids within the conserved phosphate binding loop ('P-loop') provide key interactions, stabilizing the nucleotide triphosphoryl moiety. The crystal structures presented here provide a useful foundation for structure-based drug design.

  3. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  4. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors.

  5. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2016-01-01

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene–producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon–intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  6. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Jiang, Xianzhen; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Tang, Yuxin; Sun, Hong; Mi, Tiejuan; Phatarpekar, Prasad V.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Priapism is a condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation. Of men with sickle cell disease (SCD), 40% display priapism. The disorder is a dangerous and urgent condition, given its association with penile fibrosis and eventual erectile dysfunction. Current strategies to prevent its progression are poor because of a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms for penile fibrosis in priapism. Here we demonstrate that increased adenosine is a novel causative factor contributing to penile fibrosis in two independent animal models of priapism, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice and SCD transgenic mice. An important finding is that chronic reduction of adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy successfully attenuated penile fibrosis in both mouse models, indicating an essential role of increased adenosine in penile fibrosis and a novel therapeutic possibility for this serious complication. Subsequently, we identified that both mice models share a similar fibrotic gene expression profile in penile tissue (including procollagen I, TGF-β1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA), suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways for progression to penile fibrosis. Thus, in an effort to decipher specific cell types and underlying mechanism responsible for adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis, we purified corpus cavernosal fibroblast cells (CCFCs), the major cell type involved in this process, from wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the major receptor expressed in these cells is the adenosine receptor A2BR. Based on this fact, we further purified CCFCs from A2BR-deficient mice and demonstrated that A2BR is essential for excess adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis. Finally, we revealed that TGF-β functions downstream of the A2BR to increase CCFC collagen secretion and proliferation. Overall, our studies identify an essential role of increased adenosine in the pathogenesis of penile fibrosis via A2BR signaling and

  7. Impact of protease inhibitors on intracellular concentration of tenofovir-diphosphate among HIV-1 infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Cecile D.; Tao, Sijia; Jiang, Yong; Sheth, Anandi N.; Acosta, Edward P.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Armstrong, Wendy S.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Vunnava, Aswani; Sanford, Sara; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) concentrations are associated with plasma HIV-1 response. Coadministration of protease inhibitors with NRTIs can affect intra-cellular concentrations due to protease inhibitor inhibition of efflux transporters. Tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations within peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared among individuals receiving either atazanavir or darunavir-based regimens. There was a trend towards higher TFV-DP concentrations among women and among participants receiving atazanavir. TFV-DP intracellular concentrations were positively associated with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. PMID:25870991

  8. Strength Characteristics of Resorbable Osteoconductive Ceramics Based on Diphosphates of Calcium and Alkali Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlayev, V. I.; Evdokimov, P. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Prosvirin, D. V.; Klimashina, E. S.; Safronova, T. V.; Ivanov, V. K.

    2014-02-01

    An investigation into the strength characteristics of ceramics based on diphosphates Ca(3- x)М2 x (PO4)2 ( x = 0-1 and М = Na, K) provides evidence of composition strengthening in the range х = 0.6-0.8 containing the greatest amount of the supercooled high-temperature modification α-СаМРО4. The method of high-temperature x-ray diffractometry is used to examine thermal expansion of rhenanite phases of СаМРО4.

  9. Assessment of DNA binding to human Rad51 protein by using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy: effects of ADP and BRC4-28 peptide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Esnault, Charles; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Takahashi, Masayuki; Casse, Nathalie; Delorme, Nicolas; Louarn, Guy; Fleury, Fabrice; Pilard, Jean-François; Chénais, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of human Rad51 protein (HsRad51) with single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) was investigated by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) visualization. Gold surfaces for QCM and AFM were modified by electrografting of the in situ generated aryldiazonium salt from the sulfanilic acid to obtain the organic layer Au-ArSO3 H. The Au-ArSO3 H layer was activated by using a solution of PCl5 in CH2 Cl2 to give a Au-ArSO2 Cl layer. The modified surface was then used to immobilize long ssDNA molecules. The results obtained showed that the presence of adenosine diphosphate promotes the protein autoassociation rather than nucleation around DNA. In addition, when the BRC4-28 peptide inhibitor was used, both QCM and AFM confirmed the inhibitory effect of BRC4-28 toward HsRad51 autoassociation. Altogether these results show the suitability of this modified surface to investigate the kinetics and structure of DNA-protein interactions and for the screening of inhibitors.

  10. [Vascular effects of adenosine-triphosphate].

    PubMed

    Colson, P; Saussine, M; Gaba, S; Sequin, J; Chaptal, P A; Roquefeuil, B

    1991-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on systemic vascular resistances during the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass phase of cardiac surgery. Twenty patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomly divided into an ATP group (n = 10), and a placebo group (n = 10). Anaesthesia was similar for all the patients (diazepam, fentanyl and pancuronium). During the heart arrest phase, and as soon as the arterial pressure, the level in the venous return reservoir, and the pump flow rate had all been in steady state for 5 min, ATP or placebo was injected into the venous line of the oxygenator. Injection speed was doubled every three minutes, twice. The following ATP doses were administered: 0.012, 0.025 and 0.05 mg.kg-1.min-1. The level in the venous return reservoir was kept constant. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pump flow rate (DP) were assessed every half minute. Systemic vascular resistances were calculated with the relationship MAP/DP. Changes in vascular capacitance were directly proportional to changes in DP as the heart had been excluded, and all the blood returned to the pump, the blood volume being kept constant. MAP and DP remained unchanged in the placebo group. In the opposite ATP induced a dose-related systemic vasodilation: MAP decreased from 82.8 +/- 12.5 mmHg (control) to 66.0 +/- 14.8 mmHg, 59.8 +/- 10.6 mmHg, and 49.0 +/- 4.7 mmHg with 0.012, 0.025 and 0.05 mg.kg-1.min-1 ATP respectively. The MAP returned to preinfusion control levels when the ATP infusion was discontinued (90.0 +/- 17.8 mmHg). The DP, and therefore venous return, did not change, neither during ATP infusion, nor after its discontinuation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1854051

  11. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  12. Effect of heat shock on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and DNA repair in Drosophila cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, N.L.; Kidwell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37/sup 0/C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNA sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels.

  13. Effect of adenosine on the growth of human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Streitová, Denisa; Weiterová, Lenka; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Horváth, Viktor; Kozubík, Alois; Znojil, Vladimír

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine has been observed to suppress the growth of MOLT-4 human leukemia cells in vitro. Changes in the cell cycle, especially increased percentage of cells in S phase, prolonged generation time, and induction of apoptosis at higher adenosine concentrations have been found to be responsible for the growth suppression. Dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, reversed partially but significantly the adenosine-induced growth suppression. It follows from these results that the action of adenosine on the MOLT-4 cells comprises its cellular uptake and intracellular operation. These findings present new data on anticancer efficacy of adenosine.

  14. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  15. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes. PMID:27465490

  16. ADP1 affects abundance and endocytosis of PIN-FORMED proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieru; Li, Ruixi; Jiang, Zhaoyun; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Auxin, as a vital plant hormone, regulates almost every aspect of plant growth and development. We previously identified a dominant mutant, adp1-D, displaying loss of apical dominance. We also demonstrated that down-regulation of local auxin biosynthesis in adp1-D was responsible for the bushy phenotype of this mutant. Consistent with the reduction of local auxin biosynthesis, we recently discovered that protein abundance of PIN1, PIN3, and PIN7 was reduced in adp1-D without accompanying transcription level changes. Additionally, subcellular analysis revealed that over-expression of ADP1 inhibited endocytosis of PIN proteins. Taken together, we conclude that ADP1 regulates plant architecture through the fine-tuning of local auxin biosynthesis and through post-transcriptional regulation of auxin transporters. PMID:25482774

  17. The Mitochondrial Fission Receptor MiD51 Requires ADP as a Cofactor

    PubMed Central

    Losón, Oliver C.; Liu, Raymond; Rome, Michael E.; Meng, Shuxia; Kaiser, Jens T.; Shan, Shu-ou; Chan, David C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial fission requires recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondrial surface and activation of its GTP-dependent scission function. The Drp1 receptors MiD49 and MiD51 recruit Drp1 to facilitate mitochondrial fission, but their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Using X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate that MiD51 contains a nucleotidyl transferase domain that binds ADP with high affinity. MiD51 recruits Drp1 via a surface loop that functions independently of ADP binding. However, in the absence of nucleotide binding, the recruited Drp1 cannot be activated for fission. Purified MiD51 strongly inhibits Drp1 assembly and GTP hydrolysis in the absence of ADP. Addition of ADP relieves this inhibition and promotes Drp1 assembly into spirals with enhanced GTP hydrolysis. Our results reveal ADP as an essential cofactor for MiD51 during mitochondrial fission. PMID:24508339

  18. The mitochondrial fission receptor MiD51 requires ADP as a cofactor.

    PubMed

    Losón, Oliver C; Liu, Raymond; Rome, Michael E; Meng, Shuxia; Kaiser, Jens T; Shan, Shu-ou; Chan, David C

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial fission requires recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondrial surface and activation of its GTP-dependent scission function. The Drp1 receptors MiD49 and MiD51 recruit Drp1 to facilitate mitochondrial fission, but their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Using X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate that MiD51 contains a nucleotidyl transferase domain that binds ADP with high affinity. MiD51 recruits Drp1 via a surface loop that functions independently of ADP binding. However, in the absence of nucleotide binding, the recruited Drp1 cannot be activated for fission. Purified MiD51 strongly inhibits Drp1 assembly and GTP hydrolysis in the absence of ADP. Addition of ADP relieves this inhibition and promotes Drp1 assembly into spirals with enhanced GTP hydrolysis. Our results reveal ADP as an essential cofactor for MiD51 during mitochondrial fission.

  19. Unpredictable Chronic Stress Alters Adenosine Metabolism in Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, F F; Altenhofen, S; Kist, L W; Leite, C E; Bogo, M R; Cognato, G P; Bonan, C D

    2016-05-01

    Stress is considered a risk factor for several human disorders. Despite the broad knowledge of stress responses in mammals, data on the relationship between unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) and its effects on purinergic signaling are limited. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering that some stress models could affect signaling systems, the objective of this study was to investigate whether UCS alters ectonucleotidase and ADA pathway in zebrafish brain. Additionally, we analyzed ATP metabolism as well as ada1, ada2.1, ada2.2, adaL, and adaasi gene expression in zebrafish brain. Our results have demonstrated that UCS did not alter ectonucleotidase and soluble ADA activities. However, ecto-ADA activity was significantly decreased (26.8%) in brain membranes of animals exposed to UCS when compared to the control group. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis did not show significant changes on ADA gene expression after the UCS exposure. The brain ATP metabolism showed a marked increase in adenosine levels (ADO) in animals exposed to UCS. These data suggest an increase on extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. Since this nucleoside has neuromodulatory and anxiolytic effects, changes in adenosine levels could play a role in counteracting the stress, which could be related to a compensatory mechanism in order to restore the homeostasis.

