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Sample records for adenosine tri-phosphate atp

  1. Measurement and interpretation of microbial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Frederik; Goldschmidt, Felix; Vital, Marius; Wang, Yingying; Egli, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    There is a widespread need for cultivation-free methods to quantify viability of natural microbial communities in aquatic environments. Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of all living cells, and therefore a useful indicator of viability. A luminescence-based ATP kit/protocol was optimised in order to detect ATP concentrations as low as 0.0001 nM with a standard deviation of <5%. Using this method, more than 100 water samples from a variety of aquatic environments (drinking water, groundwater, bottled water, river water, lake water and wastewater effluent) were analysed for extracellular ATP and microbial ATP in comparison with flow-cytometric (FCM) parameters. Microbial ATP concentrations ranged between 3% and 97% of total ATP concentrations, and correlated well (R(2)=0.8) with the concentrations of intact microbial cells (after staining with propidium iodide). From this correlation, we calculated an average ATP-per-cell value of 1.75x10(-10)nmol/cell. An even better correlation (R(2)=0.88) was observed between intact biovolume (derived from FCM scatter data) and microbial ATP concentrations, and an average ATP-per-biovolume value of 2.95x10(-9)nmol/microm(3) was calculated. These results support the use of ATP analysis for both routine monitoring and research purposes, and contribute towards a better interpretation of ATP data. PMID:20605621

  2. WBC27, an adenosine tri-phosphate-binding cassette protein, controls pollen wall formation and patterning in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ke-Zhen; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Ye, De

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, the exine components are derived from tapetum. Despite its importance to sexual plant reproduction, little is known about the translocation of exine materials from tapetum to developing microspores. Here we report functional characterization of the arabidopsis WBC27 gene. WBC27 encodes an adenosine tri-phosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is expressed preferentially in tapetum. Mutation of WBC27 disrupted the exine formation. The wbc27 mutant microspores began to degenerate once released from tetrads and most of the microspores collapsed at the uninucleate stage. Only a small number of wbc27-1 microspores could develop into tricellular pollen grains. These survival pollen grains lacked exine and germinated in the anther before anthesis. All of these results suggest that the ABC transporter, WBC27 plays important roles in the formation of arabidopsis exine, possibly by translocation of lipidic precursors of sporopollenin from tapetum to developing microspores. PMID:21205178

  3. Flow cytometry and adenosine tri-phosphate analysis: alternative possibilities to evaluate major bacteriological changes in drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Dignum, Marco; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Ross, Petra; Rietveld, Luuk; Hammes, Frederik

    2012-10-01

    An ever-growing need exists for rapid, quantitative and meaningful methods to quantify and characterize the effect of different treatment steps on the microbiological processes and events that occur during drinking water treatment and distribution. Here we compared cultivation-independent flow cytometry (FCM) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis with conventional cultivation-based microbiological methods, on water samples from two full-scale treatment and distribution systems. The two systems consist of nearly identical treatment trains, but their raw water quality and pre-treatment differed significantly. All of the drinking water treatment processes affected the microbiological content of the water considerably, but once treated, the finished water remained remarkably stable throughout the distribution system. Both the FCM and ATP data were able to describe the microbiology of the systems accurately, providing meaningful process data when combined with other parameters such as dissolved organic carbon analysis. Importantly, the results highlighted a complimentary value of the two independent methods: while similar trends were mostly observed, variations in ATP-per-cell values between water samples were adequately explained by differences in the FCM fingerprints of the samples. This work demonstrates the value of alternative microbial methods for process/system control, optimization and routine monitoring of the general microbial quality of water during treatment and distribution. PMID:22763289

  4. Development of a human-specific B. thetaiotaomicron IMS/ATP assay for measuring viable human contamination in surface waters in Baja California, Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) assays utilize paramagnetic beads and target-specific antibodies to isolate target organisms. Following isolation, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is extracted from the target population and quantified. An inversely-couple...

  5. Inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli and autochthonous bacteria during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents quantified with flow cytometry and adenosine tri-phosphate analyses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Imminger, Stefanie; Czekalski, Nadine; von Gunten, Urs; Hammes, Frederik

    2016-09-15

    Inactivation kinetics of autochthonous bacteria during ozonation of wastewater effluents were investigated using cultivation-independent flow cytometry (FCM) with total cell count (TCC) and intact cell count (ICC) and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis. The principles of the methods including ozone inactivation kinetics were demonstrated with laboratory-cultured Escherichia coli spiked into filtered and sterilized wastewater effluent. Both intracellular ATP and ICC decreased with increasing ozone doses, with ICC being the more conservative parameter. The log-inactivation levels (-log(N/N0) of E. coli reached the method detection limits for FCM (∼3) and ATP (∼1.7) at specific ozone doses of ≥0.5 gO3/gDOC. During ozonation of four real wastewater effluents, the log-inactivation of autochthonous bacteria with FCM ICC was 0.3-1.0 for 0.25 gO3/gDOC and increased to 1.1-2.1 for 0.5 gO3/gDOC, but remained at a similar level of 1.5-2.8 for a further increase of the specific ozone doses to 1.0 and 1.5 gO3/gDOC. The FCM data also showed that autochthonous bacteria were composed of communities with high and low ozone reactivity. The inactivation levels measured with intracellular ATP were reasonably correlated to ICC (r(2) = 0.8). Overall, FCM and ATP measurements were demonstrated to be useful tools to monitor the inactivation of autochthonous bacteria during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents. PMID:27322566

  6. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  7. Behavior and stability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during chlorine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Nescerecka, Alina; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2016-09-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis is a cultivation-independent alternative method for the determination of bacterial viability in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated water. Here we investigated the behavior and stability of ATP during chlorination in detail. Different sodium hypochlorite doses (0-22.4 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure) were applied to an Escherichia coli pure culture suspended in filtered river water. We observed decreasing intracellular ATP with increasing chlorine concentrations, but extracellular ATP concentrations only increased when the chlorine dose exceeded 0.35 mg L(-1). The release of ATP from chlorine-damaged bacteria coincided with severe membrane damage detected with flow cytometry (FCM). The stability of extracellular ATP was subsequently studied in different water matrixes, and we found that extracellular ATP was stable in sterile deionized water and also in chlorinated water until extremely high chlorine doses (≤11.2 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure). In contrast, ATP decreased relatively slowly (k = 0.145 h(-1)) in 0.1 μm filtered river water, presumably due to degradation by either extracellular enzymes or the fraction of bacteria that were able to pass through the filter. Extracellular ATP decreased considerably faster (k = 0.368 h(-1)) during batch growth of a river water bacterial community. A series of growth potential tests showed that extracellular ATP molecules were utilized as a phosphorus source during bacteria proliferation. From the combined data we conclude that ATP released from bacteria at high chlorine doses could promote bacteria regrowth, contributing to biological instability in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:27295623

  8. Neuronal adenosine release, and not astrocytic ATP release, mediates feedback inhibition of excitatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Lovatt, Ditte; Xu, Qiwu; Liu, Wei; Takano, Takahiro; Smith, Nathan A.; Schnermann, Jurgen; Tieu, Kim; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is a potent anticonvulsant acting on excitatory synapses through A1 receptors. Cellular release of ATP, and its subsequent extracellular enzymatic degradation to adenosine, could provide a powerful mechanism for astrocytes to control the activity of neural networks during high-intensity activity. Despite adenosine's importance, the cellular source of adenosine remains unclear. We report here that multiple enzymes degrade extracellular ATP in brain tissue, whereas only Nt5e degrades AMP to adenosine. However, endogenous A1 receptor activation during cortical seizures in vivo or heterosynaptic depression in situ is independent of Nt5e activity, and activation of astrocytic ATP release via Ca2+ photolysis does not trigger synaptic depression. In contrast, selective activation of postsynaptic CA1 neurons leads to release of adenosine and synaptic depression. This study shows that adenosine-mediated synaptic depression is not a consequence of astrocytic ATP release, but is instead an autonomic feedback mechanism that suppresses excitatory transmission during prolonged activity. PMID:22421436

  9. Laboratory procedures manual for the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Knust, E. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Vance, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A manual on the procedures and instruments developed for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luciferase assay is presented. Data cover, laboratory maintenance, maintenance of bacterial cultures, bacteria measurement, reagents, luciferase procedures, and determination of microbal susceptibility to antibiotics.

  10. Neuronal transporter and astrocytic ATP exocytosis underlie activity-dependent adenosine release in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes within the mammalian CNS. However, the precise mechanisms of how the concentration of extracellular adenosine increases following neural activity remain contentious. Here we have used microelectrode biosensors to directly measure adenosine release induced by focal stimulation in stratum radiatum of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Adenosine release was both action potential and Ca2+ dependent and could be evoked with low stimulation frequencies and small numbers of stimuli. Adenosine release required the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and could be evoked by local application of glutamate receptor agonists. Approximately 40% of stimulated-adenosine release occurred by translocation of adenosine via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). This component of release persisted in the presence of the gliotoxin fluoroacetate and thus results from the direct release of adenosine from neurons. A reduction of adenosine release in the presence of NTPDase blockers, in slices from CD73−/− and dn-SNARE mice, provides evidence that a component of adenosine release arises from the extracellular metabolism of ATP released from astrocytes. This component of release appeared to have slower kinetics than the direct ENT-mediated release of adenosine. These data suggest that activity-dependent adenosine release is surprisingly complex and, in the hippocampus, arises from at least two distinct mechanisms with different cellular sources. PMID:23713028

  11. Essential role of adenosine, adenosine A1 receptors, and ATP-sensitive K+ channels in cerebral ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed Central

    Heurteaux, C; Lauritzen, I; Widmann, C; Lazdunski, M

    1995-01-01

    Preconditioning with sublethal ischemia protects against neuronal damage after subsequent lethal ischemic insults in hippocampal neurons. A pharmacological approach using agonists and antagonists at the adenosine A1 receptor as well as openers and blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels has been combined with an analysis of neuronal death and gene expression of subunits of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, HSP70, c-fos, c-jun, and growth factors. It indicates that the mechanism of ischemic tolerance involves a cascade of events including liberation of adenosine, stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors, and, via these receptors, opening of sulfonylurea-sensitive ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7753861

  12. K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, A; Andó, RD; Túri, G; Rózsa, B; Sperlágh, B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE This study was undertaken to characterize the ATP, adenosine and glutamate outflow evoked by depolarization with high K+ concentrations, in slices of rat hippocampus. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We utilized the microelectrode biosensor technique and extracellular electrophysiological recording for the real-time monitoring of the efflux of ATP, adenosine and glutamate. KEY RESULTS ATP, adenosine and glutamate sensors exhibited transient and reversible current during depolarization with 25 mM K+, with distinct kinetics. The ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 enhanced the extracellular level of ATP and inhibited the prolonged adenosine efflux, suggesting that generation of adenosine may derive from the extracellular breakdown of ATP. Stimulation-evoked ATP, adenosine and glutamate efflux was inhibited by tetrodotoxin, while exposure to Ca2+-free medium abolished ATP and adenosine efflux from hippocampal slices. Extracellular elevation of ATP and adenosine were decreased in the presence of NMDA receptor antagonists, D-AP-5 and ifenprodil, whereas non-NMDA receptor blockade by CNQX inhibited glutamate but not ATP and adenosine efflux. The gliotoxin fluoroacetate and P2X7 receptor antagonists inhibited the K+-evoked ATP, adenosine and glutamate efflux, while carbenoxolone in low concentration and probenecid decreased only the adenosine efflux. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrated activity-dependent gliotransmitter release in the hippocampus in response to ongoing neuronal activity. ATP and glutamate were released by P2X7 receptor activation into extracellular space. Although the increased extracellular levels of adenosine did derive from released ATP, adenosine might also be released directly via pannexin hemichannels. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Sershen, pp. 1000–1002 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02072.x PMID:22394324

  13. Inhibition of ATP Synthase by Chlorinated Adenosine Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lisa S.; Nowak, Billie J.; Ayres, Mary L.; Krett, Nancy L.; Rosen, Steven T.; Zhang, Shuxing; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a ribonucleoside analogue that is currently in clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on the decline in cellular ATP pool following 8-Cl-Ado treatment, we hypothesized that 8-Cl-ADP and 8-Cl-ATP may interfere with ATP synthase, a key enzyme in ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of two major parts; FO intermembrane base and F1 domain, containing α and β subunits. Crystal structures of both α and β subunits that bind to the substrate, ADP, are known in tight binding (αdpβdp) and loose binding (αtpβtp) states. Molecular docking demonstrated that 8-Cl-ADP/8-Cl-ATP occupied similar binding modes as ADP/ATP in the tight and loose binding sites of ATP synthase, respectively, suggesting that the chlorinated nucleotide metabolites may be functional substrates and inhibitors of the enzyme. The computational predictions were consistent with our whole cell biochemical results. Oligomycin, an established pharmacological inhibitor of ATP synthase, decreased both ATP and 8-Cl-ATP formation from exogenous substrates, however, did not affect pyrimidine nucleoside analogue triphosphate accumulation. Synthesis of ATP from ADP was inhibited in cells loaded with 8-Cl-ATP. These biochemical studies are in consent with the computational modeling; in the αtpβtp state 8-Cl-ATP occupies similar binding as ANP, a non-hydrolyzable ATP mimic that is a known inhibitor. Similarly, in the substrate binding site (αdpβdp) 8-Cl-ATP occupies a similar position as ATP mimic ADP-BeF3 −. Collectively, our current work suggests that 8-Cl-ADP may serve as a substrate and the 8-Cl-ATP may be an inhibitor of ATP synthase. PMID:19477165

  14. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, L; Gombault, A; Fanny, M; Villeret, B; Savigny, F; Guillou, N; Panek, C; Le Bert, M; Lagente, V; Rassendren, F; Riteau, N; Couillin, I

    2015-01-01

    The NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a major component of the innate immune system, but its mechanism of activation by a wide range of molecules remains largely unknown. Widely used nano-sized inorganic metal oxides such as silica dioxide (nano-SiO2) and titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages similarly to silica or asbestos micro-sized particles. By investigating towards the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to nanoparticles, we show here that active adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine receptor signalling are required for inflammasome activation. Nano-SiO2 or nano-TiO2 caused a significant increase in P2Y1, P2Y2, A2A and/or A2B receptor expression, whereas the P2X7 receptor was downregulated. Interestingly, IL-1β secretion in response to nanoparticles is increased by enhanced ATP and ADP hydrolysis, whereas it is decreased by adenosine degradation or selective A2A or A2B receptor inhibition. Downstream of these receptors, our results show that nanoparticles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome via activation of PLC-InsP3 and/or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (ADCY)-cAMP pathways. Finally, a high dose of adenosine triggers inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion through adenosine cellular uptake by nucleotide transporters and by its subsequent transformation in ATP by adenosine kinase. In summary, we show for the first time that extracellular adenosine activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by two ways: by interacting with adenosine receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations and through cellular uptake by equilibrative nucleoside transporters at millimolar concentrations. These findings provide new molecular insights on the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and new therapeutic strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25654762

  15. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine.

    PubMed

    Baron, L; Gombault, A; Fanny, M; Villeret, B; Savigny, F; Guillou, N; Panek, C; Le Bert, M; Lagente, V; Rassendren, F; Riteau, N; Couillin, I

    2015-01-01

    The NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a major component of the innate immune system, but its mechanism of activation by a wide range of molecules remains largely unknown. Widely used nano-sized inorganic metal oxides such as silica dioxide (nano-SiO2) and titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages similarly to silica or asbestos micro-sized particles. By investigating towards the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to nanoparticles, we show here that active adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine receptor signalling are required for inflammasome activation. Nano-SiO2 or nano-TiO2 caused a significant increase in P2Y1, P2Y2, A2A and/or A2B receptor expression, whereas the P2X7 receptor was downregulated. Interestingly, IL-1β secretion in response to nanoparticles is increased by enhanced ATP and ADP hydrolysis, whereas it is decreased by adenosine degradation or selective A2A or A2B receptor inhibition. Downstream of these receptors, our results show that nanoparticles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome via activation of PLC-InsP3 and/or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (ADCY)-cAMP pathways. Finally, a high dose of adenosine triggers inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion through adenosine cellular uptake by nucleotide transporters and by its subsequent transformation in ATP by adenosine kinase. In summary, we show for the first time that extracellular adenosine activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by two ways: by interacting with adenosine receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations and through cellular uptake by equilibrative nucleoside transporters at millimolar concentrations. These findings provide new molecular insights on the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and new therapeutic strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25654762

  16. Blockade of adenosine receptors unmasks a stimulatory effect of ATP on cardiac contractility.

    PubMed Central

    Mantelli, L.; Amerini, S.; Filippi, S.; Ledda, F.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of ATP, alpha,beta-methylene ATP and beta,gamma-methylene ATP on the contractile tension of guinea-pig isolated left atria were evaluated. 2. ATP (1-100 microM) produced a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect; this response was converted to a positive inotropic effect in the presence of the antagonist of adenosine A1 receptors, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; 0.1 microM), and in the presence of 8-phenyltheophylline (10 microM), an antagonist of A1 and A2 receptors. 3. The positive inotropic effect of ATP was antagonized by the P2 receptor antagonist, suramin (500 microM). Reactive blue 2 (30-500 microM), a putative P2y receptor antagonist, concentration-dependently reduced and finally abolished the effect of ATP. 4. In the presence of 8-phenyltheophylline, the stable analogues of ATP, alpha,beta-methylene ATP and beta,gamma-methylene ATP (1-30 microM), produced a concentration-dependent increase in atrial contractility of a lesser degree than that induced by ATP. 5. The results suggest that when inhibitory adenosine receptors are blocked, ATP produces a positive inotropic effect, probably mediated by P2y receptor stimulation. PMID:8401938

  17. ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels Regulate the Concentrative Adenosine Transporter CNT2 following Activation by A1 Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duflot, Sylvie; Riera, Bárbara; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casadó, Vicent; Norman, Robert I.; Casado, F. Javier; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2004-01-01

    This study describes a novel mechanism of regulation of the high-affinity Na+-dependent adenosine transporter (CNT2) via the activation of A1 adenosine receptors (A1R). This regulation is mediated by the activation of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. The high-affinity Na+-dependent adenosine transporter CNT2 and A1R are coexpressed in the basolateral domain of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and are colocalized in the rat hepatoma cell line FAO. The transient increase in CNT2-mediated transport activity triggered by (−)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine is fully inhibited by KATP channel blockers and mimicked by a KATP channel opener. A1R agonist activation of CNT2 occurs in both hepatocytes and FAO cells, which express Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1, SUR2A, and SUR2B mRNA channel subunits. With the available antibodies against Kir6.X, SUR2A, and SUR2B, it is shown that all of these proteins colocalize with CNT2 and A1R in defined plasma membrane domains of FAO cells. The extent of the purinergic modulation of CNT2 is affected by the glucose concentration, a finding which indicates that glycemia and glucose metabolism may affect this cross-regulation among A1R, CNT2, and KATP channels. These results also suggest that the activation of KATP channels under metabolic stress can be mediated by the activation of A1R. Cell protection under these circumstances may be achieved by potentiation of the uptake of adenosine and its further metabolization to ATP. Mediation of purinergic responses and a connection between the intracellular energy status and the need for an exogenous adenosine supply are novel roles for KATP channels. PMID:15024061

  18. Fullerene derived molecularly imprinted polymer for chemosensing of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Piyush S; Dabrowski, Marcin; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kc, Chandra B; Sobczak, Janusz W; Pieta, Piotr; D'Souza, Francis; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2014-09-24

    For molecular imprinting of oxidatively electroactive analytes by electropolymerization, we used herein reductively electroactive functional monomers. As a proof of concept, we applied C60 fullerene adducts as such for the first time. For that, we derivatized C60 to bear either an uracil or an amide, or a carboxy addend for recognition of the adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) oxidizable analyte with the ATP-templated molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP-ATP). Accordingly, the ATP complex with all of the functional monomers formed in solution was potentiodynamically electropolymerized to deposit an MIP-ATP film either on an Au electrode of the quartz crystal resonator or on a Pt disk electrode for the piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) or capacitive impedimetry (CI) determination of ATP, respectively, under the flow-injection analysis (FIA) conditions. The apparent imprinting factor for ATP was ∼4.0. After extraction of the ATP template, analytical performance of the resulting chemosensors, including detectability, sensitivity, and selectivity, was characterized. The limit of detection was 0.3 and 0.03mM ATP for the PM and CI chemosensor, respectively. The MIP-ATP film discriminated structural analogues of ATP quite well. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms were fitted to the experimental data of the ATP sorption and sorption stability constants appeared to be nearly independent of the adopted sorption model. PMID:25172817

  19. Impairment of ATP hydrolysis decreases adenosine A1 receptor tonus favoring cholinergic nerve hyperactivity in the obstructed human urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ramos, M; Silva, I; Faria, M; Magalhães-Cardoso, M T; Correia, J; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether reduced adenosine formation linked to deficits in extracellular ATP hydrolysis by NTPDases contributes to detrusor neuromodulatory changes associated with bladder outlet obstruction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The kinetics of ATP catabolism and adenosine formation as well as the role of P1 receptor agonists on muscle tension and nerve-evoked [(3)H]ACh release were evaluated in mucosal-denuded detrusor strips from BPH patients (n = 31) and control organ donors (n = 23). The neurogenic release of ATP and [(3)H]ACh was higher (P < 0.05) in detrusor strips from BPH patients. The extracellular hydrolysis of ATP and, subsequent, adenosine formation was slower (t (1/2) 73 vs. 36 min, P < 0.05) in BPH detrusor strips. The A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of evoked [(3)H]ACh release by adenosine (100 μM), NECA (1 μM), and R-PIA (0.3 μM) was enhanced in BPH bladders. Relaxation of detrusor contractions induced by acetylcholine required 30-fold higher concentrations of adenosine. Despite VAChT-positive cholinergic nerves exhibiting higher A(1) immunoreactivity in BPH bladders, the endogenous adenosine tonus revealed by adenosine deaminase is missing. Restoration of A1 inhibition was achieved by favoring (1) ATP hydrolysis with apyrase (2 U mL(-1)) or (2) extracellular adenosine accumulation with dipyridamole or EHNA, as these drugs inhibit adenosine uptake and deamination, respectively. In conclusion, reduced ATP hydrolysis leads to deficient adenosine formation and A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of cholinergic nerve activity in the obstructed human bladder. Thus, we propose that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous adenosine levels and/or A(1) receptor activation might be useful to control bladder overactivity in BPH patients. PMID:26521170

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) CONTENT OF SUBSURFACE MATERIAL AND THE RATE OF BIODEGRADATION OF ALKYLBENZENES AND CHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of biotransformation of toluene in unconsolidated subsurface material from sites at Lula, Oklahoma, USA and Conroe, Texas, USA was compared to the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) content of these materials. The rate of toluene degradation decreased with decreasing ATP conte...

  1. Application of firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Tuttle, S. A.; Schrock, C. G.; Deming, J. W.; Barza, M. J.; Wienstein, L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a rapid method for determining microbial susceptibilities to antibiotics using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is documented. The reduction of bacterial ATP by an antimicrobial agent was determined to be a valid measure of drug effect in most cases. The effect of 12 antibiotics on 8 different bacterial species gave a 94 percent correlation with the standard Kirby-Buer-Agar disc diffusion method. A 93 percent correlation was obtained when the ATP assay method was applied directly to 50 urine specimens from patients with urinary tract infections. Urine samples were centrifuged first to that bacterial pellets could be suspended in broth. No primary isolation or subculturing was required. Mixed cultures in which one species was predominant gave accurate results for the most abundant organism. Since the method is based on an increase in bacterial ATP with time, the presence of leukocytes did not interfere with the interpretation of results. Both the incubation procedure and the ATP assays are compatible with automation.

  2. Determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP) using oxytetracycline-Eu 3+ as a fluorescence probe by spectrofluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Faju; Miao, Yanhong; Jiang, Chongqiu

    2005-10-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP). We studied the interactions between oxytetracycline (OTC)-Eu 3+ complex and adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP) by using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. Using oxytetracycline (OTC)-Eu 3+ as a fluorescence probe, under the optimum conditions, ATP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the OTC-Eu 3+ complex at λ = 612 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of ATP. Optimum conditions for the determination of ATP were also investigated. The linear ranges for ATP are 8.00 × 10 -8-1.50 × 10 -6 mol L -1 with detection limits of 2.67 × 10 -9 mol L -1. This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of ATP in samples. The mechanism of fluorescence enhancement between oxytetracycline (OTC)-Eu 3+ complex and ATP was also studied.

  3. The effect of systemic hypoxia on interstitial and blood adenosine, AMP, ADP and ATP in dog skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mo, F M; Ballard, H J

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of moderate systemic hypoxia on the arterial, venous and interstital concentration of adenosine and adenine nucleotides in the neurally and vascularly isolated, constant-flow perfused gracilis muscles of anaesthetized dogs. Systemic hypoxia reduced arterial PO2 from 129 to 28 mmHg, venous PO2 from 63 to 23 mmHg, arterial pH from 7.43 to 7.36 and venous pH from 7.38 to 7.32. Neither arterial nor venous PCO2 were changed. Arterial perfusion pressure remained at 109 ± 8 mmHg for the first 5 min of hypoxia, then increased to 131 ± 11 mmHg by 9 min, and then decreased again throughout the rest of the hypoxic period. Arterial adenosine (427 ± 98 nm) did not change during hypoxia, but venous adenosine increased from 350 ± 52 to 518 ± 107 nm. Interstitial adenosine concentration did not increase (339 ± 154 nm in normoxia and 262 ± 97 nm in hypoxia). Neither arterial nor venous nor interstitial concentrations of adenine nucleotides changed significantly in hypoxia. Interstitial adenosine, AMP, ADP and ATP increased from 194 ± 40, 351 ± 19, 52 ± 7 and 113 ± 36 to 764 ± 140, 793 ± 119, 403 ± 67 and 574 ± 122 nm, respectively, during 2 Hz muscle contractions. Adenosine, AMP, ADP and ATP infused into the arterial blood did not elevate the interstitial concentration until the arterial concentration exceeded 10 μm. We conclude that the increased adenosine in skeletal muscle during systemic hypoxia is formed by the vascular tissue or the blood cells, and that adenosine is formed intracellularly by these tissues. On the other hand, adenosine formation takes place extracellularly in the interstitial space during muscle contractions. PMID:11600692

  4. Online cleanup of accelerated solvent extractions for determination of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in royal jelly using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Jinhui; Chen, Fang; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing

    2009-06-10

    Determination of the levels of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in royal jelly is important for the study of its pharmacological activities, health benefits, and adenosine phosphate degradation. In this study was developed a novel method to determine ATP, ADP, and AMP levels in royal jelly using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by online cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using an 11 mL ASE cell, ethanol/water (5:5 v/v) as the extraction solvent, 1500 psi, 80 degrees C, a 5 min static time, and a 60% flush volume. Optimum separation of the three compounds was achieved in <25 min using a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column with 0.05 mol L(-1) NH(4)H(2)PO(4) (pH 5.70) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection was performed at 257 nm. The method was sensitive (LOD adenosine phosphate extraction procedures (perchloric acid). The results indicate that the two techniques are similar in terms of recovery and reproducibility, but when other factors such as extraction time, environmental protection, and worker's health are considered, ASE is preferable to the classical extraction method. With this ASE-HPLC method, a minisurvey of ATP, ADP, and AMP levels in 15 samples of royal jelly of different origins was performed. Sample results indicated that the AMP concentration was 24.2-2214.4 mg kg(-1), whereas ATP and ADP were not detectable or present only at low levels. PMID:19435312

  5. A rapid method for the determination of microbial susceptibility using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M.; Weinstein, L.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was optimized for pure bacteria in broth in order to evaluate if changes in bacterial ATP content could be used as a rapid measure of antibiotic effect on microorganisms. Broth cultures of log phase bacteria were incubated at 310 K (37 C) for 2.5 hours at antimicrobial concentrations which resulted in the best discrimination between sensitive and resistant strains. Eighty-seven strains of 11 bacterial species were studied for their susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, Penicillin G, nafcillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, and chloramplenicol. The major advantage of the ATP system over existing methods of rapid microbial susceptibility testing is that the assay can be made specific for bacterial ATP.

  6. ATP- and adenosine-mediated signaling in the central nervous system: adenosine stimulates glutamate release from astrocytes via A2a adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2004-02-01

    Adenosine enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in astrocytes via A(2a) adenosine receptors involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation. The Ca(2+) rise is inhibited by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular transport; but not by neomycin and U73122, phospholipase C inhibitors; xestospongin, an IP(3)-receptor inhibitor; ryanodine, a ryanodine-receptor inhibitor; TMB-8, an endoplasmic reticulum calcium-release blocker; octanol, a gap-junction inhibitor; or cadmium, a non-selective, calcium-channel blocker. Adenosine stimulates astrocytic glutamate release via an A(2a) adenosine receptors/PKA pathway, and the release is inhibited by the vesicular transport inhibitors brefeldin A and bafilomycin A1. A(2a) adenosine receptors and the ensuing PKA events, thus, are endowed with vesicular Ca(2+) release from an unknown intracellular calcium store and vesicular glutamate release from astrocytes. PMID:14978344

  7. Extracellular ATP promotes stomatal opening of Arabidopsis thaliana through heterotrimeric G protein α subunit and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Hua; Wang, Wei-Xia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ting; Li, Xia; Shang, Zhong-Lin

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) has been reported to exist in apoplasts of plant cells as a signal molecule. Extracellular ATP (eATP) plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Here, extracellular ATP was found to promote stomatal opening of Arabidopsis thaliana in light and darkness. ADP, GTP, and weakly hydrolyzable ATP analogs (ATPγS, Bz-ATP, and 2meATP) showed similar effects, whereas AMP and adenosine did not affect stomatal movement. Apyrase inhibited stomatal opening. ATP-promoted stomatal opening was blocked by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (diphenylene iodonium) or deoxidizer (dithiothreitol), and was impaired in null mutant of NADPH oxidase (atrbohD/F). Added ATP triggered ROS generation in guard cells via NADPH oxidase. ATP also induced Ca(2+) influx and H(+) efflux in guard cells. In atrbohD/F, ATP-induced ion flux was strongly suppressed. In null mutants of the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit, ATP-promoted stomatal opening, cytoplasmic ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and H(+) efflux were all suppressed. These results indicated that eATP-promoted stomatal opening possibly involves the heterotrimeric G protein, ROS, cytosolic Ca(2+), and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. PMID:22138967

  8. A sensitive aptasensor for colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on the protective effect of ATP-aptamer complexes on unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuan; Qi, Liang; Lv, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Ting; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most direct source of energy in organisms. This study is the first to demonstrate that ATP-aptamer complexes provide greater protection for unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against salt-induced aggregation than either aptamer or ATP alone. This protective effect was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurement, and fluorescence polarization techniques. Utilizing controlled particle aggregation/dispersion as a gauge, a sensitive and selective aptasensor for colorimetric detection of ATP was developed using ATP-binding aptamers as the identification element and unmodified AuNPs as the probe. This aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship between the absorbance and the logarithm concentration of ATP within a 50-1000 nM range. ATP analogs such as guanosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate resulted in little or no interference in the determination of ATP. PMID:26638040

  9. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of adenosine 5‧ triphosphate (ATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, Khaled; El-Feki, Hafed; Marsan, Olivier; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    ATP is a well-known energy supplier in cells. The idea to associate ATP to pharmaceutical formulations/biotechnological devices to promote cells activity by potentially modulating their microenvironment thus appears as an appealing novel approach. Since biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites have shown great promise for biomedical applications (bone regeneration, cells diagnostics/therapeutics, …), thanks to a high surface reactivity and an intrinsically high biocompatibility, the present contribution was aimed at exploring ATP/apatite interactions. ATP adsorption on a synthetic carbonated nanocrystalline apatite preliminarily characterized (by XRD, FTIR, Raman, TG-DTA and SEM-EDX) was investigated in detail, pointing out a good agreement with Sips isothermal features. Adsorption characteristics were compared to those previously obtained on monophosphate nucleotides (AMP, CMP), unveiling some specificities. ATP was found to adsorb effectively onto biomimetic apatite: despite smaller values of the affinity constant KS and the exponential factor m, larger adsorbed amounts were reached for ATP as compared to AMP for any given concentration in solution. m < 1 suggests that the ATP/apatite adsorption process is mostly guided by direct surface bonding rather than through stabilizing intermolecular interactions. Although standard ΔGads ° was estimated to only -4 kJ/mol, the large value of Nmax led to significantly negative effective ΔGads values down to -33 kJ/mol, reflecting the spontaneous character of adsorption process. Vibrational spectroscopy data (FTIR and Raman) pointed out spectral modifications upon adsorption, confirming chemical-like interactions where both the triphosphate group of ATP and its nucleic base were involved. The present study is intended to serve as a basis for future research works involving ATP and apatite nanocrystals/nanoparticles in view of biomedical applications (e.g. bone tissue engineering, intracellular drug delivery, …).

  10. Formation of ATP by the adenosine triphosphatase complex from spinach chloroplasts reconstituted together with bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Winget, G D; Kanner, N; Racker, E

    1977-06-01

    The energy-linked ATPase complex has been isolated from spinach chloroplasts. This protein complex contained all the subunits of the chloroplast coupling factor (CF1) as well as several hydrophobic compoenents. When the activated complex was reconstituted with added soybean phospholipids, it catalyzed the exchange of radioactive inorganic phosphate with ATP. Sonication of the complex into proteoliposomes together with bacteriorhodopsin yield vesicles that catalyzed light-dependent ATP formation. Both the 32Pi-ATP exchange reactions and ATP formation were sensitive to uncouplers such as 3-tert-butyl-5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, bis-(hexafluoroacetonyl)acetone and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone, that act to dissipate a proton gradient. The energy transfer inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, triphenyltin chloride and 2-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4,6'-dihydroxydihydrochalcone were also effective inhibitors of both reactions. PMID:141938

  11. Sperm morphology, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and swimming velocity: unexpected relationships in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Brookes, Lola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between sperm energetics and sperm function is poorly known, but is central to our understanding of the evolution of sperm traits. The aim of this study was to examine how sperm morphology and ATP content affect sperm swimming velocity in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We exploited the high inter-male variation in this species and created extra experimental power by increasing the number of individuals with very long or short sperm through artificial selection. We found a pronounced quadratic relationship between total sperm length and swimming velocity, with velocity increasing with length up to a point, but declining in the very longest sperm. We also found an unexpected negative association between midpiece length and ATP content: sperm with a short midpiece generally contained the highest concentration of ATP. Low intracellular ATP is therefore unlikely to explain reduced swimming velocity among the very longest sperm (which tend to have a shorter midpiece). PMID:27559067

  12. Sperm morphology, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and swimming velocity: unexpected relationships in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Bennison, Clair; Hemmings, Nicola; Brookes, Lola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2016-08-31

    The relationship between sperm energetics and sperm function is poorly known, but is central to our understanding of the evolution of sperm traits. The aim of this study was to examine how sperm morphology and ATP content affect sperm swimming velocity in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata We exploited the high inter-male variation in this species and created extra experimental power by increasing the number of individuals with very long or short sperm through artificial selection. We found a pronounced quadratic relationship between total sperm length and swimming velocity, with velocity increasing with length up to a point, but declining in the very longest sperm. We also found an unexpected negative association between midpiece length and ATP content: sperm with a short midpiece generally contained the highest concentration of ATP. Low intracellular ATP is therefore unlikely to explain reduced swimming velocity among the very longest sperm (which tend to have a shorter midpiece). PMID:27559067

  13. The rapid estimation of microbial contamination of raw meat by measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Stannard, C J; Wood, J M

    1983-12-01

    Bacteria were separated from raw meat homogenate by a simple three-stage process. Centrifugation (10 s at 2000 g) removed coarse particles; stirring with the cation exchange resin Bio-Rex 70 removed smaller particles and filtration through 0.22 micron membranes removed soluble materials. By this process 70-80% of the microbial populations of meat homogenates were consistently isolated on the filters. A linear relationship was found between log10 microbial ATP and log10 colony count of meat over the range 10(5)-10(9) cfu/g. The value of ATP/cfu for meat samples was within the range previously reported for pure cultures. These data indicated that ATP extracted from the filters originated from bacteria in the meat samples. Several samples can be analysed simultaneously in an elapsed time of 20-25 min. The variability associated with estimates of both colony counts and ATP levels has been determined. PMID:6662830

  14. Ultrasensitive bioluminescent determinations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for investigating the energetics of host-grown microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, J. H.; Dhople, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Stability and optimal concentrations of reagents were studied in bioluminescence assay of ATP levels. Luciferase enzyme was prepared and purified using Sephadex G-100. Interdependencies between enzyme and luciferin concentrations in presence of optimal Mg are illustrated. Optimal ionic strength was confirmed to be 0.05 M for the four buffers tested. Adapted features of the R- and H-systems are summarized, as well as the percentages of ATP pools released from representative microbes by heat and chloroform.

  15. Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes. Methods Animal study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise. Results Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased

  16. The effect of growth phase and medium on the use of the firefly adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay for the quantitation of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, V. N.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was used as a rapid method to determine the number of bacteria in a urine sample after nonbacterial components were removed. Accurate cellular ATP values, determined when bacteria were grown in an environment similar to that in which they were found, were necessary for the calculation of bacterial titer in urine. Cellular ATP values vary depending on the extraction method, the cell growth phase, and cell growth conditions. ATP per cell values of stationary E. coli grown in urine were two times greater than ATP per cell values of cells grown in trypticase soy broth. Glucose and urea were examined as possible components responsible for the cellular ATP variation.

  17. [The role of adenosine Al receptors and mitochondrial K+ATP channels in the mechanism of increasing the resistance to acute hypoxia in the combined effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia].

    PubMed

    Tregub, P P; Kulikov, V P; Stepanova, L A; Zabrodina, A S; Nagibaeva, M E

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of the role of mitoK+ATp channels and Al-adenosine receptor in the mechanism of increasing the resistance to acute hypoxia after hypoxic, hypercapnic and hypercapnic-hypoxic preconditioning. It is shown that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels and Al-adenosine receptors, an important mechanism of preconditioning have a high value to increase the resistance to acute hypoxia/ischemia in the combined effect of hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, with regard to the adenosine receptor, this mechanism is realized without the participation hypercapnic component, which apparently starts neuroprotection without activation of the adenosine Al receptors. PMID:25980226

  18. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutritional supplements designed to increase adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations are commonly used by athletes as ergogenic aids. ATP is the primary source of energy for the cells, and supplementation may enhance the ability to maintain high ATP turnover during high-intensity exercise. Oral ATP supplements have beneficial effects in some but not all studies examining physical performance. One of the remaining questions is whether orally administered ATP is bioavailable. We investigated whether acute supplementation with oral ATP administered as enteric-coated pellets led to increased concentrations of ATP or its metabolites in the circulation. Methods Eight healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over study. Participants were given in random order single doses of 5000 mg ATP or placebo. To prevent degradation of ATP in the acidic environment of the stomach, the supplement was administered via two types of pH-sensitive, enteric-coated pellets (targeted at release in the proximal or distal small intestine), or via a naso-duodenal tube. Blood ATP and metabolite concentrations were monitored by HPLC for 4.5 h (naso-duodenal tube) or 7 h (pellets) post-administration. Areas under the concentration vs. time curve were calculated and compared by paired-samples t-tests. Results ATP concentrations in blood did not increase after ATP supplementation via enteric-coated pellets or naso-duodenal tube. In contrast, concentrations of the final catabolic product of ATP, uric acid, were significantly increased compared to placebo by ~50% after administration via proximal-release pellets (P = 0.003) and naso-duodenal tube (P = 0.001), but not after administration via distal-release pellets. Conclusions A single dose of orally administered ATP is not bioavailable, and this may explain why several studies did not find ergogenic effects of oral ATP supplementation. On the other hand, increases in uric acid after release of ATP in the proximal

  19. Computational model for the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine in airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Picher, Maryse; Zuo, Peiying; Okada, Seiko F; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Button, Brian; Boucher, Richard C; Elston, Tim C

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are key components of the signaling network regulating airway clearance. They are released by the epithelium into the airway surface liquid (ASL) to stimulate cilia beating activity, mucus secretion and airway hydration. Understanding the factors affecting their availability for purinoceptor activation is an important step toward the development of new therapies for obstructive lung diseases. This chapter presents a mathematical model developed to gain predictive insights into the regulation of ASL nucleotide concentrations on human airway epithelia. The parameters were estimated from experimental data collected on polarized primary cultures of human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells. This model reproduces major experimental observations: (1) the independence of steady-state nucleotide concentrations on ASL height, (2) the impact of selective ectonucleotidase inhibitors on their steady-state ASL concentrations, (3) the changes in ASL composition caused by mechanical stress mimicking normal breathing, (4) and the differences in steady-state concentrations existing between nasal and bronchial epithelia. In addition, this model launched the study of nucleotide release into uncharted territories, which led to the discovery that airway epithelia release, not only ATP, but also ADP and AMP. This study shows that computational modeling, coupled to experimental validation, provides a powerful approach for the identification of key therapeutic targets for the improvement of airway clearance in obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:21560044

  20. Effect of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate on cryopreserved epididymal cat sperm intracellular ATP concentration, sperm quality, and in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, Paweena; Arya, Nlin; Comizzoli, Pierre; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2015-09-15

    Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is essential for supporting sperm function in the fertilization process. During cryopreservation, damage of sperm mitochondrial membrane usually leads to compromised production of intracellular ATP. Recently, extracellular ATP (ATPe) was introduced as a potent activator of sperm motility and fertilizing ability. This study aimed to evaluate (1) levels of intracellular ATP in frozen-thawed epididymal cat sperm after incubation with ATPe and (2) effects of ATPe on epididymal cat sperm parameters after freezing and thawing. Eighteen male cats were included. For each replicate, epididymal sperm from two cats were pooled to one sample (N = 9). Each pooled sample was cryopreserved with the Tris-egg yolk extender into three straws. After thawing, the first and second straws were incubated with 0-, 1.0-, or 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes and evaluated for sperm quality at 10 minutes, 1, 3, and 6 hours after thawing and fertilizing ability. The third straw was evaluated for intracellular ATP concentration in control and with 2.5-mM ATPe treatment. Higher concentration of intracellular sperm ATP was observed in the samples treated with 2.5-mM ATPe compared to the controls (0.339 ± 0.06 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm vs. 0.002 ± 0.003 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm, P ≤ 0.05). In addition, incubation with 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes promoted sperm motility (56.7 ± 5.0 vs. 53.3 ± 4.4%, P ≤ 0.05) and progressive motility (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P ≤ 0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (36.4 ± 5.5 vs. 28.7 ± 4.8%, P ≤ 0.05), and blastocyst rate (36.1 ± 7.0 and 28.8 ± 7.4%, P ≤ 0.05) compared with the controls. In contrast, ATPe remarkably interfered acrosome integrity after 6 hours of postthawed incubation. In sum, the present finding that optimal incubation time of postthaw epididymal cat sperm under proper ATPe condition might constitute a rationale for the studies on other endangered wild felids regarding sperm quality and embryo

  1. Evaluation of the Relationship between the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Bioluminescence Assay and the Presence of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Vegetative Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Shawn G.; Sayles, Harlan; Colbert, Erica M.; Hewlett, Angela; Chaika, Oleg; Smith, Philip W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay was utilized in laboratory evaluations to determine the presence and concentration of vegetative and spore forms of Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2. Methods: Seventeen surfaces from the healthcare environment were selected for evaluation. Surfaces were inoculated with 50 µL of organism suspensions at three concentrations of 104, 106, 108 colony forming units per surface (CFU/surface) of B. anthracis. Culture-based methods and ATP based methods were utilized to determine concentrations. Results: When all concentrations were evaluated together, a positive correlation between log-adjusted CFU and Relative Light Units (RLU) for endospores and vegetative cells was established. When concentrations were evaluated separately, a significant correlation was not demonstrated. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a positive correlation for ATP and culture-based methods for the vegetative cells of B. anthracis. When evaluating the endospores and combining both metabolic states, the ATP measurements and CFU recovered did not correspond to the initial concentrations on the evaluated surfaces. The results of our study show that the low ATP signal which does not correlate well to the CFU results would not make the ATP measuring devises effective in confirming contamination residual from a bioterrorist event. PMID:24879485

  2. A1-adenosine acute withdrawal response and cholecystokinin-8 induced contractures are regulated by Ca(2+)- and ATP-activated K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Maria Grazia; Valeri, Daniela; Tucker, Steven J; Marini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In isolated guinea-pig ileum (GPI), the A1-adenosine acute withdrawal response is under the control of several neuronal signalling systems, including the μ/κ-opioid and the cannabinoid CB1 systems. It is now well established that after the stimulation of the A1-adenosine system, the indirect activation of both μ/κ-opioid and CB1 systems is prevented by the peptide cholecystokinin-8 (CCk-8). In the present study, we have investigated the involvement of the Ca(2+)/ATP-activated K(+) channels in the regulation of both acute A1-withdrawal and CCk-8-induced contractures in the GPI preparation. Interestingly, we found that: (a) the A1-withdrawal contracture is inhibited by voltage dependent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, Kv, while it is enhanced by the voltage independent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, SKCa; (b) in the presence of CCk-8, the inhibitory effect of the A1 agonist, CPA, on the peptide induced contracture is significantly enhanced by the voltage independent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, SKCa; and (c) the A1-withdrawal contracture precipitated in the presence of CCk-8 is controlled by the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, KATP. Our data suggest, for the first time, that both Ca(2+)- and ATP-activated K(+) channels are involved in the regulation of both A1-withdrawal precipitated and CCk-8 induced contractures. PMID:25836919

  3. Structure of the nucleotide-binding subunit B of the energy producer A1A0 ATP synthase in complex with adenosine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Grüber, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    A1A0 ATP synthases are the major energy producers in archaea. Like the related prokaryotic and eukaryotic F1F0 ATP synthases, they are responsible for most of the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The catalytic events of A1A0 ATP synthases take place inside the A3B3 hexamer of the A1 domain. Recently, the crystallographic structure of the nucleotide-free subunit B of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1A0 ATP synthase has been determined at 1.5 A resolution. To understand more about the nucleotide-binding mechanism, a protocol has been developed to crystallize the subunit B-ADP complex. The crystallographic structure of this complex has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. The ADP occupies a position between the essential phosphate-binding loop and amino-acid residue Phe149, which are involved in the binding of the antibiotic efrapeptin in the related F1F0 ATP synthases. This trapped ADP location is about 13 A distant from its final binding site and is therefore called the transition ADP-binding position. In the trapped ADP position the structure of subunit B adopts a different conformation, mainly in its C-terminal domain and also in the final nucleotide-binding site of the central alphabeta-domain. This atomic model provides insight into how the substrate enters into the nucleotide-binding protein and thereby into the catalytic A3B3 domain. PMID:19020348

  4. Development of an immune function assay by measuring intracellular adenosine triphosphate (iATP) levels in mitogen-stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Hadi; Najafi, Alireza; Khoshroo, Mohammad; Tajik, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We developed an immune function assay for monitoring CD4+ T cells activity based on changes in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (iATP) levels after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation. Blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy subjects and 30 RTRs and incubated with 5 µg/mL of PHA for 15-18 hr at 37°C and 5% CO2. Afterward, the CD4+ T cells were separated by antibody-coated magnetic beads and lysed. Then, iATP content in unstimulated and stimulated conditions was measured by luciferin-luciferase reaction using a log-log standard curve. The iATP levels showed significant increase in CD4+ T cells in both healthy persons (mean: 550 ± 142 ng/mL vs. 109 ± 54 ng/mL) and RTRs (mean: 394 ± 160 ng/mL vs. 52 ± 37 ng/mL) after PHA stimulation (P < 0.001). However, the iATP production in RTRs was significantly lower than that in healthy individuals; both prior to and after stimulation with PHA (P < 0.001). No gender-specific difference in iATP production was observed between women and men subjects. This rapid and low-cost assay reflects the degree of immune cell function through assessment of CD4+ T cells activation. Thus, it can be used for evaluation of immune system status in immunodeficient individuals as well as in immunosuppressed transplant recipients who needs drug adjustment. PMID:27089103

  5. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen’s Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. Material/Methods Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen’s cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. Results ATP (0.1–10 μM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen’s cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 μM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 μM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. Conclusions Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:27292522

  6. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen's Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen's cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. RESULTS ATP (0.1-10 µM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen's cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 µM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 µM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:27292522

  7. Energy-dependent dissociation of ATP from high affinity catalytic sites of beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Penefsky, H.S.

    1985-11-05

    Incubation of (gamma-TSP)ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the (gamma-TSP)ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of (gamma-TSP)ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide.

  8. Ultrasensitive and universal fluorescent aptasensor for the detection of biomolecules (ATP, adenosine and thrombin) based on DNA/Ag nanoclusters fluorescence light-up system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Hu, Xiao-Chun; Shi, Shuo; Gao, Ru-Ru; Huang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Lv, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Tian-Ming

    2016-05-15

    We report here an ultrasensitive strategy based on the recognition-induced conformational alteration of aptamer and fluorescence turn-on abilities of guanine-rich (G-rich) DNA sequence in proximity to silver nanoclusters for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine (A) and thrombin (TB) detection. Herein, we designed two tailored DNA sequences noted as complementary DNA (abbreviated as c-DNA) and signal probe DNA (abbreviated as s-DNA), respectively. c-DNA is designed as a special structure consisting of a sequence complementary to aptamer at the 3'-end and a guanine-rich DNA sequence at the 5'-end; s-DNA contains a cytosine-rich sequence responsible for Ag NCs templated synthesis at the 3'-end and a link sequence (part of aptamer) complementary to partial of the c-DNA at the 5'-end. In the presence of target, the aptamer associated with the target, resulting in the formation of duplex DNA (dsDNA), the DNA-Ag NCs thereafter could close to the guanine-rich sequence, leading to enhanced fluorescence signal readout. The widespread application of the sensing system is achieved success in the detection of three biomolecules. ATP, adenosine and thrombin in the range of 0.5-8.0 μM, 0.5-7.0 μM and 50-900 nM could be linearly detected with the detection limits of 91.6 nM, 103.4 nM and 8.4 nM, respectively. This label-free and turn-on fluorescent sensing system employing the mechanism proposed here turns out to be sensitive, selective, and convenient for the detection of biomolecules without washing and separation steps. PMID:26706942

  9. CHANGES IN LUNG ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) CONCENTRATION IN THE RAT AFTER LOW-LEVEL PHOSGENE EXPOSURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were exposed to phosgene for 4 hrs at concentrations of 0.05 to 1.0 ppm. Lung wet and dry wt and ATP concentration were measured immediately after exposure and for 3 days post-exposure. The accumulation of lavage fluid protein (LFP) was also measured as an index of damage or...

  10. A comparison of certain extracting agents for extraction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from microorganisms for use in the firefly luciferase ATP assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knust, E. A.; Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    Firefly luciferase ATP assay is used in clinical and industrial applications, such as determination of urinary infection levels, microbial susceptibility testing, and monitoring of yeast levels in beverages. Three categories of extractants were investigated for their extracting efficiency. They were ionizing organic solvents, nonionizing organic solvents, and inorganic acids. Dimethylsulfoxide and formamide represented the ionizing organic solvents, while n-butanol, chloroform, ethanol, acetone, and methylene chloride were used for the nonionizing organic solvents. Nitric acid and perchloric acid were chosen for the inorganic acids category. Pathogens were tested with each solvent. They included: Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. These results are shown in graphic representations.

  11. Vesicular expression and release of ATP from dopaminergic neurons of the mouse retina and midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tracy; Jobling, Andrew I.; Greferath, Ursula; Chuang, Trinette; Ramesh, Archana; Fletcher, Erica L.; Vessey, Kirstan A.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is required for active accumulation of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) into vesicles for purinergic neurotransmission, however, the cell types that express VNUT in the central nervous system remain unknown. This study characterized VNUT expression within the mammalian retina and brain and assessed a possible functional role in purinergic signaling. Two native isoforms of VNUT were detected in mouse retina and brain based on RNA transcript and protein analysis. Using immunohistochemistry, VNUT was found to co-localize with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive, dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, however, VNUT expression in extranigral non-DA neurons was also observed. In the retina, VNUT labeling was found to co-localize solely with TH-positive DA-cells. In the outer retina, VNUT-positive interplexiform cell processes were in close contact with horizontal cells and cone photoreceptor terminals, which are known to express P2 purinergic-receptors. In order to assess function, dissociated retinal neurons were loaded with fluorescent ATP markers (Quinacrine or Mant-ATP) and the DA marker FFN102, co-labeled with a VNUT antibody and imaged in real time. Fluorescent ATP markers and FFN102 puncta were found to co-localize in VNUT positive neurons and upon stimulation with high potassium, ATP marker fluorescence at the cell membrane was reduced. This response was blocked in the presence of cadmium. These data suggest DA neurons co-release ATP via calcium dependent exocytosis and in the retina this may modulate the visual response by activating purine receptors on closely associated neurons. PMID:26500494

  12. Vesicular expression and release of ATP from dopaminergic neurons of the mouse retina and midbrain.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tracy; Jobling, Andrew I; Greferath, Ursula; Chuang, Trinette; Ramesh, Archana; Fletcher, Erica L; Vessey, Kirstan A

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is required for active accumulation of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) into vesicles for purinergic neurotransmission, however, the cell types that express VNUT in the central nervous system remain unknown. This study characterized VNUT expression within the mammalian retina and brain and assessed a possible functional role in purinergic signaling. Two native isoforms of VNUT were detected in mouse retina and brain based on RNA transcript and protein analysis. Using immunohistochemistry, VNUT was found to co-localize with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive, dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, however, VNUT expression in extranigral non-DA neurons was also observed. In the retina, VNUT labeling was found to co-localize solely with TH-positive DA-cells. In the outer retina, VNUT-positive interplexiform cell processes were in close contact with horizontal cells and cone photoreceptor terminals, which are known to express P2 purinergic-receptors. In order to assess function, dissociated retinal neurons were loaded with fluorescent ATP markers (Quinacrine or Mant-ATP) and the DA marker FFN102, co-labeled with a VNUT antibody and imaged in real time. Fluorescent ATP markers and FFN102 puncta were found to co-localize in VNUT positive neurons and upon stimulation with high potassium, ATP marker fluorescence at the cell membrane was reduced. This response was blocked in the presence of cadmium. These data suggest DA neurons co-release ATP via calcium dependent exocytosis and in the retina this may modulate the visual response by activating purine receptors on closely associated neurons. PMID:26500494

  13. The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CP-532,903 protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via the sarcolemmal ATP sensitive potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Tina C.; Ge, Zhi-Dong; Tampo, Akihito; Mio, Yasushi; Bienengraeber, Martin W.; Tracey, W. Ross; Gross, Garrett J.; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Auchampach, John A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the cardioprotective profile of the new A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonist CP-532,903 in an in vivo mouse model of infarction and an isolated heart model of global ischemia/reperfusion injury. In radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays using HEK 293 cells expressing recombinant mouse ARs, CP-532,903 was found to bind with high affinity to mouse A3ARs (ki = 9.0±2.5 nM) and with high selectivity versus mouse A1AR (100-fold) and A2AARs (1,000-fold). In in vivo ischemia/reperfusion experiments, pretreating mice with 30 or 100 µg/kg of CP-532,903 reduced infarct size from 59.2 ± 2.1% of the risk region in vehicle-treated mice to 42.5 ± 2.3% and 39.0 ± 2.9%, respectively. Similarly, treating isolated mouse hearts with CP-532,903 (10, 30, or 100 nM) concentration-dependently improved recovery of contractile function following 20 min of global ischemia and 45 min of reperfusion, including developed pressure and ±dP/dt. In both models of ischemia/reperfusion injury, CP-532,903 provided no benefit in studies using mice with genetic disruption of the A3AR gene (A3KO mice). In isolated heart studies, protection provided by CP-532,903 and ischemic preconditioning induced by 3 brief ischemia/reperfusion cycles were lost in Kir6.2 KO mice lacking expression of the pore-forming subunit of the sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings provided evidence that the A3AR is functionally coupled to the sarcolemmal KATP channel in murine cardiomyocytes. We conclude that CP-532,903 is a highly selective agonist of the mouse A3AR that protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating sarcolemmal KATP channels. PMID:17906066

  14. Application of the luciferin-luciferase enzyme system for determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to studies on the mechanisms of herbicide action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.john, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The luciferin-luciferase enzyme system for determination of ATP is valuable for studies on the mechanisms of herbicide action. Investigations using this system have shown that certain herbicides may act by interfering with ATP production or by blocking ATP use, or by both mechanisms.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, Olga Yu.; Kladova, Anna V.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Dias, João M.; Texeira, Susana; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.; Trincão, José

    2008-07-01

    Native zinc-containing ATP sulfurylase from D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Native zinc/cobalt-containing ATP sulfurylase (ATPS; EC 2.7.7.4; MgATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The orthorhombic crystals diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and the X-ray data collected should allow the determination of the structure of the zinc-bound form of this ATPS. Although previous biochemical studies of this protein indicated the presence of a homotrimer in solution, a dimer was found in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of this structure will permit a better understanding of the role of the metal in the activity and stability of this family of enzymes.

  16. Regulation of adenosine levels during cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Stephanie; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Dali; Soylu, Hanifi; Sun, Chao; Albensi, Benedict C; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with its level increasing up to 100-fold during ischemic events, and attenuates the excitotoxic neuronal injury. Adenosine is produced both intracellularly and extracellularly, and nucleoside transport proteins transfer adenosine across plasma membranes. Adenosine levels and receptor-mediated effects of adenosine are regulated by intracellular ATP consumption, cellular release of ATP, metabolism of extracellular ATP (and other adenine nucleotides), adenosine influx, adenosine efflux and adenosine metabolism. Recent studies have used genetically modified mice to investigate the relative contributions of intra- and extracellular pathways for adenosine formation. The importance of cortical or hippocampal neurons as a source or a sink of adenosine under basal and hypoxic/ischemic conditions was addressed through the use of transgenic mice expressing human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) under the control of a promoter for neuron-specific enolase. From these studies, we conclude that ATP consumption within neurons is the primary source of adenosine in neuronal cultures, but not in hippocampal slices or in vivo mice exposed to ischemic conditions. PMID:23064722

  17. PREDICTING BIOTRANSFORMATIONS IN THE SUBSURFACE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) CONTENT OF SUBSURFACE MATERIAL AND THE CAPACITY OF SUBSURFACE ORGANISMS TO DEGRADE TOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deeper subsurface material was collected in a manner that prevented contamination by surface microorganisms. This material was analyzed for ATP content, and for its capacity to degrade toluene, a common organic contaminant of ground water originating from release of petroleum pro...