  20. Unpredictable Chronic Stress Alters Adenosine Metabolism in Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, F F; Altenhofen, S; Kist, L W; Leite, C E; Bogo, M R; Cognato, G P; Bonan, C D

    2016-05-01

    Stress is considered a risk factor for several human disorders. Despite the broad knowledge of stress responses in mammals, data on the relationship between unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) and its effects on purinergic signaling are limited. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering that some stress models could affect signaling systems, the objective of this study was to investigate whether UCS alters ectonucleotidase and ADA pathway in zebrafish brain. Additionally, we analyzed ATP metabolism as well as ada1, ada2.1, ada2.2, adaL, and adaasi gene expression in zebrafish brain. Our results have demonstrated that UCS did not alter ectonucleotidase and soluble ADA activities. However, ecto-ADA activity was significantly decreased (26.8%) in brain membranes of animals exposed to UCS when compared to the control group. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis did not show significant changes on ADA gene expression after the UCS exposure. The brain ATP metabolism showed a marked increase in adenosine levels (ADO) in animals exposed to UCS. These data suggest an increase on extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. Since this nucleoside has neuromodulatory and anxiolytic effects, changes in adenosine levels could play a role in counteracting the stress, which could be related to a compensatory mechanism in order to restore the homeostasis. PMID:26081145

  1. Dicinnamoylquinides in roasted coffee inhibit the human adenosine transporter.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas; Schmidt, Dennis E; Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Kirby, Michael T; McDonald, Michael P; Commers, Patricia; Lovinger, David M; Martin, Peter R

    2002-05-10

    Preliminary screening of a minor, non-xanthine constituent of roasted coffee, 3,4-diferuloyl-1,5-quinolactone (DIFEQ), showed inhibition of the adenosine transporter at low micromolar concentration. DIFEQ is a neutral derivative of the chlorogenic acids, i.e. isomeric mono- and di-substituted coumaroyl-, caffeoyl-, and feruloyl-esters of quinic acid, formed in the roasting process of coffee. Displacement of the adenosine transporter antagonist [(3)H](S)-(nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine binding by DIFEQ in cultured U-937 cell preparations, expressing the human adenosine transporter protein (hENT1), showed a K(i) of 0.96+/-0.13 microM. Extracts of regular and decaffeinated coffee showed binding activities equivalent to 30-40 mg DIFEQ per three cups of coffee. Acute administration of a high dose of DIFEQ (100 mg/kg i.p.) reduced open field locomotion in mice for 20 min in correlation with brain levels of DIFEQ. Both 3,4-dicaffeoyl-1,5-quinide and 3,4-dicoumaroyl-1,5-quinide, two close structural analogs of DIFEQ also present in roasted coffee, showed similar affinities for the adenosine transporter, while the corresponding 3- and 4-mono caffeoyl- and feruloyl-quinides were one to two orders of magnitudes less active. This suggests that 3,4-dicinnamoyl-1,5-quinides in coffee could have the potential to raise extra-cellular adenosine levels, thereby counteracting the stimulant effect of caffeine.

  2. Dicinnamoylquinides in roasted coffee inhibit the human adenosine transporter.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas; Schmidt, Dennis E; Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Kirby, Michael T; McDonald, Michael P; Commers, Patricia; Lovinger, David M; Martin, Peter R

    2002-05-10

    Preliminary screening of a minor, non-xanthine constituent of roasted coffee, 3,4-diferuloyl-1,5-quinolactone (DIFEQ), showed inhibition of the adenosine transporter at low micromolar concentration. DIFEQ is a neutral derivative of the chlorogenic acids, i.e. isomeric mono- and di-substituted coumaroyl-, caffeoyl-, and feruloyl-esters of quinic acid, formed in the roasting process of coffee. Displacement of the adenosine transporter antagonist [(3)H](S)-(nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine binding by DIFEQ in cultured U-937 cell preparations, expressing the human adenosine transporter protein (hENT1), showed a K(i) of 0.96+/-0.13 microM. Extracts of regular and decaffeinated coffee showed binding activities equivalent to 30-40 mg DIFEQ per three cups of coffee. Acute administration of a high dose of DIFEQ (100 mg/kg i.p.) reduced open field locomotion in mice for 20 min in correlation with brain levels of DIFEQ. Both 3,4-dicaffeoyl-1,5-quinide and 3,4-dicoumaroyl-1,5-quinide, two close structural analogs of DIFEQ also present in roasted coffee, showed similar affinities for the adenosine transporter, while the corresponding 3- and 4-mono caffeoyl- and feruloyl-quinides were one to two orders of magnitudes less active. This suggests that 3,4-dicinnamoyl-1,5-quinides in coffee could have the potential to raise extra-cellular adenosine levels, thereby counteracting the stimulant effect of caffeine. PMID:12065074

  3. Antagonism by theophylline of respiratory inhibition induced by adenosine.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, F L; Millhorn, D E; Kiley, J P

    1985-11-01

    The effects on respiration of an analogue of adenosine, L-2-N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA), and of the methylxanthine, theophylline, were determined in 19 vagotomized glomectomized cats whose end-tidal PCO2 was kept constant by means of a servo-controlled ventilator. Integrated phrenic nerve activity was used to represent respiratory output. Our results show that PIA, whether given systemically or into the third cerebral ventricle, depressed respiration. Systemically administered theophylline stimulated respiration. Theophylline given intravenously, or into the third ventricle not only reversed the depressive effects of previously administered PIA but caused further increases of respiration above the control level. Prior systemic administration of theophylline blocked both respiratory and hypotensive effects of subsequently administered PIA. Effects of either agent on medullary extracellular fluid pH did not explain the results. We conclude that the adenosine analogue PIA, acts to inhibit neurons in the brain that are involved in the control of respiration and that its effects are blocked by theophylline. We suggest that adenosine acts as a tonic modulator of respiration and that theophylline stimulates breathing by competitive antagonism of adenosine at neuronal receptor sites. PMID:4066573

  4. Adenosine signaling and the regulation of chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Schneider, Daniel J.; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease are characterized by inflammation and tissue remodeling processes that compromise pulmonary function. Adenosine is produced in the inflamed and damaged lung where it plays numerous roles in the regulation of inflammation and tissue remodeling. Extracellular adenosine serves as an autocrine and paracrine signaling molecule by engaging cell surface adenosine receptors. Preclinical and cellular studies suggest that adenosine plays an anti-inflammatory role in processes associated with acute lung disease, where activation of the A2AR and A2BR have promising implications for the treatment of these disorders. In contrast, there is growing evidence that adenosine signaling through the A1R, A2BR and A3R may serve pro-inflammatory and tissue remodeling functions in chronic lung diseases. This review discusses the current progress of research efforts and clinical trials aimed at understanding the complexities of this signaling pathway as they pertain to the development of treatment strategies for chronic lung diseases. PMID:19426761

  5. Alterations in the cholinesterase and adenosine deaminase activities and inflammation biomarker levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Polachini, C R N; Spanevello, R M; Casali, E A; Zanini, D; Pereira, L B; Martins, C C; Baldissareli, J; Cardoso, A M; Duarte, M F; da Costa, P; Prado, A L C; Schetinger, M R C; Morsch, V M

    2014-04-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the main chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS that cause functional disability in young adults. It has unknown etiology characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, as well as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum. We also checked the levels of nucleotides, nucleosides, biomarkers of inflammation such as cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum from 29 patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS) and 29 healthy subjects as the control group. Results showed that AChE in lymphocytes and whole blood as well as BChE, and ADA activities in serum were significantly increased in RRMS patients when compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addition, we observed a decrease in ATP levels and a significant increase in the levels of ADP, AMP, adenosine and inosine in serum from RRMS patients in relation to the healthy subjects (P<0.05). Results also demonstrated an increase in the IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and CRP (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the IL-10 (P<0.0001) in RRMS patients when compared to control. Our results suggest that alterations in the biomarkers of inflammation and hydrolysis of nucleotides and nucleosides may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of RRMS patients.

  6. Mitochondrial nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase: active site modification by 5'-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, D.C.; Hatefi, Y.

    1985-07-02

    Membrane-bound and purified mitochondrial energy-linked nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (TH) was inhibited by incubation with 5'-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine (FSBA), which is an analogue of TH substrates and their competitive inhibitors, namely, 5'-, 2'-, or 3'-AMP. NAD(H) and analogues, NADP, 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP, and 2'-AMP/3'-AMP mixed isomers protected TH against inhibition by FSBA, but NADPH accelerated the inhibition rate. In the absence of protective ligands or in the presence of NADP, FSBA appeared to modify the NAD(H) binding site of TH, because, unlike unmodified TH, the enzyme modified by FSBA under these conditions did not bind to an NAD-affinity column (NAD-agarose). However, when the NAD(H) binding site of TH was protected in the presence of 5'-AMP or NAD, then FSBA modification resulted in an inhibited enzyme that did bind to NAD-agarose, suggesting FSBA modification of the NADP(H) binding site or an essential residue outside the active site. (/sup 3/H)FSBA was covalently bound to TH, and complete inhibition corresponded to the binding of about 0.5 mol of (3H)FSBA/mol of TH. Since purified TH is known to be dimeric in the isolated state, this binding stoichiometry suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity. A similar binding stoichiometry was found earlier for complete inhibition of TH by (/sup 14/C)DCCD. The active site directed labeling of TH by radioactive FSBA should allow isolation of appropriate peptides for sequence analysis of the NAD(H) and possibly the NADP(H) binding domains.

  7. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase from Clostridium pasteurianum prevents its inhibition of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Murrell, S A; Lowery, R G; Ludden, P W

    1988-04-15

    The effect of ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase on its binding to dinitrogenase was investigated. Dinitrogenase reductase from Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp2) was a substrate for the ADP-ribosyltransferase and the dinitrogenase-reductase-activating glycohydrolase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. ADP-ribosylation inactivated Cp2 and prevented its formation of a tight complex with dinitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av1). The complex between Cp2 and Av1 could not be ADP-ribosylated once it formed.

  8. Effects of an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate, on F1-ATPase rotary catalysis, torque generation, and inhibited intermediated formation.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-13

    F1-ATPase (F1), an important rotary motor protein, converts the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy using rotary motion with extremely high efficiency. The energy-conversion mechanism for this molecular motor has been extensively clarified by previous studies, which indicate that the interactions between the catalytic residues and the β- and γ-phosphates of ATP are indispensable for efficient catalysis and torque generation. However, the role of α-phosphate is largely unknown. In this study, we observed the rotation of F1 fuelled with an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate (ATPαS), in which the oxygen has been substituted with a sulfur ion to perturb the α-phosphate/F1 interactions. In doing so, we have revealed that ATPαS does not appear to have any impact on the kinetic properties of the motor or on torque generation compared to ATP. On the other hand, F1 was observed to lapse into the ADP-inhibited intermediate states when in the presence of ATPαS more severely than in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the α-phosphate group of ATP contributes to the avoidance of ADP-inhibited intermediate formation.

  9. A pathway where polyprenyl diphosphate elongates in prenyltransferase. Insight into a common mechanism of chain length determination of prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, S; Hirooka, K; Tsuruoka, N; Yano, M; Ohto, C; Nakane, H; Nishino, T

    1998-10-01

    Prenyltransferases catalyze the consecutive condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate to produce linear polyprenyl diphosphates. Each enzyme forms the final product with a specific chain length. The product specificity of an enzyme is thought to be determined by the structure around the unknown path through which the product elongates in the enzyme. To explore the path, we introduced a few mutations at the 5th, the 8th, and/or the 11th positions before the first aspartate-rich motif of geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase or farnesyl-diphosphate synthase. The side chains of these amino acids are situated on the same side of an alpha-helix. In geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, a single mutated enzyme (F77S) mainly produces a C25 product (Ohnuma, S.-I., Hirooka, K., Hemmi, H., Ishida, C., Ohto, C., and Nishino, T. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 18831-18837). A double mutated enzyme (L74G and F77G) mainly produces a C35 compound with significant amounts of C30 and C40. A triple mutated enzyme (I71G, L74G, and F77G) mainly produces a C40 compound with C35 and C45. Mutated farnesyl-diphosphate synthases also show similar patterns. These findings indicate that the elongating product passages on a surface of the side chains of the mutated amino acids, the original bulky amino acids had blocked the elongation, and the path is conserved in prenyltransferases. Moreover, the fact that some double and triple mutated enzymes can also form small amounts of products longer than C50 indicates that the paths in these mutated enzymes can partially access the outer surface of the enzymes.

  10. Oritavancin Diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Cada, Dennis J.; Baker, Danial E.

    2014-01-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are sent in print and are also available on-line. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. A drug class review is now published monthly with The Formulary Monograph Service. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, call The Formulary at 800-322-4349. The December 2014 monograph topics are olodaterol, peginterferon beta-1a, testosterone nasal gel, ferric citrate corredination complex, and safinamide. The Safety MUE is on olodaterol. PMID:25673895

  11. The genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin and thiamin diphosphate in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Ewa; Kozik, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is an essential molecule for all living organisms. Its major biologically active derivative is thiamin diphosphate, which serves as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Important new functions for thiamin and its phosphate esters have recently been suggested, e.g. in gene expression regulation by influencing mRNA structure, in DNA repair after UV illumination, and in the protection of some organelles against reactive oxygen species. Unlike higher animals, which rely on nutritional thiamin intake, yeasts can synthesize thiamin de novo. The biosynthesis pathways include the separate synthesis of two precursors, 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine diphosphate and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole phosphate, which are then condensed into thiamin monophosphate. Additionally, yeasts evolved salvage mechanisms to utilize thiamin and its dephosphorylated late precursors, 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole, from the environment. The current state of knowledge on the discrete steps of thiamin biosynthesis in yeasts is far from satisfactory; many intermediates are postulated only by analogy to the much better understood biosynthesis process in bacteria. On the other hand, the genetic mechanisms regulating thiamin biosynthesis in yeasts are currently under extensive exploration. Only recently, the structures of some of the yeast enzymes involved in thiamin biosynthesis, such as thiamin diphosphokinase and thiazole synthase, were determined at the atomic resolution, and mechanistic proposals for the catalysis of particular biosynthetic steps started to emerge.

  12. A preliminary crystallographic analysis of the putative mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Byres, Emma; Martin, David M. A.; Hunter, William N.

    2005-06-01

    The gene encoding the putative mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, an enzyme from the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis, has been cloned from T. brucei. Recombinant protein has been expressed, purified and highly ordered crystals obtained and characterized to aid the structure–function analysis of this enzyme. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase catalyses the last and least well characterized step in the mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, an isoprenoid precursor. A gene predicted to encode the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei has been cloned, a highly efficient expression system established and a purification protocol determined. The enzyme gives monoclinic crystals in space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.5, b = 168.7, c = 54.9 Å, β = 118.8°. A Matthews coefficient V{sub M} of 2.5 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} corresponds to two monomers, each approximately 42 kDa (385 residues), in the asymmetric unit with 50% solvent content. These crystals are well ordered and data to high resolution have been recorded using synchrotron radiation.

  13. Induction of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, plant hormones and defense signalling genes correlates with traumatic resin duct formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Nagel, Raimund; Krekling, Trygve; Christiansen, Erik; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Krokene, Paal

    2011-12-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) defends itself against herbivores and pathogens by formation of traumatic resin ducts filled with terpenoid-based oleoresin. An important group of enzymes in terpenoid biosynthesis are the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases which produce geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)) as precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpene resin acids, respectively. After treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) we investigated the expression of all isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes characterized to date from Norway spruce and correlated this with formation of traumatic resin ducts and terpene accumulation. Formation of traumatic resin ducts correlated with higher amounts of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids and an upregulation of isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes producing geranyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Among defense hormones, jasmonate and jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate accumulated to higher levels in trees with extensive traumatic resin duct formation, whereas salicylate did not. Jasmonate and ethylene are likely to both be involved in formation of traumatic resin ducts based on elevated transcripts of genes encoding lipoxygenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase associated with resin duct formation. Other genes involved in defense signalling in other systems, mitogen-activated protein kinase3 and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene1, were also associated with traumatic resin duct formation. These responses were detected not only at the site of MJ treatment, but also systemically up to 60 cm above the site of treatment on the trunk.

  14. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  15. Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Sauve, Anthony A.; Bai, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD+ dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD+ substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological, or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and ageing). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD+ homeostasis. PMID:23357756

  16. Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Carles; Sauve, Anthony A; Bai, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD(+) dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD(+) substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and aging). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD(+) homeostasis.

  17. Effect of adenosine and inosine on ureagenesis in hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Guinzberg, R; Laguna, I; Zentella, A; Guzman, R; Piña, E

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine and inosine produced a dose-dependent stimulation of ureagenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid were without effect. Half-maximally effective concentrations were 0.08 microM for adenosine and 5 microM for inosine. Activation of ureagenesis by both nucleosides had the following characteristics: (a) it was observed with either glutamine or (NH4)2CO3, provided that glucose was present; (b) it was not detected when glucose was replaced by lactate plus oleate; (c) it was mutually antagonized by glucagon, but not by adrenaline; and (d) it was dependent on Ca2+. We suggest that the action of adenosine and inosine on ureagenesis might be of physiological significance. PMID:3663162

  18. Adenosine receptor agonists for promotion of dermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Valls, María D.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Montesinos, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process that involves a well coordinated, highly regulated series of events including inflammation, tissue formation, revascularization and tissue remodeling. However, this orderly sequence is impaired in certain pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes mellitus, venous insufficiency, chronic glucocorticoid use, aging and malnutrition. Together with proper wound care, promotion of the healing process is the primary objective in the management of chronic poorly healing wounds. Recent studies have demonstrated that A2A adenosine receptor agonists promote wound healing in normal and diabetic animals and one such agonist, Sonedenoson, is currently being evaluated as a prospective new therapy of diabetic foot ulcers. We will review the mechanisms by which adenosine receptor activation affects the function of the cells and tissues that participate in wound healing, emphasizing the potential beneficial impact of adenosine receptor agonists in diabetic impaired healing. PMID:19041853

  19. Role of adenosine as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Mervyn B; Stone, Gregg W; Jackson, Edwin K

    2006-01-01

    Although early reperfusion and maintained patency is the mainstay therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction, experimental studies demonstrate that reperfusion per se induces deleterious effects on viable ischemic cells. Thus "myocardial reperfusion injury" may compromise the full potential of reperfusion therapy and may account for unfavorable outcomes in high-risk patients. Although the mechanisms of reperfusion injury are complex and multifactorial, neutrophil-mediated microvascular injury resulting in a progressive decrease in blood flow ("no-reflow" phenomenon) likely plays an important role. Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside found in large quantities in myocardial and endothelial cells. It activates four well-characterized receptors producing various physiological effects that attenuate many of the proposed mechanisms of reperfusion injury. The cardio-protective effects of adenosine are supported by its role as a mediator of pre- and post-conditioning. In experimental models, administration of adenosine in the peri-reperfusion period results in a marked reduction in infarct size and improvement in ventricular function. The cardioprotective effects in the canine model have a narrow time window with the drug losing its effect following three hours of ischemia. Several small clinical studies have demonstrated that administration of adenosine with reperfusion therapy reduces infarct size and improves ventricular function. In the larger AMISTAD and AMISTAD II trials a 3-h infusion of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion resulted in a striking reduction in infarct size (55-65%). Post hoc analysis of AMISTAD II showed that this was associated with significantly improved early and late mortality in patients treated within 3.17 h of symptoms. An intravenous infusion of adenosine for 3 h should be considered as adjunctive therapy in high risk-patients undergoing reperfusion therapy. PMID:16961725

  20. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  1. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  2. Phosphorylation of adenosine with trimetaphosphate under simulated prebiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Changmei; Fan, Chang; Wan, Rong; Tong, Chunyuan; Miao, Zhiwei; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yufen

    2002-06-01

    The phosphorylation of adenosine with trimetaphosphate in solution, in solid phase and using wet-dry cycles was carried out and it was found that wet-dry cycles were the most efficient. The catalytic effects of some metal ions on the phosphorylation were also studied and it was discovered that Ni(II) is the most effective. The combination of wet-dry cycles (4 cycles) and catalysis by Ni(II) led to an unprecedented high conversion of adenosine to phosphorylated products (30%) near neutral pH. The main phosphorylated products were 2',3'-cyclic AMP (10.4%) and 5'-ATP (13.0%). PMID:12227426

  3. S-Adenosylhomocysteine toxicity in normal and adenosine kinase-deficient lymphoblasts of human origin

    PubMed Central

    Kredich, Nicholas M.; Hershfield, Michael S.