  18. Effects of adenosine, adenosine triphosphate and structural analogues on glucagon secretion from the perfused pancreas of rat in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Chapal, J.; Loubatières-Mariani, M. M.; Roye, M.; Zerbib, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of adenosine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and structural analogues have been studied on glucagon secretion from the isolated perfused pancreas of the rat in the presence of glucose (2.8 mM). Adenosine induced a transient increase of glucagon secretion. This effect was concentration-dependent in the range of 0.165 to 165 microM. ATP also induced an increase, but the effect was no greater at 165 microM than at 16.5 microM. 2-Chloroadenosine, an analogue more resistant to metabolism or uptake systems than adenosine, was more effective. Among the three structural analogues of ATP or ADP studied, beta, gamma-methylene ATP which can be hydrolyzed into AMP and adenosine had an effect similar to adenosine or ATP at the same concentrations (1.65 and 16.5 microM); in contrast alpha, beta-methylene ATP and alpha, beta-methylene ADP (resistant to hydrolysis into AMP and adenosine) were ineffective. Theophylline (50 microM) a specific blocker of the adenosine receptor, suppressed the glucagon peak induced by adenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, ATP and beta, gamma-methylene ATP (1.65 microM). An inhibitor of 5' nucleotidase, alpha, beta-methylene ADP (16.5 microM), reduced the glucagon increase induced by ATP and did not affect the response to adenosine (1.65 microM). These results support the hypothesis of adenosine receptors (P1-purinoceptors) on the pancreatic glucagon secretory cells and indicate that ATP acts after hydrolysis to adenosine. PMID:6097328

  19. Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

  20. Conservation of Complete Trimethylation of Lysine-43 in the Rotor Ring of c-Subunits of Metazoan Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Synthases*

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, Thomas B.; Palmer, David N.; Jiang, Huibing; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The rotors of ATP synthases turn about 100 times every second. One essential component of the rotor is a ring of hydrophobic c-subunits in the membrane domain of the enzyme. The rotation of these c-rings is driven by a transmembrane proton-motive force, and they turn against a surface provided by another membrane protein, known as subunit a. Together, the rotating c-ring and the static subunit a provide a pathway for protons through the membrane in which the c-ring and subunit a are embedded. Vertebrate and invertebrate c-subunits are well conserved. In the structure of the bovine F1-ATPase-c-ring subcomplex, the 75 amino acid c-subunit is folded into two transmembrane α-helices linked by a short loop. Each bovine rotor-ring consists of eight c-subunits with the N- and C-terminal α-helices forming concentric inner and outer rings, with the loop regions exposed to the phospholipid head-group region on the matrix side of the inner membrane. Lysine-43 is in the loop region and its ε-amino group is completely trimethylated. The role of this modification is unknown. If the trimethylated lysine-43 plays some important role in the functioning, assembly or degradation of the c-ring, it would be expected to persist throughout vertebrates and possibly invertebrates also. Therefore, we have carried out a proteomic analysis of c-subunits across representative species from different classes of vertebrates and from invertebrate phyla. In the twenty-nine metazoan species that have been examined, the complete methylation of lysine-43 is conserved, and it is likely to be conserved throughout the more than two million extant metazoan species. In unicellular eukaryotes and prokaryotes, when the lysine is conserved it is unmethylated, and the stoichiometries of c-subunits vary from 9–15. One possible role for the trimethylated residue is to provide a site for the specific binding of cardiolipin, an essential component of ATP synthases in mitochondria. PMID:25608518

  1. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine in urine. PMID:25604821

  2. Relaxation of isolated taenia coli of guinea-pig by enantiomers of 2-azido analogues of adenosine and adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Planker, M.

    1979-01-01

    1 2-Azido photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine have been synthesized and tested on guinea-pig taenia coli. 2 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP were approximately 20 times more potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli, and required prolonged washout times before recovery of the muscle. 3 2-Azido-AMP and 2-azidoadenosine were 2 to 12 times more potent than ATP, but took much longer (up to 100 s) to reach maximal relaxation. This behaviour is different from that of AMP and adenosine which were much less potent than ATP. 4 L-Enantiomers of adenosine and adenine nucleotides were also tested. L-ATP and L-ADP were 3 to 6 times less potent than ATP and ADP, and L-AMP and L-adenosine were inactive. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-ADP were approximately 120 times less potent than 2-Azido-ATP and 6 times less potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli. 2-Azido-L-AMP and 2-azidio-L-adenosine were almost inactive. 5 2-Azido derivatives are photolysed by u.v. irradiation to reactive intermediates. 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azidoadenosine might be suitable photoaffinity ligands for labelling putative P2 and P1 purine receptors respectively. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-adenosine could be useful controls for nonspecific labelling. PMID:497519

  3. Quantitative assessment of the proliferation of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus using a bioluminescence assay for ATP content.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Surekha; Hassan, Kolaleh; Sullivan, David J; Vasta, Gerardo R; Fernández Robledo, José A

    2013-12-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a protozoan parasite that causes "Dermo" disease in the eastern oyster Crasssostrea virginica in coastal areas of the USA. Until now, intervention strategies against the parasite have found limited success, and Dermo still remains one of the main hurdles for the restoration of oyster populations. We adapted a commercial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content-based assay to assess the in vitro proliferation of P. marinus in a 96-well plate format, and validated the method by measuring the effects of potential anti-proliferative compounds. The sensitivity (1.5-3.1 × 10(4) cells/well), linearity (R (2) = 0.983), and signal stability (60 min) support the reliability of the assay for assessing cell proliferation. Validation of the assay by culturing P. marinus in the presence of increasing concentrations of triclosan showed a dose-response profile. The IC50 value obtained was higher than that reported earlier, possibly due to the use of different viability assay methods and a different P. marinus strain. The antibiotics G418 and tetracycline and the herbicide fluridone were active against P. marinus proliferation; the IC50 of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and atrazine was relatively high suggesting either off-target effects or inability to reach the targets. The validation of the ATP-based assay, together with significant advantages of the Perkinsus culture methodology (homogeneity, reproducibility, and high cell densities), underscores the value of this assay for developing high-throughput screens for the identification of novel leader compounds against Perkinsus species, and most importantly, for the closely-related apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24533297

  4. Quantitative assessment of the proliferation of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus using a bioluminescence assay for ATP content

    PubMed Central

    Shridhar, Surekha; Hassan, Kolaleh; Sullivan, David J.; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Fernández Robledo, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a protozoan parasite that causes “Dermo” disease in the eastern oyster Crasssostrea virginica in coastal areas of the USA. Until now, intervention strategies against the parasite have found limited success, and Dermo still remains one of the main hurdles for the restoration of oyster populations. We adapted a commercial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content-based assay to assess the in vitro proliferation of P. marinus in a 96-well plate format, and validated the method by measuring the effects of potential anti-proliferative compounds. The sensitivity (1.5–3.1 × 104 cells/well), linearity (R2 = 0.983), and signal stability (60 min) support the reliability of the assay for assessing cell proliferation. Validation of the assay by culturing P. marinus in the presence of increasing concentrations of triclosan showed a dose–response profile. The IC50 value obtained was higher than that reported earlier, possibly due to the use of different viability assay methods and a different P. marinus strain. The antibiotics G418 and tetracycline and the herbicide fluridone were active against P. marinus proliferation; the IC50 of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and atrazine was relatively high suggesting either off-target effects or inability to reach the targets. The validation of the ATP-based assay, together with significant advantages of the Perkinsus culture methodology (homogeneity, reproducibility, and high cell densities), underscores the value of this assay for developing high-throughput screens for the identification of novel leader compounds against Perkinsus species, and most importantly, for the closely-related apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24533297

  5. Adenosine transporters.

    PubMed

    Thorn, J A; Jarvis, S M

    1996-06-01

    1. In mammals, nucleoside transport is an important determinant of the pharmacokinetics, plasma and tissue concentration, disposition and in vivo biological activity of adenosine as well as nucleoside analogues used in antiviral and anticancer therapies. 2. Two broad types of adenosine transporter exist, facilitated-diffusion carriers and active processes driven by the transmembrane sodium gradient. 3. Facilitated-diffusion adenosine carriers may be sensitive (es) or insensitive (ei) to nanomolar concentrations of the transport inhibitor nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). Dipyridamole, dilazep and lidoflazine analogues are also more potent inhibitors of the es carrier than the ei transporter in cells other than those derived from rat tissues. 4. The es transporter has a broad substrate specificity (apparent Km for adenosine approximately 25 microM in many cells at 25 degrees C), is a glycoprotein with an average apparent Mr of 57,000 in human erythrocytes that has been purified to near homogeneity and may exist in situ as a dimer. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest the presence of isoforms of the es transporter in different cells and species, based on kinetic and molecular properties. 5. The ei transporter also has a broad substrate specificity with a lower affinity for some nucleoside permeants than the es carrier, is genetically distinct from es but little information exists as to the molecular properties of the protein. 6. Sodium-dependent adenosine transport is present in many cell types and catalysed by four distinct systems, N1-N4, distinguished by substrate specificity, sodium coupling and tissue distribution. 7. Two genes have been identified which encode sodium-dependent adenosine transport proteins, SNST1 from the sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) gene family and the rat intestinal N2 transporter (cNT1) from a novel gene family including a bacterial nucleoside carrier (NupC). Transcripts of cNT1, which encodes a 648-residue protein, are

  6. Different mechanisms of extracellular adenosine accumulation by reduction of the external Ca(2+) concentration and inhibition of adenosine metabolism in spinal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ryota; Akao, Sanae; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Astrocytes mainly participate in adenosine production, and extracellular adenosine accumulates under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Inhibition of intracellular adenosine metabolism and reduction of the external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]e) participate in adenosine accumulation, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying extracellular adenosine accumulation in cultured rat spinal astrocytes. The combination of adenosine kinase and deaminase (ADK/ADA) inhibition and a reduced [Ca(2+)]e increased the extracellular adenosine level. ADK/ADA inhibitors increased the level of extracellular adenosine but not of adenine nucleotides, which was suppressed by inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 2. Unlike ADK/ADA inhibition, a reduced [Ca(2+)]e increased the extracellular level not only of adenosine but also of ATP. This adenosine increase was enhanced by ENT2 inhibition, and suppressed by sodium polyoxotungstate (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor). Gap junction inhibitors suppressed the increases in adenosine and adenine nucleotide levels by reduction of [Ca(2+)]e. These results indicate that extracellular adenosine accumulation by ADK/ADA inhibition is due to the adenosine release via ENT2, while that by reduction of [Ca(2+)]e is due to breakdown of ATP released via gap junction hemichannels, after which ENT2 incorporates adenosine into the cells. PMID:26003082

  7. ATP release through pannexon channels

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed ‘pannexon’. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  8. Halobacterial adenosine triphosphatases and the adenosine triphosphatase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Sadler, Martha H.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared from various members of the genus Halobacterium contained a Triton X-l00 activated adenosine triphosphatase. The enzyme from Halobacterium saccharovorum was unstable in solutions of low ionic strength and maximally active in the presence of 3.5 M NaCl. A variety of nucleotide triphosphates was hydrolyzed. MgADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, was not hydrolyzed and was a competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum was composed of at least 2 and possibly 4 subunits. The 83-kDa and 60-kDa subunits represented about 90 percent of total protein. The 60-kDa subunit reacted with dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide when inhibition was carried out in an acidic medium. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum, possesses properties of an F(1)F(0) as well as an E(1)E(2) ATPase.

  9. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Dias, Ana Sofia; Pelletier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders. PMID:25210228

  10. Optical Aptasensors for Adenosine Triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Stella; Lim, Hui Si; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids are among the most researched and applied biomolecules. Their diverse two- and three-dimensional structures in conjunction with their robust chemistry and ease of manipulation provide a rare opportunity for sensor applications. Moreover, their high biocompatibility has seen them being used in the construction of in vivo assays. Various nucleic acid-based devices have been extensively studied as either the principal element in discrete molecule-like sensors or as the main component in the fabrication of sensing devices. The use of aptamers in sensors - aptasensors, in particular, has led to improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and multiplexing capacity for a wide verity of analytes like proteins, nucleic acids, as well as small biomolecules such as glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This article reviews the progress in the use of aptamers as the principal component in sensors for optical detection of ATP with an emphasis on sensing mechanism, performance, and applications with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. PMID:27446501

  11. The Role of ATP in Sleep Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2011-01-01

    One of the functions of sleep is to maintain energy balance in the brain. There are a variety of hypotheses related to how metabolic pathways interact with sleep/wake regulation. A major finding that demonstrates an interaction between sleep and metabolic homeostasis is the involvement of adenosine in sleep homeostasis. An accumulation of adenosine is supplied from ATP, which can act as an energy currency in the cell. Extracellularly, ATP can act as an activity-dependent signaling molecule, especially in regard to communication between neurons and glia, including astrocytes. Furthermore, the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio controls the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase, which is a potent energy regulator and is recently reported to play a role in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. Brain ATP may support multiple functions in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and sleep homeostasis. PMID:22207863

  12. Chemoelectrical energy conversion of adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Sarles, Stephen Andrew; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-04-01

    Plant and animal cell membranes transport charged species, neutral molecules and water through ion pumps and channels. The energy required for moving species against established concentration and charge gradients is provided by the biological fuel - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -synthesized within the cell. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPases) in a plant cell membrane hydrolyze ATP in the cell cytoplasm to pump protons across the cell membrane. This establishes a proton gradient across the membrane from the cell exterior into the cell cytoplasm. This proton motive force stimulates ion channels that transport nutrients and other species into the cell. This article discusses a device that converts the chemical energy stored in adenosine triphosphate into electrical power using a transporter protein, ATPase. The V-type ATPase proteins used in our prototype are extracted from red beet(Beta vulgaris) tonoplast membranes and reconstituted in a bilayer lipid membrane or BLM formed from POPC and POPS lipids. A pH7 medium that can support ATP hydrolysis is provided on both sides of the membrane and ATP is dissolved in the pH7 buffer on one side of the membrane. Hydrolysis of ATP results in the formation of a phosphate ion and adenosine diphosphate. The energy from the reaction activates ATPase in the BLM and moves a proton across the membrane. The charge gradient established across the BLM due to the reaction and ion transport is converted into electrical current by half-cell reference electrodes. The prototype ATPase cell with an effective BLM area of 4.15 mm2 carrying 15 μl of ATPase proteins was observed to develop a steady state peak power output of 70 nW, which corresponds to a specific power of 1.69 μW/cm2 and a current density of 43.4 μA/cm2 of membrane area.

  13. Adenosine and Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bruce T.; Swierkosz, Tomasz A.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Kimmel, Stephen; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is released in large amounts during myocardial ischemia and is capable of exerting potent cardioprotective effects in the heart. Although these observations on adenosine have been known for a long time, how adenosine acts to achieve its anti-ischemic effect remains incompletely understood. However, recent advances on the chemistry and pharmacology of adenosine receptor ligands have provided important and novel information on the function of adenosine receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system. The development of model systems for the cardiac actions of adenosine has yielded important insights into its mechanism of action and have begun to elucidate the sequence of signalling events from receptor activation to the actual exertion of its cardioprotective effect. The present review will focus on the adenosine receptors that mediate the potent anti-ischemic effect of adenosine, new ligands at the receptors, potential molecular signalling mechanisms downstream of the receptor, mediators for cardioprotection, and possible clinical applications in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:10607860

  14. On the ATP binding site of the ε subunit from bacterial F-type ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Krah, Alexander; Takada, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    F-type ATP synthases are reversible machinery that not only synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, but also can hydrolyze ATP to pump ions under certain conditions. To prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis, subunit ε in bacterial ATP synthases changes its conformation from the non-inhibitory down- to the inhibitory up-state at a low cellular ATP concentration. Recently, a crystal structure of the ε subunit in complex with ATP was solved in a non-biologically relevant dimeric form. Here, to derive the functional ATP binding site motif, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. Our results suggest that the ATP binding site markedly differs from the experimental resolved one; we observe a reorientation of several residues, which bind to ATP in the crystal structure. In addition we find that an Mg(2+) ion is coordinated by ATP, replacing interactions of the second chain in the crystal structure. Thus we demonstrate more generally the influence of crystallization effects on ligand binding sites and their respective binding modes. Furthermore, we propose a role for two highly conserved residues to control the ATP binding/unbinding event, which have not been considered before. Additionally our results provide the basis for the rational development of new biosensors based on subunit ε, as shown previously for novel sensors measuring the ATP concentration in cells. PMID:26780667

  15. Fluorometric Determination of Adenosine Nucleotide Derivatives as Measures of the Microfouling, Detrital, and Sedimentary Microbial Biomass and Physiological Status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William M.; White, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine, adenine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), AMP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were recovered quantitatively from aqueous portions of lipid extracts of microfouling, detrital, and sedimentary microbial communities. These could be detected quantitatively in the picomolar range by forming their 1-N6-etheno derivatives and analyzing by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Lipid extraction and subsequent analysis allowed the simultaneous measurement of the microbial community structure, total microbial biomass with the quantitative recovery of the adenine-containing cellular components, which were protected from enzymatic destruction. This extraction and fluorescent derivatization method showed equivalency with the luciferin-luciferase method for bacterial ATP measurements. Quick-freezing samples in the field with dry ice-acetone preserved the ATP and energy charge (a ratio of adenosine nucleotides) for analysis at remote laboratories. The metabolic lability of ATP in estuarine detrital and microfouling communities, as well as bacterial monocultures of constant biomass, showed ATP to be a precarious measure of biomass under some conditions. Combinations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides gave better correlations with microbial biomass measured as extractable lipid phosphate in the detrital and microfouling microbial communities than did ATP alone. Stresses such as anoxia or filtration are reflected in the rapid accumulation of intracellular adenosine and the excretion of adenosine and AMP into the surrounding milieu. Increases in AMP and adenosine may prove to be more sensitive indicators of metabolic status than the energy charge. PMID:16345633

  16. Fluorometric determination of adenosine nucleotide derivatives as measures of the microfouling, detrital, and sedimentary microbial biomass and physiological status.

    PubMed

    Davis, W M; White, D C

    1980-09-01

    Adenosine, adenine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), AMP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were recovered quantitatively from aqueous portions of lipid extracts of microfouling, detrital, and sedimentary microbial communities. These could be detected quantitatively in the picomolar range by forming their 1-N-etheno derivatives and analyzing by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Lipid extraction and subsequent analysis allowed the simultaneous measurement of the microbial community structure, total microbial biomass with the quantitative recovery of the adenine-containing cellular components, which were protected from enzymatic destruction. This extraction and fluorescent derivatization method showed equivalency with the luciferin-luciferase method for bacterial ATP measurements. Quick-freezing samples in the field with dry ice-acetone preserved the ATP and energy charge (a ratio of adenosine nucleotides) for analysis at remote laboratories. The metabolic lability of ATP in estuarine detrital and microfouling communities, as well as bacterial monocultures of constant biomass, showed ATP to be a precarious measure of biomass under some conditions. Combinations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides gave better correlations with microbial biomass measured as extractable lipid phosphate in the detrital and microfouling microbial communities than did ATP alone. Stresses such as anoxia or filtration are reflected in the rapid accumulation of intracellular adenosine and the excretion of adenosine and AMP into the surrounding milieu. Increases in AMP and adenosine may prove to be more sensitive indicators of metabolic status than the energy charge. PMID:16345633

  17. A reusable prepositioned ATP reaction chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luminescence biometer detects presence of life by means of light-emitting chemical reaction of luciferin and luciferase with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that occurs in all living cells. Amount of light in reaction chamber is measured to determine presence and extent of life.

  18. Identification of possible adenosine receptors in vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Doctrow, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Adenosine is a vasodilator and has been implicated in increased blood flow in tissues that undergo energy deficiency. During conditions such as hypoxia and ischemia, adenosine is produced and is said to increase blood flow by relaxing the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) lining the resistance vessels. The goal of this research was to identify receptors that might be responsible for adenosine-mediated VSM relaxation. When an insoluble fraction from calf aortic VSM was incubated with /sup 32/P-ATP, two components were phosphorylated. One was identified as myosin light chain by MW, pl, and immunoprecipitation. The other product was identified as phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (DPI) by tic. Both phosphorylations were inhibited by adenosine and by 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine (Cl-Ado). DPI production was much more sensitive to the nucleosides than was myosin phosphorylation. Neither inhibition involved change in cAMP production. Phosphatidylinositol (Pl) kinase in the VSM membranes required magnesium, was activated and solubilized by Triton X-100, and phosphorylated both endogenous and exogenous Pl. Cl-Ado inhibited Pl kinase in a manner competitive with respect to ATP and noncompetitive with respect to Pl. Adenosine and adenosine analogs modified in the ribose ring were inhibitors with potencies comparable to that of Cl-Ado. Adenine nucleotides and purine-modified adenosine analogs were weaker inhibitors than Cl-Ado.

  19. A method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate by chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Koziołkiewicz, W; Pankowski, J; Janecka, A

    1978-01-01

    A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with [32P]-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-[32P]ATP. PMID:219425

  20. ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Nelson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms. PMID:25839341

  1. Cancer exosomes express CD39 and CD73, which suppress T cells through adenosine production.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Aled; Al-Taei, Saly; Webber, Jason; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2011-07-15

    Extracellular adenosine is elevated in cancer tissue, and it negatively regulates local immune responses. Adenosine production from extracellular ATP has attracted attention as a mechanism of regulatory T cell-mediated immune regulation. In this study, we examined whether small vesicles secreted by cancer cells, called exosomes, contribute to extracellular adenosine production and hence modulate immune effector cells indirectly. We found exosomes from diverse cancer cell types exhibit potent ATP- and 5'AMP-phosphohydrolytic activity, partly attributed to exosomally expressed CD39 and CD73, respectively. Comparable levels of activity were seen with exosomes from pleural effusions of mesothelioma patients. In such fluids, exosomes accounted for 20% of the total ATP-hydrolytic activity. Exosomes can perform both hydrolytic steps sequentially to form adenosine from ATP. This exosome-generated adenosine can trigger a cAMP response in adenosine A(2A) receptor-positive but not A(2A) receptor-negative cells. Similarly, significantly elevated cAMP was also triggered in Jurkat cells by adding exosomes with ATP but not by adding exosomes or ATP alone. A proportion of healthy donor T cells constitutively express CD39 and/or CD73. Activation of T cells by CD3/CD28 cross-linking could be inhibited by exogenously added 5'AMP in a CD73-dependent manner. However, 5'AMP converted to adenosine by exosomes inhibits T cell activation independently of T cell CD73 expression. This T cell inhibition was mediated through the adenosine A(2A) receptor. In summary, the data highlight exosome enzymic activity in the production of extracellular adenosine, and this may play a contributory role in negative modulation of T cells in the tumor environment. PMID:21677139

  2. Unpredictable Chronic Stress Alters Adenosine Metabolism in Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, F F; Altenhofen, S; Kist, L W; Leite, C E; Bogo, M R; Cognato, G P; Bonan, C D

    2016-05-01

    Stress is considered a risk factor for several human disorders. Despite the broad knowledge of stress responses in mammals, data on the relationship between unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) and its effects on purinergic signaling are limited. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering that some stress models could affect signaling systems, the objective of this study was to investigate whether UCS alters ectonucleotidase and ADA pathway in zebrafish brain. Additionally, we analyzed ATP metabolism as well as ada1, ada2.1, ada2.2, adaL, and adaasi gene expression in zebrafish brain. Our results have demonstrated that UCS did not alter ectonucleotidase and soluble ADA activities. However, ecto-ADA activity was significantly decreased (26.8%) in brain membranes of animals exposed to UCS when compared to the control group. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis did not show significant changes on ADA gene expression after the UCS exposure. The brain ATP metabolism showed a marked increase in adenosine levels (ADO) in animals exposed to UCS. These data suggest an increase on extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. Since this nucleoside has neuromodulatory and anxiolytic effects, changes in adenosine levels could play a role in counteracting the stress, which could be related to a compensatory mechanism in order to restore the homeostasis. PMID:26081145

  3. The structural basis of ATP as an allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Huang, Wenkang; Wang, Qi; Shen, Qiancheng; Li, Shuai; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP to exert distinct biological functions: ATP molecules adopt both compact and extended conformations in the allosteric binding sites but conserve extended conformations in the substrate binding sites. Nudged elastic band simulations unveiled the distinct dynamic processes of ATP binding to the corresponding allosteric and substrate binding sites of uridine monophosphate kinase, and suggested that in solution ATP preferentially binds to the substrate binding sites of proteins. When the ATP molecules occupy the allosteric binding sites, the allosteric trigger from ATP to fuel allosteric communication between allosteric and functional sites is stemmed mainly from the triphosphate part of ATP, with a small number from the adenine part of ATP. Taken together, our results provide overall understanding of ATP allosteric functions responsible for regulation in biological systems. PMID:25211773

  4. Distinct Conformation of ATP Molecule in Solution and on Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Eri; Yura, Kei; Nagai, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a versatile molecule used mainly for energy and a phosphate source. The hydrolysis of γ phosphate initiates the reactions and these reactions almost always start when ATP binds to protein. Therefore, there should be a mechanism to prevent spontaneous hydrolysis reaction and a mechanism to lead ATP to a pure energy source or to a phosphate source. To address these questions, we extensively analyzed the effect of protein to ATP conformation based on the sampling of the ATP solution conformations obtained from molecular dynamics simulation and the sampling of ATP structures bound to protein found in a protein structure database. The comparison revealed mainly the following three points; 1) The ribose ring in ATP molecule, which puckers in many ways in solution, tends to assume either C2′ exo or C2′ endo when it binds to protein. 2) The adenine ring in ATP molecule, which takes open-book motion with the two ring structures, has two distinct structures when ATP binds to protein. 3) The glycosyl-bond and the bond between phosphate and the ribose have unique torsion angles, when ATP binds to protein. The combination of torsion angles found in protein-bound forms is under-represented in ATP molecule in water. These findings suggest that ATP-binding protein exerts forces on ATP molecule to assume a conformation that is rarely found in solution, and that this conformation change should be a trigger for the reactions on ATP molecule. PMID:27493535

  5. The Structural Basis of ATP as an Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Qiancheng; Li, Shuai; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP to exert distinct biological functions: ATP molecules adopt both compact and extended conformations in the allosteric binding sites but conserve extended conformations in the substrate binding sites. Nudged elastic band simulations unveiled the distinct dynamic processes of ATP binding to the corresponding allosteric and substrate binding sites of uridine monophosphate kinase, and suggested that in solution ATP preferentially binds to the substrate binding sites of proteins. When the ATP molecules occupy the allosteric binding sites, the allosteric trigger from ATP to fuel allosteric communication between allosteric and functional sites is stemmed mainly from the triphosphate part of ATP, with a small number from the adenine part of ATP. Taken together, our results provide overall understanding of ATP allosteric functions responsible for regulation in biological systems. PMID:25211773

  6. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    PubMed

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  7. Reinterpreting the action of ATP analogs on K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, David; Gossack, Lindsay; Quast, Ulrich; Bryan, Joseph

    2013-06-28

    Neuroendocrine-type K(ATP) channels, (SUR1/Kir6.2)4, couple the transmembrane flux of K(+), and thus membrane potential, with cellular metabolism in various cell types including insulin-secreting β-cells. Mutant channels with reduced activity are a cause of congenital hyperinsulinism, whereas hyperactive channels are a cause of neonatal diabetes. A current regulatory model proposes that ATP hydrolysis is required to switch SUR1 into post-hydrolytic conformations able to antagonize the inhibitory action of nucleotide binding at the Kir6.2 pore, thus coupling enzymatic and channel activities. Alterations in SUR1 ATPase activity are proposed to contribute to neonatal diabetes and type 2 diabetes risk. The regulatory model is partly based on the reduced ability of ATP analogs such as adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imino)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS) to stimulate channel activity, presumably by reducing hydrolysis. This study uses a substitution at the catalytic glutamate, SUR(1E1507Q), with a significantly increased affinity for ATP, to probe the action of these ATP analogs on conformational switching. ATPγS, a slowly hydrolyzable analog, switches SUR1 conformations, albeit with reduced affinity. Nonhydrolyzable AMP-PNP and adenosine 5'-(β,γ-methylenetriphosphate) (AMP-PCP) alone fail to switch SUR1, but do reverse ATP-induced switching. AMP-PCP displaces 8-azido-[(32)P]ATP from the noncanonical NBD1 of SUR1. This is consistent with structural data on an asymmetric bacterial ABC protein that shows that AMP-PNP binds selectively to the noncanonical NBD to prevent conformational switching. The results imply that MgAMP-PNP and MgAMP-PCP (AMP-PxP) fail to activate K(ATP) channels because they do not support NBD dimerization and conformational switching, rather than by limiting enzymatic activity. PMID:23665564

  8. Phosphorylation of adenosine in renal brush-border membrane vesicles by an exchange reaction catalysed by adenosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Sayós, J; Solsona, C; Mallol, J; Lluis, C; Franco, R

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of [3H]adenosine in brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles from either rat or pig kidney leads to an accumulation of intravesicular [3H]AMP. The lack of significant levels of ATP and the presence of AMP in BBM indicated that a phosphotransfer between [3H]adenosine and AMP occurs. The phosphotransfer activity is inhibited by iodotubercidin, which suggests that it is performed by adenosine kinase acting in an ATP-independent manner. The existence of a similar phosphotransferase activity was demonstrated in membrane-free extracts from pig kidney. From the compounds tested it was shown that a variety of mononucleotides could act as phosphate donors. The results suggest that phosphotransfer reactions may be physiologically relevant in kidney. PMID:8110185

  9. Role of adenosine signalling and metabolism in β-cell regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Olov

    2014-02-01

    Glucose homeostasis, which is controlled by the endocrine cells of the pancreas, is disrupted in both type I and type II diabetes. Deficiency in the number of insulin-producing β cells – a primary cause of type I diabetes and a secondary contributor of type II diabetes – leads to hyperglycemia and hence an increase in the need for insulin. Although diabetes can be controlled with insulin injections, a curative approach is needed. A potential approach to curing diabetes involves regenerating the β-cell mass, e.g. by increasing β-cell proliferation, survival, neogenesis or transdifferentiation. The nucleoside adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP have long been known to affect insulin secretion, but have more recently been shown to increase β-cell proliferation during homeostatic control and regeneration of the β-cell mass. Adenosine is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, and agonism of adenosine receptors can promote the survival of β-cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. In this review, both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of adenosine and ATP are discussed in terms of their established and putative effects on β-cell regeneration. - Highlights: • A potential way to cure diabetes is to regenerate the β-cell mass by promoting cell survival, proliferation or neogenesis. • Adenosine may promote β-cell regeneration through several cellular mechanisms. • Adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP can each promote β-cell proliferation. • Do adenosine and ATP interact in promoting β-cell proliferation?.

  10. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  11. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  12. Control and monitoring the effectiveness of different biocides with the use of free ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Chalut, J.; Small, G.; Payton, J.

    1996-12-01

    The Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) technology can be used as a measurement of the total living biomass. However, care must be exercised in its application and its interpretation. The use of this technique on samples from cooling water systems clearly indicate that there are three distinct pools of ATP, classified as bacterial ATP, free ATP and total ATP, the latter being the sum of the free ATP and bacterial ATP. The mode of action of certain biocidal agents is by disruption of cell membranes, a process which does not decrease the pool of total ATP, but does move ATP from the bacterial ATP pool to the free ATP pool. As a consequence, it is important that for a realistic interpretation to be made, it is necessary to know which biocidal agents are being used and to fully understand their mode of action.

  13. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    SciTech Connect

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  14. Method for Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate Measurement on Coke Waste Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James; Gauthier, Joseph J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurement of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) in coke waste activated sludge can provide a simple method for estimating the levels of viable microbes in the sludge. However, the presence of inhibitors such as phenol in the sludge interferes when the luciferin-luciferase method is used to measure ATP. These inhibiting substances can be removed from the sludge before extraction of ATP by washing the cells with dilute sodium dodecyl sulfate. PMID:16345281

  15. Immunoregulation of IL-6 secretion by endogenous and exogenous adenosine and by exogenous purinergic agonists in splenic tissue slices.

    PubMed

    Straub, Rainer H; Pongratz, Georg; Günzler, Christian; Michna, Andreas; Baier, Simone; Kees, Frieder; Falk, Werner; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, the role of norepinephrine, opioids, and neuropeptide Y for sympathetic regulation of murine spleen cells has been characterised. In this study, we describe the role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine and exogenous P2X(1) and P2Y(1) agonists for spontaneous splenic IL-6 secretion from spleen slices. The P2X(1) agonist beta,gamma-methylene ATP inhibited IL-6 secretion at 10(-5) M, whereas the P2Y(1) agonist 2-methylthio ATP increased IL-6 secretion at 10(-6) to 10(-8) M. Furthermore, adenosine (at 5 x 10(-8), 10(-7), 5 x 10(-7) M) inhibited IL-6 secretion via A1 adenosine receptors, whereas an A2(A) adenosine receptor agonist increased IL-6 secretion in the presence of 10(-7) M cortisol. To determine the effects of endogenous adenosine, electrical field stimulation was applied in order to release endogenous ATP, which yields adenosine after conversion from ATP. Electrical field stimulation markedly reduced IL-6 secretion, which was attenuated by the A1 antagonist DPCPX but not by the A2 antagonist 8-(3-Chlorostyryl)caffeine. Thus, via A1 adenosine receptors, adenosine was found to be a strong inhibitor of splenic IL-6 secretion. This study further expands our earlier description of the complexity of the local dialogue of sympathetic nerves and macrophages in lymphoid organs. PMID:11960643

  16. Genomic Analysis of ATP Efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Theodore W.; Miller, Aaron W.; Tourette, Cendrine; Agren, Hannah; Hubbard, Alan; Hughes, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role as a primary molecule for the transfer of chemical energy to drive biological processes. ATP also functions as an extracellular signaling molecule in a diverse array of eukaryotic taxa in a conserved process known as purinergic signaling. Given the important roles of extracellular ATP in cell signaling, we sought to comprehensively elucidate the pathways and mechanisms governing ATP efflux from eukaryotic cells. Here, we present results of a genomic analysis of ATP efflux from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring extracellular ATP levels in cultures of 4609 deletion mutants. This screen revealed key cellular processes that regulate extracellular ATP levels, including mitochondrial translation and vesicle sorting in the late endosome, indicating that ATP production and transport through vesicles are required for efflux. We also observed evidence for altered ATP efflux in strains deleted for genes involved in amino acid signaling, and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the retrograde signaling pathway potentiates amino acid signaling to promote mitochondrial respiration. This study advances our understanding of the mechanism of ATP secretion in eukaryotes and implicates TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and nutrient signaling pathways in the regulation of ATP efflux. These results will facilitate analysis of ATP efflux mechanisms in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26585826

  17. Studies on the activation by ATP of the 26 S proteasome complex from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, B; Kuehn, L; Reinauer, H

    1995-01-01

    The 26 S proteasome complex is thought to catalyse the breakdown of ubiquitinated proteins within eukaryotic cells. In addition it has been found that the complex also degrades short-lived proteins such as ornithine decarboxylase in a ubiquitin-independent manner. Both proteolytic processes are paralleled by the hydrolysis of ATP. Here we show that ATP also affects the hydrolytic activity towards fluorigenic peptide substrates by the 26 S proteasome complex from rat skeletal muscle tissue. Low concentrations of ATP (about 25 microM) optimally activate the so-called chymotryptic and tryptic activity by increasing the rate of peptide hydrolysis but not peptidylglutamylpeptide hydrolysis. Activation of the enzyme by ATP is transient but this effect can be enhanced and prolonged by including in the assay an ATP-regenerating system, indicating that ATP is hydrolysed by the 26 S proteasome complex. Although ATP cannot be substituted for by adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate or AMP, hydrolysis of the phosphoanhydride bond of ATP seems not to be necessary for the activation process of the proteasome complex, a conclusion drawn from the findings that ATP analogues such as adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate give the same effect as ATP, and vanadate does not prevent ATP activation. These effects are independent of the presence of Mg2+. Thus, ATP and other nucleotides may act as allosteric activators of peptide-hydrolysing activities of the 26 S proteasome complex as has also been found with the lon protease from Escherichia coli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7619056

  18. Snapshots of the maltose transporter during ATP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, Michael L.; Chen, Jue

    2011-12-05

    ATP-binding cassette transporters are powered by ATP, but the mechanism by which these transporters hydrolyze ATP is unclear. In this study, four crystal structures of the full-length wild-type maltose transporter, stabilized by adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate or ADP in conjunction with phosphate analogs BeF{sub 3}{sup -}, VO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, or AlF{sub 4}{sup -}, were determined to 2.2- to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. These structures led to the assignment of two enzymatic states during ATP hydrolysis and demonstrate specific functional roles of highly conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting that ATP-binding cassette transporters catalyze ATP hydrolysis via a general base mechanism.

  19. 2-(1-Hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-induced intraocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-08-22

    The present study was performed to clarify the mechanism of change in intraocular pressure by 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-H-Ado), a selective adenosine A2 receptor agonist, in rabbits. 2-H-Ado (0.1%, 50 microl)-induced ocular hypertension (E(max): 7.7 mm Hg) was inhibited by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide or 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine or a cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The outflow facility induced by 2-H-Ado seems to be independent of increase in intraocular pressure or ATP-sensitive K+ channel. In contrast, the recovery rate in intraocular pressure decreased by hypertonic saline was accelerated by 2-H-Ado, and this response was dependent on ATP-sensitive K+ channel. These results suggest that 2-H-Ado-induced ocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor, and this is probably due to aqueous formation, but independent of change in outflow facility or prostaglandin production. PMID:16023100

  20. Structure and mechanism of soybean ATP sulfurylase and the committed step in plant sulfur assimilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymes of the sulfur assimilation pathway are potential targets for improving nutrient content and environmental stress responses in plants. The committed step in this pathway is catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase, which synthesizes adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) from sulfate and ATP. To better unde...

  1. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  2. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  3. Direct Monitoring of Nucleotide Turnover in Human Cell Extracts and Cells by Fluorogenic ATP Analogs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Buntz, Annette; Zumbusch, Andreas; Marx, Andreas

    2015-11-20

    Nucleotides containing adenosine play pivotal roles in every living cell. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), for example, is the universal energy currency, and ATP-consuming processes also contribute to posttranslational protein modifications. Nevertheless, detecting the turnover of adenosine nucleotides in the complex setting of a cell remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the use of fluorogenic analogs of ATP and adenosine tetraphosphate to study nucleotide hydrolysis in lysates of human cell lines and in intact human cells. We found that the adenosine triphosphate analog is completely stable in lysates of human cell lines, whereas the adenosine tetraphosphate analog is rapidly turned over. The observed activity in human cell lysates can be assigned to a single enzyme, namely, the human diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase NudT2. Since NudT2 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for breast cancer, the adenosine tetraphosphate analog might contribute to a better understanding of its involvement in cancerogenesis and allow the straightforward screening for inhibitors. Studying hydrolysis of the analogs in intact cells, we found that electroporation is a suitable method to deliver nucleotide analogs into the cytoplasm and show that high FRET efficiencies can be detected directly after internalization. Time-dependent experiments reveal that adenosine triphosphate and tetraphosphate analogs are both processed in the cellular environment. This study demonstrates that these nucleotide analogs indeed bear the potential to be powerful tools for the exploration of nucleotide turnover in the context of whole cells. PMID:26274552

  4. Adenosine and Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic organ that undergoes continuous remodeling whilst maintaining a balance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoblasts, which synthesize and mineralize new bone, and osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone, act in concert to maintain bone homeostasis. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of purinergic regulation of bone metabolism. Adenosine, released locally, mediates its physiologic and pharmacologic actions via interactions with G-protein coupled receptors and recent work has indicated that these receptors are involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, adenosine receptors also regulate chondrocyte and cartilage homeostasis. These recent findings underscore the potential therapeutic importance of adenosine receptors in regulating bone physiology and pathology. PMID:23499155

  5. Adenosine receptor interactions and anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Bruns, R F; Katims, J J; Annau, Z; Snyder, S H; Daly, J W

    1983-12-01

    [3H]-N6-cyclohexyladenosine and [3H]-1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine label the A1 subtype of adenosine receptor in brain membranes. The affinities of methylxanthines in competing for A1 adenosine receptors parallel their potencies as locomotor stimulants. The adenosine agonist N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine is a potent locomotor depressant. Both diazepam and N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)adenosine cause locomotor stimulation in a narrow range of subdepressant doses. Combined stimulant doses of the two agents depress motor activity, as do larger doses of either one, given separately. Evidence supporting and against the hypothesis that some of the actions of benzodiazepines are mediated via the adenosine system is reviewed. A number of compounds interact with both systems, probably because of physico-chemical similarities between adenosine and diazepam. It is concluded that of the four classic actions of benzodiazepines, the sedative and muscle relaxant (but not anxiolytic or anticonvulsant) actions could possibly be mediated by adenosine. PMID:6199685

  6. Adenosine triphosphate quantification as related to cryptobiosis, nematode eggs, and larvae.

    PubMed

    Spurr, H W

    1976-04-01

    Sonification was the most effective method used for disintegrating nematode eggs and larvae for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) determinations. Sensitivity of the assay was sufficient to measure ATP in one larva. Second-stage larvae of Anguina tritici averaged 1 x 10 femtograms (fg) ATP and Meloidogyne incognita eggs, 0.8 x 105 fg ATP. Larvae of Panagrellus redivivus, a saprobe, averaged 12.2 x 105 fg ATP, a measurement which was considerably higher than the ATP levels in plant parasites. Endophytic bacteria and fungi from wheat galls were detected as background organisms associated with A. tritiei activated by hydration. Also, bacteria in suspensions of eggs from M. incognita prepared with NaCIO were measured by the use of butanol extraction and ATP determination. Second-stage A. tritici larvae increased in ATP content within 40 min after being activated from cryptobiosis by hydration. In the cryptobiotic state, larvae had 50% less ATP than when active. ATP concentrations were similar in galls of different ages. Apparently, ATP concentrations do not change during cryptobiosis. Starvation results in a decline in ATP concentration/larva. Subjecting A. tritici larvae to the lethal temperature of 60 C resulted in a three-fold increase in the decay rate of ATP over that of larvae sonified, then heated at 60 C. These results suggest an association between ATP decay and the mechanism that causes death of larvae at elevated temperatures. PMID:19308214

  7. Hyperpolization-activated Ca(2+) channels in guard cell plasma membrane are involved in extracellular ATP-promoted stomatal opening in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Jia, Juanjuan; Wang, Yufang; Wang, Weixia; Chen, Yuling; Liu, Ting; Shang, Zhonglin

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) plays essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Extracellular ATP-regulated stomatal movement of Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported. Here, ATP was found to promote stomatal opening of Vicia faba in a dose-dependent manner. Three weakly hydrolysable ATP analogs (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio) triphosphate (ATPγS), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl) benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz-ATP) and 2-methylthio-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (2meATP)) showed similar effects, indicating that ATP acts as a signal molecule rather than an energy charger. ADP promoted stomatal opening, while AMP and adenosine did not affect stomatal movement. An ATP-promoted stomatal opening was blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT) or the Ca(2+) channel blockers GdCl3 and LaCl3. A hyperpolarization-activated Ca(2+) channel was detected in plasma membrane of guard cell protoplast. Extracellular ATP and weakly hydrolyzable ATP analogs activated this Ca(2+) channel significantly. Extracellular ATP-promoted Ca(2+) channel activation was markedly inhibited by DPI or DTT. These results indicated that eATP may promote stomatal opening via reactive oxygen species that regulate guard cell plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels. PMID:25014259

  8. Adenosine in fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edwin S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous autocoid that regulates a multitude of bodily functions. Its anti-inflammatory actions are well known to rheumatologists since it mediates many of the anti-inflammatory effects of a number of antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate. However, inflammatory and tissue regenerative responses are intricately linked, with wound healing being a prime example. It has only recently been appreciated that adenosine has a key role in tissue regenerative and fibrotic processes. An understanding of these processes may shed new light on potential therapeutic options in diseases such as scleroderma where tissue fibrosis features prominently. PMID:19949965

  9. Effects of adenosine metabolism in astrocytes on central nervous system oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ya-nan; Wang, Zhong-zhuang; Xu, Wei-gang; Li, Run-ping; Zhang, Jun-dong

    2016-03-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is widely used in military operations, especially underwater missions. However, prolonged and continuous inhalation of HBO can cause central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT), which greatly limits HBO's application. The regulation of astrocytes to the metabolism of adenosine is involved in epilepsy. In our study, we aimed to observe the effects of HBO exposure on the metabolism of adenosine in the brain. Furthermore, we aimed to confirm the possible mechanism underlying adenosine's mediation of the CNS-OT. Firstly, anesthetized rats exposed to 5 atm absolute HBO for 80 min. The concentrations of extracellular adenosine, ATP, ADP, and AMP were detected. Secondly, free-moving rats were exposed to HBO at the same pressure for 20 min, and the activities of 5'-nucleotidase and ADK in brain tissues were measured. For the mechanism studies, we observed the effects of a series of different doses of drugs related to adenosine metabolism on the latency of CNS-OT. Results showed HBO exposure could increase adenosine content by inhibiting ADK activity and improving 5'-nucleotidase activity. And adenosine metabolism during HBO exposure may be a protective response against HBO-induced CNS-OT. Moreover, the improvement of adenosine concentration, activation of adenosine A1R, or suppression of ADK and adenosine A2AR, which are involved in the prevention of HBO-induced CNS-OT. This is the first study to demonstrate HBO exposure regulated adenosine metabolism in the brain. Adenosine metabolism and adenosine receptors are related to HBO-induced CNS-OT development. These results will provide new potential targets for the termination or the attenuation of CNS-OT. PMID:26806404

  10. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  11. ATP and related purines stimulate motility, spatial congregation, and coalescence in red algal spores.

    PubMed

    Huidobro-Toro, Juan P; Donoso, Verónica; Flores, Verónica; Santelices, Bernabé

    2015-04-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a versatile extracellular signal along the tree of life, whereas cAMP plays a major role in vertebrates as an intracellular messenger for hormones, transmitters, tastants, and odorants. Since red algal spore coalescence may be considered analogous to the congregation process of social amoeba, which is stimulated by cAMP, we ascertained whether exogenous applications of ATP, cAMP, adenine, or adenosine modified spore survival and motility, spore settlement and coalescence. Concentration-response studies were performed with carpospores of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales), incubated with and without added purines. Stirring of algal blades released ADP/ATP to the cell media in a time-dependent manner. 10-300 μM ATP significantly increased spore survival; however, 1,500 μM ATP, cAMP or adenine induced 100% mortality within less than 24 h; the exception was adenosine, which up to 3,000 μM, did not alter spore survival. ATP exposure elicited spore movement with speeds of 2.2-2.5 μm · s(-1) . 14 d after 1,000 μM ATP addition, spore abundance in the central zone of the plaques was increased 2.7-fold as compared with parallel controls. Likewise, 1-10 μM cAMP or 30-100 μM adenine also increased central zone spore abundance, albeit these purines were less efficacious than ATP; adenosine up to 3,000 μM did not influence settlement. Moreover, 1,000 μM ATP markedly accelerated coalescence, the other purines caused a variable effect. We conclude that exogenous cAMP, adenine, but particularly ATP, markedly influence red algal spore physiology; effects are compatible with the expression of one or more membrane purinoceptor(s), discarding adenosine receptor participation. PMID:26986520

  12. Dietary adenine controls adult lifespan via adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK, and regulates the longevity benefit of caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Stenesen, Drew; Suh, Jae Myoung; Seo, Jin; Yu, Kweon; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Jong-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A common thread among conserved lifespan regulators lies within intertwined roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. We show that heterozygous mutations of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) biosynthetic enzymes extend Drosophila lifespan. The lifespan benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended lifespan, while AMPK RNAi reduced lifespan. Supplementing adenine, a substrate for AMP biosynthesis, to the diet of long-lived AMP biosynthesis mutants reversed lifespan extension. Remarkably, this simple change in diet also blocked the pro-longevity effects of dietary restriction. These data establish AMP biosynthesis, adenosine nucleotide ratios, and AMPK as determinants of adult lifespan, provide a mechanistic link between cellular anabolism and energy sensing pathways, and indicate that dietary adenine manipulations might alter metabolism to influence animal lifespan. PMID:23312286

  13. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  14. Vasodilator effects of adenosine on retinal arterioles in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Taisuke; Mori, Asami; Saito, Maki; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2008-02-01

    Adenosine is a potent vasodilator of retinal blood vessels and is implicated to be a major regulator of retinal blood flow during metabolic stress, but little is known about the impact of diabetes on the role of adenosine in regulation of retinal hemodynamics. Therefore, we examined how diabetes affects adenosine-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles. Male Wistar rats were treated with streptozotocin (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), and experiments were performed 6-8 weeks later. Rats were treated with tetrodotoxin (50 microg/kg, intravenously [i.v.]) to eliminate any nerve activity and prevent movement of the eye and infused with methoxamine continuously to maintain adequate systemic circulation. Fundus images were captured with a digital camera that was equipped with a special objective lens, and diameters of retinal arterioles were measured. Adenosine increased diameters of retinal arterioles and decreased systemic blood pressure. These responses were significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (30 mg/kg, i.v.) and the adenosine triphosphate-dependent K+ (K(ATP)) channel blocker glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.). The depressor responses to adenosine were reduced in diabetic rats, whereas diabetes did not alter vasodilation of retinal arterioles to adenosine. In contrast, both depressor response and vasodilation of retinal arteriole to acetylcholine were reduced in diabetic rats. The retinal vasodilator responses to adenosine and acetylcholine observed in diabetic rats were diminished by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. There were no differences in the responses to pinacidil, a K(ATP) channel opener, between the diabetic and nondiabetic rats. These results suggest that both the activation of nitric oxide synthase and opening of K(ATP) channels contribute to the vasodilator effects of adenosine in rats in vivo. However, diabetes has no significant impact on the vasodilation mediated by these mechanisms in

  15. Release of extracellular ATP by bacteria during growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used as an intracellular energy source by all living organisms. It plays a central role in the respiration and metabolism, and is the most important energy supplier in many enzymatic reactions. Its critical role as the energy storage molecule makes it extremely valuable to all cells. Results We report here the detection of extracellular ATP in the cultures of a variety of bacterial species. The levels of the extracellular ATP in bacterial cultures peaked around the end of the log phase and decreased in the stationary phase of growth. Extracellular ATP levels were dependent on the cellular respiration as bacterial mutants lacking cytochrome bo oxidase displayed lower extracellular ATP levels. We have also shown that Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella actively depleted extracellular ATP and an ATP supplement in culture media enhanced the stationary survival of E. coli and Salmonella. In addition to E. coli and Salmonella the presence of the extracellular ATP was observed in a variety of bacterial species that contain human pathogens such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus. Conclusion Our results indicate that extracellular ATP is produced by many bacterial species during growth and extracellular ATP may serve a role in the bacterial physiology. PMID:24364860

  16. Variations of ATP and its metabolites in the hippocampus of rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doná, Flávia; Conceição, Isaltino Marcelo; Ulrich, Henning; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Freitas, Thalma Ariani; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahao; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José

    2016-06-01

    Although purinergic receptor activity has lately been associated with epilepsy, little is known about the exact role of purines in epileptogenesis. We have used a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine to study the dynamics of purine metabolism in the hippocampus during different times of status epilepticus (SE) and the chronic phase. Concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine in normal and epileptic rat hippocampus were determined by microdialysis in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extracellular ATP concentrations did not vary along 4 h of SE onset. However, AMP concentration was elevated during the second hour, whereas ADP and adenosine concentrations augmented during the third and fourth hour following SE. During chronic phase, extracellular ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations decreased, although these levels again increased significantly during spontaneous seizures. These results suggest that the increased turnover of ATP during the acute period is a compensatory mechanism able to reduce the excitatory role of ATP. Increased adenosine levels following 4 h of SE may contribute to block seizures. On the other hand, the reduction of purine levels in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats may result from metabolic changes and be part of the mechanisms involved in the onset of spontaneous seizures. This work provides further insights into purinergic signaling during establishment and chronic phase of epilepsy. PMID:26939579

  17. METABOLIC REGULATION OF ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE SULFURYLASE IN YEAST

    PubMed Central

    de Vito, Peter C.; Dreyfuss, Jacques

    1964-01-01

    de Vito, Peter C. (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), and Jacques Dreyfuss. Metabolic regulation of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase in yeast. J. Bacteriol. 88:1341–1348. 1964.—The metabolic regulation of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATP-sulfurylase) from baker's yeast was studied. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate, 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate, and sulfide. Sulfide ion was a competitive inhibitor of ATP-sulfurylase. Cysteine, methionine, sulfite, and thiosulfate were not inhibitors of the enzyme. ATP-sulfurylase was repressed when yeast was grown in the presence of methionine, and derepressed when yeast was grown in the presence of cysteine. In contrast to these results, the enzyme sulfite reductase was repressed in cysteine-grown cells. Thus, the sulfate-reducing pathway in yeast appears to be regulated at its first step both by feedback inhibition (by sulfide) and by repression (by methionine). Other known controls in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway are discussed. PMID:14234791

  18. Radioprotective effects of ATP in human blood ex vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Swennen, Els L.R. Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Van den Beucken, Twan; Bast, Aalt

    2008-03-07

    Damage to healthy tissue is a major limitation of radiotherapy treatment of cancer patients, leading to several side effects and complications. Radiation-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is thought to be partially responsible for the radiation-associated complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of extracellular ATP on markers of oxidative stress, radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage in irradiated blood ex vivo. ATP inhibited radiation-induced TNF-{alpha} release and increased IL-10 release. The inhibitory effect of ATP on TNF- {alpha} release was completely reversed by adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate, indicating a P2Y{sub 11} mediated effect. Furthermore, ATP attenuated radiation-induced DNA damage immediate, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Our study indicates that ATP administration alleviates radiation-toxicity to blood cells, mainly by inhibiting radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage.

  19. Amperometric ATP biosensor based on polymer entrapped enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kueng, Angelika; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2004-05-15

    A dual enzyme electrode for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) at physiologically relevant pH levels was developed by co-immobilization of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOD) and hexokinase (HEX) using pH-shift induced deposition of enzyme containing polymer films. Application of a simple electrochemical procedure for the co-immobilization of the enzymes at electrode surfaces exhibits a major improvement of sensitivity, response time, reproducibility, and ease of fabrication of ATP biosensors. Competition between glucose oxidase and hexokinase for the substrate glucose involving ATP as a co-substrate allows the determination of ATP concentrations. Notable control on the immobilization process enables fabrication of micro biosensors with a diameter of 25 microm. The presented concept provides the technological basis for a new generation of fast responding, sensitive, and robust biosensors for the detection of ATP at physiological pH values with a detection limit of 10 nmol l(-1). PMID:15046763

  20. Evidence for evoked release of adenosine and glutamate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schousboe, A.; Frandsen, A.; Drejer, J. )

    1989-09-01

    Evoked release of ({sup 3}H)-D-aspartate which labels the neurotransmitter glutamate pool in cultured cerebellar granule cells was compared with evoked release of adenosine from similar cultures. It was found that both adenosine and (3H)-D-aspartate could be released from the neurons in a calcium dependent manner after depolarization of the cells with either 10-100 microM glutamate or 50 mM KCl. Cultures of cerebellar granule cells treated with 50 microM kainate to eliminate GABAergic neurons behaved in the same way. This together with the observation that cultured astrocytes did not exhibit a calcium dependent, potassium stimulated adenosine release strongly suggest that cerebellar granule cells release adenosine in a neurotransmitter-like fashion together with glutamate which is the classical neurotransmitter of these neurons. Studies of the metabolism of adenosine showed that in the granule cells adenosine is rapidly metabolized to ATP, ADP, and AMP, but in spite of this, adenosine was found to be released preferential to ATP.

  1. Ectopic ATP synthase in endothelial cells: a novel cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi; Zhu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces ATP in cells and is found on the inner membrane of mitochondria or the cell plasma membrane (ectopic ATP synthase). Here, we summarize the functions of ectopic ATP synthase in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Ectopic ATP synthase is involved in adenosine metabolism on the cell surface through its ATP generation or hydrolysis activity. The ATP/ADP generated by the enzyme on the plasma membrane can bind to P2X/P2Y receptors and activate the related signalling pathways to regulate endothelial function. The β-chain of ectopic ATP synthase on the EC surface can recruit inflammatory cells and activate cytotoxic activity to damage ECs and induce vascular inflammation. Angiostatin and other angiogenesis inhibitors can have anti-angiogenic functions by inhibiting ectopic ATP synthase on ECs. Moreover, ectopic ATP synthase on ECs is a receptor for apoA-I, the acceptor of cholesterol efflux, which implies that endothelial ectopic ATP synthase is involved in cholesterol metabolism. Coupling factor 6 (CF6), a part of ectopic ATP synthase, is released from ECs and can inhibit prostacyclin synthesis and promote nitric oxide (NO) degradation to enhance NO bioactivity. Because ATP/ADP generated by ectopic ATP synthase can induce NO production, substances such as CF6 can inhibit NO generation by inhibiting surface ATP/ADP production. Thus, the components of ectopic ATP synthase are associated with regulation of vascular tone. Through these functions, ectopic ATP synthase on ECs is considered a potential and novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, hypertension and lipid disorders. PMID:21247400

  2. Evidence that adenosine triphosphate or a related nucleotide is the transmitter substance released by non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Burnstock, G; Campbell, G; Satchell, D; Smythe, ANNE

    1997-01-01

    Stimulation of the vagal non-adrenergic inhibitory innervation caused the release of adenosine and inosine into vascular perfusates from the stomachs of guinea-pigs and toads. Stimulation of portions of Auerbach's plexus isolated from turkey gizzard caused the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP, added to solutions perfused through the toad stomach vasculature, was broken down to adenosine, inosine and adenine. Of a series of purine and pyrimidine derivatives tested for inhibitory activity on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli, ATP and ADP were the most potent. ATP caused inhibition of twelve other gut preparations previously shown to contain non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves. The inhibitory action of ATP was not prevented by tetrodotoxin. Quinidine antagonized relaxations of the guinea-pig taenia coli caused by catecholamines or adrenergic nerve stimulation. Higher concentrations of quinidine antagonized relaxations caused by ATP or non-adrenergic inhibitory nerve stimulation. When tachyphylaxis to ATP had been produced in the rabbit ileum, there was a consistent depression of the responses to non-adrenergic inhibitory nerve stimulation but not of responses to adrenergic nerve stimulation. It is suggested that ATP or a related nucleotide is the transmitter substance released by the non-adrenergic inhibitory innervation of the gut. PMID:9142414

  3. Electrophysiological-anatomic correlates of ATP-triggered vagal reflex in the dog. III. Role of cardiac afferents.

    PubMed

    Katchanov, G; Xu, J; Hurt, C M; Pelleg, A

    1996-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that the asymmetry in the afferent traffic of the intra-right atrium (RA) ATP-triggered vagal reflex is due to the stimulation by ATP of extrapulmonary (i.e., cardiac) vagal chemosensitive afferent terminals, ATP, adenosine, and capsaicin were given into the canine RA and the aortic root (AR; n = 12); ATP and adenosine were also administered into the left common carotid artery and the descending aorta (n = 6). The negative chronotropic action [i.e., suppression of sinus node (SN) automaticity] of the test compounds and time to peak effect (tp) were determined. Under baseline conditions, ATP given into the left common carotid artery had a relatively very small effect. ATP given into the descending aorta had no effect. In contrast, intra-RA and intra-AR ATP markedly suppressed SN automaticity, the former less than the latter; the opposite was true for capsaicin. Intra-RA adenosine was much less potent than intra-RA ATP. The tp of intra-RA ATP and intra-RA adenosine were larger than the tp of intra-AR ATP. Pulmonary denervation did not alter the effects of intra-RAATP, intra-ARATP, or intra-AR capsaicin but almost abolished the effect of intra-RA capsaicin. Subsequent bilateral, but not left, cervical vagotomy markedly reduce the effects of ATP and eliminated the difference between the effects of ATP and adenosine. In addition, tp of intra-RA ATP and intra-AR ATP increased substantially and were similar to tp of adenosine. It was concluded that 1) ATP can stimulate vagal afferent terminals not only in the lungs but also in the heart, 2) the latter constitutes the vagal component of the negative chronotropic action of intra-RA or intra-AR ATP on SN automatically, and 3) the asymmetry in the vagal afferent traffic elicited by ATP in the heart (i.e., right vagal dominance) supersedes the symmetrical vagal afferent traffic triggered by intrapulmonary ATP. PMID:8928887

  4. Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok

    2011-08-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s⁻¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ∼10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common α/β barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism. PMID:21511036

  5. Adenosine kinase inhibitors attenuate opiate withdrawal via adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, G B; Coyle, T S

    1998-11-27

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for adenosine in mediating opiate effects. This study examines the effects of indirect activation of adenosine receptors, via treatment with adenosine kinase inhibitors, on the expression of opiate withdrawal in mice. Mice receive chronic morphine treatment via implantation of subcutaneous morphine pellets (75 mg) for 72 h. Mice then receive parenteral treatment with adenosine kinase inhibitors, either 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine (2, 5, 20, 40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal or i.p.) or iodotubericidin (1, 2, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by naloxone injection and opiate withdrawal signs are measured over 20 min. Both adenosine kinase inhibitors significantly reduce the following opiate withdrawal signs in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle: withdrawal jumps, teeth chattering, forepaw tremors, and forepaw treads. Additionally, 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine significantly reduces withdrawal-induced diarrhea and weight loss. Effects of 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine (40 mg/kg) on opiate withdrawal signs appear to be mediated via adenosine receptor activation as they are reversed by pretreatment by adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (20 mg, i.p.) but not by selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro 20-1724 (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Adenosine receptor activation via adenosine kinase inhibitor treatment attenuates opiate withdrawal and these agents may be generally useful in the treatment of drug withdrawal syndromes. PMID:9865523

  6. Extraction and analysis of adenosine triphosphate from aquatic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Shultz, David J.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extraction procedures have been investigated for their applicability to samples from aquatic environments. The cold sulfuric-oxalic acid procedure was best suited to samples consisting of water, periphyton, and sediments. Due to cation and fulvic acid interferences, a spike with a known quantity of ATP was necessary to estimate losses when sediments were extracted. Variable colonization densities for periphyton required that several replicates be extracted to characterize accurately the periphyton community. Extracted samples were stable at room temperature for one to five hours, depending on the ATP concentration, if the pH was below 2. Neutralized samples which were quick frozen and stored at -30C were stable for months. (USGS)

  7. Spreading depolarization-induced adenosine accumulation reflects metabolic status in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Britta E; Shuttleworth, C William

    2014-01-01

    Spreading depolarization (SD), a pathologic feature of migraine, stroke and traumatic brain injury, is a propagating depolarization of neurons and glia causing profound metabolic demand. Adenosine, the low-energy metabolite of ATP, has been shown to be elevated after SD in brain slices and under conditions likely to trigger SD in vivo. The relationship between metabolic status and adenosine accumulation after SD was tested here, in brain slices and in vivo. In brain slices, metabolic impairment (assessed by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) autofluorescence and O2 availability) was associated with prolonged extracellular direct current (DC) shifts indicating delayed repolarization, and increased adenosine accumulation. In vivo, adenosine accumulation was observed after SD even in otherwise healthy mice. As in brain slices, in vivo adenosine accumulation correlated with DC shift duration and increased when DC shifts were prolonged by metabolic impairment (i.e., hypoglycemia or middle cerebral artery occlusion). A striking pattern of adenosine dynamics was observed during focal ischemic stroke, with nearly all the observed adenosine signals in the periinfarct region occurring in association with SDs. These findings suggest that adenosine accumulation could serve as a biomarker of SD incidence and severity, in a range of clinical conditions. PMID:25160669

  8. Adenosine inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid release from slices of rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Hollins, C.; Stone, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effect of purine compounds on the potassium-evoked release of 14C-labelled gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been studied in 400 micrometers slices of rat cerebral cortex in vitro. 2 Adenosine and adenosine 5' monophosphate (AMP) inhibited the release of GABA at 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced a significant inhibition of release only at 10(-3) M. 3 Theophylline 10(-4) or 10(-3) M reduced the inhibitory effect of adenosine, but did not change basal release of GABA. 4 Dipyridamole 10(-5) M itself reduced evoked GABA release, but did not prevent the inhibitory effect of adenosine, implying that adenosine was acting at an extracellularly directed receptor. 5 Calcium removal or antagonism by verapamil reduced the evoked release of GABA, but adenosine did not produce any further reduction of the calcium-independent release. This may indicate that the inhibitory effect of adenosine on GABA release results from interference with calcium influx or availability within the terminals. PMID:7378648

  9. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. PMID:20550943

  10. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was amplified using PCR, cloned in the pET101-TOPO plasmid, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli obtaining a 63.5 kDa ATPS recombinant protein according to SDS-PAGE analysis. The bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses determined that the ATPS from A. ferrooxidans presents ATP sulfurylase (ATS) and APS kinase (ASK) domains similar to ATPS of Aquifex aeolicus, probably of a more ancestral origin. Enzyme activity towards ATP formation was determined by quantification of ATP formed from E. coli cell extracts, using a bioluminescence assay based on light emission by the luciferase enzyme. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant ATP sulfurylase from A. ferrooxidans presents an enzymatic activity for the formation of ATP and sulfate, and possibly is a bifunctional enzyme due to its high homology to the ASK domain from A. aeolicus and true kinases. PMID:23055613

  11. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; Del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was amplified using PCR, cloned in the pET101-TOPO plasmid, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli obtaining a 63.5 kDa ATPS recombinant protein according to SDS-PAGE analysis. The bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses determined that the ATPS from A. ferrooxidans presents ATP sulfurylase (ATS) and APS kinase (ASK) domains similar to ATPS of Aquifex aeolicus, probably of a more ancestral origin. Enzyme activity towards ATP formation was determined by quantification of ATP formed from E. coli cell extracts, using a bioluminescence assay based on light emission by the luciferase enzyme. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant ATP sulfurylase from A. ferrooxidans presents an enzymatic activity for the formation of ATP and sulfate, and possibly is a bifunctional enzyme due to its high homology to the ASK domain from A. aeolicus and true kinases. PMID:23055613

  12. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rongen, G. A.; van den Broek, P. H. H.; Bilos, A.; Donders, A. R. T.; Gomes, M. E.; Riksen, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo. Experimental Approach In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg) affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation. Key Results Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735 PMID:26509673

  13. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) deficiency is a disorder characterized by abnormal ...