    1979-01-01

    The human lymphoblast line WI-L2 is subject to growth inhibition by a combination of the adenosine deaminase (ADA; adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4.) inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and adenosine. Although adenosine-induced pyrimidine starvation appears to contribute to this effect, uridine only partially reverses adenosine toxicity in WI-L2 and not at all in strain 107, an adenosine kinase-(ATP:adenosine 5′-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.20) deficient derivative of WI-L2. Treatment of both cell lines with EHNA and adenosine leads to striking elevations in intracellular S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy), a potent inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methylation reactions. The methylation in vivo of both DNA and RNA is inhibited by concentrations of EHNA and adenosine that elevate intracellular AdoHcy. Addition of 100 μM L-homocysteine thiolactone to cells treated with EHNA and adenosine enhances adenosine toxicity and further elevates AdoHcy to levels approximately 60-fold higher than those obtained in the absence of this amino acid, presumably by combining with adenosine to form AdoHcy in a reaction catalyzed by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (EC 3.3.1.1). In the adenosine kinase-deficient strain 107, a combination of ADA inhibition and L-homocysteine thiolactone markedly increases intracellular AdoHcy and inhibits growth even in the absence of exogenous adenosine. These results demonstrate a form of toxicity from endogenously produced adenosine and support the view that AdoHcy, by inhibiting methylation, is a mediator of uridine-resistant adenosine toxicity in these human lymphoblast lines. Furthermore, they suggest that AdoHcy may play a role in the pathogenesis of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease found in most children with heritable ADA deficiency. PMID:221926

  4. Analysis of quinocide in unprocessed primaquine diphosphate and primaquine diphosphate tablets using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    PubMed

    Brondz, Ilia; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2009-01-30

    Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly diseases on the planet. Every year, about 500 million new cases are diagnosed, and the annual death toll is about 3 million. Primaquine has strong antiparasitic effects against gametocytes and can therefore prevent the spread of the parasite from treated patients to mosquitoes. It is also used in radical cures and prevents relapse. Consequently, primaquine is an often-used drug. In this study the separation of unprocessed primaquine from the contaminant quinocide based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beam (SMB) is presented and 7.5 mg primaquine diphosphate tablets were analyzed. We present a novel method for fast determination of quinocide which is an isomer of primaquine as the main contaminant in unprocessed primaquine and in its medical form as tablets by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with SMB (also named supersonic GC-MS). Supersonic GC-MS provides enhanced molecular ion without any ion source related peak tailing plus extended range of compounds amenable for GC-MS analysis. In addition, major isomer mass spectral effects were revealed in the mass spectra of primaquine and quinocide which facilitated the unambiguous identification of quinocide in primaquine tablets. Fast GC-MS analysis is demonstrated with less then 2 min elution time of the drug and its main contaminants.

  5. State of the art of protein mono-ADP-ribosylation: biological role and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Gaia; Scarpa, Emanuele Salvatore; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that was discovered more than five decades ago, and it consists of the enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD⁺ to acceptor proteins. In viruses and prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribosylation is mainly, but not exclusively, a mechanism used to take control of the host cell. In mammals, mono-ADP-ribosylation serves to regulate protein functions, and it is catalysed by two families of toxin-related cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases: ecto-enzymes that modify various cell-surface proteins, like integrins and receptors, and intracellular enzymes that act on a variety of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These two families have been recently renamed the ARTCs (clostridia toxin like) and ARTDs (diphtheria toxin like), depending on their conserved structural features, and in terms of their relationships to the bacterial toxins. In addition, two members of the structurally non-related sirtuin family can also modify cellular proteins by mono-ADP-ribosylation. Recently, new examples of ADP-ribosylation of proteins involved in signal transduction and intracellular trafficking have been discovered, thus opening the route to the better molecular understanding of this reaction and of its role in human cell physiology and pathology.

  6. Proteome-wide identification of the endogenous ADP-ribosylome of mammalian cells and tissue

    PubMed Central

    Martello, Rita; Leutert, Mario; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Bilan, Vera; Larsen, Sara C.; Young, Clifford; Hottiger, Michael O.; Nielsen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Although protein ADP-ribosylation is involved in diverse biological processes, it has remained a challenge to identify ADP-ribose acceptor sites. Here, we present an experimental workflow for sensitive and unbiased analysis of endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites, capable of detecting more than 900 modification sites in mammalian cells and mouse liver. In cells, we demonstrate that Lys residues, besides Glu, Asp and Arg residues, are the dominant in vivo targets of ADP-ribosylation during oxidative stress. In normal liver tissue, we find Arg residues to be the predominant modification site. The cellular distribution and biological processes that involve ADP-ribosylated proteins are different in cultured cells and liver tissue, in the latter of which the majority of sites were found to be in cytosolic and mitochondrial protein networks primarily associated with metabolism. Collectively, we describe a robust methodology for the assessment of the role of ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosyltransferases in physiological and pathological states. PMID:27686526

  7. Stimulation of the thiol-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD glycohydrolase activities of Bordetella pertussis toxin by adenine nucleotides, phospholipids, and detergents.

    PubMed

    Moss, J; Stanley, S J; Watkins, P A; Burns, D L; Manclark, C R; Kaslow, H R; Hewlett, E L

    1986-05-01

    Pertussis toxin catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the guanyl nucleotide binding protein transducin was stimulated by adenine nucleotide and either phospholipids or detergents. To determine the sites of action of these agents, their effects were examined on the transducin-independent NAD glycohydrolase activity. Toxin-catalyzed NAD hydrolysis was increased synergistically by ATP and detergents or phospholipids; the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) was more effective than the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 greater than lysophosphatidylcholine greater than phosphatidylcholine. The A0.5 for ATP in the presence of CHAPS was 2.6 microM; significantly higher concentrations of ATP were required for maximal activation in the presence of cholate or lysophosphatidylcholine. In CHAPS, NAD hydrolysis was enhanced by ATP greater than ADP greater than AMP greater than adenosine; ATP was more effective than MgATP or the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate. GTP and guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate were less active than the corresponding adenine nucleotides. Activity in the presence of CHAPS and ATP was almost completely dependent on dithiothreitol; the A0.5 for dithiothreitol was significantly decreased by CHAPS alone and, to a greater extent, by CHAPS and ATP. To determine the site of action of ATP, CHAPS, and dithiothreitol, the enzymatic (S1) and binding components (B oligomer) were resolved by chromatography. The purified S1 subunit catalyzed the dithiothreitol-dependent hydrolysis of NAD; activity was enhanced by CHAPS but not ATP. The studies are consistent with the conclusion that adenine nucleotides, dithiothreitol, and CHAPS act on the toxin itself rather than on the substrate; adenine nucleotides appear to be involved in the activation of toxin but not the isolated catalytic unit.

  8. Structure of the Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase WaaC: binary complexes with ADP and ADP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro heptose.

    PubMed

    Grizot, Sylvestre; Salem, Michèle; Vongsouthi, Vanida; Durand, Lionel; Moreau, François; Dohi, Hirofumi; Vincent, Stéphane; Escaich, Sonia; Ducruix, Arnaud

    2006-10-20

    Lipopolysaccharides constitute the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and are therefore essential for cell growth and viability. The heptosyltransferase WaaC is a glycosyltransferase (GT) involved in the synthesis of the inner core region of LPS. It catalyzes the addition of the first L-glycero-D-manno-heptose (heptose) molecule to one 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) residue of the Kdo2-lipid A molecule. Heptose is an essential component of the LPS core domain; its absence results in a truncated lipopolysaccharide associated with the deep-rough phenotype causing a greater susceptibility to antibiotic and an attenuated virulence for pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, WaaC represents a promising target in antibacterial drug design. Here, we report the structure of WaaC from the Escherichia coli pathogenic strain RS218 alone at 1.9 A resolution, and in complex with either ADP or the non-cleavable analog ADP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-heptose of the sugar donor at 2.4 A resolution. WaaC adopts the GT-B fold in two domains, characteristic of one glycosyltransferase structural superfamily. The comparison of the three different structures shows that WaaC does not undergo a domain rotation, characteristic of the GT-B family, upon substrate binding, but allows the substrate analog and the reaction product to adopt remarkably distinct conformations inside the active site. In addition, both binary complexes offer a close view of the donor subsite and, together with results from site-directed mutagenesis studies, provide evidence for a model of the catalytic mechanism.

  9. Distribution of prenyltransferases in rat tissues. Evidence for a cytosolic all-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, J; Runquist, M; Thelin, A; Andersson, M; Chojnacki, T; Dallner, G

    1993-01-15

    The present study describes the presence of two different geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase activities, one cytosolic and one membrane-associated, in a number of rat tissues. Both enzymes utilize farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) as substrates, but they give rise to different products. The membrane-associated activity produces trans,trans,cis-(E,E,Z)-GGPP, involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyprenols. The cytosolic activity produces only the all-trans-(E,E,E) isomer of GGPP, which is utilized as substrate in cytosolic protein prenylation reactions. All-trans-GGPP synthase activity was recovered in the cytosolic fraction from all tissues investigated, but the specific activities varied. The highest specific activities were found in brain, spleen, and testis, followed by kidney and liver. The enzyme activity in rat brain cytosol was further characterized and found to exhibit a narrow pH optimum around 5.0-6.0 and to be highly stimulated by Zn2+. Maximal stimulation was attained with 1 mM Zn2+, whereas Mg2+ had no effect on the enzyme activity. The all-trans-GGPP synthase activity exhibited high affinities for its substrates, i.e. the apparent Km values for FPP and IPP were found to be 0.6 and 3.5 microM, respectively. When rats were fed mevinolin (lovastatin), FPP and all-trans-GGPP synthase activities were affected differently in certain tissues. Mevinolin treatment resulted in an increase in FPP but a decrease in all-trans-GGPP synthase activity in rat liver and kidney. In spleen mevinolin treatment caused a greater than 70% decrease in all-trans-GGPP synthase activity, while FPP synthase was almost unaffected. The presence of two different GGPP synthase activities in the cell, together with the fact that FPP and all-trans-GGPP synthesis in the cytosol are regulated independently, may be of significance in the regulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis, as well as of protein isoprenylation.

  10. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase and poly(ADP-ribose)-interacting protein Hrp38 regulate pattern formation during Drosophila eye development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbiao; Jarnik, Michael; Tulin, Alexei V

    2013-09-10

    Drosophila Hrp38, a homolog of human hnRNP A1, has been shown to regulate splicing, but its function can be modified by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Notwithstanding such findings, our understanding of the roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated Hrp38 on development is limited. Here, we have demonstrated that Hrp38 is essential for fly eye development based on a rough-eye phenotype with disorganized ommatidia observed in adult escapers of the hrp38 mutant. We also observed that poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) loss-of-function, which caused increased Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, also resulted in the rough-eye phenotype with disrupted ommatidial lattice and reduced number of photoreceptor cells. In addition, ectopic expression of DE-cadherin, which is required for retinal morphogenesis, fully rescued the rough-eye phenotype of the hrp38 mutant. Similarly, Parg mutant eye clones had decreased expression level of DE-cadherin with orientation defects, which is reminiscent of DE-cadherin mutant eye phenotype. Therefore, our results suggest that Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation controls eye pattern formation via regulation of DE-cadherin expression, a finding which has implications for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of Hrp38-related Fragile X syndrome and PARP1-related retinal degeneration diseases.

  11. A functional (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase exhibits diurnal regulation of expression in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-09-15

    The leaves of stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)] are a rich source of steviol glycosides that are used as non-calorific sweetener in many countries around the world. Steviol moiety of steviol glycosides is synthesized via plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway, where (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) is the key enzyme. HDR catalyzes the simultaneous conversion of (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate into five carbon isoprenoid units, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Stevia HDR (SrHDR) successfully rescued HDR lethal mutant strain MG1655 ara<>ispH upon genetic complementation, suggesting SrHDR to encode a functional protein. The gene exhibited diurnal variation in expression. To identify the possible regulatory elements, upstream region of the gene was cloned and putative cis-acting elements were detected by in silico analysis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a putative light responsive element GATA showed the binding of nuclear proteins (NP) isolated from leaves during light period of the day, but not with the NP from leaves during the dark period. Data suggested the involvement of GATA box in light mediated gene regulation of SrHDR in stevia.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of acyclic nucleoside thiophosphonate diphosphates: effect of the α-phosphorus configuration on HIV-1 RT activity.