  14. Phosphorylation potential and adenosine release during norepinephrine infusion in guinea pig heart

    SciTech Connect

    He, Miao-Xiang; Wangler, R.D.; Dillon, P.F.; Romig, G.D.; Sparks, H.V. )

    1987-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adenosine released from isolated guinea pig hearts in response to norepinephrine is related to the cellular phosphorylation potential (PP;(ATP)/(ADP)(P{sub i})), where P{sub i} is inorganic phosphate. {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to measure the relative concentrations of P{sub i}, phosphocreatine (PCr), and ATP. After a control period, norepinephrine was infused for 20 min during which {sup 31}P-NMR spectra and samples of venous effluent were collected every minute. With norepinephrine infusion, PCr decreased rapidly to 72% of control by 8 min and then recovered to 80% of control for the remaining 12 min. ATP fell slowly to 70% of control over 20 min. P{sub i} increased to a peak at 2 min, then declined slowly to a steady state from 8 to 20 min. Adenosine release increased at 7 min and then slowly fell to a steady state from 10 to 20 min. There is hyperbolic relationship between adenosine release and PP; when the PP declines, a level is reached below which there is a rapid increase in adenosine release. These data support the hypothesis that adenosine release is regulated by the cellular PP as a closely related variable.

  15. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Alan Gruenhagen

    2003-12-12

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized Cd

  16. Theory of Polymer Entrapped Enzyme Ultramicroelectrodes: Application to Glucose and Adenosine Triphosphate Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Peter A.; Kranz, Christine; Kwon, Yong Koo; Masson, Jean-Francois; Mizaikoff, Boris; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2010-01-01

    We validate, by comparison with experimental data, a theoretical description of the amperometric response of microbiosensors formed via enzyme entrapment. The utility of the theory is further illustrated with two relevant examples supported by experiments: (1) quantitative detection of glucose and (2) quantitative detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). PMID:20445817

  17. Torque generation mechanism of ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John; Maric, Sladjana; Scoppa, M.; Cheung, M.

    2010-03-01

    ATP synthase is a rotary motor that produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical currency of life. Our proposed electric field driven torque (EFT) model of FoF1-ATP synthase describes how torque, which scales with the number of c-ring proton binding sites, is generated by the proton motive force (pmf) across the mitochondrial inner membrane. When Fo is coupled to F1, the model predicts a critical pmf to drive ATP production. In order to fully understand how the electric field resulting from the pmf drives the c-ring to rotate, it is important to examine the charge distributions in the protonated c-ring and a-subunit containing the proton channels. Our calculations use a self-consistent field approach based on a refinement of reported structural data. The results reveal changes in pKa for key residues on the a-subunit and c-ring, as well as titration curves and protonation state energy diagrams. Health implications will be briefly discussed.

  18. Calcium and ATP control multiple vital functions

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Life on Planet Earth, as we know it, revolves around adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a universal energy storing molecule. The metabolism of ATP requires a low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, and hence tethers these two molecules together. The exceedingly low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (which in all life forms is kept around 50–100 nM) forms the basis for a universal intracellular signalling system in which Ca2+ acts as a second messenger. Maintenance of transmembrane Ca2+ gradients, in turn, requires ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport, thus further emphasizing the inseparable links between these two substances. Ca2+ signalling controls the most fundamental processes in the living organism, from heartbeat and neurotransmission to cell energetics and secretion. The versatility and plasticity of Ca2+ signalling relies on cell specific Ca2+ signalling toolkits, remodelling of which underlies adaptive cellular responses. Alterations of these Ca2+ signalling toolkits lead to aberrant Ca2+ signalling which is fundamental for the pathophysiology of numerous diseases from acute pancreatitis to neurodegeneration. This paper introduces a theme issue on this topic, which arose from a Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting held in March 2016. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377728

  19. Calcium and ATP control multiple vital functions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ole H; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-08-01

    Life on Planet Earth, as we know it, revolves around adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a universal energy storing molecule. The metabolism of ATP requires a low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, and hence tethers these two molecules together. The exceedingly low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration (which in all life forms is kept around 50-100 nM) forms the basis for a universal intracellular signalling system in which Ca(2+) acts as a second messenger. Maintenance of transmembrane Ca(2+) gradients, in turn, requires ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport, thus further emphasizing the inseparable links between these two substances. Ca(2+) signalling controls the most fundamental processes in the living organism, from heartbeat and neurotransmission to cell energetics and secretion. The versatility and plasticity of Ca(2+) signalling relies on cell specific Ca(2+) signalling toolkits, remodelling of which underlies adaptive cellular responses. Alterations of these Ca(2+) signalling toolkits lead to aberrant Ca(2+) signalling which is fundamental for the pathophysiology of numerous diseases from acute pancreatitis to neurodegeneration. This paper introduces a theme issue on this topic, which arose from a Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting held in March 2016.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377728

  20. Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-24

    The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

  1. Coassembly of Photosystem II and ATPase as Artificial Chloroplast for Light-Driven ATP Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiyun; Jia, Yi; Cai, Peng; Fei, Jinbo; Li, Junbai

    2016-01-26

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is one of the most important energy sources in living cells, which can drive serial key biochemical processes. However, generation of a proton gradient for ATP production in an artificial way poses a great challenge. In nature, photophosphorylation occurring in chloroplasts is an ideal prototype of ATP production. In this paper we imitate the light-to-ATP conversion process occurring in the thylakoid membrane by construction of FoF1-ATPase proteoliposome-coated PSII-based microspheres with well-defined core@shell structures using molecular assembly. Under light illumination, PSII can split water into protons, oxygen, and electrons and can generate a proton gradient for ATPase to produce ATP. Thus, an artificially designed chloroplast for PSII-driven ATP synthesis is realized. This biomimetic system will help to understand the photophosphorylation process and may facilitate the development of ATP-driven devices by remote light control. PMID:26615669

  2. Reduced ability to release adenosine by diabetic rat cardiac fibroblasts due to altered expression of nucleoside transporters

    PubMed Central

    Podgorska, Marzena; Kocbuch, Katarzyna; Grden, Marzena; Szutowicz, Andrzej; Pawelczyk, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    Adenosine produced by cardiac cells is known to attenuate the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), inhibit collagen synthesis, and protect the myocardium against ischaemic and reperfusion injury. Diabetic patients' hearts exhibit ventricular hypertrophy and demonstrate reduced tolerance to hypoxia or ischaemia. In this study, we characterize the effects of glucose and insulin on processes that determine the release of adenosine from CFs. We showed that during ATP depletion, rat CFs cultured in the absence of insulin release significantly less adenosine compared to cells grown in the presence of insulin. Moreover, under both conditions the quantity of released adenosine depends on glucose concentration. We demonstrate that this is due to altered expression of nucleoside transporters. High glucose (25 mm) induced 85% decrease in nucleoside transporter ENT1 mRNA levels. Decrease of the insulin level below 10−11m resulted in over 3-fold increase in the nucleoside transporter CNT2 mRNA content. Measurements of adenosine transport in CFs cultured in the presence of 5 mm glucose and 10 nm insulin showed that the bidirectional equilibrative adenosine transport accounted for 70% of the overall adenosine uptake. However, cells grown in the presence of high glucose (25 mm) demonstrated 65% decrease of the bidirectional equilibrative adenosine transport. Experiments on CFs cultured in the absence of insulin showed that the unidirectional Na+-dependent adenosine uptake rose in these cells more than 4-fold. These results indicate that the development of diabetes may result in an increased uptake of interstitial adenosine by CFs, and reduction of the ability of these cells to release adenosine during ATP deprivation. PMID:16873415

  3. Mitochondrial ATP synthase activity is impaired by suppressed O-GlcNAcylation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cha, Moon-Yong; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Chaeyoung; Jung, Yang Ouk; Kang, Min Jueng; Murray, Melissa E; Hong, Hyun Seok; Choi, Young-Joo; Choi, Heesun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Hyunjung; Kim, Jisoo; Dickson, Dennis W; Song, Hyun Kyu; Cho, Jin Won; Yi, Eugene C; Kim, Jungsu; Jin, Seok Min; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-11-15

    Glycosylation with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is one of the protein glycosylations affecting various intracellular events. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Mitochondrial adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthase is a multiprotein complex that synthesizes ATP from ADP and Pi. Here, we found that ATP synthase subunit α (ATP5A) was O-GlcNAcylated at Thr432 and ATP5A O-GlcNAcylation was decreased in the brains of AD patients and transgenic mouse model, as well as Aβ-treated cells. Indeed, Aβ bound to ATP synthase directly and reduced the O-GlcNAcylation of ATP5A by inhibition of direct interaction between ATP5A and mitochondrial O-GlcNAc transferase, resulting in decreased ATP production and ATPase activity. Furthermore, treatment of O-GlcNAcase inhibitor rescued the Aβ-induced impairment in ATP production and ATPase activity. These results indicate that Aβ-mediated reduction of ATP synthase activity in AD pathology results from direct binding between Aβ and ATP synthase and inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation of Thr432 residue on ATP5A. PMID:26358770

  4. [Adenosine and its role in physiology].

    PubMed

    Novotný, J

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is not just a major component of adenine nucleotides and ribonucleic acids, but also has its own signaling functions. ExtraceIlular level of adenosine in an organism is strictly maintained through the balance between its formation, degradation and transport. Adenosine is formed by enzymatic degradation of adenosine triphosphate and eliminated by phosphorylation to adenosine monophosphate or by deamination to inosine. Transport of adenosine across the cell membrane is ensured by equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters. All these processes participate in maintenance of adenosine level under normal conditions, but a balanced equilibrium can be disrupted in some pathophysiological situations. Extracellular adenosine as a signaling molecule binds to adenosine receptors, which may trigger via their cognate trimeric G proteins different signaling pathways. In this way, adenosine regulates energy homeostasis and affects the function of various organs. Targeted pharmacological manipulations of specific adenosine receptor subtypes or enzymes involved in its metabolism can potentially be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26738245

  5. The examination of urine samples for pathogenic microbes by the luciferase assay for ATP. 1: The effect of the presence of fungi, fungal like bacteria and kidney cells in urine samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, V. N.

    1973-01-01

    A method for accurately determining urinary tract infections in man is introduced. The method is based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration in urine samples after removing nonbacterial ATP. Adenosine triphosphate concentration is measured from the bioluminescent reaction of luciferase when mixed with ATP. An examination was also made of the effectiveness of rupturing agents on monkey kidney cells Candia albicans, a Rhodotorula species, and a Streptomyces species in determining whether these cells could contribute ATP to the bacterial ATP value of a urine sample.

  6. ATP technology, a tool for monitoring microbes in cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Czechowski, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    Rapid and accurate measurement of microbes is important for controlling the formation of troublesome microbial slimes in cooling water systems. One method for accomplishing this involves the measurement of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), a compound used to store and transfer energy in microbial cells. Cellular ATP is determined by chemically rupturing cells, which releases ATP that reacts with a luciferase reagent (the firefly enzyme). This reaction produces light which can be detected by a sensitive luminometer/photometer. The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of ATP in the cell. A quantitative indication of biological activity is obtained in minutes, compared to traditional plating methods which often require days of incubation. The use of ATP for microbial detection has been available for many years; however, industrial usage was limited because the ATP procedure was neither easy to perform nor was it cost effective. Recently, advances in instrument technology, extractant chemistry and enzyme stability have made ATP detection more practical and less expensive. ATP technology can be used for determining microbial content in cooling water systems, predicting biocide effectiveness, and monitoring efficacy of biocides in cooling systems. A good correlation (0.85) was found between microbial ATP values and bacterial Colony Forming Units (CFU) in cooling waters. ATP technology was used to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of a biocide in a test system within 1 hour after biocide addition. Test results accurately predicted the biocide efficacy in the cooling tower. Effectiveness of other biocides in cooling systems were monitored with results being obtained within minutes after sampling. These findings indicate the potential for ATP technology to be an effective tool in monitoring microbes in cooling water systems.

  7. Specificity of synergistic coronary flow enhancement by adenosine and pulsatile perfusion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, P; Senzaki, H; Paolocci, N; Isoda, T; Sunagawa, G; Recchia, F A; Kass, D A

    1999-10-01

    1. Coronary flow elevation from enhanced perfusion pulsatility is synergistically amplified by adenosine. This study determined the specificity of this interaction and its potential mechanisms. 2. Mean and phasic coronary flow responses to increasing pulsatile perfusion were assessed in anaesthetized dogs, with the anterior descending coronary artery servoperfused to regulate real-time physiological flow pulsatility at constant mean pressure. Pulsatility was varied between 40 and 100 mmHg. Hearts ejected into the native aorta whilst maintaining stable loading. 3. Increasing pulsatility elevated mean coronary flow +11.5 +/- 1.7 % under basal conditions. Co-infusion of adenosine sufficient to raise baseline flow 66 % markedly amplified this pulsatile perfusion response (+82. 6 +/- 14.3 % increase in mean flow above adenosine baseline), due to a leftward shift of the adenosine-coronary flow response curve at higher pulsatility. Flow augmentation with pulsatility was not linked to higher regional oxygen consumption, supporting direct rather than metabolically driven mechanisms. 4. Neither bradykinin, acetylcholine nor verapamil reproduced the synergistic amplification of mean flow by adenosine and higher pulsatility, despite being administered at doses matching basal flow change with adenosine. 5. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) activation (pinacidil) amplified the pulse-flow response 3-fold, although this remained significantly less than with adenosine. Co-administration of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor quinacrine virtually eliminated adenosine-induced vasodilatation, yet synergistic interaction between adenosine and pulse perfusion persisted, albeit at a reduced level. 6. Thus, adenosine and perfusion pulsatility specifically interact to enhance coronary flow. This synergy is partially explained by KATP agonist action and additional non-flow-dependent mechanisms, and may be important for modulating flow reserve during exercise or other high output states where

  8. Rapid adenosine release in the nucleus tractus solitarii during defence response in rats: real-time measurement in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Nicholas; Gourine, Alexander V; Llaudet, Enrique; Bulmer, David; Thomas, Teresa; Spyer, K Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the release of adenosine and inosine from the dorsal surface of the brainstem and from within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) during the defence response evoked by hypothalamic stimulation in the anaesthetised rat. At the surface of the brainstem, only release of inosine was detected on hypothalamic defence area stimulation. This inosine signal was greatly reduced by addition of the ecto-5′-nucleotidase inhibitor α,β-methylene ADP (200 μM), suggesting that the inosine arose from adenosine that was produced in the extracellular space by the prior release of ATP. By placing a microelectrode biosensor into the NTS under stereotaxic control we have recorded release of adenosine within this nucleus. By contrast to the brainstem surface, a fast increase in adenosine, accompanied only by a much smaller change in inosine levels, was seen following stimulation of the hypothalamic defence area. The release of adenosine following hypothalamic stimulation was mainly confined to a narrow region of the NTS some 500 μm in length around the level of the obex. Interestingly the release of adenosine was depletable: when the defence reaction was evoked at short time intervals, much less adenosine was released on the second stimulus. Our novel techniques have given unprecedented real-time measurement and localisation of adenosine release in vivo and demonstrate that adenosine is released at the right time and in sufficient quantities to contribute to the cardiovascular components of the defence reaction. PMID:12356888

  9. Adenosine, ketogenic diet and epilepsy: the emerging therapeutic relationship between metabolism and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Wasser, C D; Wasser, C A; Pomeroy, L T; Ruskin, D N

    2009-09-01

    For many years the neuromodulator adenosine has been recognized as an endogenous anticonvulsant molecule and termed a "retaliatory metabolite." As the core molecule of ATP, adenosine forms a unique link between cell energy and neuronal excitability. In parallel, a ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet is a metabolic therapy that influences neuronal activity significantly, and ketogenic diets have been used successfully to treat medically-refractory epilepsy, particularly in children, for decades. To date the key neural mechanisms underlying the success of dietary therapy are unclear, hindering development of analogous pharmacological solutions. Similarly, adenosine receptor-based therapies for epilepsy and myriad other disorders remain elusive. In this review we explore the physiological regulation of adenosine as an anticonvulsant strategy and suggest a critical role for adenosine in the success of ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. While the current focus is on the regulation of adenosine, ketogenic metabolism and epilepsy, the therapeutic implications extend to acute and chronic neurological disorders as diverse as brain injury, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, autism and hyperdopaminergic disorders. Emerging evidence for broad clinical relevance of the metabolic regulation of adenosine will be discussed. PMID:20190967

  10. Authentic role of ATP signaling in micturition reflex

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Makoto; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Norichika; Soda, Tetsuji; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Matsumoto-Miyai, Kazumasa; Ishida, Yusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Osamu; Nonomura, Norio; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using the automated voided stain on paper method and video-urodynamics. Unexpectedly, a lack of P2X2 or P2X3 receptors did not affect bladder function under normal physiological conditions, indicating that bladder ATP signaling is not essential for normal micturition reflex. In contrast, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced markedly high levels of ATP release from the urothelium. In addition, LPS-induced rapid bladder hyperactivity was attenuated in P2X2−/− and P2X3−/− mice. Contrary to the previous interpretation, our present findings indicate that bladder ATP signaling has a fundamental role in the micturition reflex, especially in bladder dysfunction, under pathological conditions. Therefore, the bladder ATP signaling pathway might be a highly promising therapeutic target for functional bladder disorders. This study newly defines an authentic role for bladder ATP signaling in the micturition reflex. PMID:26795755

  11. Authentic role of ATP signaling in micturition reflex.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Makoto; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Norichika; Soda, Tetsuji; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Matsumoto-Miyai, Kazumasa; Ishida, Yusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Osamu; Nonomura, Norio; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using the automated voided stain on paper method and video-urodynamics. Unexpectedly, a lack of P2X2 or P2X3 receptors did not affect bladder function under normal physiological conditions, indicating that bladder ATP signaling is not essential for normal micturition reflex. In contrast, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced markedly high levels of ATP release from the urothelium. In addition, LPS-induced rapid bladder hyperactivity was attenuated in P2X2(-/-) and P2X3(-/-) mice. Contrary to the previous interpretation, our present findings indicate that bladder ATP signaling has a fundamental role in the micturition reflex, especially in bladder dysfunction, under pathological conditions. Therefore, the bladder ATP signaling pathway might be a highly promising therapeutic target for functional bladder disorders. This study newly defines an authentic role for bladder ATP signaling in the micturition reflex. PMID:26795755

  12. Synthesis and fluorescence characteristics of ATP-based FRET probes.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Norman; Hacker, Stephan M; Marx, Andreas

    2013-12-28

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogues labelled with two dyes suitable for undergoing Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) have the potential to be valuable tools to continuously study the enzymatic activity of ATP consuming enzymes. Here, we present a synthesis strategy that allows obtaining these ATP analogues in a straight-forward manner. Earlier studies indicate that modifying ATP at the O2'- and the γ-position is a very promising starting point for the design of these probes. We synthesized probes modified with five different combinations of dyes attached to these positions and investigated their fluorescence characteristics in the non-cleaved state as well as after enzymatic hydrolysis. All presented probes largely change their fluorescence characteristics upon cleavage. They include ratiometric FRET probes as well as dark quenched analogues. For typical in vitro applications a combination of the sulfonated polymethine dyes Sulfo-Cy3 and Sulfo-Cy5 seems to be most promising due to their excellent solubility in aqueous buffer and a large change of fluorescence characteristics upon cleavage. For this combination of dyes we also synthesized analogues modified at the γ- and the C2- or the O3'-position, respectively, as these attachment sites are also well accepted by certain ATP consuming enzymes. These analogues show comparably large changes in fluorescence characteristics. Overall, we present new ATP-based FRET probes that have the potential to enable monitoring the enzymatic activity of ATP consuming enzymes. PMID:24173528

  13. Mechanism of action of ATP on canine pulmonary vagal C fibre nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Pelleg, A; Hurt, C M

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pulmonary vagal afferent fibres (n = 46) was studied in a canine model in vivo (n = 38). 2. ATP (3-6 mumol kg-1), administered as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a transient burst of action potentials in cervical vagal fibres, which was not affected by either blockade of ganglionic transmission (hexamethonium) or a drop in arterial blood pressure (nitroglycerine). 3. The fibres with ATP-sensitive terminals were otherwise quiescent with no activity related to either cardiac or respiratory cycles and their conduction velocity was 0.85 +/- 0.13 m s-1 (n = 7). 4. Inflation of the lungs to 2-3 times the tidal volume triggered brief bursts of action potentials in these fibres. 5. Capsaicin (10 micrograms kg-1), given as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a burst of action potentials in these ATP-sensitive fibres. 6. Smaller amounts of ATP and capsaicin (0.5-3 mumol kg-1 and 1-5 micrograms kg-1, respectively) had similar effects when the two compounds were given into the right pulmonary artery. 7. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, or adenosine 5'-diphosphate did not excite these fibres (n = 30). 8. The non-degradable analogue of ATP alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP) was tenfold more potent than ATP while beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma-mATP) was in active. 9. The selective P2x-purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid markedly attenuated the effect of ATP but not of capsaicin. The P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist Reactive Blue 2 was without effect. 10. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not affect this action of ATP. 11. In the canine lungs ATP activates vagal C fibre nerve terminals. This action is mediated by P2X-purinoceptors and is independent of a PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). PMID:8745294

  14. Purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G C; Schmalstieg, F C; Trimmer, K B; Goldman, A S; Goldblum, R M

    1976-01-01

    Purine and pyrimidine metabolites were measured in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of a 5-month-old infant with adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) deficiency. Adenosine and adenine were measured using newly devised ion exchange separation techniques and a sensitive fluorescence assay. Plasma adenosine levels were increased, whereas adenosine was normal in erythrocytes and not detectable in urine. Increased amounts of adenine were found in erythrocytes and urine as well as in the plasma. Erythrocyte adenosine 5'-monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate concentrations were normal, but adenosine triphosphate content was greatly elevated. Because of the possibility of pyrimidine starvation, pyrimidine nucleotides (pyrimidine coenzymes) in erythrocytes and orotic acid in urine were measured. Pyrimidine nucleotide concentrations were normal, while orotic acid was not detected. These studies suggest that the immune deficiency associated with adenosine deaminase deficiency may be related to increased amounts of adenine, adenosine, or adenine nucleotides. PMID:1066699

  15. Intravascular ATP and the regulation of blood flow and oxygen delivery in humans.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of vascular tone is a complex response that integrates multiple signals that allow for blood flow and oxygen supply to match oxygen demand appropriately. Here, we discuss the potential role of intravascular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a primary factor in these responses and put forth the hypothesis that deficient ATP release contributes to impairments in vascular control exhibited in aged and diseased populations. PMID:25390296

  16. Pannexin-1-mediated ATP release from area CA3 drives mGlu5-dependent neuronal oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lopatář, Jan; Dale, Nicholas; Frenguelli, Bruno G

    2015-06-01

    The activation of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (GI mGluRs) in the hippocampus results in the appearance of persistent bursts of synchronised neuronal activity. In response to other stimuli, such activity is known to cause the release of the purines ATP and its neuroactive metabolite, adenosine. We have thus investigated the potential release and role of the purines during GI mGluR-induced oscillations in rat hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 using pharmacological techniques and microelectrode biosensors for ATP and adenosine. The GI mGluR agonist DHPG induced both persistent oscillations in neuronal activity and the release of adenosine in areas CA1 and CA3. In contrast, the DHPG-induced release of ATP was only observed in area CA3. Whilst adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors suppressed DHPG-induced burst activity, the activation of mGlu5 and P2Y1 ATP receptors were necessary for the induction of DHPG-induced oscillations. Selective inhibition of pannexin-1 hemichannels with a low concentration of carbenoxolone (10 μM) or probenecid (1 mM) did not affect adenosine release in area CA3, but prevented both ATP release in area CA3 and DHPG-induced bursting. These data reveal key aspects of GI mGluR-dependent neuronal activity that are subject to bidirectional regulation by ATP and adenosine in the initiation and pacing of burst firing, respectively, and which have implications for the role of GI mGluRs in seizure activity and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25645390

  17. ATP-sulfurylase, sulfur-compounds, and plant stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Ritu; Kaushik, Manjeri; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal; Tuteja, Narendra; Gill, Sarvajeet S

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) stands fourth in the list of major plant nutrients after N, P, and K. Sulfate (SO4 (2-)), a form of soil-S taken up by plant roots is metabolically inert. As the first committed step of S-assimilation, ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-S) catalyzes SO4 (2-)-activation and yields activated high-energy compound adenosine-5(')-phosphosulfate that is reduced to sulfide (S(2-)) and incorporated into cysteine (Cys). In turn, Cys acts as a precursor or donor of reduced S for a range of S-compounds such as methionine (Met), glutathione (GSH), homo-GSH (h-GSH), and phytochelatins (PCs). Among S-compounds, GSH, h-GSH, and PCs are known for their involvement in plant tolerance to varied abiotic stresses, Cys is a major component of GSH, h-GSH, and PCs; whereas, several key stress-metabolites such as ethylene, are controlled by Met through its first metabolite S-adenosylmethionine. With the major aim of briefly highlighting S-compound-mediated role of ATP-S in plant stress tolerance, this paper: (a) overviews ATP-S structure/chemistry and occurrence, (b) appraises recent literature available on ATP-S roles and regulations, and underlying mechanisms in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, (c) summarizes ATP-S-intrinsic regulation by major S-compounds, and (d) highlights major open-questions in the present context. Future research in the current direction can be devised based on the discussion outcomes. PMID:25904923

  18. ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  19. ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) adenylate kinase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at separate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Elcock, Adrian H; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-09-20

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP &lrarr2; 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  20. Adenosine-Associated Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156

  1. ATP-binding sites in brain p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), a multifunctional AAA ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Zalk, Ran; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2003-01-01

    VCP (valosin-containing protein) or p97 is a member of the AAA family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities family), a diverse group of proteins sharing a key conserved AAA module containing duplicate putative ATP-binding sites. Although the functions of the AAA family are related to their putative ATP-binding sites, the binding of ATP to these sites has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, the ATP-binding site(s) of brain VCP was characterized using the photoreactive ATP analogue, BzATP [3'- O -(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP]. Photo-activation of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP resulted in its covalent binding to a 97-kDa purified soluble or membrane-associated protein, identified by amino acid sequencing as VCP. Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP covalently bound to the purified homo-hexameric VCP with an apparent high affinity (74-111 nM). A molar stoichiometry of 2.23+/-0.14 BzATP bound per homo-hexameric VCP (n =6) was determined using different methods for analysis of radiolabelling and protein determination. Nucleotides inhibited the binding of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP to VCP with the following efficiency: BzATP>ATP>ADP>>adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate>or=adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate, whereas AMP, GTP and CTP were ineffective. VCP was observed to possess very low ATPase activity, with nucleotide specificity similar to that for BzATP binding. Conformational changes induced by an alternating site mechanism for ATP binding are suggested as a molecular mechanism for coupling ATP binding to the diverse activities of the AAA family. PMID:12747802

  2. Application of ATP measurements to the microbiological evaluation of a petroleum reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    The objective of the work reported in this document was to determine whether the bioluminescent luciferin/luciferase based adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay could be used as a rapid field tests for determining the presence and numbers of microorganisms in oil field fluids. The ATP-photometric technique employed is based on the ATP-mediated bioluminescent oxidation of firefly luciferin. Light production is stoichiometrically related to ATP concentration; ATP concentration is related to numbers of living organisms present in a sample. Samples used in this study comprised reservoir fluids collected from several Southern California oilfields. Based on experimental evidence, it was concluded that the ATP assay could be profitably applied to Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) process monitoring and control. The theoretical basis for the assay, field-usage methodologies, and fundamentals of data interpretation are presented to make the document usable as a field manual.

  3. Neurochemical measurement of adenosine in discrete brain regions of five strains of inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Pani, Amar K; Jiao, Yun; Sample, Kenneth J; Smeyne, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO), a non-classical neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, and its metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), have been shown to play an important role in a number of biochemical processes. Although their signaling is well described, it has been difficult to directly, accurately and simultaneously quantitate these purines in tissue or fluids. Here, we describe a novel method for measuring adenosine (ADO) and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Using this chromatographic technique, we examined baseline levels of ADO and ATP, ADP and AMP in 6 different brain regions of the C57BL/6J mouse: stratum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra and cerebellum and compared ADO levels in 5 different strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss-Webster, FVB/NJ, 129P/J, and BALB/c). These studies demonstrate that baseline levels of purines vary significantly among the brain regions as well as between different mouse strains. These dissimilarities in purine concentrations may explain the variable phenotypes among background strains described in neurological disease models. PMID:24642754

  4. ATP synthase: a tentative structural model.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, S; Junge, W

    1997-09-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate at the expense of proton- or sodium-motive force across the respective coupling membrane in Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya. Cation flow through the intrinsic membrane portion of this enzyme (Fo, subunits ab2c9-12) and substrate turnover in the headpiece (F1, subunits alpha3beta3 gammadeltaepsilon) are mechanically coupled by the rotation of subunit gamma in the center of the catalytic hexagon of subunits (alphabeta)3 in F1. ATP synthase is the smallest rotatory engine in nature. With respect to the headpiece alone, it probably operates with three steps. Partial structures of six out of its at least eight different subunits have been published and a 3-dimensional structure is available for the assembly (alphabeta)3gamma. In this article, we review the available structural data and build a tentative topological model of the holoenzyme. The rotor portion is proposed to consist of a wheel of at least nine copies of subunits c, epsilon and a portion of gamma as a spoke, and another portion of gamma as a crankshaft. The stator is made up from a, the transmembrane portion of b2, delta and the catalytic hexagon of (alphabeta)3. As an educated guess, the model may be of heuristic value for ongoing studies on this fascinating electrochemical-to-mechanical-to-chemical transducer. PMID:9323021

  5. Effects of oral adenosine 5'-triphosphate and adenosine in enteric-coated capsules on indomethacin-induced permeability changes in the human small intestine: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Bours, Martijn JL; Bos, Hilde J; Meddings, Jon B; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2007-01-01

    Background It is well-known that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause damage to the small bowel associated with disruption of mucosal barrier function. In healthy human volunteers, we showed previously that topical administration of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) by naso-intestinal tube attenuated a rise in small intestinal permeability induced by short-term challenge with the NSAID indomethacin. This finding suggested that ATP may be involved in the preservation of intestinal barrier function. Our current objective was to corroborate the favourable effect of ATP on indomethacin-induced permeability changes in healthy human volunteers when ATP is administered via enteric-coated capsules, which is a more practically feasible mode of administration. Since ATP effects may have been partly mediated through its breakdown to adenosine, effects of encapsulated adenosine were tested also. Methods By ingesting a test drink containing 5 g lactulose and 0.5 g L-rhamnose followed by five-hour collection of total urine, small intestinal permeability was assessed in 33 healthy human volunteers by measuring the urinary lactulose/rhamnose excretion ratio. Urinary excretion of lactulose and L-rhamnose was determined by fluorescent detection high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Basal permeability of the small intestine was assessed as a control condition (no indomethacin, no ATP/adenosine). As a model of increased small intestinal permeability, two dosages of indomethacin were ingested at 10 h (75 mg) and 1 h (50 mg) before ingesting the lactulose/rhamnose test drink. At 1.5 h before indomethacin ingestion, two dosages of placebo, ATP (2 g per dosage) or adenosine (1 g per dosage) were administered via enteric-coated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules with Eudragit© L30D-55. Results Median urinary lactulose/rhamnose excretion ratio (g/g) in the control condition was 0.032 (interquartile range: 0.022–0.044). Compared to the control condition

  6. Fluorescent ATP analog mant-ATP reports dynein activity in the isolated Chlamydomonas axoneme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilova, Maria; Howard, Jonathon

    Eukaryotic flagella are long rod-like extensions of cells, which play a fundamental role in single cell movement, as well as in fluid transport. Flagella contain a highly evolutionary conserved mechanical structure called the axoneme. The motion of the flagellum is generated by dynein motor proteins located all along the length of the axoneme. How the force production of motors is controlled spatially and temporally is still an open question. Therefore, monitoring dynein activity in the axonemal structure is expected to provide novel insights in regulation of the beat. We use high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy to monitor the binding and hydrolysis kinetics of the fluorescently labeled ATP analogue mant-ATP (2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate), which is known to support dynein activity. By studying the kinetics of mant-ATP fluorescence, we identified distinct mant-ATP binding sites in the axoneme. The application of this method to axonemes with reduced amounts of dynein, showed evidence that one of the sites is associated with binding to dynein. In the future, we would like to use this method to find the spatial distribution of dynein activity in the axoneme.

  7. Lack of effect of adenosine on the function of rodent osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hajjawi, Mark O R; Patel, Jessal J; Corcelli, Michelangelo; Arnett, Timothy R; Orriss, Isabel R

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular ATP, signalling through P2 receptors, exerts well-documented effects on bone cells, inhibiting mineral deposition by osteoblasts and stimulating the formation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts. The aims of this study were to determine the potential osteotropic effects of adenosine, the hydrolysis product of ATP, on primary bone cells in vitro. We determined the effect of exogenous adenosine on (1) the growth, alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity and bone-forming ability of osteoblasts derived from the calvariae of neonatal rats and mice and the marrow of juvenile rats and (2) the formation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts from juvenile mouse marrow. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed marked differences in the expression of P1 receptors in osteoblasts from different sources. Whilst mRNA for the A1 and A2B receptors was expressed by all primary osteoblasts, A2A receptor expression was limited to rat bone marrow and mouse calvarial osteoblasts and the A3 receptor to rat bone marrow osteoblasts. We found that adenosine had no detectable effects on cell growth, TNAP activity or bone formation by rodent osteoblasts in vitro. The analogue 2-chloroadenosine, which is hydrolysed more slowly than adenosine, had no effects on rat or mouse calvarial osteoblasts but increased TNAP activity and bone formation by rat bone marrow osteoblasts by 30-50 % at a concentration of 1 μM. Osteoclasts were found to express the A2A, A2B and A3 receptors; however, neither adenosine (≤100 μM) nor 2-chloroadenosine (≤10 μM) had any effect on the formation or resorptive activity of mouse osteoclasts in vitro. These results suggest that adenosine, unlike ATP, is not a major signalling molecule in the bone. PMID:26861849

  8. Enhanced Production of Adenosine Triphosphate by Pharmacological Activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2015-10-01

    The hepatic cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP) is closely related to cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, which is mainly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of low energy status. AMPK regulates metabolic homeostasis by stimulating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. We found that the decrease in active phosphorylation of AMPK in response to APAP correlates with decreased ATP levels, in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that the enhanced production of ATP via AMPK stimulation can lead to amelioration of APAP-induced liver failure. A769662, an allosteric activator of AMPK, produced a strong synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation with APAP in primary hepatocytes and liver tissue. Interestingly, activation of AMPK by A769662 ameliorated the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6N mice treated with APAP at a dose of 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally. However, mice treated with APAP alone developed massive centrilobular necrosis, and APAP increased their serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Furthermore, A769662 administration prevented the loss of intracellular ATP without interfering with the APAP-mediated reduction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-glucose eliminated the beneficial effects of A769662 on APAP-mediated liver injury. In conclusion, A769662 can effectively protect mice against APAP-induced liver injury through ATP synthesis by anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK may have potential therapeutic application for APAP overdose. PMID:26434492

  9. Enhanced Production of Adenosine Triphosphate by Pharmacological Activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The hepatic cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP) is closely related to cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, which is mainly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of low energy status. AMPK regulates metabolic homeostasis by stimulating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. We found that the decrease in active phosphorylation of AMPK in response to APAP correlates with decreased ATP levels, in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that the enhanced production of ATP via AMPK stimulation can lead to amelioration of APAP-induced liver failure. A769662, an allosteric activator of AMPK, produced a strong synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation with APAP in primary hepatocytes and liver tissue. Interestingly, activation of AMPK by A769662 ameliorated the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6N mice treated with APAP at a dose of 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally. However, mice treated with APAP alone developed massive centrilobular necrosis, and APAP increased their serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Furthermore, A769662 administration prevented the loss of intracellular ATP without interfering with the APAP-mediated reduction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-glucose eliminated the beneficial effects of A769662 on APAP-mediated liver injury. In conclusion, A769662 can effectively protect mice against APAP-induced liver injury through ATP synthesis by anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK may have potential therapeutic application for APAP overdose. PMID:26434492

  10. ATP level and caffeine efficiency on cytokinesis inhibition in plants.

    PubMed

    López-Sáez, J F; Mingo, R; González-Fernández, A

    1982-06-01

    Plant cytokinesis appears to be a topographically organized process of exocytosis. Golgi vesicles which contain cell wall precursors are translocated during telophase, by interzonal microtubules, to the equatorial region of the mitotic apparatus where they fuse with each other giving rise to the new cell wall. Caffeine inhibits cytokinesis by hindering Golgi vesicle coalescence. The present results demonstrate that treatments which increase the cellular ATP level (adenosine, cycloheximide and anisomycin) counteract caffein-induced cytokinesis inhibition in meristem cells of onion root tips (Allium cepa L.), while treatments which decrease ATP level potentiate this caffeine effect (dinitrophenol, fluoroacetate, low oxygen tensions, etc.). We postulate that caffeine, in competition with the cellular ATP level, blocks cell plate formation by inhibiting a certain ATPase activity required for membrane fusion of Golgi vesicles. PMID:7117265

  11. Modulation of dopamine-mediated facilitation at the neuromuscular junction of Wistar rats: A role for adenosine A1/A2A receptors and P2 purinoceptors.

    PubMed

    Elnozahi, Neveen A; AlQot, Hadir E; Mohy El-Din, Mahmoud M; Bistawroos, Azza E; Abou Zeit-Har, Mohamed S

    2016-06-21

    This study aims to understand how dopamine and the neuromodulators, adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) modulate neuromuscular transmission. Adenosine and ATP are well-recognized for their regulatory effects on dopamine in the central nervous system. However, if similar interactions occur at the neuromuscular junction is unknown. We hypothesize that the activation of adenosine A1/A2A and/or P2 purinoceptors may influence the action of dopamine on neuromuscular transmission. Using the rat phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm, we assessed the influence of dopamine, adenosine and ATP on the height of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. We investigated how the selective blockade of adenosine A1 receptors (2.5nM DPCPX), adenosine A2A receptors (50nM CSC) and P2 purinoceptors (100μM suramin) modified the effects of dopamine. Dopamine alone increased indirect muscle contractions while adenosine and ATP either enhanced or depressed nerve-evoked muscle twitches in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory effects of 256μM dopamine were significantly reduced to 29.62±2.79% or 53.69±5.45% in the presence of DPCPX or CSC, respectively, relative to 70.03±1.57% with dopamine alone. Alternatively, the action of 256μM dopamine was potentiated from 70.03±1.57, in the absence of suramin, to 86.83±4.36%, in the presence of suramin. It can be concluded that the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and P2 purinoceptors potentially play a central role in the regulation of dopamine effects at the neuromuscular junction. Clinically this study offers new insights for the indirect manipulation of neuromuscular transmission for the treatment of disorders characterized by motor dysfunction. PMID:27060487

  12. ATP-Responsive DNA-Graphene Hybrid Nanoaggregates for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Sun, Wujin; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems are primarily focused on the applications of the tumor microenvironmental or cellular physiological cues to enhance the release of drugs at the target site. In this study, we applied adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), the primary “energy molecule”, as a trigger for enhanced release of preloaded drugs responding to the intracellular ATP concentration that is significantly higher than the extracellular level. A new ATP-responsive anticancer drug delivery strategy utilizing DNA-graphene crosslinked hybrid nanoaggregates as carriers was developed for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX), which consists of graphene oxide (GO), two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, denoted as DNA1 and DNA2) and ATP aptamer. The single-stranded DNA1 and DNA2 together with the ATP aptamer serve as the linkers upon hybridization for controlled assembly of the DNA-GO nanoaggregates, which effectively inhibited the release of DOX from the GO nanosheets. In the presence of ATP, the responsive formation of the ATP/ATP aptamer complex causes the dissociation of the aggregates, which promoted the release of DOX in the environment with a high ATP concentration such as cytosol compared with that in the ATP-deficient extracellular fluid. This supports the development of a novel ATP-responsive platform for targeted on-demand delivery of anticancer drugs inside specific cells. PMID:25736497

  13. Role of the intracellular nucleoside transporter ENT3 in transmitter and high K+ stimulation of astrocytic ATP release investigated using siRNA against ENT3.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; Xu, Junnan; Bai, Qiufang; Cai, Liping; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the intracellular adenosine transporter equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) in stimulated release of the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from astrocytes. Within the past 20 years, our understanding of the importance of astrocytic handling of adenosine, its phosphorylation to ATP, and release of astrocytic ATP as an important transmitter has become greatly expanded. A recent demonstration that the mainly intracellular nucleoside transporter ENT3 shows much higher expression in freshly isolated astrocytes than in a corresponding neuronal preparation leads to the suggestion that it was important for the synthesis of gliotransmitter ATP from adenosine. This would be consistent with a previously noted delay in transmitter release of ATP in astrocytes but not in neurons. The present study has confirmed and quantitated stimulated ATP release in response to glutamate, adenosine, or an elevated K(+) concentration from well-differentiated astrocyte cultures, measured by a luciferin-luciferase reaction. It showed that the stimulated ATP release was abolished by downregulation of ENT3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), regardless of the stimulus. The concept that transmitter ATP in mature astrocytes is synthesized directly from adenosine prior to release is supported by the postnatal development of the expression of the vesicular transporter SLC17A9 in astrocytes. In neurons, this transporter carries ATP into synaptic vesicles, but in astrocytes, its expression is pronounced only in immature cells and shows a rapid decline during the first 3 postnatal weeks so that it has almost disappeared at the end of the third week in well-differentiated astrocytes, where its role has probably been taken over by ENT3. PMID:25298788

  14. Electrophysiological-anatomic correlates of ATP-triggered vagal reflex in the dog. V. Role of purinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Kussmaul, William; Kurnik, Peter B; Al-Ahdav, Mohamad; Pelleg, Amir

    2005-03-01

    The mechanism of extracellular ATP-triggered vagal depressor reflex was further studied in a closed-chest canine model. Adenosine and ATP were administered individually in equimolar doses (0.01-1.0 mumol/kg) into the right coronary artery (RCA) and left circumflex coronary artery (LCA). When administered into the RCA, adenosine and ATP exerted an identical and relatively small negative chronotropic effect on sinus node automaticity; the time to peak negative chronotropic effect was >/=7 s. When administered into the LCA, adenosine had no effect on sinus node automaticity, whereas ATP markedly suppressed sinus node automaticity. This effect of ATP 1) reached its peak in <2 s after its administration, 2) was short lasting, and 3) was completely abolished by either intravenous administration of the muscarinic cholinergic blocker atropine (0.2 mg/kg) or intra-LCA administration of 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP), a potent P2X(2/3) purinergic receptor (P2X(2/3)R) antagonist, but not by diinosine pentaphosphate (Ip(5)I), a potent inhibitor of P2X(1)R and P2X(3)R. Repetitive administrations of ATP were not associated with reduced effects, indicative of receptor desensitization, thereby excluding the involvement of the rapidly desensitized P2X(1)R in the action of ATP. It was concluded that ATP triggers a cardio-cardiac vagal depressor reflex by activating P2X(2/3)R located on vagal sensory nerve terminals localized in the left ventricle. Because these terminals mediate vasovagal syncope, these data could suggest a mechanistic role of extracellular ATP in this syndrome and, in addition, give further support to the hypothesis that endogenous ATP released from ischemic myocytes is a mediator of atropine-sensitive bradyarrhythmias associated with left ventricular myocardial infarction. PMID:15539614

  15. Evidence for deactivation of both ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase by adenosine A1 receptor activation in the rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kitakaze, M; Hori, M; Minamino, T; Takashima, S; Komamura, K; Node, K; Kurihara, T; Morioka, T; Sato, H; Inoue, M

    1994-01-01

    Adenosine, an important regulator of many cardiac functions, is produced by ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. The activity of these enzymes is influenced by several ischemia-sensitive metabolic factors, e.g., ATP, ADP, H+, and inorganic phosphate. However, there is no clear evidence that adenosine itself affects 5'-nucleotidase activity. This study tested whether adenosine decreases the activity of ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rats and suspended in the modified Hepes-Tyrode buffer solution. After stabilization, isolated cardiomyocytes were incubated with and without adenosine (10(-9) - 10(-4) M). Ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased by exogenous adenosine (ectosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity, 20.6 +/- 2.3 vs. 8.6 +/- 1.6 mumol/min per 10(6) cells [P < 0.05]; cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity, 2.47 +/- 0.58 vs. 1.61 +/- 0.54 mumol/min per 10(6) cells [P < 0.05] at 10(-6) M adenosine) after 30 min. The decrease in ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline and pertussis toxin, and was mimicked by N6-cyclohexyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist. Neither CGS21680C, and A2 receptor agonist, nor cycloheximide deactivated ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. Thus, we conclude that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is coupled to Gi proteins and attenuates ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity in rat cardiomyocytes. Images PMID:7989602

  16. Concept of Sustained Ordering and an ATP-related Mechanism of Life’s Origin

    PubMed Central

    Galimov, Erik M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the steady state of a system of conjugated reactions, which are characterized by disproportionation of entropy and proceed in the domain of linear interactions, is an attractor of ordering. Such systems are primed to produce ordering, and life is a specific manifestation of the sustained ordering inherent to the chemistry of carbon. The adenosine triphospate (ATP) molecule has properties which makes ATP hydrolysis to be most appropriate to form such a system in primitive world. Hence, ATP is suggested to play a key role in prebiological evolution. Principles of the origin and evolution of life following from the concept of ordering are stated. PMID:19564936

  17. A Small Aptamer with Strong and Specific Recognition of the Triphosphate of ATP

    PubMed Central

    Sazani, Peter L.; Larralde, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    We report the in vitro selection of an RNA-based ATP aptamer with the ability to discriminate between adenosine ligands based on their 5‘ phosphorylation state. Previous selection of ATP aptamers yielded molecules that do not significantly discriminate between ligands at the 5‘ position. By applying a selective pressure that demands recognition of the 5‘ triphosphate, we obtained an aptamer that binds to ATP with a Kd of approximately 5 μM, and to AMP with a Kd of approximately 5.5 mM, a difference of 1100-fold. This aptamer demonstrates the ability of small RNAs to interact with negatively charged moieties. PMID:15237981

  18. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Molecular energy transducers of the living cell. Proton ATP synthase: a rotating molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, Yurii M.; Tikhonov, Alexander N.

    2010-12-01

    The free energy released upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main source of energy for the functioning of the living cell and all multicellular organisms. The overwhelming majority of ATP molecules are formed by proton ATP synthases, which are the smallest macromolecular electric motors in Nature. This paper reviews the modern concepts of the molecular structure and functioning of the proton ATP synthase, and real-time biophysical experiments on the rotation of the 'rotor' of this macromolecular motor. Some mathematical models describing the operation of this nanosized macromolecular machine are described.

  19. Natural variation in the ATPS1 isoform of ATP sulfurylase contributes to the control of sulfate levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Giovannetti, Marco; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Lee, Bok-Rye; Grondin, Cécile; Loudet, Olivier; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Plants take up inorganic sulfate from the soil, reduce it, and assimilate it into bioorganic compounds, but part of this sulfate is stored in the vacuoles. In our first attempt to identify genes involved in the control of sulfate content in the leaves, we reported that a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for sulfate content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was underlain by the APR2 isoform of the key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase. To increase the knowledge of the control of this trait, we cloned a second QTL from the same analysis. Surprisingly, the gene underlying this QTL encodes the ATPS1 isoform of the enzyme ATP sulfurylase, which precedes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase in the sulfate assimilation pathway. Plants with the Bay allele of ATPS1 accumulate lower steady-state levels of ATPS1 transcript than those with the Sha allele, which leads to lower enzyme activity and, ultimately, the accumulation of sulfate. Our results show that the transcript variation is controlled in cis. Examination of ATPS1 sequences of Bay-0 and Shahdara identified two deletions in the first intron and immediately downstream the gene in Bay-0 shared with multiple other Arabidopsis accessions. The average ATPS1 transcript levels are lower in these accessions than in those without the deletions, while sulfate levels are significantly higher. Thus, sulfate content in Arabidopsis is controlled by two genes encoding subsequent enzymes in the sulfate assimilation pathway but using different mechanisms, variation in amino acid sequence and variation in expression levels. PMID:24027241

  20. Extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dongmei; Jackson, Travis C.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels. Rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with adenosine, guanosine, or both. Guanosine (30 μmol/l) per se had little effect on extracellular adenosine levels. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) were 0.125 ± 0.020 μmol/l, indicating rapid disposition of extracellular adenosine. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) plus guanosine (30 μmol/l) were 1.173 ± 0.061 μmol/l, indicating slow disposition of extracellular adenosine. Cell injury increased extracellular levels of endogenous adenosine and guanosine, and the effects of cell injury on endogenous extracellular adenosine were modulated by altering the levels of endogenous extracellular guanosine with exogenous purine nucleoside phosphorylase (converts guanosine to guanine) or 8-aminoguanosine (inhibits purine nucleoside phosphorylase). Extracellular guanosine also slowed the disposition of extracellular adenosine in rat preglomerular vascular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and kidney epithelial cells and in human aortic and coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells and coronary artery endothelial cells. The effects of guanosine on adenosine levels were not mimicked or attenuated by 5-iodotubericidin (adenosine kinase inhibitor), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (adenosine deaminase inhibitor), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (guanine deaminase inhibitor), aristeromycin (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor), low sodium (inhibits concentrative nucleoside transporters), S-(4-nitrobenzyl)−6-thioinosine [inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) type 1], zidovudine (inhibits ENT type 2), or acadesine (known modulator of adenosine levels). Guanosine also increases extracellular inosine, uridine, thymidine, and cytidine, yet decreases

  1. Amperometric biosensor system for simultaneous determination of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and glucose.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, Ivan S; Didukh, Daria Yu; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Soldatkin, Alexei P

    2014-06-01

    The majority of biosensors for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) determination are based on cascades of enzymatic reactions; therefore, they are sensitive to glucose or glycerol (depending on the enzymatic system) as well as to ATP. The presence of unknown concentrations of these substances in the sample greatly complicates the determination of ATP. To overcome this disadvantage of known biosensors, we developed a biosensor system consisting of two biosensors: the first one is based on glucose oxidase and is intended for measuring glucose concentration, and the second one is based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase and is sensitive toward both glucose and ATP. Using glucose concentration measured by the first biosensor, we can analyze the total response to glucose and ATP obtained by the second biosensor. Platinum disc electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. The polyphenilenediamine membrane was deposited onto the surface of platinum electrodes to avoid the response to electroactive substances. The effect of glucose concentration on biosensor determination of ATP was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses to glucose and ATP during a day was tested (relative standard deviation, RSD, of responses to glucose was 3-6% and to ATP was 8-12%) as well as storage stability of the biosensors (no decrease of glucose responses and 43% drop of ATP responses during 50 days). The measurements of ATP and glucose in pharmaceutical vials (including mixtures of ATP and glucose) were carried out. It was shown that the developed biosensor system can be used for simultaneous analysis of glucose and ATP concentrations in water solutions. PMID:24810180

  2. 2-Deoxy adenosine triphosphate improves contraction in human end-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Razumova, Maria V.; Racca, Alice W.; Cheng, Yuanhua; Stempien-Otero, April; Regnier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a novel treatment for heart failure by increasing myocardial 2 deoxy-ATP (dATP). Our studies in rodent models have shown that substitution of dATP for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy substrate in vitro or elevation of dATP in vivo increases myocardial contraction and that small increases in the native dATP pool of heart muscle are sufficient to improve cardiac function. Here we report, for the first time, the effect of dATP on human adult cardiac muscle contraction. We measured the contractile properties of chemically-demembranated multicellular ventricular wall preparations and isolated myofibrils from human subjects with end-stage heart failure. Isometric force was increased at both saturating and physiologic Ca2+ concentrations with dATP compared to ATP. This resulted in an increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of force (pCa50) by 0.06 pCa units. The rate of force redevelopment (kTR) in demembranated wall muscle was also increased, as was the rate of contractile activation (kACT) in isolated myofibrils, indicating increased cross-bridge binding and cycling compared with ATP in failing human myocardium. These data suggest dATP could increase dP/dT and end systolic pressure in failing human myocardium. Importantly, even though the magnitude and rate of force development was increased, there was no increase in the time to 50% and 90% myofibril relaxation. These data, along with our previous studies in rodent models shows the promise of elevating myocardial dATP to enhance contraction and restore cardiac pump function. These data also support further pre-clinical evaluation of this new approach for treating heart failure. PMID:25498214

  3. Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase from Pseudomonas fragi Catalyzes the Synthesis of Adenosine 5′-Polyphosphates and Dinucleoside Polyphosphates†

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Rui; Günther Sillero, Maria A.; Sillero, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.8) from Pseudomonas fragi catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine 5′-tetraphosphate (p4A) and adenosine 5′-pentaphosphate (p5A) from ATP and tri- or tetrapolyphosphate, respectively. dATP, adenosine-5′-O-[γ-thiotriphosphate] (ATPγS), adenosine(5′)tetraphospho(5′)adenosine (Ap4A), and adenosine(5′)pentaphospho(5′)adenosine (Ap5A) are also substrates of the reaction yielding p4(d)A in the presence of tripolyphosphate (P3). UTP, CTP, and AMP are not substrates of the reaction. The Km values for ATP and P3 are 0.015 and 1.3 mM, respectively. Maximum velocity was obtained in the presence of MgCl2 or CoCl2 equimolecular with the sum of ATP and P3. The relative rates of synthesis of p4A with divalent cations were Mg = Co > Mn = Zn >> Ca. In the pH range used, maximum and minimum activities were measured at pH values of 5.5 and 8.2, respectively; the opposite was observed for the synthesis of palmitoyl-CoA, with maximum activity in the alkaline range. The relative rates of synthesis of palmitoyl-CoA and p4A are around 10 (at pH 5.5) and around 200 (at pH 8.2). The synthesis of p4A is inhibited by CoA, and the inhibitory effect of CoA can be counteracted by fatty acids. To a lesser extent, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis also of Ap4A (from ATP), Ap5A (from p4A), and adenosine(5′)tetraphospho(5′)nucleoside (Ap4N) from adequate adenylyl donors (ATP, ATPγS, or octanoyl-AMP) and adequate adenylyl acceptors (nucleoside triphosphates). PMID:9620965

  4. Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Ju; Shiang, Yen-Chun; Chen, Li-Yi; Hsu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a simple and selective nanosensor for the optical detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using globular actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods (G-actin-Au/Ag NRs). By simply mixing G-actin and Au/Ag NRs (length ˜56 nm and diameter ˜12 nm), G-actin-Au/Ag NRs were prepared which were stable in physiological solutions (25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5.0 mM KCl, 3.0 mM MgCl2 and 1.0 mM CaCl2; pH 7.4). Introduction of ATP into the G-actin-Au/Ag NR solutions in the presence of excess G-actin induced the formation of filamentous actin-conjugated Au/Ag NR aggregates through ATP-induced polymerization of G-actin. When compared to G-actin-modified spherical Au nanoparticles having a size of 13 nm or 56 nm, G-actin-Au/Ag NRs provided better sensitivity for ATP, mainly because the longitudinal surface plasmon absorbance of the Au/Ag NR has a more sensitive response to aggregation. This G-actin-Au/Ag NR probe provided high sensitivity (limit of detection 25 nM) for ATP with remarkable selectivity (>10-fold) over other adenine nucleotides (adenosine, adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate) and nucleoside triphosphates (guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate). It also allowed the determination of ATP concentrations in plasma samples without conducting tedious sample pretreatments; the only necessary step was simple dilution. Our experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained from a commercial luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Our simple, sensitive and selective approach appears to have a practical potential for the clinical diagnosis of diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) associated with changes in ATP concentrations.