    PubMed

    Priet, Stéphane; Roux, Loic; Saez-Ayala, Magali; Ferron, François; Canard, Bruno; Alvarez, Karine

    2015-05-01

    The acyclic nucleosides thiophosphonates (9-[2-(thiophosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (S-PMEA) and (R)-9-[2-(thiophosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (S-PMPA), exhibit antiviral activity against HIV-1, -2 and HBV. Their diphosphate forms S-PMEApp and S-PMPApp, synthesized as stereoisomeric mixture, are potent inhibitors of wild-type (WT) HIV-1 RT. Understanding HIV-1 RT stereoselectivity, however, awaits resolution of the diphosphate forms into defined stereoisomers. To this aim, thiophosphonate monophosphates S-PMEAp and S-PMPAp were synthesized and used in a stereocontrolled enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reaction involving either nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) or creatine kinase (CK) to obtain thiophosphonate diphosphates as separated isomers. We then quantified substrate preference of recombinant WT HIV-1 RT toward pure stereoisomers using in vitro steady-state kinetic analyses. The crystal structure of a complex between Dictyostelium NDPK and S-PMPApp at 2.32Å allowed to determine the absolute configuration at the α-phosphorus atom in relation to the stereo-preference of studied enzymes. The RP isomer of S-PMPApp and S-PMEApp are the preferred substrate over SP for both NDPK and HIV-1 RT. PMID:25766862

  13. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hours (48 to 60 h), and then the signal intensity decreased considerably. AdpASc specifically binds the adpASc promoter region in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its expression is autoregulated; surprisingly, in contrast to S. griseus, the protein presumably acts as a transcriptional activator. We also demonstrate a direct influence of AdpASc on the expression of several genes whose products play key roles in the differentiation of S. coelicolor: STI, a protease inhibitor; RamR, an atypical response regulator that itself activates expression of the genes for a small modified peptide that is required for aerial growth; and ClpP1, an ATP-dependent protease. The diverse influence of AdpASc protein on the expression of the analyzed genes presumably results mainly from different affinities of AdpASc protein to individual promoters. PMID:21926228

  14. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  18. CD39/Adenosine Pathway Is Involved in AIDS Progression

    PubMed Central

    Limou, Sophie; Younas, Mehwish; Kök, Ayrin; Huë, Sophie; Seddiki, Nabila; Hulin, Anne; Delaneau, Olivier; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Herbeck, Joshua T.; Mullins, James I.; Muhtarova, Maria; Bensussan, Armand; Zagury, Jean-François; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Lévy, Yves

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by a chronic activation of the immune system and suppressed function of T lymphocytes. Regulatory CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+CD127low T cells (Treg) play a key role in both conditions. Here, we show that HIV-1 positive patients have a significant increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection. Treg inhibitory effects are relieved by CD39 down modulation and are reproduced by an adenosine-agonist in accordance with a higher expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on patients' T cells. Notably, the expansion of the Treg CD39+ correlates with the level of immune activation and lower CD4+ counts in HIV-1 infected patients. Finally, in a genetic association study performed in three different cohorts, we identified a CD39 gene polymorphism that was associated with down-modulated CD39 expression and a slower progression to AIDS. PMID:21750674

  19. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A{sub 1} adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of {sup 3}H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A{sub 1} adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  20. Production of geranylgeraniol on overexpression of a prenyl diphosphate synthase fusion gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2010-07-01

    An acyclic diterpene alcohol, (E,E,E)-geranylgeraniol (GGOH), is one of the important compounds used as perfume and pharmacological agents. A deficiency of squalene (SQ) synthase activity allows yeasts to accumulate an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, (E,E)-farnesol, in their cells. Since sterols are essential for the growth of yeasts, a deficiency of SQ synthase activity makes the addition of supplemental sterols to the culture media necessary. To develop a GGOH production method not requiring any supplemental sterols, we overexpressed HMG1 encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and the genes of two prenyl diphosphate synthases, ERG20 and BTS1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A prototrophic diploid coexpressing HMG1 and the ERG20-BTS1 fusion accumulated GGOH with neither disruption of the SQ synthase gene nor the addition of any supplemental sterols. The GGOH content on the diploid cultivation in a 5-l jar fermenter reached 138.8 mg/l under optimal conditions.

  1. Synthetic Pathway for Production of Five-Carbon Alcohols from Isopentenyl Diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Howard H.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biological pathways could enhance the development of novel processes to produce chemicals from renewable resources. On the basis of models that describe the evolution of metabolic pathways and enzymes in nature, we developed a framework to rationally identify enzymes able to catalyze reactions on new substrates that overcomes one of the major bottlenecks in the assembly of a synthetic biological pathway. We verified the framework by implementing a pathway with two novel enzymatic reactions to convert isopentenyl diphosphate into 3-methyl-3-butenol, 3-methyl-2-butenol, and 3-methylbutanol. To overcome competition with native pathways that share the same substrate, we engineered two bifunctional enzymes that redirect metabolic flux toward the synthetic pathway. Taken together, our work demonstrates a new approach to the engineering of novel synthetic pathways in the cell. PMID:22941086

  2. Structure of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas E; Gardberg, Anna S; Phan, Isabelle Q H; Zhang, Yang; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J; Lorimer, Donald D

    2015-05-01

    Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, which is involved in cell-wall biogenesis in plants and fungi and in protein glycosylation. Small-molecule inhibitors have been developed against UAP from Trypanosoma brucei that target an allosteric pocket to provide selectivity over the human enzyme. A 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure was determined of UAP from Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic parasitic protozoan that causes amoebic dysentery. Although E. histolytica UAP exhibits the same three-domain global architecture as other UAPs, it appears to lack three α-helices at the N-terminus and contains two amino acids in the allosteric pocket that make it appear more like the enzyme from the human host than that from the other parasite T. brucei. Thus, allosteric inhibitors of T. brucei UAP are unlikely to target Entamoeba UAPs.

  3. Structure Conservation and Differential Expression of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Genes in Euphorbiaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Li, Hui-Liang; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) is a key enzyme of isoprenoids biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the FPSs of euphorbiaceous species is limited. In this study, ten FPSs were identified in four euphorbiaceous plants. These FPSs exhibited similar exon/intron structure. The deduced FPS proteins showed close identities and exhibited the typical structure of plant FPS. The members of the FPS family exhibit tissue expression patterns that vary among several euphorbiaceous plant species under normal growth conditions. The expression profiles reveal spatial and temporal variations in the expression of FPSs of different tissues from Euphorbiaceous plants. Our results revealed wide conservation of FPSs and diverse expression in euphorbiaceous plants during growth and development. PMID:26389894

  4. [Synthesis of D-ribulose-1,5-diphosphate with immobilized enzymes of Thiobacillus].

    PubMed

    Khaga, M E; Mikel'saar, P Ch; Liaene, A E; Aaviksaar, A A; Peenema, E V

    1979-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of D-ribulose-1,5-diphosphate (RuDP) from ribose-5-phosphate and ATP was carried out, using as a catalyst a crude extract of Thiobacillus thiooxidans 58 R immobilized on porous glass. The methods for immobiliztion of crude bacterial extracts, synthesis of RuDP and purification of the resultant product by means of column chromatography on activated charcoal and anionites were developed. The structure of RuDP was identified by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Stability of two phosphate groups of RuDP during acid and alkaline hydrolysis proved to be different: both phosphate groups were completely removed in 1 N H2SO4 at 100 degrees C whereas only one phosphate group was hydrolysed in 1 N NaOH at 25 degrees C. This finding is at variance with the earlier results of Horecker et al. (1956).

  5. Additional diterpenes from Physcomitrella patens synthesized by copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin; Bach, Søren Spanner; Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Lunde, Christina; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional diterpene synthase, copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpCPS/KS), catalyses the formation of at least four diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-sandaracopimaradiene, ent-kaur-16-ene, and 16-hydroxy-ent-kaurene. The enzymatic activity has been confirmed through generation of a targeted PpCPS/KS knock-out mutant in P. patens via homologous recombination, through transient expression of PpCPS/KS in Nicotiana benthamiana, and expression of PpCPS/KS in E. coli. GC-MS analysis of the knock-out mutant shows that it lacks the diterpenoids, supporting that all are products of PpCPS/KS as observed in N. benthamiana and E. coli. These results provide additional knowledge of the mechanism of this bifunctional diterpene synthase, and are in line with proposed reaction mechanisms in kaurene biosynthesis.

  6. Preliminary crystallographic data for the thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase from brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Dyda, F; Furey, W; Swaminathan, S; Sax, M; Farrenkopf, B; Jordan, F

    1990-10-15

    Single crystals of the thiamin diphosphate (the vitamin B1 coenzyme)-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) from brewers' yeast have been grown using polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. Crystals of the homotetrameric version alpha 4 of the holoenzyme are triclinic, space group P1, with cell constants a = 81.0, b = 82.4, c = 116.6 A, alpha = 69.5 beta = 72.6, gamma = 62.4 degrees. The crystals are reasonably stable in a rotating anode x-ray beam and diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution. The Vm value of 2.55 A/dalton is consistent with a unit cell containing four subunits with mass of approximately 60 kDa each. Rotation function results with native data indicate strong non-crystallographic 222 symmetry relating the four identical subunits, thus density averaging methods are likely to play a role in the structure determination.

  7. Crystal Structures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase Bound to Inhibitory Analogs Reveal New Insight into Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; McWhorter, William J.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2011-10-28

    The polyisoprenoid compound undecaprenyl phosphate is required for biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogenic Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus spp. In these organisms, the mevalonate pathway is used to produce the precursor isoprenoid, isopentenyl 5-diphosphate. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes formation of isopentenyl 5-diphosphate in an ATP-dependent irreversible reaction and is therefore an attractive target for inhibitor development that could lead to new antimicrobial agents. To facilitate exploration of this possibility, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD (1.85 {angstrom} resolution) and, to the best of our knowledge, the first structures of liganded MDD. These structures include MDD bound to the mevalonate 5-diphosphate analogs diphosphoglycolyl proline (2.05 {angstrom} resolution) and 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP; 2.2 {angstrom} resolution). Comparison of these structures provides a physical basis for the significant differences in K{sub i} values observed for these inhibitors. Inspection of enzyme/inhibitor structures identified the side chain of invariant Ser{sup 192} as making potential contributions to catalysis. Significantly, Ser {yields} Ala substitution of this side chain decreases k{sub cat} by {approx}10{sup 3}-fold, even though binding interactions between FMVAPP and this mutant are similar to those observed with wild type MDD, as judged by the 2.1 {angstrom} cocrystal structure of S192A with FMVAPP. Comparison of microbial MDD structures with those of mammalian counterparts reveals potential targets at the active site periphery that may be exploited to selectively target the microbial enzymes. These studies provide a structural basis for previous observations regarding the MDD mechanism and inform future work toward rational inhibitor design.