  5. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions.

  6. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2005-03-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions. PMID:15738467

  7. Adenosine is required for sustained inflammasome activation via the A2A receptor and the HIF-1α pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xinshou; Ghani, Ayaz; Malik, Ahsan; Wilder, Tuere; Colegio, Oscar Rene; Flavell, Richard Anthony; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2013-12-01

    Inflammasome pathways are important in chronic diseases; however, it is not known how the signalling is sustained after initiation. Inflammasome activation is dependent on stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP that provide two distinct signals resulting in rapid production of interleukin (IL)-1β, with the lack of response to repeat stimulation. Here we report that adenosine is a key regulator of inflammasome activity, increasing the duration of the inflammatory response via the A2A receptor. Adenosine does not replace signals provided by stimuli such as LPS or ATP but sustains inflammasome activity via a cAMP/PKA/CREB/HIF-1α pathway. In the setting of the lack of IL-1β responses after previous exposure to LPS, adenosine can supersede this tolerogenic state and drive IL-1β production. These data reveal that inflammasome activity is sustained, after initial activation, by A2A receptor-mediated signalling.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency adenosine ...

  9. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate release evoked by electrical nerve stimulation from the guinea-pig gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kusunoki, M; Ishikawa, Y; Kantoh, M; Yamamura, T; Utsunomiya, J

    1987-01-28

    The endogenous release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) from strips of guinea-pig gallbladder during transmural stimulation (TS) was measured with a firefly luciferine-luciferase reaction. TS (15V, 1 ms, 0.5-5 Hz, for 1 min) caused a rapid and marked increase of ATP release in a frequency-dependent manner. Both ATP release and contractions evoked by TS (15 V, 5 Hz, 1 ms) were completely abolished in Ca-free medium. BaCl2 (3 X 10(-3) M), a direct muscle stimulant, produced almost the same degree of contractile tension as TS (15 V, 5 Hz, 1 ms) while the ATP release induced by BaCl2 was significantly reduced to about 60 percent of that induced by TS. Atropine (10(-6) M) significantly reduced TS-evoked contraction without affecting ATP release. It was suggested, therefore, that some of the ATP release induced by TS was of neural origin. Theophylline (a P1-purinoreceptor antagonist) 10(-6) M, quinidine (a non-specific P2-purinoreceptor antagonist) 10(-6) M and apamin (a potassium channel blocking agent) 10(-8) M had no effects on TS-evoked contraction and ATP release, suggesting the absence of a presynaptic autoregulatory mechanism of ATP release in the guinea-pig gallbladder. PMID:3556400

  10. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells. PMID:27189526

  11. Detection of adenosine 5'-triphosphate by fluorescence variation of oligonucleotide-templated silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer Daneen; Cang, Jinshun; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ou, Chung-Mao; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-08-15

    Oligonucleotide-templated Ag nanoclusters (DNA-Ag NCs) prepared from AgNO3 using an oligonucleotide (5'-TAACCCCTAACCCCT-3') as a template and NaBH4 as a reducing agent have been used for sensing of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). The fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength of DNA-Ag NCs are dependent on the pH value and ATP concentration. At pH 3.0 and 11.0, ATP shows greater effects on fluorescence of the DNA-Ag NCs. Upon increasing ATP concentration from 10 to 50μM, their emission wavelength at pH 3.0 shifts from 525 to 585nm. At pH 11.0, their fluorescence intensity (510nm) increases upon increasing ATP concentration. The circular dichroism (CD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), absorption, and fluorescence results indicate that ATP and pH affect the interactions between DNAs and Ag atoms, resulting in changes in their fluorescence. The DNA-Ag NCs allow detection of ATP over a concentration range of 0.1-10μM, with a limit of detection 33nM. Practicality of the DNA-Ag NCs probe has been validated with the determination of ATP concentrations in the lysate of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. PMID:24657647

  12. Synthesis of γ-Phosphate-Labeled and Doubly Labeled Adenosine Triphosphate Analogs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Welter, Moritz; Marx, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the synthesis of γ-phosphate-labeled and doubly labeled adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogs and their characterization using the phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus (snake venom phosphodiesterase; SVPD). In the key step of the synthesis, ATP or an ATP analog, bearing a linker containing a trifluoroacetamide group attached to the nucleoside, are modified with an azide-containing linker at the terminal phosphate using an alkylation reaction. Subsequently, different labels are introduced to the linkers by transformation of one functional group to an amine and coupling to an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Specifically, the Staudinger reaction of the azide is employed as a straightforward means to obtain an amine in the presence of various labels. Furthermore, the fluorescence characteristics of a fluorogenic, doubly labeled ATP analog are investigated following enzymatic cleavage by SVPD. PMID:25754889

  13. Adenosine and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, upregulate CD39 and CD73 expression through E2F-1 and CREB in regulatory T cells isolated from septic mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rui; Shui, Xianqi; Hou, Jiong; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The number of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and the expression of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1; also known as CD39) and 5'-ectonucleotidase (NT5E; also known as CD73) on the Treg cell surface are increased during sepsis. In this study, to determine the factors leading to the high expression of CD39 and CD73, and the regulation of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway in Treg cells under septic conditions, we constructed a mouse model of sepsis and separated the Treg cells using a flow cytometer. The Treg cells isolated from the peritoneal lavage and splenocytes of the mice were treated with adenosine or the specific adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, and were transfected with specific siRNA targeting E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F-1) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), which are predicted transcription regulatory factors of CD39 or CD73. The regulatory relationships among these factors were then determined by western blot analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. In addition, changes in adenosine metabolism were measured in the treated cells. The results revealed that adenosine and CGS21680 significantly upregulated CD39 and CD73 expression (P<0.01). E2F-1 and CREB induced CD39 and CD73 expression, and were upregulated by adenosine and CGS21680. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and adenosine generation were inhibited by the knockdown of E2F-1 or CREB, and were accelerated in the presence of CGS21680. Based on these results, it can be inferred that adenosine, the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, E2F-1 and CREB are the possible factors contributing to the high expression of CD39 and CD73 on the Treg cell surface during sepsis. Adenosine and its A2A receptor agonist served as the signal transducer factors of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway, accelerating adenosine generation. Our study may benefit further research on adenosine metabolism for the treatment of sepsis

  14. Oxidized ATP. An irreversible inhibitor of the macrophage purinergic P2Z receptor.

    PubMed

    Murgia, M; Hanau, S; Pizzo, P; Rippa, M; Di Virgilio, F

    1993-04-15

    The effects of oxidized ATP (oATP) on responses triggered by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATPe) were investigated in the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774. ATPe induced in this cell line two kinds of responses mediated by two different P2 purinergic receptors: 1) an early permeabilization of the plasma membrane to extracellular hydrophilic markers of M(r) up to 900 mediated by P2Z receptors; and 2) a fast mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores mediated by P2Y receptors. Low oATP concentrations (100 microM) completely blocked the first response without affecting the second. ATPe-dependent cell swelling, vacuolization, and lysis were also inhibited. Antagonism developed slowly, as an incubation at 37 degrees C for at least 2 h in the presence of oATP was needed and was irreversible, thus suggesting that the inhibitory action was due to covalent modification of the receptor. The rate of hydrolysis of exogenous ATP was slightly decreased by oATP, indicating a minor blocking effect of this compound on plasma membrane ecto-ATPases in the concentration range tested. These observations suggest that oATP may be a potentially very useful tool for isolation and characterization of the P2Z purinergic receptor. PMID:8463330

  15. CFTR-independent ATP release from epithelial cells triggered by mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Grygorczyk, R; Hanrahan, J W

    1997-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated ATP efflux has been proposed as an autocrine mechanism for regulating chloride secretion through other types of chloride channels. Although we found in previous studies that wild-type CFTR channels bathed with high-ATP solutions do not conduct ATP at rates that can be measured with the patch-clamp technique, those experiments would not have detected very small or electroneutral ATP fluxes through CFTR or ATP efflux through other pathways that might be regulated by CFTR. To examine these possibilities, we have now used a sensitive luciferase luminometric assay to measure ATP efflux from epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation did not raise external ATP concentration above the background noise in any of the cell lines tested [T84, Calu-3, 9HTEo- and sigma CFTE29o- (colonic and airway human epithelial cells, respectively), NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, and Chinese hamster ovary cells], and variations in ATP release were not correlated with CFTR expression. The rate of ATP release was unaffected by cAMP but was exquisitely sensitive to mechanical perturbations in both CFTR expressing and nonexpressing cells. Mechanically induced, CFTR-independent ATP release may be a physiologically relevant mechanism of epithelial regulation, which has not previously been fully appreciated. PMID:9124508

  16. Nucleotide Binding Site Communication in Arabidopsis thaliana Adenosine 5;-Phosphosulfate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-08-31

    Adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of adenosine 3{prime}-phosphate 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which is an essential metabolite for sulfur assimilation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana, we examine the energetics of nucleotide binary and ternary complex formation and probe active site features that coordinate the order of ligand addition. Calorimetric analysis shows that binding can occur first at either nucleotide site, but that initial interaction at the ATP/ADP site was favored and enhanced affinity for APS in the second site by 50-fold. The thermodynamics of the two possible binding models (i.e. ATP first versus APS first) differs and implies that active site structural changes guide the order of nucleotide addition. The ligand binding analysis also supports an earlier suggestion of intermolecular interactions in the dimeric APSK structure. Crystallographic, site-directed mutagenesis, and energetic analyses of oxyanion recognition by the P-loop in the ATP/ADP binding site and the role of Asp136, which bridges the ATP/ADP and APS/PAPS binding sites, suggest how the ordered nucleotide binding sequence and structural changes are dynamically coordinated for catalysis.

  17. Structure of the DNA Ligase-Adenylate Intermediate: Lysine (ε-amino)-Linked Adenosine Monophosphoramidate*

    PubMed Central

    Gumport, Richard I.; Lehman, I. R.

    1971-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the Escherichia coli DNA ligase-adenylate intermediate releases adenosine 5′-monophosphate linked to the ε-amino group of lysine by a phosphoamide bond. Measurements of the rate of hydroxylaminolysis of the ligase-adenylate provide further support for a phosphoamide linkage in the native enzyme. Lysine (ε-amino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate has also been isolated from the T4 phage-induced ligase-adenylate intermediate. These results indicate that an initial step of the DNA ligase reaction consists of the nucleophilic attack of the ε-amino group of a lysine residue of the enzyme on the adenylyl phosphorus of DPN or ATP that leads to the formation of enzyme-bound lysine (εamino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate. PMID:4944632

  18. Light-harvesting chlorophyll pigments enable mammalian mitochondria to capture photonic energy and produce ATP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Junhua; Mihai, Doina M; Washington, Ilyas

    2014-01-15

    Sunlight is the most abundant energy source on this planet. However, the ability to convert sunlight into biological energy in the form of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is thought to be limited to chlorophyll-containing chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that mammalian mitochondria can also capture light and synthesize ATP when mixed with a light-capturing metabolite of chlorophyll. The same metabolite fed to the worm Caenorhabditis elegans leads to increase in ATP synthesis upon light exposure, along with an increase in life span. We further demonstrate the same potential to convert light into energy exists in mammals, as chlorophyll metabolites accumulate in mice, rats and swine when fed a chlorophyll-rich diet. Results suggest chlorophyll type molecules modulate mitochondrial ATP by catalyzing the reduction of coenzyme Q, a slow step in mitochondrial ATP synthesis. We propose that through consumption of plant chlorophyll pigments, animals, too, are able to derive energy directly from sunlight. PMID:24198392

  19. ROLE OF ATP IN REGULATING RENAL MICROVASCULAR FUNCTION AND IN HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhengrong; Inscho, Edward W.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential energy substrate for cellular metabolism but it can also influence many biological processes when released into the extracellular milieu. Research has established that extracellular ATP acts as an autocrine/paracrine factor that regulates many physiological functions. Alternatively, excessive extracellular ATP levels contribute to pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and atherosclerosis. Renal P2 receptors are widely distributed throughout glomeruli, vasculature and tubular segments, and participate in controlling renal vascular resistance, mediating renal autoregulation, and regulating tubular transport function. This review will focus on the role of ATP-P2 receptor signaling in regulating renal microvascular function and autoregulation, recent advances on the role of ATP-P2 signaling in hypertension-associated renal vascular injury, and emerging new directions. PMID:21768526

  20. Failure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator to Conduct ATP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. M.; Quinton, P. M.; Haws, C.; Wine, J. J.; Grygorczyk, R.; Tabcharani, J. A.; Hanrahan, J. W.; Gunderson, K. L.; Kopito, R. R.

    1996-03-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is chloride ion channel regulated by protein kinase A and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Loss of CFTR-mediated chloride ion conductance from the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells is a primary physiological lesion in cystic fibrosis. CFTR has also been suggested to function as an ATP channel, although the size of the ATP anion is much larger than the estimated size of the CFTR pore. ATP was not conducted through CFTR in intact organs, polarized human lung cell lines, stably transfected mammalian cell lines, or planar lipid bilayers reconstituted with CFTR protein. These findings suggest that ATP permeation through the CFTR is unlikely to contribute to the normal function of CFTR or to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis.

  1. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

  2. An investigation into the role of ATP in the mammalian pre-mRNA 3' cleavage reaction.

    PubMed

    Khleborodova, Asya; Pan, Xiaozhou; Nagre, Nagaraja N; Ryan, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    RNA Polymerase II transcribes beyond what later becomes the 3' end of a mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The formation of most mRNA 3' ends results from pre-mRNA cleavage followed by polyadenylation. In vitro studies have shown that low concentrations of ATP stimulate the 3' cleavage reaction while high concentrations inhibit it, but the origin of these ATP effects is unknown. ATP might enable a cleavage factor kinase or activate a cleavage factor directly. To distinguish between these possibilities, we tested several ATP structural analogs in a pre-mRNA 3' cleavage reaction reconstituted from DEAE-fractionated cleavage factors. We found that adenosine 5'-(β,γ-methylene)triphosphate (AMP-PCP) is an effective in vitro 3' cleavage inhibitor with an IC50 of ∼300 μM, but that most other ATP analogs, including adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate, which cannot serve as a protein kinase substrate, promoted 3' cleavage but less efficiently than ATP. In combination with previous literature data, our results do not support ATP stimulation of 3' cleavage through cleavage factor phosphorylation in vitro. Instead, the more likely mechanism is that ATP stimulates cleavage factor activity through direct cleavage factor binding. The mammalian 3' cleavage factors known to bind ATP include the cleavage factor II (CF IIm) Clp1 subunit, the CF Im25 subunit and poly(A) polymerase alpha (PAP). The yeast homolog of the CF IIm complex also binds ATP through yClp1. To investigate the mammalian complex, we used a cell-line expressing FLAG-tagged Clp1 to co-immunoprecipitate Pcf11 as a function of ATP concentration. FLAG-Clp1 co-precipitated Pcf11 with or without ATP and the complex was not affected by AMP-PCP. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), an ATP analog that binds the Nudix domain of the CF Im25 subunit with higher affinity than ATP, neither stimulated 3' cleavage in place of ATP nor antagonized ATP-stimulated 3' cleavage. The ATP-binding site of PAP was disrupted by site

  3. Adenosine Receptors and Membrane Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Lasley, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine receptors are a member of the large family of seven transmembrane spanning G protein coupled receptors (GPCR). The four adenosine receptor subtypes – A1, A2a, A2b, A3 – exert their effects via the activation of one or more heterotrimeric G proteins resulting in the modulation of intracellular signaling. Numerous studies over the past decade have documented the complexity of GPCR signaling at the level of protein-protein interactions as well as through signaling crosstalk. With respect to adenosine receptors the activation of one receptor subtype can have profound direct effects in one cell type, but little or no effect in other cells. There is significant evidence that the compartmentation of subcellular signaling plays a physiological role in the fidelity of GPCR signaling. This compartmentation is evident at the level of the plasma membrane in the form of membrane microdomains such as caveolae and lipid rafts. This review will summarize and critically assess our current understanding of the role of membrane microdomains in regulating adenosine receptor signaling. PMID:20888790

  4. Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural plant alkaloids caffeine and theophylline were the first adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists described in the literature. They exhibit micromolar affinities and are non-selective. A large number of derivatives and analogs have subsequently been synthesized and evaluated as AR antagonists. Very potent antagonists have thus been developed with selectivity for each of the four AR subtypes. PMID:20859796

  5. Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate Flux Through the North Inlet Marsh System †

    PubMed Central

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Stevenson, L. Harold; Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1979-01-01

    The distribution, fluctuation, and short-term transport of total microbial biomass (measured as adenosine 5′-triphosphate [ATP]) was investigated in a large salt marsh creek. Hourly samples were collected synoptically for 25 h from 10 boats positioned across the 320-m width of the creek. Samples were collected from three depths ranging from 0.2 to 8.0 m. Hourly data obtained from each station were graphed, plotting depth against ATP. Subsequently, interpolated ATP values were generated for every one-tenth depth from the surface to the bottom with the use of an 11-point proportional divider. A total of 2,750 values were generated, and a mean value of 0.865 mg of ATP per m3 was determined. Maximum levels of ATP were found at high tide and minimal values were found at low tide. The distribution of ATP concentrations was found to be complex, with no suggestion of vertical stratification; however, horizontal divisions were apparent. ATP values corrected for direction of flow or velocity indicated two ebb-directed channels; however, when considered in total, there was a net import of ATP through the interface. The total import of ATP for this 25-h sampling period was calculated to be 3.58 kg, corresponding to a net transport of 39.8 mg of ATP per s through the cross section. Results suggest that detailed characterization of a creek transect in terms of ATP or any similar parameter requires the simultaneous measurements of both the concentration of the parameter in question and the velocity at the time and point from which the sample was taken. PMID:16345382

  6. Intracellular diffusion of adenosine phosphates is locally restricted in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Vendelin, Marko; Eimre, Margus; Seppet, Evelin; Peet, Nadezda; Andrienko, Tatiana; Lemba, Maris; Engelbrecht, Jiiri; Seppet, Enn K; Saks, Valdur A

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the structural and functional interactions between mitochondria, myofibrils and sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac cells. Direct channeling of adenosine phosphates between organelles identified in the experiments indicates that diffusion of adenosine phosphates is limited in cardiac cells due to very specific intracellular structural organization. However, the mode of diffusion restrictions and nature of the intracellular structures in creating the diffusion barriers is still unclear, and, therefore, a subject of active research. The aim of this work is to analyze the possible role of two principally different modes of restriction distribution for adenosine phosphates (a) the uniform diffusion restriction and (b) the localized diffusion limitation in the vicinity of mitochondria, by fitting the experimental data with the mathematical model. The reaction-diffusion model of compartmentalized energy transfer was used to analyze the data obtained from the experiments with the skinned muscle fibers, which described the following processes: mitochondrial respiration rate dependency on exogenous ADP and ATP concentrations; inhibition of endogenous ADP-stimulated respiration by pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) system; kinetics of oxygen consumption stabilization after addition of 2 mM MgATP or MgADP; ATPase activity with inhibited mitochondrial respiration; and buildup of MgADP concentration in the medium after addition of MgATP. The analysis revealed that only the second mechanism considered--localization of diffusion restrictions--is able to account for the experimental data. In the case of uniform diffusion restrictions, the model solution was in agreement only with two measurements: the respiration rate as a function of ADP or ATP concentrations and inhibition of respiration by PK + PEP. It was concluded that intracellular diffusion restrictions for adenosine phosphates are not distributed uniformly, but rather are

  7. ATP Hydrolyzing Salivary Enzymes of Caterpillars Suppress Plant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuang; Peiffer, Michelle; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The oral secretions of herbivores are important recognition cues that can be used by plants to mediate induced defenses. In this study, a degradation of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) in tomato leaves was detected after treatment with Helicoverpa zea saliva. Correspondingly, a high level of ATPase activity in saliva was detected and three ATP hydrolyzing enzymes: apyrase, ATP synthase and ATPase 13A1 were identified in salivary glands. To determine the functions of these proteins in mediating defenses, they were cloned from H. zea and expressed in Escherichia coli. By applying the purified expressed apyrase, ATP synthase or ATPase 13A1 to wounded tomato leaves, it was determined that these ATP hydrolyzing enzymes suppressed the defensive genes regulated by the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways in tomato plant. Suppression of glandular trichome production was also observed after treatment. Blood-feeding arthropods employ 5′-nucleotidase family of apyrases to circumvent host responses and the H. zea apyrase, is also a member of this family. The comparatively high degree of sequence similarity of the H. zea salivary apyrase with mosquito apyrases suggests a broader evolutionary role for salivary apyrases than previously envisioned. PMID:22848670

  8. ATP P2X3 receptors and neuronal sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Fabbretti, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the importance of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the modulation of neuronal function. In particular, fine control of ATP release and the selective and discrete ATP receptor operation are crucial elements of the crosstalk between neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In peripheral neurons, ATP signaling gives an important contribution to neuronal sensitization, especially that involved in neuropathic pain. Among other subtypes, P2X3 receptors expressed on sensory neurons are sensitive even to nanomolar concentrations of extracellular ATP, and therefore are important transducers of pain stimuli. P2X3 receptor function is highly sensitive to soluble factors like neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and is controlled by transduction mechanisms, protein-protein interactions and discrete membrane compartmentalization. More recent findings have demonstrated that P2X3 receptors interact with the synaptic scaffold protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) in a state dependent fashion, indicating that CASK plays a crucial role in the modulation of P2X3 receptor stability and efficiency. Activation of P2X3 receptors within CASK/P2X3 complex has important consequences for neuronal plasticity and possibly for the release of neuromodulators and neurotransmitters. Better understanding of the interactome machinery of P2X3 receptors and their integration with other receptors and channels on neuronal surface membranes, is proposed to be essential to unveil the process of neuronal sensitization and related, abnormal pain signaling. PMID:24363643

  9. Time-resolved Measurements of Intracellular ATP in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a New Type of Nanobiosensor*

    PubMed Central

    Özalp, Veli C.; Pedersen, Tina R.; Nielsen, Lise J.; Olsen, Lars F.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-triphosphate is a universal molecule in all living cells, where it functions in bioenergetics and cell signaling. To understand how the concentration of ATP is regulated by cell metabolism and in turn how it regulates the activities of enzymes in the cell it would be beneficial if we could measure ATP concentration in the intact cell in real time. Using a novel aptamer-based ATP nanosensor, which can readily monitor intracellular ATP in eukaryotic cells with a time resolution of seconds, we have performed the first on-line measurements of the intracellular concentration of ATP in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These ATP measurements show that the ATP concentration in the yeast cell is not stationary. In addition to an oscillating ATP concentration, we also observe that the concentration is high in the starved cells and starts to decrease when glycolysis is induced. The decrease in ATP concentration is shown to be caused by the activity of membrane-bound ATPases such as the mitochondrial F0F1 ATPase-hydrolyzing ATP and the plasma membrane ATPase (PMA1). The activity of these two ATPases are under strict control by the glucose concentration in the cell. Finally, the measurements of intracellular ATP suggest that 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) may have more complex function than just a catabolic block. Surprisingly, addition of 2-DG induces only a moderate decline in ATP. Furthermore, our results suggest that 2-DG may inhibit the activation of PMA1 after addition of glucose. PMID:20880841

  10. Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase (isoform 1, brain): kinetic properties of the adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase domains.

    PubMed

    Lansdon, Eric B; Fisher, Andrew J; Segel, Irwin H

    2004-04-13

    Recombinant human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthetase, isoform 1 (brain), was purified to near-homogeneity from an Escherichia coli expression system and kinetically characterized. The native enzyme, a dimer with each 71 kDa subunit containing an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase and an adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase domain, catalyzes the overall formation of PAPS from ATP and inorganic sulfate. The protein is active as isolated, but activity is enhanced by treatment with dithiothreitol. APS kinase activity displayed the characteristic substrate inhibition by APS (K(I) of 47.9 microM at saturating MgATP). The maximum attainable activity of 0.12 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1) was observed at an APS concentration ([APS](opt)) of 15 microM. The theoretical K(m) for APS (at saturating MgATP) and the K(m) for MgATP (at [APS](opt)) were 4.2 microM and 0.14 mM, respectively. At likely cellular levels of MgATP (2.5 mM) and sulfate (0.4 mM), the overall endogenous rate of PAPS formation under optimum assay conditions was 0.09 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). Upon addition of pure Penicillium chrysogenum APS kinase in excess, the overall rate increased to 0.47 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). The kinetic constants of the ATP sulfurylase domain were as follows: V(max,f) = 0.77 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), K(mA(MgATP)) = 0.15 mM, K(ia(MgATP)) = 1 mM, K(mB(sulfate)) = 0.16 mM, V(max,r) = 18.7 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), K(mQ(APS)) = 4.8 microM, K(iq(APS)) = 18 nM, and K(mP(PPi)) = 34.6 microM. The (a) imbalance between ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activities, (b) accumulation of APS in solution during the overall reaction, (c) rate acceleration provided by exogenous APS kinase, and (d) availability of both active sites to exogenous APS all argue against APS channeling. Molybdate, selenate, chromate ("chromium VI"), arsenate, tungstate, chlorate, and perchlorate bind to the ATP sulfurylase domain, with the

  11. Mechanisms of ATP release and signalling in the blood vessel wall

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Alexander W.; Billaud, Marie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) has classically been considered the cell's primary energy currency. Importantly, a novel role for ATP as an extracellular autocrine and/or paracrine signalling molecule has evolved over the past century and extensive work has been conducted to characterize the ATP-sensitive purinergic receptors expressed on almost all cell types in the body. Extracellular ATP elicits potent effects on vascular cells to regulate blood vessel tone but can also be involved in vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. While the effects of purinergic signalling in the vasculature have been well documented, the mechanism(s) mediating the regulated release of ATP from cells in the blood vessel wall and circulation are now a key target of investigation. The aim of this review is to examine the current proposed mechanisms of ATP release from vascular cells, with a special emphasis on the transporters and channels involved in ATP release from vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, circulating red blood cells, and perivascular sympathetic nerves, including vesicular exocytosis, plasma membrane F1/F0-ATP synthase, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, connexin hemichannels, and pannexin channels. PMID:22678409

  12. ATP as a multi-target danger signal in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ricardo J.; Tomé, Angelo R.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released in an activity-dependent manner from different cell types in the brain, fulfilling different roles as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, in astrocyte-to-neuron communication, propagating astrocytic responses and formatting microglia responses. This involves the activation of different ATP P2 receptors (P2R) as well as adenosine receptors upon extracellular ATP catabolism by ecto-nucleotidases. Notably, brain noxious stimuli trigger a sustained increase of extracellular ATP, which plays a key role as danger signal in the brain. This involves a combined action of extracellular ATP in different cell types, namely increasing the susceptibility of neurons to damage, promoting astrogliosis and recruiting and formatting microglia to mount neuroinflammatory responses. Such actions involve the activation of different receptors, as heralded by neuroprotective effects resulting from blockade mainly of P2X7R, P2Y1R and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), which hierarchy, cooperation and/or redundancy is still not resolved. These pleiotropic functions of ATP as a danger signal in brain damage prompt a therapeutic interest to multi-target different purinergic receptors to provide maximal opportunities for neuroprotection. PMID:25972780

  13. The Role of Sarcolipin and ATP in the Transport of Phosphate Ion into the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Becucci, Lucia; Guidelli, Rolando; Karim, Christine B.; Thomas, David D.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In a previous study, sarcolipin (SLN) was shown to form channels selective toward chloride ion when incorporated in a mercury-supported tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM). Its incorporation had only a modest permeabilizing effect on phosphate ion. In this note the resistance of a tBLM membrane incorporating sarcolipin was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in aqueous solutions of 0.05 M sodium phosphate of pH ranging from 5.3 to 8, in the presence of ATP, adenosine monophosphate, and phenylphosphonic acid. At pH 5.3, submicromolar additions of ATP increase the conductivity of the tBLM incorporating SLN up to a maximum limiting value. The dependence of the conductivity on the ATP concentration satisfies the Michaelis-Menten equation, with an association constant of 0.1 μM. Phenylphosphonium ion and adenosine monophosphate exert an inhibitory effect on membrane permeabilization to phosphate ions by ATP if they are added before ATP, but not if they are added after it. An explanation for this behavior is provided. In conclusion, SLN acts as an ATP-induced phosphate carrier exhibiting a behavior quite similar to that of the unidentified Pi transporter described previously. No ion-channel activity is exhibited by the T18A mutant of SLN. PMID:19917222

  14. ATP as a multi-target danger signal in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Tomé, Angelo R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released in an activity-dependent manner from different cell types in the brain, fulfilling different roles as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, in astrocyte-to-neuron communication, propagating astrocytic responses and formatting microglia responses. This involves the activation of different ATP P2 receptors (P2R) as well as adenosine receptors upon extracellular ATP catabolism by ecto-nucleotidases. Notably, brain noxious stimuli trigger a sustained increase of extracellular ATP, which plays a key role as danger signal in the brain. This involves a combined action of extracellular ATP in different cell types, namely increasing the susceptibility of neurons to damage, promoting astrogliosis and recruiting and formatting microglia to mount neuroinflammatory responses. Such actions involve the activation of different receptors, as heralded by neuroprotective effects resulting from blockade mainly of P2X7R, P2Y1R and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), which hierarchy, cooperation and/or redundancy is still not resolved. These pleiotropic functions of ATP as a danger signal in brain damage prompt a therapeutic interest to multi-target different purinergic receptors to provide maximal opportunities for neuroprotection. PMID:25972780

  15. Stable ATP binding mediated by a partial NBD dimer of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is an ATP-gated chloride channel. Like other ABC proteins, CFTR encompasses two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), NBD1 and NBD2, each accommodating an ATP binding site. It is generally accepted that CFTR's opening-closing cycles, each completed within 1 s, are driven by rapid ATP binding and hydrolysis events in NBD2. Here, by recording CFTR currents in real time with a ligand exchange protocol, we demonstrated that during many of these gating cycles, NBD1 is constantly occupied by a stably bound ATP or 8-N(3)-ATP molecule for tens of seconds. We provided evidence that this tightly bound ATP or 8-N(3)-ATP also interacts with residues in the signature sequence of NBD2, a telltale sign for an event occurring at the NBD1-NBD2 interface. The open state of CFTR has been shown to represent a two-ATP-bound NBD dimer. Our results indicate that upon ATP hydrolysis in NBD2, the channel closes into a "partial NBD dimer" state where the NBD interface remains partially closed, preventing ATP dissociation from NBD1 but allowing the release of hydrolytic products and binding of the next ATP to occur in NBD2. Opening and closing of CFTR can then be coupled to the formation and "partial" separation of the NBD dimer. The tightly bound ATP molecule in NBD1 can occasionally dissociate from the partial dimer state, resulting in a nucleotide-free monomeric state of NBDs. Our data, together with other structural/functional studies of CFTR's NBDs, suggest that this process is poorly reversible, implying that the channel in the partial dimer state or monomeric state enters the open state through different pathways. We therefore proposed a gating model for CFTR with two distinct cycles. The structural and functional significance of our results to other ABC proteins is discussed. PMID:20421370

  16. Regulation of yeast acetohydroxyacid synthase by valine and ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, S S; Duggleby, R G

    2001-01-01

    The first step in the common pathway for the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids is catalysed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 4.1.3.18). The enzyme is found in plants, fungi and bacteria, and is regulated by controls on transcription and translation, and by allosteric modulation of catalytic activity. It has long been known that the bacterial enzyme is composed of two types of subunit, and a similar arrangement has been found recently for the yeast and plant enzymes. One type of subunit contains the catalytic machinery, whereas the other has a regulatory function. Previously, we have shown [Pang and Duggleby (1999) Biochemistry 38, 5222--5231] that yeast AHAS can be reconstituted from its separately purified subunits. The reconstituted enzyme is inhibited by valine, and ATP reverses this inhibition. In the present work, we further characterize the structure and the regulatory properties of reconstituted yeast AHAS. High phosphate concentrations are required for reconstitution and it is shown that these conditions are necessary for physical association between the catalytic and regulatory subunits. It is demonstrated by CD spectral changes that ATP binds to the regulatory subunit alone, most probably as MgATP. Neither valine nor MgATP causes dissociation of the regulatory subunit from the catalytic subunit. The specificity of valine inhibition and MgATP activation are examined and it is found that the only effective analogue of either regulator of those tested is the non-hydrolysable ATP mimic, adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate. The kinetics of regulation are studied in detail and it is shown that the activation by MgATP depends on the valine concentration in a complex manner that is consistent with a proposed quantitative model. PMID:11463345

  17. Aptamer fluorescence anisotropy sensors for adenosine triphosphate by comprehensive screening tetramethylrhodamine labeled nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Lv, Qin; Wang, Hailin

    2015-08-15

    We previously reported a fluorescence anisotropy (FA) approach for small molecules using tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled aptamer. It relies on target-binding induced change of intramolecular interaction between TMR and guanine (G) base. TMR-labeling sites are crucial for this approach. Only terminal ends and thymine (T) bases could be tested for TMR labeling in our previous work, possibly causing limitation in analysis of different targets with this FA strategy. Here, taking the analysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an example, we demonstrated a success of conjugating TMR on other bases of aptamer adenine (A) or cytosine (C) bases and an achievement of full mapping various labeling sites of aptamers. We successfully constructed aptamer fluorescence anisotropy (FA) sensors for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We conjugated single TMR on adenine (A), cytosine (C), or thymine (T) bases or terminals of a 25-mer aptamer against ATP and tested FA responses of 14 TMR-labeled aptamer to ATP. The aptamers having TMR labeled on the 16th base C or 23rd base A were screened out and exhibited significant FA-decreasing or FA-increasing responses upon ATP, respectively. These two favorable TMR-labeled aptamers enabled direct FA sensing ATP with a detection limit of 1 µM and the analysis of ATP in diluted serum. The comprehensive screening various TMR labeling sites of aptamers facilitates the successful construction of FA sensors using TMR-labeled aptamers. It will expand application of TMR-G interaction based aptamer FA strategy to a variety of targets. PMID:25814408

  18. Regulation of ciliary reversal in triton-extracted Paramecium by calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Y; Ooi, H

    1985-08-01

    A Triton-extracted model of Paramecium swims forwards when the Ca2+ concentration in the reactivation medium containing ATP is below 10(-6) M and swims backwards when Ca2+ concentration is above 10(-6) M. We found that cAMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid) inhibited Ca-induced backward swimming of the model and caused forward swimming even when the [Ca2+] was above 10(-6) M. This effect of cAMP was abolished by an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In order to study the possible role of phosphorylation in the regulation of ciliary orientation, ATP in the reactivation medium was replaced by an ATP analogue, ARP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate), which irreversibly thiophosphorylates proteins. In ATP gamma S medium, the model ceased both swimming and ciliary beating, but the orientation of cilia was dependent on [Ca2+]. At low [Ca2+], cilia were perpendicular to the cell surface and, with increase in [Ca2+], their orientation gradually changed towards the cell anterior. Such a change in ciliary orientation corresponds roughly to the change in the swimming direction observed in ATP medium. The ciliary orientation towards the anterior of the cell in ATP gamma S medium at high [Ca2+] was maintained when [Ca2+] was decreased. In contrast, in ATP medium, the swimming direction was reversibly changed with changes in [Ca2+]. These results suggest that the ciliary orientation is regulated not only by Ca2+ but also by cAMP, probably via protein phosphorylation. PMID:3003129

  19. Relationship between the ATP content of subsurface material and the rate of biodegradation of alkylbenzenes and chlorobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John T.; Miller, Gary D.; Ghiorse, William C.; Leach, Franklin R.

    1986-02-01

    The rate of biotransformation of toluene in unconsolidated subsurface material from sites at Lula, Oklahoma, and Conroe, Texas, was compared to the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) content of these materials. The rate of toluene degradation decreased with decreasing ATP content. When ATP contents were at or less than 0.05 ng g -1, biotransformation of toluene could not be detected (less than 1% of the initial concentration was degraded per week). At intermediate concentrations of ATP, 0.37 and 0.16 ngvg -1, the rates of toluene degradation were 18 ± 4.5% and 25 ± 10% of the initial concentration per week. At ATP concentrations above 1 ng g -1, the rates of toluene degradation exceeded 90% of the initial concentration per week. There was no simple relationship between ATP content and chlorobenzene degradation. Subsurface material that had been exposed to creosote wastes, and which degraded toluene rapidly, also degraded benzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene.

  20. A2B adenosine receptors mediate relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter: adenosine modulation of non adrenergic non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Medardo; Barahona, María Victoria; Bustamante, Salvador; García-Sacristán, Albino; Orensanz, Luis M

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the adenosine receptors involved in the relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter, and to investigate the action of adenosine on the non adrenergic non cholinergic (NANC) excitatory ureteral neurotransmission. In U46619 (10−7  M)-contracted strips treated with the adenosine uptake inhibitor, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10−6  M), adenosine and related analogues induced relaxations with the following potency order: 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)=5′-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA)=2-chloroadenosine (2-CA)>adenosine>cyclopentyladenosine (CPA)=N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA)=2-[p-(carboxyethyl)-phenylethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680). Epithelium removal or incubation with indomethacin (3×10−6  M) and L-NG-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 3×10−5  M), inhibitors of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO) synthase, respectively, failed to modify the relaxations to adenosine. 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 10−8 M) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl) [1,2,4]-triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385, 3×10−8  M and 10−7  M), A1 and A2A receptor selective antagonists, respectively, did not modify the relaxations to adenosine or NECA. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 10−5  M) and DPCPX (10−6  M), which block A1/A2-receptors, reduced such relaxations. In strips treated with guanethidine (10−5  M), atropine (10−7  M), L-NOARG (3×10−5  M) and indomethacin (3×10−6  M), both electrical field stimulation (EFS, 5 Hz) and exogenous ATP (10−4  M) induced contractions of preparations. 8-PT (10−5  M) increased both contractions. DPCPX (10−8  M), NECA (10−4  M), CPCA, (10−4  M) and 2-CA (10−4  M) did not alter the contractions to EFS. The present results suggest that adenosine relaxes the pig intravesical ureter, independently of prostanoids

  1. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by Mannheimia haemolytica, lipopolysaccharide, and interleukin-1 stimulated bovine pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Craddick, Michael; Patel, Rakhi; Lower, Amanda; Highlander, Sarah; Ackermann, Mark; McClenahan, David

    2012-09-15

    Mannheimia haemolytica, one of the agents associated with bovine respiratory disease complex, can cause severe lung pathology including the leakage of vascular products into the airways and alveoli. Previous work by this laboratory has demonstrated that bovine lung endothelial and epithelial cells undergo dramatic permeability increases when exposed to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, we wanted to determine if ATP levels were elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from calves experimentally infected with M. haemolytica. In addition, cultured bovine pulmonary epithelial (BPE) cells were stimulated with heat-killed and live M. haemolytica bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and zymosan activated plasma (ZAP) to determine whether they might release extracellular ATP during in vitro infection. Calves experimentally exposed to M. haemolytica had an approximately 2-fold higher level of ATP in their BAL samples compared to control. BPE cells exposed to increasing numbers of heat-killed or live M. haemolytica had significantly increased levels of ATP release as compared to time-matched controls. Finally, BPE cells treated with several concentrations of LPS and IL-1 had increases in ATP release as compared to time-matched controls. This increase appeared to be a result of active ATP secretion by the cells, as cell viability was similar between treated and non-treated cells. Neither ZAP nor LTA induced any ATP release by the cells. In conclusion, ATP levels are elevated in lung secretions from calves infected with M. haemolytica. In addition, lung epithelial cells can actively release ATP when exposed to heat-killed or live M. haemolytica, LPS or IL-1. PMID:22771196

  2. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  3. Fluorescent Ligands for Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Eszter; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field. PMID:23200243

  4. Adenosine-induced activation of esophageal nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Ru, F; Surdenikova, L; Brozmanova, M; Kollarik, M

    2011-03-01

    Clinical studies implicate adenosine acting on esophageal nociceptive pathways in the pathogenesis of noncardiac chest pain originating from the esophagus. However, the effect of adenosine on esophageal afferent nerve subtypes is incompletely understood. We addressed the hypothesis that adenosine selectively activates esophageal nociceptors. Whole cell perforated patch-clamp recordings and single-cell RT-PCR analysis were performed on the primary afferent neurons retrogradely labeled from the esophagus in the guinea pig. Extracellular recordings were made from the isolated innervated esophagus. In patch-clamp studies, adenosine evoked activation (inward current) in a majority of putative nociceptive (capsaicin-sensitive) vagal nodose, vagal jugular, and spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons innervating the esophagus. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis indicated that the majority of the putative nociceptive (transient receptor potential V1-positive) neurons innervating the esophagus express the adenosine receptors. The neural crest-derived (spinal DRG and vagal jugular) esophageal nociceptors expressed predominantly the adenosine A(1) receptor while the placodes-derived vagal nodose nociceptors expressed the adenosine A(1) and/or A(2A) receptors. Consistent with the studies in the cell bodies, adenosine evoked activation (overt action potential discharge) in esophageal nociceptive nerve terminals. Furthermore, the neural crest-derived jugular nociceptors were activated by the selective A(1) receptor agonist CCPA, and the placodes-derived nodose nociceptors were activated by CCPA and/or the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor CGS-21680. In contrast to esophageal nociceptors, adenosine failed to stimulate the vagal esophageal low-threshold (tension) mechanosensors. We conclude that adenosine selectively activates esophageal nociceptors. Our data indicate that the esophageal neural crest-derived nociceptors can be activated via the adenosine A(1) receptor while the placodes

  5. ATP excites mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons through activation of P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Vick, J S; Delay, R J

    2012-09-18

    Purinergic signaling through activation of P2X and P2Y receptors is critically important in the chemical senses. In the mouse main olfactory epithelium (MOE), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) elicits an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](I)) and reduces the responsiveness of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants through activation of P2X and P2Y receptors. We investigated the role of purinergic signaling in vomeronasal sensory neuron (VSN)s from the mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO), an olfactory organ distinct from the MOE that responds to many conspecific chemical cues. Using a combination of calcium imaging and patch-clamp electrophysiology with isolated VSNs, we demonstrated that ATP elicits an increase in [Ca(2+)](I) and an inward current with similar EC(50)s. Neither adenosine nor the P2Y receptor ligands adenosine 5'-diphosphate, uridine 5'-triphosphate, and uridine-5'-disphosphate could mimic either effect of ATP. Moreover, the increase in [Ca(2+)](I) required the presence of extracellular calcium and the inward current elicited by ATP was partially blocked by the P2X receptor antagonists pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate and 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Consistent with the activation of P2X receptors, we detected gene expression of the P2X1 and 3 receptors in the VNO by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When co-delivered with dilute urine, a natural stimulus, ATP significantly increased the inward current above that elicited by dilute urine or ATP alone. Mechanical stimulation of the VNO induced the release of ATP, detected by luciferin-luciferase luminometry, and this release of ATP was completely abolished in the presence of the connexin/pannexin hemichannel blocker, carbenoxolone. We conclude that the release of ATP could occur during the activity of the vasomotor pump that facilitates the movement of chemicals into the VNO for detection by VSNs. This mechanism could lead to a

  6. Contractile effects and receptor analysis of adenosine-receptors in human detrusor muscle from stable and neuropathic bladders.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Mahreen; Ikeda, Youko; McCarthy, Carly; Kitney, Darryl G; Jabr, Rita I; Fry, Christopher H

    2016-08-01

    To measure the relative transcription of adenosine receptor subtypes and the contractile effects of adenosine and selective receptor-subtype ligands on detrusor smooth muscle from patients with neuropathic overactive (NDO) and stable bladders and also from guinea-pigs. Contractile function was measured at 37°C in vitro from detrusor smooth muscle strips. Contractions were elicited by superfusate agonists or by electrical field stimulation. Adenosine-receptor (A1, A2A, A2B, A3) transcription was measured by RT-PCR. Adenosine attenuated nerve-mediated responses with equivalent efficacy in human and guinea-pig tissue (pIC50 3.65-3.86); the action was more effective at low (1-8 Hz) compared to high (20-40 Hz) stimulation frequencies in human NDO and guinea-pig tissue. With guinea-pig detrusor the action of adenosine was mirrored by the A1/A2-agonist N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), partly abolished in turn by the A2B-selectve antagonist alloxazine, as well as the A1-selective agonist N6- cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). With detrusor from stable human bladders the effects of NECA and CPA were much smaller than that of adenosine. Adenosine also attenuated carbachol contractures, but mirrored by NECA (in turn blocked by alloxazine) only in guinea-pig tissue. Adenosine receptor subtype transcription was measured in human detrusor and was similar in both groups, except reduced A2A levels in overactive bladder. Suppression of the carbachol contracture in human detrusor is independent of A-receptor activation, in contrast to an A2B-dependent action with guinea-pig tissue. Adenosine also reduced nerve-mediated contractions, by an A1- dependent action suppressing ATP neurotransmitter action. PMID:27185496

  7. The mechanism of beta-adrenergic preconditioning: roles for adenosine and ROS during triggering and mediation.

    PubMed

    Salie, Ruduwaan; Moolman, Johannes A; Lochner, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of beta-adrenergic preconditioning (BPC). The roles of adenosine and its receptor subtypes, the generation of oxygen free radicals (ROS) and activation of the K(ATP) channels as well as the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI(3)K)/PKB/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways during the triggering and mediation phases were evaluated. Using the isolated working rat heart, BPC was elicited by administration of denopamine (beta1 adrenergic receptor agonist, 10(-7) M), isoproterenol (beta1/beta2 adrenergic receptor agonist, 10(-7) M) or formoterol (beta2 adrenergic receptor agonist, 10(-9) M) for 5 min followed by 5 min washout. Index ischaemia was 35 min regional ischaemia and infarct size determined using the tetrazolium method. The role of adenosine was studied using adenosine deaminase and selective antagonists as well as the PI(3)K and ERK inhibitors, wortmannin and PD98,059, bracketing the triggering and mediating phases. Involvement of ROS, PKC, the mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, release of endogenous opioids and bradykinin was studied by administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), bisindolylmaleimide, the K(ATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), naloxone or HOE140, respectively. Activation of PKB/Akt and ERKp44/p42 during triggering and reperfusion was determined by Western blot. Preconditioning with all three beta-adrenergic receptor agonists caused a reduction in infarct size and an improvement in postischaemic function. BPC preconditioning with isoproterenol, denopamine or formoterol was abolished by the adenosine A3 receptor antagonist MRS1191 during both the triggering and mediation phases. Isoproterenol-induced preconditioning (beta1/beta2 PC) was attenuated by MRS1754, an adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist, during the triggering phase and abolished during reperfusion. The mediation phase of beta1/beta2 PC was also abolished by ZM241385, an adenosine A(2

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arundithi; Wang, Yue; Routh, Parimal; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Than, Aung; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jie; Sun, Handong; Chen, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures related to characterization, computational studies and protein conjugation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01519g

  9. Adenosine triphosphate inhibits melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis Henrique; Dargenio-Garcia, Letícia; Petrilli-Lapa, Camila Lopes; Souza, Ewerton da Silva; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released onto the pinealocyte, along with noradrenaline, from sympathetic neurons and triggers P2Y1 receptors that enhance β-adrenergic-induced N-acetylserotonin (NAS) synthesis. Nevertheless, the biotransformation of NAS into melatonin, which occurs due to the subsequent methylation by acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; EC 2.1.1.4), has not yet been evaluated in the presence of purinergic stimulation. We therefore evaluated the effects of purinergic signaling on melatonin synthesis induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. ATP increased NAS levels, but, surprisingly, inhibited melatonin synthesis in an inverse, concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that enhanced NAS levels, which depend on phospholipase C (PLC) activity (but not the induction of gene transcription), are a post-translational effect. By contrast, melatonin reduction is related to an ASMT inhibition of expression at both the gene transcription and protein levels. These results were independent of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation. Neither the P2Y1 receptor activation nor the PLC-mediated pathway was involved in the decrease in melatonin, indicating that ATP regulates pineal metabolism through different mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrate that purinergic signaling differentially modulates NAS and melatonin synthesis and point to a regulatory role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the control of ASMT, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The endogenous production of melatonin regulates defense responses; therefore, understanding the mechanisms involving ASMT regulation might provide novel insights into the development and progression of neurological disorders since melatonin presents anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects. PMID:26732366

  10. Pyrimidine starvation induced by adenosine in fibroblasts and lymphoid cells: role of adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Green, H; Chan, T

    1973-11-23

    In the presence of 10(-4) to 10(-5) molar adenosine, established cell lines of fibroblastic or lymphoid origin die of pyrimidine starvation. Less than lethal concentrations inhibit cell growth. Over a broad concentration range, the effects of adenosine are prevented by providing a suitable pyrimidine source. We suggest that the recently described immune deficiency disease associated with absence of adenosine deaminase may be the result of pyrimidine starvation induced by adenosine nucleotides in cells of the lymphoid system. PMID:4795749

  11. Structure and Mechanism of Soybean ATP Sulfurylase and the Committed Step in Plant Sulfur Assimilation*

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Jonathan; Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; McKinney, Samuel E.; Westfall, Corey S.; Lee, Soon Goo; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Giovannetti, Marco; Kopriva, Stanislav; Krishnan, Hari B.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes of the sulfur assimilation pathway are potential targets for improving nutrient content and environmental stress responses in plants. The committed step in this pathway is catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase, which synthesizes adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) from sulfate and ATP. To better understand the molecular basis of this energetically unfavorable reaction, the x-ray crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase isoform 1 from soybean (Glycine max ATP sulfurylase) in complex with APS was determined. This structure revealed several highly conserved substrate-binding motifs in the active site and a distinct dimerization interface compared with other ATP sulfurylases but was similar to mammalian 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate synthetase. Steady-state kinetic analysis of 20 G. max ATP sulfurylase point mutants suggests a reaction mechanism in which nucleophilic attack by sulfate on the α-phosphate of ATP involves transition state stabilization by Arg-248, Asn-249, His-255, and Arg-349. The structure and kinetic analysis suggest that ATP sulfurylase overcomes the energetic barrier of APS synthesis by distorting nucleotide structure and identifies critical residues for catalysis. Mutations that alter sulfate assimilation in Arabidopsis were mapped to the structure, which provides a molecular basis for understanding their effects on the sulfur assimilation pathway. PMID:24584934

  12. Structural, Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Dissimilatory ATP Sulfurylase from Allochromatium vinosum

    PubMed Central

    Parey, Kristian; Demmer, Ulrike; Warkentin, Eberhard; Wynen, Astrid; Ermler, Ulrich; Dahl, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) catalyzes a key reaction in the global sulfur cycle by reversibly converting inorganic sulfate (SO42−) with ATP to adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi). In this work we report on the sat encoded dissimilatory ATP sulfurylase from the sulfur-oxidizing purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. In this organism, the sat gene is located in one operon and co-transcribed with the aprMBA genes for membrane-bound APS reductase. Like APS reductase, Sat is dispensible for growth on reduced sulfur compounds due to the presence of an alternate, so far unidentified sulfite-oxidizing pathway in A. vinosum. Sulfate assimilation also proceeds independently of Sat by a separate pathway involving a cysDN-encoded assimilatory ATP sulfurylase. We produced the purple bacterial sat-encoded ATP sulfurylase as a recombinant protein in E. coli, determined crucial kinetic parameters and obtained a crystal structure in an open state with a ligand-free active site. By comparison with several known structures of the ATPS-APS complex in the closed state a scenario about substrate-induced conformational changes was worked out. Despite different kinetic properties ATPS involved in sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing processes are not distinguishable on a structural level presumably due to the interference between functional and evolutionary processes. PMID:24073218

  13. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-Interactome using the iTRAQ-SPROX Technique.

    PubMed

    Geer, M Ariel; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique was used in combination with an isobaric mass tagging strategy to identify adenosine triphosphate (ATP) interacting proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. The SPROX methodology utilized in this work enabled 373 proteins in a yeast cell lysate to be assayed for ATP interactions (both direct and indirect) using the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). A total of 28 proteins were identified with AMP-PNP-induced thermodynamic stability changes. These protein hits included 14 proteins that were previously annotated as ATP-binding proteins in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). The 14 non-annotated ATP-binding proteins included nine proteins that were previously found to be ATP-sensitive in an earlier SPROX study using a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based approach. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein hits identified here and in the earlier SILAC-SPROX experiments revealed that many of the previously annotated ATP-binding protein hits were kinases, ligases, and chaperones. In contrast, many of the newly discovered ATP-sensitive proteins were not from these protein classes, but rather were hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and nucleic acid-binding proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26530046

  14. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-Interactome using the iTRAQ-SPROX Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, M. Ariel; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique was used in combination with an isobaric mass tagging strategy to identify adenosine triphosphate (ATP) interacting proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. The SPROX methodology utilized in this work enabled 373 proteins in a yeast cell lysate to be assayed for ATP interactions (both direct and indirect) using the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). A total of 28 proteins were identified with AMP-PNP-induced thermodynamic stability changes. These protein hits included 14 proteins that were previously annotated as ATP-binding proteins in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). The 14 non-annotated ATP-binding proteins included nine proteins that were previously found to be ATP-sensitive in an earlier SPROX study using a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based approach. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein hits identified here and in the earlier SILAC-SPROX experiments revealed that many of the previously annotated ATP-binding protein hits were kinases, ligases, and chaperones. In contrast, many of the newly discovered ATP-sensitive proteins were not from these protein classes, but rather were hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and nucleic acid-binding proteins.

  15. Single turnovers of fluorescent ATP bound to bipolar myosin filament during actin filaments sliding

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Takahiro; Kobatake, Takahiro; Okubo, Hiroyuki; Chaen, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide turnover rates of bipolar myosin thick filament along which actin filament slides were measured by the displacement of prebound fluorescent ATP analog 2′(3′)-O-[N-[2-[(Cy3)]amindo]ethyl] carbamoyl]-adenosine 5′ triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP) upon flash photolysis of caged ATP. The fluorescence of the thick filament where actin filament slides decayed with two exponential processes. The slower rate constant was the same as that without actin filament. Along bipolar myosin thick filament, actin filaments slide at a fast speed towards the central bare zone (forward), but more slowly away from the bare zone (backward). The displacement rate constant of fluorescent ATP from the myosin filament where actin filament moved forward was 5.0 s−1, whereas the rate constant where the actin filament slid backward was 1.7 s−1. These findings suggest that the slow ADP release rate is responsible for the slow backward sliding movement.

  16. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, J.T.; van Breemen, C.; Forster, E.; Norenberg, L.O.; Norenberg, M.D.

    1988-12-30

    The effect of ATP and other purines on /sup 45/Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular /sup 45/Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to /sup 45/Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of /sup 45/Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced /sup 45/Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels.

  17. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  18. Diverse Functional Properties of Wilson Disease ATP7B Variants

    PubMed Central

    Huster, Dominik; Kühne, Angelika; Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Raines, Lily; Jantsch, Vanessa; Noe, Johannes; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Sommerer, Ines; Sabri, Osama; Berr, Frieder; Mössner, Joachim; Stieger, Bruno; Caca, Karel; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Wilson disease is a severe disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7B, which encodes a copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase. The disease presents with a variable phenotype that complicates the diagnostic process and treatment. Little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to the different phenotypes of the disease. METHODS We analyzed 28 variants of ATP7B from patients with Wilson disease that affected different functional domains; the gene products were expressed using the baculovirus expression system in Sf9 cells. Protein function was analyzed by measuring catalytic activity and copper (64Cu) transport into vesicles. We studied intracellular localization of variants of ATP7B that had measurable transport activities and were tagged with green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS Properties of ATP7B variants with pathogenic amino-acid substitution varied greatly even if substitutions were in the same functional domain. Some variants had complete loss of catalytic and transport activity, whereas others lost transport activity but retained phosphor-intermediate formation or had partial losses of activity. In mammalian cells, transport-competent variants differed in stability and subcellular localization. CONCLUSIONS Variants in ATP7B associated with Wilson disease disrupt the protein’s transport activity, result in its mislocalization, and reduce its stability. Single assays are insufficient to accurately predict the effects of ATP7B variants the function of its product and development of Wilson disease. These findings will contribute to our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlation and mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22240481

  19. Extracellular ATP Selectively Upregulates Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase 2 and Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase by Rat Cortical Astrocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Brisevac, Dusica; Adzic, Marija; Laketa, Danijela; Parabucki, Ana; Milosevic, Milena; Lavrnja, Irena; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Sévigny, Jean; Kipp, Markus; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern which induces reactive response of astrocytes after brain insult, including morphological remodeling of astrocytes, proliferation, chemotaxis, and release of proinflammatory cytokines. The responses induced by eATP are under control of ecto-nucleotidases, which catalyze sequential hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine. In the mammalian brain, ecto-nucleotidases comprise three enzyme families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases 1-3 (NTPDase1-3), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phospodiesterases 1-3 (NPP1-3), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN), which crucially determine ATP/adenosine ratio in the pericellular milieu. Altered expression of ecto-nucleotidases has been demonstrated in several experimental models of human brain dysfunctions. In the present study, we have explored the pattern of NTPDase1-3, NPP1-3, and eN expression by cultured cortical astrocytes challenged with 1 mmol/L ATP (eATP). At the transcriptional level, eATP upregulated expression of NTPDase1, NTPDase2, NPP2, and eN, while, at translational and functional levels, these were paralleled only by the induction of NTPDase2 and eN. Additionally, eATP altered membrane topology of eN, from clusters localized in membrane domains to continuous distribution along the cell membrane. Our results suggest that eATP, by upregulating NTPDase2 and eN and altering the enzyme membrane topology, affects local kinetics of ATP metabolism and signal transduction that may have important roles in the process related to inflammation and reactive gliosis. PMID:26080748

  20. Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiu Liang; Du, Yong Zhong; Yu, Ri Sheng; Liu, Ping; Shi, Dan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ying; Huang, Fang Fang

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles composed of galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (Gal-CSO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared for hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific uptake, and the characteristics of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were evaluated. CSO/ATP nanoparticles were prepared as a control. The average diameter and zeta potential of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were 51.03 ± 3.26 nm and 30.50 ± 1.25 mV, respectively, suggesting suitable properties for a drug delivery system. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were examined by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated with HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that the cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on HepG2 cells was low. In the meantime, it was also found that the Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles could be uptaken by HepG2 cells, due to expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on their surfaces. The presented results indicate that the Gal-CSO nanoparticles might be very attractive to be used as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma cell targeting, thus warranting further in vivo or clinical investigations. PMID:23899789

  1. Mechanosensitive ATP Release Maintains Proper Mucus Hydration of Airways

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F.; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal auto-crine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  2. Mechanosensitive ATP release maintains proper mucus hydration of airways.

    PubMed

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-06-11

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal autocrine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  3. Enzyme-responsive polymeric supra-amphiphiles formed by the complexation of chitosan and ATP.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuetong; Wang, Chao; Liu, Kai; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2012-10-16

    Chitosan and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) are employed as building blocks to fabricate polymeric supra-amphiphiles based on electrostatic interactions, which can self-assemble to form spherical aggregates. The spherical aggregates inherit the phosphotase responsiveness of ATP. Compared to our previous work, this enzyme-responsive system can be more biocompatible and block polymers are not needed in preparation, which makes it possible to fabricate the chitosan-based enzyme-responsive assemblies in a large-scale, cheap way. Therefore, the application of the assemblies for nanocontainers and drug delivery is greatly anticipated. PMID:23025557

  4. The hydrolysis of extracellular adenine nucleotides by cultured endothelial cells from pig aorta. Feed-forward inhibition of adenosine production at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E L; Pearson, J D; Slakey, L L

    1986-11-25

    The time course of the extracellular reaction sequence ATP----ADP----AMP----adenosine has been examined during recirculation of substrate solutions over cultured pig aortic endothelial cells attached to polystyrene beads. This permits the study of reactions at volume to cell surface ratios approaching those of small blood vessels. When endothelial cells were presented with an initial bolus of ATP, high concentrations of the intermediates ADP and AMP developed before significant conversion of AMP to adenosine occurred. Further, the higher the initial ATP concentration, the slower the conversion of AMP to adenosine. Kinetic constants for each reaction were estimated by fitting simulated reaction curves to observed time courses. Apparent Km values estimated in this way agreed well with those reported for initial velocity measurements (ATPase = 300 microM; ADPase = 240 microM; and 5'-nucleotidase = 26 microM). The ratio of maximum velocities was ATPase:ADPase:AMPase = 6:1.5:1, with absolute values varying among cell batches. The data could only be fitted if the model incorporated inhibition of 5'-nucleotidase by ATP or ADP, and satisfactory fitting was achieved with a Ki value for ADP of 5 microM. These kinetic properties maximize the time separation of the intermediate pools. In vivo, at sites of platelet degranulation, they would create a time gap proportional to the size of the initial release between release of ADP (a proaggregatory milieu) and the appearance of adenosine (an anti-aggregatory milieu). PMID:3023320

  5. Ca2+ responses to ATP via purinoceptors in the early embryonic chick retina.

    PubMed Central

    Sugioka, M; Fukuda, Y; Yamashita, M

    1996-01-01

    1. The action of adenosine triphosphate on cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was studied in the retinal cell of early embryonic chicks with fura-2 fluorescence measurements. The fluorescence was measured from the whole neural retina dissected from chick embryos at embryonic day three (E3). 2. Bath application of ATP (> or = 30 microM; EC50, 128 microM) raised [Ca2+]i by the release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores, since the Ca2+ response to ATP occurred even in a Ca(2+)-free medium. 3. The Ca2+ response to ATP was mediated by P2U purinoceptors. An agonist for P2U purinoceptors, uridine triphosphate (UTP), evoked Ca2+ rises more potently (> or = 3 microM; EC50, 24 microM) than ATP. Agonists for P2X purinoceptors, alpha, beta-methylene ATP and beta, gamma-methylene ATP, or an agonist for P2Y purinoceptors, 2-methylthio ATP (500 microM each), caused no Ca2+ response. Suramin (100 microM) and Reactive Blue 2 (50 microM) almost completely blocked the Ca2+, responses to 500 microM ATP and 200 microM UTP. 4. The developmental profile of the Ca2+ response to ATP was studied from E3 to E13. The Ca2+ response to ATP was largest at E3, drastically declined towards E8 and decreased further until E11-13. 5. These results suggest that the Ca2+ mobilization by ATP via P2U purinoceptors is characteristic of early embryonic retinal cells. PMID:8799905

  6. Activation by ATP of a P2U 'nucleotide' receptor in an exocrine cell.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S. C.; Shuttleworth, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. We employed the perforated patch whole-cell technique to investigate the effects of ATP and other related nucleotides on membrane conductances in avian exocrine salt gland cells. 2. ATP (10 microM-1 mM) evoked an increase in maxi-K+ and Cl- conductances with a reversal potential of -35 mV. At lower concentrations of ATP (< or = 100 microM) responses were generally oscillatory with a sustained response observed at higher concentrations (> or = 200 microM). 3. Both oscillatory and sustained responses were abolished by the removal of bath Ca2+. In cells preincubated in extracellular saline containing reduced Ca2+, the application of ATP resulted in a transient increase in current. 4. As increasing concentrations of ATP (and related nucleotides) evoked a graded sequence of events with little run-down we were able to establish a rank order of potency in single cells. The order of potency of ATP analogues and agonists of the various P2-receptor subtypes was UTP > ATP = 2-methylthio-ATP > ADP. Adenosine (1 microM-1 mM), AMP (1 microM-1 mM), alpha,beta-methylene-ATP (1 microM-1 mM) and beta,gamma-methylene-ATP (1 microM-1 mM) were without effect. 5. In conclusion, although unable to preclude a role for a P2Y-receptor, our results suggest that ATP binds to a P2U-receptor increasing [Ca2+]i and subsequently activating Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ and Cl- currents. PMID:7670734

  7. Increase of adenosine plasma levels after oral trimetazidine: a pharmacological preconditioning?

    PubMed

    Blardi, Patrizia; de Lalla, Arianna; Volpi, Luciana; Auteri, Alberto; Di Perri, Tullio

    2002-01-01

    Trimetazidine (1-[2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl] piperazine) (TMZ) is a cellular anti-ischemic agent able to prevent intracellular ATP decrease, limit intracellular acidosis, protect against oxygen-free radical-induced toxicity and inhibit neutrophil infiltration. However, its definitive mechanism of action had not been identified. Recent studies showed the existence of an endogenous mechanism of cellular protection against ischemia, defined as 'ischemic preconditioning'. This mechanism was related mainly to cellular liberation of adenosine, a nucleoside with protective effects in myocardial ischemia. Since TMZ acts by increasing cell tolerance to ischemia and adenosine is the mediator of ischemic preconditioning, in this study we investigated a possible interaction between TMZ and adenosine. Two groups of patients affected by angina pectoris, were admitted to the study. They received a single oral dose of TMZ. One group was treated, during different sessions, with TMZ 10 and 20 mg, the other group with TMZ 40 and 80 mg. After a 3 day wash-out from drug administration, each group received a placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline (time 0) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 h after drug administration, in order to detect plasma levels of adenosine by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. We observed that the administration of TMZ at doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg induced an increase of adenosine plasma levels of 19, 50, 62 and 62%, respectively. We hypothesized that the activity of TMZ could depend, at least in part, on adenosine mediation and this interaction opens a new interpretation of the drug antischemic effect. PMID:11820865

  8. Adenosine A1 receptor inhibits postnatal neurogenesis and sustains astrogliogenesis from the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Benito-Muñoz, Monica; Matute, Carlos; Cavaliere, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that activation of ATP P2X receptors during oxygen and glucose deprivation inhibits neuroblast migration and in vitro neurogenesis from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Here, we have studied the effects of adenosine, the natural end-product of ATP hydrolysis, in modulating neurogenesis and gliogenesis from the SVZ. We provide immunochemical, molecular and pharmacological evidence that adenosine via A1 receptors reduces neuronal differentiation of neurosphere cultures generated from postnatal SVZ. Furthermore, activation of A1 receptors induces downregulation of genes related to neurogenesis as demonstrated by gene expression analysis. Specifically, we found that A1 receptors trigger a signaling cascade that, through the release of IL10, turns on the Bmp2/SMAD pathway. Furthermore, activating A1 receptors in SVZ-neural progenitor cells inhibits neurogenesis and stimulates astrogliogenesis as assayed in vitro in neurosphere cultures and in vivo in the olfactory bulb. Together, these data indicate that adenosine acting at A1 receptors negatively regulates adult neurogenesis while promoting astrogliogenesis, and that this feature may be relevant to pathological conditions whereby purines are profusely released. GLIA 2016;64:1465-1478. PMID:27301342

  9. Effects of adenosine on intrarenal oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Dinour, D; Brezis, M

    1991-11-01

    Although generally a vasodilator, adenosine vasoconstricts cortical vessels in the kidney, reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and increases medullary blood flow, effects likely to improve the medullary O2 deficiency characteristic of mammalian kidneys. To evaluate a possible role of adenosine in medullary O2 balance, we investigated the effect of adenosine upon cortical and medullary tissue PO2. Adenosine was infused into renal interstitium through chronically implanted capsules. Cortical and medullary PO2 were measured using sensitive Clark-type O2 microelectrodes inserted into kidneys of anesthetized rats at the respective depths of 1.8 and 3.7 mm. Infusion of adenosine (0.1-0.5 mumol/min) increased medullary PO2 from 17 +/- 3 (SE) to 40 +/- 5 mmHG (P less than 0.001) and decreased cortical PO2 from 64 +/- 4 to 47 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than 0.001). After the infusion was stopped, PO2 returned to baseline at both sites. Coadministration of adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline (0.01 mumol/min) prevented both cortical and medullary effects of adenosine. We concluded that adenosine could play an important protective and regulatory role in renal medullary O2 balance. PMID:1951710

  10. Adenosine Neuromodulation and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lusardi, T.A

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule, with widespread activity across all organ systems. There is evidence that adenosine regulation is a significant factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI) onset, recovery, and outcome, and a growing body of experimental work examining the therapeutic potential of adenosine neuromodulation in the treatment of TBI. In the central nervous system (CNS), adenosine (dys)regulation has been demonstrated following TBI, and correlated to several TBI pathologies, including impaired cerebral hemodynamics, anaerobic metabolism, and inflammation. In addition to acute pathologies, adenosine function has been implicated in TBI comorbidities, such as cognitive deficits, psychiatric function, and post-traumatic epilepsy. This review presents studies in TBI as well as adenosine-related mechanisms in co-morbidities of and unfavorable outcomes resulting from TBI. While the exact role of the adenosine system following TBI remains unclear, there is increasing evidence that a thorough understanding of adenosine signaling will be critical to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the treatment of TBI. PMID:20190964

  11. Campylobacter jejuni adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase is an active hexamer that is allosterically controlled by the twisting of a regulatory tail.

    PubMed

    Mittelstädt, Gerd; Moggré, Gert-Jan; Panjikar, Santosh; Nazmi, Ali Reza; Parker, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT) catalyzes the first committed step of the histidine biosynthesis in plants and microorganisms. Here, we present the functional and structural characterization of the ATP-PRT from the pathogenic ε-proteobacteria Campylobacter jejuni (CjeATP-PRT). This enzyme is a member of the long form (HisGL ) ATP-PRT and is allosterically inhibited by histidine, which binds to a remote regulatory domain, and competitively inhibited by AMP. In the crystalline form, CjeATP-PRT was found to adopt two distinctly different hexameric conformations, with an open homohexameric structure observed in the presence of substrate ATP, and a more compact closed form present when inhibitor histidine is bound. CjeATP-PRT was observed to adopt only a hexameric quaternary structure in solution, contradicting previous hypotheses favoring an allosteric mechanism driven by an oligomer equilibrium. Instead, this study supports the conclusion that the ATP-PRT long form hexamer is the active species; the tightening of this structure in response to remote histidine binding results in an inhibited enzyme. PMID:27191057

  12. Antinociceptive effect of a new P(2Z)/P2X7 antagonist, oxidized ATP, in arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Dell'Antonio, Giacomo; Quattrini, Angelo; Dal Cin, Elena; Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2002-07-19

    The neurotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from sensory nerve endings during inflammation and acts at the level of P2X receptors. We used the irreversible inhibitor of P2z/P2X7 receptor, designated oxidized ATP (oATP), to test its possible antinociceptive activity in arthritic rats. We induced unilateral inflammation of the rat hind paw by local injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Administration of the adjuvant resulted in a significant reduction of paw pressure threshold (PPT). Injection of oATP into inflamed paws significantly increased, in a dose-dependent manner, PPT values to levels comparable with or higher than those evaluated in control uninflamed paws. The data indicate that the P2z/P2X7 receptor system exerts a role in nociception and that oATP, by inhibiting such a receptor, reduces the nociceptive signal in the course of peripheral inflammation. PMID:12098642

  13. Adenosine signalling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of the COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Maione, Francesco; Morello, Silvana; Lapucci, Andrea; Paccosi, Sara; Steckel, Bodo; Lavecchia, Antonio; Parenti, Astrid; Iuvone, Teresa; Schrader, Jürgen; Ialenti, Armando; Cicala, Carla

    2016-07-15

    Extracellular adenosine formation from ATP is controlled by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase/CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e-5NT/CD73); the latter converts AMP to adenosine and inorganic phosphate, representing the rate limiting step controlling the ratio between extracellular ATP and adenosine. Evidence that cellular expression and activity of CD39 and CD73 may be subject to changes under pathophysiological conditions has identified this pathway as an endogenous modulator in several diseases and was shown to be involved in the molecular mechanism of drugs, such as methotrexate, salicylates , interferon-β. We evaluated whether CD73/adenosine/A2A signalling pathway is involved in nimesulide anti-inflammatory effect, in vivo and in vitro. We found that the adenosine A2A agonist, 4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride (CGS21680, 2mg/kg ip.), inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and the effect was reversed by co-administration of the A2A antagonist -(2-[7-amino-2-[2-furyl][1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl-amino]ethyl)phenol (ZM241385; 3mg/kg i.p.). Nimesulide (5mg/kg i.p.) anti-inflammatory effect was inhibited by pre-treatment with ZM241385 (3mg/kg i.p.) and by local administration of the CD73 inhibitor, adenosine 5'-(α,β-methylene)diphosphate (APCP; 400μg/paw). Furthermore, we found increased activity of 5'-nucleotidase/CD73 in paws and plasma of nimesulide treated rats, 4h following oedema induction. In vitro, the inhibitory effect of nimesulide on nitrite and prostaglandin E2 production by lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 cell line was reversed by ZM241385 and APCP. Furthermore, nimesulide increased CD73 activity in J774 macrophages while it did not inhibit nitrite accumulation by lipopolysaccharide-activated SiRNA CD73 silenced J774 macrophages. Our data demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of nimesulide in part is mediated by CD73

  14. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  15. Interaction of ATP with a small heat shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae: effect on its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Panda, Alok Kumar; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Kar, Rajiv Kumar; Bhunia, Anirban; Biswas, Ashis

    2015-03-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is an important phosphate metabolite abundantly found in Mycobacterium leprae bacilli. This pathogen does not derive ATP from its host but has its own mechanism for the generation of ATP. Interestingly, this molecule as well as several antigenic proteins act as bio-markers for the detection of leprosy. One such bio-marker is the 18 kDa antigen. This 18 kDa antigen is a small heat shock protein (HSP18) whose molecular chaperone function is believed to help in the growth and survival of the pathogen. But, no evidences of interaction of ATP with HSP18 and its effect on the structure and chaperone function of HSP18 are available in the literature. Here, we report for the first time evidences of "HSP18-ATP" interaction and its consequences on the structure and chaperone function of HSP18. TNP-ATP binding experiment and surface plasmon resonance measurement showed that HSP18 interacts with ATP with a sub-micromolar binding affinity. Comparative sequence alignment between M. leprae HSP18 and αB-crystallin identified the sequence 49KADSLDIDIE58 of HSP18 as the Walker-B ATP binding motif. Molecular docking studies revealed that β4-β8 groove/strands as an ATP interactive region in M. leprae HSP18. ATP perturbs the tertiary structure of HSP18 mildly and makes it less susceptible towards tryptic cleavage. ATP triggers exposure of additional hydrophobic patches at the surface of HSP18 and induces more stability against chemical and thermal denaturation. In vitro aggregation and thermal inactivation assays clearly revealed that ATP enhances the chaperone function of HSP18. Our studies also revealed that the alteration in the chaperone function of HSP18 is reversible and is independent of ATP hydrolysis. As the availability and binding of ATP to HSP18 regulates its chaperone function, this functional inflection may play an important role in the survival of M. leprae in hosts. PMID:25811190

  16. Adenosine as a Multi-Signalling Guardian Angel in Human Diseases: When, Where and How Does it Exert its Protective Effects?

    PubMed

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Varani, Katia

    2016-06-01

    The importance of adenosine for human health cannot be overstated. Indeed, this ubiquitous nucleoside is an integral component of ATP, and regulates the function of every tissue and organ in the body. Acting via receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms [the former mediated via four G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3,], it has a significant role in protecting against cell damage in areas of increased tissue metabolism, and combating organ dysfunction in numerous pathological states. Accordingly, raised levels of adenosine have been demonstrated in epilepsy, ischaemia, pain, inflammation, and cancer, in which its behaviour can be likened to that of a guardian angel, even though there are instances in which overproduction of adenosine is pathological. In this review, we condense the current body of knowledge on the issue, highlighting when, where, and how adenosine exerts its protective effects in both the brain and the periphery. PMID:26944097

  17. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  18. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-04-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  19. Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Anna; Rohou, Alexis; Schep, Daniel G; Bason, John V; Montgomery, Martin G; Walker, John E; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy currency of biology, is synthesized in eukaryotic cells primarily by the mitochondrial ATP synthase. ATP synthases operate by a rotary catalytic mechanism where proton translocation through the membrane-inserted FO region is coupled to ATP synthesis in the catalytic F1 region via rotation of a central rotor subcomplex. We report here single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase. Combining cryo-EM data with bioinformatic analysis allowed us to determine the fold of the a subunit, suggesting a proton translocation path through the FO region that involves both the a and b subunits. 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. Rotational fluctuations of the c8-ring within the FO region support a Brownian ratchet mechanism for proton-translocation-driven rotation in ATP synthases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10180.001 PMID:26439008

  20. Selective Migration of Subpopulations of Bone Marrow Cells along an SDF-1α and ATP Gradient.

    PubMed

    Laupheimer, Michael; Skorska, Anna; Große, Jana; Tiedemann, Gudrun; Steinhoff, Gustav; David, Robert; Lux, Cornelia A

    2014-01-01

    Both stem cell chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are increased in ischemic myocardium. Since ATP has been reported to influence cell migration, we analysed the migratory response of bone marrow cells towards a combination of SDF-1 and ATP. Total nucleated cells (BM-TNCs) were isolated from bone marrow of cardiac surgery patients. Migration assays were performed in vitro. Subsequently, migrated cells were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis of CD133, CD34, CD117, CD184, CD309, and CD14 expression. BM-TNCs migrated significantly towards a combination of SDF-1 and ATP. The proportions of CD34+ cells as well as subpopulations coexpressing multiple stem cell markers were selectively enhanced after migration towards SDF-1 or SDF-1 + ATP. After spontaneous migration, significantly fewer stem cells and CD184+ cells were detected. Direct incubation with SDF-1 led to a reduction of CD184+ but not stem cell marker-positive cells, while incubation with ATP significantly increased CD14+ percentage. In summary, we found that while a combination of SDF-1 and ATP elicited strong migration of BM-TNCs in vitro, only SDF-1 was responsible for selective attraction of hematopoietic stem cells. Meanwhile, spontaneous migration of stem cells was lower compared to BM-TNCs or monocytes. PMID:25610653

  1. Selective Migration of Subpopulations of Bone Marrow Cells along an SDF-1α and ATP Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Laupheimer, Michael; Skorska, Anna; Große, Jana; Tiedemann, Gudrun; Steinhoff, Gustav; David, Robert; Lux, Cornelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Both stem cell chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are increased in ischemic myocardium. Since ATP has been reported to influence cell migration, we analysed the migratory response of bone marrow cells towards a combination of SDF-1 and ATP. Total nucleated cells (BM-TNCs) were isolated from bone marrow of cardiac surgery patients. Migration assays were performed in vitro. Subsequently, migrated cells were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis of CD133, CD34, CD117, CD184, CD309, and CD14 expression. BM-TNCs migrated significantly towards a combination of SDF-1 and ATP. The proportions of CD34+ cells as well as subpopulations coexpressing multiple stem cell markers were selectively enhanced after migration towards SDF-1 or SDF-1 + ATP. After spontaneous migration, significantly fewer stem cells and CD184+ cells were detected. Direct incubation with SDF-1 led to a reduction of CD184+ but not stem cell marker-positive cells, while incubation with ATP significantly increased CD14+ percentage. In summary, we found that while a combination of SDF-1 and ATP elicited strong migration of BM-TNCs in vitro, only SDF-1 was responsible for selective attraction of hematopoietic stem cells. Meanwhile, spontaneous migration of stem cells was lower compared to BM-TNCs or monocytes. PMID:25610653

  2. Imaging of ATP membrane transport with dual micro-disk electrodes and scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kueng, Angelika; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2005-08-15

    Extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is involved in a variety of relevant regulatory mechanisms at a cellular level and has therefore been focus of extensive research. One of the major challenges associated with measuring this key regulatory analyte is the ability to detect and localize extracellular ATP with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution in physiological environments. In this study, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) utilizing an amperometric micro-biosensor based on co-immobilization of the enzymes glucose oxidase and hexokinase is applied for imaging ATP transport through a porous polycarbonate membrane under physiologically relevant conditions. The enzymatic biosensor operates on competitive consumption of the substrate glucose between the immobilized enzymes glucose oxidase and hexokinase involving ATP as a co-substrate. Quantitative determination of the ATP concentration is based on a linear correlation between the glucose consumption and the ATP level. Integration of the amperometric ATP micro-biosensor into a dual micro-disk electrode configuration is achieved by immobilizing the enzymes at one of the micro-disk electrodes while the second disk serves as an unmodified amperometric probe for controlled positioning of the micro-biosensor in close proximity to the sample surface enabling quantification of the obtained current signal. PMID:16023962

  3. ATP monitoring technology for microbial growth control in potable water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Patrick A.; Whalen, Philip J.; Cairns, James E.

    2006-05-01

    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the primary energy transfer molecule present in all living biological cells on Earth. ATP cannot be produced or maintained by anything but a living organism, and as such, its measurement is a direct indication of biological activity. The main advantage of ATP as a biological indicator is the speed of the analysis - from collecting the sample to obtaining the result, only minutes are required. The technology to measure ATP is already widely utilized to verify disinfection efficacy in the food industry and is also commonly applied in industrial water processes such as cooling water systems to monitor microbial growth and biocide applications. Research has indicated that ATP measurement technology can also play a key role in such important industries as potable water distribution and biological wastewater treatment. As will be detailed in this paper, LuminUltra Technologies has developed and applied ATP measurement technologies designed for any water type, and as such can provide a method to rapidly and accurately determine the level of biological activity in drinking water supplies. Because of its speed and specificity to biological activity, ATP measurement can play a key role in defending against failing drinking water quality, including those encountered during routine operation and also bioterrorism.

  4. The reaction process of firefly bioluminescence triggered by photolysis of caged-ATP.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Sekiya, Takao; Ohno, Shin-Ya; Wada, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The reaction process of firefly bioluminescence was studied by photolyzing caged-ATP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 100 ms. The intensity of luminescence increases markedly to reach a maximum within 1 s, maintains almost the same intensity up to 5 s and then decays monotonically. The rise γ(1) and decay γ(2) rate constants were determined to be about 5 s(-1) and 1 × 10(-2) s(-1), respectively, so as to phenomenologically fit the time course. A second luminescence peak appears after around 350 s. The dependence of the rate constants on the concentrations of reactants and a viscous reagent revealed that two kinds of reaction contribute the observed time course: (1) an intrinsic reaction by ATP photolyzed from caged-ATP that is already trapped in luciferase; and (2) a diffusion-controlled reaction by free ATP in the buffer solution outside luciferase. Numerical analysis based on reaction kinetics related γ(1) and γ(2) to the rate constants of a three-step reaction model, and accurately described the effects of concentration of reactants and a viscous reagent on the time courses of bioluminescence. Thus, it has been clearly concluded that the binding mode of caged-ATP at the catalytic center of luciferase is very different from that of ATP. PMID:21208215

  5. Lack of correlation between Legionella colonization and microbial population quantification using heterotrophic plate count and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Duda, Scott; Baron, Julianne L; Wagener, Marilyn M; Vidic, Radisav D; Stout, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation compared biological quantification of potable and non-potable (cooling) water samples using pour plate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) methods and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration measurement using bioluminescence. The relationship between these measurements and the presence of Legionella spp. was also examined. HPC for potable and non-potable water were cultured on R2A and PCA, respectively. Results indicated a strong correlation between HPC and ATP measurements in potable water (R = 0.90, p < 0.001). In the make-up water and two cooling towers, the correlations between ATP and HPC were much weaker but statistically significant (make-up water: R = 0.37, p = 0.005; cooling tower 1: R = 0.52, p < 0.001; cooling tower 2: R = 0.54, p < 0.001). For potable and non-potable samples, HPC exhibited higher measurement variability than ATP. However, ATP measurements showed higher microbial concentrations than HPC measurements. Following chlorination of the cooling towers, ATP measurements indicated very low bacterial concentrations (<10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL) despite high HPC concentrations (>1000 CFU/mL) which consisted primarily of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. HPC concentrations have been suggested to be predictive of Legionella presence, although this has not been proven. Our evaluation showed that HPC or ATP demonstrated a fair predictive capacity for Legionella positivity in potable water (HPC: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) = 0.70; ATP: ROC = 0.78; p = 0.003). However, HPC or ATP correctly classified sites as positive only 64 and 62% of the time, respectively. No correlation between HPC or ATP and Legionella colonization in non-potable water samples was found (HPC: ROC = 0.28; ATP: ROC = 0.44; p = 0.193). PMID:26038316

  6. Calcium phosphate-bearing matrices induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells through adenosine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yu-Ru V.; Hwang, YongSung; Phadke, Ameya; Kang, Heemin; Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Caro, Eduardo J.; Nguyen, Steven; Siu, Michael; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Chien, Shu; Lee, Oscar K.; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic matrices emulating the physicochemical properties of tissue-specific ECMs are being developed at a rapid pace to regulate stem cell fate. Biomaterials containing calcium phosphate (CaP) moieties have been shown to support osteogenic differentiation of stem and progenitor cells and bone tissue formation. By using a mineralized synthetic matrix mimicking a CaP-rich bone microenvironment, we examine a molecular mechanism through which CaP minerals induce osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells with an emphasis on phosphate metabolism. Our studies show that extracellular phosphate uptake through solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 (SLC20a1) supports osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells via adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule through A2b adenosine receptor. Perturbation of SLC20a1 abrogates osteogenic differentiation by decreasing intramitochondrial phosphate and ATP synthesis. Collectively, this study offers the demonstration of a previously unknown mechanism for the beneficial role of CaP biomaterials in bone repair and the role of phosphate ions in bone physiology and regeneration. These findings also begin to shed light on the role of ATP metabolism in bone homeostasis, which may be exploited to treat bone metabolic diseases. PMID:24395775

  7. Reexamination of magnetic isotope and field effects on adenosine triphosphate production by creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Darragh; Silkstone, Gary; Poddar, Soumya; Ranson, Richard; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Wilson, Michael T.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of isotopically enriched magnesium on the creatine kinase catalyzed phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate is examined in two independent series of experiments where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were determined by a luciferase-linked luminescence end-point assay or a real-time spectrophotometric assay. No increase was observed between the rates of ATP production with natural Mg, 24Mg, and 25Mg, nor was any significant magnetic field effect observed in magnetic fields from 3 to 1,000 mT. Our results are in conflict with those reported by Buchachenko et al. [J Am Chem Soc 130:12868–12869 (2008)], and they challenge these authors’ general claims that a large (two- to threefold) magnetic isotope effect is “universally observable” for ATP-producing enzymes [Her Russ Acad Sci 80:22–28 (2010)] and that “enzymatic phosphorylation is an ion-radical, electron-spin-selective process” [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10793–10796 (2005)]. PMID:22198842

  8. A new strategy for the detection of adenosine triphosphate by aptamer/quantum dot biosensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-Ming; Yu, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-09-21

    We designed an aptasensor for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET). An adenosine aptamer was cut into two pieces of ssDNA, which were attached to quantum dots (QDs) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. They could reassemble into specific structures in the presence of ATP and then decrease the distance of HRP and QDs. ATP detection can be easily realized according to the fluorescent intensity of QDs, which is excited by CRET between luminol and QDs. Results show that the concentration of ATP is linear relation with the fluorescent intensity of the peak of QDs emission and the linear range for the linear equation is from 50 μM to 231 μM and the detection limit was 185 nM. When the concentration of ATP was 2 mM, the efficiency of CRET is 13.6%. Good specificity for ATP had been demonstrated compared to thymidine triphosphate (TTP), cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), when 1 mM of each was added, respectively. This method needs no external light source and can avoid autofluorescence and photobleaching, and ATP can be detected selectively, specifically, and sensitively in a low micromolar range, which means that the strategy reported here can be applicable to the detection of several other target molecules. PMID:22832507

  9. The kinetics of magnesium adenosine triphosphate cleavage in skinned muscle fibres of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczi, M A; Homsher, E; Trentham, D R

    1984-01-01

    The time course of magnesium adenosine triphosphate (Mg ATP) cleavage in chemically skinned muscle fibres of the rabbit was measured by a method in which Mg ATP cleavage was initiated by photolytic release of ATP from P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyladenosine 5'-triphosphate (caged ATP) and terminated by rapid freezing 50 ms to 8 s later. Up to 5 mM-ATP was released following a single 50 ns laser pulse at 347 nm. Mg ATP cleavage was measured at 19 degrees C in the presence and absence of calcium ions, for fibres near rest length and stretched beyond overlap of the myofilaments. At full overlap and in the absence of calcium (less than 10(-8) M) and nucleotide, the fibres developed rigor tension. Following the laser pulse the tension decreased to that of a relaxed fibre in two distinct phases. The first phase lasted about 40 ms and was followed by a second phase during which tension decreased to zero with an approximately exponential time course with a rate constant of 11 s-1. In the presence of 2 X 10(-5) M-free calcium ions, the initial phase following the laser flash lasted approximately 13 ms, and was followed by an exponential rise of tension with a rate constant of 28 s-1. The active tension reached by the muscle fibres was 54 kN/m2. For fibres stretched beyond overlap, no change in tension was observed following the release of Mg ATP. Under all conditions the time course of Mg ATP cleavage was biphasic, and consisted of a rapid initial burst of ADP formation, complete within 50 ms, followed by a slower steady-state rate of Mg ATP cleavage. The number of molecules of Mg ATP cleaved during the burst was approximately equal to the number of myosin subfragment 1 heads for fibres at full myofilament overlap, and equal to 0.7 molecules per myosin subfragment 1 head for fibres stretched beyond overlap. At full overlap in the presence of calcium ions, the steady-state rate equalled 1.8 mol Mg ATP cleaved per mole myosin subfragment 1 head per second. In all other cases the

  10. Plasma adenosine triphosphate and heat shock protein 72 concentrations after aerobic and eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kishiko; Seta, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shinkai, Shoji; Calderwood, Stuart K; Nakazato, Koichi; Takahashi, Kazue

    2011-01-01

    The endolysosome pathway has been proposed for secretion of heat shock protein (Hsp)72 with a regulatory role for extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Here, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular ATP mediates the increase in plasma Hsp72 after exercise. We measured plasma ATP Hsp72, cathepsin D, norepinephrine, free fatty acid, glucose, and myoglobin in 8 healthy young males (mean +/- SE: age, 22.3 +/- 0.3 years; height, 171.4 +/- 0.8 cm; weight, 68.8 +/- 3.1 kg; body mass index, 23.5 +/- 1.1 kg/cm2; VO2 max, 44.1 +/- 3.8 mL/kg/min) before and at 0, 10, 30, and 60 min after aerobic exercise (cycling) and elbow flexor eccentric exercise. Subjects cycled for 60 min at 70-75% VO2 max (mean +/- SE; 157.4 +/- 6.9 W). Eccentric strength exercise consisted of flexing the elbow joint to 90 degrees with motion speed set at 30 degrees/sec at extension and 10 degrees/sec at flexion. Subjects performed 7 sets of 10 eccentric actions with a set interval of 60 sec. The motion range of the elbow joint was 90 degrees-180 degrees. Compared with the levels of Hsp72 and ATP in plasma after bicycle exercise, those after eccentric exercise did not change. A significant group x time interaction was not observed for Hsp72 or ATP in plasma. A significant correlation was found between Hsp72 and ATP in plasma (r=0.79, P<0.05), but not between Hsp72 and norepinephrine (r=0.64, P=0.09) after bicycle exercise. A significant correlation between ATP and norepinephrine in plasma was found (r=0.89 P<0.01). We used stepwise multiple-regression analysis to determine independent predictors of exercise-induced elevation of eHsp72. Candidate predictor variables for the stepwise multiple-regression analysis were time (Pre, Post, Post10, Post30, Post60), exercise type (aerobic, eccentric), ATP, cathepsin D, norepinephrine, epinephrine, glucose, and FFA. In the regression model for Hsp72 in plasma, increased ATP and glucose were the strongest predictors of increased Hsp72 (ATP: R2=0.213, beta

  11. Activated sludge optimization using ATP in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Göran; Gytel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The activated sludge process is an old technology, but still the most commonly used one for treatment of wastewater. Despite the wide spread usage the technology still suffers from instability (Tandoi et al. 2006) and high operating cost. Activated sludge processes often carry a large solids inventory. Managing the total inventory without interference is the key component of the optimization process described in this paper. Use of nutrients is common in pulp and paper effluent treatment. Feeding enough nutrients to support the biomass growth is a delicate balance. Overfeeding or underfeeding of nutrients can result in higher costs. Detrimental substances and toxic components in effluents entering a biological treatment system can cause severe, long lasting disturbances (Hynninen & Ingman 1998; Bergeron & Pelletier 2004). A LumiKem test kit is used to measure biological activity with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a pulp and paper mill. ATP data are integrated with other standardized mill parameters. Measurements of active volatile suspended solids based on ATP can be used to quantify the living biomass in the activated sludge process and to ensure that sufficient biomass is present in order to degrade the wastewater constituents entering the process. Information about active biomass will assist in optimizing sludge inventories and feeding of nutrients allowing the living biomass to re-populate to create optimal efficiency. ATP measurements can also be used to alert operators if any components toxic to bacteria are present in wastewater. The bio stress index represents the stress level experienced by the microbiological population. This parameter is very useful in monitoring toxicity in and around bioreactors. Results from the wastewater process optimization and ATP measurements showed that treatment cost could be reduced by approximately 20-30% with fewer disturbances and sustained biological activity compared to the reference period. This was mainly achieved by

  12. Extracellular ATP has a potent effect to enhance cytosolic calcium and contractility in single ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R S; Raffaeli, S; Moreno-Sanchez, R; Sakai, M; Capogrossi, M C; Spurgeon, H A; Hansford, R G; Lakatta, E G

    1988-08-01

    The effect of extracellular ATP on the contraction of single rat cardiac myocytes was investigated, together with the effect on the transient change in cytosolic Ca2+ (Cai) elicited by excitation and on the relationship between these two parameters. In unstimulated single myocytes, ATP caused a small increase in Cai (measured as the ratio of fluorescence of Indo-1 at 410 to that at 490 nm. In myocytes bathed in a medium containing 1.0 mM [Ca2+] at 23 degrees C and stimulated at 1 Hz, ATP (1 microM) resulted in a two-threefold increase in amplitude of contraction, as measured by video cinemicrographic techniques. The duration of the Cai-transient was not altered but its amplitude was markedly enhanced, as was the amplitude of contraction. The relation between Cai and contraction-amplitude was not altered by ATP, when measured over a range of extracellular [Ca2+], suggesting that ATP does not affect the myofilament-Ca2+ interaction. The primary site of action of ATP in increasing Cai is at the sarcolemma since the addition to suspensions of myocytes of caffeine (10 mM), which depletes the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, does not prevent the subsequent increase of Cai due to ATP. Further, lowering of the extracellular [Ca2+] to less than 1 microM with EGTA abolishes the response of Cai to ATP, though not the response to caffeine. Thus in rat cardiac myocytes ATP stimulates trans-sarcolemmal influx of Ca2+: ADP, AMP and adenosine are ineffective. ATP markedly augments the amplitude of the Cai transient elicited by electrical stimulation thus rendering it a potent inotropic agent. PMID:3191528

  13. Biological effects of exogenous adenosine 5 prime -triphosphate on cultured mammalian cells: Evidence for a receptor mechanism and its regulation by desensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    Exogenous adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (ATP) mobilized intracellular calcium in human carcinoma A43l cells and in Swiss 3T3 and 3T6 mouse fibroblasts by increasing inositol trisphosphate similar to well down growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), bradykinin (BK), serum). Calcium mobilization was examined by video imaging of fura-2 fluorescence is single cells, following the radioactive isotope {sup 45}Ca, and monitoring the decrease in fluorescence of cells loaded with chlortetracycline. Uridine 5{prime}-triphosphate, but not other nucleotides, mimicked ATP. Single-cell analysis revealed synchronous responses in 10 sec to ATP, BK or serum, while PDGF (3T3) and EGF (A431) produced slower signals with significant cell-to-cell variation. PDGF desensitized 3T3 cells to ATP and BK added 100 sec later but ATP or BK did not desensitized to PDGF. Homologous desensitization was seen with all agonists. Heterologous desensitization was also observed in A431 cells where ATP desensitized to serum, but serum did not to ATP. ATP-stimulated calcium entry was detected after 10 sec in A431 cells, but not in Swiss 3T6 cells. Entry started before significant efflux had occurred and did not fit the capacitance model of Putney. A 2-3 hr ATP pretreatment produced a homologous desensitization state that required 20 hr to disappear, probably due to down-regulation of the putative ATP receptors.

  14. Adenosine Kinase: Exploitation for Therapeutic Gain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphotransferase that converts the purine ribonucleoside adenosine into 5′-adenosine-monophosphate. This enzymatic reaction plays a fundamental role in determining the tone of adenosine, which fulfills essential functions as a homeostatic and metabolic regulator in all living systems. Adenosine not only activates specific signaling pathways by activation of four types of adenosine receptors but it is also a primordial metabolite and regulator of biochemical enzyme reactions that couple to bioenergetic and epigenetic functions. By regulating adenosine, ADK can thus be identified as an upstream regulator of complex homeostatic and metabolic networks. Not surprisingly, ADK dysfunction is involved in several pathologies, including diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Consequently, ADK emerges as a rational therapeutic target, and adenosine-regulating drugs have been tested extensively. In recent attempts to improve specificity of treatment, localized therapies have been developed to augment adenosine signaling at sites of injury or pathology; those approaches include transplantation of stem cells with deletions of ADK or the use of gene therapy vectors to downregulate ADK expression. More recently, the first human mutations in ADK have been described, and novel findings suggest an unexpected role of ADK in a wider range of pathologies. ADK-regulating strategies thus represent innovative therapeutic opportunities to reconstruct network homeostasis in a multitude of conditions. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology of ADK and will then focus on pathologies and therapeutic interventions. Challenges to translate ADK-based therapies into clinical use will be discussed critically. PMID:23592612

  15. Gas-phase protonation thermochemistry of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Touboul, David; Bouchoux, Guy; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-09-18

    The goal of this work was to obtain a detailed insight on the gas-phase protonation energetic of adenosine using both mass spectrometric experiments and quantum chemical calculations. The experimental approach used the extended kinetic method with nanoelectrospray ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. This method provides experimental values for proton affinity, PA(adenosine) = 979 +/- 1 kJ.mol (-1), and for the "protonation entropy", Delta p S degrees (adenosine) = S degrees (adenosineH +) - S degrees (adenosine) = -5 +/- 5 J.mol (-1).K (-1). The corresponding gas-phase basicity is consequently equal to: GB(adenosine) = 945 +/- 2 kJ.mol (-1) at 298K. Theoretical calculations conducted at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, including 298 K enthalpy correction, predict a proton affinity value of 974 kJ.mol (-1) after consideration of isodesmic proton transfer reactions with pyridine as the reference base. Moreover, computations clearly showed that N3 is the most favorable protonation site for adenosine, due to a strong internal hydrogen bond involving the hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar moiety, unlike observations for adenine and 2'-deoxyadenosine, where protonation occurs on N1. The existence of negligible protonation entropy is confirmed by calculations (theoretical Delta p S degrees (adenosine) approximately -2/-3 J.mol (-1).K (-1)) including conformational analysis and entropy of hindered rotations. Thus, the calculated protonation thermochemical properties are in good agreement with our experimental measurements. It may be noted that the new PA value is approximately 10 kJ.mol (-1) lower than the one reported in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, thus pointing to a correction of the tabulated protonation thermochemistry of adenosine. PMID:18720985

  16. Hypoxia is an effective stimulus for vesicular release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim To, W.K.; Kumar, P.; Marshall, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia induces dilatation of the umbilical vein by releasing autocoids from endothelium; prostaglandins (PGs), adenosine and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated. ATP is vasoactive, thus we tested whether hypoxia releases ATP from primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Methods HUVEC were grown on inserts under no-flow conditions. ATP was assayed by luciferin–luciferase and visualised by quinacrine labeling. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) was imaged with Fura-2. Results ATP release occurred constitutively and was increased by hypoxia (PO2: 150–8 mmHg), ∼10-fold more from apical, than basolateral surface. Constitutive ATP release was decreased, while hypoxia-induced release was abolished by brefeldin or monensin A, inhibitors of vesicular transport, and LY294002 or Y27632, inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). ATP release was unaffected by NO donor, but increased by calcium ionophore, by >60-fold from apical, but <25% from basolateral surface. Hypoxia induced a small increase in [Ca2+]i compared with ATP (10 μM); hypoxia inhibited the ATP response. Quinacrine-ATP fluorescent loci in the perinuclear space, were diminished by hypoxia and monensin, whereas brefeldin A increased fluorescence intensity, consistent with inhibition of anterograde transport. Discussion. Hypoxia within the physiological range releases ATP from HUVEC, particularly from apical/adluminal surfaces by exocytosis, via an increase in [Ca2+]i, PI3K and ROCK, independently of NO. We propose that hypoxia releases ATP at concentrations sufficient to induce umbilical vein dilation via PGs and NO and improve fetal blood flow, but curbs amplification of ATP release by autocrine actions of ATP, so limiting its pro-inflammatory effects. PMID:25956988

  17. Modulation of L-type Ca2+ current by extracellular ATP in ferret isolated right ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Y; Campbell, D L; Strauss, H C

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on the basal L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) were investigated in ferret isolated right ventricular myocytes using the gigaohm seal voltage clamp in the whole-cell and cell-attached configurations. 2. Micromolar levels of extracellular ATP reversibly inhibited ICa in a concentration-dependent manner, without any significant changes in the voltage dependence of either the peak ICa I-V relationship or steady-state activation curve. 3. In contrast, micromolar levels of extracellular ATP did significantly alter the inactivation characteristics of ICa. Ten micromolar ATP: (i) increased the degree of steady-state inactivation of ICa; (ii) altered the time constants of ICa inactivation at 0 mV; and (iii) decreased the time constant of ICa recovery from inactivation at -70 mV. 4. The inhibitory effect of ATP on ICa was not blocked by atropine, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or CPDPX (8-cyclopentyl-3,4-dipropylxanthine), an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of 10 microM ATP could be nearly completely antagonized by 100 microM suramin, a purinergic P2 receptor antagonist. 5. The potency order of ATP analogues in inhibiting ICa was 2-methyl-thio-ATP > ATP > alpha,beta-methylene-ATP, indicating involvement of a P2Y-type ATP receptor. 6. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the ATP-induced decrease in ICa. However, (i) ATP produced an irreversible decrease of ICa in the presence of intracellular GTP gamma S, and (ii) the inhibitory effect was significantly attenuated in the presence of intracellular GDP beta S, indicating the involvement of a PTX-insensitive G protein in the P2Y receptor-coupling process. 7. Neither (i) replacing extracellular Ca2+ with 1 mM Ba2+, nor (ii) intracellular perfusion of 10 mM BAPTA for at least 30 min attenuated the inhibitory effect of ATP on the current through Ca2+ channels, suggesting that the inhibitory effect

  18. In vitro studies of release of adenine nucleotides and adenosine from rat vascular endothelium in response to alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Shinozuka, K; Hashimoto, M; Masumura, S; Bjur, R A; Westfall, D P; Hattori, K

    1994-01-01

    1. Noradrenaline-induced release of endogenous adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) and adenosine from both rat caudal artery and thoracic aorta was characterized, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. 2. Noradrenaline, in a concentration-dependent manner, increased the overflow of ATP and its metabolites from the caudal artery. The noradrenaline-induced release of adenine nucleotides and adenosine from the caudal artery was abolished by bunazosin, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not by idazoxan, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. Clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, contracted caudal artery smooth muscle but did not induce release of adenine nucleotides or adenosine. 3. Noradrenaline also significantly increased the overflow of ATP and its metabolites from the thoracic aorta in the rat; however, the amount of adenine nucleotides and adenosine released from the aorta was considerably less than that released from the caudal artery. 4. Noradrenaline significantly increased the overflow of ATP and its metabolites from cultured endothelial cells from the thoracic aorta and caudal artery. The amount released from the cultured endothelial cells from the thoracic aorta and caudal artery. The amount released from the cultured endothelial cells from the aorta was also much less than that from cultured endothelial cells from the caudal artery. In cultured smooth muscle cells from the caudal artery, a significant release of ATP or its metabolites was not observed. 5. These results suggest that there are vascular endothelial cells that are able to release ATP by an alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated mechanism, but that these cells are not homogeneously distributed in the vasculature. PMID:7889273

  19. Macroscopic and Fluorescent Discrimination of Adenosine Triphosphate via Selective Metallo-hydrogel Formation: A Visual, Practical, and Reliable Rehearsal toward Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weiwei; Liu, Cong; Yu, Fabiao; Liu, Yaoqi; Li, Zhenhua; Chen, Lingxin; Bao, Xiaoling; Tu, Tao

    2016-08-17

    With use of simple terpyridine zinc nitrate complexes, intriguing visual recognition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via selective coordination assembly leading to two-component metallo-hydrogel formation has been realized. With intensive fluorescent study and density functional theory calculations, it may be inferred, besides the selective metal-ligand interaction between Zn center and phosphate groups, the intramolecular π-stacking between the planar nucleobases of ATP and the metal-hybrid aromatic ring of pincer complex strongly affected the geometry of the coordinated adducts and possible molecular self-assembly process, which constitute a completely new sensing strategy in comparison with the conventional approaches. Furthermore, in light of extreme sensitivity of pincer zinc complexes toward ATP at micromolar scale (1.85 μM) and remarkable fluorescent enhancement (ca. 44-fold) upon ATP addition, the feasibility of the low cytotoxicity pincer zinc complexes in monitoring ATP in HeLa cells has been fulfilled with confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:27420773

  20. Two strategies for the synthesis of the biologically important ATP analogue ApppI, at a multi-milligram scale

    PubMed Central

    Weisell, Janne; Vepsäläinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two strategies for the synthesis of the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) analogue ApppI [1-adenosin-5’-yl 3-(3-methylbut-3-enyl)triphosphoric acid diester] (1) are described. ApppI is an active metabolite of the mevalonate pathway and thus is of major biological significance. Chemically synthezised ApppI was purified by using triethylammonium bicarbonate as the counter ion in ion-pair chromatography and characterized by 1H, 13C, 31P NMR and MS spectroscopical methods. PMID:26664641

  1. Overview of photo-induced therapy for ATP production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Nagy, A.; Ye, W. N.; Mussivand, T.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of the effects of low-power photo-induced therapy using lasers of different device parameters such as intensity, wavelength, lasing mechanism (i.e., pulsed or continuous) on the production of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mammalian cells. This is a very important research topic as it is suggested in literature that there might be a relationship between the ATP levels and specific diseases. It has been shown that the ATP production was enhanced at wavelengths ranging between 600 nm and 1000 nm (also known as the optical window), in particular at 600nm, 632.8nm, 635nm, 650nm, and 904nm. However, certain experiments showed that the effectiveness of the photo-induced therapy was also dependent on the dosage and the duration of the supplied light. We present the research conclusions drawn from the experiments reported within the last decade, and provide a list of potential medical treatment(s) for patients using visible and near infrared (NIR) light.

  2. Hydrolysis of synthetic pyrophosphoric esters by an isoenzyme of apyrase from Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed Central

    Del Campo, G; Puente, J; Valenzuela, M A; Traverso-Cori, A; Cori, O

    1977-01-01

    A highly purified isoenzyme of apyrase obtained from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Pimpernel) exhibits a low specificity for the organic moiety of synthetic pyro- and triphosphates. Methyl di- and tri-phosphates were hydrolysed at higher rates than ADP and ATP, but their Km values were also higher. Steric hindrance at the carbon atom linked to the pyrophosphate chain decreases both binding and maximum rate, whereas length or polarity of the organic chain do not have systematic effects. t-Butyl diphosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate, adenosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate and adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate are competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP. PMID:203267

  3. Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert,H.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.

  4. A self-assembled chiral-aptasensor for ATP activity detection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pan; Sun, Maozhong; Xu, Liguang; Wu, Xiaoling; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-08-11

    Circular dichroism (CD) has allowed the construction of various chiral nanomaterials for different applications, including biosensing. However, the determination of a simple target-specific, economical, and biocompatible platform using CD with intracellular detection and in situ molecular probing is still required. Here, we show that a DNA zip-fastener structure self-assembled chiral-aptasensor based on gold nanoparticle heterodimers provided an outstanding capability to quantify adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) by addition. The conjugation of two ATP molecules to an adenosine aptamer allowed the formation of a stable ring structure, which formed an ATP-ring adhesive scaffold upon interaction with DNA complementary sequences linked with large gold nanoparticles, the latter were able to drop and result in a decrease in CD signal. We also showed that these low-cytotoxicity and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-steady nanoconjugates were also a one-step incubation technique for the quantification and monitoring of ATP in living cells modified by cell penetrating peptides (TAT) or Cy5. The results showed that the linear intracellular detection range was from 1.5 to 4.2 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 mM. Our findings suggest that this chiroplasmonic sensor is a promising approach for investigating biogenic biomolecules inside cells and living organisms and for assessing their biological activity. PMID:27468834

  5. Spectroscopic study of the interaction between adenosine disodium triphosphate and gatifloxacin-Al3+ complex and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Faruqui, A Nayeem; Hossain, Mohammed Ifteker; Lee, Sang Hak

    2015-11-01

    A new and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been proposed to determine trace amount of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP). The method is based on the fluorimetric interaction between gatifloxacin (GFLX)-aluminium (III) (Al(3+) ) complex and ATP and studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Weak luminescence spectra of Al(3+) were enhanced after complexation with GFLX at 423 nm upon excitation at 272 nm due to energy transfer from the ligand to the Al(3+) ion. It was observed that the FL emission spectrum of GFLX-Al(3+) was enhanced significantly by the addition of ATP. Under the optimal conditions, the enhancement of FL intensity at 423 nm was responded linearly with the concentration of ATP in the range 1.3 × 10(-10) - 1.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9981. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1.1 × 10(-11) mol L(-1) for ATP with the standard deviation (RSD) of 1.21% for five repeated measurement of 2.3 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) ATP. The presented method is simple, sensitive, free from coexisting interferents and can be applied successfully to determine ATP in the real samples. PMID:25683636

  6. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water using an immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Cireddu, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine a rapid method for detecting Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water. Methods and Results: Water samples were assayed for E. coli and enterococci by traditional and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) methods. Three sample treatments were evaluated for the IMS/ATP method: double filtration, single filtration, and direct analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis showed strong, significant, linear relations between IMS/ATP and traditional methods for all sample treatments; strongest linear correlations were with the direct analysis (r = 0.62 and 0.77 for E. coli and enterococci, respectively). Additionally, simple linear regression was used to estimate bacteria concentrations as a function of IMS/ATP results. The correct classification of water-quality criteria was 67% for E. coli and 80% for enterococci. Conclusions: The IMS/ATP method is a viable alternative to traditional methods for faecal-indicator bacteria. Significance and Impact of the Study: The IMS/ATP method addresses critical public health needs for the rapid detection of faecal-indicator contamination and has potential for satisfying US legislative mandates requiring methods to detect bathing water contamination in 2 h or less. Moreover, IMS/ATP equipment is considerably less costly and more portable than that for molecular methods, making the method suitable for field applications. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  7. Adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase from penicillium chrysogenum. Steady state kinetics of the forward and reverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Farley, J R; Cryns, D F; Yang, Y H; Segel, I H

    1976-07-25

    The kinetic mechanism of ATP sulfurylase was established from initial velocity, product inhibition, and dead-end inhibition studies. In the forward direction, the reaction is steady state ordered, with MgATP=A, sulfate=B, MgPP1=P, and APS=Q.KmA=0.38 mM, Kia=0.71 mM, KmB=0.50 mM. Nitrate and chlorate are competive with sulfate and uncompetitive with MgATP. KiNO3-=0.25 mM; KiC1O3-= 0.15 mM. AMP and various MgATP analogs are competitive with MgATP and mixed-type inhibitors with respect to SO42-. The Ki for AMP is 0.55 mM. The reaction is rapid equilibrium ordered in the reverse direction with Kiq=0.3 to 1.0 muM and Kmp=0.65 muM. Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) exhibits competitive substrate inhibition (KIQ=0.3 mM). The ratio Vmaxf/Vmaxr is 0.018. In the forward direction the ratio VmaxMoO42-/VmaxSO42- is 20. The Keq at pH 8.0 and 30 degrees calculated from the Haldane equation is 6 X 10(-9) to 3.3 X 10(-8) (depending on the Kiq value chosen). The experimental Keq is about 2.5 X 10(-9). The fact that Vmax/Vmaxr is about 1 million times greater than Keq is consistent with the assumed physiological role of the enzyme (APS synthesis). The mechanistic basis of the ordered binding sequence was probed by multiple inhibition analysis. Dead-end inhibitors competitive with MgATP (such as free ATP, Mg alpha,beta-methylene ATP, CrATP, and CaATP) do not induce substrate inhibition by sulfate or alter the inhibition patterns displayed by nitrate. This result suggests (but does not prove) that catalytic action on MgATP must precede the formation of the sulfate binding site. PMID:819440

  8. Adenosine triphosphate inhibition of yeast trehalase.

    PubMed

    Panek, A D

    1969-09-01

    Yeast trehalase has been found to be inhibited non-competitively by adenosine triphosphate. Such a biological control could explain the accumulation of trehalose during the stationary phase of the growth curve. PMID:5370287

  9. Enhanced Diffusion of Molecular Motors in the Presence of Adenosine Triphosphate and External Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinagawa, Ryota; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The diffusion of a molecular motor in the presence of a constant external force is considered on the basis of a simple theoretical model. The motor is represented by a Brownian particle moving in a series of parabolic potentials placed periodically on a line, and the potential is switched stochastically from one parabola to another by a chemical reaction, which corresponds to the hydrolysis or synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in motor proteins. It is found that the diffusion coefficient as a function of the force exhibits peaks. The mechanism of this diffusion enhancement and the possibility of observing it in F1-ATPase, a biological rotary motor, are discussed.

  10. Basal Release of ATP: An Autocrine-Paracrine Mechanism for Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Corriden, Ross; Insel, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cells release adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which activates plasma membrane–localized P2X and P2Y receptors and thereby modulates cellular function in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Release of ATP and the subsequent activation of P2 receptors help establish the basal level of activation (sometimes termed “the set point”) for signal transduction pathways and regulate a wide array of responses that include tissue blood flow, ion transport, cell volume regulation, neuronal signaling, and host-pathogen interactions. Basal release and autocrine or paracrine responses to ATP are multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved, and they provide an economical means for the modulation of cell, tissue, and organismal biology. PMID:20068232

  11. Neuromodulation by extracellular ATP and P2X receptors in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Khakh, Baljit S.; North, R. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5’ triphosphate (ATP) is a widespread cell-to-cell signaling molecule in the brain, where it activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors define a protein family unlike other neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in terms of sequence, subunit topology, assembly and architecture. Within milliseconds of binding ATP, they catalyze the opening of a cation-selective pore. However, recent data show that P2X receptors often underlie neuromodulatory responses on slower time scales of seconds or longer. Herein, we review these findings at molecular, cellular and systems levels. We propose that, while P2X receptors are fast ligand-gated cation channels, they are most adept at mediating slow neuromodulatory functions that are more widespread and more physiologically utilized than fast ATP synaptic transmission in the CNS. PMID:23040806

  12. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  13. CHARMM Force-Fields with Modified Polyphosphate Parameters Allow Stable Simulation of the ATP-Bound Structure of Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Yasuaki; Re, Suyong; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Muneyuki, Eiro; Sugita, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indispensable energy source in cells. In a wide variety of biological phenomena like glycolysis, muscle contraction/relaxation, and active ion transport, chemical energy released from ATP hydrolysis is converted to mechanical forces to bring about large-scale conformational changes in proteins. Investigation of structure-function relationships in these proteins by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires modeling of ATP in solution and ATP bound to proteins with accurate force-field parameters. In this study, we derived new force-field parameters for the triphosphate moiety of ATP based on the high-precision quantum calculations of methyl triphosphate. We tested our new parameters on membrane-embedded sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and four soluble proteins. The ATP-bound structure of Ca(2+)-ATPase remains stable during MD simulations, contrary to the outcome in shorter simulations using original parameters. Similar results were obtained with the four ATP-bound soluble proteins. The new force-field parameters were also tested by investigating the range of conformations sampled during replica-exchange MD simulations of ATP in explicit water. Modified parameters allowed a much wider range of conformational sampling compared with the bias toward extended forms with original parameters. A diverse range of structures agrees with the broad distribution of ATP conformations in proteins deposited in the Protein Data Bank. These simulations suggest that the modified parameters will be useful in studies of ATP in solution and of the many ATP-utilizing proteins. PMID:26588553

  14. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers.

    PubMed

    Brozmanova, M; Mazurova, L; Ru, F; Tatar, M; Hu, Y; Yu, S; Kollarik, M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10-60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1-100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  15. Regulation of Lymphocyte Function by Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Joel; Cekic, Caglar

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine regulates the interaction between lymphocytes and the vasculature and is important for controlling lymphocyte trafficking in response to tissue injury or infection. Adenosine can blunt the effects of T cell receptor (TCR) activation primarily by activating adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) and signaling via cyclic AMP and protein kinase A (PKA). PKA reduces proximal TCR signaling by phosphorylation of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). PKA activation can either enhance or inhibit the survival of T cells depending on the strength and duration of signaling. Inducible enzymes such as CD73 and CD39 regulate adenosine formation and degradation in vivo. The extravasation of lymphocytes through blood vessels is influenced by A2AR-mediated suppression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM) expression on lymphocytes and diminished production of IFNγ and IFNγ-inducible chemokines that are chemotactic to activated lymphocytes. Adenosine also decreases the barrier function of vascular endothelium by activating A2BRs. In sum, adenosine signaling is influenced by tissue inflammation and injury through induction of receptors and enzymes and has generally inhibitory effects on lymphocyte migration into inflamed tissues due to PKA-mediated effects on adhesion molecules, IFNγ production and endothelial barrier function. PMID:22772752

  16. Adenosine receptor agonists attenuate and adenosine receptor antagonists exacerbate opiate withdrawal signs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, G B; Sears, M T

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for adenosine in mediating opiate effects. Adenosine receptors and their functions have been shown to be regulated by chronic opiate treatment. This study examines the role of adenosine receptors in the expression of opiate withdrawal behaviors. The effects of single doses of parenterally administered adenosine receptor subtype-selective agonists and antagonists on opiate withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice were measured. Mice received subcutaneous morphine pellet treatment for 72 h and then underwent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal after pretreatment with adenosinergic agents. Adenosine agonists attenuated different opiate withdrawal signs. The A1 agonist R-N6(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (0, 0.01, 0.02 mg/kg, IP) significantly reduced wet dog shakes and withdrawal diarrhea, while the A2a-selective agonist 2-p-(2-carboxethyl)phenylethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine or CGS 21680 (0, 0.01, 0.05 mg/kg, IP) significantly inhibited teeth chattering and forepaw treads. Adenosine receptor antagonists enhanced different opiate withdrawal signs. The adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (0, 1, 10 mg/kg, IP) significantly increased weight loss and the A2 antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (0, 1 and 10 mg/kg, IP) enhanced wet dog shakes and withdrawal diarrhea. Treatment effects of adenosinergic agents were not due to nonspecific motor effects, as demonstrated by activity monitoring studies. These results support a role for adenosine receptors in the expression of opiate withdrawal and suggest the potential utility of adenosine agonists in its treatment. PMID:8741956

  17. ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi exchange catalyzed by plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from kidney proximal tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Vieyra, A.; Caruso-Neves, C.; Meyer-Fernandes, J.R. )

    1991-06-05

    The Ca(2+)-stimulated adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate-orthophosphate (ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi) exchange reaction was studied using a vesicular preparation derived from plasma membrane of kidney proximal tubules. With native inside-out vesicles, ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi was stimulated by micromolar Ca2+ concentrations. Treatment of the vesicles with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 that abolished Ca2+ accumulation, strongly inhibited ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi. When Ca(2+)-ATPase was solubilized with the nonionic detergent octaethylene glycol mono n-dodecyl ether, maximal activation of ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi required millimolar Ca2+ concentrations. These Ca2+ concentrations inhibited ATP hydrolysis. ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi exhibited a Michaelian dependence on Pi and Mg2+, was stimulated by ATP, and depended on the ATP/ADP ratio. ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi was modified by the osmolytes urea, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and sucrose, which are representative of the methylamines and polyols that normally accumulate in renal tissue. These compounds did not modify the apparent affinity for Pi; they affected the response to ADP in the same fashion as the overall rate of ATP in equilibrium 32Pi, and their effects depended on medium pH. These data show that the Ca(2+)-ATPase from plasma membrane kidney proximal tubules can operate simultaneously in forward and backward directions. They also show that ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi is modulated by the ligands Ca2+, ATP, ADP, Pi, Mg2+, and H+, and by organic solutes found in renal tissue.