  8. Mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase studied via thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates and kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumit; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; McLeish, Michael J; Kenyon, George L; Jordan, Frank

    2008-03-25

    Direct spectroscopic observation of thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates was achieved on the enzyme benzaldehyde lyase, which carries out reversible and highly enantiospecific conversion of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde. The key enamine intermediate could be observed at lambda max 393 nm in the benzoin breakdown direction and in the decarboxylase reaction starting with benzoylformate. With benzaldehyde as substrate, no intermediates could be detected, only formation of benzoin at 314 nm. To probe the rate-limiting step in the direction of ( R)-benzoin synthesis, the (1)H/ (2)H kinetic isotope effect was determined for benzaldehyde labeled at the aldehyde position and found to be small (1.14 +/- 0.03), indicating that ionization of the C2alphaH from C2alpha-hydroxybenzylthiamin diphosphate is not rate limiting. Use of the alternate substrates benzoylformic and phenylpyruvic acids (motivated by the observation that while a carboligase, benzaldehyde lyase could also catalyze the slow decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids) enabled the observation of the substrate-thiamin covalent intermediate via the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomer, characteristic of all intermediates with a tetrahedral C2 substituent on ThDP. The reaction of benzaldehyde lyase with the chromophoric substrate analogue ( E)-2-oxo-4(pyridin-3-yl)-3-butenoic acid and its decarboxylated product ( E)-3-(pyridine-3-yl)acrylaldehyde enabled the detection of covalent adducts with both. Neither adduct underwent further reaction. An important finding of the studies is that all thiamin-related intermediates are in a chiral environment on benzaldehyde lyase as reflected by their circular dichroism signatures.

  9. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-04-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine ((R)-AHPIA) into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling.

  10. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  11. Botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase activity as affected by detergents and phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Maehama, T; Ohoka, Y; Ohtsuka, T; Takahashi, K; Nagata, K; Nozawa, Y; Ueno, K; Ui, M; Katada, T

    1990-04-24

    GTP-binding proteins with Mr values of 22,000 and 25,000 in bovine brain cytosol were ADP-ribosylated by an exoenzyme (termed C3) purified from Clostridium botulinum type C. The rate of C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the partially purified substrates was extremely low by itself, but was increased enormously when a protein factor(s) obtained from the cytosol was simultaneously added. The rate of the C3-catalyzed reaction was also stimulated by the addition of certain types of detergents or phospholipids even in the absence of the protein factors. The ADP-ribosylation appeared to be enhanced to an extent more than the additive effect of either the protein factors or the detergents (and phospholipids). Thus, ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by botulinum C3 enzyme was affected not only by cytoplasmic protein factors but also by detergents or phospholipids in manners different from each other.

  12. Unidirectional growth of pure and L-lysine added ADP crystals from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salarian, Samaneh; Dizaji, Hamid Rezagholipour

    2014-01-01

    Pure and L-lysine added ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystals were grown in the <001> direction by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (S-R) method. The grown crystals were characterized by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Vicker's Microhardness analysis. XRD spectrum of each of the grown crystals proved its crystallinity. The crystals showed good transparency in the entire visible region. FT-IR spectra of the specimens revealed the presence of functional groups in them. The hardness of the pure and L-lysine added ADP crystals were measured and that of the added one was found higher. Meanwhile, it was found that the ADP crystals (pure and L-lysine added) grown by S-R method had higher hardness compared to ADP crystal grown by conventional method.

  13. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp-Vickery, Jill R. Igarashi, Robert Y.; Meyer, Christopher R.

    2005-03-01

    Crystallization and X-ray diffraction methods for native A. tumefaciens ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and its selenomethionyl derivative are described. Two crystal forms are identified, both of which diffract to 2 Å.

  14. Use of genetically encoded sensors to monitor cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in living cells.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Andrei I; Rutter, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    ATP is not only recognized as the universal energy "currency" in most cells but also plays a less well-known role as an intracellular and extracellular messenger. Here, we review novel approaches for measuring free ATP (or ATP/ADP ratios) in living mammalian cells by using genetically encoded sensors. We also discuss the key technical aspects of routine real-time ATP/ADP monitoring using as a model one of the last-generation fluorescent probes, a fusion protein commonly known as "Perceval." Finally, we present detailed guidelines for the simultaneous measurement of cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios and Ca(2+) concentrations alongside electrical parameters in individual pancreatic β cells, in which energy metabolism is tightly linked to plasma membrane excitability to control the secretion of insulin. With appropriate variations, this approach can be adapted to the study of cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios and Ca(2+) concentrations in malignant cells, two important aspects of oncometabolism.

  15. Unscheduled synthesis of DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) in human fibroblasts following DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    McCurry, L.S.; Jacobson, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis has been measured in human fibroblasts under conditions of reduced rates of conversion of NAD to poly)ADP-ribose). Cells heterozygous for the xeroderma pigmentosum genotype showed normal rates of uv induced unscheduled DNA synthesis under conditions in which the rate of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis was one-half the rate of normal cells. The addition of theophylline, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, to the culture medium of normal cells blocked over 90% of the conversion of NAD to poly(ADP-ribose) following treatment with uv or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitro-soguanidine but did not affect the rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  16. The liquidlike ordering of lipid A-diphosphate colloidal crystals: The influence of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ on the ordering of colloidal suspensions of lipid A-diphosphate in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunce, C. A.; Reichelt, H.; Paradies, H. H.; Quitschau, P.; Zimmermann, K.

    2005-06-01

    A comprehensive study was performed on electrostatically stabilized aqueous dispersion of lipid A-diphosphate in the presence of bound Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ ions at low ionic strength (0.10-10.0-mM NaCl, 25°C) over a range of volume fraction of 1.0×10-4⩽ϕ⩽4.95×10-4. These suspensions were characterized by light scattering (LS), quasielastic light scattering, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, conductivity measurements, and acid-base titrations. LS and electron microscopy yielded similar values for particle sizes, particle size distributions, and polydispersity. The measured static structure factor, S(Q), of lipid A-diphosphate was seen to be heavily dependent on the nature and concentration of the counterions, e.g., Ca2+ at 5.0nM, Mg2+ at 15.0μM, and K+ at 100.0μM (25°C). The magnitude and position of the S(Q ) peaks depend not only on the divalent ion concentration (Ca2+ and Mg2+) but also on the order of addition of the counterions to the lipid A-diphosphate suspension in the presence of 0.1-μM NaCl. Significant changes in the rms radii of gyration (RG2¯)1/2 of the lipid A-diphosphate particles were observed in the presence of Ca2+ (24.8±0.8nm), Mg2+ (28.5±0.7nm), and K+ (25.2±0.6nm), whereas the Na+ salt (29.1±0.8nm) has a value similar to the one found for the de-ionized lipid A-diphosphate suspensions (29.2±0.8nm). Effective particle charges were determined by fits of the integral equation calculations of the polydisperse static structure factor, S¯(Q), to the light-scattering data and they were found to be in the range of Z*=700-750 for the lipid A-diphosphate salts under investigation. The light-scattering data indicated that only a small fraction of the ionizable surface sites (phosphate) of the lipid A-diphosphate was partly dissociated (˜30%). It was also discovered that a given amount of Ca2+ (1.0-5.0nM) or K+ (100μM) influenced the structure much more than Na+ (0.1-10.0-m

  17. The energetics of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Del R; Baker, Josh E

    2009-06-28

    Myosin molecules are involved in a wide range of transport and contractile activities in cells. A single myosin head functions through its ATPase reaction as a force generator and as a mechanosensor, and when two or more myosin heads work together in moving along an actin filament, the interplay between these mechanisms contributes to collective myosin behaviors. For example, the interplay between force-generating and force-sensing mechanisms coordinates the two heads of a myosin V molecule in its hand-over-hand processive stepping along an actin filament. In muscle, it contributes to the Fenn effect and smooth muscle latch. In both examples, a key force-sensing mechanism is the regulation of ADP release via interhead forces that are generated upon actin-myosin binding. Here we present a model describing the mechanism of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads as a change, DeltaDeltaG(-D), in the standard free energy for ADP release that results from the work, Deltamicro(mech), performed by that myosin head upon ADP release, or DeltaDeltaG(-D) = Deltamicro(mech). We show that this model is consistent with previous measurements for strain-dependent kinetics of ADP release in both myosin V and muscle myosin II. The model makes explicit the energetic cost of accelerating ADP release, showing that acceleration of ADP release during myosin V processivity requires approximately 4 kT of energy whereas the energetic cost for accelerating ADP release in a myosin II-based actin motility assay is only approximately 0.4 kT. The model also predicts that the acceleration of ADP release involves a dissipation of interhead forces. To test this prediction, we use an in vitro motility assay to show that the acceleration of ADP release from both smooth and skeletal muscle myosin II correlates with a decrease in interhead force. Our analyses provide clear energetic constraints for models of the allosteric regulation of ADP release and provide novel, testable insights

  18. Distribution of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation systems across all domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Mikoč, Andreja; Ahel, Josip; Ćetković, Helena; Žaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as

  19. The energetics of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Del R; Baker, Josh E

    2009-06-28

    Myosin molecules are involved in a wide range of transport and contractile activities in cells. A single myosin head functions through its ATPase reaction as a force generator and as a mechanosensor, and when two or more myosin heads work together in moving along an actin filament, the interplay between these mechanisms contributes to collective myosin behaviors. For example, the interplay between force-generating and force-sensing mechanisms coordinates the two heads of a myosin V molecule in its hand-over-hand processive stepping along an actin filament. In muscle, it contributes to the Fenn effect and smooth muscle latch. In both examples, a key force-sensing mechanism is the regulation of ADP release via interhead forces that are generated upon actin-myosin binding. Here we present a model describing the mechanism of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads as a change, DeltaDeltaG(-D), in the standard free energy for ADP release that results from the work, Deltamicro(mech), performed by that myosin head upon ADP release, or DeltaDeltaG(-D) = Deltamicro(mech). We show that this model is consistent with previous measurements for strain-dependent kinetics of ADP release in both myosin V and muscle myosin II. The model makes explicit the energetic cost of accelerating ADP release, showing that acceleration of ADP release during myosin V processivity requires approximately 4 kT of energy whereas the energetic cost for accelerating ADP release in a myosin II-based actin motility assay is only approximately 0.4 kT. The model also predicts that the acceleration of ADP release involves a dissipation of interhead forces. To test this prediction, we use an in vitro motility assay to show that the acceleration of ADP release from both smooth and skeletal muscle myosin II correlates with a decrease in interhead force. Our analyses provide clear energetic constraints for models of the allosteric regulation of ADP release and provide novel, testable insights

  20. Adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio) triphosphate (ATPgammaS) stimulates both P2Y receptors linked to inositol phosphates production and cAMP accumulation in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Haruhisa; Hori, Seiji; Niitsu, Akiyoshi; Kawamura, Masahiro

    2004-01-16

    The study was aimed to investigate the existence of at least two kinds of P2Y receptors linked to steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells (BAFCs). Extracellular nucleotides facilitated steroidogenesis in BAFCs. The potency order was UTP > adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio) triphosphate (ATPgammaS) > ATP > 2-methylthio ATP (2MeSATP) > adenosine 5'-(beta-thio) diphosphate (ADPbetaS) > alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-me-ATP), beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma -me-ATP). ATPgammaS (10-100 microM) remarkably stimulated both total inositol phosphates (IPs) production and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. Competitive displacement experiments by using [35S]ATPgammaS as a radioactive ligand in BAFCs showed that the potency under these unlabelled ligands was ATPgammaS > ATP > ADPbetaS > 2MeSATP > UTP > alpha,beta-me-ATP, beta,gamma-me-ATP. These suggest that two different binding sites of [35S]ATPgammaS, namely P2Y receptors, exist in BAFCs, and that these receptors are linked to steroidogenesis via distinct second messenger systems in the cells.