  18. Application of bioluminescence ATP measurement for evaluation of fungal viability of foxing spots on old documents.

    PubMed

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina Sylvia; Dubar, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence-based protocol was tested to assess the viability of fungal species in old documents damaged by foxing. Foxing appears as scattered yellow brownish-red stains, damaging the aesthetics of documents and their long-term readability. In the field of cultural heritage conservation, the debate over the mechanism of foxing is ongoing. Previous studies found evidence of mold-like structures in some coloured areas; however, many species have not yet been identified and their role in the phenomenon is not understood. To better understand their involvement in this type of paper decay, we focused our attention first on their viability. We demonstrated the reliability and sensitivity of the ATP bioluminescence assay compared with conventional methods based on cultivation, which has rarely given rise to in vitro growth from foxed papers. From nine books dating back from the 19th and 20th centuries, the mean ATP amount of foxed spots ranged from 0.29 to 3.63 ng/cm(2), suggesting the presence of strains inside the brownish spots and providing evidence of their viability. Outside the spots, ATP content was considered negligible, with a mean ATP amount of 0 to 0.03 ng/cm(2). ATP assay appears to be a useful and robust method for the detection and quantification of viable elements in foxing spots. PMID:22696448

  19. The interference of HEPES buffer during amperometric detection of ATP in clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Gauda, Estelle; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2008-04-01

    HEPES-based biological buffer is subject to photooxidation upon exposure to fluorescent illumination. Thereby hydrogen peroxide is generated, which interferes with amperometric oxidoreductase-based biosensors for glucose or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These biosensors operate at an oxidation potential above 500 mV vs. the standard calomel electrode (SCE) and involve hydrogen peroxide as the electroactive molecule detected at the electrode surface. False-positive detection of ATP was observed in HEPES buffer utilizing an amperometric microbiosensor based on the co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and hexokinase for detection of ATP in biological specimens. Electrochemical, mass spectrometric, (31)P NMR, and (1)H NMR studies indicate that complexation of ATP and HEPES induced by the presence of Ca(2+) in HEPES buffer decreases the photooxidation of HEPES. Consequently, the hydrogen peroxide background concentration is reduced, thereby leading to erroneous ATP detection at the dual-enzyme microbiosensor, which determines an increase in ATP via a reduced hydrogen peroxide signal. PMID:18368390

  20. Nanoseconds molecular dynamics simulation of primary mechanical energy transfer steps in F1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Böckmann, Rainer A; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2002-03-01

    The mitochondrial membrane protein FoF1-ATP synthase synthesizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal currency of energy in the cell. This process involves mechanochemical energy transfer from a rotating asymmetric gamma-'stalk' to the three active sites of the F1 unit, which drives the bound ATP out of the binding pocket. Here, the primary structural changes associated with this energy transfer in F1-ATP synthase were studied with multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. By forced rotation of the gamma-stalk that mimics the effect of proton motive Fo-rotation during ATP synthesis, a time-resolved atomic model for the structural changes in the F1 part in terms of propagating conformational motions is obtained. For these, different time scales are found, which allows the separation of nanosecond from microsecond conformational motions. In the simulations, rotation of the gamma-stalk lowers the ATP affinity of the betaTP binding pocket and triggers fast, spontaneous closure of the empty betaE subunit. The simulations explain several mutation studies and the reduced hydrolysis rate of gamma-depleted F1-ATPase. PMID:11836535

  1. ATP Consumption of Eukaryotic Flagella Measured at a Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel T N; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-12-15

    The motility of cilia and flagella is driven by thousands of dynein motors that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite decades of genetic, biochemical, structural, and biophysical studies, some aspects of ciliary motility remain elusive, such as the regulation of beating patterns and the energetic efficiency of these nanomachines. In this study, we introduce an experimental method to measure ATP consumption of actively beating axonemes on a single-cell level. We encapsulated individual sea urchin sperm with demembranated flagellum inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets and measured the axoneme's ATP consumption by monitoring fluorescence intensity of a fluorophore-coupled reporter system for ATP turnover in the droplet. Concomitant phase contrast imaging allowed us to extract a linear dependence between the ATP consumption rate and the flagellar beating frequency, with ∼2.3 × 10(5) ATP molecules consumed per beat of a demembranated flagellum. Increasing the viscosity of the aqueous medium led to modified beating waveforms of the axonemes and to higher energy consumption per beat cycle. Our single-cell experimental platform provides both new insights, to our knowledge, into the beating mechanism of flagella and a powerful tool for future studies. PMID:26682814

  2. ATP Consumption of Eukaryotic Flagella Measured at a Single-Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel T. N.; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-12-01

    The motility of cilia and flagella is driven by thousands of dynein motors that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite decades of genetic, biochemical, structural and biophysical studies, some aspects of ciliary motility remain elusive, such as the regulation of beating patterns and the energetic efficiency of these nanomachines. Here, we introduce an experimental method to measure ATP consumption of actively beating axonemes on a single-cell level. We encapsulated individual sea urchin sperm with demembranated flagellum inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets and measured the axonemes ATP consumption by monitoring fluorescence intensity of a fluorophore-coupled reporter system for ATP turnover in the droplet. Concomitant phase contrast imaging allowed us to extract a linear dependence between the ATP consumption rate and the flagellar beating frequency, with ~2.3e5 ATP molecules consumed per beat of a demembranated flagellum. Increasing the viscosity of the aqueous medium led to modified beating waveforms of the axonemes and to higher energy consumption per beat cycle. Our single-cell experimental platform provides both new insights into the beating mechanism of flagella and a powerful tool for future studies.

  3. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrates for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Man, Baoyuan; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yue, Weiwei; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Mei; Chen, Chuansong; Zhang, Chao

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that continuous, uniform graphene films can be directly synthesized on quartz substrates using a two-temperature-zone chemical vapor deposition system and that their layers can be controlled by adjusting the precursor partial pressure. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm the formation of monolayer graphene with a grain size of ˜100 nm. Hall measurements show a room-temperature carrier mobility above 1500 cm2 V-1 s-1. The optical transmittance and conductance of the graphene films are comparable to those of transferred metal-catalyzed graphene. The method avoids the complicated and skilled post-growth transfer process and allows the graphene to be directly incorporated into a fully functional biosensor for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This device shows a fast response time of a few milliseconds and achieves a high sensitivity to ATP molecules over a very wide range from 0.002 to 5 mM.

  4. Effect of cadmium on lake water bacteria as determined by the luciferase assay of adenosine triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfried, P.L.; Horgan, C.B.L.

    1981-10-01

    A firefly luciferase assay of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed to measure the toxic effects of cadmium ions on aquatic organisms. Toxicity was monitored using intracellular (I/C) ATP (in micrograms per litre) as well as plate counts (colony-forming units per millilitre). The bacteria, which belonged mainly to the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, exhibited varying degrees of resistance to up to 100 ppm cadmium when grown in a glucose-salts medium at pH 6.8. Among the organisms tested, cadmium resistance decreased in the following order: Pseudomonas vesicularis > P. aeruginosa > Enterobacter sp. > P. fluorescens > Chromobacter sp. > Serratia sp. A rise in the pH of the growth medium from 5 to 7 resulted in increased toxicity of cadmium.

  5. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrates for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shicai; Man, Baoyuan; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yue, Weiwei; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Mei; Chen, Chuansong; Zhang, Chao

    2014-04-25

    We demonstrate that continuous, uniform graphene films can be directly synthesized on quartz substrates using a two-temperature-zone chemical vapor deposition system and that their layers can be controlled by adjusting the precursor partial pressure. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm the formation of monolayer graphene with a grain size of ∼100 nm. Hall measurements show a room-temperature carrier mobility above 1500 cm2 V(-1) s(-1). The optical transmittance and conductance of the graphene films are comparable to those of transferred metal-catalyzed graphene. The method avoids the complicated and skilled post-growth transfer process and allows the graphene to be directly incorporated into a fully functional biosensor for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This device shows a fast response time of a few milliseconds and achieves a high sensitivity to ATP molecules over a very wide range from 0.002 to 5 mM. PMID:24671026

  6. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine-triphosphate in cretins living at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Adams, W H

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in the red cells of cretins and normal controls living at 3,700 m in the Nepal Himalayas has shown that 2,3-DPG and ATP levels were higher in the cretins. A negative correlation between hemoglobin and 2.3-DPG level was found. Chronic hypoxia appears to have provided the additional stress required to differentiate the significance of thyroid hormone deficiency in producing anemia from its effect on 2,3-DPG levels. If thyroid hormone is in fact one regulator of 2,3-DPG, the anemia of hypothyroidism appears to be more significant. This also suggest that the anemia of hypothyroidism, is at least in part, "pathologic" as opposed to "adaptive". PMID:822672

  7. Mechanism of extracellular ATP-induced increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, A; Sharma, V K; Sheu, S S

    1992-01-01

    1. Changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of isolated rat ventricular myocytes in suspension were measured in response to extracellular ATP using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicators Quin-2 and Fura-2. 2. ATP produced a concentration-, time- and Mg(2+)-dependent, biphasic increase of [Ca2+]i whereas slowly hydrolysable ATP analogues produced a slow, monophasic increase of [Ca2+]i and the non-hydrolysable ATP analogues were without effect. 3. Extracellular Ca2+ was required for the ATP-induced increase of [Ca2+]i and pre-treatment of the cells with caffeine, ryanodine, verapamil or nimodipine partially inhibited the [Ca2+]i increase. 4. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ATP activated an ionic current that had a linear current-voltage relationship with a reversal potential near O mV. Quinidine, a putative P2 purinergic receptor blocker, abolished the ATP-activated current. The ATP-activated current was Mg2+ dependent. 5. Associated with the ATP-activated current was cellular depolarization. In a physiological solution, ATP depolarized cells to the threshold for the firing of action potentials. In the presence of the voltage-activated ion channel blockers tetrodotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, caesium and nitrendipine, ATP depolarized cells to -44 +/- 6 mV from a resting potential of -66 +/- 4 mV (n = 11). 6. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography demonstrated that extracellular ATP stimulated the phosphorylation of several extracellular membrane-bound proteins. The phosphorylation of these proteins was concentration, time and Mg2+ dependent. Pre-treatment of cells with the slowly hydrolysable ATP analogues inhibited the ATP-induced phosphorylation. Adenosine 5'-O-3-thiotriphosphate (ATP gamma S) thiophosphorylated proteins with the same apparent molecular weight as the proteins phosphorylated by ATP. 7. These results suggest that the ATP-induced increase of [Ca2+]i is a result of the activation, possibly

  8. One-step isolation of adenosine triphosphate from crude fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by anion-exchange chromatography using supermacroporous cryogel.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Shen, Shaochuan; Chen, Fang; Yao, Kejian

    2007-12-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an important high-energy compound widely used in biological and therapeutic fields. It can be produced by phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with microbial cells in industrial scale and the effective isolation of ATP from microbial fermentation broth is a challenging work. In this work, we develop a novel one-step method to directly separate ATP from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by anion-exchange chromatography using supermacroporous cryogel. The cryogel bed with tertiary amine groups was prepared by grafting N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) monomer chains onto the matrix of a polyacrylamide-based cryogel in a glass column and its properties of liquid dispersion, water permeability, porosity as well as the ligand density were measured. Chromatographic separation of ATP from the fermentation broth by the cryogel was carried out using deionised water and 0.01 M HCl as running buffer, respectively. The breakthrough characteristics and elution performance in the cryogel bed were revealed and analyzed. The purities of the obtained ATP were analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximal purity of ATP by the one-step separation method was 95.5% using 0.01 M HCl as running buffer in this work. The corresponding chromatographic behaviors were investigated and analyzed. PMID:18024244

  9. Modified arteriolar responses to ATP after impairment of endothelium by light-dye techniques in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, A.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wolin, M.S.; Messina, E.J.; Kaley, G. )

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether endothelial cells are involved in the dilation of third-order arterioles (14 to 22 microns) in response to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cremaster muscle of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Two light/dye (L/D) techniques were employed to achieve selective, local endothelial impairment. One of these techniques utilizes a mercury lamp and sodium fluorescein, the other a Helium-Neon laser and Evans blue dye. L/D treatment (illumination with the appropriate wavelengths of light in the presence of an intravascular dye) of a 20-to 100-microns segment of an arteriole resulted in a complete loss of arteriolar dilation in response to topical administration of acetylcholine (10(-6) M) and arachidonic acid (AA, 10(-5) M). These agents were applied in 100-microl aliquots without interrupting the continuous suffusion with Ringer-gelatin solution and caused a {approximately} 70% increase in vascular diameter before the L/D intervention. Selectivity of the impairment was assessed by arteriolar responses to the nonendothelium-dependent dilator agents adenosine (10(-5) M) and sodium nitroprusside (2 {times} 10(-7) M), which elicited the same degree of dilation before and after L/D treatment. Under control conditions ATP (10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M) elicited dose-dependent increases in arteriolar diameter (from 38 to 74%). After impairment of arteriolar endothelium, dilation in response to all doses of ATP was significantly reduced. Theophylline (30 microM) significantly inhibited arteriolar dilation in response to adenosine (10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M) but did not affect the responses to various doses of ATP. Moreover, impairment of endothelium enhanced constrictor responses of arterioles to norepinephrine (0.6 {times} 10(-8) M).

  10. Regulation of the gating of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator C1 channels by phosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, T C; Nagel, G; Nairn, A C; Gadsby, D C

    1994-01-01

    Opening of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl channels requires their phosphorylation by protein kinase A followed by exposure to ATP. We examined the interaction between nucleotides and phosphorylated CFTR channels by recording currents in intact cardiac myocytes and in excised patches. We found that, although the hydrolysis-resistant ATP analogue 5'-adenosine(beta,gamma- imino)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) cannot open phosphorylated CFTR channels, it can cause channels opened by ATP to remain open for many minutes. This suggests that ATP action at one site on CFTR is a prerequisite for AMP-PNP action at a second site. However, this action of AMP-PNP is restricted to highly phosphorylated CFTR channels, which, in the presence of ATP, display a relatively high open probability, but is not seen in partially phosphorylated CFTR channels, which have a low open probability in the presence of ATP. Our findings argue that incremental phosphorylation differentially regulates the interactions between nucleotides and the two nucleotide binding domains of CFTR. The nature of those interactions suggests that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide binding domain controls channel opening and ATP hydrolysis at the other regulates channel closing. Images PMID:7515176

  11. Regulation of the gating of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator C1 channels by phosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, T C; Nagel, G; Nairn, A C; Gadsby, D C

    1994-05-24

    Opening of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl channels requires their phosphorylation by protein kinase A followed by exposure to ATP. We examined the interaction between nucleotides and phosphorylated CFTR channels by recording currents in intact cardiac myocytes and in excised patches. We found that, although the hydrolysis-resistant ATP analogue 5'-adenosine(beta,gamma- imino)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) cannot open phosphorylated CFTR channels, it can cause channels opened by ATP to remain open for many minutes. This suggests that ATP action at one site on CFTR is a prerequisite for AMP-PNP action at a second site. However, this action of AMP-PNP is restricted to highly phosphorylated CFTR channels, which, in the presence of ATP, display a relatively high open probability, but is not seen in partially phosphorylated CFTR channels, which have a low open probability in the presence of ATP. Our findings argue that incremental phosphorylation differentially regulates the interactions between nucleotides and the two nucleotide binding domains of CFTR. The nature of those interactions suggests that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide binding domain controls channel opening and ATP hydrolysis at the other regulates channel closing. PMID:7515176

  12. Resonance phenomenon of the ATP motor as an ultrasensitive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peirong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xia; Li, Xueren; Yue, Jiachang

    2012-09-28

    We designed a rotary biosensor as a damping effector, with the rotation of the F(0)F(1)-ATPase driven by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) synthesis being indicated by the fluorescence intensity and a damping effect force being induced by the binding of an RNA molecule to its probe on the rotary biosensor. We found that the damping effect could contribute to the resonance phenomenon and energy transfer process of our rotary biosensor in the liquid phase. This result indicates that the ability of the rotary motor to operate in the vibration harmonic mode depends on the environmental conditions and mechanism in that a few molecules of the rotary biosensor could induce all of the sensor molecules to fluoresce together. These findings contribute to the theory study of the ATPase motor and future development of biosensors for ultrasensitive detection. PMID:22960174

  13. Stimulation of Glia Reveals Modulation of Mammalian Spinal Motor Networks by Adenosine.

    PubMed

    Acton, David; Miles, Gareth B

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that glia can release modulators to influence the excitability of neighbouring neurons, the importance of gliotransmission for the operation of neural networks and in shaping behaviour remains controversial. Here we characterise the contribution of glia to the modulation of the mammalian spinal central pattern generator for locomotion, the output of which is directly relatable to a defined behaviour. Glia were stimulated by specific activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), an endogenous G-protein coupled receptor preferentially expressed by spinal glia during ongoing activity of the spinal central pattern generator for locomotion. Selective activation of PAR1 by the agonist TFLLR resulted in a reversible reduction in the frequency of locomotor-related bursting recorded from ventral roots of spinal cord preparations isolated from neonatal mice. In the presence of the gliotoxins methionine sulfoximine or fluoroacetate, TFLLR had no effect, confirming the specificity of PAR1 activation to glia. The modulation of burst frequency upon PAR1 activation was blocked by the non-selective adenosine-receptor antagonist theophylline and by the A1-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, but not by the A2A-receptor antagonist SCH5826, indicating production of extracellular adenosine upon glial stimulation, followed by A1-receptor mediated inhibition of neuronal activity. Modulation of network output following glial stimulation was also blocked by the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156, indicating glial release of ATP and its subsequent degradation to adenosine rather than direct release of adenosine. Glial stimulation had no effect on rhythmic activity recorded following blockade of inhibitory transmission, suggesting that glial cell-derived adenosine acts via inhibitory circuit components to modulate locomotor-related output. Finally, the modulation of network output by endogenous adenosine was found to scale with the

  14. Stimulation of Glia Reveals Modulation of Mammalian Spinal Motor Networks by Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Acton, David; Miles, Gareth B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that glia can release modulators to influence the excitability of neighbouring neurons, the importance of gliotransmission for the operation of neural networks and in shaping behaviour remains controversial. Here we characterise the contribution of glia to the modulation of the mammalian spinal central pattern generator for locomotion, the output of which is directly relatable to a defined behaviour. Glia were stimulated by specific activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), an endogenous G-protein coupled receptor preferentially expressed by spinal glia during ongoing activity of the spinal central pattern generator for locomotion. Selective activation of PAR1 by the agonist TFLLR resulted in a reversible reduction in the frequency of locomotor-related bursting recorded from ventral roots of spinal cord preparations isolated from neonatal mice. In the presence of the gliotoxins methionine sulfoximine or fluoroacetate, TFLLR had no effect, confirming the specificity of PAR1 activation to glia. The modulation of burst frequency upon PAR1 activation was blocked by the non-selective adenosine-receptor antagonist theophylline and by the A1-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, but not by the A2A-receptor antagonist SCH5826, indicating production of extracellular adenosine upon glial stimulation, followed by A1-receptor mediated inhibition of neuronal activity. Modulation of network output following glial stimulation was also blocked by the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156, indicating glial release of ATP and its subsequent degradation to adenosine rather than direct release of adenosine. Glial stimulation had no effect on rhythmic activity recorded following blockade of inhibitory transmission, suggesting that glial cell-derived adenosine acts via inhibitory circuit components to modulate locomotor-related output. Finally, the modulation of network output by endogenous adenosine was found to scale with the

  15. A label-free fluorescent adenosine triphosphate biosensor via overhanging aptamer-triggered enzyme protection and target recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhao, Jian; Dai, Zhihui

    2016-06-20

    Herein, a label-free fluorescent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptasensor is fabricated with a DNA hairpin and an overhanging aptamer. In the presence of ATP, the overhanging sequences of the aptamer may form preferred substrates of exo III, and thus trigger the enzyme-assisted amplification, which results in the release of G-rich sequences. Free G-rich sequences subsequently generate an enhanced flourescent signal by binding with thioflavin T. However, if ATP is absent, the overhanging sequence can induce steric hindrance and protect the DNA hairpin against the digestion of exo III, significantly reducing the noise of this biosensor. Accordingly, the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensing system is greatly improved, which ensures the desirable analytical performance of the proposed aptasensor both in pure samples and real samples. PMID:27221644

  16. Photoaffinity labeling of A1-adenosine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, K.N.; Cristalli, G.; Grifantini, M.; Vittori, S.; Lohse, M.J.

    1985-11-25

    The ligand-binding subunit of the A1-adenosine receptor has been identified by photoaffinity labeling. A photolabile derivative of R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, R-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine (R-AHPIA), has been synthesized as a covalent specific ligand for A1-adenosine receptors. In adenylate cyclase studies with membranes of rat fat cells and human platelets, R-AHPIA has adenosine receptor agonist activity with a more than 60-fold selectivity for the A1-subtype. It competes for (TH)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine binding to A1-receptors of rat brain membranes with a Ki value of 1.6 nM. After UV irradiation, R-AHPIA binds irreversibly to the receptor, as indicated by a loss of (TH)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine binding after extensive washing; the Ki value for this photoinactivation is 1.3 nM. The p-hydroxyphenyl substituent of R-AHPIA can be directly radioiodinated to give a photoaffinity label of high specific radioactivity ( SVI-AHPIA). This compound has a KD value of about 1.5 nM as assessed from saturation and kinetic experiments. Adenosine analogues compete for SVI-AHPIA binding to rat brain membranes with an order of potency characteristic for A1-adenosine receptors. Dissociation curves following UV irradiation at equilibrium demonstrate 30-40% irreversible specific binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that the probe is photoincorporated into a single peptide of Mr = 35,000. Labeling of this peptide can be blocked specifically and stereoselectively by adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists in a manner which is typical for the A1-subtype. The results indicate that SVI-AHPIA identifies the ligand-binding subunit of the A1-adenosine receptor, which is a peptide with Mr = 35,000.

  17. ATP-Mediated Compositional Change in Peripheral Myelin Membranes: A Comparative Raman Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Kutuzov, Nikolay; Gulin, Alexander; Lyaskovskiy, Vladimir; Nadtochenko, Victor; Maksimov, Georgy

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we addressed a mechanism of the myelin reorganization initiated by extracellular ATP and adenosine in sciatic nerves of the frog Rana temporaria. In combination with Raman microspectroscopy, allowing noninvasive live-cell measurements, we employed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to follow the underlying changes in chemical composition of myelin membranes triggered by the purinergic agents. The simultaneous increase in lipid ordering degree, decrease in membrane fluidity and the degree of fatty acid unsaturation were induced by both ATP and adenosine. Mass spectrometry measurements revealed that ATP administration also led to the marked elevation of membrane cholesterol and decrease of phosphotidylcholine amounts. Vesicular lipid transport pathways are considered as possible mechanisms of compositional and structural changes of myelin. PMID:26544552

  18. CrATP as a new inhibitor of ecto-ATPases of trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Moreira, O C; Rios, P F; Esteves, F F; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Barrabin, H

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosomatid protozoa include heteroxenic species some of them pathogenic for men, animals and plants. Parasite membrane contains ecto-enzymes whose active sites face the external medium rather than the cytoplasm. Herpetomonas sp. displayed a Mg2+-dependent ecto-ATPase activity, a Mg-independent ecto-ADPase and an ecto-phosphatase activity. Both, the ecto-ADPase and phosphatase activities were insensitive to CrATP (chromium(III) adenosine 5'-triphosphate complex). Ecto-ATPase activity was reversibly inhibited. At 2 mm ATP the apparent Ki was 4 x 7+/-1 x 0 microm but a fraction of about 40-50% was insensitive to CrATP. Remarkably, at low substrate concentration (0 x 2 mm) more than 90% of the ecto-ATPase was inhibited with Ki=0 x 33+/-0 x 10 microm. These parameter dependences are interpreted as the presence of 2 ecto-ATPases activities, one of them with high ATP apparent affinity and sensitivity to CrATP. DIDS (4,4 diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2' disulfonic acid), suramin and ADP were also effective as inhibitors. Only ADP presented no additive inhibition with CrATP. The pattern of partial inhibition by CrATP was also observed for the ecto-ATPase activities of Leishmania amazonensis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. CrATP emerges as a new inhibitor of ecto-ATPases and as a tool for a better understanding of properties and role of ecto-ATPases in the biology of parasites. PMID:19126268

  19. Variation potential-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes increase ATP content in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Katicheva, Lyubov; Semina, Maria; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Local damage induces a physiological response in higher plants by means of generation and propagation of variation potential (VP). The response includes changes in photosynthesis and respiration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these changes on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in pea leaves. VP was induced by local heating of the first mature leaf and registered using extracellular and intracellular electrodes. Photosynthesis and respiration were measured using Dual-PAM-100 and GFS-3000. ATP content was determined using a bioluminescence-based ATP determination kit. Two non-stimulated leaves (second and fourth) were investigated. We showed that heating induced VP that propagated into the second mature leaf, but only a slight electrical reaction was registered in the fourth mature leaf. VP-induced inactivation of photosynthesis developed in the second leaf and included two stages: short- and long-term inactivation. Local heating also caused a two-stage increase in ATP content in the second leaf, which was connected with the photosynthetic responses. Changes in photosynthesis and ATP content were not observed in the fourth leaf. The effect of VP on respiration was investigated under dark conditions. We found that variation potential induced short-term activation of respiration in the second leaf. Local heating induced ATP content increase which included only one stage under dark conditions. Changes in ATP and respiration were absent in the fourth leaf under dark conditions. Thus, VP-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes are likely to increase ATP content in pea leaves. PMID:27450494

  20. Hexokinase inhibitor screening based on adenosine 5'-diphosphate determination by electrophoretically mediated microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tongdan; Kang, Jingwu

    2009-04-01

    A CE-based method for hexokinase inhibitor screening was developed in the present paper. In this method, hexokinase activity was assayed via electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA), which combines on-column hexokinase-mediated reaction and measurement of produced adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) via electrophoretical separation and UV detection. Enzyme inhibition can be read out directly from the reduced peak area of ADP in comparison with a reference electropherogram obtained in the absence of any inhibitor. Conditions for on-column enzyme reaction and separation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and ADP were optimized. The optimal buffer composition for enzymatic reaction was 25 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.5) containing 5 mM MgCl(2), whereas the optimal buffer composition for separation was 100 mM Tris-phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) containing 0.02% (m/v) hexadimethrine bromide (HDB). Fortunately, discontinuous buffer system can be adapted easily in the EMMA method. The time for separation was reduced dramatically to less than 3 min by reversing the direction of EOF via dynamically coating the capillary wall with the cationic polyelectrolyte HDB. Moreover, the peak tailing of ATP was also reduced by HDB coating. The Z' factor as high as 0.98 was obtained, indicating a high quality of the screening data. The present method is simple, robust and cost-effective. PMID:19306267

  1. Pronounced differences in signal processing and synaptic plasticity between piriform-hippocampal network stages: a prominent role for adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Brian H; Kramár, Enikö A; Cox, Conor D; Jia, Yousheng; Wang, Weisheng; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Key points Extended trains of theta rhythm afferent activity lead to a biphasic response facilitation in field CA1 but not in the lateral perforant path input to the dentate gyrus. Processes that reverse long-term potentiation in field CA1 are not operative in the lateral perforant path: multiple lines of evidence indicate that this reflects differences in adenosine signalling. Adenosine A1 receptors modulate baseline synaptic transmission in the lateral olfactory tract but not the associational afferents of the piriform cortex. Levels of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73), an enzyme that converts extracellular ATP into adenosine, are markedly different between regions and correlate with adenosine signalling and the efficacy of theta pulse stimulation in reversing long-term potentiation. Variations in transmitter mobilization, CD73 levels, and afferent divergence result in multivariate differences in signal processing through nodes in the cortico-hippocampal network. Abstract The present study evaluated learning-related synaptic operations across the serial stages of the olfactory cortex-hippocampus network. Theta frequency stimulation produced very different time-varying responses in the Schaffer-commissural projections than in the lateral perforant path (LPP), an effect associated with distinctions in transmitter mobilization. Long-term potentiation (LTP) had a higher threshold in LPP field potential studies but not in voltage clamped neurons; coupled with input/output relationships, these results suggest that LTP threshold differences reflect the degree of input divergence. Theta pulse stimulation erased LTP in CA1 but not in the dentate gyrus (DG), although adenosine eliminated potentiation in both areas, suggesting that theta increases extracellular adenosine to a greater degree in CA1. Moreover, adenosine A1 receptor antagonism had larger effects on theta responses in CA1 than in the DG, and concentrations of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) were much higher in CA1

  2. Nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in the rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul F; Thorne, Peter R; Muñoz, David J B; Wang, Carol J H; Housley, Gary D; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2007-02-12

    Even though extracellular adenosine plays multiple roles in the cochlea, the mechanisms that control extracellular adenosine concentrations in this organ are unclear. This study investigated the expression of nucleoside transporters and adenosine uptake in the rat cochlea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the expression of mRNA transcripts for two equilibrative (ENT1 and ENT2) and two concentrative (CNT1 and CNT2) nucleoside transporters. Exogenous adenosine perfused through the cochlear perilymphatic compartment was taken up by cells lining the compartment. Adenosine uptake was sensitive to changes in extracellular Na concentrations and inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (an adenosine uptake blocker). The study suggests that the bi-directional nucleoside transport supports the uptake and recycling of purines and regulates the activation of adenosine receptors by altering adenosine concentrations in cochlear fluid spaces. PMID:17314663

  3. Novel adenosine receptors in rat hippocampus identification and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.; Mashman, W.E.; DeLorenzo, R.J.

    1985-05-06

    2-chloro(/sup 3/H)adenosine, a stable analog of adenosine, was used to investigate the presence of adenosine receptors in rat hippocampal membranes that may mediate the depressant effects of adenosine on synaptic transmission in this tissue. Equilibrium binding studies reveal the presence of a previously undescribed class of receptors with a K/sub D/ of 4.7 ..mu..M and a Bmax of 130 pmol/mg of protein. Binding is sensitive to alkylxanthines and to a number of adenosine-related compounds. The pharmacological properties of this binding site are distinct from those of the A1 and A2 adenosine receptors associated with adenylate cyclase. The results suggest that this adenosine binding site is a novel central purinergic receptor through which adenosine may regulate hippocampal excitability. 50 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. Inotropic responses of the frog ventricle to adenosine triphosphate and related changes in endogenous cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Flitney, F W; Singh, J

    1980-01-01

    1. A study has been made of a well documented but poorly understood response of the isolated frog ventricle to treatment with exogenous adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP). Measurements of membrane potential, isometric twitch tension and levels of endogenous 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides have been made at various times during the ATP-induced response. 2. ATP elicits a characteristic triphasic response, which comprises an initial, abrupt increase in contractility, rising to a maximum within a few beats (first phase); followed by a period when the twitch amplitude falls, sometimes to below the control level (second phase); and superceded by a more slowly developing and longer-lasting increase in contractile force (third phase). The response is unaffected by atropine, propranolol or phentolamine. However, the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor indomethacin depresses the first phase and entirely suppresses the third phase. 3. The inotropic effects of ATP are accompanied by changes in the shape of the action potential. These effects are dose-related. The duration of the action potential (D-30mV) and its positive overshoot (O) are increased during all phases of the response, for [ATP]o's up to 10(-5) M. However, at higher [ATP]o's, D-30mV and O ar both reduced during the second phase (but not the first or third phase), when isometric twitch tension is also depressed. The relationship between action potential duration and twitch tension (P) for different [ATP]o's is linear for all three phases of the response, but the slopes of the curves (delta P/delta D) are markedly different, indicating that the sensitivity of the contractile system to membrane depolarization is not constant, but varies continuously throughout the response. 4. ATP has a potent stimulatory effect on the metabolism of endogenous 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides. The time courses of the changes in adenosine 3','5-cyclic monophosphate (3',5'-cyclic AMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (3',5'-cyclic GMP) are

  5. Stable ATP binding mediated by a partial NBD dimer of the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Li, Min

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is an ATP-gated chloride channel. Like other ABC proteins, CFTR encompasses two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), NBD1 and NBD2, each accommodating an ATP binding site. It is generally accepted that CFTR’s opening–closing cycles, each completed within 1 s, are driven by rapid ATP binding and hydrolysis events in NBD2. Here, by recording CFTR currents in real time with a ligand exchange protocol, we demonstrated that during many of these gating cycles, NBD1 is constantly occupied by a stably bound ATP or 8-N3-ATP molecule for tens of seconds. We provided evidence that this tightly bound ATP or 8-N3-ATP also interacts with residues in the signature sequence of NBD2, a telltale sign for an event occurring at the NBD1–NBD2 interface. The open state of CFTR has been shown to represent a two-ATP–bound NBD dimer. Our results indicate that upon ATP hydrolysis in NBD2, the channel closes into a “partial NBD dimer” state where the NBD interface remains partially closed, preventing ATP dissociation from NBD1 but allowing the release of hydrolytic products and binding of the next ATP to occur in NBD2. Opening and closing of CFTR can then be coupled to the formation and “partial” separation of the NBD dimer. The tightly bound ATP molecule in NBD1 can occasionally dissociate from the partial dimer state, resulting in a nucleotide-free monomeric state of NBDs. Our data, together with other structural/functional studies of CFTR’s NBDs, suggest that this process is poorly reversible, implying that the channel in the partial dimer state or monomeric state enters the open state through different pathways. We therefore proposed a gating model for CFTR with two distinct cycles. The structural and functional significance of our results to other ABC proteins is discussed. PMID:20421370

  6. Investigation into effects of antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase in zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kelly Juliana; Oliveira, Renata da Luz; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Senger, Mario Roberto; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Antipsychotic agents are used for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with several brain disorders, such as schizophrenia. Atypical and typical antipsychotics differ regarding their clinical and side-effects profile. Haloperidol is a representative typical antipsychotic drug and has potent dopamine receptor antagonistic functions; however, atypical antipsychotics have been developed and characterized an important advance in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, constitute a ubiquitous class of extracellular signaling molecules crucial for normal functioning of the nervous system. Indirect findings suggest that changes in the purinergic system, more specifically in adenosinergic activity, could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by an analysis of gene expression patterns in zebrafish brain. Haloperidol treatment (9 µM) was able to decrease ATP hydrolysis (35%), whereas there were no changes in hydrolysis of ADP and AMP in brain membranes after antipsychotic exposure. Adenosine deamination in membrane fractions was inhibited (38%) after haloperidol treatment when compared to the control; however, no changes were observed in ADA soluble fractions after haloperidol exposure. Sulpiride (250 µM) and olanzapine (100 µM) did not alter ectonucleotidase and ADA activities. Haloperidol also led to a decrease in entpd2_mq, entpd3 and adal mRNA transcripts. These findings demonstrate that haloperidol is an inhibitor of NTPDase and ADA activities in zebrafish brain, suggesting that purinergic signaling may also be a target of pharmacological effects promoted by this drug. PMID:26156500

  7. Effect of Ca2+ on weak cross-bridge interaction with actin in the presence of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate).

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, T; Yu, L C; Kuhn, H J; Brenner, B

    1992-01-01

    In the presence of the nucleotide analog adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP[gamma S]), effects of Ca2+ on stiffness and equatorial x-ray diffraction patterns of single skinned fibers of the rabbit psoas muscle were studied. It is shown that cross-bridges in the presence of ATP[gamma S] have properties of the weak-binding states of the ATP hydrolysis cycle. Raising the Ca2+ concentration up to pCa 4.5 has little effect on actin affinity of cross-bridges in the presence of ATP[gamma S]. However, the rate constants for cross-bridge dissociation and reassociation from and to actin are reduced by about 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, nucleotide affinity of the cross-bridge is much smaller at high Ca2+ concentrations. Implications for interpretation of fiber stiffness recorded during isotonic shortening and the rising phase of a tetanus are discussed. PMID:1454820

  8. Minimum energy reaction profiles for ATP hydrolysis in myosin.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Bella L; Kaliman, Ilya A; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2011-11-01

    The minimum energy reaction profiles corresponding to two possible reaction mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis in myosin are computed in this work within the framework of the quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method by using the same partitioning of the model system to the QM and MM parts and the same computational protocol. On the first reaction route, one water molecule performs nucleophilic attack at the phosphorus center P(γ) from ATP while the second water molecule in the closed protein cleft serves as a catalytic base assisted by the Glu residue from the myosin salt bridge. According to the present QM/MM calculations consistent with the results of kinetic studies this reaction pathway is characterized by a low activation energy barrier about 10 kcal/mol. The computed activation energy barrier for the second mechanism, which assumes the penta-coordinated oxyphosphorane transition state upon involvement of single water molecule in the reaction, is considerably higher than that for the two-water mechanism. PMID:21839658

  9. ATP-dependent transport of vinblastine in vesicles from human multidrug-resistant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horio, M.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I. )

    1988-05-01

    Resistance of human cancer cells to multiple cytotoxic hydrophobic agents (multidrug resistance) is due to overexpression of the MDR1 gene, whose product is the plasma membrane P-glycoprotein. Plasma membrane vesicles partially purified from multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma cells, but not from drug-sensitive cells, accumulate ({sup 3}H)vinblastine in an ATP-dependent manner. This transport is osmotically sensitive, with an apparent K{sub m} of 38 {mu}M for ATP and of {approx} 2 {mu}M for vinblastine. The nonhydrolyzable analog adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate does not substitute for ATP but is a competitive inhibitor of ATP for the transport process. Vanadate, and ATPase inhibitor, is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of transport. These results indicate that hydrolysis of ATP is probably required for active transport vinblastine. Several other drugs to which multidrug-resistant cell lines are resistant inhibit transport, with relative potencies as follows: vincristine > actinomycin D > daunomycin > colchicine = puromycin. Verapamil and quinidine, which reverse the multidrug-resistance phenotype, are good inhibitors of the transport process. These results confirm that multidrug-resistant cells express an energy-dependent plasma membrane transporter for hydrophobic drugs, and establish a system for the detailed biochemical analysis of this transport process.

  10. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit. PMID:26920481

  11. Target-protecting dumbbell molecular probe against exonucleases digestion for sensitive detection of ATP and streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Liu, Yucheng; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a versatile dumbbell molecular (DM) probe was designed and employed in the sensitively homogeneous bioassay. In the presence of target molecule, the DM probe was protected from the digestion of exonucleases. Subsequently, the protected DM probe specifically bound to the intercalation dye and resulted in obvious fluorescence signal which was used to determine the target molecule in return. This design allows specific and versatile detection of diverse targets with easy operation and no sophisticated fluorescence labeling. Integrating the idea of target-protecting DM probe with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) involved ligation reaction, the DM probe with 5'-end phosphorylation was successfully constructed for ATP detection, and the limitation of detection was found to be 4.8 pM. Thanks to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, this sensing strategy was used to detect ATP spiked in human serum as well as cellular ATP. Moreover, the proposed strategy was also applied in the visual detection of ATP in droplet-based microfluidic platform with satisfactory results. Similarly, combining the principle of target-protecting DM probe with streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the DM probe with 3'-end biotinylation was developed for selective and sensitive SA determination, which demonstrated the robustness and versatility of this design. PMID:27131994

  12. Drosophila Sirt2/mammalian SIRT3 deacetylates ATP synthase β and regulates complex V activity

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motiur; Nirala, Niraj K.; Singh, Alka; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Taguchi, Kaori; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Shaw, Leslie M.; Lambright, David G.; Acharya, Jairaj K.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase β, the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial complex V, synthesizes ATP. We show that ATP synthase β is deacetylated by a human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)–dependent protein deacetylase, sirtuin 3, and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue, dSirt2. dsirt2 mutant flies displayed increased acetylation of specific Lys residues in ATP synthase β and decreased complex V activity. Overexpression of dSirt2 increased complex V activity. Substitution of Lys 259 and Lys 480 with Arg in human ATP synthase β, mimicking deacetylation, increased complex V activity, whereas substitution with Gln, mimicking acetylation, decreased activity. Mass spectrometry and proteomic experiments from wild-type and dsirt2 mitochondria identified the Drosophila mitochondrial acetylome and revealed dSirt2 as an important regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Additionally, we unravel a ceramide–NAD+–sirtuin axis wherein increased ceramide, a sphingolipid known to induce stress responses, resulted in depletion of NAD+ and consequent decrease in sirtuin activity. These results provide insight into sirtuin-mediated regulation of complex V and reveal a novel link between ceramide and Drosophila acetylome. PMID:25023514

  13. Adenosine metabolism in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, F F; Mendelsohn, J; Seegmiller, J E

    1976-01-01

    The association of a human genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase activity with combined immunodeficiency prompted a study of the effects of adenosine and of inhibition of adenosine deaminase activity on human lymphocyte transformation and a detailed study of adenosine metabolism throughout phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenesis. The adenosine deaminase inhibitor, coformycin, at a concentration that inhibited adenosine deaminase activity more than 95%, or 50 muM adenosine, did not prevent blastogenesis by criteria of morphology or thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material. The combination of coformycin and adenosine, however, substantially reduced both the viable cell count and the incorporation of thymidine into DNA in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. Incubation of lymphocytes with phytohemagglutinin for 72 h produced a 12-fold increase in the rate of deamination and a 6-fold increase in phosphorylation of adenosine by intact lymphocytes. There was no change in the apparent affinity for adenosine with either deamination or phosphorylation. The increased rates of metabolism, apparent as early as 3 h after addition of mitogen, may be due to increased entry of the nucleoside into stimulated lymphocytes. Increased adenosine metabolism was not due to changes in total enzyme activity; after 72 h in culture, the ratios of specific activities in extracts of stimulated to unstimulated lymphocytes were essentially unchanged for adenosine kinase, 0.92, and decreased for adenosine deaminase, 0.44. As much as 38% of the initial lymphocyte adenosine deaminase activity accumulated extracellularly after a 72-h culture with phytohemagglutinin. In phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, the principal route of adenosine metabolism was phosphorylation at less than 5 muM adenosine, and deamination at concentrations greater than 5 muM. In unstimulated lymphocytes, deamination was the principal route of adenosine metabolism over the range of adenosine

  14. Extracellular formation and uptake of adenosine during skeletal muscle contraction in the rat: role of adenosine transporters.

    PubMed

    Lynge, J; Juel, C; Hellsten, Y

    2001-12-01

    1. The existence of adenosine transporters in plasma membrane giant vesicles from rat skeletal muscles and in primary skeletal muscle cell cultures was investigated. In addition, the contribution of intracellularly or extracellularly formed adenosine to the overall extracellular adenosine concentration during muscle contraction was determined in primary skeletal muscle cell cultures. 2. In plasma membrane giant vesicles, the carrier-mediated adenosine transport demonstrated saturation kinetics with Km = 177 +/- 36 microM and Vmax = 1.9 +/- 0.2 nmol x ml(-1) x s(-1) (0.7 nmol (mg protein)(-1) x s(-1)). The existence of an adenosine transporter was further evidenced by the inhibition of the carrier-mediated adenosine transport in the presence of NBMPR (nitrobenzylthioinosine; 72% inhibition) or dipyridamol (64% inhibition; P < 0.05). 3. In primary skeletal muscle cells, the rate of extracellular adenosine accumulation was 5-fold greater (P < 0.05) with electrical stimulation than without electrical stimulation. Addition of the adenosine transporter inhibitor NBMPR led to a 57% larger (P < 0.05) rate of extracellular adenosine accumulation in the electro-stimulated muscle cells compared with control cells, demonstrating that adenosine is taken up by the skeletal muscle cells during contractions. 4. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with AOPCP in electro-stimulated cells resulted in a 70% lower (P < 0.05) rate of extracellular adenosine accumulation compared with control cells, indicating that adenosine to a large extent is formed in the extracellular space during contraction. 5. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an NBMPR-sensitive adenosine transporter in rat skeletal muscle. Our data furthermore demonstrate that the increase in extracellular adenosine observed during electro-stimulation of skeletal muscle is due to production of adenosine in the extracellular space of skeletal muscle and that adenosine is taken up rather than released by the

  15. Binding Stoichiometry of a Recombinant Selenophosphate Synthetase with One Synonymic Substitution E197D to a Fluorescent Nucleotide Analog of ATP, TNP-ATP.

    PubMed

    Preobrazhenskaya, Y V; Stenko, A I; Shvarts, M V; Lugovtsev, V Y

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of the strain DH5α (TM)-T1(R) with plasmid vector pET11a containing the cloned gene of bacterial selenophosphate synthetase (SPS), selD, from the E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) strain gives an overproducing strain of SPS with one synonymic substitution, E197D. The transformation efficiency was estimated as 8 × 10(8) CFU/ μ g plasmid DNA. 28 mg of highly purified preparation of recombinant SPS capable of binding TNP-ATP was eluted from DEAE-Sephadex column in amount of 15 % from the total soluble protein in crude extract. The fluorescent derivative of ATP, 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), was used as a synthetic analog of the substrate for the monitoring and quantitative analysis of the functional activity of SPS. The non-linear regression analysis of the saturation curve of TNP-ATP binding to D197 SPS with GraphPad Prism software fits to a model with 2 distinct binding sites with KDs different in order. The SPS existence in a form of tetramer in given reaction conditions, in accordance with the concentration stoichiometry of 4 moles of TNP-ATP to 1 mole of recombinant protein, is being discussed. The tetramer structure was predicted with molecular modelling software YASARA and modelled in vacuum using steepest descent minimization energy method. We hypothesize here the recombinant SPS exists as a dimer in solution with two active sites capable of ATP binding in each subunit. PMID:24719756

  16. Adenosine reagent-free detection by co-immobilization of adenosine deaminase and phenol red on an optical biostrip.

    PubMed

    Bartzoka, Foteini; Venetsanou, Katerina; Clonis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine detection in human serum is important because this ribonucleoside has established clinical applications, modulating many physiological processes. Furthermore, a simple and cheap detection method is useful in adenosine production processes. Adenosine can be determined enzymatically using either S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and (3) [H]-adenosine, or adenosine kinase combined with GTP and luciferase, or an amperometric biosensor carrying adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase. We developed a simple and cheap method relying on a transparent biostrip bearing ADA and the indicator phenol red (PR), co-immobilized to polyacrylamide, itself chemically adhered to a derivatized glass strip. The ADA-catalyzed conversion of adenosine to inosine and ammonia leads to a local pH alteration, changing the absorbance maximum of PR (from 425 to 567 nm), which is measured optically. The biostrip shows an analytical range 0.05-1.5 mM adenosine and is reusable when stored at 4 °C. When the biostrip was tested with serum, spiked with adenosine (70 and 100 μM), and filtered for protein and adenosine phosphates depletion, it showed good adenosine recovery. In summary, we show the proof-of-concept that adenosine can be determined reagent-free, at moderate sensitivity on an easy to construct, cheap, and reusable biostrip, based on commercially available molecular entities. PMID:25293641

  17. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  18. Correlation of changes in pain intensity with synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate levels after treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee with high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Naitou, Kohei; Nishi, Hideyuki; Oae, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yohei; Kuwata, Suguru; Ochi, Mitsuo; Ikeda, Mitsugu; Uchio, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We sought to determine whether a clinical association exists between osteoarthritis (OA)-associated knee pain and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in synovial fluid (SF). A total of 28 patients with 28 primary OA knees were included. They routinely received intra-articular injection of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) once weekly for 5 weeks (treated group). Eight patients without knee pain who had undergone an operation for anterior or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 2 years ago were also examined (control group). SF and blood ATP concentrations, total amount of ATP, total SF volume, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores in all patients were measured and we compared pre-treatment values with those 1 week after the final treatment. We evaluated the correlation of change in total ATPATP) and change in VAS score (ΔVAS), ΔVAS and change in SF volume (ΔSF), and ATP concentration in SF and blood. In the treated group, SF ATP concentration, total amount of ATP, SF volume, and VAS score were all significantly lower post-treatment than pre-treatment (p = 0.0005, 0.0003, 0.0022, and < 0.0001, respectively). In treated group, ΔVAS was significantly associated with ΔATP (r = 0.56, p = 0.0032), ΔSF was significantly associated with ΔVAS (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001), and total amount of SF ATP and SF volume at pre-treatment were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) We demonstrated an association between SF ATP level changes and OA knee pain, which should facilitate a further understanding of OA pain mechanisms. PMID:20627733

  19. Adenosine diphosphate restricts the protein remodeling activity of the Hsp104 chaperone to Hsp70 assisted disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Kłosowska, Agnieszka; Chamera, Tomasz; Liberek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Hsp104 disaggregase provides thermotolerance in yeast by recovering proteins from aggregates in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone. Protein disaggregation involves polypeptide extraction from aggregates and its translocation through the central channel of the Hsp104 hexamer. This process relies on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Considering that Hsp104 is characterized by low affinity towards ATP and is strongly inhibited by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), we asked how Hsp104 functions at the physiological levels of adenine nucleotides. We demonstrate that physiological levels of ADP highly limit Hsp104 activity. This inhibition, however, is moderated by the Hsp70 chaperone, which allows efficient disaggregation by supporting Hsp104 binding to aggregates but not to non-aggregated, disordered protein substrates. Our results point to an additional level of Hsp104 regulation by Hsp70, which restricts the potentially toxic protein unfolding activity of Hsp104 to the disaggregation process, providing the yeast protein-recovery system with substrate specificity and efficiency in ATP consumption. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15159.001 PMID:27223323

  20. Extracellular ATP protects pancreatic duct epithelial cells from alcohol-induced damage through P2Y1 receptor-cAMP signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Bae; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Hille, Bertil; Koh, Duk-Su

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) regulates cell death and survival of neighboring cells. The detailed effects are diverse depending on cell types and extracellular ATP concentration. We addressed the effect of ATP on ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in epithelial cells, the cell type that experiences the highest concentrations of alcohol. Using pancreatic duct epithelial cells (PDEC), we found that a micromolar range of ATP reverses all intracellular toxicity mechanisms triggered by exceptionally high doses of ethanol and, thus, improves cell viability dramatically. Out of the many purinergic receptors expressed in PDEC, the P2Y1 receptor was identified to mediate the protective effect, based on pharmacological and siRNA assays. Activation of P2Y1 receptors increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The protective effect of ATP was mimicked by forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP but inhibited by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89. Finally, ATP reverted leakiness of PDEC monolayers induced by ethanol and helped to maintain epithelial integrity. We suggest that purinergic receptors reduce extreme alcohol-induced cell damage via the cAMP signal pathway in PDEC and some other types of cells. PMID:27197531

  1. TmcN is involved in ATP regulation of tautomycetin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseochromogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Yang; Wu, Sijin; Tang, Yan; Deng, Ying; Yuan, Jieli; Dong, Jianyi; Li, Huajun; Tang, Li

    2016-09-01

    The regulatory mechanism of tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthesis remains largely unknown, although it has been of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Our previous study showed that intracellular adenosine triphosphate (inATP) level is negatively correlated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis in various Streptomyces spp. In this study, by exogenous treatment of ATP, we also found a negative correlation between TMC biosynthesis and inATP level in Streptomyces griseochromogenes (S. griseochromogenes). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. TmcN, a pathway-specific transcriptional regulator of TMC biosynthetic genes, was previously revealed as a large ATP-binding LuxR (LAL) family protein. The predicted amino acid sequence of TmcN shows highly conserved Walker A and B binding motifs, which suggest an ATPase function of TmcN. We therefore hypothesized that the ATPase domain of TmcN may play a role in sensing endogenous pool of ATP, and is thus involved in the ATP regulation of TMC biosynthesis. To test the hypothesis, we first explored the key residue that affects the ATPase activity of TmcN by amino acid sequence alignment and structural simulation. After that, we disrupted tmcN gene in S. griseochromogenes, and the tmcN or site-direct-mutated tmcN were re-introduced to get the complementary and ATPase domain disrupted strains. The transcription level of tmcN, TMC yield, and inATP, as well as the effect of ATP on TMC production of different mutants were evaluated. Deletion of tmcN or site-direct mutation of ATPase domain of TmcN in S. griseochromogenes significantly reduced the TMC production, and it was not affected by exogenous ATP treatment. In addition, a relatively high level of inATP was detected in tmcN deletion and site-direct mutation strains. Our results here suggested that TmcN, especially its ATPase domain, is involved in consuming of endogenous ATP pool and thus plays pivotal role in connecting the primary and secondary metabolite

  2. Apical and basolateral ATP stimulates tracheal epithelial chloride secretion via multiple purinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, T H; Schwiebert, E M; Guggino, W B

    1996-06-01

    Stimulation of Cl- secretion across the airway epithelium by ATP or UTP as agonists has therapeutic implications for cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that ATP stimulates Cl- secretion in rat tracheal epithelial cell monolayers in primary culture from the apical or basolateral side of the monolayer. Multiple types of ATP-sensitive Cl- conductances in intact monolayers were elucidated through inhibition by Cl- channel-blocking drugs. Multiple Cl- conductances stimulated by ATP and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) (tested for comparison) were also deciphered more specifically by nystatin permeabilization of the basolateral membrane, subsequent imposition of symmetrical Cl-, I-, or Br- solutions to test halide permselectivity, inhibition by Cl- channel-blocking drugs, and construction of current-voltage plots to study time and voltage dependence of the currents. Apical ATP stimulates Cl- secretion through P2U (or P2Y2) purinergic receptors via both intracellular Ca2+ (Ca(2+)i)-dependent and Cai(2+)-independent signaling pathways by opening outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels, and Cai(2+)-dependent Cl- channels. Basolateral ATP stimulates Cl- secretion via a combination of receptor subtypes (P2T and P2U) or a novel type of receptor (P2Y3), independent of Cai2+ or cAMP signaling by opening only CFTR channels. cAMP also stimulated multiple types of Cl- conductances, consistent with simultaneous activation of CFTR and ORCCs. Together, these results suggest that ATP as an agonist stimulates Cl- secretion via multiple purinergic receptors and multiple signal transduction pathways activated in different membrane domains of tracheal epithelia. PMID:8764143

  3. Retinal Changes in an ATP-Induced Model of Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Aplin, Felix P.; Vessey, Kirstan A.; Luu, Chi D.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fletcher, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents and felines, intravitreal administration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to induce photoreceptor death providing a tractable model of retinal degeneration in these species. This study investigated the long term effects of photoreceptor loss in an ATP induced feline model of retinal degeneration. Six normal sighted felines were unilaterally blinded using intravitreal ATP injections and assessed using electroretinography (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). At 30 h (n = 3) or 12 weeks (n = 3) post-injection, the animals were euthanized and the eyes enucleated. Retinae were sectioned and labeled using immunohistochemistry for markers of cell death, neural remodeling and gliosis. Ongoing cell death and retinal degeneration was observed in the outer retina at both 30 h and 12 weeks following unilateral ATP injection. Markers of mid to late-stage retinal remodeling such as cell displacement and aberrant neurite growth were observed in the inner retina at 12 weeks post-injection. Ganglion cells appeared to remain intact in ATP injected eyes. Müller cell gliosis was observed throughout the inner and outer retina, in some parts completely enveloping and/or displacing the surviving neural tissue. Our data suggests that the ATP injected feline retina continues to undergo progressive retinal degeneration and exhibits abnormalities consistent with a description of retinal remodeling commonly seen in other models of retinal degeneration. These findings validate the use of intravitreal ATP injection in feline as a large animal model of retinal degeneration which may aid in development of therapies aiming to restore visual function after photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:27199678

  4. Internalization and desensitization of adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Klaasse, Elisabeth C.; de Grip, Willem J.; Beukers, Margot W.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, more than 800 distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the human genome. The four subtypes of the adenosine receptor (A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptor) belong to this large family of GPCRs that represent the most widely targeted pharmacological protein class. Since adenosine receptors are widespread throughout the body and involved in a variety of physiological processes and diseases, there is great interest in understanding how the different subtypes are regulated, as a basis for designing therapeutic drugs that either avoid or make use of this regulation. The major GPCR regulatory pathway involves phosphorylation of activated receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), a process that is followed by binding of arrestin proteins. This prevents receptors from activating downstream heterotrimeric G protein pathways, but at the same time allows activation of arrestin-dependent signalling pathways. Upon agonist treatment, adenosine receptor subtypes are differently regulated. For instance, the A1Rs are not (readily) phosphorylated and internalize slowly, showing a typical half-life of several hours, whereas the A2AR and A2BR undergo much faster downregulation, usually shorter than 1 h. The A3R is subject to even faster downregulation, often a matter of minutes. The fast desensitization of the A3R after agonist exposure may be therapeutically equivalent to antagonist occupancy of the receptor. This review describes the process of desensitization and internalization of the different adenosine subtypes in cell systems, tissues and in vivo studies. In addition, molecular mechanisms involved in adenosine receptor desensitization are discussed. PMID:18368531

  5. The inhibition of muscle contraction by adenosine 5' (beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate and by pyrophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, E; Cooke, R

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the inhibition of the contraction of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle caused by ligands that bind to the ATPase site of myosin. Two ligands, adenosine 5' (beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate (AMPPNP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), decreased the force and stiffness developed in isometric contractions and the velocity of shortening of isotonic contractions. The force exerted by isometric fibers was measured as a function of MgATP in the presence and absence of a constant concentration of the ligands. As the MgATP concentration decreased, the inhibition of tension caused by the ligand increased, reaching approximately 50% at 25 microM MgATP and either 2 mM MgPPi or 2 mM MgAMPPNP. The maximum velocity of shortening was also measured as a function of MgATP concentration in the presence of 1 and 2 mM MgPPi and 2.5 and 5 mM MgAMPPNP. Both ligands acted as pure competitive inhibitors with Ki = 3.0 mM for PPi and 5.1 mM for MgAMPPNP. These data show that both ligands are weak inhibitors of the contraction of fibers. The results provided information on the energetics of actin-myosin-ligand states that occur in the portion of the cross-bridge cycle where MgATP binds to myosin. A simple analysis of the inhibition of velocity suggests that MgAMPPNP binds to the actomyosin complex at this step of the cycle with an effective affinity constant of approximately 2 X 10(2) M-1. PMID:2990586

  6. Adenosine triphosphate-induced photoreceptor death and retinal remodeling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vessey, Kirstan A; Greferath, Ursula; Aplin, Felix P; Jobling, Andrew I; Phipps, Joanna A; Ho, Tracy; De Iongh, Robbert U; Fletcher, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    Many common causes of blindness involve the death of retinal photoreceptors, followed by progressive inner retinal cell remodeling. For an inducible model of retinal degeneration to be useful, it must recapitulate these changes. Intravitreal administration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has recently been found to induce acute photoreceptor death. The aim of this study was to characterize the chronic effects of ATP on retinal integrity. Five-week-old, dark agouti rats were administered 50 mM ATP into the vitreous of one eye and saline into the other. Vision was assessed using the electroretinogram and optokinetic response and retinal morphology investigated via histology. ATP caused significant loss of visual function within 1 day and loss of 50% of the photoreceptors within 1 week. At 3 months, 80% of photoreceptor nuclei were lost, and total photoreceptor loss occurred by 6 months. The degeneration and remodeling were similar to those found in heritable retinal dystrophies and age-related macular degeneration and included inner retinal neuronal loss, migration, and formation of new synapses; Müller cell gliosis, migration, and scarring; blood vessel loss; and retinal pigment epithelium migration. In addition, extreme degeneration and remodeling events, such as neuronal and glial migration outside the neural retina and proliferative changes in glial cells, were observed. These extreme changes were also observed in the 2-year-old P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. This ATP-induced model of retinal degeneration may provide a valuable tool for developing pharmaceutical therapies or for testing electronic implants aimed at restoring vision. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2928–2950, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639102

  7. Adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis mechanism in kinesin studied by combined quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical metadynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Matthew J; Kuo, I-F Will; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Takada, Shoji

    2013-06-19

    Kinesin is a molecular motor that hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and moves along microtubules against load. While motility and atomic structures have been well-characterized for various members of the kinesin family, not much is known about ATP hydrolysis inside the active site. Here, we study ATP hydrolysis mechanisms in the kinesin-5 protein Eg5 by using combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics metadynamics simulations. Approximately 200 atoms at the catalytic site are treated by a dispersion-corrected density functional and, in total, 13 metadynamics simulations are performed with their cumulative time reaching ~0.7 ns. Using the converged runs, we compute free energy surfaces and obtain a few hydrolysis pathways. The pathway with the lowest free energy barrier involves a two-water chain and is initiated by the Pγ-Oβ dissociation concerted with approach of the lytic water to PγO3-. This immediately induces a proton transfer from the lytic water to another water, which then gives a proton to the conserved Glu270. Later, the proton is transferred back from Glu270 to HPO(4)2- via another hydrogen-bonded chain. We find that the reaction is favorable when the salt bridge between Glu270 in switch II and Arg234 in switch I is transiently broken, which facilitates the ability of Glu270 to accept a proton. When ATP is placed in the ADP-bound conformation of Eg5, the ATP-Mg moiety is surrounded by many water molecules and Thr107 blocks the water chain, which together make the hydrolysis reaction less favorable. The observed two-water chain mechanisms are rather similar to those suggested in two other motors, myosin and F1-ATPase, raising the possibility of a common mechanism. PMID:23751065

  8. Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Biofilm Formation Using Small-Molecule Adenosine Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Jacob A.; Marshall, Joanna M.; Bhatiya, Aditi; Eguale, Tadesse; Kwiek, Jesse J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms have been widely implicated in chronic infections and environmental persistence of Salmonella enterica, facilitating enhanced colonization of surfaces and increasing the ability of the bacteria to be transmitted to new hosts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi biofilm formation on gallstones from humans and mice enhances gallbladder colonization and bacterial shedding, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms facilitate long-term persistence in a number of environments important to food, medical, and farming industries. Salmonella regulates expression of many virulence- and biofilm-related processes using kinase-driven pathways. Kinases play pivotal roles in phosphorylation and energy transfer in cellular processes and possess an ATP-binding pocket required for their functions. Many other cellular proteins also require ATP for their activity. Here we test the hypothesis that pharmacological interference with ATP-requiring enzymes utilizing adenosine mimetic compounds would decrease or inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. Through the screening of a 3,000-member ATP mimetic library, we identified a single compound (compound 7955004) capable of significantly reducing biofilm formation by S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi. The compound was not bactericidal or bacteriostatic toward S. Typhimurium or cytotoxic to mammalian cells. An ATP-Sepharose affinity matrix technique was used to discover potential protein-binding targets of the compound and identified GroEL and DeoD. Compound 7955004 was screened against other known biofilm-forming bacterial species and was found to potently inhibit biofilms of Acinetobacter baumannii as well. The identification of a lead compound with biofilm-inhibiting capabilities toward Salmonella provides a potential new avenue of therapeutic intervention against Salmonella biofilm formation, with applicability to biofilms of other bacterial pathogens. PMID:25313216

  9. Defect-Related Luminescent Hydroxyapatite-Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via an ATP-Induced cAMP/PKA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Cuimiao; Sun, Jiadong; Feng, Weipei; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-05-11

    Novel defect-related hydroxyapatite (DHAP), which combines the advantages of HAP and defect-related luminescence, has the potential application in tissue engineering and biomedical area, because of its excellent capability of monitoring the osteogenic differentiation and material biodegradation. Although the extracellular mechanism of DHAP minerals and PO4(3-) functioning in osteogenic differentiation has been widely studied, the intracellular molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) mediates osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is not clear. We examined a previously unknown molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) promoted osteogenesis of BMSCs with an emphasis on adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-induced cAMP/PKA pathway. Our studies showed that DHAP could be uptaken into lysosome, in which PO4(3-) was released from DHAP, because of the acid environment of lysosome. The released PO4(3-) interacted with ADP to form ATP, and then degraded into adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which interacted with A2b adenosine receptor to activate the cAMP/PKA pathway, resulting in the high expression of osteogenesis-related genes, such as Runx2, BMP-2, and OCN. These findings first revealed the function of ATP-metabolism in bone physiological homeostasis, which may be developed to cure bone metabolic diseases. PMID:27088570

  10. Label-free fluorescence strategy for sensitive detection of adenosine triphosphate using a loop DNA probe with low background noise.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunshui; Cai, Zhixiong; Wang, Yiru; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James; Chen, Xi

    2014-07-15

    A simple, rapid, label-free, and ultrasensitive fluorescence strategy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection was developed using a loop DNA probe with low background noise. In this strategy, a loop DNA probe, which is the substrate for both ligation and digestion enzyme reaction, was designed. SYBR green I (SG I), a double-stranded specific dye, was applied for the readout fluorescence signal. Exonuclease I (Exo I) and exonuclease III (Exo III), sequence-independent nucleases, were selected to digest the loop DNA probe in order to minimize the background fluorescence signal. As a result, in the absence of ATP, the loop DNA was completely digested by Exo I and Exo III, leading to low background fluorescence owing to the weak electrostatic interaction between SG I and mononucleotides. On the other hand, ATP induced the ligation of the nicking site, and the sealed loop DNA resisted the digestion of Exo I and ExoIII, resulting in a remarkable increase of fluorescence response. Upon background noise reduction, the sensitivity of the ATP determination was improved significantly, and the detection limitation was found to be 1.2 pM, which is much lower than that in almost all the previously reported methods. This strategy has promise for wide application in the determination of ATP. PMID:24983417

  11. Selective and sensitive turn-on detection of adenosine triphosphate and thrombin based on bifunctional fluorescent oligonucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Du, Zongfeng; Yang, Limin; Tang, Bo

    2013-03-15

    A bifunctional fluorescent oligonucleotide probe for small molecules and protein detection has been developed based on turn on fluorescence response via the target induced structure-switching of molecular beacon. The two loops of this molecular beacon are designed in such a manner that they consist of thrombin (Tmb) aptamer sequence and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer sequence, respectively, which are utilized to sense thrombin and ATP. The oligonucleotide forms double stem-loops in the absence of targets, yielding no fluorescence emission because of the FRET from the excited fluorophore to the proximal quencher. Upon addition of the target, the ATP or Tmb, its specific interaction with loop sequence of the hairpin structure induce the separation of reporter fluorophore and the fluorescence quencher of the molecular beacon, resulting in an increase of fluorescence response. Hence, the separate analysis of ATP and Tmb could be realized through only one designed molecular beacon. The detection limits were estimated to be 25 nM for ATP and 12 nM for Tmb, respectively. The results of this study should substantially broaden the perspective for future development of oligonucleotide probe for analysis of other analytes. PMID:23102434

  12. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine deaminase in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Risa; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Nibuya, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catabolizes adenosine and deoxyadenosine. During cerebral ischemia, extracellular adenosine levels increase acutely and adenosine deaminase catabolizes the increased levels of adenosine. Since adenosine is a known neuroprotective agent, adenosine deaminase was thought to have a negative effect during ischemia. In this study, however, we demonstrate that adenosine deaminase has substantial neuroprotective effects in the striatum, which is especially vulnerable during cerebral ischemia. We used temporary oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate ischemia in rat corticostriatal brain slices. We used field potentials as the primary measure of neuronal damage. For stable and efficient electrophysiological assessment, we used transgenic rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2, which depolarizes neurons in response to blue light. Time courses of electrically evoked striatal field potential (eFP) and optogenetically evoked striatal field potential (optFP) were recorded during and after oxygen/glucose deprivation. The levels of both eFP and optFP decreased after 10 min of oxygen/glucose deprivation. Bath-application of 10 µg/ml adenosine deaminase during oxygen/glucose deprivation significantly attenuated the oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced reduction in levels of eFP and optFP. The number of injured cells decreased significantly, and western blot analysis indicated a significant decrease of autophagic signaling in the adenosine deaminase-treated oxygen/glucose deprivation slices. These results indicate that adenosine deaminase has protective effects in the striatum. PMID:26746865

  13. Astrocyte origin of activity-dependent release of ATP and glutamate in hippocampal slices: real-time measurement utilizing microelectrode biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Sershen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that astrocytic and neuronal transmitter release processes are important for signalling, and that activity-dependent release of adenosine nucleotides and transmitters occurs after stimulation. Neurons and astrocytes can account for the source of ATP efflux. In this issue of the BJP, Heinrich et al. characterized K+ depolarization-evoked release of ATP, adenosine and glutamate in hippocampal slices, utilizing microelectrode biosensors for simultaneous real-time recordings of multiple transmitter effluxes. They demonstrated efflux of ATP, adenosine and glutamate from hippocampus slices, in response to K+-depolarization, with distinct kinetics and mechanisms, suggesting a coordinated pattern of transmitter release. Surprisingly, it turned out that a considerable amount of the transmitter efflux measured under these conditions had a glial origin. For a long time, it was believed that the glial cell did not play a major role in neurotransmission, but the latter results somewhat change this view. The release of ATP and glutamate from glial cells under these conditions involved P2X7 receptors, and a source of adenosine accumulation independent of the metabolism of extracellular ATP was identified. This study also highlighted a novel use of multi-enzymatic microelectrode biosensors, which enabled a better characterization of transmitter release processes with higher temporal and spatial resolution than obtained previously. This technique was originally developed and used for the detection of purine release. In the present study, it was modified to identify the interplay between different transmitters, measured simultaneously in hippocampal slices. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Heinrich et al., pp. 1003–1020 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01932.x PMID:22703189

  14. 2-Substituted adenosine derivatives: affinity and efficacy at four subtypes of human adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Mamedova, Liaman K; Chen, Peiran; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2004-11-15

    The affinity and efficacy at four subtypes (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3)) of human adenosine receptors (ARs) of a wide range of 2-substituted adenosine derivatives were evaluated using radioligand binding assays and a cyclic AMP functional assay in intact CHO cells stably expressing these receptors. Similar to previous studies of the N(6)-position, several 2-substituents were found to be critical structural determinants for the A(3)AR activation. The following adenosine 2-ethers were moderately potent partial agonists (K(i), nM): benzyl (117), 3-chlorobenzyl (72), 2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl (41), and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethyl (130). The following adenosine 2-ethers were A(3)AR antagonists: 2,2-diphenylethyl, 2-(2-norbornan)ethyl, R- and S-2-phenylbutyl, and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethyl. 2-(S-2-Phenylbutyloxy)adenosine as an A(3)AR antagonist right-shifted the concentration-response curve for the inhibition by NECA of cyclic AMP accumulation with a K(B) value of 212 nM, which is similar to its binding affinity (K(i) = 175 nM). These 2-substituted adenosine derivatives were generally less potent at the A(1)AR in comparison to the A(3)AR, but fully efficacious, with binding K(i) values over 100 nM. The 2-phenylethyl moiety resulted in higher A(3)AR affinity (K(i) in nM) when linked to the 2-position of adenosine through an ether group (54), than when linked through an amine (310) or thioether (1960). 2-[2-(l-Naphthyl)ethyloxy]adenosine (K(i) = 3.8 nM) was found to be the most potent and selective (>50-fold) A(2A) agonist in this series. Mixed A(2A)/A(3)AR agonists have been identified. Interestingly, although most of these compounds were extremely weak at the A(2B)AR, 2-[2-(2-naphthyl)ethyloxy]adenosine (EC(50) = 1.4 microM) and 2-[2-(2-thienyl)-ethyloxy]adenosine (EC(50) = 1.8 microM) were found to be relatively potent A(2B) agonists, although less potent than NECA (EC(50) = 140 nM). PMID:15476669

  15. On the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to elucidate the structure of lutetium adenosine mono- and triphosphate complexes.

    PubMed

    Mostapha, S; Berthon, C; Fontaine-Vive, F; Gaysinski, M; Guérin, L; Guillaumont, D; Massi, L; Monfardini, I; Solari, P L; Thomas, O P; Charbonnel, M C; Den Auwer, C

    2014-02-01

    Although the physiological impact of the actinide elements as nuclear toxicants has been widely investigated for half a century, a description of their interactions with biological molecules remains limited. It is however of primary importance to better assess the determinants of actinide speciation in cells and more generally in living organisms to unravel the molecular processes underlying actinide transport and deposition in tissues. The biological pathways of this family of elements in case of accidental contamination or chronic natural exposure (in the case of uranium rich soils for instance) are therefore a crucial issue of public health and of societal impact. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, phosphate derivatives are considered as probable targets of these cations. Among them, nucleotides and in particular adenosine mono- (AMP) and triphosphate (ATP) nucleotides occur in more chemical reactions than any other compounds on the earth's surface, except water, and are therefore critical target molecules. In the present study, we are interested in trans-plutonium actinide elements, in particular americium and curium that are more rarely considered in environmental and bioaccumulation studies than early actinides like uranium, neptunium and plutonium. A first step in this strategy is to work with chemical analogues like lanthanides that are not radioactive and therefore allow extended physical chemical characterization to be conducted that are difficult to perform with radioactive materials. We describe herein the interaction of lutetium(III) with adenosine AMP and ATP. With AMP and ATP, insoluble amorphous compounds have been obtained with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. With an excess of ATP, with 1:2 molar ratio, a soluble complex has been obtained. A combination of spectroscopic techniques (IR, NMR, ESI-MS, EXAFS) together with quantum

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer between Fe(III) and adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates: Application to alkaline-phosphatase-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Yang, Ya-Chun; Shih, Ya-Chen; Hung, Szu-Ying; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-03-15

    Fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) analogs are often used as sensors for detecting various species because of their relatively high extinction coefficients, outstanding fluorescence quantum yields, photostability, and pH-independent fluorescence. However, there is little-to-no information in the literature that describes the use of BODIPY analogs for detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibition. This study discovered that the fluorescence of BODIPY-conjugated adenosine triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) was quenched by Fe(III) ions through photoinduced electron transfer. The ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of BODIPY-ATP resulted in the formation of BODIPY-adenosine and phosphate ions. The fluorescence of the generated BODIPY-adenosine was insensitive to the change in the concentration of Fe(III) ions. Thus, the Fe(III)-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP can be paired with its ALP-mediated dephosphorylation to design a turn-on fluorescence probe for ALP sensing. A method detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for ALP was estimated to be 0.02 units/L (~6 pM; 1 ng/mL). This probe was used for the screening of ALP inhibitors, including Na3VO4, imidazole, and arginine. Because ALP is widely used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the probe was coupled to an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay for the sensitive and selective detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The lowest detectable concentration for IgG in this system was 5 ng/mL. Compared with the use of 3,6-fluorescein diphosphate as a signal reporter in an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay, the proposed system provided comparable sensitivity, large linear range, and high stability over temperature and pH changes. PMID:26409025

  17. Leptin suppresses adenosine triphosphate-induced impairment of spinal cord astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoman; Qi, Shuang; Sun, Guangfeng; Yang, Li; Han, Jidong; Zhu, Yue; Xia, Maosheng

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability and has no clinically effective treatment. After SCI, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may be released from neuronal cells and astrocytes in large amounts. Our previous studies have shown that the extracellular release of ATP increases the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and triggers the rapid release of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via the stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the downstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2. Leptin, a glycoprotein, induces the activation of the Janus kinase (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (Stat3) pathway via the leptin receptor. In this study, we found that 1) prolonged leptin treatment suppressed the ATP-stimulated release of AA and PGE2 from cultured spinal cord astrocytes; 2) leptin elevated the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) via the JAK2/Stat3 signaling pathway; 3) Cav-1 blocked the interaction between Src and EGFR, thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and cPLA2 and attenuating the release of AA or PGE2; 4) pretreatment with leptin decreased ;he level of apoptosis and the release of interleukin-6 from cocultured neurons and astrocytes; and 5) leptin improved the recovery of locomotion in mice after SCI. Our results highlight leptin as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27316329

  18. A novel conductometric biosensor based on hexokinase for determination of adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Kucherenko, D Yu; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a simple and inexpensive reusable biosensor for determination of the concentration of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous samples. The biosensor is based on a conductometric transducer which contains two pairs of gold interdigitated electrodes. An enzyme hexokinase was immobilized onto one pair of electrodes, and bovine serum albumin-onto another pair (thus, a differential mode of measurement was used). Conditions of hexokinase immobilization on the transducer by cross-linking via glutaraldehyde were optimized. Influence of experimental conditions (concentration of magnesium ions, ionic strength and concentration of the working buffer) on the biosensor work was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses and operational stability of the biosensor were checked during one week. Dry storage at -18 °C was shown to be the best conditions to store the biosensor. The biosensor was successfully applied for measurements of ATP concentration in pharmaceutical samples. The proposed biosensor may be used in future for determination of ATP and/or glucose in water samples. PMID:26838432

  19. Use of a Sampling Area-Adjusted Adenosine Triphosphate Bioluminescence Assay Based on Digital Image Quantification to Assess the Cleanliness of Hospital Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu-Huai; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Jiang, Hui-Li; Chang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chang, Dan-Chi; Tu, Hsin-Yu; Chiu, Tan-Yun; Chao, Huei-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated surfaces play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. We sought to establish a criterion that could indicate "cleanliness" using a sampling area-adjusted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay. In the first phase of the study, target surfaces were selected for swab sampling before and after daily cleaning; then, an aerobic colony count (ACC) plate assay of bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted. ATP swabs were also tested, and the ATP readings were reported as relative light units (RLUs). The results of the ACC and ATP assays were adjusted according to the sampling area. During the second phase of the study, a new cleaning process employing sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was implemented for comparison. Using the criterion of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm², 45% of the sampled sites were successfully cleaned during phase one of the study. During phase two, the pass rates of the surface samples (64%) were significantly improved, except under stringent (5 RLU/cm²) and lax (500 RLU) ATP criteria. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-off point for an area-adjusted ATP level was 7.34 RLU/cm², which corresponded to culture-assay levels of <2.5 CFU/cm². An area adjustment of the ATP assay improved the degree of correlation with the ACC-assay results from weak to moderate. PMID:27294944

  20. Use of a Sampling Area-Adjusted Adenosine Triphosphate Bioluminescence Assay Based on Digital Image Quantification to Assess the Cleanliness of Hospital Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yu-Huai; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Jiang, Hui-Li; Chang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chang, Dan-Chi; Tu, Hsin-Yu; Chiu, Tan-Yun; Chao, Huei-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated surfaces play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. We sought to establish a criterion that could indicate “cleanliness” using a sampling area–adjusted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay. In the first phase of the study, target surfaces were selected for swab sampling before and after daily cleaning; then, an aerobic colony count (ACC) plate assay of bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted. ATP swabs were also tested, and the ATP readings were reported as relative light units (RLUs). The results of the ACC and ATP assays were adjusted according to the sampling area. During the second phase of the study, a new cleaning process employing sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was implemented for comparison. Using the criterion of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2, 45% of the sampled sites were successfully cleaned during phase one of the study. During phase two, the pass rates of the surface samples (64%) were significantly improved, except under stringent (5 RLU/cm2) and lax (500 RLU) ATP criteria. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-off point for an area-adjusted ATP level was 7.34 RLU/cm2, which corresponded to culture-assay levels of <2.5 CFU/cm2. An area adjustment of the ATP assay improved the degree of correlation with the ACC-assay results from weak to moderate. PMID:27294944

  1. 3D-localization microscopy and tracking of FoF1-ATP synthases in living bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, Anja; Renz, Marc; Klütsch, Diana; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele; Börsch, Michael

    2015-03-01

    FoF1-ATP synthases are membrane-embedded protein machines that catalyze the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. Using photoactivation-based localization microscopy (PALM) in TIR-illumination as well as structured illumination microscopy (SIM), we explore the spatial distribution and track single FoF1-ATP synthases in living E. coli cells under physiological conditions at different temperatures. For quantitative diffusion analysis by mean-squared-displacement measurements, the limited size of the observation area in the membrane with its significant membrane curvature has to be considered. Therefore, we applied a 'sliding observation window' approach (M. Renz et al., Proc. SPIE 8225, 2012) and obtained the one-dimensional diffusion coefficient of FoF1-ATP synthase diffusing on the long axis in living E. coli cells.

  2. ATP-Responsive and Near-Infrared-Emissive Nanocarriers for Anticancer Drug Delivery and Real-Time Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chenggen; Chen, Yulei; Zhu, Sha; Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Peijian; Tang, Xin; Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Lu, Yue; Xiao, Xuanzhong; Shen, Qun-Dong; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive and imaging-guided drug delivery systems hold vast promise for enhancement of therapeutic efficacy. Here we report an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-responsive and near-infrared (NIR)-emissive conjugated polymer-based nanocarrier for the controlled release of anticancer drugs and real-time imaging. We demonstrate that the conjugated polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with phenylboronic acid tags on surface as binding sites for ATP could be converted to the water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolytes in an ATP-rich environment, which promotes the disassembly of the drug carrier and subsequent release of the cargo. In vivo studies validate that this formulation exhibits promising capability for inhibition of tumor growth. We also evaluate the metabolism process by monitoring the fluorescence signal of the conjugated polymer through the in vivo NIR imaging. PMID:27217838

  3. Green synthesis of fluorescence carbon nanoparticles from yum and application in sensitive and selective detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zixuan; Cai, Jiao; Wang, Qi; Su, Yingying; Zhang, Lichun; Lv, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CPs), a fascinating class of recently discovered nanocarbons, have been widely known as some of the most promising sensing probes in biological or chemical analysis. In this study, we demonstrate a green synthetic methodology for generating water-soluble CPs with a quantum yield of approximately 24% via a simple heating process using yum mucilage as a carbon source. The prepared carbon nanoparticles with an ~10 nm size possessed excellent fluorescence properties, and the fluorescence of the CPs was strongly quenched by Fe(3+) , and recovered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), thus, an 'off' and 'on' system can be easily established. This 'CPs-Fe(3+) -ATP' strategy was sensitive and selective at detecting ATP with the linear range of 0.5 µmol L(-1) to 50 µmol L(-1) and with a detection limit of 0.48 µmol L(-1) . Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26359586

  4. ATP-Responsive and Near-Infrared-Emissive Nanocarriers for Anticancer Drug Delivery and Real-Time Imaging.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chenggen; Chen, Yulei; Zhu, Sha; Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Peijian; Tang, Xin; Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Lu, Yue; Xiao, Xuanzhong; Shen, Qun-Dong; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive and imaging-guided drug delivery systems hold vast promise for enhancement of therapeutic efficacy. Here we report an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-responsive and near-infrared (NIR)-emissive conjugated polymer-based nanocarrier for the controlled release of anticancer drugs and real-time imaging. We demonstrate that the conjugated polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with phenylboronic acid tags on surface as binding sites for ATP could be converted to the water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolytes in an ATP-rich environment, which promotes the disassembly of the drug carrier and subsequent release of the cargo. In vivo studies validate that this formulation exhibits promising capability for inhibition of tumor growth. We also evaluate the metabolism process by monitoring the fluorescence signal of the conjugated polymer through the in vivo NIR imaging. PMID:27217838

  5. Hydrolysable ATP is a requirement for the correct interaction of molecular chaperonins cpn60 and cpn10.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Chris; Errington, Neil; Rowe, Arther J; Harding, Stephen E

    2002-01-01

    Over recent years the binding ability of the molecular chaperone cpn60 (GroEL14) and its co-chaperone cpn10 (GroES7) has been reported to occur under an assortment of specific conditions from the use of non-hydrolysable ATP analogues (namely adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) to requiring hydrolysable ATP for any interaction to occur. We have investigated this further using the molecular hydrodynamic methods (hydrodynamic bead modelling, sedimentation-velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light-scattering), allowing the process to be followed under physiologically relevant dilute solution conditions, combined with absorption spectrophotometry to determine GroES7-GroEL14 interaction through the rate inhibition of the cpn60's ATPase activity by GroES7. The results found here indicate that the presence of hydrolysable ATP is required to facilitate correct GroES7 interaction with GroEL14 in solution. PMID:12049650

  6. Randomized clinical trial of adenosine 5'-triphosphate on tumor growth and survival in advanced lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Agteresch, Hendrik J; Burgers, Sjaak A; van der Gaast, Ate; Wilson, J H Paul; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2003-09-01

    We recently reported that regular infusions of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) inhibited loss of body weight and quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present paper we investigated whether ATP affects tumor growth and survival in the same group of patients. Fifty-eight NSCLC patients (stage IIIB or IV) were randomly assigned to receive either 10 i.v. 30-h ATP infusions every 2-4 weeks over a 24-week period (n = 28) or no ATP (control patients, n = 30). ATP was given for a median of 6.5 infusions. Differences in time to progression and survival between patients in both groups were tested by means of the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Forty-nine patients were evaluable for tumor response. None of the evaluable patients showed a complete or partial response. Median time to progression was 3.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3-5.5] in the ATP group compared to 3.0 months (95% CI = 2.4-3.7) in the control group (p = 0.71). Median survival was 5.6 months (95% CI = 1.1-10.1) for the ATP group and 4.7 months (95% CI = 2.6-6.8) for the control group (p = 0.68). ATP treatment was associated with a significant increase in survival in the subgroup of weight-losing patients with stage IIIB NSCLC: in this subgroup, median survival was 9.3 months (95% CI = 2.1-16.5) for ATP-treated patients versus 3.5 months (95% CI = 2.3-4.7) for control patients (between-group difference: p = 0.009). No significant effect of ATP was observed for weight-losing patients with stage IV NSCLC or for weight-stable NSCLC patients. Although ATP as a single therapy does not lead to tumor regression or increased survival in patients with advanced lung cancer, it may prolong survival in weight-losing patients with stage IIIB lung cancer. The latter finding is intriguing, but requires confirmation in larger clinical trials. PMID:14501386

  7. Stimulation by extracellular ATP and UTP of the stress-activated protein kinase cascade in rat renal mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huwiler, Andrea; van Rossum, Gerda; Wartmann, Markus; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    1997-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) have been shown to activate a nucleotide receptor (P2U receptor) in rat mesangial cells that mediates phosphoinositide and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipases C and D, respectively. This is followed by an increased activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and cell proliferation. Here we show that ATP and UTP potently stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase pathway and phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun.Both nucleotides stimulated a rapid (within 5 min) and concentration-dependent activation of stress-activated protein kinases as measured by the phosphorylation of c-Jun in a solid phase kinase assay.When added at 100 μM the rank order of potency of a series of nucleotide analogues for stimulation of c-Jun phosphorylation was UTP>ATP=UDP=ATPγS>2-methylthio-ATP>βγ-imido-ATP= ADP>AMP=UMP=adenosine=uridine. Activation of stress-activated protein kinase activity by ATP and UTP was dose-dependently attenuated by suramin.Down-regulation of protein kinase C-α, -δ and -ε isoenzymes by 24 h treatment of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not inhibit ATP- and UTP-induced activation of c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, the specific protein kinase C inhibitors, CGP 41251 and Ro 31-8220, did not inhibit nucleotide-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, suggesting that protein kinase C is not involved in ATP- and UTP-triggered stress-activated protein kinase activation.Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, strongly attenuated ATP- and UTP-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, N-acetyl-cysteine completely blocked the activation of stress-activated protein kinase in response to extracellular nucleotide stimulation.In summary, these results suggest that ATP and UTP trigger the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase module in mesangial cells by a

  8. Adenosine Prevents TNFα-Induced Decrease in Endothelial Mitochondrial Mass via Activation of eNOS-PGC-1α Regulatory Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeris, Theodore J.; Baines, Christopher; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether adenosine, a cytoprotective mediator and trigger of preconditioning, could protect endothelial cells from inflammation-induced deficits in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We examined this question using human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to TNFα. TNFα produced time and dose-dependent decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular ATP levels, and mitochondrial mass, preceding an increase in apoptosis. These effects were prevented by co-incubation with adenosine, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a guanylate cyclase (GC) activator, or a cell-permeant cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog. The effects of adenosine were blocked by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), or siRNA knockdown of the transcriptional coactivator, PGC-1α. Incubation with exogenous NO, a GC activator, or a cGMP analog reversed the effect of eNOS knockdown, while the effect of NO was blocked by inhibition of GC. The protective effects of NO and cGMP analog were prevented by siRNA to PGC-1α. TNFα also decreased expression of eNOS, cellular NO levels, and PGC-1α expression, which were reversed by adenosine. Exogenous NO, but not adenosine, rescued expression of PGC-1α in cells in which eNOS expression was knocked down by eNOS antisense treatment. Thus, TNFα elicits decreases in endothelial mitochondrial function and mass, and an increase in apoptosis. These effects were reversed by adenosine, an effect mediated by eNOS-synthesized NO, acting via soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP to activate a mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory program under the control of PGC-1α. These results support the existence of an adenosine-triggered, mito-and cytoprotective mechanism dependent upon an eNOS-PGC-1α regulatory pathway, which acts to preserve endothelial mitochondrial function and mass during inflammatory challenge. PMID:24914683

  9. Hyperglycemia alters E-NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ectosolic and cytosolic adenosine deaminase activities and expression from encephala of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main feature for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Some studies have demonstrated the relationship between DM and dysfunction on neurotransmission systems, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis and adenosine deamination activities from encephalic membranes of hyperglycemic zebrafish. A significant decrease in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolyses was observed at 111-mM glucose-treated group, which returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. A significant increase in ecto-adenosine deaminase activity was observed in 111-mM glucose group, which remain elevated after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. The soluble-adenosine deaminase activity was significantly increased just after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. We also evaluated the gene expressions of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA, and adenosine receptors from encephala of adult zebrafish. The entpd 2a.1, entpd 2a.2, entpd 3, and entpd 8 mRNA levels from encephala of adult zebrafish were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expressions of adenosine receptors (adora 1 , adora 2aa , adora 2ab , and adora 2b ) were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expression of ADA (ada 2a.1) was decreased in glucose withdrawal group. Maltodextrin, used as a control, did not affect the expression of adenosine receptors, ADA and E-NTPDases 2, 3, and 8, while the expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase was slightly increased and the E-NTPDases 1 decreased. These findings demonstrated that hyperglycemia might affect the ecto-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish, probably through a mechanism involving the osmotic effect, suggesting that the modifications caused on purinergic system may also contribute to the diabetes-induced progressive cognitive impairment. PMID:26769247

  10. Structure of the mycobacterial ATP synthase Fo rotor ring in complex with the anti-TB drug bedaquiline.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Laura; Langer, Julian D; Yildiz, Özkan; Eckhardt-Strelau, Luise; Guillemont, Jérôme E G; Koul, Anil; Meier, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is more prevalent today than at any other time in human history. Bedaquiline (BDQ), a novel Mycobacterium-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase inhibitor, is the first drug in the last 40 years to be approved for the treatment of MDR-TB. This bactericidal compound targets the membrane-embedded rotor (c-ring) of the mycobacterial ATP synthase, a key metabolic enzyme required for ATP generation. We report the x-ray crystal structures of a mycobacterial c9 ring without and with BDQ bound at 1.55- and 1.7-Å resolution, respectively. The structures and supporting functional assays reveal how BDQ specifically interacts with the rotor ring via numerous interactions and thereby completely covers the c-ring's ion-binding sites. This prevents the rotor ring from acting as an ion shuttle and stalls ATP synthase operation. The structures explain how diarylquinoline chemicals specifically inhibit the mycobacterial ATP synthase and thus enable structure-based drug design of next-generation ATP synthase inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:26601184

  11. Early warning signs of bulking in an activated sludge system through interpretation of ATP data in a systems analysis context.

    PubMed

    Brault, Jean-Martin; Whalen, Pat; Stuart, Paul

    2011-10-01

    A research project was undertaken at an integrated thermomechanical pulp and paper mill in Canada to evaluate the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) monitoring methods in order to identify the potential for operational problems related to microbiological aspects of activated sludge. The specific filamentous bulking ATP (fbATP) ratio is an emerging measurement technique that measures the proportion of flocs that have bulking potential by filtering a sample through a 250 microm mesh and measuring the ATP in the retentate. For the host mill in this study, the specific fbATP measurement provides early warning signs of bulking, at 1.0 to 1.5 times the sludge age, before poor settling occurs. A possible bulking scenario was identified in which the initiator was the overflow of an upstream tank containing high BOD whitewater, resulting in spikes of organic acids to the treatment and promoting the proliferation of certain types of filamentous bacteria. A storage response by filamentous bacteria to these high readily biodegradable substrate conditions was monitored with fbATP. By predicting the onset of bulking conditions, this technique can potentially assist operators to make corrective actions proactively. PMID:22329156

  12. Structure of the mycobacterial ATP synthase Fo rotor ring in complex with the anti-TB drug bedaquiline

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Laura; Langer, Julian D.; Yildiz, Özkan; Eckhardt-Strelau, Luise; Guillemont, Jérôme E. G.; Koul, Anil; Meier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is more prevalent today than at any other time in human history. Bedaquiline (BDQ), a novel Mycobacterium-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase inhibitor, is the first drug in the last 40 years to be approved for the treatment of MDR-TB. This bactericidal compound targets the membrane-embedded rotor (c-ring) of the mycobacterial ATP synthase, a key metabolic enzyme required for ATP generation. We report the x-ray crystal structures of a mycobacterial c9 ring without and with BDQ bound at 1.55- and 1.7-Å resolution, respectively. The structures and supporting functional assays reveal how BDQ specifically interacts with the rotor ring via numerous interactions and thereby completely covers the c-ring’s ion-binding sites. This prevents the rotor ring from acting as an ion shuttle and stalls ATP synthase operation. The structures explain how diarylquinoline chemicals specifically inhibit the mycobacterial ATP synthase and thus enable structure-based drug design of next-generation ATP synthase inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:26601184

  13. High-sensitivity detection of ATP using a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor and split aptamers.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ho; Byun, Ju-Young; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Seong U; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-11-15

    A highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) aptasensor for detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been developed. The sensor utilizes two split ATP aptamers, one (receptor fragment) being covalently attached to the surface of a gold nanorod (GNR) and the other labeled with a random DNA sequence and TAMRA dye (probe fragment). In the presence of both ATP and the probe fragment, a significant shift takes place in the wavelength of the LSPR band. This phenomenon is a consequence of the fact that the split fragments assemble into an intact folded structure in the presence of ATP, which brings about a decrease in the distance between the GNR surface and TAMRA dye and an associated LSPR wavelength. By using this sensor system, concentrations of ATP in the range of 10 pM-10 μM can be determined. In addition, by taking advantage of its denaturation properties, the LSPR aptasensor can be reused by simply subjecting it to quadruple salt-addition/2M NaCl washing steps. That the new method is applicable to biological systems was demonstrated by its use to measure ATP concentrations in E. coli and, thus to determine cell concentrations as low as 1.0×10(3) CFU. PMID:26042875

  14. 2-Substituted adenosine derivatives: affinity and efficacy at four subtypes of human adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Mamedova, Liaman K.; Chen, Peiran; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The affinity and efficacy at four subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B and A3) of human adenosine receptors (ARs) of a wide range of 2-substituted adenosine derivatives were evaluated using radioligand binding assays and a cyclic AMP functional assay in intact CHO cells stably expressing these receptors. Similar to previous studies of the N6-position, several 2-substituents were found to be critical structural determinants for the A3AR activation. The following adenosine 2-ethers were moderately potent partial agonists (Ki, nM): benzyl (117), 3-chlorobenzyl (72), 2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl (41), and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethyl (130). The following adenosine 2-ethers were A3AR antagonists: 2,2-diphenylethyl, 2-(2-norbornan)ethyl, R- and S-2-phenylbutyl, and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethyl. 2-(S-2-Phenylbutyloxy)a-denosine as an A3AR antagonist right-shifted the concentration–response curve for the inhibition by NECA of cyclic AMP accumulation with a KB value of 212 nM, which is similar to its binding affinity (Ki = 175 nM). These 2-substituted adenosine derivatives were generally less potent at the A1AR in comparison to the A3AR, but fully efficacious, with binding Ki values over 100 nM. The 2-phenylethyl moiety resulted in higher A3AR affinity (Ki in nM) when linked to the 2-position of adenosine through an ether group (54), than when linked through an amine (310) or thioether (1960). 2-[2-(l-Naphthyl)ethyloxy]adenosine (Ki = 3.8 nM) was found to be the most potent and selective (>50-fold) A2A agonist in this series. Mixed A2A/A3AR agonists have been identified. Interestingly, although most of these compounds were extremely weak at the A2BAR, 2-[2-(2-naphthyl)ethyloxy]adenosine (EC50 = 1.4 µM) and 2-[2-(2-thienyl)-ethyloxy]adenosine (EC50 = 1.8 (M) were found to be relatively potent A2B agonists, although less potent than NECA (EC50 = 140 nM). PMID:15476669

  15. Silk polymer-based adenosine release: therapeutic potential for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wilz, Andrew; Pritchard, Eleanor M; Li, Tianfu; Lan, Jing-Quan; Kaplan, David L; Boison, Detlev

    2008-09-01

    Adenosine augmentation therapies (AAT) make rational use of the brain's own adenosine-based seizure control system and hold promise for the therapy of refractory epilepsy. In an effort to develop an AAT compatible with future clinical application, we developed a novel silk protein-based release system for adenosine. Adenosine releasing brain implants with target release doses of 0, 40, 200, and 1000ng adenosine per day were prepared by embedding adenosine containing microspheres into nanofilm-coated silk fibroin scaffolds. In vitro, the respective polymers released 0, 33.4, 170.5, and 819.0ng adenosine per day over 14 days. The therapeutic potential of the implants was validated in a dose-response study in the rat model of kindling epileptogenesis. Four days prior to the onset of kindling, adenosine releasing polymers were implanted into the infrahippocampal cleft and progressive acquisition of kindled seizures was monitored over a total of 48 stimulations. We document a dose-dependent retardation of seizure acquisition. In recipients of polymers releasing 819ng adenosine per day, kindling epileptogenesis was delayed by one week corresponding to 18 kindling stimulations. Histological analysis of brain samples confirmed the correct location of implants and electrodes. We conclude that silk-based delivery of around 1000ng adenosine per day is a safe and efficient strategy to suppress seizures. PMID:18514814

  16. Adenosine Signaling During Acute and Chronic Disease States

    PubMed Central

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Xia, Yang; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine is a signaling nucleoside that is produced following tissue injury, particularly injury involving ischemia and hypoxia. The production of extracellular adenosine and its subsequent signaling through adenosine receptors plays an important role in orchestrating injury responses in multiple organs. There are four adenosine receptors that are widely distributed on immune, epithelial, endothelial, neuronal and stromal cells throughout the body. Interestingly, these receptors are subject to altered regulation following injury. Studies in mouse models and human cells and tissues have identified that the production of adenosine and its subsequent signaling through its receptors plays largely beneficial roles in acute disease states, with the exception of brain injury. In contrast, if elevated adenosine levels are sustained beyond the acute injury phase, adenosine responses can become detrimental by activating pathways that promote tissue injury and fibrosis. Understanding when during the course of disease adenosine signaling is beneficial as opposed to detrimental and defining the mechanisms involved will be critical for the advancement of adenosine based therapies for acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss key observations that define the beneficial and detrimental aspects of adenosine signaling during acute and chronic disease states with an emphasis on cellular processes such as inflammatory cell regulation, vascular barrier function and tissue fibrosis. PMID:23340998

  17. Adenosine diphosphate-degrading activity in placenta.

    PubMed

    Barradas, M; Khokher, M; Hutton, R; Craft, I L; Dandona, P

    1983-02-01

    1. The degradation of ADP by the placenta and umbilical artery was investigated. 2. Supernatants from incubations of finely chopped placental and umbilical arterial tissue were incubated with [14C]ADP for various durations from 0 to 30 min. 3. Products of ADP degradation were separated by thin-layer chromatography and radioactivity incorporated into each product was measured. 4. Placental supernatants induced a more rapid degradation of ADP than the umbilical artery supernatants. The main product of ADP degradation by placental supernatants at 30 min was adenosine, whereas that of umbilical artery was AMP. 5. This conversion by placenta of ADP, a potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor, into adenosine, a potent platelet anti-aggregator and vasodilator, may be important in the maintenance of perfusion of the foetoplacental unit. PMID:6822058

  18. Adenosine thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S. )

    1991-07-01

    Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation as an adjunct to myocardial perfusion imaging has become increasingly important in the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease, in view of the large number of patients who cannot perform an adequate exercise test or in whom contraindications render exercise inappropriate. Adenosine is a very potent coronary vasodilator and when combined with thallium 201 scintigraphy produces images of high quality, with the added advantages of a very short half-life (less than 10 seconds) and the ability to adjust the dose during the infusion, which may enhance safety and curtail the duration of side effects. The reported sensitivity and specificity of adenosine thallium 201 scintigraphy for the detection of coronary artery disease are high and at least comparable with imaging after exercise or dipyridamole administration. 23 refs.

  19. Nonsynaptic Communication Through ATP Release from Volume-Activated Anion Channels in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Fields, R. Douglas; Ni, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    The release of neuronal messengers outside synapses has broad biological implications, particularly with regard to communication between axons and glia. We identify a mechanism for nonsynaptic, nonvesicular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from axons through volume-activated anion channels (VAACs) activated by microscopic axon swelling during action potential firing. We used a combination of single-photon imaging of ATP release, together with imaging for intrinsic optical signals, intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+), time-lapse video, and confocal microscopy, to investigate action potential–induced nonsynaptic release of this neurotransmitter. ATP release from cultured embryonic dorsal root ganglion axons persisted when bafilomycin or botulinum toxin was used to block vesicular release, whereas pharmacological inhibition of VAACs or prevention of action potential–induced axon swelling inhibited ATP release and disrupted activity-dependent signaling between axons and astrocytes. This nonvesicular, nonsynaptic communication could mediate various activity-dependent interactions between axons and nervous system cells in normal conditions, development, and disease. PMID:20923934

  20. Discovery and Characterization of a Biologically Active Non-ATP-Competitive p38 MAP Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brice A P; Alam, Muhammad S; Guszczynski, Tad; Jakob, Michal; Shenoy, Shilpa R; Mitchell, Carter A; Goncharova, Ekaterina I; Evans, Jason R; Wipf, Peter; Liu, Gang; Ashwell, Jonathan D; O'Keefe, Barry R

    2016-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 is part of a broad and ubiquitously expressed family of MAPKs whose activity is responsible for mediating an intracellular response to extracellular stimuli through a phosphorylation cascade. p38 is central to this signaling node and is activated by upstream kinases while being responsible for activating downstream kinases and transcription factors via phosphorylation. Dysregulated p38 activity is associated with numerous autoimmune disorders and has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancer. A number of p38 inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials, with none receiving regulatory approval. One characteristic shared by all of the compounds that failed clinical trials is that they are all adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive p38 inhibitors. Seeing this lack of mechanistic diversity as an opportunity, we screened ~32,000 substances in search of novel p38 inhibitors. Among the inhibitors discovered is a compound that is both non-ATP competitive and biologically active in cell-based models for p38 activity. This is the first reported discovery of a non-ATP-competitive p38 inhibitor that is active in cells and, as such, may enable new pharmacophore designs for both therapeutic and basic research to better understand and exploit non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of p38 activity. PMID:26538432

  1. Dependence of structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules on ATP and cell communication.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yu

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic granules are dense and compact microbial aggregates with various bacterial species. Recently, aerobic granulation technology has been extensively explored for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, little information is currently available with regard to their structure stability and integrity at levels of energy metabolism and cell communication. In the present study, a typical chemical uncoupler, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide with the power to dissipate proton motive force and subsequently inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, was used to investigate possible roles of ATP and cell communication in maintaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules. It was found that inhibited ATP synthesis resulted in the reduced production of autoinducer-2 and N-acylhomoserine lactones essential for cell communication, while lowered extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production was also observed. As a consequence, aerobic granules appeared to break up. This study showed that ATP-dependent quorum sensing and EPS were essential for sustaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules. PMID:23011346

  2. Oral Sucrose for Heel Lance Increases ATP Utilization and Oxidative Stress in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S.; Bahjri, Khaled; Plank, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine trisphosphate(ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Study design Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n=131) were randomized into three groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking (NNS); and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and NNS. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. Results We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between plasma allantoin concentration and PIPP in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. Conclusion A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP utilization and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effect of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress and cell injury. PMID:23415615

  3. E-NTPDase 3 (ATP diphosphohydrolase) from cardiomyocytes, activity and expression are modulated by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela Sorelli; Cotomacci, Guilherme; Júnior, Marconi Barbosa Coutinho; Sarkis, João José Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Degradation of adenine nucleotides by myocardial cells occurs, in part, by a cascade of surface-located enzymes converting ATP into adenosine that has important implications for the regulation of the nucleotide/nucleoside ratio modulating the cardiac functions. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular system, as observed in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Combined biochemical parameters and gene expression analysis approaches were used to investigate the influence of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on ATP and ADP hydrolysis by isolated myocytes. Cultures of cardiomyocytes were submitted to increasing doses of T3 for 24h. Enzymatic activity and expression were evaluated. T3 (0.1 nM) caused an increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis. Experiments with specific inhibitors suggest the involvement of an NTPDase, which was confirmed by an increase in NTPDase 3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Since T3 promotes an increase in the contractile protein, leading to cardiac hypertrophy, it is tempting to postulate that the increase in ATP hydrolysis and the decrease in the extracellular levels signify an important factor for prevention of excessive contractility. PMID:16584835

  4. Evidence for a Hydrogenosomal-Type Anaerobic ATP Generation Pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W.; Roger, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse, distantly-related eukaryotic lineages have adapted to low-oxygen environments, and possess mitochondrion-related organelles that have lost the capacity to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation. A subset of these organelles, hydrogenosomes, has acquired a set of characteristic ATP generation enzymes commonly found in anaerobic bacteria. The recipient of these enzymes could not have survived prior to their acquisition had it not still possessed the electron transport chain present in the ancestral mitochondrion. In the divergence of modern hydrogenosomes from mitochondria, a transitional organelle must therefore have existed that possessed both an electron transport chain and an anaerobic ATP generation pathway. Here, we report a modern analog of this organelle in the habitually aerobic opportunistic pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii. This organism possesses a complete set of enzymes comprising a hydrogenosome-like ATP generation pathway, each of which is predicted to be targeted to mitochondria. We have experimentally confirmed the mitochondrial localizations of key components of this pathway using tandem mass spectrometry. This evidence is the first supported by localization and proteome data of a mitochondrion possessing both an electron transport chain and hydrogenosome-like energy metabolism enzymes. Our work provides insight into the first steps that might have occurred in the course of the emergence of modern hydrogenosomes. PMID:24086244

  5. Transient increase of ATP as a response to temperature up-shift in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Soini, Jaakko; Falschlehner, Christina; Mayer, Christina; Böhm, Daniela; Weinel, Stefan; Panula, Johanna; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli induces the heat shock response to a temperature up-shift which is connected to the synthesis of a characteristic set of proteins, including ATP dependent chaperones and proteases. Therefore the balance of the nucleotide pool is important for the adaptation and continuous function of the cell. Whereas it has been observed in eukaryotic cells, that the ATP level immediately decreased after the temperature shift, no data are available for E. coli about the adenosine nucleotide levels during the narrow time range of minutes after a temperature up-shift. Results The current study shows that a temperature up-shift is followed by a very fast significant transient increase of the cellular ATP concentration within the first minutes. This increase is connected to a longer lasting elevation of the cellular respiration and glucose uptake. Also the mRNA level of typical heat shock genes increases within only one minute after the heat-shock. Conclusion The presented data prove the very fast response of E. coli to a heat-shock and that the initial response includes the increase of the ATP pool which is important to fulfil the need of the cell for new syntheses, as well as for the function of chaperones and proteases. PMID:15804347

  6. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Grenz, Almut; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Xia, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Normal penile erection is under the control of multiple factors and signaling pathways. Although adenosine signaling is implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection, the exact role and the underlying mechanism for adenosine signaling in penile physiology remain elusive. Here we report that shear stress leads to increased adenosine release from endothelial cells. Subsequently, we determined that ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) is a key enzyme required for the production of elevated adenosine from ATP released by shear-stressed endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that shear stress-mediated elevated adenosine functions through the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and subsequent increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. These in vitro studies led us to discover further that adenosine was induced during sustained penile erection and contributes to PI3K/AKT activation and subsequent eNOS phosphorylation via A2BR signaling in intact animal. Finally, we demonstrate that lowering adenosine in wild-type mice or genetic deletion of A2BR in mutant mice significantly attenuated PI3K/AKT activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and subsequent impaired penile erection featured with the reduction of ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure to systemic arterial pressure from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively (both P<0.05). Overall, using biochemical, cellular, genetic, and physiological approaches, our findings reveal that adenosine is a novel molecule signaling via A2BR activation, contributing to penile erection via PI3K/AKT-dependent eNOS activation. These studies suggest that this signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for erectile disorders.—Wen, J., Grenz, A., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Eltzschig, H. K., Xia, Y. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation. PMID

  7. Prevalence of unidirectional Na+-dependent adenosine transport and altered potential for adenosine generation in diabetic cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Podgorska, M; Kocbuch, K; Grden, M; Szutowicz, A; Pawelczyk, T

    2006-05-01

    Adenosine is an important physiological regulator of the cardiovascular system. The goal of our study was to assess the expression level of nucleoside transporters (NT) in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes and to examine the activities of adenosine metabolizing enzymes. Isolated rat cardiomyocytes displayed the presence of detectable amounts of mRNA for ENT1, ENT2, CNT1, and CNT2. Overall adenosine (10 microM) transport in cardiomyocytes isolated from normal rat was 36 pmol/mg/min. The expression level of equilibrative transporters (ENT1, ENT2) decreased and of concentrative transporters (CNT1, CNT2) increased in myocytes isolated from diabetic rat. Consequently, overall adenosine transport decreased by 30%, whereas Na(+)-dependent adenosine uptake increased 2-fold, and equilibrative transport decreased by 60%. The activity ratio of AMP deaminase/5'-nucleotidase in cytosol of normal cardiomyocytes was 11 and increased to 15 in diabetic cells. The activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase increased 2-fold in diabetic cells resulting in a rise of the activity ratio of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/adenosine deaminase from 28 to 56.These results indicate that in rat cardiomyocytes diabetes alters activities of adenosine metabolizing enzymes in such a way that conversion of AMP to IMP is favored in the cytosolic compartment, whereas the capability to produce adenosine extracellularly is increased. This is accompanied by an increased unidirectional Na(+)-dependent uptake of adenosine and significantly reduced bidirectional adenosine transport. PMID:16369729

  8. Effects of different concentrations of metal ions on degradation of adenosine triphosphate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4°C: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Qin, Na; Zhang, Longteng; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-11-15

    The impact of different concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) on the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the influence of these ions on the activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMP-deaminase) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in common carp fillets (in vivo) during 4°C storage was examined. The content of ATP, inosine monophosphate (IMP), and hypoxanthine (Hx), and the activity of AMP-deaminase and ACP were determined. Results indicated that the effects of different concentrations of six kinds of metal ions on AMP-deaminase and ACP were not the same. Na(+), K(+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) enhanced AMP-deaminase activity, which led to the rapid degradation of ATP and to the generation of a large quantity of IMP within a short time. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) delayed the change in AMP-deaminase and ACP activity in carp and caused a further delay in the degradation of ATP. Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) inhibited ACP activity, which reduced the decomposition of IMP and the formation of Hx. PMID:27283700

  9. Mechanism of the myosin catalyzed hydrolysis of ATP as rationalized by molecular modeling

    PubMed Central

    Grigorenko, Bella L.; Rogov, Alexander V.; Topol, Igor A.; Burt, Stanley K.; Martinez, Hugo M.; Nemukhin, Alexander V.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic chemical reaction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis catalyzed by myosin is modeled by using a combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methodology that achieves a near ab initio representation of the entire model. Starting with coordinates derived from the heavy atoms of the crystal structure (Protein Data Bank ID code 1VOM) in which myosin is bound to the ATP analog ADP·VO4−, a minimum-energy path is found for the transformation ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi that is characterized by two distinct events: (i) a low activation-energy cleavage of the PγOβγ bond and separation of the γ-phosphate from ADP and (ii) the formation of the inorganic phosphate as a consequence of proton transfers mediated by two water molecules and assisted by the Glu-459–Arg-238 salt bridge of the protein. The minimum-energy model of the enzyme–substrate complex features a stable hydrogen-bonding network in which the lytic water is positioned favorably for a nucleophilic attack of the ATP γ-phosphate and for the transfer of a proton to stably bound second water. In addition, the PγOβγ bond has become significantly longer than in the unbound state of the ATP and thus is predisposed to cleavage. The modeled transformation is viewed as the part of the overall hydrolysis reaction occurring in the closed enzyme pocket after ATP is bound tightly to myosin and before conformational changes preceding release of inorganic phosphate. PMID:17438284

  10. Effect of epithelium ATP release on cyclic pressure-induced airway mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jin; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Perelman, Juliy M; Kolosov, Victor P

    2013-12-16

    The cyclic mechanical effect of airflow during breathing creates the optimal airway hydration state. Mucin (MUC) 5AC is an impotent component of the airway mucus. The formation of MUC5AC is related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intracellular calciumin the epithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ATP release from and intracellular calcium in epithelial cells on cyclic pressure-induced mucus secretion in the airway. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were cultured in vitro on cyclically tilted cultured plates and divided into 5 groups: control, tilt, tilt and BAPTA-AM, tilt and EGTA, and tilt and RB-2. The shear stress and compressive stress were induced by the surface tension of the liquid, atmospheric pressure and liquid gravity. Cell activity, MUC5AC mRNA expression level, MUC5AC protein expression level and ATP release, and intracellular calcium changes were measured with the MTT assay, RT-PCR, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inverted fluorescence microscope, respectively. We detected that cyclic pressure significantly increased MUC5AC secretion and ATP release. The enhanced ATP release could be inhibited by both BAPTA-AM and RB-2, while EGTA did not have a suppressive effect. BAPTA-AM, EGTA, and RB-2 did not obviously inhibit MUC5AC mRNA expression.Cyclic pressure did not induce MUC5AC secretion in the airway mucus epithelium via Ca2+-dependent ATP release, and nearly all Ca2+ was provided by stored intracellular Ca2+. PMID:24329423

  11. A sandwich dipstick assay for ATP detection based on split aptamer fragments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Yan, Mengmeng; Huang, Yafei; Yan, Jiao; Bai, Wenhui; Chen, Ailiang

    2016-06-01

    Aptamer-based strip assay is an easy, highly efficient and low-cost detection method, which has been developed and easily applied to onsite detection. A new sensitive sandwich dipstick assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection was successfully developed based on specific recognition between split aptamer fragments and the target. In this method, the thiolated aptamer was first conjugated to the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while the biotin-aptamer was immobilized on the surface of a nitrocellulose filter in the test line. In the presence of ATP, the thiol-aptamer/ATP/biotin-aptamer complexes were generated, which led to an obvious increase in optical signals at the test line. Under the optimal determination conditions, an excellent linear logarithmic response to the ATP concentration was obtained within the range of 0.5 μM to 5 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 μM was reached at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The dipstick assay showed a good average recovery of 96-108 % with the RSD of less than 20 % in urine samples. The proposed method exhibited high specificity against other nucleotides such as the uridine triphosphate (UTP), cytidine triphosphate (CTP), and guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The results indicated that the dipstick strip may be considered as an inexpensive screening tool for onsite ATP determination. Graphical Abstract A simple split aptamer fragments based sandwich-type dipstick assay was developed for ATP detection. PMID:27052777

  12. Phosphate exchange and ATP synthesis by DMSO-pretreated purified bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Beharry, S; Bragg, P D

    2001-01-01

    Purified soluble bovine mitochondrial F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase contained 2 mol of ATP, 2 mol of ADP and 6 mol of P(i)/mol. Incubation of this enzyme with 1 mM [(32)P]P(i) caused the exchange of 2 mol of P(i)/mol of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase. The labelled phosphates were not displaced by ATP. Transfer of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase to a buffer containing 30% (v/v) DMSO and 1 mM [(32)P]P(i) resulted in the loss of bound nucleotides with the retention of 1 mol of ATP/mol of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase. Six molecules of [(32)P]P(i) were incorporated by exchange with the existing bound phosphate. Removal of the DMSO by passage of the enzyme through a centrifuged column of Sephadex G-50 resulted in the exchange of one molecule of bound [(32)P]P(i) into the bound ATP. Azide did not prevent this [(32)P]P(i)<-->ATP exchange reaction. The bound labelled ATP could be displaced from the enzyme by exogenous ATP. Addition of ADP to the DMSO-pretreated F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase in the original DMSO-free buffer resulted in the formation of an additional molecule of bound ATP. It was concluded that following pretreatment with and subsequent removal of DMSO the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase contained one molecule of ATP at a catalytic site which was competent to carry out a phosphate-ATP exchange reaction using enzyme-bound inorganic radiolabelled phosphate. In the presence of ADP an additional molecule of labelled ATP was formed from enzyme-bound P(i) at a second catalytic site. The bound phosphate-ATP exchange reaction is not readily accommodated by current mechanisms for the ATP synthase. PMID:11139383

  13. Use of adenosine echocardiography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, W.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography combined with exercise is sensitive and specific in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) by demonstrating transient abnormalities in wall motion. Frequently, however, patients cannot achieve maximal exercise because of various factors. Pharmacologic stress testing with intravenous adenosine was evaluated as a means of detecting CAD in a noninvasive manner. Patients with suspected CAD underwent echocardiographic imaging and simultaneous thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography during the intravenous administration of 140 micrograms/kg/min of adenosine. An increase in heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, and increase in double product were observed during adenosine administration. Initial observations revealed that wall motion abnormalities were induced by adenosine in areas of perfusion defects. The adenosine infusion was well tolerated, and symptoms disappeared within 1 to 2 minutes after termination of the infusion. Therefore preliminary observations suggest that adenosine echocardiography appears to be useful in the assessment of CAD.

  14. Characterization of adenosine receptors involved in adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction in allergic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    el-Hashim, A.; D'Agostino, B.; Matera, M. G.; Page, C.