  1. Metabolic changes of cultured DRG neurons induced by adenosine using confocal microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqin; Huang, Yimei; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple effects on pain transmission in the peripheral nervous system. This study was performed to use confocal microscopy to evaluate whether adenosine could affect dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro and test which adenosine receptor mediates the effect of adenosine on DRG neurons. After adding adenosine with different concentration, we compared the metabolic changes by the real time imaging of calcium and mitochondria membrane potential using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the effect of 500 μM adenosine on the metabolic changes of DRG neurons was more significant than others. Furthermore, four different adenosine receptor antagonists were used to study which receptor mediated the influences of adenosine on the cultured DRG neurons. All adenosine receptor antagonists especially A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX) had effect on the Ca2+ and mitochondria membrane potential dynamics of DRG neurons. The above studies demonstrated that the effect of adenosine which may be involved in the signal transmission on the sensory neurons was dose-dependent, and all the four adenosine receptors especially the A1R may mediate the transmission.

  2. Modulation of bladder function by luminal adenosine turnover and A1 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, H. Sandeep; Herrington, Heather; Roppolo, James R.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    The bladder uroepithelium transmits information to the underlying nervous and musculature systems, is under constant cyclical strain, expresses all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), and is a site of adenosine production. Although adenosine has a well-described protective effect in several organs, there is a lack of information about adenosine turnover in the uroepithelium or whether altering luminal adenosine concentrations impacts bladder function or overactivity. We observed that the concentration of extracellular adenosine at the mucosal surface of the uroepithelium was regulated by ecto-adenosine deaminase and by equilibrative nucleoside transporters, whereas adenosine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporters modulated serosal levels. We further observed that enriching endogenous adenosine by blocking its routes of metabolism or direct activation of mucosal A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective agonist, stimulated bladder activity by lowering the threshold pressure for voiding. Finally, CCPA did not quell bladder hyperactivity in animals with acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis but instead exacerbated their irritated bladder phenotype. In conclusion, we find that adenosine levels at both surfaces of the uroepithelium are modulated by turnover, that blocking these pathways or stimulating A1 receptors directly at the luminal surface promotes bladder contractions, and that adenosine further stimulates voiding in animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. PMID:22552934

  3. Fast-scan Cyclic Voltammetry for the Characterization of Rapid Adenosine Release

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Michael D.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a signaling molecule and downstream product of ATP that acts as a neuromodulator. Adenosine regulates physiological processes, such as neurotransmission and blood flow, on a time scale of minutes to hours. Recent developments in electrochemical techniques, including fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), have allowed direct detection of adenosine with sub-second temporal resolution. FSCV studies have revealed a novel mode of rapid signaling that lasts only a few seconds. This rapid release of adenosine can be evoked by electrical or mechanical stimulations or it can be observed spontaneously without stimulation. Adenosine signaling on this time scale is activity dependent; however, the mode of release is not fully understood. Rapid adenosine release modulates oxygen levels and evoked dopamine release, indicating that adenosine may have a rapid modulatory role. In this review, we outline how FSCV can be used to detect adenosine release, compare FSCV with other techniques used to measure adenosine, and present an overview of adenosine signaling that has been characterized using FSCV. These studies point to a rapid mode of adenosine modulation, whose mechanism and function will continue to be characterized in the future. PMID:26900429

  4. Harnessing nature's own cardiac defense mechanism with acadesine, an adenosine regulating agent: importance of the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Engler, R L

    1994-05-01

    Although the effects of adenosine on the heart, including the clinical suppression of cardiac arrhythmias, have been recognized for more than half a century, it is only in the last decade that the therapeutic potential of adenosine has been recognized. Research related to the clinical application of adenosine has concentrated on two areas. The first came directly from early observations about the use of adenosine in treating cardiac arrhythmias, in particular supraventricular tachycardias. The second relates to the use of adenosine to protect the heart from the deleterious consequences of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. This review will focus on the latter cardioprotective properties of adenosine, particularly those shown by a novel group of drugs termed adenosine regulating agents, the prototype of which is acadesine (Protara).

  5. Multiple forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) was purified from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit to apparent homogeneity. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme migrated as two close bands with molecular weights of 50,000 and 51,000. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme, however, revealed at least five major protein spots that could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. Whereas all of the spots were recognized by the antiserum raised against tomato fruit AGP holoenzyme, only three of them reacted strongly with antiserum raised against the potato tuber AGP large subunit, and the other two spots (with lower molecular weights) reacted specifically with antisera raised against spinach leaf AGP holoenzyme and the potato tuber AGP small subunit. The results suggest the existence of at least three isoforms of the AGP large subunit and two isoforms of the small subunit in tomato fruit in vivo. The native molecular mass of the enzyme determined by gel filtration was 220 +/- 10 kD, indicating a tetrameric structure for AGP from tomato fruit. The purified enzyme is very sensitive to 3-phosphoglycerate/inorganic phosphate regulation.

  6. Poly (ADP-ribose) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Kim, Young Pil; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The defining feature of Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and selective demise of dopaminergic neurons. A recent report on Parkinson’s disease animal model demonstrates that poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) dependent cell death, also named parthanatos, is accountable for selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Parthanatos is a programmed necrotic cell death, characterized by PARP1 activation, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation, and large scale DNA fragmentation. Besides cell death regulation via interaction with AIF, PAR molecule mediates diverse cellular processes including genomic stability, cell division, transcription, epigenetic regulation, and stress granule formation. In this review, we will discuss the roles of PARP1 activation and PAR molecules in the pathological processes of Parkinson’s disease. Potential interaction between PAR molecule and Parkinson’s disease protein interactome are briefly introduced. Finally, we suggest promising points of therapeutic intervention in the pathological PAR signaling cascade to halt progression in Parkinson’s disease. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 424-432] PMID:24874851

  7. ADP-stimulated contraction: A predictor of thin-filament activation in cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; Wijnker, Paul J. M.; Michels, Michelle; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is general to all idiopathic dilated (IDCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. Relaxation deficits may result from increased actin–myosin formation during diastole due to altered tropomyosin position, which blocks myosin binding to actin in the absence of Ca2+. We investigated whether ADP-stimulated force development (without Ca2+) can be used to reveal changes in actin–myosin blockade in human cardiomyopathy cardiomyocytes. Cardiac samples from HCM patients, harboring thick-filament (MYH7mut, MYBPC3mut) and thin-filament (TNNT2mut, TNNI3mut) mutations, and IDCM were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM (HCMsmn) and nonfailing donors. Myofilament ADP sensitivity was higher in IDCM and HCM compared with donors, whereas it was lower for MYBPC3. Increased ADP sensitivity in IDCM, HCMsmn, and MYH7mut was caused by low phosphorylation of myofilament proteins, as it was normalized to donors by protein kinase A (PKA) treatment. Troponin exchange experiments in a TNNT2mut sample corrected the abnormal actin–myosin blockade. In MYBPC3trunc samples, ADP sensitivity highly correlated with cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) protein level. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with cMyBP-C antibody against the actin-binding N-terminal region reduced ADP sensitivity, indicative of cMyBP-C’s role in actin–myosin regulation. In the presence of Ca2+, ADP increased myofilament force development and sarcomere stiffness. Enhanced sarcomere stiffness in sarcomere mutation-positive HCM samples was irrespective of the phosphorylation background. In conclusion, ADP-stimulated contraction can be used as a tool to study how protein phosphorylation and mutant proteins alter accessibility of myosin binding on actin. In the presence of Ca2+, pathologic [ADP] and low PKA-phosphorylation, high actin–myosin formation could contribute to the impaired myocardial relaxation observed in cardiomyopathies. PMID:26621701

  8. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  9. Biosynthesis Pathway of ADP-l-glycero-β-d-manno-Heptose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kneidinger, Bernd; Marolda, Cristina; Graninger, Michael; Zamyatina, Alla; McArthur, Fiona; Kosma, Paul; Valvano, Miguel A.; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The steps involved in the biosynthesis of the ADP-l-glycero-β-d-manno-heptose (ADP-l-β-d-heptose) precursor of the inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have not been completely elucidated. In this work, we have purified the enzymes involved in catalyzing the intermediate steps leading to the synthesis of ADP-d-β-d-heptose and have biochemically characterized the reaction products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. We have also constructed a deletion in a novel gene, gmhB (formerly yaeD), which results in the formation of an altered LPS core. This mutation confirms that the GmhB protein is required for the formation of ADP-d-β-d-heptose. Our results demonstrate that the synthesis of ADP-d-β-d-heptose in Escherichia coli requires three proteins, GmhA (sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase), HldE (bifunctional d-β-d-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/d-β-d-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase), and GmhB (d,d-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase), as well as ATP and the ketose phosphate precursor sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. A previously characterized epimerase, formerly named WaaD (RfaD) and now renamed HldD, completes the pathway to form the ADP-l-β-d-heptose precursor utilized in the assembly of inner core LPS. PMID:11751812

  10. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed.

  11. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity.

  12. ADP-dependent 6-Phosphofructokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3: STRUCTURE DETERMINATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PH1645

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Mark A.; Merino, Felipe; Skarina, Tatiana; Wong, Andrew H.Y.; Singer, Alexander; Brown, Greg; Savchenko, Alexei; Caniuguir, Andrés; Guixé, Victoria; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-12-01

    Some hyperthermophilic archaea use a modified glycolytic pathway that employs an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADP-GK) and an ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ADP-PFK) or, in the case of Methanococcus jannaschii, a bifunctional ADP-dependent glucophosphofructokinase (ADP-GK/PFK). The crystal structures of three ADP-GKs have been determined. However, there is no structural information available for ADP-PFKs or the ADP-GK/PFK. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an ADP-PFK from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhPFK) in both apo- and AMP-bound forms determined to 2.0-{angstrom} and 1.9-{angstrom} resolution, respectively, along with biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The overall structure of PhPFK maintains a similar large and small {alpha}/{beta} domain structure seen in the ADP-GK structures. A large conformational change accompanies binding of phosphoryl donor, acceptor, or both, in all members of the ribokinase superfamily characterized thus far, which is believed to be critical to enzyme function. Surprisingly, no such conformational change was observed in the AMP-bound PhPFK structure compared with the apo structure. Through comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis of the substrate binding pocket we identified residues that were critical for both substrate recognition and the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic residues and many of the substrate binding residues are conserved between PhPFK and ADP-GKs; however, four key residues differ in the sugar-binding pocket, which we have shown determine the sugar-binding specificity. Using these results we were able to engineer a mutant PhPFK that mimics the ADP-GK/PFK and is able to phosphorylate both fructose 6-phosphate and glucose.