    1996-01-01

    1. Recent work has suggested that adenosine may be involved in asthma via the activation of A1 receptors. However, the role of the recently cloned A3 receptor in airways is largely unknown. In the present study, we have investigated the role of the A3 receptor in adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction in allergic rabbits. 2. Aerosol challenge of antigen (Ag) immunized rabbits with the adenosine precursor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), resulted in a dose-dependent fall in dynamic compliance (Cdyn). The maximum fall in Cdyn in these rabbits was significantly greater than that in litter matched, sham immunized animals (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the maximum increase in airways resistance (Rt) between Ag and sham immunized rabbits (P > 0.05). 3. Aerosol challenge of Ag immunized rabbits with cyclopentyl-adenosine (CPA) (A1-receptor agonist) elicited a dose-dependent fall in Cdyn in Ag immunized rabbits and the maximum fall in Cdyn in these rabbits was significantly greater than that observed in sham immunized rabbits (P < 0.05). Similarly, CPA induced dose-dependent increases in R1 in Ag immunized rabbits whereas sham immunized rabbits failed to respond to CPA within the same dose range. The maximum increase in RL in Ag immunized rabbits was significantly greater than that of sham immunized rabbits (P < 0.05). 4. Aerosol challenge of either Ag or sham immunized rabbits with the A3 agonist aminophenylethyladenosine (APNEA) did not elicit dose-dependent changes in either RL or Cdyn. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the maximum response, measured by either parameter, between the two animal groups (P > 0.05). 5. These data provide further evidence for a role of the A1 receptor in the airways, but do not support a role for the A3 receptor in adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction in the allergic rabbit. PMID:8937732

  15. Involvement of purinergic receptors and NOD-like receptor-family protein 3-inflammasome pathway in the adenosine triphosphate-induced cytokine release from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Thomas; Victoni, Tatiana; Fautrel, Alain; Robert, Sacha; Gleonnec, Florence; Guezingar, Marie; Couillin, Isabelle; Catros, Véronique; Boichot, Elisabeth; Lagente, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been described as a danger signal activating the NOD-like receptor-family protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome leading to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β, release in the lung. The NLRP3-inflammasome pathway has been previously described to be involved in experimental collagen deposition and the development of pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and P2X7 purinergic receptor in the activation of human macrophages in vitro by ATP. We showed that adenosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate tetralithium salt (ATPγS) and 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP), two stable analogs of ATP, are able to potentiate the release of IL-1β from human monocyte-derived macrophages induced by low concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, in the same conditions no increase in IL-1α and IL-6 was observed. Immunochemistry has shown that human macrophages natively express NLRP3 and purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7 R). NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA expression were induced from LPS-primed macrophages, but also after 5-h treatment of BzATP as analysed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. However, other inflammasome pathways (NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRC4, NLRP6 and AIM2) and P2X7 R were not induced by BzATP. We observed that P2X7 R antagonists, A-438079 and A-740003, were able to reduce the release of IL-1β, but not of IL-1α and IL-6 from macrophages stimulated by ATPγS or BzATP. The present results showed the involvement of the P2X7 R-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the secretion of IL-1β from ATP-stimulated human macrophages, and suggest that P2X7 R were not involved in IL-1α and IL-6 release. This study also points out that repression of the P2X7 R represents a novel potential therapeutic approach to control fibrosis in lung injury. PMID:24472059

  16. Purification and properties of the proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase complex of bovine heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Serrano, R; Kanner, B I; Racker, E

    1976-04-25

    1. The proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of bovine heart mitochondria was highly purified by extraction of submitochondrial particles with cholate, fractionation with ammonium sulfate, and sucrose gradient centrifugation in the presence of methanol, deoxycholate, and lysolecithin. 2. The preparation had a very low content of phospholipids, respiratory components, and adenine nucleotide transporter. The ATPase activity (14 o 16 micromoles/min/mg at 30 degrees) was dependent on addition of phospholipids. The purified enzyme was reconstituted with phospholipids, coupling factor 1 (F1), and the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) yielding vesicles with highly active 32Pi-ATP exchange (up to 260 nanomoles/min/mg at 30 degrees), and a proton pump driven by ATP. Site III oxidative phosphorylation was reconstituted when purified cytochrome oxidase was included. 3. The 32Pi-ATP exchange of the reconstituted vesicles was sensitive to both rutamycin and dichylohexylcarbodiimide but the ATPase activity was sensitive to rutamycin and not to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 4. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel scans of the complex, the subunits of F1, OSCP, and three other major bands with apparent molecular weights of 32,000, 23,000, and about 11,000 were noted. Three other minor bands with estimated molecular weights of 80,000, 70,000, and 52,000 were also detected. These bands apparently represent residual trace amounts of respiratory components. Quantitative assays of individual respiratory components revealed between 0 and 3% contamination. 5. We conclude that the rutamycin-sensitive ATPase complex functions as a reversible ATP-driven proton pump. PMID:177416

  17. Purification and characterization of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from maize/potato mosaics.

    PubMed

    Boehlein, Susan K; Sewell, Aileen K; Cross, Joanna; Stewart, Jon D; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-07-01

    Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis. The reaction produces ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-P and ATP. Investigations from a number of laboratories have shown that alterations in allosteric properties as well as heat stability of this enzyme have dramatic positive effects on starch synthesis in the potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber and seeds of important cereals. Here, we report the characterization of purified recombinant mosaic AGPases derived from protein motifs normally expressed in the maize (Zea mays) endosperm and the potato tuber. These exhibit properties that should be advantageous when expressed in plants. We also present an in-depth characterization of the kinetic and allosteric properties of these purified recombinant AGPases. These data point to previously unrecognized roles for known allosteric effectors. PMID:15951484

  18. An emerging role for adenosine and its receptors in bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Jack; Evans, Bronwen A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Bone is continually being remodeled and defects in the processes involved lead to bone diseases. Many regulatory factors are known to influence remodeling but other mechanisms, hitherto unknown, may also be involved. Importantly, our understanding of these currently unknown mechanisms may lead to important new therapies for bone disease. It is accepted that purinergic signaling is involved in bone, and our knowledge of this area has increased significantly over the last 15 years, although most of the published work has studied the role of ATP and other signaling molecules via the P2 family of purinergic receptors. During the last few years, however, there has been increased interest within the bone field in the role of P1 receptors where adenosine is the primary signaling molecule. This review will bring together the current information available in relation to this expanding area of research. PMID:23024635

  19. Circadian regulation of ATP release in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Marpegan, Luciano; Swanstrom, Adrienne E; Chung, Kevin; Simon, Tatiana; Haydon, Philip G; Khan, Sanjoy K; Liu, Andrew C; Herzog, Erik D; Beaulé, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Circadian clocks sustain daily oscillations in gene expression, physiology, and behavior, relying on transcription-translation feedback loops of clock genes for rhythm generation. Cultured astrocytes display daily oscillations of extracellular ATP, suggesting that ATP release is a circadian output. We hypothesized that the circadian clock modulates ATP release via mechanisms that regulate acute ATP release from glia. To test the molecular basis for circadian ATP release, we developed methods to measure in real-time ATP release and Bmal1::dLuc circadian reporter expression in cortical astrocyte cultures from mice of different genotypes. Daily rhythms of gene expression required functional Clock and Bmal1, both Per1 and Per2, and both Cry1 and Cry2 genes. Similarly, high-level, circadian ATP release also required a functional clock mechanism. Whereas blocking IP(3) signaling significantly disrupted ATP rhythms with no effect on Bmal1::dLuc cycling, blocking vesicular release did not alter circadian ATP release or gene expression. We conclude that astrocytes depend on circadian clock genes and IP(3) signaling to express daily rhythms in ATP release. PMID:21653839

  20. Circadian regulation of ATP release in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marpegan, Luciano; Swanstrom, Adrienne E.; Chung, Kevin; Simon, Tatiana; Haydon, Philip G.; Khan, Sanjoy K.; Liu, Andrew C.; Herzog, Erik D.; Beaulé, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Circadian clocks sustain daily oscillations in gene expression, physiology and behavior, relying on transcription-translation feedback loops of clock genes for rhythm generation. Cultured astrocytes display daily oscillations of extracellular ATP, suggesting that ATP release is a circadian output. We hypothesized that the circadian clock modulates ATP release via mechanisms that regulate acute ATP release from glia. To test the molecular basis for circadian ATP release, we developed methods to measure in real-time ATP release and Bmal1::dLuc circadian reporter expression in cortical astrocyte cultures from mice of different genotypes. Daily rhythms of gene expression required functional Clock and Bmal1, both Per1 and Per2, and both Cry1 and Cry2 genes. Similarly, high level, circadian ATP release also required a functional clock mechanism. Whereas blocking IP3 signaling significantly disrupted ATP rhythms with no effect on Bmal1::dLuc cycling, blocking vesicular release did not alter circadian ATP release or gene expression. We conclude that astrocytes depend on circadian clock genes and IP3 signaling to express daily rhythms in ATP release. PMID:21653839

  1. A Metabolic Immune Checkpoint: Adenosine in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Within tumors, some areas are less oxygenated than others. Since their home ground is under chronic hypoxia, tumor cells adapt to this condition by activating aerobic glycolysis; however, this hypoxic environment is very harsh for incoming immune cells. Deprivation of oxygen limits availability of energy sources and induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine in tumors. Extracellular adenosine, upon binding with adenosine receptors on the surface of various immune cells, suppresses pro-inflammatory activities. In addition, signaling through adenosine receptors upregulates a number of anti-inflammatory molecules and immunoregulatory cells, leading to the establishment of a long-lasting immunosuppressive environment. Thus, due to hypoxia and adenosine, tumors can discourage antitumor immune responses no matter how the response was induced, whether it was spontaneous or artificially introduced with a therapeutic intention. Preclinical studies have shown the significance of adenosine in tumor survival strategy by demonstrating tumor regression after inactivation of adenosine receptors, inhibition of adenosine-producing enzymes, or reversal of tissue hypoxia. These promising results indicate a potential use of the inhibitors of the hypoxia–adenosine pathway for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27066002

  2. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. PMID:23952606

  3. Subunit rotation in a single FoF1-ATP synthase in a living bacterium monitored by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfert, K.; Oosaka, T.; Yaginuma, H.; Ernst, S.; Noji, H.; Iino, R.; Börsch, M.

    2011-03-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase is the ubiquitous membrane-bound enzyme in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria which provides the 'chemical energy currency' adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cellular processes. In Escherichia coli ATP synthesis is driven by a proton motive force (PMF) comprising a proton concentration difference ΔpH plus an electric potential ΔΨ across the lipid membrane. Single-molecule in vitro experiments have confirmed that proton-driven subunit rotation within FoF1-ATP synthase is associated with ATP synthesis. Based on intramolecular distance measurements by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) the kinetics of subunit rotation and the step sizes of the different rotor parts have been unraveled. However, these experiments were accomplished in the presence of a PMF consisting of a maximum ΔpH ~ 4 and an unknown ΔΨ. In contrast, in living bacteria the maximum ΔpH across the plasma membrane is likely 0.75, and ΔΨ has been measured between -80 and -140 mV. Thus the problem of in vivo catalytic turnover rates, or the in vivo rotational speed in single FoF1-ATP synthases, respectively, has to be solved. In addition, the absolute number of functional enzymes in a single bacterium required to maintain the high ATP levels has to be determined. We report our progress of measuring subunit rotation in single FoF1-ATP synthases in vitro and in vivo, which was enabled by a new labeling approach for single-molecule FRET measurements.

  4. On the Mg(2+) binding site of the ε subunit from bacterial F-type ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Krah, Alexander; Takada, Shoji

    2015-10-01

    F-type ATP synthases, central energy conversion machines of the cell synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using an electrochemical gradient across the membrane and, reversely, can also hydrolyze ATP to pump ions across the membrane, depending on cellular conditions such as ATP concentration. To prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis, mammalian and bacterial ATP synthases possess different regulatory mechanisms. In bacteria, a low ATP concentration induces a conformational change in the ε subunit from the down- to up-states, which inhibits ATP hydrolysis. Moreover, the conformational change of the ε subunit depends on Mg(2+) concentration in some bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, but not in others. This diversity makes the ε subunit a potential target for antibiotics. Here, performing molecular dynamics simulations, we identify the Mg(2+) binding site in the ε subunit from B. subtilis as E59 and E86. The free energy analysis shows that the first-sphere bi-dentate coordination of the Mg(2+) ion by the two glutamates is the most stable state. In comparison, we also clarify the reason for the absence of Mg(2+) dependency in the ε subunit from thermophilic Bacillus PS3, despite the high homology to that from B. subtilis. Sequence alignment suggests that this Mg(2+) binding motif is present in the ε subunits of some pathogenic bacteria. In addition we discuss strategies to stabilize an isolated ε subunit carrying the Mg(2+) binding motif by site directed mutagenesis, which also can be used to crystallize Mg(2+) dependent ε subunits in future. PMID:26028301

  5. ATP-induced loss of Alz-50 immunoreactivity with the A68 proteins from Alzheimer brain is mediated by ubiquitin.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, I J; Davies, P

    1990-01-01

    The Alz-50 immunoreactive proteins, designated A68, are detected by electrophoretic blot analysis of 100,000 x g pellet fractions of brain tissue from individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). In exploring the biochemical nature of these proteins, we have found that a preincubation of such fractions with 5 mM ATP results in loss of Alz-50 immunoreactivity on immunoblots. The loss of antigenicity is complete after a 1-hr incubation at 37 degrees C and is stringently dependent on ATP. Hydrolysis of ATP is required, since the inhibition is not supported by the nonhydrolyzable analog adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP[gamma S]) and is prevented when the ATPase inhibitors o-vanadate and oligomycin are present. Upon further characterization, it was found that certain protease inhibitors, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, antipain, tosylphenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, and aprotonin prevent the loss of the epitope. This suggests that hydrolysis of ATP is coupled with proteolysis of A68, leading to loss of Alz-50 immunoreactivity. Since a variety of proteins are believed to be degraded by an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent pathway, a possible role for ubiquitin (Ub) in this effect was investigated. Two polyclonal antibodies against Ub protected A68 from proteolysis and were also effective in immunoprecipitating A68 after incubation with ATP in the presence of Ub and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The proteolysis of A68 was also blocked by hemin, an inhibitor of the protease that cleaves Ub-protein conjugates. Taken together, these findings indicate that loss of Alz-50 immunoreactivity with A68 is due to ATP-dependent/Ub-mediated proteolysis. This mechanism may be relevant to the physiological role for A68 in AD or it may simply represent an attempt to abort an aberrant protein. Images PMID:2162059

  6. Calcium and adenosine triphosphate control of cellular pathology: asparaginase-induced pancreatitis elicited via protease-activated receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Julia V.; Tsugorka, Tatiana; Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Gerasimenko, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Exocytotic secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells is elicited by physiological cytosolic Ca2+ signals, occurring as repetitive short-lasting spikes largely confined to the secretory granule region, that stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. By contrast, sustained global cytosolic Ca2+ elevations decrease ATP levels and cause necrosis, leading to the disease acute pancreatitis (AP). Toxic Ca2+ signals can be evoked by products of alcohol and fatty acids as well as bile acids. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which l-asparaginase evokes AP. Asparaginase is an essential element in the successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the most common type of cancer affecting children, but AP is a side-effect occurring in about 5–10% of cases. Like other pancreatitis-inducing agents, asparaginase evoked intracellular Ca2+ release followed by Ca2+ entry and also substantially reduced Ca2+ extrusion because of decreased intracellular ATP levels. The toxic Ca2+ signals caused extensive necrosis. The asparaginase-induced pathology depended on protease-activated receptor 2 and its inhibition prevented the toxic Ca2+ signals and necrosis. We tested the effects of inhibiting the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ entry by the Ca2+ channel inhibitor GSK-7975A. This markedly reduced asparaginase-induced Ca2+ entry and also protected effectively against the development of necrosis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377732

  7. Calcium and adenosine triphosphate control of cellular pathology: asparaginase-induced pancreatitis elicited via protease-activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Tsugorka, Tatiana; Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Petersen, Ole H; Gerasimenko, Oleg V

    2016-08-01

    Exocytotic secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells is elicited by physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) signals, occurring as repetitive short-lasting spikes largely confined to the secretory granule region, that stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. By contrast, sustained global cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations decrease ATP levels and cause necrosis, leading to the disease acute pancreatitis (AP). Toxic Ca(2+) signals can be evoked by products of alcohol and fatty acids as well as bile acids. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which l-asparaginase evokes AP. Asparaginase is an essential element in the successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the most common type of cancer affecting children, but AP is a side-effect occurring in about 5-10% of cases. Like other pancreatitis-inducing agents, asparaginase evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release followed by Ca(2+) entry and also substantially reduced Ca(2+) extrusion because of decreased intracellular ATP levels. The toxic Ca(2+) signals caused extensive necrosis. The asparaginase-induced pathology depended on protease-activated receptor 2 and its inhibition prevented the toxic Ca(2+) signals and necrosis. We tested the effects of inhibiting the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) entry by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor GSK-7975A. This markedly reduced asparaginase-induced Ca(2+) entry and also protected effectively against the development of necrosis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377732

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of myosin subfragment-one-with 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, R.

    1985-01-01

    The photoaffinity analogue 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz/sub 2/ATP) contains the photoreactive benzophenone group esterified at the 2' or 3' hydroxyl groups of ribose. MgBz/sub 2/ADP has a single binding site on skeletal myosin chymotryptic subfragment-one (SF/sub 1/) with a binding constant of 3.2 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/. Bz/sub 2/ATP is also a substrate for the ATPase activity of SF/sub 1/ in the presence of different cations. The irradiation of SF/sub 1/ with (/sup 3/H)Bz/sub 2/ATP photoinactivates the ATPase activity with concomitant incorporation of the analogue into the enzyme. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of photolabeled SF/sub 1/ after milk trypsin digestion shows that all three tryptic peptides, 25 K, 50K, and 20 K, and both light chains are labeled. The presence of ATP during irradiation reduces labeling of the 50 K peptide only indicating that the other peptides are non-specifically labeled. To reduce the non-specific labeling (/sup 3/H)Bz/sub 2/ATP is trapped on SF/sub 1/ by cross-linking the two reactive thiols, SH/sub 1/ and SH/sub 2/, by N,N'-p-phenylene dimaleimide or Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline complexes. The Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline modified (/sup 14/C)Bz/sub 2/ATP-SF/sub 1/, after proteolytic digestion, yields five labeled peptides which were purified by gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography.

  9. Adenosine: Tipping the balance towards hepatic steatosis and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Simon C.; Schuppan, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Fatty liver is commonly associated with alcohol ingestion and abuse. While the molecular pathogenesis of these fatty changes is well understood, the histochemical and pharmacological mechanisms by which ethanol stimulates these molecular changes remain unknown. During ethanol metabolism, adenosine is generated by the enzyme ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and adenosine production and adenosine receptor activation are known to play critical roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. We therefore investigated whether adenosine and its receptors play a role in the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver. WT mice fed ethanol on the Lieber-DeCarli diet developed hepatic steatosis, including increased hepatic triglyceride content, while mice lacking ecto-5-nucleotidase or adenosine A1 or A2B receptors were protected from developing fatty liver. Similar protection was also seen in WT mice treated with either an adenosine A1 or A2B receptor antagonist. Steatotic livers demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A1 receptors, and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A2B receptors. In vitro studies supported roles for adenosine A1 receptors in promoting fatty acid synthesis and for A2B receptors in decreasing fatty acid metabolism. These results indicate that adenosine generated by ethanol metabolism plays an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis via both A1 and A2B receptors and suggest that targeting adenosine receptors may be effective in the prevention of alcohol-induced fatty liver. PMID:20395005

  10. An Adenosine Kinase Exists in Xanthomonas campestris Pathovar campestris and Is Involved in Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, Cell Motility, and Virulence▿

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang-Tao; Tang, Yong-Qin; Li, Cai-Yue; Li, Rui-Fang; An, Shi-Qi; Feng, Jia-Xun; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a purine salvage enzyme and a typical housekeeping enzyme in eukaryotes which catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to form AMP. Since prokaryotes synthesize purines de novo and no endogenous ADK activity is detectable in Escherichia coli, ADK has long been considered to be rare in bacteria. To date, only two prokaryotes, both of which are gram-positive bacteria, have been reported to contain ADK. Here we report that the gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris, the causal agent of black rot of crucifers, possesses a gene (designated adkXcc) encoding an ADK (named ADKXcc), and we demonstrate genetically that the ADKXcc is involved in extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, cell motility, and pathogenicity of X. campestris pv. campestris. adkXcc was overexpressed as a His6-tagged protein in E. coli, and the purified His6-tagged protein exhibited ADK activity. Mutation of adkXcc did not affect bacterial growth in rich and minimal media but led to an accumulation of intracellular adenosine and diminutions of intracellular ADK activity and ATP level, as well as EPS. The adkXcc mutant displayed significant reductions in bacterial growth and virulence in the host plant. PMID:19329636

  11. 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase Has the Catalytic Capacity to Synthesize and Reuse Various (Di)Adenosine Polyphosphates1

    PubMed Central

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Stuible, Hans-Peter; Kombrink, Erich; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is known to activate cinnamic acid derivatives to their corresponding coenzyme A esters. As a new type of 4CL-catalyzed reaction, we observed the synthesis of various mono- and diadenosine polyphosphates. Both the native 4CL2 isoform from Arabidopsis (At4CL2 wild type) and the At4CL2 gain of function mutant M293P/K320L, which exhibits the capacity to use a broader range of phenolic substrates, catalyzed the synthesis of adenosine 5′-tetraphosphate (p4A) and adenosine 5′-pentaphosphate when incubated with MgATP−2 and tripolyphosphate or tetrapolyphosphate (P4), respectively. Diadenosine 5′,5‴,-P1,P4-tetraphosphate represented the main product when the enzymes were supplied with only MgATP2−. The At4CL2 mutant M293P/K320L was studied in more detail and was also found to catalyze the synthesis of additional dinucleoside polyphosphates such as diadenosine 5′,5‴-P1,P5-pentaphosphate and dAp4dA from the appropriate substrates, p4A and dATP, respectively. Formation of Ap3A from ATP and ADP was not observed with either At4CL2 variant. In all cases analyzed, (di)adenosine polyphosphate synthesis was either strictly dependent on or strongly stimulated by the presence of a cognate cinnamic acid derivative. The At4CL2 mutant enzyme K540L carrying a point mutation in the catalytic center that is critical for adenylate intermediate formation was inactive in both p4A and diadenosine 5′,5‴,-P1,P4-tetraphosphate synthesis. These results indicate that the cinnamoyl-adenylate intermediate synthesized by At4CL2 not only functions as an intermediate in coenzyme A ester formation but can also act as a cocatalytic AMP-donor in (di)adenosine polyphosphate synthesis. PMID:12644689

  12. Preservation of ATP in Hypersaline Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tuovila, Bruce J.; Dobbs, Fred C.; LaRock, Paul A.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1987-01-01

    High concentrations of particulate ATP were found in the anoxic brines of the Orca Basin and East Flower Garden, Gulf of Mexico. Other measurements indicative of growth and respiration suggested that the microbial community in the brines was inactive, but somehow the ATP associated with the cells persisted. Conceivably, when cells growing just above the interface sank into the brine, the increased osmotic stress could elicit an osmoregulatory response resulting in increased ATP. It was also possible that hydrolytic enzymes were inactivated, resulting in the preservation of ATP. Experiments in which a culture of marine bacteria was suspended in menstrua of different salinities comparable to those found across the Orca Basin interface revealed that as salinity increased, ATP increased three- to sixfold. Within 24 h the ATP fell to its initial level and remained at that concentration for 3 days, at which time the experiment was terminated. In contrast, the control suspensions, at a salinity of 28% (grams per liter) had 1/10th of the initial ATP concentration when the experiment was ended. Cells were also exposed to killing UV irradiation, enabling us to demonstrate with absolute certainty that cellular ATP could be preserved. At the end of the experiment, the viable component of the population was reduced by orders of magnitude by UV irradiation, but the ATP levels of the cells suspended in brine did not decrease. In certain environments it appears that the conventional analytical tools of the microbial ecologist must be interpreted with caution. PMID:16347491

  13. Preservation of ATP in hypersaline environments.

    PubMed

    Tuovila, B J; Dobbs, F C; Larock, P A; Siegel, B Z

    1987-12-01

    High concentrations of particulate ATP were found in the anoxic brines of the Orca Basin and East Flower Garden, Gulf of Mexico. Other measurements indicative of growth and respiration suggested that the microbial community in the brines was inactive, but somehow the ATP associated with the cells persisted. Conceivably, when cells growing just above the interface sank into the brine, the increased osmotic stress could elicit an osmoregulatory response resulting in increased ATP. It was also possible that hydrolytic enzymes were inactivated, resulting in the preservation of ATP. Experiments in which a culture of marine bacteria was suspended in menstrua of different salinities comparable to those found across the Orca Basin interface revealed that as salinity increased, ATP increased three- to sixfold. Within 24 h the ATP fell to its initial level and remained at that concentration for 3 days, at which time the experiment was terminated. In contrast, the control suspensions, at a salinity of 28% (grams per liter) had 1/10th of the initial ATP concentration when the experiment was ended. Cells were also exposed to killing UV irradiation, enabling us to demonstrate with absolute certainty that cellular ATP could be preserved. At the end of the experiment, the viable component of the population was reduced by orders of magnitude by UV irradiation, but the ATP levels of the cells suspended in brine did not decrease. In certain environments it appears that the conventional analytical tools of the microbial ecologist must be interpreted with caution. PMID:16347491

  14. Resonance scattering spectral detection of trace ATP based on label-free aptamer reaction and nanogold catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Aihui; Ouyang, Huixiang; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2011-11-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cannot protect gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of NaCl, and dsDNA interacted with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form stable G-quartet and a single-stranded DNA (DNA 2) that can protect AuNPs. The unprotected AuNPs were aggregated to AuNP aggregations (AuNPA) that exhibited a resonance scattering (RS) peak at 590 nm. The RS intensity at 590 nm decreased linearly when the ATP concentration increased in the range of 6.6-110 nM. The catalysis of AuNP-DNA 2 was stronger than that of the AuNPA on the glucose-Cu(II) particle reaction, and the product appeared as an RS peak at 620 nm. When the ATP concentration was increased, the AuNP-DNA 2 increased, and the RS intensity at 620 nm increased linearly. The increased RS intensity (ΔI(620 nm)) was linear to ATP concentration in the range of 2.2-220 nM, with a regression equation of ΔI(620 nm) = 0.709C + 7.7, and a detection limit of 0.5 nM. Hereby, a new RS method of ATP detection was set up with high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:21912797

  15. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2015-06-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  16. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  17. Adenosine augments interleukin-10 production by microglial cells through an A2B adenosine receptor-mediated process

    PubMed Central

    Koscsó, Balázs; Csóka, Balázs; Selmeczy, Zsolt; Himer, Leonóra; Pacher, Pál; Virág, László; Haskó, György

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside and is a ligand of four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), which are the A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR and A3AR. ARs have been shown to suppress TNF-α production by microglia, but their role in regulating IL-10 production has not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that adenosine augments IL-10 production by activated murine microglia while suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since the order of potency of selective AR agonists in inducing IL-10 production was 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) > N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) > 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) ≥ 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680), and the A2BAR antagonist MRS-1754 prevented the effect of NECA, we conclude that the stimulatory effect of adenosine on IL-10 production is mediated by the A2BAR. Mechanistically, adenosine augmented IL-10 mRNA accumulation by a transcriptional process. Using mutant IL-10 promoter constructs we showed that a CREB-binding region in the promoter mediated the augmenting effect of adenosine on IL-10 transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that adenosine induced CREB phosphorylation at the IL-10 promoter. Silencing CREB using lentivirally delivered shRNA blocked the enhancing effect of adenosine on IL-10 production confirming a role for CREB in mediating the stimulatory effect of adenosine on IL-10 production. In addition, adenosine augmented IL-10 production by stimulating p38 MAPK. Collectively, our results establish that A2BARs augment IL-10 production by activated murine microglia. PMID:22116830

  18. A(3) adenosine receptor ligands: history and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, P G; Cacciari, B; Romagnoli, R; Merighi, S; Varani, K; Borea, P A; Spalluto, G

    2000-03-01

    Adenosine regulates many physiological functions through specific cell membrane receptors. On the basis of pharmacological studies and molecular cloning, four different adenosine receptors have been identified and classified as A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3). These adenosine receptors are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. While adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor subtypes have been pharmacologically characterized through the use of selective ligands, the A(3) adenosine receptor subtype is presently under study in order to better understand its physio-pathological functions. Activation of adenosine A(3) receptors has been shown to stimulate phospholipase C and D and to inhibit adenylate cyclase. Activation of A(3) adenosine receptors also causes the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine from mast cells. These mediators are responsible for processes such as inflammation and hypotension. It has also been suggested that the A(3) receptor plays an important role in brain ischemia, immunosuppression, and bronchospasm in several animal models. Based on these results, highly selective A(3) adenosine receptor agonists and/or antagonists have been indicated as potential drugs for the treatment of asthma and inflammation, while highly selective agonists have been shown to possess cardioprotective effects. The updated material related to this field of research has been rationalized and arranged in order to offer an overview of the topic. PMID:10723024

  19. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is adenosine the common link?

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-10-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the 'adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities' implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic 'comorbidity model', in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain co-morbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  20. Adenosine: Essential for life but licensed to kill

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Vivian; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Long et al. (Long et al., 2013) report a cell death priming mechanism activated by p53 that senses extracellular adenosine accumulated following chemotherapy or hypoxia, providing a novel connection between adenosine signaling and apoptosis. PMID:25884366

  1. Targeting of Adenosine Receptors in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Laubach, Victor E.; French, Brent A.; Okusa, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical problem after transplantation as well as myocardial infarction and stroke. IR initiates an inflammatory response leading to rapid tissue damage. Adenosine, produced in response to IR, is generally considered as a protective signaling molecule and elicits its physiological responses through four distinct adenosine receptors. The short half-life, lack of specificity, and rapid metabolism limits the use of adenosine as a therapeutic agent. Thus intense research efforts have focused on the synthesis and implementation of specific adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of inflammatory conditions including IR injury. Areas covered by this review This review summarizes current knowledge on IR injury with a focus on lung, heart, and kidney, and examines studies that have advanced our understanding of the role of adenosine receptors and the therapeutic potential of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists for the prevention of IR injury. What the reader will gain The reader will gain insight into the role of adenosine receptor signaling in IR injury. Take home message No clinical therapies are currently available that specifically target IR injury; however, targeting of specific adenosine receptors may offer therapeutic strategies in this regard. PMID:21110787

  2. Molecular structure of tetraaqua adenosine 5'-triphosphate aluminium(III) complex: A study involving Raman spectroscopy, theoretical DFT and potentiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenório, Thaís; Silva, Andréa M.; Ramos, Joanna Maria; Buarque, Camilla D.; Felcman, Judith

    2013-03-01

    The Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases that affect elderly population, due to the formation of β-amyloid protein aggregate and several symptoms, especially progressive cognitive decline. The result is a decrease in capture of glucose by cells leading to obliteration, meddling in the Krebs cycle, the principal biochemical route to the energy production leading to a decline in the levels of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Aluminium(III) is connected to Alzheimer's and its ion provides raise fluidity of the plasma membrane, decrease cell viability and aggregation of amyloid plaques. Studies reveal that AlATP complex promotes the formation of reactive fibrils of β-amyloid protein and independent amyloidogenic peptides, suggesting the action of the complex as a chaperone in the role pathogenic process. In this research, one of complexes formed by Al(III) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate in aqueous solution is analyzed by potentiometry, Raman spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The value of the log KAlATP found was 9.21 ± 0.01 and adenosine 5'-triphosphate should act as a bidentate ligand in the complex. Raman spectroscopy and potentiometry indicate that donor atoms are the oxygen of the phosphate β and the oxygen of the phosphate γ, the terminal phosphates. Computational calculations using Density Functional Theory, with hybrid functions B3LYP and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set regarding water solvent effects, have confirmed the results. Frontier molecular orbitals, electrostatic potential contour surface, electrostatic potential mapped and Mulliken charges of the title molecule were also investigated.

  3. Adenosine receptors and asthma in humans.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C N

    2008-10-01

    According to an executive summary of the GINA dissemination committee report, it is now estimated that approximately 300 million people (5% of the global population or 1 in 20 persons) have asthma. Despite the scientific progress made over the past several decades toward improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, there is still a great need for improved therapies, particularly oral therapies that enhance patient compliance and that target new mechanisms of action. Adenosine is an important signalling molecule in human asthma. By acting on extracellular G-protein-coupled ARs on a number of different cell types important in the pathophysiology of human asthma, adenosine affects bronchial reactivity, inflammation and airway remodelling. Four AR subtypes (A(1), A(2a), A(2b) and A(3)) have been cloned in humans, are expressed in the lung, and are all targets for drug development for human asthma. This review summarizes what is known about these AR subtypes and their function in human asthma as well as the pros and cons of therapeutic approaches to these AR targets. A number of molecules with high affinity and high selectivity for the human AR subtypes have entered clinical trials or are poised to enter clinical trials as anti-asthma treatments. With the availability of these molecules for testing in humans, the function of ARs in human asthma, as well as the safety and efficacy of approaches to the different AR targets, can now be determined. PMID:18852693

  4. PGC-1α regulates the cell cycle through ATP and ROS in CH1 cells* #

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xu-feng; Yao, Kun; Du, Xing; Li, Yan; Yang, Xiu-yu; Yu, Min; Li, Mei-zhang; Cui, Qing-hua

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, respiratory capacity, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). PGC-1α plays an important role in cellular metabolism and is associated with tumorigenesis, suggesting an involvement in cell cycle progression. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating its involvement in these processes remain unclear. To elucidate the signaling pathways involved in PGC-1α function, we established a cell line, CH1 PGC-1α, which stably overexpresses PGC-1α. Using this cell line, we found that over-expression of PGC-1α stimulated extra adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These effects were accompanied by up-regulation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulators CyclinD1 and CyclinB1. We hypothesized that ATP and ROS function as cellular signals to regulate cyclins and control cell cycle progression. Indeed, we found that reduction of ATP levels down-regulated CyclinD1 but not CyclinB1, whereas elevation of ROS levels down-regulated CyclinB1 but not CyclinD1. Furthermore, both low ATP levels and elevated ROS levels inhibited cell growth, but PGC-1α was maintained at a constant level. Together, these results demonstrate that PGC-1α regulates cell cycle progression through modulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinB1 by ATP and ROS. These findings suggest that PGC-1α potentially coordinates energy metabolism together with the cell cycle. PMID:26834014

  5. Recombinant production and purification of the subunit c of chloroplast ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Varco-Merth, Benjamin; Bley, Christopher J.; Chen, Julian J.-L.; Fromme, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In chloroplasts, the multimeric ATP synthase produces the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that is required for photosynthetic metabolism. The synthesis of ATP is mechanically coupled to the rotation of a ring of c-subunits, which is imbedded in the thylakoid membrane. The rotation of this c-subunit ring is driven by the translocation of protons across this membrane, along an electrochemical gradient. The ratio of protons translocated to ATP synthesized varies according to the number of c-subunits (n) per oligomeric ring (cn) in the enzyme, which is organism dependent. Although this ratio is inherently related to the metabolism of the organism, the exact cause of the cn variability is not well understood. In order to investigate the factors that may contribute to this stoichiometric variation, we have developed a recombinant bacterial expression and column purification system for the c1 monomeric subunit. Using a plasmid with a codon optimized gene insert, the hydrophobic c1 subunit is first expressed as a soluble MBP-c1 fusion protein, then cleaved from the maltose binding protein (MBP) and purified on a reversed phase column. This novel approach enables the soluble expression of an eukaryotic membrane protein in BL21 derivative Escherichia coli cells. We have obtained significant quantities of highly purified c1 subunit using these methods, and we have confirmed that the purified c1 has the correct alpha-helical secondary structure. This work will enable further investigation into the undefined factors that affect the c-ring stoichiometry and structure. The c-subunit chosen for this work is that of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplast ATP synthase. PMID:21040791

  6. The Role of Adenosine Signaling in Sickle Cell Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Field, Joshua J.; Nathan, David G.; Linden, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Recent data suggest a role for adenosine signaling in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD). Signaling through the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has demonstrated beneficial effects in SCD. Activation of A2ARs decreases inflammation in mice and patients with SCD largely by blocking activation of invariant NKT cells. Decreased inflammation may reduce the severity of vaso-occlusive crises. In contrast, adenosine signaling through the A2B receptor (A2BR) may be detrimental for patients with SCD. Priapism and the formation of sickle erythrocytes may be a consequence of A2BR activation on corpus cavernosal cells and erythrocytes, respectively. Whether adenosine signaling predominantly occurs through A2ARs or A2BRs may depend on differing levels of adenosine and disease state (steady state versus crisis). There may be opportunities to develop novel therapeutic approaches targeting A2ARs and/or A2BRs for patients with SCD. PMID:24589267

  7. Chronic benzodiazepine treatment and cortical responses to adenosine and GABA.

    PubMed

    Mally, J; Connick, J H; Stone, T W

    1990-10-22

    The effects of chronic treatment of mice with clonazepam have been examined on the responses of neocortical slices to adenosine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Responses to these agonists were measured as changes in the depolarisation induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Added to the superfusion medium diazepam blocked responses to adenosine but not 5-HT; this effect was not observed with 2-chloroadenosine or in the presence of 2-hydroxynitrobenzylthioguanosine. GABA was inactive in control slices but chronic treatment with clonazepam induced responses to GABA and enhanced responses to adenosine but not 5-HT. It is suggested that the induction of GABA responses may reflect the up-regulation of GABA receptors, but the increase of adenosine responses by clonazepam implies that there is no simple relationship between adenosine receptor binding and functional responses. PMID:1979931

  8. Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Rathmacher, John A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Shelley, Mack C; Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-07-01

    Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p < 0.001). In a similar fashion, strength gains after training were increased in HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented subjects by 23.5% (p < 0.001). Vertical jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who

  9. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J. Patrick; Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Merkx, Remco; Huang, Jessica; Chatterjee, Champak; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and proteinmore » degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world’s most devastating pathogens.« less

  10. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J. Patrick; Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Merkx, Remco; Huang, Jessica; Chatterjee, Champak; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P.; Li, Huilin; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-03-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and protein degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world’s most devastating pathogens.

  11. Production and utilization of dissolved adenosine 5'-triphosphate in marine and freshwater ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved adenosine triphosphate (DATP) were influenced primarily by in situ biological processes such as uptake by heterotrophic microorganisms and release by either phytoplankton or zooplankton or through zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions. Rapid turnover of dissolved ATP via uptake by bacterioplankton was observed in an estuary (Sapelo Island, Georgia) and two freshwater lakes (Lake Oglethorpe, Georgia and Lago Lake, Georgia). Turnover times for DATP, based on microbial assimilation of (/sup 3/H)ATP, were on the order of hours to days in all three environments. DATP was not taken up intact by the natural microbial populations; rather, it was degraded to adenine, ribose and inorganic phosphate prior to or during transport. The primary mechanism for DATP uptake was via dephosphorylation of the nucleotide and cleavage of resultant nucleoside to adenine and ribose which then entered the cells by separate transport systems. The rate of DATP assimilation by freshwater microorganisms varied markedly-over a diel cycle. Results from microcosm experiments in which the authors compared the rates of DATP release by phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas sp.) alone, zooplankton (Daphnia sp.) alone or phytoplankton and zooplankton together under feeding conditions supported those hypotheses. Net extracellular release of DATP by Chlamydomonas was negligible in short-term experiments, and in systems containing both Daphnia and Chlamydomonas, changes in DATP over time were approximately 3-fold greater than the sum of changes observed in systems containing either organism alone.

  12. A Graphene and Aptamer Based Liquid Gated FET-Like Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Adenosine Triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Meshik, Xenia; Choi, Min; Farid, Sidra; Datta, Debopam; Lan, Yi; Poduri, Shripriya; Sarkar, Ketaki; Baterdene, Undarmaa; Huang, Ching-En; Wang, Yung Yu; Burke, Peter; Dutta, Mitra; Stroscio, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Here we report successful demonstration of a FET-like electrochemical nano-biosensor to accurately detect ultralow concentrations of adenosine triphosphate. As a 2D material, graphene is a promising candidate due to its large surface area, biocompatibility, and demonstrated surface binding chemistries and has been employed as the conducting channel. A short 20-base DNA aptamer is used as the sensing element to ensure that the interaction between the analyte and the aptamer occurs within the Debye length of the electrolyte (PBS). Significant increase in the drain current with progressive addition of ATP is observed whereas for control experiments, no distinct change in the drain current occurs. The sensor is found to be highly sensitive in the nanomolar (nM) to micromolar ( μM) range with a high sensitivity of 2.55 μA (mM) (-1), a detection limit as low as 10 pM, and it has potential application in medical and biological settings to detect low traces of ATP. This simplistic design strategy can be further extended to efficiently detect a broad range of other target analytes. PMID:26595926

  13. Genetics and complementation of Haemophilus influenzae mutants deficient in adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent nuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, J; Small, G D; Setlow, J K; Shapanka, R

    1976-01-01

    Eight different mutations in Haemophilus influenzae leading to deficiency in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent nuclease have been investigated in strains in which the mutations of the originally mutagenized strains have been transferred into the wild type. Sensitivity to mitomycin C and deoxycholate and complementation between extracts and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent ATPase activity have been measured. Genetic crosses have provided information on the relative position of the mutations on the genome. There are three complementation groups, corresponding to three genetic groups. The strains most sensitive to mitomycin and deoxycholate, derived from mutants originally selected on the basis of sensitivity to mitomycin C or methyl methanesulfonate, are in one group. Apparently all these sensitive strains lack DNA-dependent ATPase activity, as does a strain intermediate in sensitivity to deoxycholate, which is the sole representative of another group. There are four strains that are relatively resistant to deoxycholate and mitomycin C, and all of these contain the ATPase activity. Three of these are in the same genetic and complementation group, whereas the other incongruously belongs in the same group as the sensitive strains. It is postulated that there are three cistrons in H. influenzae that code for the three known subunits of the ATP-dependent nuclease. PMID:177397

  14. An adenosine kinase inhibitor, ABT-702, inhibits spinal nociceptive transmission by adenosine release via equilibrative nucleoside transporters in rat.

    PubMed

    Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Tomonari, Yuki; Otsuka, Saori; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Kon, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-10-01

    Adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitor is a potential candidate for controlling pain, but some AK inhibitors have problems of adverse effects such as motor impairment. ABT-702, a non-nucleoside AK inhibitor, shows analgesic effect in animal models of pain. Here, we investigated the effects of ABT-702 on synaptic transmission via nociceptive and motor reflex pathways in the isolated spinal cord of neonatal rats. The release of adenosine from the spinal cord was measured by HPLC. ABT-702 inhibited slow ventral root potentials (sVRPs) in the nociceptive pathway more potently than monosynaptic reflex potentials (MSRs) in the motor reflex pathway. The inhibitory effects of ABT-702 were mimicked by exogenously applied adenosine, blocked by 8CPT (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and augmented by EHNA (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine), an adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) inhibitors reversed the effects of ABT-702, but not those of adenosine. ABT-702 released adenosine from the spinal cord, an effect that was also reversed by ENT inhibitors. The ABT-702-facilitated release of adenosine by way of ENTs inhibits nociceptive pathways more potently than motor reflex pathways in the spinal cord via activation of A1 receptors. This feature is expected to lead to good analgesic effects, but, caution may be required for the use of AK inhibitors in the case of ADA dysfunction or a combination with ENT inhibitors. PMID:26066576

  15. Adenosine receptor signaling: a key to opening the blood-brain door.

    PubMed

    Bynoe, Margaret S; Viret, Christophe; Yan, Angela; Kim, Do-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline evidence that adenosine receptor (AR) activation can modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the implications for disease states and drug delivery. Barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute a protective and regulatory interface between the CNS and the rest of the organism. Such barriers allow for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the CNS milieu. Among them, the BBB is a highly efficient permeability barrier that separates the brain micro-environment from the circulating blood. It is made up of tight junction-connected endothelial cells with specialized transporters to selectively control the passage of nutrients required for neural homeostasis and function, while preventing the entry of neurotoxic factors. The identification of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development and function of CNS barriers is required for a better understanding of CNS homeostasis in both physiological and pathological settings. It has long been recognized that the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is a potent modulator of a large number of neurological functions. More recently, experimental studies conducted with human/mouse brain primary endothelial cells as well as with mouse models, indicate that adenosine markedly regulates BBB permeability. Extracellular adenosine, which is efficiently generated through the catabolism of ATP via the CD39/CD73 ecto-nucleotidase axis, promotes BBB permeability by signaling through A1 and A2A ARs expressed on BBB cells. In line with this hypothesis, induction of AR signaling by selective agonists efficiently augments BBB permeability in a transient manner and promotes the entry of macromolecules into the CNS. Conversely, antagonism of AR signaling blocks the entry of inflammatory cells and soluble factors into the brain. Thus, AR modulation of the BBB appears as a system susceptible to tighten as well as to permeabilize the BBB. Collectively, these findings point

  16. RNA–protein crosslinking to AMP residues at internal positions in RNA with a new photocrosslinking ATP analog

    PubMed Central

    Costas, Celina; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Meyer, Karen L.; Guion, Tina S.; Hanna, Michelle M.

    2000-01-01

    A new photocrosslinking purine analog was synthesized and evaluated as a transcription substrate for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. This analog, 8-[(4-azidophenacyl)thio]adenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-APAS-ATP) contains an aryl azide photocrosslinking group that is attached to the ATP base via a sulfur-linked arm on the 8 position of the purine ring. This position is not involved in the normal Watson–Crick base pairing needed for specific hybridization. Although 8-APAS-ATP could not replace ATP as a substrate for transcription initiation, once stable elongation complexes were formed, 8-APAS-AMP could be site-specifically incorporated into the RNA, and this transcript could be further elongated, placing the photoreactive analog at internal positions in the RNA. Irradiation of transcription elongation complexes in which the RNA contained the analog exclusively at the 3′ end of an RNA 22mer, or a 23mer with the analog 1 nt from the 3′ end, produced RNA crosslinks to the RNA polymerase subunits that form the RNA 3′ end binding site (β,β′). Both 8-APAS-AMP and the related 8-azido-AMP were subjected to conformational modeling as nucleoside monophosphates and in DNA–RNA hybrids. Surprisingly, the lowest energy conformation for 8-APAS-AMP was found to be syn, while that of 8-azido-AMP was anti, suggesting that the conformational properties and transcription substrate properties of 8-azido-ATP should be re-evaluated. Although the azide and linker together are larger in 8-APAS-ATP than in 8-N3-ATP, the flexibility of the linker itself allows this analog to adopt several different energetically favorable conformations, making it a good substrate for the RNA polymerase. PMID:10756182

  17. RNA-protein crosslinking to AMP residues at internal positions in RNA with a new photocrosslinking ATP analog.

    PubMed

    Costas, C; Yuriev, E; Meyer, K L; Guion, T S; Hanna, M M

    2000-05-01

    A new photocrosslinking purine analog was synthesized and evaluated as a transcription substrate for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. This analog, 8-[(4-azidophenacyl)thio]adenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-APAS-ATP) contains an aryl azide photocrosslinking group that is attached to the ATP base via a sulfur-linked arm on the 8 position of the purine ring. This position is not involved in the normal Watson-Crick base pairing needed for specific hybridization. Although 8-APAS-ATP could not replace ATP as a substrate for transcription initiation, once stable elongation complexes were formed, 8-APAS-AMP could be site-specifically incorporated into the RNA, and this transcript could be further elongated, placing the photoreactive analog at internal positions in the RNA. Irradiation of transcription elongation complexes in which the RNA contained the analog exclusively at the 3' end of an RNA 22mer, or a 23mer with the analog 1 nt from the 3' end, produced RNA crosslinks to the RNA polymerase subunits that form the RNA 3' end binding site (beta, beta'). Both 8-APAS-AMP and the related 8-azido-AMP were subjected to conformational modeling as nucleoside monophosphates and in DNA-RNA hybrids. Surprisingly, the lowest energy conformation for 8-APAS-AMP was found to be syn, while that of 8-azido-AMP was anti, suggesting that the conformational properties and transcription substrate properties of 8-azido-ATP should be re-evaluated. Although the azide and linker together are larger in 8-APAS-ATP than in 8-N(3)-ATP, the flexibility of the linker itself allows this analog to adopt several different energetically favorable conformations, making it a good substrate for the RNA polymerase. PMID:10756182

  18. Effects of cyanide and uncouplers on chemoreceptor activity and ATP content of the cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Obeso, A; Almaraz, L; Gonzalez, C

    1989-03-01

    In cat carotid bodies (c.b.'s) incubated in vitro with [3H]tyrosine to label the stores of catecholamines, it was found that CN promotes dose- and Ca2+-dependent release of [3H]dopamine (DA) from c.b. tissues in parallel to the increased electrical activity recorded from the carotid sinus nerve (c.s.n.). Two different uncouplers, dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl-cyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP), both activate also in a dose-dependent fashion, release of DA and electrical activity in the c.s.n. However, while cyanide (CN) (10(-4) M) applied during 5 min reduced the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the c.b. by 45%, DNP (2.5 x 10(-4) M) and CCCP (10(-6) M) applied for the same period of time did not modify the ATP levels of the organ. At the above concentrations, the 3 agents increased about 8-fold the electrical activity recorded from the c.s.n. Thus, contrary to the postulates of the metabolic hypotheses, our findings indicate that the decrease in the ATP content in the c.b. is not a prerequisite for the activation of the chemoreceptors. We propose alternative mechanisms to explain the chemostimulant action of the metabolic poisons. PMID:2720379

  19. ATP-stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate nanospheres and their application in protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2014-05-28

    Calcium carbonate is a common substance found in rocks worldwide, and is the main biomineral formed in shells of marine organisms and snails, pearls and eggshells. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is the least stable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which is so unstable under normal conditions that it is difficult to be prepared in vitro because it rapidly crystallizes to form one of the more stable polymorphs in aqueous solution. Herein, we report the successful synthesis of highly stable ACC nanospheres in vitro using adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as a stabilizer. The effect of ATP on the stability of ACC nanospheres is investigated. Our experiments show that ATP plays an unique role in the stabilization of ACC nanospheres in aqueous solution. Moreover, the as-prepared ACC nanospheres are highly stable in phosphate buffered saline for a relatively long period of time (12 days) even under relatively high concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. The cytotoxicity tests show that the as-prepared highly stable ACC nanospheres have excellent biocompatibility. The highly stable ACC nanospheres have high protein adsorption capacity, implying that they are promising for applications in biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. PMID:24578276

  20. Phosphorylation Hypothesis: A Fourth Sink of ATP for Cellular Information Processing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule is used in living cells as a universal ``energy currency.'' The Gibbs free energy liberated from hydrolysis reaction of ATP to ADP + Pi is used for (a) biosynthesis, (b) ionic and neutral molecular pumping, and (c) mechanical movement. They are known collectively as the three major energy sinks at the cellular level. Using biochemical activities of various enzymes, a cell carries out information processing, known as signal transduction. Essentially all signal transduction reactions also require ATP (or GTP) hydrolysis. In the past, such energy dissipative reactions are considered as ``futile.'' However, it is clear that the free energy derived from a futile cycle is used to correct errors in biomolecular recognition, improve robustness in cell development, overcome Boltzmann's equilibrium law of probability, and drive Maxwell's demons (one notes that Gibbs' chemical potential is a thermodynamic force without mechanical interpretation). The free energy involved in processing information will be explained in terms of stochastic entropy production -- the central concept in irreversible and nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS) thermodynamics.

  1. Mg2+ coordinating dynamics in Mg:ATP fueled motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    The coordination of Mg2+ with the triphosphate group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in motor proteins is investigated using data mining and molecular dynamics. The possible coordination structures available from crystal data for actin, myosin, RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, DNA helicase, and F1-ATPase are verified and investigated further by molecular dynamics. Coordination states are evaluated using structural analysis and quantified by radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and pair interaction energy calculations. The results reveal a diverse range of both transitory and stable coordination arrangements between Mg2+ and ATP. The two most stable coordinating states occur when Mg2+ coordinates two or three oxygens from the triphosphate group of ATP. Evidence for five-site coordination is also reported involving water in addition to the triphosphate group. The stable states correspond to a pair interaction energy of either ˜-2750 kJ/mol or -3500 kJ/mol. The role of water molecules in the hydration shell surrounding Mg2+ is also reported.

  2. Thermodynamics of proton transport coupled ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Turina, Paola; Petersen, Jan; Gräber, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamic H(+)/ATP ratio of the H(+)-ATP synthase from chloroplasts was measured in proteoliposomes after energization of the membrane by an acid base transition (Turina et al. 2003 [13], 418-422). The method is discussed, and all published data obtained with this system are combined and analyzed as a single dataset. This meta-analysis led to the following results. 1) At equilibrium, the transmembrane ΔpH is energetically equivalent to the transmembrane electric potential difference. 2) The standard free energy for ATP synthesis (reference reaction) is ΔG°ref=33.8±1.3kJ/mol. 3) The thermodynamic H(+)/ATP ratio, as obtained from the shift of the ATP synthesis equilibrium induced by changing the transmembrane ΔpH (varying either pHin or pHout) is 4.0±0.1. The structural H(+)/ATP ratio, calculated from the ratio of proton binding sites on the c-subunit-ring in F0 to the catalytic nucleotide binding sites on the β-subunits in F1, is c/β=14/3=4.7. We infer that the energy of 0.7 protons per ATP that flow through the enzyme, but do not contribute to shifting the ATP/(ADP·Pi) ratio, is used for additional processes within the enzyme, such as activation, and/or energy dissipation, due e.g. to internal uncoupling. The ratio between the thermodynamic and the structural H(+)/ATP values is 0.85, and we conclude that this value represents the efficiency of the chemiosmotic energy conversion within the chloroplast H(+)-ATP synthase. PMID:26940516

  3. Chaperoning of the A1-adenosine receptor by endogenous adenosine - an extension of the retaliatory metabolite concept.

    PubMed

    Kusek, Justyna; Yang, Qiong; Witek, Martin; Gruber, Christian W; Nanoff, Christian; Freissmuth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cell-permeable orthosteric ligands can assist folding of G protein-coupled receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); this pharmacochaperoning translates into increased cell surface levels of receptors. Here we used a folding-defective mutant of human A1-adenosine receptor as a sensor to explore whether endogenously produced adenosine can exert a chaperoning effect. This A1-receptor-Y(288)A was retained in the ER of stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells but rapidly reached the plasma membrane in cells incubated with an A1 antagonist. This was phenocopied by raising intracellular adenosine levels with a combination of inhibitors of adenosine kinase, adenosine deaminase, and the equilibrative nucleoside transporter: mature receptors with complex glycosylation accumulated at the cell surface and bound to an A1-selective antagonist with an affinity indistinguishable from the wild-type A1 receptor. The effect of the inhibitor combination was specific, because it did not result in enhanced surface levels of two folding-defective human V2-vasopressin receptor mutants, which were susceptible to pharmacochaperoning by their cognate antagonist. Raising cellular adenosine levels by subjecting cells to hypoxia (5% O2) reproduced chaperoning by the inhibitor combination and enhanced surface expression of A1-receptor-Y(288)A within 1 hour. These findings were recapitulated for the wild-type A1 receptor. Taken together, our observations document that endogenously formed adenosine can chaperone its cognate A1 receptor. This results in a positive feedback loop that has implications for the retaliatory metabolite concept of adenosine action: if chaperoning by intracellular adenosine results in elevated cell surface levels of A1 receptors, these cells will be more susceptible to extracellular adenosine and thus more likely to cope with metabolic distress. PMID:25354767

  4. Trypanosoma brucei Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase Protects the Parasite from the Antitrypanosomal Effect of Deoxyadenosine: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHARMACOLOGY OF ADENOSINE ANTIMETABOLITES.

    PubMed

    Vodnala, Munender; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Pavlova, Anna; de Koning, Harry P; Hofer, Anders

    2016-05-27

    Trypanosoma brucei causes African sleeping sickness for which no vaccine exists and available treatments are of limited use due to their high toxicity or lack of efficacy. T. brucei cultivated in the presence of deoxyadenosine accumulates high levels of dATP in an adenosine kinase-dependent process and dies within a few hours. Here we show that T. brucei treated with 1 mm deoxyadenosine accumulates higher dATP levels than mammalian cells but that this effect diminishes quickly as the concentration of the deoxynucleoside decreases. Radioactive tracer studies showed that the parasites are partially protected against lower concentrations of deoxyadenosine by the ability to cleave it and use the adenine for ATP synthesis. T. brucei methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (TbMTAP) was found to be responsible for the cleavage as indicated by the phosphate dependence of deoxyadenosine cleavage in T. brucei cell extracts and increased deoxyadenosine sensitivity in TbMTAP knockdown cells. Recombinant TbMTAP exhibited higher turnover number (kcat) and Km values for deoxyadenosine than for the regular substrate, methylthioadenosine. One of the reaction products, adenine, inhibited the enzyme, which might explain why TbMTAP-mediated protection is less efficient at higher deoxyadenosine concentrations. Consequently, T. brucei grown in the presence of adenine demonstrated increased sensitivity to deoxyadenosine. For deoxyadenosine/adenosine analogues to remain intact and be active against the parasite, they need to either be resistant to TbMTAP-mediated cleavage, which is the case with the three known antitrypanosomal agents adenine arabinoside, tubercidin, and cordycepin, or they need to be combined with TbMTAP inhibitors. PMID:27036940

  5. Purinergic Autocrine Regulation of Mechanosensitivity and Serotonin Release in a Human EC Model: ATP-gated P2X3 Channels in EC are Downregulated in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Liñán-Rico, Andrómeda; Wunderlich, Jacqueline E.; Grants, Iveta S.; Frankel, Wendy L.; Xue, Jianjing; Williams, Kent C.; Harzman, Alan E.; Enneking, Joshua T.; Cooke, Helen J.; Christofi, Fievos L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alterations in 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT) signaling in inflamed gut may contribute to pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) regulates mucosal-mechanosensory reflexes and ATP receptors are sensitive to mucosal inflammation. Yet, it remains unknown whether ATP can modulate 5-HT signaling in enterochromaffin cells (EC). We tested the novel purinergic hypothesis that ATP is a critical autocrine regulator of EC mechanosensitivity and whether EC expression of ATP-gated P2X3-ion channels is altered in inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods Laser confocal (fluo-4) Ca2+ imaging was performed in 1947 BON cells. Chemical stimulation or mechanical stimulation (MS) was used to study 5-HT or ATP release in human BON or surgical mucosal specimens, and purine receptors by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western Blot, or P2X3-immunoreactivity in BON or 5-HT+ human EC (hEC) in 11 control and 10 severely inflamed ulcerative colitis (UC) cases. Results ATP or MS triggered Ca2+-transients or 5-HT release in BON. ATP or adenosine diphosphate increased 5-HT release 5-fold. MS caused ATP release, detected after 5′ecto-ATPase inhibition by ARL67156. ARL67156 augmented and apyrase blocked Ca2+/5-HT mechanosensitive responses. 2-Methyl-thio-adenosine diphosphate 5′-monophosphate-evoked (P2Y1,12) or mechanically-evoked responses were blocked or augmented by a P2Y1,12 antagonist, MRS2179, in different cells or inhibited by U73122. A P2Y12 antagonist, 2MeSAMP, augmented responses. A P2X1,3 agonist, α,β-MeATP, triggered Ca2+ responses, whereas a P2X1,2/3,3 antagonist, 2′,3′-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP, blocked mechanical responses or cell-surface 5′ATP-TR labeling. In hEC, α,β-MeATP stimulated 5-HT release. In UC, P2X3-immunoreactivity decreased from 15% to 0.2% of 5-HT+hECs. Human mucosa and BON expressed P2X1, P2X3, P2X4, P2X5, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, and P2Y12R-messenger RNA transcripts. Conclusions ATP is

  6. Hydrogen sulfide decreases adenosine triphosphate levels in aortic rings and leads to vasorelaxation via metabolic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Levente; Deitch, Edwin A; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Aims Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low concentrations serves as a physiological endogenous vasodilator molecule, while at higher concentrations it can trigger cytotoxic effects. The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential mechanisms responsible for the effects of H2S on vascular tone. Main methods We measured the vascular tone in vitro in precontracted rat thoracic aortic rings and we have tested the effect of different oxygen levels and a variety of inhibitors affecting known vasodilatory pathways. We have also compared the vascular effect of high concentrations of H2S to those of pharmacological inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, we measured adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-levels in the same vascular tissues. Key findings We have found that in rat aortic rings: (1) H2S decreases ATP levels; (2) relaxations to H2S depend on the ambient oxygen concentration; (3) prostaglandins do not take part in the H2S induced relaxations; (4) the 3':5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) – nitric oxide (NO) pathway does not have a role in the relaxations (5) the role of KATP channels is limited, while Cl−/HCO3− channels have a role in the relaxations. (6): We have observed that high concentrations of H2S relax the aortic rings in a fashion similar to sodium cyanide, and both agents reduce cellular ATP levels to a comparable degree. Significance H2S, a new gasotransmitter of emerging importance, leads to relaxation via Cl−/HCO3− channels and metabolic inhibition and the interactions of these two factors depend on the oxygen levels of the tissue. PMID:18790700

  7. Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5’-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a ‘calm down’ signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001 PMID:24668173

  8. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73(+/+)) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73(-/-)) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73(+/+) mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73(+/+) mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg(2+) conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73(-/-) mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  9. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73+/+) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73−/−) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73+/+ mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73+/+ mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg2+ conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73−/− mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  10. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:25622891

  11. Adenosine triphosphate released from HIV-infected macrophages regulates glutamatergic tone and dendritic spine density on neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B.; Kolson, Dennis L.; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Drewes, Julia; Graham, David R.; Haughey, Norman J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide spread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in developed countries, approximately half of HIV-infected patients will develop impairments in cognitive function. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal dysfunction can be precipitated by HIV-infection of macrophages by mechanisms that involve alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses. HIV-infection of macrophages is known to increase the release of soluble neurotoxins. However, the composition of products released from infected macrophages is complex and not fully known. In this study we provide evidence that ATP and other immuno-/neuromodulatory nucleotides are exported from HIV-infected macrophages and modify neuronal structure. Supernatants collected from HIV-infected macrophages (HIV/MDM) contained large amounts of ATP, ADP, AMP and small amounts of adenosine, in addition to glutamate. Dilutions of these supernatants that were sub-threshold for glutamate receptor activation evoked rapid calcium flux in neurons that were completely inhibited by the enzymatic degradation of ATP, or by blockade of calcium permeable purinergic receptors. Applications of these high-dilution HIV/MDM onto neuronal cultures increased the amount of extracellular glutamate by mechanisms dependent on purinergic receptor activation, and downregulated s