  13. Guanine nucleotides stimulate hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol bis phosphate in human myelin membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Boulias, C.; Moscarello, M.A. )

    1989-07-14

    Phosphodiesterase activity was stimulated in myelin membranes in the presence of guanine nucleotide analogues. This activity was reduced in myelin membranes which had been adenosine diphosphate ribosylated in the presence of cholera toxin which ADP-ribosylated three proteins of Mr 46,000, 43,000 and 18,500. Aluminum fluoride treatment of myelin had the same stimulatory effects on phosphodiesterase activity as did the guanine nucleotides.

  14. Measurement of platelet adhesiveness including the use of diatomaceous silica (celite).

    PubMed

    Pegrum, G D; Shaw, S; Wolff, S E

    1967-01-01

    Methods of platelet adhesiveness to glass and celite have been developed. The technical merits of these methods have been compared with a method using adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The aspects of platelet stickiness measured by the various techniques may be somewhat different. Bearing this in mind, the reproducibility of the results using each of the three methods has been assessed on a series of healthy donors.

  15. Defective platelet autocrine signaling in HPS.

    PubMed

    Storrie, Brian

    2015-03-01

    In this issue of Blood, Meng et al and Sharda et al use the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) as a model to show that adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) released by dense granules serves as an autocrine signal to potentiate platelet release of α-granule and lysosome cargo and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), all of which serve to stabilize thrombus formation. PMID:25745182

  16. The use of a PC-ADP in Shallow Rivers: Potential and Limitations for Turbulence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassista, A.; Roy, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    Turbulence plays an important role for processes such as mixing, sediment transport, scour and energy dissipation in rivers. Information in both space and time is essential to characterize flow turbulence in rivers, which would lead to a better understanding of sediment transport processes and bedform dynamics. Characterization of turbulent structures and their dynamics from conventionnal single point velocity measurements is time- and labor-intensive. Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADP) have the ability to measure instantaneous velocity profiles in three dimensions and have shown a potential to measure turbulence characteristics. New Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PC-ADP) technology provides a higher spatial resolution than conventional ADP and allows their use in shallow rivers. However, the measurement noise, the spreading of the instrument beams and the temporal and spatial averaging from this device may limit its application in rivers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential and the limitations of turbulence measurement using PC-ADP in shallow rivers. Field measurements were undertaken on the Rouge River (Quebec, Canada) during summer 2005 using a 1.5 MHz PC-ADP. The downward-looking PC-ADP was used to measure velocities at fixed river locations in ten 8-cm cells at a frequency of 1 Hz for long sampling duration. PC-ADP data were compared to a reference instrument, a 10 MHz Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), that can measure flow velocities in three dimensions in a small sampling volume. Comparison with single point measurements were conducted to evaluate the effects of temporal and spatial averaging, Doppler noise and beam spreading in PC-ADP data. An algorithm for correcting ambiguity errors was developed to measure velocities up to 70 cms-1. Autocorrelation, power spectra and profiles of turbulence characteristics such as Reynolds stresses and TKE estimated from PC-ADP velocities were compared to those obtained from ADV data. Results show

  17. Adenosine Inhibition of Mesopontine Cholinergic Neurons: Implications for EEG Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Rainnie, Donald G.; Grunze, Heinz C. R.; McCarley, Robert W.; Greene, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Increased discharge activity of mesopontine cholinergic neurons participates in the production of electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal; such arousal diminishes as a function of the duration of prior wakefulness or of brain hyperthermia. Whole-cell and extracellular recordings in a brainstem slice show that mesopontine cholinergic neurons are under the tonic inhibitory control of endogenous adenosine, a neuromodulator released during brain metabolism. This inhibitory tone is mediated postsynaptically by an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance and by an inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current. These data provide a coupling mechanism linking neuronal control of EEG-arousal with the effects of prior wakefulness, brain hyperthermia, and the use of the adenosine receptor blockers caffeine and theophylline. PMID:8303279

  18. Adenosine: an endogenous mediator in the pathogenesis of psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Festugato, Moira

    2015-01-01

    It is known that inflammatory and immune responses protect us from the invasion of micro-organisms and eliminate "wastes" from the injured sites, but they may also be responsible for significant tissue damage. Adenosine, as a purine nucleoside, which is produced in inflamed or injured sites, fulfills its role in limiting tissue damage. Although, it may have a pleiotropic effect, which signals it with a proinflammatory state in certain situations, it can be considered a potent anti-inflammatory mediator. The effects of adenosine, which acts through its receptors on T cell, on mast cell and macrophages, on endothelial cells, on neutrophils and dendritic cells, as they indicate TNF-alpha and cytokines, show that this mediator has a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The way it acts in psoriasis will be reviewed in this study. PMID:26734868

  19. Structure–Activity Relationships of 9-Alkyladenine and Ribose-Modified Adenosine Derivatives at Rat A3 Adenosine Receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Siddiqi, Suhaib M.; Olah, Mark E.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Melman, Neli; Bellamkonda, Kamala; Meshulam, Yakov; Stiles, Gary L.; Kim, Hea O.

    2012-01-01

    9-Alkyladenine derivatives and ribose-modified N6-benzyladenosine derivatives were synthesized in an effort to identify selective ligands for the rat A3 adenosine receptor and leads for the development of antagonists. The derivatives contained structural features previously determined to be important for A3 selectivity in adenosine derivatives, such as an N6-(3-iodobenzyl) moiety, and were further substituted at the 2-position with halo, amino, or thio groups. Affinity was determined in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using [125I]AB-MECA (N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-(N-methyluronamide)), and at rat brain A1 and A2a receptors using [3H]-N6-PIA ((R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine) and [3H]CGS 21680 (2-[[[4-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenyl]ethyl]amino]-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine), respectively. A series of N6-(3-iodobenzyl) 2-amino derivatives indicated that a small 2-alkylamino group, e.g., methylamino, was favored at A3 receptors. N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)-9-methyl-2-(methylthio)adenine was 61-fold more potent than the corresponding 2-methoxy ether at A3 receptors and of comparable affinity at A1 and A2a receptors, resulting in a 3–6-fold selectivity for A3 receptors. A pair of chiral N6-(3-iodobenzyl) 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) derivatives showed stereoselectivity, with the R-enantiomer favored at A3 receptors by 5.7-fold. 2-Chloro-9-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine had a Ki value at A3 receptors of 0.28 µM. 2-Chloro-9-[2-amino-2,3-dideoxy-β-d-5-(methylcarbamoyl)-arabinofuranosyl]-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine was moderately selective for A1 and A3 vs A2a receptors. A 3′-deoxy analogue of a highly A3-selective adenosine derivative retained selectivity in binding and was a full agonist in the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase mediated via cloned rat A3 receptors expressed in CHO cells. The 3′-OH and 4′-CH2OH groups of adenosine are not required for activation at A3 receptors. A

  20. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Khalaf F; Thomas, Mark R; Judge, Heather M; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C; Storey, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7%±4.4 vs. control 22.6%±2.4; p<0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6±6.6 vs. 28.0±6.6; p=0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection.

  1. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Khalaf F.; Thomas, Mark R.; Judge, Heather M.; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R.; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C.; Storey, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7% ± 4.4 vs. control 22.6% ± 2.4; p < 0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6 ± 6.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.6; p = 0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  2. Pharmacology of the Adenosine A3 Receptor in the Vasculature and Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Fen; Low, Leanne M.; Rose’Meyer, Roselyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension is considered to be a multifactorial disorder and its aetiology has yet to be clearly identified. As the adenosine receptors have a significant role in mediating vasodilation, alterations in their structures or signalling pathways may be involved in the development of hypertension. This study aimed to measure the expression of adenosine A3 receptors in a range of cardiovascular tissues and determine whether they could be altered with essential hypertension, and to functionally test responses to adenosine A3 receptor agonists in coronary blood vessels using the isolated perfused heart preparation. Methods mRNA samples from cardiovascular tissues and a range of blood vessels were collected from 10 week old male spontaneously hypertensive rats and age-gender matched Wistar rats (n = 8). The Langendorff heart perfusion preparation was used to characterise adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in the rat heart. Results Adenosine A3 receptor agonists induced coronary vasodilation. The expression of adenosine A3 receptors in cardiovascular tissues was altered in a tissue-specific pattern. Specifically, down-regulation of adenosine A3 receptor expression occurred in hypertensive hearts, which might be associated with attenuated vasodilator responses observed in coronary vessels to adenosine A3 receptor agonists. Conclusions This study demonstrated alterations in the expression of adenosine A3 receptors occurred in a tissue specific mode, and reduced adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Our findings with regard to changes in the adenosine A3 receptor in hypertensive hearts suggest that adenosine A3 receptor might play a role in the physiopathology of essential hypertension and potentially open the way to pharmacologic manipulation of vasomotor activity by the use of adenosine A3 receptor agonists. PMID:26907173

  3. Partial purification and characterization of the short-chain prenyltransferases, gernayl diphospate synthase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase, from Abies grandis (grand fir).

    PubMed

    Tholl, D; Croteau, R; Gershenzon, J

    2001-02-15

    In the conifer Abies grandis (grand fir), a secreted oleoresin rich in mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes serves as a constitutive and induced defense against insects and pathogenic fungi. Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase, two enzymes which form the principal precursors of the oleoresin mono- and sesquiterpenes, were isolated from the stems of 2-year-old grand fir saplings. These enzymes were partially purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and phenyl-Sepharose to remove competing phosphohydrolase and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase activities. GPP and FPP synthase formed GPP and E,E-FPP, respectively, as the sole products of the enzymatic condensation of IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The properties of both enzymes are broadly similar to those of other prenyltransferases. The apparent native molecular masses are 54 +/- 3 kDa for GPP synthase and 110 +/- 6 kDa fo

  4. Trehalose Phosphate Synthesis in Streptomyces hygroscopicus: Purification of Guanosine Diphosphate d-Glucose: d-Glucose-6-Phosphate 1-Glucosyl-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Elbein, Alan D.

    1968-01-01

    Guanosine diphosphate d-glucose:d-glucose-6-phosphate 1-glucosyl-transferase was purified approximately 100-fold from extracts of Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The purified enzyme catalyzed the transfer of glucose from guanosine diphosphate-d-glucose to glucose-6-phosphate to form trehalose phosphate and guanosine diphosphate. The enzyme was specific for these two substrates and was stimulated by the addition of magnesium ions. The product was characterized as α-α-trehalose-6-phosphate by its physical and chemical properties. The enzyme was present in a large number of Streptomyces species, suggesting that this group of organisms synthesized trehalose phosphate in a unique manner. This enzyme was not detected in fungi, since these organisms utilized uridine diphosphate-d-glucose as the glucosyl donor. PMID:5726304

  5. Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-24

    The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

  6. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors