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Sample records for adenosine triphosphatase atpase

  1. Halobacterial adenosine triphosphatases and the adenosine triphosphatase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Sadler, Martha H.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared from various members of the genus Halobacterium contained a Triton X-l00 activated adenosine triphosphatase. The enzyme from Halobacterium saccharovorum was unstable in solutions of low ionic strength and maximally active in the presence of 3.5 M NaCl. A variety of nucleotide triphosphates was hydrolyzed. MgADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, was not hydrolyzed and was a competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum was composed of at least 2 and possibly 4 subunits. The 83-kDa and 60-kDa subunits represented about 90 percent of total protein. The 60-kDa subunit reacted with dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide when inhibition was carried out in an acidic medium. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum, possesses properties of an F(1)F(0) as well as an E(1)E(2) ATPase.

  2. Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+ hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages. PMID:25105011

  3. Effects of DDT on eggshell quality and calcium adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kolaja, G J; Hinton, D E

    1977-11-01

    Adult mallard ducks were fed a diet containing 50 ppm DDT for 6 months. Eggs laid during this period were collected and eggshell weight, thickness, and calcium were determined. Chronic ingestion of DDT resulted in production of eggshells that were significantly thinner and lighter than those of controls. Total calcium of thinned eggshells was also reduced; however, calcium per gram of eggshell was not altered, indicating that other eggshell constituents were not incorporated as well. Calcium adenosine triphosphatase activity in the microsomal fraction of eggshell gland epithelium was assayed in control and DDT-fed ducks. Enzyme activity in DDT-fed ducks was reduced to 65% of control values. Since Ca-ATPase has been shown to be associated with calcium transport, enzyme inhibition may be responsible for decreased eggshell weight and thickness. Electron microscopic evaluation of microsomal fractions showed elements of the plasma membrane, including cilia and microvilli, as well as rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Inhibition of calcium transport at the plasma membrane of mucosal epithelium is proposed as a possible mechanism of DDT-induced eggshell thinning.

  4. Increased sodium plus potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity in erythrocyte membranes in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, D A; Oeswein, J Q; Prunty, M E; Hisle, K C; Markesbery, W R

    1978-07-01

    Dopa-decarboxylase, acetylcholinesterase, sodium plus potassium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ + K+-ATPase), and membrane-bound protein kinase were compared in the erythrocytes of patients with Huntington's disease and normal controls. All these enzymes also exist in the basal ganglia. The Na+ +K+-ATPase level was elevated (p less than 0.05) in Huntington's disease, while no significant changes were observed in the other enzymes. This finding is consistent with the concept that Huntington's disease is associated with a general membrane abnormality.

  5. Modulatory action of α-tocopherol on erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase against radiation damage in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Chitra, Subramaniam; Shyamaladevi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the possible effects of α-tocopherol on erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatases against radiation damage in oral cancer patients. Adenosine triphosphatase activities were analysed in oral cancer patients before and after radiotherapy (at a dosage of 6000 cGY in five fractions per week for a period of six weeks) and after supplemented with α-tocopherol (400 IU per day for entire period of radiotherapy). The membrane bound enzymes such as Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and some trace elements were altered in oral cancer patients before and after radiotherapy. Supplemented with α-tocopherol modulates the erythrocyte membrane which is damaged by radiotherapy which suggests that α-tocopherol protects the erythrocyte membrane from radiation damage in oral cancer patients.

  6. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin.

  7. The significance of inhibitor-resistant alkaline phosphatase in the cytochemical demonstration of transport adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Firth, J A; Marland, B Y

    1975-08-01

    The hydrolysis of disodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 9.0 by slices of formaldehydee-fixed rat renal cortex was investigated by colorimetric estimation of the nitrophenol liberated. It was found that three types of activity could be identified on the basis of their responses to inhibitors and cations: (a) alkaline phosphatase sensitive to inhibition by L-tetramisole; (b) potassium-dependent phosphatase, probably identifiable with the phosphatase component of sodium-potassium-dependent transport adenosine triphosphatase (?Na-K-ATPase); and (c) alkaline phosphatase insensitive to L-tetramisole. It was found that in the presence of strontium ions, as used in Na-K-ATPase cytochemistry, the activities of the second and third types of enzyme were approximately equal. The implications of these findings for the cytochemical demonstration of Na-K-ATPase are discussed.

  8. Renal Sodium- and Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase and Sodium Reabsorption in the Hypothyroid Rat

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adrian I.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between net tubular reabsorption of sodium and renal microsomal sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) was evaluated in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Tubular sodium reabsorption per gram of kidney was lower in thyroidectomized rats than in controls (186±14 vs. 246±12 μeq/min; P < 0.005) and was accompanied by a quantitatively similar reduction in Na-K-ATPase specific activity (49.4±2.4 vs. 65.8±2.3 μmol inorganic phosphate (Pt)/mg protein per h; P < 0.001). This decrement was present in both cortex and outer medulla, and was limited to Na-K-ATPase since other representative enzymes not involved in sodium transport (magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase [Mg-ATPase], glucose-6-phosphatase, 5′-nucleotidase) remained unchanged or increased in the hypothyroid animals. Conversely, Na-K-ATPase rose when sodium reabsorption increased in euthyroid rats treated with triiodothyronine. Subsequent experiments were performed to determine to what extent the decrease in Na-K-ATPase is due to lack of thyroid hormone per se or to an adaptive response to decreased reabsorptive sodium load. Triiodothyronine in concentrations of 10-12 to 10-5 M had no effect in vitro on microsomal Na-K-ATPase of either thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats. When hypothyroid rats were uninephrectomized or treated with methylprednisolone, sodium reabsorption per gram kidney increased markedly and was similar to that of intact controls. Despite persistence of the hypothyroid state, Na-K-ATPase specific activity also increased to levels not significantly different from euthyroid animals. These data suggest that decreased tubular sodium transport is a major determinant of the reduction in renal Na-K-ATPase in thyroid deficiency since the latter can be reversed by increasing sodium reabsorption during continuing hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the modest sodium leak of hypothyroid animals does not appear to

  9. Cholinergic stimulation of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase as revealed by microphysiometry.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D L; Olson, J C; Parce, J W; Owicki, J C

    1993-01-01

    The activation of a wide range of cellular receptors has been detected previously using a novel instrument, the microphysiometer. In this study microphysiometry was used to monitor the basal and cholinergic-stimulated activity of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (the Na+/K+ pump) in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671. Manipulations of Na+/K+ ATPase activity with ouabain or removal of extracellular K+ revealed that this ion pump was responsible for 8.8 +/- 0.7% of the total cellular energy utilization by those cells as monitored by the production of acid metabolites. Activation of the pump after a period of inhibition transiently increased the acidification rate above baseline, corresponding to increases in intracellular [Na+] ([Na+]i) occurring while the pump was off. The amplitude of this transient was a function of the total [Na+]i excursion in the absence of pump activity, which in turn depended on the duration of pump inhibition and the Na+ influx rate. Manipulations of the mode of energy metabolism in these cells by changes of the carbon substrate and use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that, unlike some other cells studied, the Na+/K+ ATPase in TE671 cells does not depend on any one mode of metabolism for its adenosine triphosphate source. Stimulation of cholinergic receptors in these cells with carbachol activated the Na+/K+ ATPase via an increase in [Na+]i rather than a direct activation of the ATPase. PMID:8386019

  10. A Transmembrane Segment Determines the Steady-State Localization of an Ion-Transporting Adenosine Triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Lisa A.; Aronson, Paul; Caplan, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    The H,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of gastric parietal cells is targeted to a regulated membrane compartment that fuses with the apical plasma membrane in response to secretagogue stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated that the α subunit of the H,K-ATPase encodes localization information responsible for this pump's apical distribution, whereas the β subunit carries the signal responsible for the cessation of acid secretion through the retrieval of the pump from the surface to the regulated intracellular compartment. By analyzing the sorting behaviors of a number of chimeric pumps composed of complementary portions of the H,K-ATPase α subunit and the highly homologous Na,K-ATPase α subunit, we have identified a portion of the gastric H,K-ATPase, which is sufficient to redirect the normally basolateral Na,K-ATPase to the apical surface in transfected epithelial cells. This motif resides within the fourth of the H,K-ATPase α subunit's ten predicted transmembrane domains. Although interactions with glycosphingolipid-rich membrane domains have been proposed to play an important role in the targeting of several apical membrane proteins, the apically located chimeras are not found in detergent-insoluble complexes, which are typically enriched in glycosphingolipids. Furthermore, a chimera incorporating the Na,K-ATPase α subunit fourth transmembrane domain is apically targeted when both of its flanking sequences derive from H,K-ATPase sequence. These results provide the identification of a defined apical localization signal in a polytopic membrane transport protein, and suggest that this signal functions through conformational interactions between the fourth transmembrane spanning segment and its surrounding sequence domains. PMID:10684257

  11. Separation of adenosine diphosphate--adenosine triphosphate-exchange activity from the cerebral microsomal sodium-plus-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Stahl, W L; Sattin, A; McIlwain, H

    1966-05-01

    1. A microsomal fraction from ox cerebral cortex catalysed [(14)C]ADP-ATP exchange at a speed similar to that at which it liberated P(i) from ATP in the presence of Na(+), K(+) and Mg(2+). 2. Repeated washing the fraction with MgATP solutions solubilized most of the exchange activity and left the adenosine triphosphatase insoluble and little changed in activity. The exchange activity was accompanied by negligible adenosine-triphosphatase activity and was enriched by precipitation at chosen pH and by DEAE-Sephadex. At no stage was its activity affected by Na(+), K(+) or ouabain. 3. The washed microsomal fraction was exposed to a variety of reagents; a sodium iodide-cysteine treatment increased both adenosine-triphosphatase and exchange activities, as also did a synthetic zeolite. Preparations were obtained with exchange activities less than 3% of their Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase activity. Some contribution to the residual exchange activity was made by an adenylate kinase. 4. Thus over 95% of the microsomal ADP-ATP-exchange activity does not take part in the Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase reaction. Participation of some of the residual 3% of the ADP-ATP-exchange activity has not been excluded, but there appears no firm evidence for its participation in the adenosine triphosphatase; the bearing of this conclusion on mechanisms proposed for the Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase is indicated.

  12. Separation of adenosine diphosphate-adenosine triphosphate–exchange activity from the cerebral microsomal sodium-plus-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, W. L.; Sattin, A.; McIlwain, H.

    1966-01-01

    1. A microsomal fraction from ox cerebral cortex catalysed [14C]ADP–ATP exchange at a speed similar to that at which it liberated Pi from ATP in the presence of Na+, K+ and Mg2+. 2. Repeated washing the fraction with MgATP solutions solubilized most of the exchange activity and left the adenosine triphosphatase insoluble and little changed in activity. The exchange activity was accompanied by negligible adenosine-triphosphatase activity and was enriched by precipitation at chosen pH and by DEAE-Sephadex. At no stage was its activity affected by Na+, K+ or ouabain. 3. The washed microsomal fraction was exposed to a variety of reagents; a sodium iodide–cysteine treatment increased both adenosine-triphosphatase and exchange activities, as also did a synthetic zeolite. Preparations were obtained with exchange activities less than 3% of their Na+-plus-K+-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase activity. Some contribution to the residual exchange activity was made by an adenylate kinase. 4. Thus over 95% of the microsomal ADP–ATP-exchange activity does not take part in the Na+-plus-K+-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase reaction. Participation of some of the residual 3% of the ADP–ATP-exchange activity has not been excluded, but there appears no firm evidence for its participation in the adenosine triphosphatase; the bearing of this conclusion on mechanisms proposed for the Na+-plus-K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase is indicated. PMID:4223577

  13. Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity on the Chloroplast Envelope in Tendrils of Pisum sativum1

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Dinkar D.; Gordon, Mildred; Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    When samples of pea tendril tissue were incubated in the Wachstein-Meisel medium for the demonstration of adenosine triphosphatases, deposits of lead reaction product were localized between the membranes of the chloroplast envelope. The presence of Mg2+ was necessary for adenosine triphosphatase activity, and Ca2+ could not substitute for this requirement. Varying the pH of incubation to 5.5 or 9.4 inhibited enzyme activity, as did the addition of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or N-ethylmaleimide. The adenosine triphosphatase was apparently inactivated or degraded when the plants were grown in the dark for 24 hours prior to incubation. The enzyme was substrate-specific for adenosine triphosphate; no reaction was obtained with adenosine diphosphate, uridine triphosphate, inosine triphosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and sodium β-glycerophosphate. Sites of nonspecific depositions of lead are described. The adenosine triphosphatase on the chloroplast envelope may be involved in the light-induced contraction of this organelle. Images PMID:4245003

  14. Direct visualization by electron microscopy of the weakly bound intermediates in the actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, T D; Bhandari, D; Maupin, P; Wachsstock, D; Weeds, A G; Zot, H G

    1993-01-01

    We used a novel stopped-flow/rapid-freezing machine to prepare the transient intermediates in the actin-myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) cycle for direct observation by electron microscopy. We focused on the low affinity complexes of myosin-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and myosin-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-Pi with actin filaments since the transition from these states to the high affinity actin-myosin-ADP and actin-myosin states is postulated to generate the molecular motion that drives muscle contraction and other types of cellular movements. After rapid freezing and metal replication of mixtures of myosin subfragment-1, actin filaments, and ATP, the structure of the weakly bound intermediates is indistinguishable from nucleotide-free rigor complexes. In particular, the average angle of attachment of the myosin head to the actin filament is approximately 40 degrees in both cases. At all stages in the ATPase cycle, the configuration of most of the myosin heads bound to actin filaments is similar, and the part of the myosin head preserved in freeze-fracture replicas does not tilt by more than a few degrees during the transition from the low affinity to high affinity states. In contrast, myosin heads chemically cross-linked to actin filaments differ in their attachment angles from ordered at 40 degrees without ATP to nearly random in the presence of ATP when viewed by negative staining (Craig, R., L.E. Greene, and E. Eisenberg. 1985. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 82:3247-3251, and confirmed here), freezing in vitreous ice (Applegate, D., and P. Flicker. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:6856-6863), and in replicas of rapidly frozen samples. This suggests that many of the cross-linked heads in these preparations are dissociated from but tethered to the actin filaments in the presence of ATP. These observations suggest that the molecular motion produced by myosin and actin takes place with the myosin head at a point some distance from the actin binding site or does not

  15. Magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase as a marker enzyme for the plasma membrane of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Harlan, J; DeChatelet, L R; Iverson, D B; McCall, C E

    1977-02-01

    The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were studied with an assay that monitored the release of 32P-labeled inorganic pyrophosphate (32P1) from gamma-[32P]adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). In cell homogenates, (Na+ + K+)-sensitive, ouabain-inhibitable ATPase comprised an insignificant fraction of the total ATPase activity. Additions of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate (substrates for nonspecific acid and alkaline phosphatases) and of tartrate (inhibitor of acid phosphatase) gave no indication of inhibition. This suggested that the assay was relatively specific for ATP hydrolysis. The activity was found to have a pH optimum of 8.7 and a Km for ATP of 0.6 mM. There was an absolute requirement for Mg2+, with other divalent cations substituting less efficiently. When the Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity of intact cells was compared with that in homogenized cells, no significant difference was observed. The activity in intact cells was linear with respect to incubation time up to at least l0 min. Trypan blue staining and lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed that greater than 92% of the PMNL remained intact and viable during the assay. No soluble ATPase was released from the cells under assay conditions. In following the distribution of gamma[32P]ATP and 32P2 counts became cell associated. Since the experimental evidence supports the observation that PMNL remain intact and viable and that ATP does not penetrate the cell under assay conditions, it is proposed that greater than 90% of the Mg2+-dependent ATPase of the human PMNL is associated with a plasma membrnae enzyme. This would qualify the enzyme for the role of a plasma membrane marker for future fractionation and isolation attempts.

  16. Possible mechanism for the inhibition of gastric (H+ + K+)-adenosine triphosphatase by the proton pump inhibitor AG-1749

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaya, H.; Satoh, H.; Kubo, K.; Maki, Y.

    1989-02-01

    Mechanisms related to the inhibition of (H+ + K+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) by 2-(((3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridyl)methyl) sulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole (AG-1749) were studied using canine gastric microsomes. AG-1749 (1-100 microM) inhibited the K+-stimulated ATP hydrolysis and vesicular accumulation of H+. AG-1749 bound to the microsomes concentration-dependently and decreased the number of free SH groups; the binding correlating with the enzyme inhibition. Both the binding and inhibition were antagonized by dithiothreitol. N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the (H+ + K+)-ATPase and decreased the binding of (/sup 14/C)AG-1749 to the microsomes. The inhibitory effect of AG-1749 gradually increased with incubation time, and was enhanced by lowering the pH. AG-2000 and AG-1812, acid-induced rearrangement products of AG-1749, inhibited (H+ + K+)-ATPase potently, rapidly and independently of pH; the inhibition was antagonized by dithiothreitol. We propose that AG-1749 is transformed into its active forms within the acidic compartment of the parietal cells and that the active compounds inhibit (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity by reacting with the SH groups of the enzyme.

  17. Temperature differentially affects adenosine triphosphatase activity in Hsc70 orthologs from Antarctic and New Zealand notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Place, Sean P; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2005-01-01

    To test the temperature sensitivity of molecular chaperones in poikilothermic animals, we purified the molecular chaperone Hsc70 from 2 closely related notothenioid fishes--the Antarctic species Trematomus bernacchii and the temperate New Zealand species Notothenia angustata--and characterized the effect of temperature on Hsc70 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. Hsc70 ATPase activity was measured using [alpha-32P]-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based in vitro assays followed by separation of adenylates by thin-layer chromatography. For both species, a significant increase in Hsc70 ATPase activity was observed across a range of temperatures that was ecologically relevant for each respective species. Hsc70 from T bernacchii hydrolyzed 2-fold more ATP than did N angustata Hsc70 at 0 degrees C, suggesting that the Antarctic molecular chaperone may be adapted to function more efficiently at extreme cold temperatures. In addition, Q10 measurements indicate differential temperature sensitivity of the ATPase activity of Hsc70 from these differentially adapted fish that correlates with the temperature niche inhabited by each species. Hsc70 from T bernacchii was relatively temperature insensitive, as indicated by Q10 values calculated near 1.0 across each temperature range measured. In the case of Hsc70 purified from N angustata, Q10 values indicated thermal sensitivity across the temperature range of 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C, with a Q10 of 2.714. However, Hsc70 from both T bernacchii and N angustata exhibited unusually high thermal stabilities with ATPase activity at temperatures that far exceeded temperatures encountered by these fish in nature. Overall, as evidenced by in vitro ATP hydrolysis, Hsc70 from T bernacchii and N angustata displayed biochemical characteristics that were supportive of molecular chaperone function at ecologically relevant temperatures.

  18. Factors affecting the reactivation of the oligomycin-sensitive adenosine 5'-triphosphatase and the release of ATPase inhibitor protein during the re-energization of intact mitochondria from ischemic cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Rouslin, W

    1987-03-15

    In the present study we examined factors affecting the reversal of the ischemia-induced protonic inhibition of the mitochondrial ATPase described earlier (Rouslin, W. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 9657-9661). It was found that ATPase reactivation and accompanying inhibitor protein release during the re-energization of intact mitochondria isolated from 20-min ischemic canine heart muscle could be blocked completely by either carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) or nigericin but was unaffected by valinomycin at 35 mM K+. At higher K+ concentrations, valinomycin also blocked ATPase reactivation but not quite as completely as did nigericin. These observations suggest that ATPase reactivation and inhibitor protein release are particularly dependent upon either the trans-inner membrane pH gradient (delta pH) or possibly upon matrix pH per se and slightly less dependent upon membrane potential (delta psi) in intact cardiac muscle mitochondria. The addition of FCCP at the end of the re-energization incubations limited partially the extent of both ATPase reactivation and inhibitor protein release. This latter effect appears to have been mediated by a partial reassociation of the inhibitor protein with the enzyme, and it was accentuated (when FCCP was added at the end of the incubations) or mimicked (when FCCP was absent) by lowering the pH of the re-energization medium. A close examination of the first 10 min of the time course of enzyme activation and of inhibitor protein release revealed that while the former process was essentially finished in 1 min or less, the latter required approximately 10 min for completion. This observation led to the proposal of a two-site model of enzyme-inhibitor interaction which is discussed.

  19. Alterations in the expression of uvomorulin and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase during mouse skin tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, B.; Caamano, J.; Slaga, T. J.; Conti, C. J.; Nelson, W. J.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Uvomorulin (E-cadherin), a cell adhesion molecule, and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), a marker protein of the basal-lateral cell membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells, were investigated in a group of mouse skin tumors induced by a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol and in cell lines derived from mouse skin papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Although these two markers were present in benign tumors and in nontumorigenic cell lines, the Na+,K(+)-ATPase showed an altered pattern of distribution that included the presence of enzyme not only in the basolateral domain but also on the apical domain of the cell membrane of basal and spinous cells in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). In higher grade SCC, a loss of Na+,K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity was simultaneously detected with a marginal or absent expression of uvomorulin. The more differentiated SCC and papillomas expressed less uvomorulin immunoreactivity than normal epidermal cells. Both markers were seen in tumor cell lines that produced well-differentiated SCC after subcutaneous inoculation into nude mice. Neither Na+,K(+)-ATPase nor uvomorulin could be detected in cell lines that produced high grade, poorly differentiated SCC. Northern blots confirmed the absence of uvomorulin mRNA in these highly malignant cell lines. These data indicate that progression from premalignant papilloma to low-grade SCC and subsequently to high-grade SCC is accompanied by loss of epithelial cell polarity as detected by changes in Na+,K(+)-ATPase and by decreased or absent expression of uvomorulin in tumors and cell lines characterized by an advanced malignant phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1316085

  20. Insecticidal properties of essential oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and their inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and adenosine triphosphatases.

    PubMed

    Abou-Taleb, Hamdy K; Mohamed, Magdy I E; Shawir, Mohamed S; Abdelgaleil, Samir A M

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from 20 Egyptian plants were obtained by using hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the isolated oils was identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Fumigant and contact toxicities of the essential oils were evaluated against the adults of Tribolium castaneum. In fumigation assays, the oil of Origanum vulgare (LC50 = 9.97 mg/L air) displayed the highest toxicity towards the adults of T. castaneum. In contact assays, the oils of Artemisia monosperma (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) and O. vulgare (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) were the most potent toxicants against the adults of T. castaneum. Biochemical studies showed that the tested oils caused pronounced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) isolated from the larvae of T. castaneum. The oil Cupressus macrocarpa (IC50 = 12.3 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of AChE, while the oil of Calistemon viminals (IC50 = 4.4 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of ATPases.

  1. A simple statistical approach to the boyer model of the molecular motor adenosine triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, E. B. Pikin, S. A.

    2006-03-15

    A physical description of the F{sub 0}F{sub 1} adenosine triphosphatase as a rotating motor is proposed. The catalytic center and the ion-conducting membrane are considered within the classical Boyer model for the rotor and the catalytic parts of the motor, thereby allowing application of a simple three-pole model, which decreases the number of parameters significantly. The stochastic character of the processes occurring in motors is described by the Fokker-Planck equations. Various dependences of the rotation speed on the degree of excitation, localization of excitations, and the amplitude of the potential are reported.

  2. Differential inhibition of calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterase and Ca++-adenosine triphosphatase by chlorpromazine-linked calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Wallace, T.L.; Weiss, B.

    1987-10-01

    Upon irradiation with UV light, chlorpromazine binds irreversibly to calmodulin and inactivates it. To determine whether this chlorpromazine-calmodulin (CPZ-CaM) complex can inhibit the actions of native calmodulin, we examined its effects on the activity of calmodulin-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from rat brain and on the Ca++-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of human erythrocyte membranes. The CPZ-CaM complex was prepared by irradiating purified bovine brain calmodulin in the presence of chlorpromazine and Ca++. The sample was then dialyzed extensively to remove reversibly bound chlorpromazine and then assayed for its ability to activate calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterase and Ca++-ATPase, and for its ability to block the stimulatory effects of native calmodulin on these enzymes. The CPZ-CaM complex had no effect on the basal activity of either enzyme; it neither activated nor inhibited the enzymes when assayed in the absence of calmodulin. However, it affected differentially the activation of the two enzymes by native calmodulin. The CPZ-CaM complex totally inhibited calmodulin-stimulated phosphodiesterase but had no effect on the activation of the ATPase by calmodulin. Other studies showed that CPZ-CaM increased the activation constant (Ka) for the interaction of calmodulin with phosphodiesterase but did not affect the maximal activation (Vmax) of the enzyme by calmodulin. Neither calmodulin nor CPZ-CaM altered the Km for the interaction between phosphodiesterase and cyclic AMP. These results suggest that CPZ-CaM inhibits the calmodulin-induced activation of phosphodiesterase by competing with calmodulin for regulatory sites on the enzyme and not by interacting with calmodulin itself or by blocking the interaction of cyclic AMP with the enzyme.

  3. Expression and distribution of renal vacuolar proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase in response to chronic acid and alkali loads in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, B; Purcell, H; Hemken, P; Trigg, D; Gluck, S

    1991-01-01

    Renal hydrogen ion excretion increases with chronic acid loads and decreases with alkali loads. We examined the mechanism of adaptation by analyzing vacuolar proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (H+ ATPase) 31-kD subunit protein and mRNA levels, and immunocytochemical distribution in kidneys from rats subjected to acid or alkali loads for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 d. Acid- and alkali-loaded rats exhibited adaptive responses in acid excretion, but showed no significant changes in H+ ATPase protein or mRNA levels in either cortex or medulla. In contrast, there were profound adaptive changes in the immunocytochemical distribution of H+ ATPase in collecting duct intercalated cells. In the medulla, H+ ATPase staining in acid-loaded rats shifted from cytoplasmic vesicles to plasma membrane, whereas in alkali-loaded rats, cytoplasmic vesicle staining was enhanced, and staining of plasma membrane disappeared. In the cortical collecting tubule, acid loading increased the number of intercalated cells showing enhanced apical H+ ATPase staining and decreased the number of cells with basolateral or poorly polarized apical staining. The results indicate that both medulla and cortex participate in the adaptive response to acid and alkali loading by changing the steady-state distribution of H+ ATPase, employing mechanisms that do not necessitate postulating interconversion of intercalated cells with opposing polarities. Images PMID:1829094

  4. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  5. Oxidative Stress Parameters and Erythrocyte Membrane Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Administered Aqueous Preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Nikhil; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that according to the World Health Organization affects more than 382 million people. The rise in diabetes mellitus coupled with the lack of an effective treatment has led many to investigate medicinal plants to identify a viable alternative. Objective: To evaluate red blood cell (RBC) membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and antioxidant levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata preparation (three mature leaves ~ 9.96 g/70 kg body weight or about 0.14 g/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. Serum glucose, RBC membrane ATPase activities, and antioxidant levels were determined. Results: We noted weight loss and reduced food consumption in the treated diabetic group. Serum glucose levels were reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were not significantly elevated in the treated group compared to the diabetic group. However, serum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not significantly altered among the groups. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg2+ ATPase activity and a nonsignificant increase in Na+/K+ ATPase activity in the RBC membrane of the treated diabetic group compared to the diabetic group. Conclusion: The consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata may accrue benefits in the management of diabetes by lowering oxidative stress often associated with the disease and improving the availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in the magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane for increased cellular metabolism of glucose

  6. Regulation by membrane fluidity of the allosteric behavior of the (Ca2)-adenosine triphosphatase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Siñeriz, F; Bloj, B; Farías, R N; Trucco, R E

    1973-09-01

    The allosteric properties of the membrane-bound (Ca(2+))-adenosine triphosphatase of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of Escherichia coli were studied in membranes with different fatty acid compositions. The Hill coefficient of the inhibition by Na(+) ranged from 1.4, in the case where the auxotroph was grown with cis-vaccenic acid as supplement, to 2.8 when grown on linolenic acid. The results indicate that no fatty acid is particularly involved in the allosteric phenomena. A correlation between the values of the Hill coefficient and the double bond index or the ratio of the double bond index saturated to the fatty acids of the membrane was found. These facts are interpreted as a modulation by the membrane fluidity of the allosteric behavior of the membrane-bound enzyme. The general biological character of this phenomenon is discussed in this paper.

  7. Sensitivity of Tonoplast-Bound Adenosine-Triphosphatase from Hevea to Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    The tonoplast-bound H+-translocating ATPase from Hevea latex was found to be insensitive to vanadate, diethylstilbestrol, and octylguanidine, which are specific inhibitors of the plasma membrane ATPase. The inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATPase, oligomycin and azide, and also rotenone and antimycin A, were all without effect. In contrast, trimethyltin chloride strongly inhibited the activity of Hevea tonoplast ATPase. Among the different carbodiimides tested, which strongly inhibit the Hevea tonoplast ATPase, N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was the most inhibitory. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline was also an efficient inhibitor. This unique inhibitor sensitivity of the Hevea tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase suggests that this enzyme differs in its mode of operation from all other known H+-translocating ATPases. PMID:16663354

  8. Solubilization and Partial Purification of the Adenosine Triphosphatase from a Corn Root Plasma Membrane Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Frances M.; Leonard, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    The K+-stimulated ATPase was partially purified from a plasma membrane fraction from corn roots (WF9 × Mo 17) by solubilization with 30 millimolar octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside followed by precipitation with dilute ammonium sulfate. The specific activity of the enzyme was increased about five times by this procedure. The molecular weight of the detergent-extracted ATPase complex was estimated to be at least 500,000 daltons by chromatography on a Bio-Gel A-5m column. Negative staining electron microscopy indicated that the detergent-extracted material consisted of amorphous particles, while the ammonium sulfate precipitate was composed of uniform vesicles with an average diameter of 100 nanometers. The protein composition of the ammonium sulfate precipitate was significantly different from that of the plasma membrane fraction when compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The characteristics of the partially purified ATPase resembled those of the plasma membrane associated enzyme. The ATPase required Mg2+, was further stimulated by K+, was almost completely inhibited by 0.1 millimolar diethylstilbestrol, and was not affected by 5.0 micrograms per milliliter oligomycin. Although the detergents sodium cholate, deoxycholate, Triton X-100 and Lubrol WX also solubilized some membrane protein, none solubilized the K+-stimulated ATPase activity. Low concentrations of each detergent, including octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, activated the ATPase and higher concentrations inactivated the enzyme. These results suggest that the plasma membrane ATPase is a large, integral membrane protein or protein complex that requires lipids to maintain its activity. Images PMID:16661309

  9. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-06-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates.

  10. Characterization of a Partially Purified Adenosine Triphosphatase from a Corn Root Plasma Membrane Fraction 1

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Frances M.; Burke, Linda L.; Spanswick, Roger M.

    1981-01-01

    The (K+,Mg2+)-ATPase was partially purified from a plasma membrane fraction from corn roots (WF9 × Mol7) and stored in liquid N2 without loss of activity. Specific activity was increased 4-fold over that of the plasma membrane fraction. ATPase activity resembled that of the plasma membrane fraction with certain alterations in cation sensitivity. The enzyme required a divalent cation for activity (Co2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Ca2+) when assayed at 3 millimolar ATP and 3 millimolar divalent cation at pH 6.3. When assayed in the presence of 3 millimolar Mg2+, the enzyme was further activated by monovalent cations (K+, NH4+, Rb+ ≫ Na+, Cs+, Li+). The pH optima were 6.5 and 6.3 in the absence and presence of 50 millimolar KCl, respectively. The enzyme showed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the substrate ATP-Mg, with a Km of 1.3 millimolar in the absence and 0.7 millimolar in the presence of 50 millimolar KCl. Stimulation by K+ approached simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km of approximately 4 millimolar KCl. ATPase activity was inhibited by sodium orthovanadate. Half-maximal inhibition was at 150 and 35 micromolar in the absence and presence of 50 millimolar KCl. The enzyme required the substrate ATP. The rate of hydrolysis of other substrates, except UDP, IDP, and GDP, was less than 20% of ATP hydrolysis. Nucleoside diphosphatase activity was less than 30% of ATPase activity, was not inhibited by vanadate, was not stimulated by K+, and preferred Mn2+ to Mg2+. The results demonstrate that the (K+,Mg2+)-ATPase can be clearly distinguished from nonspecific phosphohydrolase and nucleoside diphosphatase activities of plasma membrane fractions prepared from corn roots. PMID:16661634

  11. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-01-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717417

  12. Inactivation of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase from Trypanosoma cruzi by oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Cataldi de Flombaum, M A; Stoppani, A O

    1986-06-01

    Incubation of Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondrial ATPase (Fo-F1) with the xanthine oxidase system (XO), Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ + H2O2) and the ascorbate-Cu system, caused gradual loss of enzyme activity, which increased as a function of incubation time and rate of oxygen radical generation. The essential role of OH. radicals for ATPase inactivation was supported by a) the enzyme protection afforded by superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol, when using the XO system; b) the similar effect of mannitol and benzoate with Fenton's reagent; c) the similar effect of catalase, EDTA and histidine with the ascorbate-Cu system; d) the increased rate of ATPase inactivation by 1) the XO system supplemented with chelated iron, and 2) the ascorbate-Cu system supplemented with H2O2. Comparison of oxygen radical generators for their action on membrane-bound (Fo-F1) and soluble F1 revealed that ascorbate-Cu was the most effective one, possibly because of its capability of producing OH. radicals that react preferentially with the enzyme at their formation site.

  13. Ouabain-specific antibodies: immunochemical properties and reversal of Na+, K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas W.

    1972-01-01

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the cardiac glycoside ouabain were raised in rabbits. The antigen used was a conjugate of ouabain linked through its rhamnose moiety to terminal α-amino groups of poly D,L alanyl-human serum albumin. Ouabain-specific antibodies were present as early as 3 wk, and rose steadily in titer over the initial 20-33 wk of immunization. Levels as high as 6.5 mg specific immunoglobulin per ml antiserum were reached in one rabbit at the end of 45 wk. The average intrinsic association constants for ouabain were 1.3 × 109 M-1 and 1.6 × 109 M-1 in antisera studied in detail, and there was evidence of restricted heterogeneity of binding site affinities. A high degree of specificity was demonstrated. Significant cross-reactivity occurred only with other cardioactive steroid compounds such as acetyl strophanthidin, digoxin, and digitoxin, while endogenous steroids did not cross-react even when present in 1000-fold excess. A rapid and convenient radioimmunoassay procedure for plasma or urine ouabain concentrations was developed using these antibodies. Competition between ouabain-3H tracer and unlabeled ouabain for specific antibody binding sites allowed the measurement of ouabain concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml or less without need for extraction procedures. The high association constants observed in these studies permit antibody reversal of established myocardial effects of ouabain. Both blockade and reversal of ouabain inhibition of canine myocardial microsomal Na+, K+-activated ATPase by antibody were documented, suggesting a possible mechanism for reversal of cellular effects. PMID:4260123

  14. Phosphate binding by cerebral microsomes in relation to adenosine-triphosphatase activity

    PubMed Central

    Rodnight, R.; Hems, D. A.; Lavin, B. E.

    1966-01-01

    +-dependent binding reaction under present conditions did not involve incorporation into phosphorylserine groups. 10. The relation of the findings to the (Na+,K+)-ATPase of the preparation, and to observations in brain slices appearing to implicate phosphorylserine groups in cation transport, is discussed. PMID:4226016

  15. On the Functional Role of the {epsilon} Subunit of the Molecular Motor F-Adenosine Triphosphatase in Lipid Membranes of Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A. Loginov, E. B.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of the e subunit of the molecular motor F-adenosine triphosphatase, which is built into the lipid membrane of a cell, on the dynamics of the rotor ({gamma} subunit), with which this subunit is bound, has been qualitatively considered. It is shown that its structural and conformational features arising during the hydrolysis of 'fuel' adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules can be explained by the change in the potential within which the rotor is located. As the numerical calculations showed, at a low ATP concentration, the hydrolysis is accompanied by an unstable rotation of the {gamma} subunit and the related proton current. A model is proposed to describe the interaction between the {epsilon} subunit and the lipid order fluctuations caused by the membrane transition to the gel state. It is demonstrated that the rotor rotations become inhomogeneous when this interaction is enhanced with a decrease in the cell temperature.

  16. Activity-Dependent Adenosine Release May Be Linked to Activation of Na+-K+ ATPase: An In Vitro Rat Study

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Robert Edward; Dale, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, extracellular adenosine increases as a result of neuronal activity. The mechanisms by which this occurs are only incompletely understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the Na+ influxes associated with neuronal signalling activate the Na+-K+ ATPase which, by consuming ATP, generates intracellular adenosine that is then released via transporters. By measuring adenosine release directly with microelectrode biosensors, we have demonstrated that AMPA-receptor evoked adenosine release in basal forebrain and cortex depends on extracellular Na+. We have simultaneously imaged intracellular Na+ and measured adenosine release. The accumulation of intracellular Na+ during AMPA receptor activation preceded adenosine release by some 90 s. By removing extracellular Ca2+, and thus preventing indiscriminate neuronal activation, we used ouabain to test the role of the Na+-K+ ATPase in the release of adenosine. Under conditions which caused a Na+ influx, brief applications of ouabain increased the accumulation of intracellular Na+ but conversely rapidly reduced extracellular adenosine levels. In addition, ouabain greatly reduced the amount of adenosine released during application of AMPA. Our data therefore suggest that activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase is directly linked to the efflux of adenosine and could provide a universal mechanism that couples adenosine release to neuronal activity. The Na+-K+ ATPase-dependent adenosine efflux is likely to provide adenosine-mediated activity-dependent negative feedback that will be important in many diverse functional contexts including the regulation of sleep. PMID:24489921

  17. [Study of the calmodulin-dependent regulation of calcium adenosine triphosphatase of erythrocyte membranes in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Malaia, L T; Petruniaka, V V; Rudyk, Iu S

    1991-01-01

    The inhibitor calmodulin (R 24571) was examined for effects on the activity of red blood cell Ca-ATPases in patients with coronary heart disease during the treatment with nitrates, beta-blockers and calcium antagonists. The maximum activity of Ca-ATPase was measured in the erythrocytes perforated with saponine in the presence of endogenous regulators at a concentration of Ca2+ of 3-5 microM. Patients with high and low Ca-ATPase activity were identified. In the control group R24571 failed to affect Ca-ATPase activity. In patients, the calmodulin inhibitor caused both Ca-ATPase activation and inhibition. The effects of R 24571 correlated with the severity of the patients' condition. In effective therapy, the action of the calmodulin inhibitor became lower on Ca-ATPase activity. It was concluded that there was Ca-ATPase regulation imbalance in patients with coronary heart diseases.

  18. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Taglialatela, M.; Amoroso, S.; Kaparos, G.; Maurano, F.; Di Renzo, G.F.; Annunziato, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and previously taken-up (3H)DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and newly taken-up (3H)DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited (3H)DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit this stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced (3H)DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced (3H)DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated (3H)DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of (3H)DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.

  19. Thyroid-induced alterations in myocardial sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase, monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding.

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, G D; Crowley, T J; Smith, T W

    1977-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone on guinea pig myocardial NaK-ATPase activity, transmembrane monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding were were examined. NaK-ATPase activities of left atrial and left ventricular homogenates of control and triiodothyronine (T3)-treated animals were determined, and compared to activities of skeletal muscle and liver. T3 administration was associated with a significant increase of 18% in left atrial and left ventricular NaK-ATPase specific activities. This increment was less than that noted in skeletal muscle (+42%) and liver (+30%). To determine if enhanced NaK-ATPase activity was accompanied by increased monovalent cation active transport, in vitro 86Rb+ uptake by left atrial strips and hemidiaphragms was measured. Transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state resulted in a 68% increase in active 86Rb+ uptake by left atrium, and a 62% increase in active uptake by diaphragm. Passive 86Rb+ uptake was not affected in either tissue. Ouabain binding by atrial and ventricular homogenates of T3-treated animals was increased by 19 and 17%, respectively, compared to controls, in close agreement with thyroid-induced increments in NaK-ATPase activiey. Taken together, these results are consistent with enhanced myocardial NaK-ATPase activity and monovalent cation activt transport due to an increase in the number of functional enzyme complexes. PMID:138689

  20. Evidence for the presence and role of tightly bound adenine nucleotides in phospholipid-free purified Micrococcus lysodeikticus adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Palacios, P; Muñoz, E

    1977-10-01

    [32P]-labeled ATPase was isolated in a highly purified state from Micrococcus lysodeikticus strain PNB grown in medium supplemented with [32P]orthophosphate. Selective extraction procedures allowed us to determine that at least 25% of the firmly bound label belonged to adenine nucleotides, ATP and ADP being present in equimolar amounts. However, no 32P label was found to be part of phospholipids. This was confirmed by purification of the ATPase from cells fed with [2-3H]glycerol. Using the luciferin-luciferase assay we estimated that ATPase freshly isolated by Sephadex chromatography (specific activity 10-14 micromole substrate transformed x min(-1) x mg protein(-1)) contained 2 moles ATP/mole of enzyme. The ratio fell with the age of enzyme and its purification by gel electrophoresis and this was paralleled by a loss of ATPase activity. The endogenous nucleotides were readily exchanged by added ADP or ATP. This result suggests that the sites for tight binding of adenine nucleotides are equivalent, although ADP seems to have a higher affinity for them. The last properties represent a peculiar characteristic of this bacterial ATPase as compared with other bacterial and organelle energy-transducing proteins.

  1. Estrogen enhancement of Ca-, Mg-, and Ca-Mg-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in the chick shell gland.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H; Porter, D W; Holt, S B; Martin, W G

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on Ca-, Mg-, and Ca-Mg-ATPase activity was investigated in the shell gland of 6-week-old chicks. In the first study, each of 42 birds was implanted with three E2 (Compudose-200) pellets. An additional 6 sham-implanted birds served as controls for measurements of body weight and concentrations of E2 and Ca in plasma. The activities of Mg-, Ca-, and Ca-Mg-ATPase peaked coincident with maximum plasma E2 concentrations 8 days after implantation and then progressively declined in concert with the decline in plasma E2. By 29 days after implantation, the ATPase activities were similar to those measured in birds whose E2 pellets had been removed for 11 days. Concentrations of plasma E2 dropped from peak values of 1676 +/- 317 at Day 8 to 611 +/- 180 pg/ml at Day 29. When birds whose E2 pellets had been removed were reimplanted with three pellets per bird, plasma E2 again increased to 1637 +/- 227 pg/ml. ATPase activity in these reimplanted birds also was greater (P < 0.05) than activities measured in E2-removed or E2-maintained birds. In a second study the Ca-ATPase Km and Vmax were determined in E2-implanted chicks (three pellets per bird) and compared to E2-withdrawn chicks. Five days after reimplantation of chicks with E2, there was a significant increase in both Vmax (3.38 +/- 0.21 vs 2.37 +/- 0.28 micrograms Pi/mg protein/min; P < 0.05) and Km (0.31 +/- 0.02 vs 0.25 +/- 0.01 mM Ca; P < .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The primary structure of the calcium-transporting adenosine triphosphatase of rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. Soluble tryptic peptides from the succinylated carboxymethylated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, G

    1980-01-01

    The isolation and the determination of the amino-acid sequences of the soluble tryptic peptides, derived by cleavage at arginine residues, of the succinylated (3-carboxypropionylated) S-carboxymethylated adenosine triphosphatase protein of rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum are described. Treatment of the protein with succinic anhydride gave a derivative that was readily digested with trypsin, yielding two distinct sets of peptides. One set comprises large, relatively hydrophobic, peptides that are highly aggregated (or insoluble) in aqueous solution and that have been identified, by several criteria, with the portion of the protein embedded in the lipid bilayer in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The second set, which is described here, comprises peptides that have properties typical of those derived from soluble globular proteins and that constitute that part of the protein external to the lipid bilayer. The sequences of these soluble tryptic peptides contain 586 unique residues. Details of the isolation of the peptides and the determination of the sequences are contained in Supplementary Publication SUP 50102 (88 pages) which has been deposited with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:6234878

  3. Thyroid thermogenesis. Relationships between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-02-01

    The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP.

  4. Occurrence and Characteristics of {sup 18}O-exchange Reactions Catalyzed By Sodium- and Potassium-dependent Adenosine Triphosphatases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dahms, A. S.; Boyer, P. D.

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle actively take up Ca{sup ++} from the medium in the presence of Mg{sup ++} and ATP. This transport is coupled to ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by membrane-bound Ca{sup++}, Mg{sup ++}-ATPase which is activated by concurrent presence of Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++}. Considerable informations have accumulated that give insight into the ATPase and its coupling to the calcium transport. The hydrolysis of ATP by this enzyme occurs through a phosphorylated intermediate. Formation and decomposition of the intermediate show vectorial requirements for Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++}, suggesting an intimate involvement of the intermediate in the transport process. ATP synthesis from P{sub i} and ADP coupled to outflow of Ca{sup ++} from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles has recently been demonstrated. This indicates the reversibility of the entire process of calcium transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

  5. Comparison between calcium transport and adenosine triphosphatase activity in membrane vesicles derived from rabbit kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Vieyra, A; Nachbin, L; de Dios-Abad, E; Goldfeld, M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; de Moraes, L

    1986-03-25

    Characteristics of Ca2+ uptake were studied in a vesicular preparation of proximal tubule plasma membranes from rabbit kidney and compared with the properties of both membrane-bound and solubilized Ca2+-ATPase activities. Calcium uptake required both ATP and MgCl2 and revealed two kinetic components with respect to Ca2+ concentration requirements, one with a high affinity for Ca2+ (1.8 microM), operative in the range of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, and one with a low affinity for Ca2+ (250 microM) which may become active only at abnormally high cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. The high- and low-affinity components were stimulated to similar extents by phosphate, and required similar concentrations of ATP (0.6 mM) for half-maximal activity. The amount of membrane-bound phosphoenzyme formed from ATP in the presence of Ca2+ was the same regardless of whether only one or both sites were saturated, suggesting that occupancy of the second Ca2+ binding site accelerates the enzyme turnover. Inhibition of Ca2+ transport by Na+ was reversed by the addition of ouabain or an ATP-regenerating system, indicating that this inhibitory effect of Na+ on Ca2+ uptake may be due to the accumulation of ADP in the medium as a result of Na+ pump activity. Low concentrations of carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and valinomycin (2.5 and 1 microM, respectively) were without effect on Ca2+ uptake in the presence of phosphate, whereas higher concentrations of the ionophores (200 and 100 microM, respectively) reduced uptake by 60% or more. The calmodulin antagonist 48/80 also reduced Ca2+ uptake with half-maximal effectiveness at 100 micrograms/ml. None of these drugs affected either ATPase activity or the EGTA-induced Ca2+ efflux from preloaded vesicles. The Ca2+ dependence of ATP hydrolysis by the membrane-bound enzyme preparation was similar to that observed for Ca2+ uptake by the vesicles. However, with solubilized enzyme, concentrations of Ca2+ similar to that found in the

  6. Effects of static magnetic field on specific adenosine-5{prime}-triphosphatase activities and bioelectrical and biomechanical properties in the rat diaphragm muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Itegin, M.; Guenay, I.; Logoglu, G.; Isbir, T.

    1995-08-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to clarify the effects of chronically applied static magnetic field (200 Gauss) on specific ATPase activities and bioelectrical and biomechanical responses in the isolated rat diaphragm muscle. The mean activities of Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase and Ca{sup 2+} ATPase determined from the diaphragm homogenates were significantly higher in the magnetic field exposed group (n = 20), but that of Mg{sup 2+} ATPase was nonsignificantly lower compared to the control group (n = 13). Resting membrane potential, amplitude of muscle action potential, and overshoot values (mean {+-} SE) in the control group were found to be {minus}76.5 {+-} 0.6, 100 {+-} 0.8, and 23.5 {+-} 0.6 mV, respectively; these values were determined to be {minus}72.8 {+-} 0.4, 90.3 {+-} 0.5, and 17.2 {+-} 0.4 mV in the magnetic field-exposed group, respectively. The latency was determined to increase in the experimental group, and all the above-mentioned bioelectrical differences between the groups were significant statistically. Force of muscle twitch was found to decrease significantly in the magnetic field-exposed group, and this finding was attributed to the augmenting effect of magnetic field on Ca{sup 2+} ATPase activity. These results suggest that magnetic field exposure changes specific ATPase activities and, thence, bioelectrical and biomechanical properties in the rat diaphragm muscle.

  7. The control by delta mu H+ of the tonoplast-bound H+-translocating adenosine triphosphatase from rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis) latex.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, B P

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between tonoplast-bound ATPase activity and the magnitude of the electrochemical proton gradient has been investigated on tightly sealed vesicles prepared from rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis) latex. A variety of methods have been used to modify, either alone or together, the two components of the electrochemical proton gradient (delta mu H+). When the delta pH component was decreased either by titration with (NH4)2SO4 or by addition of protonophores or nigericin in the presence of K+, ATPase activity was stimulated. On the other hand, when the delta psi component was decreased either by addition of lipophilic cations or by addition of valinomycin in the presence of K+, ATPase activity decreased. It is concluded that activity of the tonoplast-bound ATPase is regulated by changes in the electrochemical proton gradient across the tonoplast, so that, once the maximum proton gradient is established across the tonoplast, any perturbation of the equilibrium state should result in the increased rate of ATP hydrolysis as the enzyme attempts to re-establish the initial gradient. PMID:2994636

  8. Chemoelectrical energy conversion of adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Sarles, Stephen Andrew; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-04-01

    Plant and animal cell membranes transport charged species, neutral molecules and water through ion pumps and channels. The energy required for moving species against established concentration and charge gradients is provided by the biological fuel - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -synthesized within the cell. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPases) in a plant cell membrane hydrolyze ATP in the cell cytoplasm to pump protons across the cell membrane. This establishes a proton gradient across the membrane from the cell exterior into the cell cytoplasm. This proton motive force stimulates ion channels that transport nutrients and other species into the cell. This article discusses a device that converts the chemical energy stored in adenosine triphosphate into electrical power using a transporter protein, ATPase. The V-type ATPase proteins used in our prototype are extracted from red beet(Beta vulgaris) tonoplast membranes and reconstituted in a bilayer lipid membrane or BLM formed from POPC and POPS lipids. A pH7 medium that can support ATP hydrolysis is provided on both sides of the membrane and ATP is dissolved in the pH7 buffer on one side of the membrane. Hydrolysis of ATP results in the formation of a phosphate ion and adenosine diphosphate. The energy from the reaction activates ATPase in the BLM and moves a proton across the membrane. The charge gradient established across the BLM due to the reaction and ion transport is converted into electrical current by half-cell reference electrodes. The prototype ATPase cell with an effective BLM area of 4.15 mm2 carrying 15 μl of ATPase proteins was observed to develop a steady state peak power output of 70 nW, which corresponds to a specific power of 1.69 μW/cm2 and a current density of 43.4 μA/cm2 of membrane area.

  9. Increased red cell calcium, decreased calcium adenosine triphosphatase, and altered membrane proteins during fava bean hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (Mediterranean variant) individuals.

    PubMed

    Turrini, F; Naitana, A; Mannuzzu, L; Pescarmona, G; Arese, P

    1985-08-01

    RBCs from four glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient (Mediterranean variant) subjects were studied during fava bean hemolysis. In the density-fractionated RBC calcium level, Ca2+-ATPase activity, reduced glutathione level, and ghost protein pattern were studied. In the bottom fraction, containing most heavily damaged RBCs, calcium level ranged from 143 to 244 mumol/L RBCs (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 17 +/- 5 mumol/L RBCs). The Ca2+-ATPase activity ranged from 0.87 to 1.84 mumol ATP consumed/g Hb/min (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 2.27 +/- 0.4). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of ghosts showed: (1) the presence of high mol wt aggregates (in three cases they were reduced by dithioerythritol; in one case, only partial reduction was possible); (2) the presence of multiple, scattered new bands; and (3) the reduction of band 3. Oxidant-mediated damage to active calcium extrusion, hypothetically associated with increased calcium permeability, may explain the large increase in calcium levels. They, in turn, could activate calcium-dependent protease activity, giving rise to the profound changes in the ghost protein pattern.

  10. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  11. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase Mediated Oxidant Amplification with pNaKtide Ameliorates Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang; Tian, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Shah, Preeya T.; Khawaja, Asad A.; Martin, Rebecca; Robinette, Tylor J.; El-Hamdani, Adee; Dodrill, Michael W.; Sodhi, Komal; Drummond, Christopher A.; Haller, Steven T.; Kennedy, David J.; Abraham, Nader G.; Xie, Zijian; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) can effect the amplification of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined whether attenuation of oxidant stress by antagonism of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification might ameliorate experimental uremic cardiomyopathy induced by partial nephrectomy (PNx). PNx induced the development of cardiac morphological and biochemical changes consistent with human uremic cardiomyopathy. Both inhibition of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification with pNaKtide and induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) markedly attenuated the development of phenotypical features of uremic cardiomyopathy. In a reversal study, administration of pNaKtide after the induction of uremic cardiomyopathy reversed many of the phenotypical features. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification may be a potential strategy for clinical therapy of this disorder. PMID:27698370

  12. MORC Family ATPases Required for Heterochromatin Condensation and Gene Silencing#

    PubMed Central

    Moissiard, Guillaume; Cokus, Shawn J.; Cary, Joshua; Feng, Suhua; Billi, Allison C.; Stroud, Hume; Husmann, Dylan; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R.; McCord, Rachel Patton; Hale, Christopher J.; Feng, Wei; Michaels, Scott D.; Frand, Alison R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Dekker, Job; Kim, John K.; Jacobsen, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause de-repression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs, but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes. PMID:22555433

  13. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  14. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  15. Advanced glycation end-products impair Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity in diabetic cardiomyopathy: role of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/sirtuin 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiong; Zhou, Qian-Yi; Liu, Du; Yu, Lun; Zhan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Jing; Peng, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Yuan, Xin-Chu

    2014-02-01

    Decreased Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity, and both sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been reported to be involved in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study aimed to investigate the advanced glycation end-products (AGE) that impair Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase stability by regulating the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway during progression of DCM. To study type 1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM), a disease model in rats was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg), and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were also cultured. Heart function was detected by Doppler, and SIRT1 and AMPK protein expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity was also monitored. Using in vivo rat models of DCM, we showed that Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity decreased when both AMPK and SIRT1 expression were downregulated. In vitro, AGE impaired Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity and decreased the AMPK and SIRT1 expression. Sirtuin 1 overexpression increased Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-3-ribonucleoside (AICAR) upregulated SIRT1 expression and increased Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity, which could be partially abolished by splitomicin. Our results suggest that the dysfunction of DCM is related to AGE-induced Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity impairment through a mechanism involving the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.

  16. Identification of gastric H,K-ATPase in an early vertebrate, the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Smolka, A J; Lacy, E R; Luciano, L; Reale, E

    1994-10-01

    Virtually all vertebrates acidify their gastric contents to a pH between 0.8 and 2.0. In mammals, acid secretion is mediated by a K-stimulated proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), which establishes a million-fold gradient of protons across the apical membrane of the gastric parietal cell. The earliest phylogenetic appearance of gastric acid secretion is in cartilaginous fish, and we sought to verify in this class (Chondrichthyes) the presence and distribution of H,K-ATPase in gastric epithelial cells. An antibody against a synthetic peptide based on the C-terminus of pig H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit was localized in the gastric glands of the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina. The C-terminal antibody stained all cells with tubulovesicles and the apical membrane domain of mucous neck cells. In proximal stomach, gastric glands showed the strongest immunoreactivity in cells close to the isthmus; in the distal stomach, strongest immunoreactivity was found in cells at the base of the glands. Oxyntic cells were more intensely immunoreactive than oxynticopeptic cells. This antibody labeled a single band of M(r) 100,600 on immunoblots of D. sabina gastric microsomes. These results show the earliest phylogenetic occurrence of a gastric ATPase in putative acid-secreting cells and suggest that this enzyme shares structural features with mammalian H,K-ATPase.

  17. Radiation inactivation analysis of chloroplast CF0-CF1 ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Y.; Chien, L.F.; Pan, R.L.

    1988-06-25

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to measure the functional size of adenosine triphosphatase of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for acid-base-induced ATP synthesis was 450 +/- 24 kilodaltons; for phenazine methosulfate-mediated ATP synthesis, 613 +/- 33 kilodaltons; and for methanol-activated ATP hydrolysis, 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons. The difference (170 +/- 57 kilodaltons) between 450 +/- 24 and 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons is explained to be the molecular mass of proton channel (coupling factor 0) across the thylakoid membrane. Our data suggest that the stoichiometry of subunits I, II, and III of coupling factor 0 is 1:2:15. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activated by methanol, heat, and trypsin digestion have a similar functional size. However, anions such as SO/sub 3/(2-) and CO/sub 3/(2-) increased the molecular mass for both ATPase's (except trypsin-activated Mg2+-ATPase) by 12-30%. Soluble coupling factor 1 has a larger target size than that of membrane-bound. This is interpreted as the cold effect during irradiation.

  18. Effect of Reduction of Redox Modifications of Cys-Residues in the Na,K-ATPase α1-Subunit on Its Activity.

    PubMed

    Dergousova, Elena A; Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Klimanova, Elizaveta A; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Lopina, Olga D; Makarov, Alexander A

    2017-02-21

    Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal glutathionylation and other redox modifications of cysteine residues is not clear. The purpose of this study was to detect oxidized, nitrosylated, or glutathionylated cysteine residues in Na,K-ATPase, evaluate the possibility of removing these modifications and assess their influence on the enzyme activity. To this aim, we have detected such modifications in the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit purified from duck salt glands and tried to eliminate them by chemical reducing agents and the glutaredoxin1/glutathione reductase enzyme system. Detection of cysteine modifications was performed using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. We have found that purified Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit contains glutathionylated, nitrosylated, and oxidized cysteines. Chemical reducing agents partially eliminate these modifications that leads to the slight increase of the enzyme activity. Enzyme system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase, unlike chemical reducing agents, produces significant increase of the enzyme activity. At the same time, the enzyme system deglutathionylates native Na,K-ATPase to a lesser degree than chemical reducing agents. This suggests that the enzymatic reducing system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase specifically affects glutathionylation of the regulatory cysteine residues of Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit.

  19. Effects of an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate, on F1-ATPase rotary catalysis, torque generation, and inhibited intermediated formation.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-13

    F1-ATPase (F1), an important rotary motor protein, converts the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy using rotary motion with extremely high efficiency. The energy-conversion mechanism for this molecular motor has been extensively clarified by previous studies, which indicate that the interactions between the catalytic residues and the β- and γ-phosphates of ATP are indispensable for efficient catalysis and torque generation. However, the role of α-phosphate is largely unknown. In this study, we observed the rotation of F1 fuelled with an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate (ATPαS), in which the oxygen has been substituted with a sulfur ion to perturb the α-phosphate/F1 interactions. In doing so, we have revealed that ATPαS does not appear to have any impact on the kinetic properties of the motor or on torque generation compared to ATP. On the other hand, F1 was observed to lapse into the ADP-inhibited intermediate states when in the presence of ATPαS more severely than in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the α-phosphate group of ATP contributes to the avoidance of ADP-inhibited intermediate formation.

  20. Human DEAD-box ATPase DDX3 shows a relaxed nucleoside substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Franca, Raffaella; Belfiore, Amalia; Spadari, Silvio; Maga, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    Human DDX3 (hDDX3) is a DEAD-box protein shown to possess RNA-unwinding and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities. The hDDX3 protein has been implicated in nuclear mRNA export, cell growth control, and cancer progression. In addition, a role of this protein in the replication of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 and in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus has been recently proposed. Its enzymological properties, however, are largely unknown. In this work, we characterized its ATPase activity. We show that hDDX3 ATPase activity is stimulated by various ribo- and deoxynucleic acids. Comparative analysis with different nucleoside triphosphate analogs showed that the hDDX3 ATPase couples high catalytic efficiency to a rather relaxed substrate specificity, both in terms of base selection and sugar selection. In addition, its ability to recognize the L-stereoisomers of both 3' deoxy- and 2',3' dideoxy-ribose, points to a relaxed stereoselectivity. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize the presence of structural determinants on both the base and the sugar moieties, critical for nucleoside binding to the enzyme. Our results expand the knowledge about the DEAD-box RNA helicases in general and can be used for rational design of selective inhibitors of hDDX3, to be tested as potential antitumor and antiviral agents.

  1. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Rat Renal Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-29

    glucocorticoid-receptor complex has been identified (Geisse et al., 1982; Govindan et al., 1982; Payvar et al. , 1981; Pfahl, 1982; Scheidereit et...269-274. 1987, Paek, I. and R. Axel, Glucocorticoids enhance stability of human growth hormone mRNA, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7: 1496-1507, 1987. Payvar

  2. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  3. Down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Yang-Mei; Zhu, Fei; Tang, Shi-Ting; Xiao, Ji-Dong; Li, Lv-Li; Lin, Xin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine whether the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in ischemic penumbra is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. An experimental model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and the changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the ischemic penumbra was examined by Enzyme Assay Kit. Extensive infarction was observed in the frontal and parietal cortical and subcortical areas at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 d and 7 d after tMCAO. Enzyme Assay analyses revealed the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was decreased in the ischemic penumbra of model rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham-operated rats, and reduced to its minimum at 48 h, while the infarct volume was enlarged gradually. In addition, accompanied by increased brain water content, apoptosis-related bcl-2 and Bax proteins, apoptotic index and neurologic deficits Longa scores, but fluctuated the ratio of bcl-2/Bax. Correlation analysis showed that the infarct volume, apoptotic index, neurologic deficits Longa scores and brain water content were negatively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity, while the ratio of bcl-2/Bax was positively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results suggest that down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury presumably through the imbalance ratio of bcl-2/Bax and neuronal apoptosis, and identify novel target for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention in cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:26722460

  4. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  5. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material/Methods TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. Results We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and decreased the cortical lesion volume (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with vehicle-only treatment. PA treatment at the dose of 125 mg/kg attenuated brain edema and ameliorated BBB integrity. In addition, PA treatment significantly reduced the loss of ATP (p<0.01), reduced lactic acid levels (p<0.001), and increased the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results indicate PA has neuroprotective effects on TBI through increasing ATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA. PMID:27959885

  6. Relationship of the membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Bowman, Emma J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan inhibited the halobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide-protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggest that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuolar and the F-type ATPases.

  7. Relationship of the Membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to Vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Bowman, Emma J.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan in- hibited the hatobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide- protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggested that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuotar and the F-type ATPases.

  8. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on Na sup + , K sup + -ATPase: Aspects of the structure-activity relationship and action mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, T.; Oka, K.; Akiba, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the effects of 15 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on the hydrolytic activity of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy or mono-methoxy derivatives. All inhibited Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase from dog kidney cortex when present at concentrations from 40-1000 {mu}M. Flavones possessing cyclohexyl instead of the phenyl group were the most potent with IC{sub 50} at 257-320 {mu}M. Structure-activity relationships were observed among the following mono-substituted flavones as: (i) 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one {much gt} 2-phenyl-benzopyran-4-one; (ii) 2-cyclohexyl-7-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one {gt} 2-cyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one {gt} 2-cyclohexyl-5-hydroxybenzopyran-4-one. Some flavonoids showing potent inhibitory activity were also examined for ouabain-displacement activity on human erythrocytes. Hardly and of the flavonoids were able to block ({sup 3}H) ouabain binding to erythrocytes. These results suggest that the mechanism by which flavonoid block Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase is not related to the cardiac glycoside-specific binding site(s) of this enzyme.

  9. The large terminase DNA packaging motor grips DNA with its ATPase domain for cleavage by the flexible nuclease domain.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Brendan J; Hayes, Janelle A; Stone, Nicholas P; Xu, Rui-Gang; Kelch, Brian A

    2017-01-12

    Many viruses use a powerful terminase motor to pump their genome inside an empty procapsid shell during virus maturation. The large terminase (TerL) protein contains both enzymatic activities necessary for packaging in such viruses: the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that powers DNA translocation and an endonuclease that cleaves the concatemeric genome at both initiation and completion of genome packaging. However, how TerL binds DNA during translocation and cleavage remains mysterious. Here we investigate DNA binding and cleavage using TerL from the thermophilic phage P74-26. We report the structure of the P74-26 TerL nuclease domain, which allows us to model DNA binding in the nuclease active site. We screened a large panel of TerL variants for defects in binding and DNA cleavage, revealing that the ATPase domain is the primary site for DNA binding, and is required for nuclease activity. The nuclease domain is dispensable for DNA binding but residues lining the active site guide DNA for cleavage. Kinetic analysis of DNA cleavage suggests flexible tethering of the nuclease domains during DNA cleavage. We propose that interactions with the procapsid during DNA translocation conformationally restrict the nuclease domain, inhibiting cleavage; TerL release from the capsid upon completion of packaging unlocks the nuclease domains to cleave DNA.

  10. Forced Treadmill Exercise Prevents Spatial Memory Deficits in Aged Rats Probably Through the Activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vanzella, Cláudia; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Odorcyk, Felipe Kawa; Nicola, Fabrício; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-02-16

    Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training. Animals of all ages were assigned to naïve (with no behavioral or exercise training), sedentary (non-exercised, with cognitive training) and exercised (20 min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks and with cognitive training) groups. Cognition was assessed by reference and working memory tasks run in the Morris Water maze; 24 h after last session of behavioral testing, hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrated that: (a) a moderate treadmill running exercise prevented spatial learning and memory deficits in aged rats; (b) training in the Water maze increased both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus of mature and aged rats; (c) aged exercised rats displayed an even further increase of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, (d) enzyme activity correlated with memory performance in aged rats. It is suggested that exercise prevents spatial memory deficits in aged rats probably through the activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hippocampus.

  11. Responses of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Na+/K+-ATPase in liver of the fish Goodea atripinnis exposed to Lake Yuriria water.

    PubMed

    López-López, Eugenia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; Soto, Claudia; Favari, Liliana

    2011-09-01

    Lake Yuriria, located in the heavily populated and polluted Mexican Central Plateau, receives domestic sewage, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewaters that are still directly discharged without treatment into the tributaries and the lake. Pollutants in water and sediments include heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorine pesticides. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as Na⁺/K⁺-adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase) activity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in the livers of the fish Goodea atripinnis after 96 h of exposure to water collected in March and June 2005 from three sites: Y (limnetic zone), L (Lerma tributary), and C (la Cinta tributary). Physical and chemical parameters of the lake water were also analyzed. Increases in CAT activity and LPO levels at all three sites were detected compared with control fish (P < 0.05), while GPx and SOD activities decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activities were similar to the control in fish exposed to limnetic water from both March and June but were higher than control at the two tributary sites in March (P < 0.05); fish exposed to water from the Lerma tributary in June exhibited lower Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase than the control (P < 0.05). During March, CAT and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activities were increasing more than in June in Y and L, respectively, while in June, SOD and GPx were depleted more than March in L and Y and L, respectively. Despite the antioxidant defenses of the fish liver, exposure to all water samples from Lake Yuriria exerted alterations in hepatic LPO levels, antioxidant enzymes, and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activities that could substantially impair the mechanisms of fish defenses against oxidative stress.

  12. [Thiamine triphosphatase activity in mammalian mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Rusina, I M; Makarchikov, A F

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial preparations isolated from bovine kidney and brain as well as the liver and the brain of rat show thiamine triphosphatase (ThTPase) activity. The activity was determined from the particles by freezing-thawing suggesting that a soluble enzyme is involved. The liberation patterns of ThTPase and marker enzyme activities from mitochondria under osmotic shock or treatment with increasing Triton X-100 concentrations indicate the presence of ThTPase both in the matrix and intermembrane space. It was found, basing on gel filtration behavior, that the mitochondrial ThTPase has the same molecular mass as specific cytosolic ThTPase (EC 3.6.1.28). The enzymes, however, were clearly distinguishable in Km values, the mitochondrial one showing a higher apparent affinity for substrate. These results imply the existence of ThTPase multiple forms in mammalian cells.

  13. A Specific Inorganic Triphosphatase from Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Delvaux, David; Murty, Mamidanna R. V. S.; Gabelica, Valérie; Lakaye, Bernard; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Skarina, Tatiana; Onopriyenko, Olena; Kohn, Gregory; Wins, Pierre; De Pauw, Edwin; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2011-01-01

    The CYTH superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. Because these proteins often form a closed β-barrel, they are also referred to as triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes (TTM). Functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. These proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions depending on their origin. Here we investigate structural and catalytic properties of the recombinant TTM protein from Nitrosomonas europaea (NeuTTM), a 19-kDa protein. Crystallographic data show that it crystallizes as a dimer and that, in contrast to other TTM proteins, it has an open β-barrel structure. We demonstrate that NeuTTM is a highly specific inorganic triphosphatase, hydrolyzing tripolyphosphate (PPPi) with high catalytic efficiency in the presence of Mg2+. These data are supported by native mass spectrometry analysis showing that the enzyme binds PPPi (and Mg-PPPi) with high affinity (Kd < 1.5 μm), whereas it has a low affinity for ATP or thiamine triphosphate. In contrast to Aeromonas and Yersinia CyaB proteins, NeuTTM has no adenylyl cyclase activity, but it shares several properties with other enzymes of the CYTH superfamily, e.g. heat stability, alkaline pH optimum, and inhibition by Ca2+ and Zn2+ ions. We suggest a catalytic mechanism involving a catalytic dyad formed by Lys-52 and Tyr-28. The present data provide the first characterization of a new type of phosphohydrolase (unrelated to pyrophosphatases or exopolyphosphatases), able to hydrolyze inorganic triphosphate with high specificity. PMID:21840996

  14. Augmentation of cholinesterases and ATPase activities in the cerebellum and pons-medulla oblongata, by a combination of antioxidants (resveratrol, ascorbic acid, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E), in acutely lindane intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Bist, Renu; Bhatt, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-15

    In the present investigation neurotoxic effects of lindane and the protective potential of a combination of antioxidants against lindane-induced toxicity were evaluated in Swiss mice. The investigation was carried out on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of the cerebellum and pons-medulla oblongata. Healthy mice, 7-8 weeks old were administered acute dose of lindane (40 mg/kg b.w.), antioxidants, both lindane and antioxidants, and vehicle in four separate groups, subcutaneously. Resveratrol (Res), ascorbic acid (C), alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and vitamin E (E) were used in the combination for neuroprotection at the concentration of 5 mg/kg b.w., 50 mg/kg b.w., 20 mg/kg b.w. and 50 mg/kg b.w. respectively. Enzymatic activities were used as biochemical marker for manifestation of lindane-induced acute toxicity. Protective effects of antioxidants were also evaluated using the same parameters. Treatment of lindane to normal control animals resulted in a significant decrease in AChE, BChE and ATPase levels in crude homogenates of cerebellum and pons-medulla. Antioxidants treatment significantly increased the levels of enzymes. Critical difference (CD) of AChE, BChE and ATPase levels in various groups was found significant at 1% in cerebellum and pons-medulla both (i.e. P<0.01).

  15. Effect of mercuric chloride on the kinetics of cationic and substrate activation of the rat brain microsomal ATPase system.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, B; Chetty, C S; Rajanna, S

    1990-06-15

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl2), a neurotoxic compound, inhibited the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) system in a concentration-dependent manner. Hydrolysis of ATP was linear with time with or without HgCl2 in the reaction mixtures. Higher inhibition of (Na(+)-K+)ATPase activity by HgCl2 was observed in alkaline (8.0 to 9.0) pH and at lower temperatures (17 to 32 degrees). Activation energy values were increased slightly in the presence of HgCl2. Activation of (Na(+)-K+)ATPase by ATP in the presence of HgCl2 showed a decrease in Vmax from 15.29 to 5.0 mumol of inorganic phosphate (Pi)/mg protein/hr with no change in Km. Similarly, activation of K(+)-stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (K(+)-PNPPase) in the presence of HgCl2 showed a decrease in Vmax from 3.26 to 1.35 mumols of p-nitrophenol (PNP)/mg protein/hr with no change in Km. K(+)-activation kinetic studies indicated that HgCl2 decreased Vmax from 14.01 to 4.30 mumols Pi/mg protein/hr in the case of (Na(+)-K+)ATPase and from 3.45 to 2.40 mumols PNP/mg protein/hr in the case of K(+)-PNPPase with no changes in Km. Na(+)-activation of (Na(+)-K+)ATPase in the presence of HgCl2 showed a decrease in Vmax from 11.06 to 3.23 mumols Pi/mg protein/hr and an increase in Km from 1.06 to 2.08 mM. Preincubation of microsomes with sulfhydryl (SH) agents dithiothreitol, cysteine and glutathione protected HgCl2-inhibition of (Na(+)-K+)ATPase. The data suggest that HgCl2 inhibited (Na(+)-K+)ATPase by interfering with the dephosphorylation of the enzyme-phosphoryl complex.

  16. The DExD/H box ATPase Dhh1 functions in translational repression, mRNA decay, and processing body dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Johanna S.; Munchel, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Translation, storage, and degradation of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) are key steps in the posttranscriptional control of gene expression, but how mRNAs transit between these processes remains poorly understood. In this paper, we functionally characterized the DExD/H box adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Dhh1, a critical regulator of the cytoplasmic fate of mRNAs. Using mRNA tethering experiments in yeast, we showed that Dhh1 was sufficient to move an mRNA from an active state to translational repression. In actively dividing cells, translational repression was followed by mRNA decay; however, deleting components of the 5′–3′ decay pathway uncoupled these processes. Whereas Dhh1’s ATPase activity was not required to induce translational inhibition and mRNA decay when directly tethered to an mRNA, ATP hydrolysis regulated processing body dynamics and the release of Dhh1 from these RNA–protein granules. Our results place Dhh1 at the interface of translation and decay controlling whether an mRNA is translated, stored, or decayed. PMID:21844211

  17. Role of Na+-K+ ATPase in cyclic GMP-mediated relaxation of canine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, J; Tagaya, E; Nishimura, K; Isono, K; Nagai, A

    1997-01-01

    Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+ ATPase) plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone, but contribution of this enzyme to nitrovasodilator-induced pulmonary vasodilatation remains uncertain. We thus studied the interaction between guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and Na+-K+ ATPase in smooth muscle cells isolated from canine pulmonary artery. To assess the contractile properties, changes in smooth muscle cell length were determined microscopically. Application of potassium chloride (KCl) shortened the cell length, an effect which was reduced by sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment of cells with the cyclic GMP-dependent kinase inhibitor KT 5823 (2 μM) abolished the effects of sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Ouabain (0.3 μM) did not alter the KCl-induced muscle shortening, but inhibited the relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Incubation of smooth muscle cells with sodium nitroprusside concentration-dependently increased intracellular cyclic GMP levels and ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, and these values were significantly correlated. In the presence of KT 5823, sodium nitroprusside increased cyclic GMP levels but did not alter ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake. These results suggest that there is a link between accumulation of intracellular cyclic GMP and activation of sarcolemmal Na+-K+ ATPase in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and that this link may be involved in the sodium nitroprusside-induced pulmonary vasodilatation. PMID:9298536

  18. Nanomolar Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul; Ho, C. Kiong; Takagi, Yuko; Djaballah, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryal taxa differ with respect to the structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) component of the mRNA capping apparatus. Protozoa, fungi, and certain DNA viruses have a metal-dependent RTPase that belongs to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily. Because the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms of the TTM-type RTPases differ from those of mammalian RTPases, the TTM RTPases are potential targets for antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antiviral drug discovery. Here, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown methods to show that Trypanosoma brucei RTPase Cet1 (TbCet1) is necessary for proliferation of procyclic cells in culture. We then conducted a high-throughput biochemical screen for small-molecule inhibitors of the phosphohydrolase activity of TbCet1. We identified several classes of chemicals—including chlorogenic acids, phenolic glycopyranosides, flavonoids, and other phenolics—that inhibit TbCet1 with nanomolar to low-micromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s). We confirmed the activity of these compounds, and tested various analogs thereof, by direct manual assays of TbCet1 phosphohydrolase activity. The most potent nanomolar inhibitors included tetracaffeoylquinic acid, 5-galloylgalloylquinic acid, pentagalloylglucose, rosmarinic acid, and miquelianin. TbCet1 inhibitors were less active (or inactive) against the orthologous TTM-type RTPases of mimivirus, baculovirus, and budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our results affirm that a TTM RTPase is subject to potent inhibition by small molecules, with the caveat that parallel screens against TTM RTPases from multiple different pathogens may be required to fully probe the chemical space of TTM inhibition. PMID:26908574

  19. Kinetics of the acid pump in the stomach. Proton transport and hydrolysis of ATP and p-nitrophenyl phosphate by the gastric H,K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungstroem, M.M.; Mardh, S.

    1985-05-10

    Hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate by the hydrogen ion-transporting potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase) was investigated. Hydrolysis of ATP was studied at pH 7.4 in vesicles treated with the ionophore nigericin. The kinetic analysis showed negative cooperativity with one high affinity and one low affinity site for ATP. The rate of hydrolysis decreased at 2000 microM ATP indicating a third site for ATP. When the pH was decreased to 6.5 the experimental results followed Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics with one low affinity site. Higher concentrations than 750 microM ATP were inhibitory. Proton transport was measured as accumulation of acridine orange in vesicles equilibrated with 150 mM KCl. The transport at various concentrations of ATP in the pH interval from 6.0 to 8.0 correlated well with the Hill equation with a Hill coefficient between 1.5-1.9. The concentration of ATP resulting in half-maximal transport rate increased from 5 microM at pH 6.0 to 420 microM at pH 8.0. At acidic pH the rate of proton transport decreased at 1000 microM ATP. The K+-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase (pNPPase) activity resulted in a Hill coefficient close to 2 indicating cooperative binding of substrate. These kinetic results are used for a further development of the reaction scheme of the H,K-ATPase.

  20. Crystal Structure of Baculovirus RNA Triphosphatase Complexed with Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Changela, Anita; Martin, Alexandra; Shuman, Stewart; Mondragon, Alfonso

    2010-03-05

    Baculovirus RNA 5'-triphosphatase (BVP) exemplifies a family of RNA-specific cysteine phosphatases that includes the RNA triphosphatase domains of metazoan and plant mRNA capping enzymes. Here we report the crystal structure of BVP in a phosphate-bound state at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. BVP adopts the characteristic cysteine-phosphatase {alpha}/{beta} fold and binds two phosphate ions in the active site region, one of which is proposed to mimic the phosphate of the product complex after hydrolysis of the covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate. The crystal structure highlights the role of backbone amides and side chains of the P-loop motif {sup 118}HCTHGXNRT{sup 126} in binding the cleavable phosphate and stabilizing the transition state. Comparison of the BVP structure to the apoenzyme of mammalian RNA triphosphatase reveals a concerted movement of the Arg-125 side chain (to engage the phosphate directly) and closure of an associated surface loop over the phosphate in the active site. The structure highlights a direct catalytic role of Asn-124, which is the signature P-loop residue of the RNA triphosphatase family and a likely determinant of the specificity of BVP for hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride linkages.

  1. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  2. Human coronavirus 229E nonstructural protein 13: characterization of duplex-unwinding, nucleoside triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Konstantin A; Ziebuhr, John

    2004-07-01

    The human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) replicase gene-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) contains an N-terminal zinc-binding domain and a C-terminal superfamily 1 helicase domain. A histidine-tagged form of nsp13, which was expressed in insect cells and purified, is reported to unwind efficiently both partial-duplex RNA and DNA of up to several hundred base pairs. Characterization of the nsp13-associated nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities revealed that all natural ribonucleotides and nucleotides are substrates of nsp13, with ATP, dATP, and GTP being hydrolyzed most efficiently. Using the NTPase active site, HCoV-229E nsp13 also mediates RNA 5'-triphosphatase activity, which may be involved in the capping of viral RNAs.

  3. Determination of Rate Constants for Ouabain Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase: An Undergraduate Biological Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Eri; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate biological chemistry laboratory experiment which provides students with an example of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the cardiac glycoside inhibition of mammalism sodium and potassium transport. (SL)

  4. Isolation and characterization of a dinucleoside triphosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Brevet, A; Chen, J; Fromant, M; Blanquet, S; Plateau, P

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme able to cleave dinucleoside triphosphates has been purified 3,750-fold from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to the enzymes previously shown to catabolize Ap4A in yeast, this enzyme is a hydrolase rather than a phosphorylase. The dinucleoside triphosphatase molecular ratio estimated by gel filtration is 55,000. Dinucleoside triphosphatase activity is strongly stimulated by the presence of divalent cations. Mn2+ displays the strongest stimulating effect, followed by Mg2+, Co2+, Cd2+, and Ca2+. The Km value for Ap3A is 5.4 microM (50 mM Tris-HCl [pH 7.8], 5 mM MgCl2, and 0.1 mM EDTA; 37 degrees C). Dinucleoside polyphosphates are substrates of this enzyme, provided that they contain more than two phosphates and that at least one of the two bases is a purine (Ap3A, Ap3G, Ap3C, Gp3G, Gp3C, m7Gp3A, m7Gp3G, Ap4A, Ap4G, Ap4C, Ap4U, Gp4G, and Ap5A are substrates; AMP, ADP, ATP, Ap2A, and Cp4U are not). Among the products, a nucleoside monophosphate is always formed. The specificity of cleavage of methylated dinucleoside triphosphates and the molecular weight of dinucleoside triphosphatase indicate that this enzyme is different from the mRNA decapping enzyme previously characterized (A. Stevens, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:2005-2010, 1988). Images PMID:1653209

  5. Structure–function analysis of Plasmodium RNA triphosphatase and description of a triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme superfamily that includes Cet1-like RNA triphosphatases and CYTH proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chunling; Smith, Paul; Shuman, Stewart

    2006-01-01

    RNA triphosphatase catalyzes the first step in mRNA capping. The RNA triphosphatases of fungi and protozoa are structurally and mechanistically unrelated to the analogous mammalian enzyme, a situation that recommends RNA triphosphatase as an anti-infective target. Fungal and protozoan RNA triphosphatases belong to a family of metal-dependent phosphohydrolases exemplified by yeast Cet1. The Cet1 active site is unusually complex and located within a topologically closed hydrophilic β-barrel (the triphosphate tunnel). Here we probe the active site of Plasmodium falciparum RNA triphosphatase by targeted mutagenesis and thereby identify eight residues essential for catalysis. The functional data engender an improved structural alignment in which the Plasmodium counterparts of the Cet1 tunnel strands and active-site functional groups are located with confidence. We gain insight into the evolution of the Cet1-like triphosphatase family by noting that the heretofore unique tertiary structure and active site of Cet1 are recapitulated in recently deposited structures of proteins from Pyrococcus (PBD 1YEM) and Vibrio (PDB 2ACA). The latter proteins exemplify a CYTH domain found in CyaB-like adenylate cyclases and mammalian thiamine triphosphatase. We conclude that the tunnel fold first described for Cet1 is the prototype of a larger enzyme superfamily that includes the CYTH branch. This superfamily, which we name “triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme,” is distributed widely among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal taxa. It is now clear that Cet1-like RNA triphosphatases did not arise de novo in unicellular eukarya in tandem with the emergence of caps as the defining feature of eukaryotic mRNA. They likely evolved by incremental changes in an ancestral tunnel enzyme that conferred specificity for RNA 5′-end processing. PMID:16809816

  6. The coupling ATPase complex: an evolutionary view.

    PubMed

    Harris, D A

    1981-01-01

    Phospholipid micelles and vesicles, present in the primordial soup, formed both primitive (surface) catalyst and primitive replicative life forms. With the adoption of a common energy source, ATP, integrated biochemical systems within these vesicles became possible - cells. Fermentation within these primitive cells was favoured by the evolution, first of ion channels allowing protons to leak out, and then of an active ATP-driven pump. In the prokaryotic/mitochondria/chloroplast line, the proton channel was such as to be blocked by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and the adenosine 5' triphosphate phosphohydrolase (ATPase) by 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan (Nbf-C1). The ATPase was initially simple (4 subunits) but later, possibly concomitant with its evolution to an ATP synthetase, became more complex (8 subunits). One of the steps in evolution probably involved gene duplication and divergence of 2 subunits (alpha and beta) from the largest of the ATPase subunits. From this stage, the general form of the ATPase was fixed, although sensitivity to, for example, oligomycin involved later, after divergence of the mitochondrial and chloroplast lines. A regulatory protein, the ATPase inhibitor, is found associated with a wide spectrum of coupling ATPases.

  7. No adaptation to digitalization as evaluated by digitalis receptor (Na,K-ATPase) quantification in explanted hearts from donors without heart disease and from digitalized recipients with end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T A; Allen, P D; Colucci, W S; Marsh, J D; Kjeldsen, K

    1993-01-01

    Speculations about development of tolerance to the inotropic effect of digitalis have been engendered since studies in various in vitro systems and tissues not representative of the heart have shown up-regulation of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) when exposed to digitalis. Moreover the digitalis receptor (i.e., Na,K-ATPase) concentration in the normal, vital human left ventricle has not been previously determined. On this basis, digitalis receptor concentration was quantified in the left ventricle of explanted hearts from subjects without heart disease and from patients with end-stage heart failure who had received digitalis therapy. This was performed using vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding to intact tissue samples giving values of 728 +/- 58 (n = 5) and 467 +/- 55 pmol/g wet weight (n = 6) (mean +/- SEM) (p < 0.005), respectively. However, some of the digitalis receptors may have retained digoxin before 3H-ouabain binding and thus may have escaped detection. To eliminate this effect of retained digoxin, samples were exposed to prolonged washing in buffer containing excess digoxin antibody, a method recently shown to clear digoxin from receptors and allow subsequent complete digitalis receptor quantification by 3H-ouabain binding. After washing in digoxin specific antibody, specific digitalis receptor concentration was 760 +/- 58 pmol/g (n = 5) and 614 +/- 47 pmol/g (n = 6) wet weight in samples of the normal and failing hearts, respectively (p < 0.08). Thus, digitalization was associated with occupancy of digitalis receptors in the failing human heart of 24% (p < 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate and adenosine in cancer.

    PubMed

    Stagg, J; Smyth, M J

    2010-09-30

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is actively released in the extracellular environment in response to tissue damage and cellular stress. Through the activation of P2X and P2Y receptors, extracellular ATP enhances tissue repair, promotes the recruitment of immune phagocytes and dendritic cells, and acts as a co-activator of NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. The conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine, in contrast, essentially through the enzymatic activity of the ecto-nucleotidases CD39 and CD73, acts as a negative-feedback mechanism to prevent excessive immune responses. Here we review the effects of extracellular ATP and adenosine on tumorigenesis. First, we summarize the functions of extracellular ATP and adenosine in the context of tumor immunity. Second, we present an overview of the immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic effects of extracellular adenosine. Third, we present experimental evidence that extracellular ATP and adenosine receptors are expressed by tumor cells and enhance tumor growth. Finally, we discuss recent studies, including our own work, which suggest that therapeutic approaches that promote ATP-mediated activation of inflammasomes, or inhibit the accumulation of tumor-derived extracellular adenosine, may constitute effective new means to induce anticancer activity.

  9. Guanosine triphosphatases as novel therapeutic targets in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rajni; Meena, Laxman S

    2010-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the aerobic microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv. Despite the availability of the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS), TB is a leading cause of death and affects a third of the world's population. The most important factor associated with disease severity is the development of antibiotic-resistant strains, including multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. In order to understand disease pathogenesis, it is necessary to delineate the specific features of M. tuberculosis that enable it to evade the host defense system and contribute to its virulence. Here, we have reviewed the various characteristics, such as cell wall components, virulence genes, and the role of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) in the pathogenesis of TB. GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the survival and pathogenesis of various pathogens. The key role of these proteins involves interference in phagosome maturation arrest, enabling pathogens to survive by escaping from lysozymes and toxic free radicals. This observation provides a new avenue for the development of anti-TB drugs.

  10. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code.

    PubMed

    Doamekpor, Selom K; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M; Shuman, Stewart; Lima, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The bound CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an "Spt5 CTD code" in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on-off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner.

  11. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code

    SciTech Connect

    Doamekpor, Selom K.; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M.; Shuman, Stewart; Lima, Christopher D.

    2014-11-20

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The bound CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an “Spt5 CTD code” in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on–off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner.

  12. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code

    DOE PAGES

    Doamekpor, Selom K.; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M.; ...

    2014-11-20

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The boundmore » CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an “Spt5 CTD code” in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on–off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner.« less

  13. Chlorella Virus Encoded Deoxyuridine triphosphatases Exhibit different Temperature Optima

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,Y.; Moriyama, H.; Homma, K.; Van Etten, J.

    2005-01-01

    A putative deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) gene from chlorella virus PBCV-1 was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein has dUTPase activity and requires Mg{sup 2+} for optimal activity, while it retains some activity in the presence of other divalent cations. Kinetic studies of the enzyme revealed a K{sub m} of 11.7 {mu}M, a turnover k{sub cat} of 6.8 s{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.8 x 105 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. dUTPase genes were cloned and expressed from two other chlorella viruses IL-3A and SH-6A. The two dUTPases have similar properties to PBCV-1 dUTPase except that IL-3A dUTPase has a lower temperature optimum (37{sup o}C) than PBCV-1 dUTPase (50{sup o}C). The IL-3A dUTPase differs from the PBCV-1 enzyme by nine amino acids, including two amino acid substitutions, Glu81{yields}Ser81 and Thr84{yields}Arg84, in the highly conserved motif III of the proteins. To investigate the difference in temperature optima between the two enzymes, homology modeling and docking simulations were conducted. The results of the simulation and comparisons of amino acid sequence suggest that adjacent amino acids are important in the temperature optima. To confirm this suggestion, three site-directed amino acid substitutions were made in the IL-3A enzyme: Thr84{yields}Arg84, Glu81{yields}Ser81, and Glu81{yields}Ser81 plus Thr84{yields}Arg84. The single substitutions affected the optimal temperature for enzyme activity. The temperature optimum increased from 37 to 55{sup o}C for the enzyme containing the two amino acid substitutions. We postulate that the change in temperature optimum is due to reduction in charge and balkiness in the active cavity that allows more movement of the ligand and protein before the enzyme and substrate complex is formed.

  14. Inhibition of a metal-dependent viral RNA triphosphatase by decavanadate.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Isabelle; Bisaillon, Martin

    2006-09-15

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus, a large DNA virus that replicates in unicellular Chlorella-like algae, encodes an RNA triphosphatase which is involved in the synthesis of the RNA cap structure found at the 5' end of the viral mRNAs. The Chlorella virus RNA triphosphatase is the smallest member of the metal-dependent RNA triphosphatases that include enzymes from fungi, DNA viruses, protozoans and microsporidian parasites. In the present study, we investigated the ability of various vanadate oxoanions to inhibit the phosphohydrolase activity of the enzyme. Fluorescence spectroscopy and CD studies were used to directly monitor the binding of decavanadate to the enzyme. Moreover, competition assays show that decavanadate is a potent non-competitive inhibitor of the phosphohydrolase activity, and mutagenesis studies indicate that the binding of decavanadate does not involve amino acids located in the active site of the enzyme. In order to provide additional insight into the relationship between the enzyme structure and decavanadate binding, we correlated the effect of decavanadate binding on protein structure using both CD and guanidinium chloride-induced denaturation as structural indicators. Our data indicated that no significant modification of the overall protein architecture was occurring upon decavanadate binding. However, both fluorescence spectroscopy and CD experiments clearly revealed that the binding of decavanadate to the enzyme significantly decreased the structural stability of the enzyme. Taken together, these studies provide crucial insights into the inhibition of metal-dependent RNA triphosphatases by decavanadate.

  15. Endogenous adenosine is an autacoid feedback inhibitor of chloride transport in the shark rectal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, G G; Aassar, O S; Forrest, J N

    1991-01-01

    The present studies define the physiologic role of endogenous adenosine in the perfused shark rectal gland, a model epithelia for hormone-stimulated chloride transport. Chloride ion secretion, and venous adenosine and inosine concentrations increased in parallel in response to hormone stimulation. From a basal rate of 157 +/- 26 mu eq/h per g, chloride secretion increased to 836 +/- 96 and 2170 +/- 358 with 1 and 10 microM forskolin, venous adenosine increased from 5.0 +/- 1 to 126 +/- 29 and 896 +/- 181 nM, and inosine increased from 30 +/- 9 to 349 +/- 77 and 1719 +/- 454 nM (all P less than 0.01). Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a nucleoside transport inhibitor, completely blocked the release of adenosine and inosine. Inhibition of chloride transport with bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, or ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase activity, reduced venous adenosine and inosine to basal values. When the interaction of endogenous adenosine with extracellular receptors was prevented by adenosine deaminase, NBTI, or 8-phenyltheophylline, the chloride transport response to secretagogues increased by 1.7-2.3-fold. These studies demonstrate that endogenous adenosine is released in response to hormone-stimulated cellular work and acts at A1 adenosine receptors as a feedback inhibitor of chloride transport. Images PMID:1752953

  16. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases.

  17. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  18. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate affects the response of human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Colas, Nicolas; Petit-Jentreau, Laetitia; Barreiro, Luis B; Durand, Sylvère; Soubigou, Guillaume; Lecointe, Cécile; Klibi, Jihène; Rezaï, Keyvan; Lokiec, François; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Gicquel, Brigitte; Tailleux, Ludovic

    2014-09-01

    Granulomas are the hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. As the host fails to control the bacteria, the center of the granuloma exhibits necrosis resulting from the dying of infected macrophages. The release of the intracellular pool of nucleotides into the surrounding medium may modulate the response of newly infected macrophages, although this has never been investigated. Here, we show that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) indirectly modulates the expression of 272 genes in human macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis and that it induces their alternative activation. ATP is rapidly hydrolyzed by the ecto-ATPase CD39 into adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and it is AMP that regulates the macrophage response through the adenosine A2A receptor. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for the purinergic pathway in the host response to M. tuberculosis. Dampening inflammation through signaling via the adenosine A2A receptor may limit tissue damage but may also favor bacterial immune escape.

  19. K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, A; Andó, RD; Túri, G; Rózsa, B; Sperlágh, B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE This study was undertaken to characterize the ATP, adenosine and glutamate outflow evoked by depolarization with high K+ concentrations, in slices of rat hippocampus. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We utilized the microelectrode biosensor technique and extracellular electrophysiological recording for the real-time monitoring of the efflux of ATP, adenosine and glutamate. KEY RESULTS ATP, adenosine and glutamate sensors exhibited transient and reversible current during depolarization with 25 mM K+, with distinct kinetics. The ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 enhanced the extracellular level of ATP and inhibited the prolonged adenosine efflux, suggesting that generation of adenosine may derive from the extracellular breakdown of ATP. Stimulation-evoked ATP, adenosine and glutamate efflux was inhibited by tetrodotoxin, while exposure to Ca2+-free medium abolished ATP and adenosine efflux from hippocampal slices. Extracellular elevation of ATP and adenosine were decreased in the presence of NMDA receptor antagonists, D-AP-5 and ifenprodil, whereas non-NMDA receptor blockade by CNQX inhibited glutamate but not ATP and adenosine efflux. The gliotoxin fluoroacetate and P2X7 receptor antagonists inhibited the K+-evoked ATP, adenosine and glutamate efflux, while carbenoxolone in low concentration and probenecid decreased only the adenosine efflux. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrated activity-dependent gliotransmitter release in the hippocampus in response to ongoing neuronal activity. ATP and glutamate were released by P2X7 receptor activation into extracellular space. Although the increased extracellular levels of adenosine did derive from released ATP, adenosine might also be released directly via pannexin hemichannels. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Sershen, pp. 1000–1002 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02072.x PMID:22394324

  20. Progesterone regulation of Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit expression in the mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen-Bo; Tian, Zhen; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Wang, Bao-Chen; Yang, Feng; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Luminal closure and embryo apposition are essential for blastocyst attachment during early pregnancy. In our preliminary microarray results (unpublished data), sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) β1 (Atp1b1) was highly expressed in mouse uterus on Days 3 and 4 of pregnancy. However, expression and regulation of Atp1b1 in the mammalian uterus during early pregnancy are unknown. Using in situ hybridization, a strong level of Atp1b1 mRNA was detected in luminal epithelial cells on Days 3 and 4 of pregnancy (Day 1 = day of vaginal plug). The expression pattern of FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 4 (Fxyd4) was similar to that of Atp1b1. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the high expression level of Atp1b1 mRNA. Compared with Day 1, the mRNA level of Atp1b1 on Days 3 and 4 increased by 3.5 ± 0.5 and 4.5 ± 0.5 fold, respectively. When the embryo invaded through epithelial cells into the maternal stromal compartment on day 5, Atp1b1 expression decreased to a basal level. Progesterone stimulated Atp1b1 expression by 2.8 ± 1 fold compared with oil in ovariectomized mice at 24 hours after treatment. Expression of Atp1b1 was further upregulated to 4 ± 0.4 fold by estrogen and progesterone. Based on time-course study, progesterone rapidly induced Atp1b1 expression at 6 and 12 hours (13.7 ± 0.5 and 16.6 ± 1.4, respectively); furthermore, this upregulation was blocked by RU486 (progesterone receptor antagonist). Transcription activity of the Atp1b1 promoter was (Day 1 = day of vaginal plug) stimulated by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (Cebpb). In conclusion, Atp1b1 was highly expressed in luminal epithelium during peri-implantation and upregulated by progesterone.

  1. Rat cardiac myocyte adenosine transport and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.A.; Rovetto, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the importance of myocardial adenosine and adenine nucleotide metabolism, the adenosine salvage pathway in ventricular myocytes was studied. Accurate estimates of transport rates, separate from metabolic fllux, were determined. Adenosine influx was constant between 3 and 60 s. Adenosine metabolism maintained intracellular adenosine concentrations < 10% of the extracellular adenosine concentrations and thus unidirectional influx could be measured. Myocytes transported adenosine via saturable and nonsaturable processes. A minimum estimate of the V/sub max/ of myocytic adenosine kinase indicated the saturable component of adenosine influx was independent of adenosine kinase activity. Saturable transport was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine and verapamil. Extracellular adenosine taken up myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine taken up by myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine nucleotides. Not all extracellular adenosine, though, was phosphorylated on entering myocytes, since free, as opposed to protein-bound, intracellular adenosine was detected after digitonin extraction of cells in the presence of 1 mM ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid.

  2. [Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of a soluble nucleoside triphosphatase from bovine kidneys].

    PubMed

    Sivuk, V F; Rusina, I M; Luchko, T A; Makarchikov, A F

    2008-01-01

    Soluble nucleoside triphosphatase differing in its properties from all known proteins with NTPase activity was partially purified from bovine kidneys. The enzyme has pH optimum of 7.5, molecular mass of 60 kDa, as estimated by gel chromatography, and shows an absolute dependence on divalent metal ions. NTPase obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the range of substrate concentration tested from 45 to 440 microM; the apparent Km for inosine-5'-triphosphate was calculated to be 23.3 microM. The enzyme was found to possess a broad substrate specificity, being capable of hydrolyzing various nucleoside-5'-tri- as well as diphosphates.

  3. Torque generation and elastic power transmission in the rotary F(O)F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Sielaff, Hendrik; Engelbrecht, Siegfried

    2009-05-21

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal fuel of the cell, is synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) by 'ATP synthase' (F(O)F(1)-ATPase). During respiration or photosynthesis, an electrochemical potential difference of protons is set up across the respective membranes. This powers the enzyme's electrical rotary nanomotor (F(O)), which drives the chemical nanomotor (F(1)) by elastic mechanical-power transmission, producing ATP with high kinetic efficiency. Attempts to understand in detail the mechanisms of torque generation in this simple and robust system have been both aided and complicated by a wealth of sometimes conflicting data.

  4. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Scott A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a “down” state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an “up” state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual “open” conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  5. The RNA Helicase and Nucleotide Triphosphatase Activities of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NS3 Protein Are Essential for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Baohua; Liu, Changbao; Lin-Goerke, Juili; Maley, Derrick R.; Gutshall, Lester L.; Feltenberger, Cynthia A.; Del Vecchio, Alfred M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) motifs have been identified in many RNA virus genomes. Similarly, all the members of the Flaviviridae family contain conserved helicase/NTPase motifs in their homologous NS3 proteins. Although this suggests that this activity plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, the precise role of the helicase/NTPase in virus replication or whether it is essential for virus replication is still unknown. To determine the role of the NS3 helicase/NTPase in the viral life cycle, deletion and point mutations in the helicase/NTPase motifs of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) NS3 protein designed to abolish either helicase activity alone (motif II, DEYH to DEYA) or both NTPase and helicase activity (motif I, GKT to GAT and deletion of motif VI) were generated. The C-terminal domain of NS3 (BVDV amino acids 1854 to 2362) of these mutants and wild type was expressed in bacteria, purified, and assayed for RNA helicase and ATPase activity. These mutations behaved as predicted with respect to RNA helicase and NTPase activities in vitro. When engineered back into an infectious cDNA for BVDV (NADL strain), point mutations in either the GKT or DEYH motif or deletion of motif VI yielded RNA transcripts that no longer produced infectious virus upon transfection of EBTr cells. Further analysis indicated that these mutants did not synthesize minus-strand RNA. These findings represent the first report unequivocably demonstrating that helicase activity is essential for minus-strand synthesis. PMID:10644352

  6. Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-24

    The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

  7. Stiffness of γ subunit of F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a molecular motor in which the γ subunit rotates inside the α(3)β(3) ring upon adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Recent works on single-molecule manipulation of F(1)-ATPase have shown that kinetic parameters such as the on-rate of ATP and the off-rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) strongly depend on the rotary angle of the γ subunit (Hirono-Hara et al. 2005; Iko et al. 2009). These findings provide important insight into how individual reaction steps release energy to power F(1) and also have implications regarding ATP synthesis and how reaction steps are reversed upon reverse rotation. An important issue regarding the angular dependence of kinetic parameters is that the angular position of a magnetic bead rotation probe could be larger than the actual position of the γ subunit due to the torsional elasticity of the system. In the present study, we assessed the stiffness of two different portions of F(1) from thermophilic Bacillus PS3: the internal part of the γ subunit embedded in the α(3)β(3) ring, and the complex of the external part of the γ subunit and the α(3)β(3) ring (and streptavidin and magnetic bead), by comparing rotational fluctuations before and after crosslinkage between the rotor and stator. The torsional stiffnesses of the internal and remaining parts were determined to be around 223 and 73 pNnm/radian, respectively. Based on these values, it was estimated that the actual angular position of the internal part of the γ subunit is one-fourth of the magnetic bead position upon stalling using an external magnetic field. The estimated elasticity also partially explains the accommodation of the intrinsic step size mismatch between F(o) and F(1)-ATPase.

  8. Rho and Rap guanosine triphosphatase signaling in B cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mele, Silvia; Devereux, Stephen; Ridley, Anne J

    2014-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells proliferate predominantly in niches in the lymph nodes, where signaling from the B cell receptor (BCR) and the surrounding microenvironment are critical for disease progression. In addition, leukemic cells traffic constantly from the bloodstream into the lymph nodes, migrate within lymphatic tissues and egress back to the bloodstream. These processes are driven by chemokines and their receptors, and depend on changes in cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion. Here we describe how Rho and Rap guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) contribute to both BCR signaling and chemokine receptor signaling, particularly by regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and integrin activity. We propose that new inhibitors of BCR-activated kinases are likely to affect CLL cell trafficking via Rho and Rap GTPases, and that upstream regulators or downstream effectors could be good targets for therapeutic intervention in CLL.

  9. Characterization of nucleoside triphosphatase activity in isolated pea nuclei and its photoreversible regulation by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. R.; Roux, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    A nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) present in highly purified preparations of pea nuclei was partially characterized. The activity of this enzyme was stimulated by divalent cations (Mg2+ = Mn2+ > Ca2+), but was not affected by the monovalent cations, Na+ and K+. The Mg(2+)-dependent activity was further stimulated by concentrations of Ca2+ in the low micromolar range. It could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP, all with a pH optimum of 7.5. The nuclear NTPase activity was not inhibited by vanadate, oligomycin, or nitrate, but was inhibited by relatively low concentrations of quercetin and the calmodulin inhibitor, compound 48/80. The NTPase was stimulated more than 50% by red light, and this effect was reversed by subsequent irradiation with far-red light. The photoreversibility of the stimulation indicated that the photoreceptor for this response was phytochrome, an important regulator of photomorphogenesis and gene expression in plants.

  10. Purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G C; Schmalstieg, F C; Trimmer, K B; Goldman, A S; Goldblum, R M

    1976-01-01

    Purine and pyrimidine metabolites were measured in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of a 5-month-old infant with adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) deficiency. Adenosine and adenine were measured using newly devised ion exchange separation techniques and a sensitive fluorescence assay. Plasma adenosine levels were increased, whereas adenosine was normal in erythrocytes and not detectable in urine. Increased amounts of adenine were found in erythrocytes and urine as well as in the plasma. Erythrocyte adenosine 5'-monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate concentrations were normal, but adenosine triphosphate content was greatly elevated. Because of the possibility of pyrimidine starvation, pyrimidine nucleotides (pyrimidine coenzymes) in erythrocytes and orotic acid in urine were measured. Pyrimidine nucleotide concentrations were normal, while orotic acid was not detected. These studies suggest that the immune deficiency associated with adenosine deaminase deficiency may be related to increased amounts of adenine, adenosine, or adenine nucleotides. PMID:1066699

  11. A specific inorganic triphosphatase from Nitrosomonas europaea: structure and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, David; Murty, Mamidanna R V S; Gabelica, Valérie; Lakaye, Bernard; Lunin, Vladimir V; Skarina, Tatiana; Onopriyenko, Olena; Kohn, Gregory; Wins, Pierre; De Pauw, Edwin; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2011-09-30

    The CYTH superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. Because these proteins often form a closed β-barrel, they are also referred to as triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes (TTM). Functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. These proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions depending on their origin. Here we investigate structural and catalytic properties of the recombinant TTM protein from Nitrosomonas europaea (NeuTTM), a 19-kDa protein. Crystallographic data show that it crystallizes as a dimer and that, in contrast to other TTM proteins, it has an open β-barrel structure. We demonstrate that NeuTTM is a highly specific inorganic triphosphatase, hydrolyzing tripolyphosphate (PPP(i)) with high catalytic efficiency in the presence of Mg(2+). These data are supported by native mass spectrometry analysis showing that the enzyme binds PPP(i) (and Mg-PPP(i)) with high affinity (K(d) < 1.5 μm), whereas it has a low affinity for ATP or thiamine triphosphate. In contrast to Aeromonas and Yersinia CyaB proteins, NeuTTM has no adenylyl cyclase activity, but it shares several properties with other enzymes of the CYTH superfamily, e.g. heat stability, alkaline pH optimum, and inhibition by Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) ions. We suggest a catalytic mechanism involving a catalytic dyad formed by Lys-52 and Tyr-28. The present data provide the first characterization of a new type of phosphohydrolase (unrelated to pyrophosphatases or exopolyphosphatases), able to hydrolyze inorganic triphosphate with high specificity.

  12. Adenosine-Associated Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156

  13. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-12-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm-2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm-2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm-2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  14. Hybrid integrated biological–solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm−2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm−2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm−2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  15. Adenosine receptor targets for pain.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, J

    2016-12-03

    The main focus for the development of adenosine targets as analgesics to date has been A1Rs due to its antinociceptive profile in various preclinical pain models. The usefulness of systemic A1R agonists may be limited by other effects (cardiovascular, motor), but enhanced selectivity for pain might occur with partial agonists, potent and highly selective agonists, or allosteric modulators. A2AR agonists exhibit some peripheral pronociceptive effects, but also act on immune cells to suppress inflammation and on spinal glia to suppress pain signaling and may be useful for inflammatory and neuropathic pain. A2BR agonists exhibit peripheral proinflammatory effects on immune cells, but also spinal antinociceptive effects similar to A2AR agonists. A3Rs are now demonstrated to produce antinociception in several preclinical neuropathic pain models, with mechanistic actions on glial cells, and may be useful for neuropathic pain. Endogenous adenosine levels can be augmented by inhibition of metabolism (via adenosine kinase) or increased generation (via nucleotidases), and these approaches have implications for pain. Endogenous adenosine contributes to antinociception by several pharmacological agents, herbal remedies, acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, exercise, joint mobilization, and water immersion via spinal and/or peripheral effects, such that this system appears to constitute a major pain regulatory system. Finally, caffeine inhibits A1-, A2A- and A3Rs with similar potency, and dietary caffeine intake will need attention in trials of: (a) agonists and/or modulators acting at these receptors, (b) some pharmacological and herbal analgesics, and (c) manipulations that enhance endogenous adenosine levels, all of which are inhibited by caffeine and/or A1R antagonists in preclinical studies. All adenosine receptors have effects on spinal glial cells in regulating nociception, and gender differences in the involvement of such cells in chronic

  16. Molecular cloning, encoding sequence, and expression of vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J F; Kahn, J S; Esteban, M

    1986-01-01

    A rabbit poxvirus genomic library contained within the expression vector lambda gt11 was screened with polyclonal antiserum prepared against vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)-I enzyme. Five positive phage clones containing from 0.72- to 2.5-kilobase-pair (kbp) inserts expressed a beta-galactosidase fusion protein that was reactive by immunoblotting with the NTPase-I antibody. Hybridization analysis allowed the location of this gene within the vaccinia HindIIID restriction fragment. From the known nucleotide sequence of the 16-kbp vaccinia HindIIID fragment, we identified a region that contains a 1896-base open reading frame coding for a 631-amino acid protein. Analysis of the complete sequence revealed a highly basic protein, with hydrophilic COOH and NH2 termini, various hydrophobic domains, and no significant homology to other known proteins. Translational studies demonstrate that NTPase-I belongs to a late class of viral genes. This protein is highly conserved among Orthopoxviruses. Images PMID:3025846

  17. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors inhibit dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase).

    PubMed

    Otomo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Osada, Kenichi; Nakashima, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2008-08-01

    Neuronal dynamin I plays a critical role in the recycling of synaptic vesicles, and thus in nervous system function. We expressed and purified dynamin I to explore potentially clinically useful endocytosis inhibitors and to examine the mechanism of their action. We estimated the IC(50) of nineteen psychotropic drugs for dynamin I. The IC(50) values of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline and fluvoxamine) were 7.3+/-1.0 and 14.7+/-1.6 microM, respectively. Kinetic analyses revealed that fluvoxamine is a noncompetitive inhibitor of dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) with respect to guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and a competitive inhibitor with respect to L-phosphatidylserine (PS). Fluvoxamine may compete with PS for binding to the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin I. On the other hand, sertraline was a mixed type inhibitor with respect to both GTP and PS. Our results indicate that sertraline and fluvoxamine may regulate the transportation of neurotransmitters by modulating synaptic vesicle endocytosis via the inhibition of dynamin I GTPase.

  18. Crystallization and Crystal-Packing Studies of Chlorella Virus Deoxyuridine Triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, K.; Moriyama, H

    2009-01-01

    The 141-amino-acid deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) from the algal Chlorella virus IL-3A and its Glu81Ser/Thr84Arg-mutant derivative Mu-22 were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method at 298 K with polyethylene glycol as the precipitant. An apo IL-3A dUTPase with an amino-terminal T7 epitope tag and a carboxy-terminal histidine tag yielded cubic P2{sub 1}3 crystals with unit-cell parameter a = 106.65 {angstrom}. In the presence of dUDP, the enzyme produced thin stacked orthorhombic P222 crystals with unit-cell parameters a = 81.0, b = 96.2, c = 132.8 {angstrom}. T7-histidine-tagged Mu-22 dUTPase formed thin stacked rectangular crystals. Amino-terminal histidine-tagged dUTPases did not crystallize but formed aggregates. Glycyl-seryl-tagged dUTPases yielded cubic P2{sub 1}3 IL-3A crystals with unit-cell parameter a = 105.68 {angstrom} and hexagonal P6{sub 3} Mu-22 crystals with unit-cell parameters a = 132.07, c = 53.45 {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}. Owing to the Thr84Arg mutation, Mu-22 dUTPase had different monomer-to-monomer interactions to those of IL-3A dUTPase.

  19. The ATPase cycle of the endoplasmic chaperone Grp94.

    PubMed

    Frey, Stephan; Leskovar, Adriane; Reinstein, Jochen; Buchner, Johannes

    2007-12-07

    Grp94, the Hsp90 paralog of the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a crucial role in protein secretion. Like cytoplasmic Hsp90, Grp94 is regulated by nucleotide binding to its N-terminal domain. However, the question of whether Grp94 hydrolyzes ATP was controversial. This sets Grp94 apart from other members of the Hsp90 family where a slow but specific turnover of ATP has been unambiguously established. In this study we aimed at analyzing the nucleotide binding properties and the potential ATPase activity of Grp94. We show here that Grp94 has an ATPase activity comparable with that of yeast Hsp90 with a k(cat) of 0.36 min(-1) at 25 degrees C. Kinetic and equilibrium constants of the partial reactions of the ATPase cycle were determined using transient kinetic methods. Nucleotide binding appears to be tighter compared with other Hsp90s investigated, with dissociation constants (K(D)) of approximately 4 microm for ADP, ATP, and AMP-PCP. Interestingly, all nucleotides and inhibitors (radicicol, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) studied here bind with similar rate constants for association (0.2-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Furthermore, there is a marked difference from cytosolic Hsp90s in that after binding, the ATP molecule does not seem to become trapped by conformational changes in Grp94. Grp94 stays predominantly in the open state concerning the nucleotide-binding pocket as evidenced by kinetic analyses. Thus, Grp94 shows mechanistically important differences in the interaction with adenosine nucleotides, but the basic hydrolysis reaction seems to be conserved between cytosolic and endoplasmic members of the Hsp90 family.

  20. Copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7A) is associated with platinum-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper export protein ATP7A is important for maintaining copper homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that copper transporters are also involved in the transport of platinum. The goal of this study was to determine the role of ATP7A in the platinum-resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Sensitivities to platinums were detected by MTT assay and drug-resistance related genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting between DDP-sensitive A549 and the corresponding DDP-resistant cell subline (A549/DDP). ATP7A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues of unresectable NSCLC patients who received cisplatin-basing chemotherapy. Results The expression of ATP7A was significantly higher in A549/DDP cell subline than in A549 cells at both mRNA and protein levels. The silencing of ATP7A expression in A549/DDP by siRNA partially reversed DDP-resistance (29.62%) and increased cell apoptosis. ATP7A expression was detected in 41.6%of NSCLC patients, but not in adjacent stroma nor normal lung tissues. ATP7A-positive patients had a significantly poorer histological grade (p = 0.039) and poorer response to platinum-basing chemotherapy (p = 0.001) compared with ATP7A-negative patients. Cox's proportional hazards analysis showed that ATP7A expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.045). Conclusions ATP7A overexpression played an important role in platinum-resistance of NSCLC, and was a negative prognostic factor of NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:22304828

  1. High Inorganic Triphosphatase Activities in Bacteria and Mammalian Cells: Identification of the Enzymes Involved

    PubMed Central

    Lakaye, Bernard; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Scholer, Georges; Fillet, Marianne; Elias, Benjamin; Derochette, Jean-Michel; Crommen, Jacques; Wins, Pierre; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase) from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPPi) is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPPi but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. Conclusions and General Significance We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPPi in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPPi, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca2+, thereby interfering with Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22984449

  2. NTPase and 5'-RNA triphosphatase activities of Chikungunya virus nsP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Yogesh A; Aher, Pankaj P; Lole, Kavita S

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect borne virus (genus: Alphavirus) which causes acute febrile illness in humans followed by a prolonged arthralgic disease that affects the joints of the extremities. Re-emergence of the virus in the form of outbreaks in last 6-7 years has posed a serious public health problem. CHIKV has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome of about 12,000 nt. Open reading frame 1 of the viral genome encodes a polyprotein precursor, nsP1234, which is processed further into different non structural proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4). Sequence based analyses have shown helicase domain at the N-terminus and protease domain at C-terminus of nsP2. A detailed biochemical analysis of NTPase/RNA helicase and 5'-RNA phosphatase activities of recombinant CHIKV-nsP2T protein (containing conserved NTPase/helicase motifs in the N-terminus and partial papain like protease domain at the C-terminus) was carried out. The protein could hydrolyze all NTPs except dTTP and showed better efficiency for ATP, dATP, GTP and dGTP hydrolysis. ATP was the most preferred substrate by the enzyme. CHIKV-nsP2T also showed 5'-triphosphatase (RTPase) activity that specifically removes the γ-phosphate from the 5' end of RNA. Both NTPase and RTPase activities of the protein were completely dependent on Mg(2+) ions. RTPase activity was inhibited by ATP showing sharing of the binding motif by NTP and RNA. Both enzymatic activities were drastically reduced by mutations in the NTP binding motif (GKT) and co-factor, Mg(2+) ion binding motif (DEXX) suggesting that they have a common catalytic site.

  3. Enhanced Diffusion of Molecular Motors in the Presence of Adenosine Triphosphate and External Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinagawa, Ryota; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The diffusion of a molecular motor in the presence of a constant external force is considered on the basis of a simple theoretical model. The motor is represented by a Brownian particle moving in a series of parabolic potentials placed periodically on a line, and the potential is switched stochastically from one parabola to another by a chemical reaction, which corresponds to the hydrolysis or synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in motor proteins. It is found that the diffusion coefficient as a function of the force exhibits peaks. The mechanism of this diffusion enhancement and the possibility of observing it in F1-ATPase, a biological rotary motor, are discussed.

  4. [Noradrenaline as a RNA and Na K ATPase biosynthesis regulator in the neurons].

    PubMed

    Elaev, N R

    1981-01-01

    Noradrenaline (10(-5)M) inhibits the summary RNA synthesis in isolated neurone nuclei. In the presence of the dissolvable cytoplasmic fraction noradrenaline effect is transformed: 3H-UTP inclusion into RNA is activated. Similar results were seen in experiments with adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate and previously with acetylcholine. The data obtained indicate the presence of the neurone cytoplasmic factor (factors) interacting with biogenic amines and cyclic nucleotides and influencing RNA synthesis in such a complex. In the cell-free system noradrenaline inhibits Na, K-ATPase synthesis, its effect being directed at RNA synthesis inhibition upon DNA gene of Na, K-ATPase. These findings allow a conclusion that a part of neurone genes undergo noradrenaline control: the expression of several ones is activated and of the other is inhibited--the former being higher than the latter, according to noradrenaline effect on the summary RNA synthesis. Noradrenaline does not influence the glial cell RNA and DNA syntheses.

  5. Analysis of the Gastric H,K ATPase for Ion Pathways and Inhibitor Binding Sites†

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Keith; Law, Richard J.; Sachs, George

    2010-01-01

    New models of the gastric H,K ATPase in the E1K and E2P states are presented as the first structures of a K+ counter-transport P2-type ATPase exhibiting ion entry and exit paths. Homology modeling was first used to generate a starting conformation from the srCa ATPase E2P form (PDB code 1wpg) that contains bound MgADP. Energy minimization of the model showed a conserved adenosine site but nonconserved polyphosphate contacts compared to the srCa ATPase. Molecular dynamics was then employed to expand the luminal entry sufficiently to allow access of the rigid K+ competitive naphthyridine inhibitor, Byk99, to its binding site within the membrane domain. The new E2P model had increased separation between transmembrane segments M3 through M8, and addition of water in this space showed not only an inhibitor entry path to the luminal vestibule but also a channel leading to the ion binding site. Addition of K+ to the hydrated channel with molecular dynamics modeling of ion movement identified a pathway for K+ from the lumen to the ion binding site to give E2K. A K+ exit path to the cytoplasm operating during the normal catalytic cycle is also proposed on the basis of an E1K homology model derived from the E12Ca2+ form of the srCa ATPase (PDB code 1su4). Autodock analyses of the new E2P model now correctly discriminate between high- and low-affinity K+ competitive inhibitors. Finally, the expanded luminal vestibule of the E2P model explains high-affinity ouabain binding in a mutant of the H,K ATPase PMID:17425287

  6. Characterization of Bovine Brain ATPase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    tiEFILE Copi am, opRffRiN i ~CRDEC-CR- - - CHARACTERIZATION OF BOVINE N BRAIN ATPASE by James J. Valdes, Ph.D. RESEARCH DIRECTORATE James P. Chambers...the Arw position unless so designated by other authorizing documents. Distribution Statement Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. I ...IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION of epplics") CRDEC ISMCCR-RS DAAK11-84-K-0003 I . ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS berdeen

  7. Pathological overproduction: the bad side of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-02

    Adenosine is an endogenous ubiquitous purine nucleoside, which is increased by hypoxia, ischaemia and tissue damage and mediates a number of physiopathological effects by interacting with four GPCRs, identified as A1 , A2A , A2B and A3 . Physiological and acutely increased adenosine is mostly associated with beneficial effects that include vasodilatation and a decrease in inflammation. In contrast, chronic overproduction of adenosine occurs in important pathological states, where long-lasting increases in the nucleoside levels are responsible for the bad side of adenosine associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. In this review, we describe and critically discuss the pathological overproduction of adenosine and analyse when, where and how adenosine exerts its detrimental effects throughout the body.

  8. Torsades de pointes after adenosine administration.

    PubMed

    Teodorovich, Nicholay; Margolin, Elena; Kogan, Yonatan; Paz, Ofir; Swissa, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine can produce arrhythmias, which are generally short living. It may induce PACs and PVCs, sinus bradycardia, and atrial fibrillation. There have been reports of transient polymorphic VT (torsades de pointes) in patients with LQTS and others in people with normal QT interval. We report a case of a long episode of polymorphic VT induced by adenosine. A 27 year old woman received 6 mg adenosine for PSVT, which terminated and torsades de pointes developed, persisting for 17 seconds and terminated spontaneously. This is the longest described duration of the torsades after adenosine administration in patients with normal QT interval.

  9. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  10. Adenosine modulates cell growth in the human breast cancer cells via adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Panjehpour, Mojtaba; Karami-Tehrani, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine modulates the proliferation, survival, and apoptosis of many different cell types. The present study was performed to investigate the role of adenosine receptors in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB468. The biological effects of adenosine on the cells were analyzed by adenylyl cyclase and cell viability assay as well as RT-PCR of adenosine receptors. RT-PCR results show the expression of the transcript of all adenosine receptors in both cell lines. By using adenosine and selective adenosine receptor agonists or antagonists, we found that A3 stimulation reduced cell viability, which was abolished by pretreatment with A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, we demonstrated that adenosine (natural agonist) triggers a cytotoxic signal via A3 receptor activation that was not seen for other subclasses of adenosine receptors. Intracellular cAMP concentration was changed significantly only for A3 and A2B receptor-selective agonists, which indicates the functional form of these receptors on the cell surface. In conclusion, our findings revealed the role of adenosine receptors in breast cancer cell lines on growth modulation role of A3 and functional form of A2B, although its involvement in cell growth modulation was not seen. Theses findings as well as data by others may provide a possible application of adenosine receptor agonists/antagonists in breast malignancies.

  11. Endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors localized to ganglion cells of the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Braas, K.M.; Zarbin, M.A.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    Using specific sensitive antisera against adenosine, we have immunocytochemically localized endogenous adenosine to specific layers of rat, guinea pig, monkey, and human retina. Highest adenosine immunoreactivity was observed in ganglion cells and their processes in the optic nerve fiber layer. Substantial staining was also found throughout the inner plexiform layer and in select cells in the inner nuclear layer. Adenosine A1 receptors, labeled with the agonists L-(/sup 3/H)phenylisopropyladenosine and /sup 125/I-labeled hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine, were autoradiographically localized. The highest levels of binding sites occurred in the nerve fiber, ganglion cell, and inner plexiform layers of the retina in all the species examined. The distribution of adenosine A1 receptor sites closely parallels that of retinal neurons and fibers containing immunoreactive adenosine. These results suggest a role for endogenous adenosine as a coneurotransmitter in ganglion cells and their fibers in the optic nerve.

  12. Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

  13. Drosophila factor 2, an RNA polymerase II transcript release factor, has DNA-dependent ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z; Price, D

    1997-12-12

    Drosophila factor 2 has been identified as a component of negative transcription elongation factor (N-TEF) that causes the release of RNA polymerase II transcripts in an ATP-dependent manner (Xie, Z. and Price D. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11043-11046). We show here that the transcript release activity of factor 2 requires ATP or dATP and that adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS), adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate (AMP-PNP), or other NTPs do not support the activity. Factor 2 demonstrated a strong DNA-dependent ATPase activity that correlated with its transcript release activity. At 20 microg/ml DNA, the ATPase activity of factor 2 had an apparent Km(ATP) of 28 microM and an estimated Kcat of 140 min-1. Factor 2 caused the release of nascent transcripts associated with elongation complexes generated by RNA polymerase II on a dC-tailed template. Therefore, no other protein cofactors are required for the transcript release activity of factor 2. Using the dC-tailed template assay, it was found that renaturation of the template was required for factor 2 function.

  14. Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by small guanosine triphosphatases in skeletal muscle and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takaya

    2014-10-16

    Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood glucose level by stimulating various physiological responses in its target tissues. In skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, insulin promotes membrane trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from GLUT4 storage vesicles to the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating the uptake of glucose from the circulation. Detailed mechanisms underlying insulin-dependent intracellular signal transduction for glucose uptake remain largely unknown. In this article, I give an overview on the recently identified signaling network involving Rab, Ras, and Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that regulates glucose uptake in insulin-responsive tissues. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms for these small GTPases and the cross-talk between protein kinase and small GTPase cascades are highlighted.

  15. Halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine from marine organisms: pharmacological activities and potent inhibition of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Davies, L P; Jamieson, D D; Baird-Lambert, J A; Kazlauskas, R

    1984-02-01

    Two novel halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine, isolated from marine sources, have been examined for pharmacological and biochemical activities. 4-Amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, from a sponge of the genus Echinodictyum, had bronchodilator activity at least as potent as theophylline but with a different biochemical profile; unlike theophylline it had no antagonist activity at CNS adenosine receptors and it was quite a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake and adenosine kinase in brain tissue. 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin, isolated from the red alga Hypnea valentiae, caused potent muscle relaxation and hypothermia when injected into mice. This compound was a very potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake into rat and guinea-pig brain slices and an extremely potent inhibitor of adenosine kinase from guinea-pig brain and rat brain and liver. Neither of these two pyrrolopyrimidine analogues was a substrate for, or an inhibitor of, adenosine deaminase. Neither compound appeared to have any direct agonist activity on guinea-pig brain adenosine-stimulated adenylate cyclase (A2 adenosine receptors). 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin is unique in two respects: it appears to be the first naturally-occurring example of a 5'-deoxyribosyl nucleoside and is the first example of a specifically iodinated nucleoside from natural sources. It may be the most potent adenosine kinase inhibitor yet described and, by virtue of its structure, may prove to be the most specific.

  16. Homeostatic control of synaptic activity by endogenous adenosine is mediated by adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Diógenes, Maria José; Neves-Tomé, Raquel; Fucile, Sergio; Martinello, Katiuscia; Scianni, Maria; Theofilas, Panos; Lopatár, Jan; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Maggi, Laura; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Limatola, Cristina; Boison, Detlev; Sebastião, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of neuronal excitability, is metabolized by astrocyte-based enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). We hypothesized that ADK might be an upstream regulator of adenosine-based homeostatic brain functions by simultaneously affecting several downstream pathways. We therefore studied the relationship between ADK expression, levels of extracellular adenosine, synaptic transmission, intrinsic excitability, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent synaptic actions in transgenic mice underexpressing or overexpressing ADK. We demonstrate that ADK: 1) Critically influences the basal tone of adenosine, evaluated by microelectrode adenosine biosensors, and its release following stimulation; 2) determines the degree of tonic adenosine-dependent synaptic inhibition, which correlates with differential plasticity at hippocampal synapses with low release probability; 3) modulates the age-dependent effects of BDNF on hippocampal synaptic transmission, an action dependent upon co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors; and 4) influences GABAA receptor-mediated currents in CA3 pyramidal neurons. We conclude that ADK provides important upstream regulation of adenosine-based homeostatic function of the brain and that this mechanism is necessary and permissive to synaptic actions of adenosine acting on multiple pathways. These mechanistic studies support previous therapeutic studies and implicate ADK as a promising therapeutic target for upstream control of multiple neuronal signaling pathways crucial for a variety of neurological disorders.

  17. Optical Aptasensors for Adenosine Triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Stella; Lim, Hui Si; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids are among the most researched and applied biomolecules. Their diverse two- and three-dimensional structures in conjunction with their robust chemistry and ease of manipulation provide a rare opportunity for sensor applications. Moreover, their high biocompatibility has seen them being used in the construction of in vivo assays. Various nucleic acid-based devices have been extensively studied as either the principal element in discrete molecule-like sensors or as the main component in the fabrication of sensing devices. The use of aptamers in sensors - aptasensors, in particular, has led to improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and multiplexing capacity for a wide verity of analytes like proteins, nucleic acids, as well as small biomolecules such as glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This article reviews the progress in the use of aptamers as the principal component in sensors for optical detection of ATP with an emphasis on sensing mechanism, performance, and applications with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. PMID:27446501

  18. Palytoxin acts on Na+,K+-ATPase but not non-gastric H+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Guennoun-Lehmann, Saida; Fonseca, James E.; Horisberger, Jean-Daniel; Rakowski, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX) opens a pathway for ions to pass through Na,K-ATPase. We investigate here whether PTX also acts on non-gastric H,K-ATPases. The following combinations of cRNA were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: Bufo marinus bladder H,K-ATPase α2- and Na,K-ATPase β2-subunits; Bufo Na,K-ATPase α1- and Na,K-ATPase β2-subunits; and Bufo Na,K-ATPase β2-subunit alone. The response to PTX was measured after blocking endogenous Xenopus Na,K-ATPase with 10 μM ouabain. Functional expression was confirmed by measuring 86Rb uptake. PTX (5 nM) produced a large increase of membrane conductance in oocytes expressing Bufo Na,K-ATPase, but no significant increase occurred in oocytes expressing Bufo H,K-ATPase or in those injected with Bufo β2-subunit alone. Expression of the following combinations of cDNA was investigated in HeLa cells: rat colonic H,K-ATPase α1-subunit and Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit; rat Na,K-ATPase α2-subunit and Na,K-ATPase β2-subunit; and rat Na,K-ATPase β1 or Na,K-ATPase β2 subunit alone. Measurement of increases in 86Rb uptake confirmed that both rat Na,K- and H,K-pumps were functional in HeLa cells expressing rat colonic HKα1/NKβ1 and NKα2/NKβ2. Whole-cell patch clamp measurements in HeLa cells expressing rat colonic HKα1/NKβ1 exposed to 100 nM PTX showed no significant increase of membrane current and there was no membrane conductance increase in HeLa cells transfected with rat NKβ1 or rat NKβ2 subunits alone. However, in HeLa Cells expressing rat NKα2 NKβ2, outward current was observed after pump activation by 20 mM K+ and a large membrane conductance increase occurred after 100 nM PTX. We conclude that non-gastric H,K-ATPases are not sensitive to palytoxin when expressed in these cells whereas palytoxin does act on Na,K-ATPase. PMID:17639367

  19. Adenosine Kinase: Exploitation for Therapeutic Gain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphotransferase that converts the purine ribonucleoside adenosine into 5′-adenosine-monophosphate. This enzymatic reaction plays a fundamental role in determining the tone of adenosine, which fulfills essential functions as a homeostatic and metabolic regulator in all living systems. Adenosine not only activates specific signaling pathways by activation of four types of adenosine receptors but it is also a primordial metabolite and regulator of biochemical enzyme reactions that couple to bioenergetic and epigenetic functions. By regulating adenosine, ADK can thus be identified as an upstream regulator of complex homeostatic and metabolic networks. Not surprisingly, ADK dysfunction is involved in several pathologies, including diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Consequently, ADK emerges as a rational therapeutic target, and adenosine-regulating drugs have been tested extensively. In recent attempts to improve specificity of treatment, localized therapies have been developed to augment adenosine signaling at sites of injury or pathology; those approaches include transplantation of stem cells with deletions of ADK or the use of gene therapy vectors to downregulate ADK expression. More recently, the first human mutations in ADK have been described, and novel findings suggest an unexpected role of ADK in a wider range of pathologies. ADK-regulating strategies thus represent innovative therapeutic opportunities to reconstruct network homeostasis in a multitude of conditions. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology of ADK and will then focus on pathologies and therapeutic interventions. Challenges to translate ADK-based therapies into clinical use will be discussed critically. PMID:23592612

  20. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040... Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is a device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040... Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is a device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040... Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is a device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following...

  3. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  4. Some aspects of adenosine triphosphate synthesis from adenine and adenosine in human red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Whittam, R.; Wiley, J. S.

    1968-01-01

    1. The synthesis of ATP has been studied in human erythrocytes. Fresh cells showed no net synthesis of ATP when incubated with adenine or adenosine, although labelled adenine was incorporated into ATP in small amounts. 2. Cold-stored cells (3-6 weeks old) became progressively depleted of adenine nucleotides but incubation with adenosine or adenine plus inosine restored the ATP concentration to normal within 4 hr. Incorporation of labelled adenine or adenosine into the ATP of incubated stored cells corresponded to net ATP synthesis by these cells. 3. Synthesis of ATP from adenosine plus adenine together was 75% derived from adenine and only 25% from adenosine, indicating that nucleotide synthesis from adenine inhibits the simultaneous synthesis of nucleotide from adenosine. PMID:5723519

  5. Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors — either directly or indirectly — have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent — the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma) — has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges. PMID:23535933

  6. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng; Feng, HaoTian; Cai, YanLing; Qi, WeiLi; Kong, KangMei . E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  7. [Adenosine deaminase in experimental trypanosomiasis: future implications].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Mary Carmen; Rondón-Mercado, Rocío

    2015-09-01

    The adenosine deaminase represents a control point in the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels, thus playing a critical role in the modulation of purinergic responses to certain pathophysiological events. Several studies have shown that serum and plasma enzyme levels are elevated in some diseases caused by microorganisms, which may represent a compensatory mechanism due to the elevated levels of adenosine and the release of inflammatory mediators. Recent research indicates that adenosine deaminase activity decreases and affects hematological parameters of infected animals with Trypanosoma evansi, so that such alterations could have implications in the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the enzyme has been detected in this parasite; allowing the inference that it could be associated with the vital functions of the same, similar to what occurs in mammals. This knowledge may be useful in the association of chemotherapy with specific inhibitors of the enzyme in future studies.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Page Bras J, Guerreiro R, Santo GC. Mutant ADA2 in vasculopathies. N Engl J Med. 2014 ... M, Anikster Y, King MC, Levy-Lahad E. Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy. ...

  9. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  10. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  11. Protective effect of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol) against membrane-bound enzyme alterations in isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, M; Selvi, V; Krishnakumari, S

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the preventive role of the ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol) fruit on membrane-bound enzymes, such as sodium potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+) ATPase) and magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg(2+) ATPase) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Mol) fruit (125, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight) for a period of 30 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85mg kg(-1) body weight) was subcutaneously injected into rats at 24-h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the activity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and an increase in the activities of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in the heart tissues. Pre-treatment with the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Mol) fruit for a period of 30 days exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) effect in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Mol) fruit has membrane-stabilising role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  12. Preventive Effect of Phytic Acid on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brindha, E.; Rajasekapandiyan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on membrane bound enzymes such as sodium potassium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) and magnesium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+ ATPase) and glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively) for a period of 56 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant decrease in the activity of Na+ /K+ ATPase and increase in the activities of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase in the heart and a significant (P<0.05) increase in the levels of glycoproteins in serum and the heart were also observed in ISO-induced rats. Pretreatment with phytic acid for a period of 56 days exhibited a significant (P<0.05) effect and altered these biochemical parameters positively in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that phytic acid has cardioprotective role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  13. The role of ATP and adenosine in the brain under normoxic and ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Melani, A.; Pugliese, A. M.; Coppi, E.; Cipriani, S.; Traini, C.

    2007-01-01

    By taking advantage of some recently synthesized compounds that are able to block ecto-ATPase activity, we demonstrated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the hippocampus exerts an inhibitory action independent of its degradation to adenosine. In addition, tonic activation of P2 receptors contributes to the normally recorded excitatory neurotransmission. The role of P2 receptors becomes critical during ischemia when extracellular ATP concentrations increase. Under such conditions, P2 antagonism is protective. Although ATP exerts a detrimental role under ischemia, it also exerts a trophic role in terms of cell division and differentiation. We recently reported that ATP is spontaneously released from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in culture. Moreover, it decreases hMSC proliferation rate at early stages of culture. Increased hMSC differentiation could account for an ATP-induced decrease in cell proliferation. ATP as a homeostatic regulator might exert a different effect on cell trophism according to the rate of its efflux and receptor expression during the cell life cycle. During ischemia, adenosine formed by intracellular ATP escapes from cells through the equilibrative transporter. The protective role of adenosine A1 receptors during ischemia is well accepted. However, the use of selective A1 agonists is hampered by unwanted peripheral effects, thus attention has been focused on A2A and A3 receptors. The protective effects of A2A antagonists in brain ischemia may be largely due to reduced glutamate outflow from neurones and glial cells. Reduced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases that are involved in neuronal death through transcriptional mechanisms may also contribute to protection by A2A antagonism. Evidence that A3 receptor antagonism may be protective after ischemia is also reported. PMID:18404443

  14. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  15. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the activity of rat liver mitochondrial ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichova, Mariela; Shkodrova, Milena; Vasileva, Penka; Kirilova, Katerina; Doncheva-Stoimenova, Diliana

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are one of the most sensitive targets for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Limited studies have demonstrated nanoparticle-induced impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production can be due to inhibition of the respiratory chain and/or to direct effects of AgNPs on the activity of mitochondrial ATP synthase/ATPase. In this regard, we synthesized and evaluated the in vitro effects of two types of AgNPs with various environmental friendly coatings—polysaccharide starch (AgNPs/Starch, D av = 15.4 ± 3.9 nm) and trisaccharide raffinose (AgNPs/Raff, D av = 24.8 ± 6.8 nm), with an emphasis on their potential action on rat liver mitochondrial ATPase. Both types of AgNPs showed decoupling effect on intact mitochondria. Unlike AgNPs/Raff, AgNPs/Starch reduced 2,4-dinitrophenol-stimulated ATPase activity of intact mitochondria, which suggests that they are able to penetrate the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both types of AgNPs inhibited ATPase activity of freeze/thawed mitochondria and submitochondrial particles as the effects of AgNPs/Starch were more pronounced. UV-Visible absorption measurements showed changes in the absorption spectrum of AgNPs/Raff added to the reaction medium. This suggests nanoparticle aggregation and thus a possible reduction in their reactivity. The distinction in the effects of the two types AgNPs studied may be due to their different sizes and/or to the stabilizing agents used for their synthesis, which determine AgNPs colloidal stability in the assay media. This study suggests the need for further research into the importance of surface modifications of AgNPs for their interaction with cellular components. Our findings could contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying AgNPs toxicity.

  16. Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

  17. Neurabin scaffolding of adenosine receptor and RGS4 regulates anti-seizure effect of endogenous adenosine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunjia; Liu, Yin; Cottingham, Christopher; McMahon, Lori; Jiao, Kai; Greengard, Paul; Wang, Qin

    2012-02-22

    Endogenous adenosine is an essential protective agent against neural damage by various insults to the brain. However, the therapeutic potential of adenosine receptor-directed ligands for neuroprotection is offset by side effects in peripheral tissues and organs. An increase in adenosine receptor responsiveness to endogenous adenosine would enhance neuroprotection while avoiding the confounding effects of exogenous ligands. Here we report novel regulation of adenosine-evoked responses by a neural tissue-specific protein, neurabin. Neurabin attenuated adenosine A(1) receptor (A1R) signaling by assembling a complex between the A1R and the regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4), a protein known to turn off G-protein signaling. Inactivation of the neurabin gene enhanced A1R signaling and promoted the protective effect of adenosine against excitotoxic seizure and neuronal death in mice. Furthermore, administration of a small molecule inhibitor of RGS4 significantly attenuated seizure severity in mice. Notably, the dose of kainate capable of inducing an ∼50% rate of death in wild-type (WT) mice did not affect neurabin-null mice or WT mice cotreated with an RGS4 inhibitor. The enhanced anti-seizure and neuroprotective effect achieved by disruption of the A1R/neurabin/RGS4 complex is elicited by the on-site and on-demand release of endogenous adenosine, and does not require administration of A1R ligands. These data identify neurabin-RGS4 as a novel tissue-selective regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning adenosine receptor function in the nervous system. Moreover, these findings implicate the A1R/neurabin/RGS4 complex as a valid therapeutic target for specifically manipulating the neuroprotective effects of endogenous adenosine.

  18. Characterization of a Trifunctional Mimivirus mRNA Capping Enzyme and Crystal Structure of the RNA Triphosphatase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Benarroch,D.; Smith, P.; Shuman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) components of the mRNA capping apparatus are a bellwether of eukaryal taxonomy. Fungal and protozoal RTPases belong to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) family, exemplified by yeast Cet1. Several large DNA viruses encode metal-dependent RTPases unrelated to the cysteinyl-phosphatase RTPases of their metazoan host organisms. The origins of DNA virus RTPases are unclear because they are structurally uncharacterized. Mimivirus, a giant virus of amoeba, resembles poxviruses in having a trifunctional capping enzyme composed of a metal-dependent RTPase module fused to guanylyltransferase (GTase) and guanine-N7 methyltransferase domains. The crystal structure of mimivirus RTPase reveals a minimized tunnel fold and an active site strikingly similar to that of Cet1. Unlike homodimeric fungal RTPases, mimivirus RTPase is a monomer. The mimivirus TTM-type RTPase-GTase fusion resembles the capping enzymes of amoebae, providing evidence that the ancestral large DNA virus acquired its capping enzyme from a unicellular host.

  19. MOLECULAR PROBES FOR EXTRACELLULAR ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Ukena, Dieter; Padgett, William; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of adenosine receptor agonists (N6-phenyladenosines) and antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-phenylxanthines) bearing functionalized chains suitable for attachment to other molecules have been reported [Jacobson et al., J. med. Chem. 28, 1334 and 1341 (1985)]. The “functionalized congener” approach has been extended to the synthesis of spectroscopic and other probes for adenosine receptors that retain high affinity (Ki ~ 10−9 −10−8 M) in A1-receptor binding. The probes have been synthesized from an antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and an adenosine amine congener (ADAC). [3H]ADAC has been synthesized and found to bind highly specifically to A1-adenosine receptors of rat and calf cerebral cortical membranes with KD values of 1.4 and 0.34 nM respectively. The higher affinity in the bovine brain, seen also with many of the probes derived from ADAC and XAC, is associated with phenyl substituents. The spectroscopic probes contain a reporter group attached at a distal site of the functionalized chain. These bifunctional ligands may contain a spin label (e.g. the nitroxyl radical TEMPO) for electron spin resonance spectroscopy, or a fluorescent dye, including fluorescein and 4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), or labels for 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Potential applications of the spectroscopic probes in characterization of adenosine receptors are discussed. PMID:3036153

  20. Radioimmunochemical quantitation of human adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Daddona, P E; Frohman, M A; Kelley, W N

    1979-01-01

    Markedly reduced or absent adenosine deaminase activity in man is associated with an autosomal recesive form of severe conbined immunodeficiency disease. To further define the genetic nature of this enzyme defect, we have quantitated immunologically active adenosine deaminase (CRM) in the hemolysate of homozygous deficient patients and their heterozygous parents. A highly specific radioimmunoassay was developed capable of detecting 0.05% of normal erythrocyte adenosine deaminase. Hemolysates from nine heterozygotes (five families) showed a wide range in CRM (32--100% of normal) and variable absolute specific activities with several being at least 1 SD BELOW THE NORMAL MEAN. Hemolysates from four unrelated patients showed less than 0.09% adenosine deaminase activity with CRM ranging from less than 0.06 to 5.6% of the normal mean. In conclusion, heterozygote and homozygote hemolysates from five of the eight families analyzed revealed variable levels of CRM suggesting heterogeneous genetic alteration or expression of the silent or defective allele(s) of adenosine deaminase. PMID:468994

  1. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    Current therapies for epilepsy are largely symptomatic and do not affect the underlying mechanisms of disease progression, i.e. epileptogenesis. Given the large percentage of pharmacoresistant chronic epilepsies, novel approaches are needed to understand and modify the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Although different types of brain injury (e.g. status epilepticus, traumatic brain injury, stroke) can trigger epileptogenesis, astrogliosis appears to be a homotypic response and hallmark of epilepsy. Indeed, recent findings indicate that epilepsy might be a disease of astrocyte dysfunction. This review focuses on the inhibitory neuromodulator and endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine, which is largely regulated by astrocytes and its key metabolic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). Recent findings support the “ADK hypothesis of epileptogenesis”: (i) Mouse models of epileptogenesis suggest a sequence of events leading from initial downregulation of ADK and elevation of ambient adenosine as an acute protective response, to changes in astrocytic adenosine receptor expression, to astrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy (i.e. astrogliosis), to consequential overexpression of ADK, reduced adenosine and – finally – to spontaneous focal seizure activity restricted to regions of astrogliotic overexpression of ADK. (ii) Transgenic mice overexpressing ADK display increased sensitivity to brain injury and seizures. (iii) Inhibition of ADK prevents seizures in a mouse model of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. (iv) Intrahippocampal implants of stem cells engineered to lack ADK prevent epileptogenesis. Thus, ADK emerges both as a diagnostic marker to predict, as well as a prime therapeutic target to prevent, epileptogenesis. PMID:18249058

  2. Caffeine, adenosine receptors, and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Costenla, Ana Rita; Cunha, Rodrigo A; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Few studies to date have looked at the effects of caffeine on synaptic plasticity, and those that did used very high concentrations of caffeine, whereas the brain concentrations attained by regular coffee consumption in humans should be in the low micromolar range, where caffeine exerts pharmacological actions mainly by antagonizing adenosine receptors. Accordingly, rats drinking caffeine (1 g/L) for 3 weeks, displayed a concentration of caffeine of circa 22 microM in the hippocampus. It is known that selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonists facilitate, whereas selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists attenuate, long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Although caffeine is a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, it attenuates frequency-induced LTP in hippocampal slices in a manner similar to selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. These effects of low micromolar concentration of caffeine (30 microM) are maintained in aged animals, which is important when a possible beneficial effect for caffeine in age-related cognitive decline is proposed. Future studies will still be required to confirm and detail the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the effects of caffeine on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, using both pharmacological and genetic approaches.

  3. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  4. Adenine and adenosine salvage in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Boitz, Jan M; Ullman, Buddy

    2013-08-01

    6-aminopurine metabolism in Leishmania is unique among trypanosomatid pathogens since this genus expresses two distinct routes for adenine salvage: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and adenine deaminase (AAH). To evaluate the relative contributions of APRT and AAH, adenine salvage was evaluated in Δaprt, Δaah, and Δaprt/Δaah null mutants of L. donovani. The data confirm that AAH plays the dominant role in adenine metabolism in L. donovani, although either enzyme alone is sufficient for salvage. Adenosine salvage was also evaluated in a cohort of null mutants. Adenosine is also primarily converted to hypoxanthine, either intracellularly or extracellularly, but can also be phosphorylated to the nucleotide level by adenosine kinase when the predominant pathways are genetically or pharmacologically blocked. These data provide genetic verification for the relative contributions of 6-aminopurine metabolizing pathways in L. donovani and demonstrate that all of the pathways can function under appropriate conditions of genetic or pharmacologic perturbation.

  5. Human adenosine deaminase. Distribution and properties.

    PubMed

    Van der Weyden, M B; Kelley, W N

    1976-09-25

    Adenosine deaminase exists in multiple molecular forms in human tissue. One form of the enzyme appears to be "particulate". Three forms of the enzyme are soluble and interconvertible with apparent molecular weights of approximately 36,000, 114,000, and 298,000 (designated small, intermediate, and large, respectively). The small form of adenosine deaminase is convertible to the large form only in the presence of a protein, which has an apparent molecular weight of 200,000 and has no adenosine deaminase activity. This conversion of the small form of the enzyme to the large form occurs at 4 degrees, exhibits a pH optimum of 5.0 to 8.0, and is associated with a loss of conversion activity. The small form of the enzyme predominates in tissue preparations exhibiting the higher enzyme-specific activities and no detectable conversion activity. The large form of adenosine deaminase predominates in tissue extracts exhibiting the lower enzyme specific activities and abundant conversion activity. The small form of adenosine deaminase shows several electrophoretic variants by isoelectric focusing. The electrophoretic heterogeneity observed with the large form of the enzyme is similar to that observed with the small form, with the exception that several additional electrophoretic variants are uniformly identified. No organ specificity is demonstrable for the different electrophoretic forms. The kinetic characteristics of the three soluble molecular species of adenosine deaminase are identical except for pH optimum, which is 5.5 for the intermediate species and 7.0 to 7.4 for the large and small forms.

  6. A new class of adenosine receptors in brain: Characterization by 2-chloro( sup 3 H)adenosine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jerome Hsicheng.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence has accumulated in recent years to support a role for adenosine as an important physiological modulator in many mammalian tissues. In brain, adenosine is a potent depressant of neuronal firing and synaptic transmission. The exact mechanisms by which adenosine analogs depress nerve cell activity in the brain are not clear. Despite considerable investigation, neither the A1 nor the A2 adenosine receptors associated with adenylate cyclase have been able to account adequately for the actions of adenosine in brain. It has been proposed that additional adenosine receptors, possibly linked to calcium channels, are present in the central nervous system and are responsible for the physiological actions of adenosine. In this thesis, evidence is provided for the existence of a novel class of adenosine receptors in rat brain. The methods used to identify this new class of receptors involved radioligand binding techniques which have been successfully employed to characterize the properties of many neurotransmitter and drug receptors. 2-Chloro({sup 3}H)adenosine (Cl({sup 3}H)Ado) was selected as the ligand for these experiments since is a water-soluble, metabolically-stable analog of adenosine and a potent depressant of synaptic transmission in brain. The results demonstrate the presence of a distinct class of 2-chloro({sup 3}H)adenosine binding sites in rat forebrain membranes with an apparent K{sub D} of about 10 {mu}M and a B{sub max} of about 60 pmol per mg of protein. Specific 2-chloro ({sup 3}H)adenosine binding is highly specific for adenosine agonists and antagonists. Inhibition of binding by adenosine agonists exhibits an order of potency 2-chloroadenosine > 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine > ({minus})-N{sup 6}-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, which differs from that of both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors.

  7. Characterization of calcium, nucleotide, phosphate, and vanadate bound states by derivatization of sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase with ThioGlo1.

    PubMed Central

    Hua, S; Fabris, D; Inesi, G

    1999-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles were incubated with the maleimide-directed probe ThioGlo1, resulting in ATPase inactivation. Reacted ThioGlo1, revealed by its enhanced fluorescence, was found to be associated with the cytosolic but not with the membrane-bound region of the ATPase. The dependence of inactivation on ThioGlo1 concentration suggests derivatization of approximately four residues per ATPase, of which Cys(364), Cys(498), and Cys(636) were identified in prominently fluorescent peptide fragments. These cysteines reside within the phosphorylation and nucleotide-binding region of the ATPase. Accordingly, protection is observed in the presence of ATP, 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-diphosphate (TNP-AMP), or an fluoroisothiocyanate label of Lys(515). Furthermore, protection is observed in the presence of vanadate (or decavanadate), but not in the presence of phosphate. Labeling occurs equally well in the presence or in the absence of Ca(2+) and thapsigargin, excluding a role of the E1-to-E2 transition in the protective effect of vanadate. It is concluded that protection by vanadate is due to formation of a pentacoordinated orthovanadate complex at the phosphorylation site, corresponding to a stable transition state analog of the phosphorylation reaction, with intermediate characteristics of the EP1 and EP2 states. The lack of protection by phosphate is attributed to instability of its complex with the enzyme (EP2). These findings are discussed with respect to different structural images obtained from diffraction studies of ATPase in the presence or in the absence of Ca(2+) and/or decavanadate (Ogawa et al., 1998, Biophys. J. 75:41-52). PMID:10512841

  8. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329

  9. Regulation of adenosine transport by acute and chronic ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, L.E.; Casso, D.; Diamond, I.; Gordon, A.S. )

    1989-02-09

    Chronic exposure to ethanol results in a desensitization of adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP production. Since adenosine is released by cells and is known to desensitize its own as well as other receptors, it may be involved in ethanol-induced desensitization of adenosine receptor function. Therefore, we have examine the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the transport of adenosine via the nucleoside transport. Acute exposure to ethanol caused an inhibition of adenosine uptake in S49 lymphoma cells. This decrease in uptake resulted in accumulation of extracellular adenosine after ethanol exposure. The effect of ethanol was specific to nucleoside transport. Uptake of uridine, also transported by the nucleoside transporter, was inhibited by ethanol to the same degree as adenosine uptake, while neither isoleucine nor deoxyglucose uptake was altered by ethanol treatment. Inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol was non-competitive and dependent on the concentration of ethanol. After chronic exposure to ethanol, cells became tolerant to the acute effects of ethanol. There was no longer an acute inhibition of adenosine uptake, nor was these accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Chronic ethanol exposure also resulted in a decrease in the absolute rate of adenosine uptake. Binding studies using a high affinity lignad for the nucleoside transporter, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), indicate that this decreased uptake was due to a decrease in the maximal number of binding sites. These ethanol-induced changes in adenosine transport may be important for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

  10. The role of adenosine in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur

    2009-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system manifested by cognitive and memory deterioration, a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, behavioral disturbances, and progressive impairment of daily life activities. Current pharmacotherapies are restricted to symptomatic interventions but do not prevent progressive neuronal degeneration. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to intervene with these progressive pathological processes. In the past several years adenosine, a ubiquitously released purine ribonucleoside, has become important for its neuromodulating capability and its emerging positive experimental effects in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent research suggests that adenosine receptors play important roles in the modulation of cognitive function. The present paper attempts to review published reports and data from different studies showing the evidence of a relationship between adenosinergic function and AD-related cognitive deficits. Epidemiological studies have found an association between coffee (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) consumption and improved cognitive function in AD patients and in the elderly. Long-term administration of caffeine in transgenic animal models showed a reduced amyloid burden in brain with better cognitive performance. Antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors mimic these beneficial effects of caffeine on cognitive function. Neuronal cell cultures with amyloid beta in the presence of an A2A receptor antagonist completely prevented amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that the adenosinergic system constitutes a new therapeutic target for AD, and caffeine and A2A receptor antagonists may have promise to manage cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  11. Circadian rhythms. Atomic-scale origins of slowness in the cyanobacterial circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Hiyama, Takuya B; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Son, Seyoung; Mori, Toshifumi; Saito, Shinji; Osako, Masato; Wolanin, Julie; Yamashita, Eiki; Kondo, Takao; Akiyama, Shuji

    2015-07-17

    Circadian clocks generate slow and ordered cellular dynamics but consist of fast-moving bio-macromolecules; consequently, the origins of the overall slowness remain unclear. We identified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) catalytic region [adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)] in the amino-terminal half of the clock protein KaiC as the minimal pacemaker that controls the in vivo frequency of the cyanobacterial clock. Crystal structures of the ATPase revealed that the slowness of this ATPase arises from sequestration of a lytic water molecule in an unfavorable position and coupling of ATP hydrolysis to a peptide isomerization with high activation energy. The slow ATPase is coupled with another ATPase catalyzing autodephosphorylation in the carboxyl-terminal half of KaiC, yielding the circadian response frequency of intermolecular interactions with other clock-related proteins that influences the transcription and translation cycle.

  12. A Novel Method for Screening Adenosine Receptor Specific Agonists for Use in Adenosine Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Karlie R.; Choi, Uimook; Gao, Ji-Liang; Thompson, Robert D.; Rodman, Larry E.; Malech, Harry L.; Kang, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Agonists that target the A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors have potential to be potent treatment options for a number of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because each of these adenosine receptors plays a distinct role throughout the body, obtaining highly specific receptor agonists is essential. Of these receptors, the adenosine A2AR and A2BR share many sequence and structural similarities but highly differ in their responses to inflammatory stimuli. Our laboratory, using a combination of specially developed cell lines and calcium release analysis hardware, has created a new and faster method for determining specificity of synthetic adenosine agonist compounds for the A2A and A2B receptors in human cells. A2A receptor expression was effectively removed from K562 cells, resulting in the development of a distinct null line. Using HIV-lentivector and plasmid DNA transfection, we also developed A2A and A2B receptor over-expressing lines. As adenosine is known to cause changes in intracellular calcium levels upon addition to cell culture, calcium release can be determined in these cell lines upon compound addition, providing a functional readout of receptor activation and allowing us to isolate the most specific adenosine agonist compounds. PMID:28317879

  13. Adenosine receptors and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2009-01-01

    The adenosine receptors (ARs) in the nervous system act as a kind of "go-between" to regulate the release of neurotransmitters (this includes all known neurotransmitters) and the action of neuromodulators (e.g., neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors). Receptor-receptor interactions and AR-transporter interplay occur as part of the adenosine's attempt to control synaptic transmission. A(2A)ARs are more abundant in the striatum and A(1)ARs in the hippocampus, but both receptors interfere with the efficiency and plasticity-regulated synaptic transmission in most brain areas. The omnipresence of adenosine and A(2A) and A(1) ARs in all nervous system cells (neurons and glia), together with the intensive release of adenosine following insults, makes adenosine a kind of "maestro" of the tripartite synapse in the homeostatic coordination of the brain function. Under physiological conditions, both A(2A) and A(1) ARs play an important role in sleep and arousal, cognition, memory and learning, whereas under pathological conditions (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, epilepsy, drug addiction, pain, schizophrenia, depression), ARs operate a time/circumstance window where in some circumstances A(1)AR agonists may predominate as early neuroprotectors, and in other circumstances A(2A)AR antagonists may alter the outcomes of some of the pathological deficiencies. In some circumstances, and depending on the therapeutic window, the use of A(2A)AR agonists may be initially beneficial; however, at later time points, the use of A(2A)AR antagonists proved beneficial in several pathologies. Since selective ligands for A(1) and A(2A) ARs are now entering clinical trials, the time has come to determine the role of these receptors in neurological and psychiatric diseases and identify therapies that will alter the outcomes of these diseases, therefore providing a hopeful future for the patients who suffer from these diseases.

  14. Digoxin Derivatives with Enhanced Selectivity for the α2 Isoform of Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adriana; Tal, Daniel M.; Heller, Dan; Haviv, Haim; Rabah, Bilal; Barkana, Yaniv; Marcovich, Arie L.; Karlish, Steven J. D.

    2014-01-01

    In the ciliary epithelium of the eye, the pigmented cells express the α1β1 isoform of Na,K-ATPase, whereas the non-pigmented cells express mainly the α2β3 isoform of Na,K-ATPase. In principle, a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor with selectivity for α2 could effectively reduce intraocular pressure with only minimal local and systemic toxicity. Such an inhibitor could be applied topically provided it was sufficiently permeable via the cornea. Previous experiments with recombinant human α1β1, α2β1, and α3β1 isoforms showed that the classical cardiac glycoside, digoxin, is partially α2-selective and also that the trisdigitoxose moiety is responsible for isoform selectivity. This led to a prediction that modification of the third digitoxose might increase α2 selectivity. A series of perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin have been synthesized by periodate oxidation and reductive amination using a variety of R-NH2 substituents. Several derivatives show enhanced selectivity for α2 over α1, close to 8-fold in the best case. Effects of topically applied cardiac glycosides on intraocular pressure in rabbits have been assessed by their ability to either prevent or reverse acute intraocular pressure increases induced by 4-aminopyridine or a selective agonist of the A3 adenosine receptor. Two relatively α2-selective digoxin derivatives efficiently normalize the ocular hypertension, by comparison with digoxin, digoxigenin, or ouabain. This observation is consistent with a major role of α2 in aqueous humor production and suggests that, potentially, α2-selective digoxin derivatives could be of interest as novel drugs for control of intraocular pressure. PMID:24917667

  15. Sodium-stimulated ATPase in Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, N; Unemoto, T; Kobayashi, H

    1984-01-01

    We measured Na+-stimulated ATPase activity in a mutant of Streptococcus faecalis defective in the generation of proton motive force. The activity in membrane vesicles was 62.1 +/- 5.9 nmol of phosphate produced per min per mg of protein when cells were grown on medium containing 0.12 M Na+. Activity decreased as the concentration of Na+ in the growth medium decreased. The decrease in enzyme activity corresponded to the decrease in transport activity for Na+ in both whole cells and membrane vesicles. The effects of pH on both activities were identical. Thus, it is suggested that Na+ movement is mediated by this enzyme. Sodium extrusion and ATPase activity in the wild-type strain were markedly lower than those observed in the mutant strain. Elevated activities of both Na+ extrusion and Na+-stimulated ATPase could be detected in the wild-type strain when cells were grown in the absence of proton motive force. Thus, we propose that the level of ATPase is increased by dissipation of the proton motive force. PMID:6144668

  16. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  17. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, (/sup 3/H)NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine.

  18. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine deaminase in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Risa; Satoh, Yasushi; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Nibuya, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catabolizes adenosine and deoxyadenosine. During cerebral ischemia, extracellular adenosine levels increase acutely and adenosine deaminase catabolizes the increased levels of adenosine. Since adenosine is a known neuroprotective agent, adenosine deaminase was thought to have a negative effect during ischemia. In this study, however, we demonstrate that adenosine deaminase has substantial neuroprotective effects in the striatum, which is especially vulnerable during cerebral ischemia. We used temporary oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate ischemia in rat corticostriatal brain slices. We used field potentials as the primary measure of neuronal damage. For stable and efficient electrophysiological assessment, we used transgenic rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2, which depolarizes neurons in response to blue light. Time courses of electrically evoked striatal field potential (eFP) and optogenetically evoked striatal field potential (optFP) were recorded during and after oxygen/glucose deprivation. The levels of both eFP and optFP decreased after 10 min of oxygen/glucose deprivation. Bath-application of 10 µg/ml adenosine deaminase during oxygen/glucose deprivation significantly attenuated the oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced reduction in levels of eFP and optFP. The number of injured cells decreased significantly, and western blot analysis indicated a significant decrease of autophagic signaling in the adenosine deaminase-treated oxygen/glucose deprivation slices. These results indicate that adenosine deaminase has protective effects in the striatum. PMID:26746865

  19. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days).

  20. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases.

  1. Crosstalk Between mTORC1 and cAMP Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Published online 7 January 2015; 10.1126/science.1257132 METABOLISM Differential regulation of mTORC1 by leucine and glutamine Jenna L. Jewell,1...adenosine triphosphatase (v-ATPase).We report that leucine and glutamine stimulate mTORC1 by Rag GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms...acids are essential formTORC1 activation (2, 3); however, it remains unclear how specific amino acids are sensed. Leucine (Leu) (2, 4, 5), glutamine (Gln

  2. Reduced activity of SKCa and Na-K ATPase underlies the accelerated impairment of EDH-type relaxations in mesenteric arteries of aging spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Billy W C; Man, Ricky Y K; Gao, Yuansheng; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction due to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and/or reduced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations (EDH). This study examines the hypothesis that hypertension aggravates the impairment of EDH-type relaxation due to aging. EDH-type relaxations were studied in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats of 12, 36, 60, and 72 weeks of age. EDH-type relaxations in WKY were reduced with aging, and this was associated with an impairment of the function of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa) and sodium-potassium ATPase (Na-K ATPase). EDH-type relaxation in SHR was smaller than that in WKY arteries, and further reduction occurred with aging. Pharmacological experiments suggested a reduced involvement of SKCa and Na-K ATPase and activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and silent information regulator T1 (sirtuin-1; SIRT1) in mesenteric arteries of 12-week-old SHR. These pharmacological findings suggest that in superior mesenteric arteries of the rat, the reduction in EDH-type relaxation occurs with aging and that such a reduction is exacerbated in hypertension. The latter exacerbation appears to involve proteins associated with the process of cellular senescence and is related to impaired function of SKCa and Na-K ATPase, a phenomenon that is also observed in mesenteric arteries of older normotensive rats. PMID:26171229

  3. Adenosine thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S. )

    1991-07-01

    Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation as an adjunct to myocardial perfusion imaging has become increasingly important in the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease, in view of the large number of patients who cannot perform an adequate exercise test or in whom contraindications render exercise inappropriate. Adenosine is a very potent coronary vasodilator and when combined with thallium 201 scintigraphy produces images of high quality, with the added advantages of a very short half-life (less than 10 seconds) and the ability to adjust the dose during the infusion, which may enhance safety and curtail the duration of side effects. The reported sensitivity and specificity of adenosine thallium 201 scintigraphy for the detection of coronary artery disease are high and at least comparable with imaging after exercise or dipyridamole administration. 23 refs.

  4. Therapeutic epilepsy research: from pharmacological rationale to focal adenosine augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev; Stewart, Kerry-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common seizure disorder affecting approximately 70 million people worldwide. Current pharmacotherapy is neuron-centered, frequently accompanied by intolerable side-effects, and fails to be effective in about one third of patients. Therefore, new therapeutic concepts are needed. Recent research suggests an astrocytic basis of epilepsy, presenting the possibility of novel therapeutic targets. In particular, dysfunction of the astrocyte-controlled, endogenous, adenosine-based seizure control system of the brain is implicated in seizure generation. Thus, astrogliosis – a pathological hallmark of the epileptic brain – is associated with upregulation of the adenosine-removing enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), resulting in focal adenosine deficiency. Both astrogliotic upregulation of ADK in epilepsy and transgenic overexpression of ADK are associated with seizures, and inhibition of ADK prevents seizures in a mouse model of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. These findings link adenosine deficiency with seizures and predict that adenosine augmentation therapies (AATs) will likely be effective in preventing seizures. Given the widespread systemic and central side effects of systemically administered AATs, focal AATs (i.e., limited to the astrogliotic lesion) are a necessity. This Commentary will discuss the pharmacological rationale for the development of focal AATs. Additionally, several AAT strategies will be discussed: (1) adenosine released from silk-based brain implants; (2) adenosine released from locally implanted encapsulated cells; (3) adenosine released from stem cell-derived brain implants; and (4) adenosine augmenting gene therapies. Finally, new developments and therapeutic challenges in using focal AATs for epilepsy therapy will critically be evaluated. PMID:19682439

  5. Phosphorylation of Cytokinin by Adenosine Kinase from Wheat Germ 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong-Maw; Eckert, Richard L.

    1977-01-01

    Adenosine kinase was partially purified from wheat germ. This enzyme preparation, which was devoid of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and nearly free of adenosine deaminase but contained adenylate kinase, rapidly phosphorylated adenosine and a cytokinin, N6-(δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine. Electrophoretic analysis indicated that only N6-(δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine-monophosphate was formed from the cytokinin while about 55% AMP, 45% ADP, and a trace of ATP were formed from adenosine. The biosynthesized nucleoside monophosphates were quantitatively hydrolyzed to the corresponding nucleosides by 5′-nucleotidase and the isopentenyl side chain of the phosphorylated cytokinin was not cleaved. The enzyme did not catalyze phosphorylation of inosine. The phosphorylation of the cytokinin and adenosine required ATP and Mg2+. The pH optimum was from 6.8 to 7.2 for both the cytokinin and adenosine. At pH 7 and 37 C the Km and Vmax for the cytokinin were 31 μm and 8.3 nmoles per mg protein per minute, and the values for adenosine were 8.7 μm and 46 nmoles per mg protein per minute. Crude enzyme preparations from tobacco callus tissue and wheat germ phosphorylated N6-(δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine. These preparations also phosphorylated N6-(δ2-isopentenyl)adenine when 5-phosphorylribose-1-pyrophosphate was present. PMID:16659870

  6. The Janus face of adenosine: antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmic actions.

    PubMed

    Szentmiklosi, A József; Galajda, Zoltán; Cseppento, Ágnes; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Susán, Zsolt; Hegyi, Bence; Nánási, Péter P

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous, endogenous purine involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological regulatory mechanisms. Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous antiarrhythmic substance to prevent hypoxia/ischemia-induced arrhythmias. Adenosine (and its precursor, ATP) has been used in the therapy of various cardiac arrhythmias over the past six decades. Its primary indication is treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, but it can be effective in other forms of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, like sinus node reentry based tachycardia, triggered atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, or ventricular tachycardia based on a cAMP-mediated triggered activity. The main advantage is the rapid onset and the short half life (1- 10 sec). Adenosine exerts its antiarrhythmic actions by activation of A1 adenosine receptors located in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, as well as in activated ventricular myocardium. However, adenosine can also elicit A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptor-mediated global side reactions (flushing, dyspnea, chest discomfort), but it may display also proarrhythmic actions mediated by primarily A1 adenosine receptors (e.g. bradyarrhythmia or atrial fibrillation). To avoid the non-specific global adverse reactions, A1 adenosine receptor- selective full agonists (tecadenoson, selodenoson, trabodenoson) have been developed, which agents are currently under clinical trial. During long-term administration with orthosteric agonists, adenosine receptors can be internalized and desensitized. To avoid desensitization, proarrhythmic actions, or global adverse reactions, partial A1 adenosine receptor agonists, like CVT-2759, were developed. In addition, the pharmacologically "silent" site- and event specific adenosinergic drugs, such as adenosine regulating agents and allosteric modulators, might provide attractive opportunity to increase the effectiveness of beneficial actions of adenosine

  7. Role of adenosine in oligodendrocyte precursor maturation

    PubMed Central

    Coppi, Elisabetta; Cellai, Lucrezia; Maraula, Giovanna; Dettori, Ilaria; Melani, Alessia; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pedata, Felicita

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation and maturation of oligodendroglial cells are postnatal processes that involve specific morphological changes correlated with the expression of stage-specific surface antigens and functional voltage-gated ion channels. A small fraction of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) generated during development are maintained in an immature and slowly proliferative or quiescent state in the adult central nervous system (CNS) representing an endogenous reservoir of immature cells. Adenosine receptors are expressed by OPCs and a key role of adenosine in oligodendrocyte maturation has been recently recognized. As evaluated on OPC cultures, adenosine, by stimulating A1 receptors, promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and inhibits their proliferation; on the contrary, by stimulating A2A receptors, it inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation. A1 and A2A receptor-mediated effects are related to opposite modifications of outward delayed rectifying membrane K+ currents (IK) that are involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Brain A1 and A2A receptors might represent new molecular targets for drugs useful in demyelinating pathologies, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke and brain trauma. PMID:25964740

  8. Effects of adenosine perfusion on the metabolism and contractile activity of Rana ridibunda heart.

    PubMed

    Lazou, A; Beis, I

    1987-01-01

    The effects of adenosine were examined on the isolated perfused heart of the frog Rana ridibunda. Adenosine produced negative chronotropic and inotropic effects on frog ventricle in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of adenosine on cardiac metabolism were also investigated by measuring the tissue content of adenine nucleotides, lactate, pyruvate, adenosine and inorganic phosphate, during adenosine perfusion. Adenosine had no effect on the tissue content of metabolites. No net synthesis of adenine nucleotides was observed during perfusion with increasing concentrations of adenosine. Lactate output from the heart decreased significantly with adenosine perfusion. Correlation of adenosine effects on cardiac muscle with the effects of hypoxia are discussed.

  9. Rethinking the P-type ATPase problem.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Gene A

    2003-11-01

    There are very good reasons to stop thinking about the molecular mechanism of the P-type ion-translocating ATPases in terms of the traditional E1E2 model and to start thinking about it in more progressive ways. This makes it possible to see the ion-transport cycle as a rational series of discrete steps with well defined driving forces, including the crucial energy transduction step, where the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis is exchanged for the osmotic energy of an ion gradient. Importantly, although major enzyme conformational changes accompany each of these steps, none of them drive the energy coupling reaction. Thus, neither the E1E2 model nor conformational energy coupling, the cornerstones of traditional thinking about the P-type ATPases, are reliable paradigms for future efforts to understand how these transporters work. Alternatives must be seriously considered.

  10. P2C-Type ATPases and Their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-03-01

    P2C-type ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases comprising Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and has been implicated in several neurological diseases, whereas H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is found principally in the colon, stomach, and kidney. Both ATPases have two subunits, α and β, but Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also has a regulatory subunit called FXYD, which has an important role in cancer. The most important functions of these ATPases are homeostasis, potassium regulation, and maintaining a gradient in different cell types, like epithelial cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has become a center of attention ever since it was proposed that it might play a crucial role in neurological disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, depression, familial hemiplegic migraine, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, chronic stress, epileptogenesis, and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, it has been reported that lithium could have a neuroprotective effect against ouabain, which is the best known Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, but and high concentrations of lithium could affect negatively H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, that has a key role in regulating acidosis and potassium deficiencies. Finally, potassium homeostasis regulation is composed of two main mechanisms, extrarenal and renal. Extrarenal mechanism controls plasma levels, shifting potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular, whereas renal mechanism concerns with body balance and is influenced by potassium intake and its urinary excretion. In this article, we discuss the functions, isoforms, and localization of P2C-type ATPases, describe some of their modulators, and discuss their implications in some diseases.

  11. Effect of adenosine and adenosine analogues on cyclic AMP accumulation in cultured mesangial cells and isolated glomeruli of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, A.; Lopez-Novoa, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    1. Changes in intracellular levels of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) were studied in rat isolated glomeruli and cultured glomerular mesangial cells exposed to adenosine and to the preferential A1 receptor agonist N6-R-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl adenosine (R-PIA), or the potent A2 adenosine receptor agonist 5-(N-ethylcarboxamide)adenosine (NECA). 2. Whereas NECA and adenosine triggered a dose-dependent increase in cyclic AMP values with EC50 values of approximately 10(-6) M and 3 x 10(-5) M respectively, R-PIA lowered cyclic AMP levels at concentrations of 10(-6) M or less and increased them at higher concentrations. 3. The time-course of the increase induced by 10(-6) M NECA was slower than that induced by 10(-4) M adenosine. Adenosine produced a maximal stimulation within the first minute, whereas the effect of NECA in both glomeruli and mesangial cells was noticeable only from the second minute of incubation. 4. The effects of the agonists R-PIA and NECA on the cyclic AMP system were blocked respectively by the A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthihe (DPCPX) at 10(-6) M and the A2 antagonist N-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-N-methyl-4-(2, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydro-2,b-dioxo-1, 3-dipropyl-1H-purin-8-yl) benzene sulphonamide (PD115,199) at 10(-6) M. Theophylline, a known antagonist of adenosine receptors, inhibited the action of adenosine on cyclic AMP in mesangial cells. Dipyridamole, an inhibitor of the uptake of adenosine by the cells, enhanced the response to adenosine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1330173

  12. Overproduction of PIB-Type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sitsel, Oleg; Wang, Kaituo; Gourdon, Pontus

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the functions and mechanisms of fundamental processes in the cell requires structural information. Structural studies of membrane proteins typically necessitate large amounts of purified and preferably homogenous target protein. Here, we describe a rapid overproduction and purification strategy of a bacterial PIB-type ATPase for isolation of milligrams of target protein per liter Escherichia coli cell culture, with a final quality of the sample which is sufficient for generating high-resolution crystals.

  13. [The involvement of adenosine and adenosine deaminase in experimental myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Stratone, A; Busuioc, A; Roşca, V; Bazgan, L; Popa, M; Hăulică, I

    1989-01-01

    By the ligature of the left coronary artery in the rat anesthetized with nembutal (10 mg/100 i.p.) a significant increase of the 5'-nucleotidase activity (Wooton method) was noticed 10 minutes after the left ventricle infarction (from an average value of 1038.5 +/- 187 mU/g tissue to 1537 +/- 225 mU/g fresh tissue). The adenosine desaminase levels spectrophotometrically determined by Denstedt technique, do not appear significantly modified 10 or 30 minutes after the left ventricle infarction. The chromatographically determined adenosine levels, by HPLC technique, decrease from the average value of 11.63 +/- 1.4 micrograms/mg PT to 8.60 +/- 1.0 micrograms/mg PT 30 minutes after infarction. The observed changes are explained by the conditions of hypoxia in the infarcted ventricle which lead to the raise in adenosine levels by activating the 5'-nucleotidase and their depression by a very fast metabolism of the same substance.

  14. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  15. Adenosine and inflammation: what's new on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Luca; Csóka, Balázs; Fornai, Matteo; Colucci, Rocchina; Kókai, Endre; Blandizzi, Corrado; Haskó, György

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine contributes to the maintenance of tissue integrity by modulating the immune system. Encouraging results have emerged with adenosine receptor ligands for the management of several inflammatory conditions in preclinical and clinical settings. However, therapeutic applications of these drugs are sometimes complicated by the occurrence of serious adverse effects. The scientific community is making intensive efforts to design novel adenosine receptor ligands endowed with greater selectivity or to develop innovative compounds acting as allosteric receptor modulators. In parallel, research is focusing on novel pharmacological entities (designated as adenosine-regulating agents) that can increase, in a site- and event-specific manner, adenosine concentrations at the inflammatory site, thereby minimizing the adverse systemic effects of adenosine.

  16. Rhodium Complex and Enzyme Couple Mediated Electrochemical Detection of Adenosine.

    PubMed

    Han, Dawoon; Kim, Hyeong-Mook; Chand, Rohit; Kim, Gyumin; Shin, Ik-Soo; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2015-10-01

    Adenosine is one of the nucleoside which plays an important role in signal transduction and neuromodulation. This work proposes a simple electrochemical assay, comprising two enzymes and rhodium complex based electron transfer mediator, for the detection of adenosine. Sequential reaction of adenosine deaminase and L-glutamic dehydrogenase and the supporting cycle between β-NADH and mediator enable quantitative analysis of adenosine. Role of electron transfer mediator is the conveyance of proton from electrode to β-NAD(+) for regeneration of β-NADH. The electrochemical characteristics of electron transfer mediator were also studied. Real-time adenosine detection was carried out using this multiple enzyme based chronoamperometric assay. The analysis results show a low limit of detection (140 μM) and good correspondence between current signal and the adenosine concentration (R (2) = 0.997).

  17. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32-35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR.

  18. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  19. Turnover of adenosine in plasma of human and dog blood

    SciTech Connect

    Moeser, G.H.S.; Schrader, J.; Deussen, A.

    1989-04-01

    To determine half-life and turnover of plasma adenosine, heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with radiolabeled adenosine in the physiological concentration range of 0.1-1 microM. Plasma levels of adenosine in vitro were 82 +/- 14 nM and were similar to those determined immediately after blood collection with a ''stopping solution.'' Dipyridamole (83 microM) and erythro-9(2-hydroxynon-3yl)-adenine (EHNA) (8 microM) did not measurably alter basal adenosine levels but completely blocked the uptake of added adenosine. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with 100 microM alpha, beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AOPCP) reduced plasma adenosine to 22 +/- 6 nM. For the determination of adenosine turnover, the decrease in specific radioactivity of added (/sup 3/H)adenosine was measured using a dipyridamole-containing stopping solution. Without altering basal adenosine levels, the half-life was estimated to be 0.6 s. Similar experiments were carried out with washed erythrocytes or in the presence of AOPCP, yielding half-lives of 0.7 and 0.9 s, respectively. When the initial adenosine concentration was 1 microM, its specific activity decreased by only 11% within 5 s, whereas total plasma adenosine exponentially decreased with a half-life of 1.5 s. Venous plasma concentrations were measured after relief of a 3-min forearm ischemia. Changes in plasma adenosine did not correlate well with changes in blood flow but were augmented in the presence of dipyridamole.

  20. Cardioprotection with adenosine: 'a riddle wrapped in a mystery'.

    PubMed

    Przyklenk, Karin; Whittaker, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Review of the published literature on adenosine and cardioprotection could lead one to paraphrase the famous words of Sir Winston Churchill (Radio broadcast, 1 October 1939 (in reference to Russia)) and conclude: 'I cannot forecast to you the action of adenosine. It is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma'. That is, although it is well-established that adenosine can render cardiomyocytes resistant to lethal ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury, new and intriguing insights continue to emerge as to the mechanisms by which adenosine might limit myocardial infarct size.

  1. Adenosine modulates LPS-induced cytokine production in porcine monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ondrackova, Petra; Kovaru, Hana; Kovaru, Frantisek; Leva, Lenka; Faldyna, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Adenosine plays an important role during inflammation, particularly through modulation of monocyte function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic adenosine analogs on cytokine production by porcine monocytes. The LPS-stimulated cytokine production was measured by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. Adenosine receptor expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The present study demonstrates that adenosine analog N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine (NECA) down-regulates TNF-α production and up-regulates IL-8 production by LPS-stimulated porcine monocytes. The effect was more pronounced in CD163(-) subset of monocytes compared to the CD163(+) subset. Although both monocyte subsets express mRNA for A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors, the treatment of monocytes with various adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists proved that the effect of adenosine is mediated preferentially via A2A adenosine receptor. Moreover, the study suggests that the effect of NECA on porcine monocytes alters the levels of the cytokines which could play a role in the differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 cells. The results suggest that adenosine plays an important role in modulation of cytokine production by porcine monocytes.

  2. A Metabolic Immune Checkpoint: Adenosine in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Within tumors, some areas are less oxygenated than others. Since their home ground is under chronic hypoxia, tumor cells adapt to this condition by activating aerobic glycolysis; however, this hypoxic environment is very harsh for incoming immune cells. Deprivation of oxygen limits availability of energy sources and induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine in tumors. Extracellular adenosine, upon binding with adenosine receptors on the surface of various immune cells, suppresses pro-inflammatory activities. In addition, signaling through adenosine receptors upregulates a number of anti-inflammatory molecules and immunoregulatory cells, leading to the establishment of a long-lasting immunosuppressive environment. Thus, due to hypoxia and adenosine, tumors can discourage antitumor immune responses no matter how the response was induced, whether it was spontaneous or artificially introduced with a therapeutic intention. Preclinical studies have shown the significance of adenosine in tumor survival strategy by demonstrating tumor regression after inactivation of adenosine receptors, inhibition of adenosine-producing enzymes, or reversal of tissue hypoxia. These promising results indicate a potential use of the inhibitors of the hypoxia–adenosine pathway for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27066002

  3. The Role of Adenosine Signaling in Headache: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Nathan T.; Elliott, Melanie B.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is the third most prevalent disease on the planet, yet our understanding of its mechanisms and pathophysiology is surprisingly incomplete. Recent studies have built upon decades of evidence that adenosine, a purine nucleoside that can act as a neuromodulator, is involved in pain transmission and sensitization. Clinical evidence and rodent studies have suggested that adenosine signaling also plays a critical role in migraine headache. This is further supported by the widespread use of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, in several headache treatments. In this review, we highlight evidence that supports the involvement of adenosine signaling in different forms of headache, headache triggers, and basic headache physiology. This evidence supports adenosine A2A receptors as a critical adenosine receptor subtype involved in headache pain. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling may contribute to headache via the modulation of intracellular Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production or 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in neurons and glia to affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission within the brainstem. This evidence supports the further study of adenosine signaling in headache and potentially illuminates it as a novel therapeutic target for migraine. PMID:28335379

  4. An Essential Role for Adenosine Signaling in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Christina L.; Adams, Chelsea; Knight, Emily J.; Nam, Hyung Wook; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), adenosine plays an important role in regulating neuronal activity and modulates signaling by other neurotransmitters, including GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Adenosine suppresses neurotransmitter release, reduces neuronal excitability, and regulates ion channel function through activation of four classes of G protein-coupled receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Central adenosine levels are largely controlled by nucleoside transporters, which regulate adenosine levels across the plasma membrane. Adenosine has been shown to modulate cortical glutamate signaling and ventral-tegmental dopaminergic signaling, which are involved in several aspects of alcohol use disorders. Acute ethanol elevates extracellular adenosine levels by selectively inhibiting the type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter, ENT1. Raised adenosine levels mediate the ataxic and sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol through activation of A1 receptors in the cerebellum, striatum, and cerebral cortex. Recently, we have shown that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of ENT1 reduces the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), the primary regulator of extracellular glutamate, in astrocytes. These lines of evidence support a central role for adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling and the involvement of astrocytes in regulating ethanol intoxication and preference. In this paper, we discuss recent findings on the implication of adenosine signaling in alcohol use disorders. PMID:21054262

  5. Ca2+–Calmodulin regulates SNARE assembly and spontaneous neurotransmitter release via v-ATPase subunit V0a1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Epstein, Daniel; Khalaf, Ossama; Srinivasan, Sankaranarayanan; Williamson, W. Ryan; Fayyazuddin, Amir; Quiocho, Florante A.

    2014-01-01

    Most chemical neurotransmission occurs through Ca2+-dependent evoked or spontaneous vesicle exocytosis. In both cases, Ca2+ sensing is thought to occur shortly before exocytosis. In this paper, we provide evidence that the Ca2+ dependence of spontaneous vesicle release may partly result from an earlier requirement of Ca2+ for the assembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes. We show that the neuronal vacuolar-type H+-adenosine triphosphatase V0 subunit a1 (V100) can regulate the formation of SNARE complexes in a Ca2+–Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent manner. Ca2+–CaM regulation of V100 is not required for vesicle acidification. Specific disruption of the Ca2+-dependent regulation of V100 by CaM led to a >90% loss of spontaneous release but only had a mild effect on evoked release at Drosophila melanogaster embryo neuromuscular junctions. Our data suggest that Ca2+–CaM regulation of V100 may control SNARE complex assembly for a subset of synaptic vesicles that sustain spontaneous release. PMID:24733584

  6. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  7. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaiqi; Zhang, Yujin; Bogdanov, Mikhail V; Wu, Hongyu; Song, Anren; Li, Jessica; Dowhan, William; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S; Molina, Jose G; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-03-05

    Erythrocyte possesses high sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and is the major cell type supplying plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate, a signaling lipid regulating multiple physiological and pathological functions. Recent studies revealed that erythrocyte SphK1 activity is upregulated in sickle cell disease (SCD) and contributes to sickling and disease progression. However, how erythrocyte SphK1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Here we report that adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro. Next, using 4 adenosine receptor-deficient mice and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) is essential for adenosine-induced SphK1 activity in human and mouse normal and sickle erythrocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Lowering adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy or genetic deletion of ADORA2B significantly reduced excess adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity in ADA-deficient mice. Finally, we revealed that protein kinase A-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation functioning downstream of ADORA2B underlies adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Overall, our findings reveal a novel signaling network regulating erythrocyte SphK1 and highlight innovative mechanisms regulating SphK1 activity in normal and SCD.

  8. Adenosine: Tipping the balance towards hepatic steatosis and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Simon C.; Schuppan, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Fatty liver is commonly associated with alcohol ingestion and abuse. While the molecular pathogenesis of these fatty changes is well understood, the histochemical and pharmacological mechanisms by which ethanol stimulates these molecular changes remain unknown. During ethanol metabolism, adenosine is generated by the enzyme ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and adenosine production and adenosine receptor activation are known to play critical roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. We therefore investigated whether adenosine and its receptors play a role in the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver. WT mice fed ethanol on the Lieber-DeCarli diet developed hepatic steatosis, including increased hepatic triglyceride content, while mice lacking ecto-5-nucleotidase or adenosine A1 or A2B receptors were protected from developing fatty liver. Similar protection was also seen in WT mice treated with either an adenosine A1 or A2B receptor antagonist. Steatotic livers demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A1 receptors, and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A2B receptors. In vitro studies supported roles for adenosine A1 receptors in promoting fatty acid synthesis and for A2B receptors in decreasing fatty acid metabolism. These results indicate that adenosine generated by ethanol metabolism plays an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis via both A1 and A2B receptors and suggest that targeting adenosine receptors may be effective in the prevention of alcohol-induced fatty liver. PMID:20395005

  9. Adenosine signaling in normal and sickle erythrocytes and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujin; Xia, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating hemolytic genetic disorder with high morbidity and mortality affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although SCD was discovered more than a century ago, no effective mechanism-based prevention and treatment are available due to poorly understood molecular basis of sickling, the fundamental pathogenic process of the disease. SCD patients constantly face hypoxia. One of the best-known signaling molecules to be induced under hypoxic conditions is adenosine. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia-mediated elevated adenosine signaling plays an important role in normal erythrocyte physiology. In contrast, elevated adenosine signaling contributes to sickling and multiple life threatening complications including tissue damage, pulmonary dysfunction and priapism. Here, we summarize recent research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal and sickle erythrocytes, progression of the disease and therapeutic implications. In normal erythrocytes, both genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrate that adenosine can enhance 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) production via A2B receptor (ADORA2B) activation, suggesting that elevated adenosine has an unrecognized role in normal erythrocytes to promote O2 release and prevent acute ischemic tissue injury. However, in sickle erythrocytes, the beneficial role of excessive adenosine-mediated 2,3-BPG induction becomes detrimental by promoting deoxygenation, polymerization of sickle hemoglobin and subsequent sickling. Additionally, adenosine signaling via the A2A receptor (ADORA2A) on invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells inhibits iNKT cell activation and attenuates pulmonary dysfunction in SCD mice. Finally, elevated adenosine coupled with ADORA2BR activation is responsible for priapism, a dangerous complication seen in SCD. Overall, the research reviewed here reveals a differential role of elevated adenosine in normal erythrocytes, sickle erythrocytes, iNK cells and progression

  10. Topography of a vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase: chromaffin-granule membrane ATPase I.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Percy, J M; Perez-Castineira, J R

    1989-01-01

    Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:2532503

  11. High-Throughput Screening for RecA Inhibitors Using a Transcreener Adenosine 5′-O-Diphosphate Assay

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eliza J.R.; Janzen, William P.; Kireev, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The activities of the bacterial RecA protein are involved in the de novo development and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, thus allowing bacteria to overcome the metabolic stress induced by antibacterial agents. RecA is ubiquitous and highly conserved among bacteria, but has only distant homologs in human cells. Together, this evidence points to RecA as a novel and attractive antibacterial drug target. All known RecA functions require the formation of a complex formed by multiple adenosine 5′-O-triphosphate (ATP)-bound RecA monomers on single-stranded DNA. In this complex, RecA hydrolyzes ATP. Although several methods for assessing RecA's ATPase activity have been reported, these assay conditions included relatively high concentrations of enzyme and ATP and thereby restricted the RecA conformational state. Herein, we describe the validation of commercial reagents (Transcreener® adenosine 5′-O-diphosphate [ADP]2 fluorescence polarization assay) for the high-throughput measurement of RecA's ATPase activity with lower concentrations of ATP and RecA. Under optimized conditions, ADP detection by the Transcreener reagent provided robust and reproducible activity data (Z′=0.92). Using the Transcreener assay, we screened 113,477 small molecules against purified RecA protein. In total, 177 small molecules were identified as confirmed hits, of which 79 were characterized by IC50 values ≤10 μM and 35 were active in bioassays with live bacteria. This set of compounds comprises previously unidentified scaffolds for RecA inhibition and represents tractable hit structures for efforts aimed at tuning RecA inhibitory activity in both biochemical and bacteriological assays. PMID:22192312

  12. High-throughput screening for RecA inhibitors using a transcreener adenosine 5'-O-diphosphate assay.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eliza J R; Janzen, William P; Kireev, Dmitri; Singleton, Scott F

    2012-06-01

    The activities of the bacterial RecA protein are involved in the de novo development and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, thus allowing bacteria to overcome the metabolic stress induced by antibacterial agents. RecA is ubiquitous and highly conserved among bacteria, but has only distant homologs in human cells. Together, this evidence points to RecA as a novel and attractive antibacterial drug target. All known RecA functions require the formation of a complex formed by multiple adenosine 5'-O-triphosphate (ATP)-bound RecA monomers on single-stranded DNA. In this complex, RecA hydrolyzes ATP. Although several methods for assessing RecA's ATPase activity have been reported, these assay conditions included relatively high concentrations of enzyme and ATP and thereby restricted the RecA conformational state. Herein, we describe the validation of commercial reagents (Transcreener(®) adenosine 5'-O-diphosphate [ADP](2) fluorescence polarization assay) for the high-throughput measurement of RecA's ATPase activity with lower concentrations of ATP and RecA. Under optimized conditions, ADP detection by the Transcreener reagent provided robust and reproducible activity data (Z'=0.92). Using the Transcreener assay, we screened 113,477 small molecules against purified RecA protein. In total, 177 small molecules were identified as confirmed hits, of which 79 were characterized by IC(50) values ≤ 10 μM and 35 were active in bioassays with live bacteria. This set of compounds comprises previously unidentified scaffolds for RecA inhibition and represents tractable hit structures for efforts aimed at tuning RecA inhibitory activity in both biochemical and bacteriological assays.

  13. The rapid and direct determination of ATPase activity by ion exchange chromatography and the application to the activity of heat shock protein-90.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Manuela; Wainer, Irving W; Bertucci, Carlo; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2013-01-25

    Adenosine nucleotides are involved as substrates or co-factors in several biochemical reactions, catalyzed by enzymes, which modulate energy production, signal transduction and cell proliferation. We here report the development and optimization of an ion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of ATP, ADP and AMP. This method is specifically aimed at the determination of the ATP-ase activity of human heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone that has emerged as target enzyme in cancer therapy. Separation of the three nucleotides was achieved in a 15-min run by using a disk shaped monolithic ethylene diamine stationary phase of small dimensions (2mm×6mm i.d.), under a three-solvent gradient elution mode and UV detection at 256nm. The described direct LC method resulted highly specific as a consequence of the baseline separation of the three adenosine nucleotides and could be applied to the determination of the enzymatic activity of ADP/ATP generating or consuming enzymes (such as kinases). Furthermore, comparison of the LOD and LOQ values of the LC method with those obtained with the malachite green assay, which is one of the most used indirect screening methodologies for ATP-ase activity, showed that the LC method has a similar range of application without presenting the drawbacks related to contamination by inorganic phosphate ions and glycerol, which are present in Hsp90 commercial samples.

  14. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is adenosine the common link?

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-10-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the 'adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities' implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic 'comorbidity model', in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain co-morbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions.

  15. Norepinephrines effect on adenosine transport in the proximal straight tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, D.W.; McCann, W.P.; Katholi, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of norepinephrine on C/sup 14/-adenosine transport in the rabbit proximal tubule (S/sub 2/) was studied. The transepithelial transport of adenosine (0.02 mM0 from lumin to bathing solution was measured by its rate of appearance (J/sub A/) in the bathing solution and by its disappearances (J/sub D/) from the luminal fluid. Norepinephrine (0.24 ..mu..M) was added to the bathing solution after a control flux period. After three samples from the experiment period the tubules were quickly harvested and the cellular concentration of C/sup 14/-adenosine was determined. The high cellular adenosine concentration and th marked difference in adenosine appearance rate in the bathing solution compared to the luminal disappearance rate indicates the absorbed adenosine is trapped in the cells. This trapping may be due to adenosine metabolism or difficulty of crossing the basolateral membrane. Whichever is the case, norepinephrine appears to stimulate movement of adenosine or its metabolites into the bathing solution across the basolateral membrane.

  16. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is Adenosine the Common Link?

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the ‘adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities’ implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic ‘comorbidity model’, in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain comorbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  17. Adenosine signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell emergence.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lili; Tamplin, Owen J; Chen, Michael J; Deng, Qing; Patterson, Shenia; Kim, Peter G; Durand, Ellen M; McNeil, Ashley; Green, Julie M; Matsuura, Shinobu; Ablain, Julien; Brandt, Margot K; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Huttenlocher, Anna; Daley, George Q; Ravid, Katya; Zon, Leonard I

    2015-05-04

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from aortic endothelium via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). The molecular mechanisms that initiate and regulate EHT remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adenosine signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development in zebrafish embryos. The adenosine receptor A2b is expressed in the vascular endothelium before HSPC emergence. Elevated adenosine levels increased runx1(+)/cmyb(+) HSPCs in the dorsal aorta, whereas blocking the adenosine pathway decreased HSPCs. Knockdown of A2b adenosine receptor disrupted scl(+) hemogenic vascular endothelium and the subsequent EHT process. A2b adenosine receptor activation induced CXCL8 via cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and mediated hematopoiesis. We further show that adenosine increased multipotent progenitors in a mouse embryonic stem cell colony-forming assay and in embryonic day 10.5 aorta-gonad-mesonephros explants. Our results demonstrate that adenosine signaling plays an evolutionary conserved role in the first steps of HSPC formation in vertebrates.

  18. Adenosine strongly potentiates pressor responses to nicotine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    von Borstel, R W; Renshaw, A A; Wurtman, R J

    1984-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of subhypotensive doses of adenosine strongly potentiates the pressor response of anesthetized rats to nicotine. A dose of nicotine (40 micrograms/kg, i.v.), which, given alone, elicits a peak increase in diastolic pressure of approximately equal to 15 mm Hg, increases pressure by approximately equal to 70 mm Hg when arterial plasma adenosine levels have been increased to 2 microM from a basal concentration of approximately equal to 1 microM. The pressor response to cigarette smoke applied to the lungs is also strongly potentiated during infusion of adenosine. Slightly higher adenosine concentrations (approximately equal to 4 microM) attenuate pressor responses to electrical stimulation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves, or to injections of the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, but continue to potentiate pressor responses to nicotine. Low doses (0.25-5 micrograms/kg) of the synthetic adenosine receptor agonists 5'-N-cyclopropylcarboxamidoadenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, and N6-L-phenylisopropyladenosine also potentiate pressor responses to nicotine. Caffeine and theophylline (10 mg/kg) block the potentiating effect of adenosine, and also decrease basal responses to nicotine, suggesting that endogenous adenosine might normally potentiate some nicotine responses. The synergism between nicotine and adenosine appears to take place within sympathetic ganglia. PMID:6591207

  19. Different mechanisms of extracellular adenosine accumulation by reduction of the external Ca(2+) concentration and inhibition of adenosine metabolism in spinal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ryota; Akao, Sanae; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Astrocytes mainly participate in adenosine production, and extracellular adenosine accumulates under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Inhibition of intracellular adenosine metabolism and reduction of the external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]e) participate in adenosine accumulation, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying extracellular adenosine accumulation in cultured rat spinal astrocytes. The combination of adenosine kinase and deaminase (ADK/ADA) inhibition and a reduced [Ca(2+)]e increased the extracellular adenosine level. ADK/ADA inhibitors increased the level of extracellular adenosine but not of adenine nucleotides, which was suppressed by inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 2. Unlike ADK/ADA inhibition, a reduced [Ca(2+)]e increased the extracellular level not only of adenosine but also of ATP. This adenosine increase was enhanced by ENT2 inhibition, and suppressed by sodium polyoxotungstate (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor). Gap junction inhibitors suppressed the increases in adenosine and adenine nucleotide levels by reduction of [Ca(2+)]e. These results indicate that extracellular adenosine accumulation by ADK/ADA inhibition is due to the adenosine release via ENT2, while that by reduction of [Ca(2+)]e is due to breakdown of ATP released via gap junction hemichannels, after which ENT2 incorporates adenosine into the cells.

  20. Adenosine receptors and asthma in humans.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C N

    2008-10-01

    According to an executive summary of the GINA dissemination committee report, it is now estimated that approximately 300 million people (5% of the global population or 1 in 20 persons) have asthma. Despite the scientific progress made over the past several decades toward improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, there is still a great need for improved therapies, particularly oral therapies that enhance patient compliance and that target new mechanisms of action. Adenosine is an important signalling molecule in human asthma. By acting on extracellular G-protein-coupled ARs on a number of different cell types important in the pathophysiology of human asthma, adenosine affects bronchial reactivity, inflammation and airway remodelling. Four AR subtypes (A(1), A(2a), A(2b) and A(3)) have been cloned in humans, are expressed in the lung, and are all targets for drug development for human asthma. This review summarizes what is known about these AR subtypes and their function in human asthma as well as the pros and cons of therapeutic approaches to these AR targets. A number of molecules with high affinity and high selectivity for the human AR subtypes have entered clinical trials or are poised to enter clinical trials as anti-asthma treatments. With the availability of these molecules for testing in humans, the function of ARs in human asthma, as well as the safety and efficacy of approaches to the different AR targets, can now be determined.

  1. Adenosine receptors and dyskinesia in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    First, the recent progress in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia was described. Serotonin neurons play an important role in conversion from levodopa to dopamine and in the release of converted dopamine into the striatum in the Parkinsonian state. Since serotonin neurons lack buffering effects on synaptic dopamine concentration, the synaptic dopamine markedly fluctuates depending on the fluctuating levodopa concentration in the serum after taking levodopa. The resultant pulsatile stimulation makes the striatal direct-pathway neurons get potential that releases excessive GABA into the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. When levodopa is administered, the stored GABA is released, the output nuclei become hypoactive, and then dyskinesias emerge. Second, effects of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists on dyskinesia were described. It has been demonstrated that the expression of adenosine A2A receptors is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with dyskinesias, suggesting that blockade of A2A receptors is beneficial for dyskinesias. Preclinical studies have shown that A2A receptor antagonists reduce liability of dyskinesias in PD models. Clinical trials have demonstrated that A2A antagonists increase functional ON-time (ON without troublesome dyskinesia) in PD patients suffering from wearing-off phenomenon, although they may increase dyskinesia in patients with advanced PD.

  2. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  3. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    SciTech Connect

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  4. Adenosine reduces postbypass transfusion requirements in humans after heart surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Mentzer, R M; Rahko, P S; Canver, C C; Chopra, P S; Love, R B; Cook, T D; Hegge, M O; Lasley, R D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect, if any, of adenosine blood cardioplegia on blood component usage after heart surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most common cause of nonsurgical postcardiopulmonary bypass bleeding is platelet dysfunction. For this reason, pharmacologic agents are under investigation in an effort to reduce the need for transfusion in this setting. METHODS: A posthoc analysis of blood product usage was performed in data obtained from a Phase I, single center, open label, randomized study performed in 63 patients. The trial was designed to test the safety and tolerance of adenosine when added to blood cardioplegia in increasing doses to enhance myocardial protection. The database provided information regarding the effect of adenosine cardioplegia on venous plasma adenosine concentrations, the amount of platelets, fresh frozen plasma and packed erythrocytes used, and the association between the adenosine dose and postoperative thoracic drainage. RESULTS: The postoperative thoracic drainage at 6 hours, 24 hours, and at the time of chest tube removal in the high-dose adenosine cardioplegia group was 68%, 76%, and 75% of the placebo and low-dose adenosine cardioplegia group (p < 0.05). The highest dose of adenosine studied increased baseline adenosine venous plasma levels 360-fold, from 0.17 +/- 0.09 mumol/L to 42.30 +/- 11.20 mumol/L (p < 0.05). This marked increase was associated with a 68%, 56%, and 58% reduction in platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and packed erythrocyte usage, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to enhancing the heart's tolerance to ischemia, adenosine-supplemented cardioplegic solution also may reduce bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:8857856

  5. Common channels for water and protons at apical and basolateral cell membranes of frog skin and urinary bladder epithelia. Effects of oxytocin, heavy metals, and inhibitors of H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, B.; Lacoste, I.; Ehrenfeld, J. )

    1991-04-01

    We have compared the response of proton and water transport to oxytocin treatment in isolated frog skin and urinary bladder epithelia to provide further insights into the nature of water flow and H+ flux across individual apical and basolateral cell membranes. In isolated spontaneous sodium-transporting frog skin epithelia, lowering the pH of the apical solution from 7.4 to 6.4, 5.5, or 4.5 produced a fall in pHi in principal cells which was completely blocked by amiloride, indicating that apical Na+ channels are permeable to protons. When sodium transport was blocked by amiloride, the H+ permeability of the apical membranes of principal cells was negligible but increased dramatically after treatment with antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In the latter condition, lowering the pH of the apical solution caused a voltage-dependent intracellular acidification, accompanied by membrane depolarization, and an increase in membrane conductance and transepithelial current. These effects were inhibited by adding Hg2+ (100 microM) or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD, 10(-5) M) to the apical bath. Net titratable H+ flux across frog skin was increased from 30 +/- 8 to 115 +/- 18 neq.h-1.cm-2 (n = 8) after oxytocin treatment (at apical pH 5.5 and serosal pH 7.4) and was completely inhibited by DCCD (10(-5) M). The basolateral membranes of the principal cells in frog skin epithelium were found to be spontaneously permeable to H+ and passive electrogenic H+ transport across this membrane was not affected by oxytocin. Lowering the pH of the basolateral bathing solution (pHb) produced an intracellular acidification and membrane depolarization (and an increase in conductance when the normal dominant K+ conductance of this membrane was abolished by Ba2+ 1 mM). These effects of low pHb were blocked by micromolar concentrations of heavy metals (Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+).

  6. Anatomy of F1-ATPase powered rotation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James L.; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Hornung, Tassilo; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic complex of the ATP synthase, is a molecular motor that can consume ATP to drive rotation of the γ-subunit inside the ring of three αβ-subunit heterodimers in 120° power strokes. To elucidate the mechanism of ATPase-powered rotation, we determined the angular velocity as a function of rotational position from single-molecule data collected at 200,000 frames per second with unprecedented signal-to-noise. Power stroke rotation is more complex than previously understood. This paper reports the unexpected discovery that a series of angular accelerations and decelerations occur during the power stroke. The decreases in angular velocity that occurred with the lower-affinity substrate ITP, which could not be explained by an increase in substrate-binding dwells, provides direct evidence that rotation depends on substrate binding affinity. The presence of elevated ADP concentrations not only increased dwells at 35° from the catalytic dwell consistent with competitive product inhibition but also decreased the angular velocity from 85° to 120°, indicating that ADP can remain bound to the catalytic site where product release occurs for the duration of the power stroke. The angular velocity profile also supports a model in which rotation is powered by Van der Waals repulsive forces during the final 85° of rotation, consistent with a transition from F1 structures 2HLD1 and 1H8E (Protein Data Bank). PMID:24567403

  7. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  8. Structural similarities of Na,K-ATPase and SERCA, the Ca(2+)-ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sweadner, K J; Donnet, C

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of SERCA1a (skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic-reticulum/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase) has recently been determined at 2.6 A (note 1 A = 0.1 nm) resolution [Toyoshima, Nakasako, Nomura and Ogawa (2000) Nature (London) 405, 647-655]. Other P-type ATPases are thought to share key features of the ATP hydrolysis site and a central core of transmembrane helices. Outside of these most-conserved segments, structural similarities are less certain, and predicted transmembrane topology differs between subclasses. In the present review the homologous regions of several representative P-type ATPases are aligned with the SERCA sequence and mapped on to the SERCA structure for comparison. Homology between SERCA and the Na,K-ATPase is more extensive than with any other ATPase, even PMCA, the Ca(2+)-ATPase of plasma membrane. Structural features of the Na,K-ATPase are projected on to the Ca(2+)-ATPase crystal structure to assess the likelihood that they share the same fold. Homology extends through all ten transmembrane spans, and most insertions and deletions are predicted to be at the surface. The locations of specific residues are examined, such as proteolytic cleavage sites, intramolecular cross-linking sites, and the binding sites of certain other proteins. On the whole, the similarity supports a shared fold, with some particular exceptions. PMID:11389677

  9. Self-association of isolated large cytoplasmic domain of plasma membrane H+ -ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the phosphorylation domain in a general dimeric model for P-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Almeida, W I; Martins, O B; Carvalho-Alves, P C

    2006-11-01

    Large cytoplasmic domain (LCD) plasma membrane H+ -ATPase from S. cerevisiae was expressed as two fusion polypeptides in E. coli: a DNA sequence coding for Leu353-Ileu674 (LCDh), comprising both nucleotide (N) and phosphorylation (P) domains, and a DNA sequence coding for Leu353-Thr543 (LCDDeltah, lacking the C-terminus of P domain), were inserted in expression vectors pDEST-17, yielding the respective recombinant plasmids. Overexpressed fusion polypeptides were solubilized with 6 M urea and purified on affinity columns, and urea was removed by dialysis. Their predicted secondary structure contents were confirmed by CD spectra. In addition, both recombinant polypeptides exhibited high-affinity 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP) binding (Kd = 1.9 microM and 2.9 microM for LCDh and LCDDeltah, respectively), suggesting that they have native-like folding. The gel filtration profile (HPLC) of purified LCDh showed two main peaks, with molecular weights of 95 kDa and 39 kDa, compatible with dimeric and monomeric forms, respectively. However, a single elution peak was observed for purified LCDDeltah, with an estimated molecular weight of 29 kDa, as expected for a monomer. Together, these data suggest that LCDh exist in monomer-dimer equilibrium, and that the C-terminus of P domain is necessary for self-association. We propose that such association is due to interaction between vicinal P domains, which may be of functional relevance for H+ -ATPase in native membranes. We discuss a general dimeric model for P-ATPases with interacting P domains, based on published crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy evidence.

  10. Exercise effects on activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase and adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ben, Juliana; Soares, Flávia Mahatma Schneider; Cechetti, Fernanda; Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Bonan, Carla Denise; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza

    2009-12-11

    Hormone deficiency following ovariectomy causes activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that has been related to cognitive deficits in experimental animals. Considering that physical exercise presents neuroprotector effects, we decide to investigate whether exercise training would affect enzyme activation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as adenosine nucleotide hydrolysis in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Female adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: sham (submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries), exercise, ovariectomized (Ovx) and Ovx plus exercise. Thirty days after surgery, animals were submitted to one month of exercise training, three times per week. After, rats were euthanized, blood serum was collected and hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Data demonstrated that exercise reversed the activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities both in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy decreased AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex and did not alter adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in blood serum. Exercise per se decreased ADP and AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, AMP hydrolysis in blood serum was increased by exercise in ovariectomized adult rats. Present data support that physical exercise might have beneficial effects and constitute a therapeutic alternative to hormone replacement therapy for estrogen deprivation.

  11. Adenosine receptors and diabetes: Focus on the A(2B) adenosine receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Over the last two decades, diabetes mellitus has become one of the most challenging health problems worldwide. Diabetes mellitus, classified as type I and II, is a pathology concerning blood glucose level in the body. The nucleoside adenosine has long been known to affect insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, through activation of four G protein coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Currently, the novel promising subtype to develop new drugs for diabetes treatment is the A2BAR subtype. The use of selective agonists and antagonists for A2BAR subtype in various diabetic animal models allowed us to identify several effects of A2BAR signaling in cell metabolism. In particular, the focus of this review is to summarize the studies on purinergic signaling associated with diabetes through A2BARs modulation.

  12. Regulation of neurotransmitter release kinetics by NSF.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, F E; Dresbach, T; DeBello, W M; O'Connor, V; Augustine, G J; Betz, H

    1998-02-20

    NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) is an adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that contributes to a protein complex essential for membrane fusion. The synaptic function of this protein was investigated by injecting, into the giant presynaptic terminal of squid, peptides that inhibit the ATPase activity of NSF stimulated by the soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP). These peptides reduced the amount and slowed the kinetics of neurotransmitter release as a result of actions that required vesicle turnover and occurred at a step subsequent to vesicle docking. These results define NSF as an essential participant in synaptic vesicle exocytosis that regulates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release and, thereby, the integrative properties of synapses.

  13. Praziquantel has no direct effect on (Na(+)+K+)-ATPases and (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPases of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V M; Noël, F

    1997-01-01

    Therapeutic concentrations of praziquantel produce a rapid and intense contraction of the human flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. As an action on ATPases responsible for calcium homeostasis arises as a possible explanation for the molecular mechanism of this effect, we tested here the effect of praziquantel on different preparations from male adult worms that were previously characterized for their content in (Na(+)+K+)-ATPase and (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPase activities from different origins. Concentrations as high as 100 microM praziquantel did not inhibit (Na(+)+K+)-ATPase from tegument and carcass nor (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPase from heterogeneous (P1) and microsomal (P4) fractions. As 100 microM praziquantel was also without effect on calcium permeability of microsomal vesicles actively loaded with 45Ca2+, the present results discard three hypotheses recently raised for the mechanism of praziquantel-induced contraction of S. mansoni.

  14. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73+/+) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73−/−) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73+/+ mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73+/+ mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg2+ conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73−/− mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  15. Adenosine 2A receptors in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Vincent, I S; Okusa, M D

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical problem that may lead to death and for those who survive, the sequelae of AKI include loss of quality of life, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. The incidence of AKI continues to rise without clear successes in humans for the pharmacological prevention of AKI or treatment of established AKI. Dendritic cells and macrophages are critical early initiators of innate immunity in the kidney and orchestrate inflammation subsequent to ischaemia-reperfusion injury. These innate cells are the most abundant leucocytes present in the kidney, and they represent a heterogeneous population of cells that are capable of responding to cues from the microenvironment derived from pathogens or endogenous inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or anti-inflammatory mediators such as adenosine. Lymphocyte subsets such as natural killer T cells and Tregs also play roles in regulating ischaemic injury by promoting and suppressing inflammation respectively. Adenosine, produced in response to IR, is generally considered as a protective signalling molecule and elicits its physiological responses through four distinct adenosine receptors. However, its short half-life, lack of specificity and rapid metabolism limit the use of adenosine as a therapeutic agent. These adenosine receptors play various roles in regulating the activity of the aforementioned hematopoietic cells in elevated levels of adenosine such as during hypoxia. This review focuses on the importance of one receptor, the adenosine 2A subtype, in blocking inflammation associated with AKI.

  16. Temporal variations of adenosine metabolism in human blood.

    PubMed

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Suárez, J; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Oksenberg, A; Vega-González, A; Villalobos, L; Rosenthal, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1996-08-01

    Eight diurnally active (06:00-23:00 h) subjects were adapted for 2 days to the room conditions where the experiments were performed. Blood sampling for adenosine metabolites and metabolizing enzymes was done hourly during the activity span and every 30 min during sleep. The results showed that adenosine and its catabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid), adenosine synthesizing (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and 5'-nucleotidase), degrading (adenosine deaminase) and nucleotide-forming (adenosine kinase) enzymes as well as adenine nucleotides (AMP, ADP, and ATP) undergo statistically significant fluctuations (ANOVA) during the 24 h. However, energy charge was invariable. Glucose and lactate chronograms were determined as metabolic indicators. The same data analyzed by the chi-square periodogram and Fourier series indicated ultradian oscillatory periods for all the metabolites and enzymatic activities determined, and 24-h oscillatory components for inosine, hypoxanthine, adenine nucleotides, glucose, and the activities of SAH-hydrolase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine kinase. The single cosinor method showed significant oscillatory components exclusively for lactate. As a whole, these results suggest that adenosine metabolism may play a role as a biological oscillator coordinating and/or modulating the energy homeostasis and physiological status of erythrocytes in vivo and could be an important factor in the distribution of purine rings for the rest of the organism.

  17. Characterization of P1 (adenosine) purinoceptors.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Michael F

    2013-10-08

    The purine nucleoside adenosine (ADO) is an important modulator of cellular function in mammalian tissues, modulating cellular function and neuronal excitability via interactions with different cell surface receptor subtypes that are heterogeneously distributed in both the mammalian CNS and peripheral tissues. Four ADO receptor subtypes have been cloned and characterized. Described in this unit are three radioligand binding assays for pharmacological characterization of the high-affinity ADO receptor subtypes A1, A2A, and A3 receptors. Pharmacological characterization of the low-affinity A2B receptor has been enabled by the use of tritiated xanthine PSB-603. Because receptor localization is an important criterion for differentiation of receptor subtypes, a support protocol that describes the methodology for the localization of ADO receptors in rat brain tissue using autoradiography is also included.

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation Results in Local Glutamate and Adenosine Release: Investigation into the Role of Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Chang, Su-Youne; Hitti, Frederick L.; Roberts, David W.; Leiter, James C.; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Several neurologic disorders are treated with deep brain stimulation; however, the mechanism underlying its ability to abolish oscillatory phenomena associated with diseases as diverse as Parkinson's and epilepsy remain largely unknown. In this study we sought to investigate the role of specific neurotransmitters in deep brain stimulation (DBS) and determine the role of non-neuronal cells in its mechanism of action. Methods We used the ferret thalamic slice preparation in vitro, which exhibits spontaneous spindle oscillations, in order to determine the effect of high-frequency stimulation on neurotransmitter release. We then performed experiments using an in vitro astrocyte culture to investigate the role of glial transmitter release in HFS-mediated abolishment of spindle oscillations. Results In this series of experiments we demonstrated that glutamate and adenosine release in ferret slices was able to abolish spontaneous spindle oscillations. The glutamate release was still evoked in the presence of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), but was eliminated with the vesicular H+-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, and the calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of purified primary astrocytic cultures was able to evoke intracellular calcium transients and glutamate release, and bath application of BAPTA-AM inhibited glutamate release in this setting. Conclusion These results suggest that vesicular astrocytic neurotransmitter release may be an important mechanism by which DBS is able to achieve clinical benefits. PMID:20644423

  19. Adenosine and Preexcitation Variants: Reappraisal of Electrocardiographic Changes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine is a short-acting blocker of the atrioventricular node that has been used to unmask subtle or latent preexcitation, and also to enable catheter ablation in selected patients with absent or intermittent preexcitation. Depending on the accessory pathway characteristics, intravenous adenosine may produce specific electrocardiographic changes highly suggestive of the preexcitation variant. Herein, we view different ECG responses to this pharmacological test in various preexcitation patterns that were confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Careful analysis of electrocardiographic changes during adenosine test, with emphasis on P-delta interval, preexcitation degree, and atrioventricular block, can be helpful to diagnose the preexcitation variant/pattern.

  20. Biosynthesis of the Tonoplast H+-ATPase from Oats 1

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Stephen K.; Sze, Heven

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether the tonoplast-type H+-ATPase was differentially synthesized in various parts of the oat seedling, sections of 4-day-old oat (Avena sativa L. var Lang) seedlings were labeled in vivo with [35S]methionine and ATPase subunits were precipitated with polyclonal antisera. ATPase subunits were detected in all portions of the seedling with the exception of the seed. Lesser amounts of the 60 and 72 kilodalton polypeptides of the ATPase were found in apical regions (0-5 millimeter) than in maturing regions (10-15, or 20-25 millimeter from the tip) of the roots or shoots. To initiate a study of the biosynthesis of the ATPase, the intracellular site of synthesis for two peripheral ATPase subunits was investigated. Poly(A) RNA from either free or membrane-bound polysomes was isolated and translated in vitro. Message encoding the 72 kilodalton (catalytic) subunit was found predominantly in mRNA isolated from membrane-bound polysomes. In contrast, the message for the 60 kilodalton (putative regulatory) subunit was found predominantly on free polysomes. Polypeptides synthesized in vivo or obtained from RNA translated in vitro exhibited no apparent size differences (limit of resolution, approximately 1 kilodalton), suggesting the absence of cleaved precursors for the 72 or 60 kilodalton subunits. These data suggest a complex mechanism for the synthesis and assembly of the tonoplast ATPase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666699

  1. Repeated ischaemic isometric exercise increases muscle fibre conduction velocity in humans: involvement of Na+-K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Rongen, G A; van Dijk, J P; van Ginneken, E E; Stegeman, D F; Smits, P; Zwarts, M J

    2002-01-01

    This study was performed to test two hypotheses: (1) ischaemic preconditioning (development of tolerance to ischaemia) influences muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) during repeated ischaemic isometric exercise and (2) the increase in MFCV to supranormal levels during recovery from ischaemic exercise is caused by activation of Na+−K+-ATPase. For this purpose, MFCV was measured with surface electromyography (sEMG) during repeated ischaemic isometric exercise of the brachioradial muscle (2 min at 30 % of maximal voluntary contraction). The involvement of ischaemic preconditioning was tested by changing the duration of ischaemia and by intra-arterial infusion of adenosine (brachial artery, 50 μg min−1 dl−1). The role of Na+−K+-ATPase was explored using ouabain (0.2 μg min−1 dl−1). During the exercise, MFCV decreased from 4.4 ± 0.2 m s−1 to 3.7 ± 0.2 m s−1 (P < 0.01, n = 13). Similar reductions in MFCV were observed during repeated exercise, irrespective of the reperfusion time (10 min vs. 18 min) or duration of the ischaemia (2 vs. 10 min). However, initial MFCV gradually increased for each subsequent contraction when contractions were repeated at 10 min intervals (4.4 ± 0.2 m s−1vs. 4.9 ± 0.2 m s−1 for the first and fourth contraction respectively; P < 0.01; n = 13). This increase was not observed when contractions were performed at 18 min intervals, nor when additional ischaemia was applied. Intra-arterial adenosine did not affect MFCV. Intra-arterial ouabain did not affect the reduction in MFCV during exercise but completely prevented the increase in MFCV during recovery: from 4.7 ± 0.2 m s−1 to 5.2 ± 0.2 m s−1vs. 4.5 ± 0.1 m s−1 to 4.5 ± 0.1 m s−1 in the absence and presence of ouabain respectively (P < 0.05 for ouabain effect; n = 6). In conclusion, ischaemic preconditioning is not involved in changes in MFCV during repeated ischaemic isometric exercise. The increase in MFCV during recovery from repeated ischaemic

  2. ATPase pumps in osteoclasts and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Francis, Martin J O; Lees, Rita L; Trujillo, Elisa; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo; Heersche, Johan N M; Mobasheri, Ali

    2002-05-01

    Osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts are specialised cells of bone that play crucial roles in the formation, maintenance and resorption of bone matrix. Bone formation and resorption critically depend on optimal intracellular calcium and phosphate homeostasis and on the expression and activity of plasma membrane transport systems in all three cell types. Osteotropic agents, mechanical stimulation and intracellular pH are important parameters that determine the fate of bone matrix and influence the activity, expression, regulation and cell surface abundance of plasma membrane transport systems. In this paper the role of ATPase pumps is reviewed in the context of their expression in bone cells, their contribution to ion homeostasis and their relation to other transport systems regulating bone turnover.

  3. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Darmody, Patrick T.; Walsh, John P.; Moon, Morgan L.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; McCusker, Robert H.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by two-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. PMID:24907587

  4. Possible mechanism of adenosine protection in carbon tetrachloride acute hepatotoxicity. Role of adenosine by-products and glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1995-02-01

    Adenosine proved to be an effective hepatoprotector increasing the survival rate of rats receiving lethal doses of CCl4. Searching for the mechanism of action, we found that adenosine transiently prevents the necrotic liver damage associated to an acute CCl4 treatment. The antilipoperoxidative action of the nucleoside was evidenced by a decrease of TBA-reactive products and the diene conjugates elicited by the hepatotoxin. Adenosine's protective effect was demonstrated by reverting the decrease of cytochrome P-450 while preserved intact the activity of the microsomal enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. CCl4 promoted an increase in the oxidant stress through an enhancement in oxidized glutathione levels. This action was also completely counteracted by the nucleoside. Adenosine was unable to prevent CCl4 activation and, even, increased .CCl3 formation in the presence of PBN in vivo. However, in the presence of the nucleoside, irreversible binding of 14CCl4 to the microsomal lipid fraction of the treated animals was decreased. These results suggest that adenosine protective action might be exerted at the level of the propagation reaction following CCl4 activation. Two possible mechanisms were associated to the nucleoside protection: (1) the peroxide-metabolyzed enzymes, GSH-per, showed a marked increase after 30 minutes of adenosine treatment, which was potentiated by the hepatotoxin, suggesting an important role of this enzyme in the nucleoside's action; (2) the adenosine catabolism induced an increase in uric acid level, and allopurinol, a purine metabolism inhibitor, prevented such elevation as well as the antilipoperoxidative action of adenosine and the increase of GSH-per associated with the nucleoside treatment. These facts strongly suggest that the protective effect elicited by adenosine is not a direct one, but rather is related to its catabolic products, such as uric acid, which has been recognized as a free radical scavenger.

  5. Proton Pumping of the Yeast Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-16

    function of the yeast plasma membrane H+- ATPase. This ATPase is a P-type cation transporter composed of a single protein of 100,000 Da molecular...August 16, 1993 ] Final 25 Sep 89 - 14 May 94 / 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S UDN UBR Proton Pumping of the Yeast Plasma Membrane HW-AT~ase G. AUTOR(S)DAALO3...Maximum 200 words) This proposal was to study the structure and function of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase. We I proposed to study I )the

  6. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  7. C-peptide, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coste, T. C.; Jannot, M. F.; Raccah, D.; Tsimaratos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K+-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non–insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene.Apolymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K+-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K+-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mainly

  8. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  9. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) for anti-fungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Summer R; Lee, Samuel A; Parra, Karlett J

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens.

  10. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) for anti-fungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Summer R.; Lee, Samuel A.; Parra, Karlett J.

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens. PMID:24478704

  11. Conserved V-ATPase c subunit plays a role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aimin; Bu, Yuanyuan; Takano, Tetsuo; Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Shenkui

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPase) are localized in the tonoplast, Golgi, trans-Golgi network and endosome. However, little is known about how V-ATPase influences plant growth, particularly with regard to the V-ATPase c subunit (VHA-c). Here, we characterized the function of a VHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora (PutVHA-c) in plant growth. Compared to the wild-type, transgenic plants overexpressing PutVHA-c in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit better growth phenotypes in root length, fresh weight, plant height and silique number under the normal and salt stress conditions due to noticeably higher V-ATPase activity. Consistently, the Arabidopsis atvha-c5 mutant shows reduced V-ATPase activity and retarded plant growth. Furthermore, confocal and immunogold electron microscopy assays demonstrate that PutVHA-c is mainly localized to endosomal compartments. The treatment of concanamycin A (ConcA), a specific inhibitor of V-ATPases, leads to obvious aggregation of the endosomal compartments labelled with PutVHA-c-GFP. Moreover, ConcA treatment results in the abnormal localization of two plasma membrane (PM) marker proteins Pinformed 1 (AtPIN1) and regulator of G protein signalling-1 (AtRGS1). These findings suggest that the decrease in V-ATPase activity blocks endosomal trafficking. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the PutVHA-c plays an important role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

  12. Extracellular Adenosine Mediates a Systemic Metabolic Switch during Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bajgar, Adam; Kucerova, Katerina; Jonatova, Lucie; Tomcala, Ales; Schneedorferova, Ivana; Okrouhlik, Jan; Dolezal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Immune defense is energetically costly, and thus an effective response requires metabolic adaptation of the organism to reallocate energy from storage, growth, and development towards the immune system. We employ the natural infection of Drosophila with a parasitoid wasp to study energy regulation during immune response. To combat the invasion, the host must produce specialized immune cells (lamellocytes) that destroy the parasitoid egg. We show that a significant portion of nutrients are allocated to differentiating lamellocytes when they would otherwise be used for development. This systemic metabolic switch is mediated by extracellular adenosine released from immune cells. The switch is crucial for an effective immune response. Preventing adenosine transport from immune cells or blocking adenosine receptor precludes the metabolic switch and the deceleration of development, dramatically reducing host resistance. Adenosine thus serves as a signal that the “selfish” immune cells send during infection to secure more energy at the expense of other tissues. PMID:25915062

  13. Adenosine promotes vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jonathan; Karmouty‐Quintana, Harry; Le, Thuy T.; Chen, Ning‐Yuan; Weng, Tingting; Luo, Fayong; Molina, Jose; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hyperoxic lung injury is characterized by cellular damage from high oxygen concentrations that lead to an inflammatory response in the lung with cellular infiltration and pulmonary edema. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that is generated extracellularly by CD73 in response to injury. Extracellular adenosine signals through cell surface receptors and has been found to be elevated and plays a protective role in acute injury situations. In particular, ADORA2B activation is protective in acute lung injury. However, little is known about the role of adenosine signaling in hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that hyperoxia‐induced lung injury leads to CD73‐mediated increases in extracellular adenosine, which is protective through ADORA2B signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6, CD73−/−, and Adora2B−/− mice to 95% oxygen or room air and examined markers of pulmonary inflammation, edema, and monitored lung histology. Hyperoxic exposure caused pulmonary inflammation and edema in association with elevations in lung adenosine levels. Loss of CD73‐mediated extracellular adenosine production exacerbated pulmonary edema without affecting inflammatory cell counts. Furthermore, loss of the ADORA2B had similar results with worsening of pulmonary edema following hyperoxia exposure without affecting inflammatory cell infiltration. This loss of barrier function correlated with a decrease in occludin in pulmonary vasculature in CD73−/− and Adora2B−/− mice following hyperoxia exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to a hyperoxic environment causes lung injury associated with an increase in adenosine concentration, and elevated adenosine levels protect vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury through the ADORA2B‐dependent regulation of occludin. PMID:25263205

  14. Effects of chronic digitalization on cardiac and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate activity and circulating catecholamines in the dog.

    PubMed

    Nechay, B R; Jackson, R E; Ziegler, M G; Neldon, S L; Thompson, J D

    1981-09-01

    To extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of digitalis drugs, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs), renal function, plasma concentrations of catecholamines, and myocardial and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate (Na+ + K+ ATPase) activity in chronically digitalized dogs. Five healthy, male, mongrel dogs received a therapeutic regimen of digoxin (0.1 mg/kg on day 1 in three divided doses followed by 0.025 mg/kg per day) orally for 2-4 months. This resulted in plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.1 to 4.7 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay. Six control dogs received daily gelatin capsules by mouth. ECGs monitored throughout the study showed no changes. Digitalized dogs had elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations (347 vs. 137 pg/ml in controls) and no change in plasma epinephrine concentrations. Digitalized dogs had elevated glomerular filtration rates (0.74 vs. 0.94 ml/min per g of kidney) without significant changes in renal handling of electrolytes and water. All of the above studies were done without the aid of restraining drugs or infusions. The animals were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital for in vitro studies. In digitalized dogs, microsomal Na+ + K+ ATPase-specific activity was 26 to 33% lower in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla, and 46% lower in the cardiac left ventricle than in control dogs. Digitalization did not alter the osmolalities of renal tissues. We conclude that chronic reduction Na+ + K+ ATPase activity by one-third dose does not cause abnormalities in renal handling of electrolytes and water, and inhibition of Na+ + K+ ATPase in the left ventricular muscle by one-half is associated with no obvious ECG changes in the dog. Further, elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations may contribute to both the therapeutic and the toxic effects of digitalis.

  15. The A3 adenosine receptor: history and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    By general consensus, the omnipresent purine nucleoside adenosine is considered a major regulator of local tissue function, especially when energy supply fails to meet cellular energy demand. Adenosine mediation involves activation of a family of four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs): A(1), A(2)A, A(2)B, and A(3). The A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) is the only adenosine subtype to be overexpressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, thus making it a potential target for therapy. Originally isolated as an orphan receptor, A(3)AR presented a twofold nature under different pathophysiologic conditions: it appeared to be protective/harmful under ischemic conditions, pro/anti-inflammatory, and pro/antitumoral depending on the systems investigated. Until recently, the greatest and most intriguing challenge has been to understand whether, and in which cases, selective A(3) agonists or antagonists would be the best choice. Today, the choice has been made and A(3)AR agonists are now under clinical development for some disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, glaucoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. More specifically, the interest and relevance of these new agents derives from clinical data demonstrating that A(3)AR agonists are both effective and safe. Thus, it will become apparent in the present review that purine scientists do seem to be getting closer to their goal: the incorporation of adenosine ligands into drugs with the ability to save lives and improve human health.

  16. Cohesin Releases DNA through Asymmetric ATPase-Driven Ring Opening

    PubMed Central

    Elbatsh, Ahmed M.O.; Haarhuis, Judith H.I.; Petela, Naomi; Chapard, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Celie, Patrick H.; Stadnik, Magda; Ristic, Dejan; Wyman, Claire; Medema, René H.; Nasmyth, Kim; Rowland, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cohesin stably holds together the sister chromatids from S phase until mitosis. To do so, cohesin must be protected against its cellular antagonist Wapl. Eco1 acetylates cohesin’s Smc3 subunit, which locks together the sister DNAs. We used yeast genetics to dissect how Wapl drives cohesin from chromatin and identified mutants of cohesin that are impaired in ATPase activity but remarkably confer robust cohesion that bypasses the need for the cohesin protectors Eco1 in yeast and Sororin in human cells. We uncover a functional asymmetry within the heart of cohesin’s highly conserved ABC-like ATPase machinery and find that both ATPase sites contribute to DNA loading, whereas DNA release is controlled specifically by one site. We propose that Smc3 acetylation locks cohesin rings around the sister chromatids by counteracting an activity associated with one of cohesin’s two ATPase sites. PMID:26895426

  17. Adenosine deaminase 1 and concentrative nucleoside transporters 2 and 3 regulate adenosine on the apical surface of human airway epithelia: implications for inflammatory lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Andrew J; Stonebraker, Jaclyn R; van Heusden, Catja A; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Boucher, Richard C; Picher, Maryse

    2007-09-11

    Adenosine is a multifaceted signaling molecule mediating key aspects of innate and immune lung defenses. However, abnormally high airway adenosine levels exacerbate inflammatory lung diseases. This study identifies the mechanisms regulating adenosine elimination from the apical surface of human airway epithelia. Experiments conducted on polarized primary cultures of nasal and bronchial epithelial cells showed that extracellular adenosine is eliminated by surface metabolism and cellular uptake. The conversion of adenosine to inosine was completely inhibited by the adenosine deaminase 1 (ADA1) inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA). The reaction exhibited Km and Vmax values of 24 microM and 0.14 nmol x min(-1) x cm(-2). ADA1 (not ADA2) mRNA was detected in human airway epithelia. The adenosine/mannitol permeability coefficient ratio (18/1) indicated a minor contribution of paracellular absorption. Adenosine uptake was Na+-dependent and was inhibited by the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) blocker phloridzin but not by the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) blocker dipyridamole. Apparent Km and Vmax values were 17 microM and 7.2 nmol x min(-1) x cm(-2), and transport selectivity was adenosine = inosine = uridine > guanosine = cytidine > thymidine. CNT3 mRNA was detected throughout the airways, while CNT2 was restricted to nasal epithelia. Inhibition of adenosine elimination by EHNA or phloridzin raised apical adenosine levels by >3-fold and stimulated IL-13 and MCP-1 secretion by 6-fold. These responses were reproduced by the adenosine receptor agonist 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine (NECA) and blocked by the adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (8-SPT). This study shows that adenosine elimination on human airway epithelia is mediated by ADA1, CNT2, and CNT3, which constitute important regulators of adenosine-mediated inflammation.

  18. In search of synaptosomal Na+,K(+)-ATPase regulators.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, G

    1992-01-01

    The arrival of the nerve impulse to the nerve endings leads to a series of events involving the entry of sodium and the exit of potassium. Restoration of ionic equilibria of sodium and potassium through the membrane is carried out by the sodium/potassium pump, that is the enzyme Na+,K(+)-ATPase. This is a particle-bound enzyme that concentrates in the nerve ending or synaptosomal membranes. The activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase is essential for the maintenance of numerous reactions, as demonstrated in the isolated synaptosomes. This lends interest to the knowledge of the possible regulatory mechanisms of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the synaptic region. The aim of this review is to summarize the results obtained in the author's laboratory, that refer to the effect of neurotransmitters and endogenous substances on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Mention is also made of results in the field obtained in other laboratories. Evidence showing that brain Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity may be modified by certain neurotransmitters and insulin have been presented. The type of change produced by noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin on synaptosomal membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase was found to depend on the presence or absence of a soluble brain fraction. The soluble brain fraction itself was able to stimulate or inhibit the enzyme, an effect that was dependent in turn on the time elapsed between preparation and use of the fraction. The filtration of soluble brain fraction through Sephadex G-50 allowed the separation of two active subfractions: peaks I and II. Peak I increased Na+,K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases, and peak II inhibited Na+,K(+)-ATPase. Other membrane enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase and 5'-nucleotidase were unchanged by peaks I or II. In normotensive anesthetized rats, water and sodium excretion were not modified by peak I but were increased by peak II, thus resembling ouabain effects. 3H-ouabain binding was unchanged by peak I but decreased by peak II in some areas of the CNS assayed by

  19. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate are synthesized by yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, A; Günther Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1994-01-01

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (P4A) and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) from ATP and tri- or tetrapolyphosphate (P3 or P4), with relative velocities of 7:1, respectively. Of 12 nucleotides tested as potential donors of nucleotidyl moiety, only ATP, adenosine-5'-O-[3-thiotriphosphate], and acetyl-AMP were substrates, with relative velocities of 100, 62, and 80, respectively. The Km values for ATP, P3, and acetyl-AMP were 0.16, 4.7, and 1.8 mM, respectively. The synthesis of p4A could proceed in the absence of exogenous acetate but was stimulated twofold by acetate, with an apparent Km value of 0.065 mM. CoA did not participate in the synthesis of p4A (p5A) and inhibited the reaction (50% inhibitory concentration of 0.015 mM). At pH 6.3, which was optimum for formation of p4A (p5A), the rate of acetyl-CoA synthesis (1.84 mumol mg-1 min-1) was 245 times faster than the rate of synthesis of p4A measured in the presence of acetate. The known formation of p4A (p5A) in yeast sporulation and the role of acetate may therefore be related to acetyl-CoA synthetase. Images PMID:7910605

  20. The guanylate-binding proteins: emerging insights into the biochemical properties and functions of this family of large interferon-induced guanosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Deborah J; Jeyaratnam, Jonathan A

    2011-01-01

    Originally identified by their unusual ability to bind guanosine monophosphate (GMP) nucleotide agarose, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were used extensively to promote our understanding of interferon-induced gene transcription and as markers of interferon responsiveness. Structural and biochemical analyses of human GBP-1 subsequently demonstrated that the GBPs are a unique subfamily of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPases) that hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to both guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and GMP. As members of the larger dynamin superfamily of GTPases, GBPs exhibit such properties as nucleotide-dependent oligomerization and concentration-dependent GTPase activity. Recently, progress has been made in assigning functions to members of the GBP family. While many of these functions involve protection against intracellular pathogens, a growing number of them are not directly related to pathogen protection. It is currently unclear how the unusual properties of GBPs contribute to this growing list of functions. As future studies uncover the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the GBPs, we will gain a greater understanding of how individual GBPs can mediate what currently appears to be a divergent set of functions.

  1. The major nucleoside triphosphatase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei and in rat liver nuclei share common epitopes also present in nuclear lamins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. G.; Dauwalder, M.; Clawson, G. A.; Hatem, C. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    The major nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities in mammalian and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei are associated with enzymes that are very similar both biochemically and immunochemically. The major NTPase from rat liver nuclei appears to be a 46-kD enzyme that represents the N-terminal portion of lamins A and C, two lamina proteins that apparently arise from the same gene by alternate splicing. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) G2, raised to human lamin C, both immunoprecipitates the major (47 kD) NTPase in pea nuclei and recognizes it in western blot analyses. A polyclonal antibody preparation raised to the 47-kD pea NTPase (pc480) reacts with the same lamin bands that are recognized by MAb G2 in mammalian nuclei. The pc480 antibodies also bind to the same lamin-like bands in pea nuclear envelope-matrix preparations that are recognized by G2 and three other MAbs known to bind to mammalian lamins. In immunofluorescence assays, pc480 and anti-lamin antibodies stain both cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in plant cells, with slightly enhanced staining along the periphery of the nuclei. These results indicate that the pea and rat liver NTPases are structurally similar and that, in pea nuclei as in rat liver nuclei, the major NTPase is probably derived from a lamin precursor by proteolysis.

  2. Age- and sex-related differences in nuclear lipid content and nucleoside triphosphatase activity in the JCR:LA-cp corpulent rat.

    PubMed

    Czubryt, M P; Russell, J C; Sarantopoulos, J; Gilchrist, J S; Pierce, G N

    1997-11-01

    The putative role of the nuclear nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) is to provide energy to the nuclear pore complex for poly A(+) mRNA export. Previous work has demonstrated that liver nuclear NTPase activity is greater in 6 month old corpulent (cp/cp) female JCR:LA rats, a hyperlipidemic rat model, compared to lean (+/?) animals. This increase appeared to be related to increases in nuclear membrane cholesterol content. The current study extended these initial data to compare NTPase activity as a function of age and sex in isolated JCR:LA-cp rat liver nuclei, to further test the hypothesis that nuclear membrane cholesterol may modulate NTPase activity. NTPase activity was increased in cp/cp female animals compared to +/? females at all ages studied, with Vmax values increased by 60-176%. Membrane integrity of cp/cp female nuclei was reduced compared to +/? female nuclei. Nuclear membrane cholesterol levels increased linearly with age by 50, 150 and 250% in 3, 6 and 9 month old cp/cp females over leans. In contrast, nuclei from cp/cp males exhibited only minor, isolated changes in NTPase activity. Furthermore, there were no significant changes in nuclear cholesterol content or membrane integrity in the less hyperlipidemic male animals at any age. These data suggest that altered lipid metabolism may lead to changes in nuclear membrane structure, which in turn may alter NTPase activity and functioning of the nuclear pore complex.

  3. [Gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Yukio; Ariga, Tadashi; Ohtsu, Makoto

    2005-03-01

    A four year-old boy with adenosine deaminase (ADA-) deficient severe combined immunodeficiency(SCID) receiving PEG-ADA was treated under a gene therapy protocol targeting peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in 1995. After eleven infusions of autologous PBLs transduced with retroviral vector LASN encoding ADAcDNA, he exhibited increased levels of the CD8+ T lymphocytes, serum immunoglobulin, specific antibodies and delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests. Follow-up studies also provided evidence of long-term persistence and function of transduced PBLs with improvement in the immune function. However, the therapeutic effect of this gene therapy has been difficult to assess because of the concomitant treatment of PEG-ADA. Two ADA-SCID patients have been currently treated with autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells engineered with a retroviral vector GCsapM-ADA after discontinuation of PEG-ADA. The restoration of intracellular ADA enzymatic activity in lymphocytes and granulocytes resulted in correction of the systemic toxicity and liver function in the absence of PEG-ADA treatment. Both patients are at home where they are clinically well, and they do not experience adversed effect, with follow up being 12 months after CD34+ cells gene therapy.

  4. Detecting adenosine triphosphate in the pericellular space.

    PubMed

    Falzoni, Simonetta; Donvito, Giovanna; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2013-06-06

    Release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space occurs in response to a multiplicity of physiological and pathological stimuli in virtually all cells and tissues. A role for extracellular ATP has been identified in processes as different as neurotransmission, endocrine and exocrine secretion, smooth muscle contraction, bone metabolism, cell proliferation, immunity and inflammation. However, ATP measurement in the extracellular space has proved a daunting task until recently. To tackle this challenge, some years ago, we designed and engineered a novel luciferase probe targeted to and expressed on the outer aspect of the plasma membrane. This novel probe was constructed by appending to firefly luciferase the N-terminal leader sequence and the C-terminal glycophosphatidylinositol anchor of the folate receptor. This chimeric protein, named plasma membrane luciferase, is targeted and localized to the outer side of the plasma membrane. With this probe, we have generated stably transfected HEK293 cell clones that act as an in vitro and in vivo sensor of the extracellular ATP concentration in several disease conditions, such as experimentally induced tumours and inflammation.

  5. An ion-transporting ATPase encodes multiple apical localization signals

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial cells accumulate distinct populations of membrane proteins at their two plasmalemmal domains. We have examined the molecular signals which specify the differential subcellular distributions of two closely related ion pumps. The Na,K-ATPase is normally restricted to the basolateral membranes of numerous epithelial cell types, whereas the H,K-ATPase is a component of the apical surfaces of the parietal cells of the gastric epithelium. We have expressed full length and chimeric H,K-ATPase/Na,K-ATPase cDNAs in polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). We find that both the alpha and beta subunits of the H,K-ATPase encode independent signals that specify apical localization. Furthermore, the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit possesses a sequence which mediates its participation in the endocytic pathway. The interrelationship between epithelial sorting and endocytosis signals suggested by these studies supports the redefinition of apical and basolateral as functional, rather than simply topographic domains. PMID:8385670

  6. Effect of alcoholic intoxication on water content and activity of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zamai, T N; Titova, N M; Zamai, A S; Usol'tseva, O S; Yulenkova, O V; Shumkova, D A

    2002-12-01

    We studied the effect of 2-week alcohol intoxication on water exchange and activity of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in rat brain. Alcohol intoxication increased water content in the brain due to cell hyperhydration. It is assumed that hyperhydration results from increased Na+ content in cells due to inhibition Na,K-ATPase activity, which in turn is caused by activation of lipid peroxidation under the effect of ethanol. A possible mechanism of Na,K-ATPase inhibition.

  7. Adenosine acts as an inhibitor of lymphoma cell growth: a major role for the A3 adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Fishman, P; Bar-Yehuda, S; Ohana, G; Pathak, S; Wasserman, L; Barer, F; Multani, A S

    2000-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrated several mechanisms exploring the inhibitory effect of low-dose adenosine on lymphoma cell growth. Adenosine, a purine nucleoside present in plasma and other extracellular fluids, acts as a regulatory molecule, by binding to G-protein associated cell-surface receptors, A1, A2 and A3. Recently we showed that low-dose adenosine released by muscle cells, inhibits tumour cell growth and thus attributes to the rarity of muscle metastases. In the present work, a cytostatic effect of adenosine on the proliferation of the Nb2-11C rat lymphoma cell line was demonstrated. This effect was mediated through the induction of cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and by decreasing the telomeric signal in these cells. Adenosine was found to exert its antiproliferative effect mainly through binding to its A3 receptor. The cytostatic anticancer activity, mediated through the A3 adenosine receptor, turns it into a potential target for the development of anticancer therapies.

  8. Structural changes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase upon nucleotide binding studied by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    von Germar, F; Barth, A; Mäntele, W

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the vibrational spectrum of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase upon nucleotide binding were recorded in H(2)O and (2)H(2)O at -7 degrees C and pH 7.0. The reaction cycle was triggered by the photochemical release of nucleotides (ATP, ADP, and AMP-PNP) from a biologically inactive precursor (caged ATP, P(3)-1-(2-nitrophenyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate, and related caged compounds). Infrared absorbance changes due to ATP release and two steps of the Ca(2+)-ATPase reaction cycle, ATP binding and phosphorylation, were followed in real time. Under the conditions used in our experiments, the rate of ATP binding was limited by the rate of ATP release (k(app) congruent with 3 s(-1) in H(2)O and k(app) congruent with 7 s(-1) in (2)H(2)O). Bands in the amide I and II regions of the infrared spectrum show that the conformation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase changes upon nucleotide binding. The observation of bands in the amide I region can be assigned to perturbations of alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures. According to similar band profiles in the nucleotide binding spectra, ATP, AMP-PNP, and ADP induce similar conformational changes. However, subtle differences between ATP and AMP-PNP are observed; these are most likely due to the protonation state of the gamma-phosphate group. Differences between the ATP and ADP binding spectra indicate the significance of the gamma-phosphate group in the interactions between the Ca(2+)-ATPase and the nucleotide. Nucleotide binding affects Asp or Glu residues, and bands characteristic of their protonated side chains are observed at 1716 cm(-1) (H(2)O) and 1706 cm(-1) ((2)H(2)O) and seem to depend on the charge of the phosphate groups. Bands at 1516 cm(-1) (H(2)O) and 1514 cm(-1) ((2)H(2)O) are tentatively assigned to a protonated Tyr residue affected by nucleotide binding. Possible changes in Arg, Trp, and Lys absorption and in the nucleoside are discussed. The spectra are compared with those of nucleotide binding to arginine

  9. An autoinhibitory peptide from the erythrocyte Ca-ATPase aggregates and inhibits both muscle Ca-ATPase isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, L G; Shi, Y; Kutchai, H; Filoteo, A G; Penniston, J T; Thomas, D D

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of C28R2, a basic peptide derived from the autoinhibitory domain of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase, on enzyme activity, oligomeric state, and E1-E2 conformational equilibrium of the Ca-ATPase from skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) was used to determine changes in the distribution of Ca-ATPase among its different oligomeric species in SR. C28R2, at a concentration of 1-10 microM, inhibits the Ca-ATPase activity of both skeletal and cardiac SR (CSR). In skeletal SR, this inhibition by C28R2 is much greater at low (0.15 microM) than at high (10 microM) Ca2+, whereas in CSR the inhibition is the same at low and high Ca2+. The effects of the peptide on the rotational mobility of the Ca-ATPase correlated well with function, indicating that C28R2-induced protein aggregation and Ca-ATPase inhibition are much more Ca-dependent in skeletal than in CSR. In CSR at low Ca2+, phospholamban (PLB) antibody (functionally equivalent to PLB phosphorylation) increased the inhibitory effect of C28R2 slightly. Fluorescence of fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate-labeled SR suggests that C28R2 stabilizes the E1 conformation of the Ca-ATPase in skeletal SR, whereas in CSR it stabilizes E2. After the addition of PLB antibody, C28R2 still stabilizes the E2 conformational state of CSR. Therefore, we conclude that C28R2 affects Ca-ATPase activity, conformation, and self-association differently in cardiac and skeletal SR and that PLB is probably not responsible for the differences. PMID:10354431

  10. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase and disease.

    PubMed

    Tempel, B L; Shilling, D J

    2007-01-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) uses energy to pump calcium (Ca2+) ions out of the cytosol into the extracellular milieu, usually against a strong chemical gradient. This energy expenditure is necessary to maintain a relatively low intracellular net Ca2+ load. Mammals have four genes (ATP2B1-ATP2B4), encoding the proteins PMCA1 through PMCA4. Transcripts from each of these genes are alternatively spliced to generate several variant proteins that are in turn post-translationally modified in a variety of ways. Expressed ubiquitously and with some level of functional redundancy in most vital tissues, only one of the four genes--Atp2b2--has been causally linked through naturally occuring mutations to disease in mammals: specifically to deafness and ataxia in spontaneous mouse mutants. In humans, a missense amino acid substitution in PMCA2 modifies the severity of hearing loss. Targeted null mutations of the Atp2b1 and Atp2b4 genes in mouse are embryonic lethal and cause a sperm motility defect, respectively. These phenotypes point to complex human diseases like hearing loss, cardiac function and infertility. Changes in PMCA expression are associated with other diseases including cataract formation, carciniogenesis, diabetes, and cardiac hypertension and hypertrophy. Severity of these diseases may be affected by subtle changes in expression of the PMCA isoforms expressed in those tissues.

  11. V-type ATPase proton pump expression during enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Juni; Wen, Xin; Simanian, Emil J; Paine, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Several diseases such as proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis and osteoporosis are related to intracellular pH dysregulation resulting from mutations in genes coding for ion channels, including proteins comprising the proton-pumping V-type ATPase. V-type ATPase is a multi-subunit protein complex expressed in enamel forming cells. V-type ATPase plays a key role in enamel development, specifically lysosomal acidification, yet our understanding of the relationship between the endocytotic activities and dental health and disease is limited. The objective of this study is to better understand the ameloblast-associated pH regulatory networks essential for amelogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on tissues from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel organs to determine which of the V-type ATPase subunits are most highly upregulated during maturation-stage amelogenesis: a time when ameloblast endocytotic activity is highest. Western blot analyses, using specific antibodies to four of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v0d2, Atp6v1b2, Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), were then applied to validate much of the qPCR data. Immunohistochemistry using these same four antibodies was also performed to identify the spatiotemporal expression profiles of individual V-type ATPase subunits. Our data show that cytoplasmic V-type ATPase is significantly upregulated in enamel organ cells during maturation-stage when compared to secretory-stage. These data likely relate to the higher endocytotic activities, and the greater need for lysosomal acidification, during maturation-stage amelogenesis. It is also apparent from our immunolocalization data, using antibodies against two of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), that significant expression is seen at the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. Others have also identified this V-type ATPase expression profile at the apical membrane of maturation ameloblasts. Collectively, these data better define the

  12. Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok

    2011-08-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s⁻¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ∼10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common α/β barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism.

  13. Role of A3 adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Heng; Zhang, Enshui; Feng, Chang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Although the A1 and A2A adenosine receptors are important pharmacological targets in alleviating diabetic neuropathy, the role of the A3 adenosine receptor remains unknown. Because the A3 adenosine receptor regulates pain induced by chronic constriction injury or chemotherapy, its stimulation might also attenuate diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the effects of systemic treatment with the A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamide (IB-MECA) on diabetic neuropathy and explores the putative mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects. We show that IB-MECA alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hypoalgesia in mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after streptozocin (STZ) treatment. Furthermore, IB-MECA prevented the reduction in sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. Similarly, IB-MECA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. These phenomena were associated with reduction of A3 adenosine receptor expression in the spinal cord after long-term diabetes. Our results suggest that the A3 adenosine receptor plays a critical role in regulating diabetic neuropathy and that reduction in A3 adenosine receptor expression/function might contribute to the progression of diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bafilomycins: a class of inhibitors of membrane ATPases from microorganisms, animal cells, and plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, E J; Siebers, A; Altendorf, K

    1988-01-01

    Various membrane ATPases have been tested for their sensitivity to bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic. F1F0 ATPases from bacteria and mitochondria are not affected by this antibiotic. In contrast, E1E2 ATPases--e.g., the K+-dependent (Kdp) ATPase from Escherichia coli, the Na+,K+-ATPase from ox brain, and the Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum--are moderately sensitive to this inhibitor. Finally, membrane ATPases from Neurospora vacuoles, chromaffin granules, and plant vacuoles are extremely sensitive. From this we conclude that bafilomycin A1 is a valuable tool for distinguishing among the three different types of ATPases and represents the first relatively specific potent inhibitor of vacuolar ATPases. PMID:2973058

  15. Preferential activation of excitatory adenosine receptors at rat hippocampal and neuromuscular synapses by adenosine formed from released adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, R. A.; Correia-de-Sá, P.; Sebastião, A. M.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. In the present work, we investigated the action of adenosine originating from extracellular catabolism of adenine nucleotides, in two preparations where synaptic transmission is modulated by both inhibitory A1 and excitatory A(2a)-adenosine receptors, the rat hippocampal Schaffer fibres/CA1 pyramid synapses and the rat innervated hemidiaphragm. 2. Endogenous adenosine tonically inhibited synaptic transmission, since 0.5-2 u ml-1 of adenosine deaminase increased both the population spike amplitude (30 +/- 4%) and field excitatory post-synaptic potential (f.e.p.s.p.) slope (27 +/- 4%) recorded from hippocampal slices and the evoked [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from the motor nerve terminals (25 +/- 2%). 3. alpha, beta-Methylene adenosine diphosphate (AOPCP) in concentrations (100-200 microM) that almost completely inhibited the formation of adenosine from the extracellular catabolism of AMP, decreased population spike amplitude by 39 +/- 5% and f.e.p.s.p. slope by 32 +/- 3% in hippocampal slices and [3H]-ACh release from motor nerve terminals by 27 +/- 3%. 4. Addition of exogenous 5'-nucleotidase (5 u ml-1) prevented the inhibitory effect of AOPCP on population spike amplitude and f.e.p.s.p. slope by 43-57%, whereas the P2 antagonist, suramin (100 microM), did not modify the effect of AOPCP. 5. In both preparations, the effect of AOPCP resulted from prevention of adenosine formation since it was no longer evident when accumulation of extracellular adenosine was hindered by adenosine deaminase (0.5-2 u ml-1). The inhibitory effect of AOPCP was still evident when A1 receptors were blocked by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5-5 nM), but was abolished by the A2 antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (10 microM). 6. These results suggest that adenosine originating from catabolism of released adenine nucleotides preferentially activates excitatory A2 receptors in hippocampal CAI pyramid synapses and in phrenic motor nerve endings. PMID:8886406

  16. Effect of adenosine on the growth of human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Streitová, Denisa; Weiterová, Lenka; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Horváth, Viktor; Kozubík, Alois; Znojil, Vladimír

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine has been observed to suppress the growth of MOLT-4 human leukemia cells in vitro. Changes in the cell cycle, especially increased percentage of cells in S phase, prolonged generation time, and induction of apoptosis at higher adenosine concentrations have been found to be responsible for the growth suppression. Dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, reversed partially but significantly the adenosine-induced growth suppression. It follows from these results that the action of adenosine on the MOLT-4 cells comprises its cellular uptake and intracellular operation. These findings present new data on anticancer efficacy of adenosine.

  17. Adenosine and protection from acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Steven C.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a major clinical problem without effective therapy. Development of AKI among hospitalized patients drastically increases mortality, and morbidity. With increases in complex surgical procedures together with a growing elderly population, the incidence of AKI is rising. Renal adenosine receptor (AR) manipulation may have great therapeutic potential in mitigating AKI. In this review, we discuss renal AR biology and potential clinical therapies for AKI. Recent Findings The 4 AR subtypes (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR and A3AR) have diverse effects on the kidney. The pathophysiology of AKI may dictate the specific AR subtype activation needed to produce renal protection. The A1AR activation in renal tubules and endothelial cells produces beneficial effects against ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury by modulating metabolic demand, decreasing necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. The A2AAR protects against AKI by modulating leukocyte-mediated renal and systemic inflammation whereas the A2BAR activation protects by direct activation of renal parenchymal ARs. In contrast, the A1AR antagonism may play a protective role in nephrotoxic AKI and radiocontrast induced nephropathy by reversing vascular constriction and inducing naturesis and diuresis. Furthermore, as the A3AR-activation exacerbates apoptosis and tissue damage due to renal IR, selective A3AR antagonism may hold promise to attenuate renal IR injury. Finally, renal A1AR activation also protects against renal endothelial dysfunction caused by hepatic IR injury. Summary Despite the current lack of therapies for the treatment and prevention of AKI, recent research suggests that modulation of renal ARs holds promise in treating AKI and extrarenal injury. PMID:22080856

  18. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine in urine.

  19. Attenuation of exercise vasodilatation by adenosine deaminase in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Goonewardene, I P; Karim, F

    1991-01-01

    1. In dogs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone and artificially ventilated, the gracilis muscles were vascularly isolated and perfused at a constant flow of 28.4 +/- 4.6 ml min-1 (100 g muscle tissue)-1 (99.8 +/- 4.5% of maximum free flow, means +/- standard error of the mean (S.E.M.), n = 9). 2. Three to five minutes of electrical stimulation of the cut peripheral end of the obturator nerve (4 Hz, 6 V, 0.2 ms) resulted in muscle contraction (0.61 +/- 0.14 kg (100 g)-1 during solvent infusion and 0.56 +/- 0.10 kg (100 g)-1 during intra-arterial adenosine deaminase infusion (50 U min-1) and an immediate decrease in arterial perfusion pressure from 184.5 +/- 8.1 mmHg to 148.2 +/- 5.7 mmHg (18.7 +/- 3.4% decrease) during solvent infusion, and from 193.5 +/- 7.16 to 142.0 +/- 10.2 mmHg (25.4 +/- 6.1% decrease) during adenosine deaminase infusion 10 s after the commencement of muscle stimulation. After about 5 min of muscle contractions, the arterial perfusion pressure decreased to 120.8 +/- 7.8 mmHg (32.9 +/- 5.8% decrease) during solvent infusion, and to 152.8 +/- 11.2 mmHg (20.9 +/- 5.3% decrease) during adenosine deaminase infusion (i.e. 37.9 +/- 6.2% attenuation of the fall in arterial perfusion pressure). The time taken for 90% recovery of the arterial perfusion pressure was 72.1 +/- 10.9 s during solvent infusion, and 51.5 +/- 9.3 s during adenosine deaminase infusion (P less than 0.05). 3. Adenosine (2 x 10(-3) mol l-1) infusion in the resting muscle during solvent infusion (final concentration in arterial blood 1.3 x 10(-4) +/- 6.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1) resulted in a 34.8 +/- 7.2% fall in arterial perfusion pressure but a fall of only 7.2 +/- 1.8% during adenosine deaminase infusion (50 U min-1; P less than 0.05; n = 5) indicating that adenosine deaminase infused at 50 U min-1 was more than adequate to metabolize endogenous adenosine produced during muscle contractions. 4. These data suggest that adenosine contributes about 40% to the sustained

  20. Differential adenosine sensitivity of diaphragm and skeletal muscle arterioles.

    PubMed

    Aaker, Aaron; Laughlin, M H

    2002-09-01

    The hyperemic response in exercising skeletal muscle is dependent on muscle fiber-type composition and fiber recruitment patterns, but the vascular control mechanisms producing exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that arterioles from white, low-oxidative skeletal muscle are less responsive to adenosine-induced dilation than are arterioles from diaphragm (Dia) and red, high-oxidative skeletal muscle. Second-order arterioles (2As) were isolated from the white portion of gastrocnemius muscle (WG; low-oxidative, fast-twitch muscle tissue) and two types of high-oxidative skeletal muscle [Dia and red portion of gastrocnemius muscle (RG)] of rats. Results reveal that 2As from all three types of muscle dilated in response to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (WG: 48 +/- 3%, Dia: 51 +/- 3%, RG: 74 +/- 3%). In contrast, adenosine dilated only 2As from WG (48 +/- 4%) and Dia (46 +/- 5%) but not those from RG (5 +/- 5%). Thus adenosine-induced dilator responses differed among 2As of these different types of muscle tissue. However, the results do not support our hypothesis because 2As from Dia and WG dilated in response to adenosine, whereas 2As from RG did not. We conclude that the adenosine responsiveness of 2As from rat skeletal muscle cannot be predicted only by the fiber-type composition or oxidative capacity of the skeletal muscle tissue wherein the arteriole lies.

  1. Adenosine hypothesis of schizophrenia –opportunities for pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev; Singer, Philipp; Shen, Hai-Ying; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia based on the dopamine hypothesis remains unsatisfactory for the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease. Enhancing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) function is expected to alleviate such persistent symptoms, but successful development of novel clinically effective compounds remains challenging. Adenosine is a homeostatic bioenergetic network modulator that is able to affect complex networks synergistically at different levels (receptor dependent pathways, biochemistry, bioenergetics, and epigenetics). By affecting brain dopamine and glutamate activities it represents a promising candidate for restoring the functional imbalance in these neurotransmitter systems believed to underlie the genesis of schizophrenia symptoms, as well as restoring homeostasis of bioenergetics. Suggestion of an adenosine hypothesis of schizophrenia further posits that adenosinergic dysfunction might contribute to the emergence of multiple neurotransmitter dysfunctionscharacteristic of schizophrenia via diverse mechanisms. Given the importance of adenosine in early brain development and regulation of brain immune response, it also bears direct relevance to the aetiology of schizophrenia. Here, we provide an overview of the rationale and evidence in support of the therapeutic potential of multiple adenosinergic targets, including the high-affinity adenosine receptors (A1R and A2AR), and the regulatory enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). Key preliminary clinical data and preclinical findings are reviewed. PMID:21315743

  2. Regioselective 1-N-Alkylation and Rearrangement of Adenosine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for the preparation of some N(6)-substituted adenosines based on selective 1-N-alkylation with subsequent Dimroth rearrangement were developed. The proposed methods seem to be effective for the preparation of natural N(6)-isopentenyl- and N(6)-benzyladenosines, which are known to possess pronounced biological activities. Direct 1-N-alkylation of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of BaCO3 and KI gave 1-N-substituted derivatives with quantitative yields, whereas 1-N-alkylation of adenosine was accompanied by significant O-alkylation. Moreover, the reaction of trimethylsilyl derivatives of N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and N(6)-acetyl-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides leads to the formation of the stable 1-N-substituted adenosines. Dimroth rearrangement of 1-N-substituted adenosines in aqueous ammonia yields pure N(6)-substituted adenosines.

  3. Unpredictable Chronic Stress Alters Adenosine Metabolism in Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, F F; Altenhofen, S; Kist, L W; Leite, C E; Bogo, M R; Cognato, G P; Bonan, C D

    2016-05-01

    Stress is considered a risk factor for several human disorders. Despite the broad knowledge of stress responses in mammals, data on the relationship between unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) and its effects on purinergic signaling are limited. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering that some stress models could affect signaling systems, the objective of this study was to investigate whether UCS alters ectonucleotidase and ADA pathway in zebrafish brain. Additionally, we analyzed ATP metabolism as well as ada1, ada2.1, ada2.2, adaL, and adaasi gene expression in zebrafish brain. Our results have demonstrated that UCS did not alter ectonucleotidase and soluble ADA activities. However, ecto-ADA activity was significantly decreased (26.8%) in brain membranes of animals exposed to UCS when compared to the control group. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis did not show significant changes on ADA gene expression after the UCS exposure. The brain ATP metabolism showed a marked increase in adenosine levels (ADO) in animals exposed to UCS. These data suggest an increase on extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. Since this nucleoside has neuromodulatory and anxiolytic effects, changes in adenosine levels could play a role in counteracting the stress, which could be related to a compensatory mechanism in order to restore the homeostasis.

  4. Cardiac actomyosin ATPase activity after chronic doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Bergson, A; Inchiosa, M A

    1985-04-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), a potent antineoplastic drug, produces progressive cardiotoxicity which may lead to ultimate cardiac failure. The effects of chronic doxorubicin treatment on cardiac actomyosin ATPase were the principal focus of the present studies. This approach was based on the established correlation between cardiac contractility and contractile protein ATPase activity. Rabbits were injected intravenously with doxorubicin (4 mg/kg) at weekly intervals for 1-7 weeks. Body weight increase was attenuated in the treated animals; heart weight/body weight ratio was unchanged. Actomyosin and water contents of ventricular muscle were not different in doxorubicin-treated as compared with vehicle control animals. Cellular damage was detected histologically after one dose of doxorubicin (equivalent to a single clinical dose), and was extensive after 4-5 weeks of treatment. Animals which received 1-2 injections of doxorubicin demonstrated a 29% average increase in actomyosin ATPase activity as compared to vehicle controls; this difference was highly significant (p less than 0.001). Further treatment with doxorubicin tended to progressively decrease ATPase activity. It is suggested that the increased actomyosin ATPase activity seen with low total doses of doxorubicin may represent a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of contractility; this interpretation is supported by the clinical observation that the morphologic evidence of progressive doxorubicin toxicity is not associated with a parallel decrease in contractility, until severe cumulative toxicity has been induced.

  5. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  6. Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase of Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria I.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of calmodulin on the activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase was investigated on plasma membranes purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. Calmodulin stimulated the hydrolytic activity and the transport activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase to comparable extents in a manner dependent on the free Ca2+ concentration. Stimulation was marked at low, nonsaturating Ca2+ concentrations and decreased increasing Ca2+, so that the effect of calmodulin resulted in an increase of the apparent affinity of the enzyme for free Ca2+. The pattern of calmodulin stimulation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase activity was substantially the same at pH 6.9 and 7.5, in the presence of ATP or ITP, and when calmodulin from radish seeds was used rather than that from bovine brain. At pH 6.9 in the presence of 5 micromolar free Ca2+, stimulation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase was saturated by 30 to 50 micrograms per milliliter bovine brain calmodulin. The calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium inhibited both basal and calmodulin-stimulated plasma membrane Ca-ATPase activity to comparable extents. PMID:16668747

  7. Functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji

    2017-01-06

    Dent's disease is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and progressive renal failure. Disease aetiology is associated with mutations in the CLCN5 gene coding for the electrogenic 2Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter chloride channel 5 (CLC-5), which is expressed in the apical endosomes of renal proximal tubules with the vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Initially identified as a member of the CLC family of Cl(-) channels, CLC-5 was presumed to provide Cl(-) shunt into the endosomal lumen to dissipate H(+) accumulation by V-ATPase, thereby facilitating efficient endosomal acidification. However, recent findings showing that CLC-5 is in fact not a Cl(-) channel but a 2Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter challenged this classical shunt model, leading to a renewed and intense debate on its physiological roles. Cl(-) accumulation via CLC-5 is predicted to play a critical role in endocytosis, as illustrated in mice carrying an artificial Cl(-) channel mutation E211A that developed defective endocytosis but normal endosomal acidification. Conversely, a recent functional analysis of a newly identified disease-causing Cl(-) channel mutation E211Q in a patient with typical Dent's disease confirmed the functional coupling between V-ATPase and CLC-5 in endosomal acidification, lending support to the classical shunt model. In this editorial, we will address the current recognition of the physiological role of CLC-5 with a specific focus on the functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5.

  8. Identification and partial characterization of an adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine hydrolase on intact bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, A; Lüthje, J; Pohl, U; Busse, R

    1989-01-01

    The biologically active dinucleotides adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine (Ap4A) and adenosine(5')-triphospho(5')adenosine (Ap3A), which are both releasable into the circulation from storage pools in thrombocytes, are catabolized by intact bovine aortic endothelial cells. 1. Compared with extracellular ATP and ADP, which are very rapidly hydrolysed, the degradation of Ap4A and Ap3A by endothelial ectohydrolases is relatively slow, resulting in a much longer half-life on the endothelial surface of the blood vessel. The products of hydrolysis are further degraded and finally taken up as adenosine. 2. Ap4A hydrolase has high affinity for its substrate (Km 10 microM). 3. ATP as well as AMP transiently accumulates in the extracellular fluid, suggesting an asymmetric split of Ap4A by the ectoenzyme. 4. Mg2+ or Mn2+ at millimolar concentration are needed for maximal activity; Zn2+ and Ca2+ are inhibitory. 5. The hydrolysis of Ap4A is retarded by other nucleotides, such as ATP and Ap3A, which are released from platelets simultaneously with Ap4A. PMID:2541689

  9. Targeting adenosine receptors to prevent inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine mediates its effects through activation of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors, named A1 , A2A , A2B and A3 . This nucleoside plays an important role in immunity and inflammation, and the A2A adenosine receptor subtype has a key role in the inhibition of inflammatory processes besides promoting wound healing. In this issue of Experimental Dermatology, Arasa et al. show that the topical application of a selective A2A agonist, CGS 21680, to mouse skin reduced epidermal hyperplasia as well as skin inflammation, similarly to topical corticoids, without side effects like skin atrophy. Rigorously following up this work is important for the development of novel treatment strategies for chronic hyperproliferative inflammatory dermatoses, such as targeting the A2A adenosine receptor family.

  10. Release of Adenosine and ATP During Ischemia and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Nicholas; Frenguelli, Bruno G

    2009-01-01

    Eighty years ago Drury & Szent-Györgyi described the actions of adenosine, AMP (adenylic acid) and ATP (pyrophosphoric or diphosphoric ester of adenylic acid) on the mammalian cardiovascular system, skeletal muscle, intestinal and urinary systems. Since then considerable insight has been gleaned on the means by which these compounds act, not least of which in the distinction between the two broad classes of their respective receptors, with their many subtypes, and the ensuing diversity in cellular consequences their activation invokes. These myriad actions are of course predicated on the release of the purines into the extracellular milieu, but, surprisingly, there is still considerable ambiguity as to how this occurs in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review we summarise the release of ATP and adenosine during seizures and cerebral ischemia and discuss mechanisms by which the purines adenosine and ATP may be released from cells in the CNS under these conditions. PMID:20190959

  11. Correlation between blood adenosine metabolism and sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Suárez, J; Vidrio, S; Yááñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

    1999-01-01

    Blood adenosine metabolism, including metabolites and metabolizing enzymes, was studied during the sleep period in human volunteers. Searching for significant correlations among biochemical parameters found: adenosine with state 1 of slow-wave sleep (SWS); activity of 5'-nucleotidase with state 2 of SWS; inosine and AMP with state 3-4 of SWS; and activity of 5'-nucleotidase and lactate with REM sleep. The correlations were detected in all of the subjects that presented normal hypnograms, but not in those who had fragmented sleep the night of the experiment. The data demonstrate that it is possible to obtain information of complex brain operations such as sleep by measuring biochemical parameters in blood. The results strengthen the notion of a role played by adenosine, its metabolites and metabolizing enzymes, during each of the stages that constitute the sleep process in humans.

  12. Demonstration of adenosine deaminase activity in human fibroblast lysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, E R; Pisoni, R L

    1993-01-01

    Human fibroblast lysosomes, purified on Percoll density gradients, contain an adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity that accounts for approximately 10% of the total ADA activity in GM0010A human fibroblasts. In assays of lysosomal ADA, the conversion of [3H]adenosine into [3H]inosine was proportional to incubation time and the amount of lysosomal material added to reaction mixtures. Maximal activity was observed between pH 7 and 8, and lysosomal ADA displayed a Km of 37 microM for adenosine at 25 degrees C and pH 5.5. Lysosomal ADA was completely inhibited by 2.5 mM Cu2+ or Hg2+ salts, but not by other bivalent cations (Ba2+, Cd2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Coformycin (2.5 mM), deoxycoformycin (0.02 mM), 2'-deoxyadenosine (2.5 mM), 6-methylaminopurine riboside (2.5 mM), 2'-3'-isopropylidene-adenosine (2.5 mM) and erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (0.2 mM) inhibited lysosomal ADA by > 97%. In contrast, 2.5 mM S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and cytosine were poor inhibitors. Nearly all lysosomal ADA activity is eluted as a high-molecular-mass protein (> 200 kDa) just after the void volume on a Sephacryl S-200 column, and is very heat-stable, retaining 70% of its activity after incubation at 65 degrees C for 80 min. We speculate that compartmentalization of ADA within lysosomes would allow deamination of adenosine to occur without competition by adenosine kinase, which could assist in maintaining cellular energy requirements under conditions of nutritional deprivation. PMID:8452534

  13. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  14. Intravenous Adenosine for Surgical Management of Penetrating Heart Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kokotsakis, John; Hountis, Panagiotis; Antonopoulos, Nikolaos; Skouteli, Elian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Lioulias, Achilleas

    2007-01-01

    Accurate suturing of penetrating cardiac injuries is difficult. Heart motion, ongoing blood loss, arrhythmias due to heart manipulation, and the near-death condition of the patient can all affect the outcome. Rapid intravenous injection of adenosine induces temporary asystole that enables placement of sutures in a motionless surgical field. Use of this technique improves surgical conditions, and it is faster than other methods. Herein, we describe our experience with the use of intravenous adenosine to successfully treat 3 patients who had penetrating heart wounds. PMID:17420798

  15. Computer-assisted analysis of adenosine triphosphate data.

    PubMed

    Erkenbrecher, C W; Crabtree, S J; Stevenson, L H

    1976-09-01

    A computer program has been written to assist in the analysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate data. The program is designed to calculate a dilution curve and to correct sample and adenosine 5'-triphosphate standard data for background and dilution effects. In addition, basic statistical parameters and estimates of biomass carbon are also calculated for each group of samples and printed in a convenient format. The versatility of the program to analyze data from both qauatic and terrestrial samples is noted as well as its potential use with various types of instrumentation and extraction techniques.

  16. Transport mechanism of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase pump.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jesper V; Nissen, Poul; Sørensen, Thomas L-M; le Maire, Marc

    2005-08-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1a) belongs to the group of P-type ATPases, which actively transport inorganic cations across membranes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Three-dimensional structures of several transport intermediates of SERCA1a, stabilized by structural analogues of ATP and phosphoryl groups, are now available at atomic resolution. This has enabled the transport cycle of the protein to be described, including the coupling of Ca(2+) occlusion and phosphorylation by ATP, and of proton counter-transport and dephosphorylation. From these structures, Ca(2+)-ATPase gradually emerges as a molecular mechanical device in which some of the transmembrane segments perform Ca(2+) transport by piston-like movements and by the transmission of reciprocating movements that affect the chemical reactivity of the cytosolic globular domains.

  17. Roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wu, Miin-Feng; Cui, Sujuan; Wagner, Doris

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling ATPases and their associated complexes can alter the accessibility of the genome in the context of chromatin by using energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to change the positioning, occupancy and composition of nucleosomes. In animals and plants, these remodelers have been implicated in diverse processes ranging from stem cell maintenance and differentiation to developmental phase transitions and stress responses. Detailed investigation of their roles in individual processes has suggested a higher level of selectivity of chromatin remodeling ATPase activity than previously anticipated, and diverse mechanisms have been uncovered that can contribute to the selectivity. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

  18. Development of Coronary Vasospasm during Adenosine-Stress Myocardial Perfusion CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeong Gu; Choi, Seong Hoon; Kang, Byeong Seong; Bang, Min Seo; Kwon, Woon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a short-acting coronary vasodilator, and it is widely used during pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion imaging. It has a well-established safety profile, and most of its side effects are known to be mild and transient. Until now, coronary vasospasm has been rarely reported as a side effect of adenosine during or after adenosine stress test. This study reports a case of coronary vasospasm which was documented on stress myocardial perfusion CT imaging during adenosine stress test.

  19. Phosphorylation of adenosine in renal brush-border membrane vesicles by an exchange reaction catalysed by adenosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Sayós, J; Solsona, C; Mallol, J; Lluis, C; Franco, R

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of [3H]adenosine in brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles from either rat or pig kidney leads to an accumulation of intravesicular [3H]AMP. The lack of significant levels of ATP and the presence of AMP in BBM indicated that a phosphotransfer between [3H]adenosine and AMP occurs. The phosphotransfer activity is inhibited by iodotubercidin, which suggests that it is performed by adenosine kinase acting in an ATP-independent manner. The existence of a similar phosphotransferase activity was demonstrated in membrane-free extracts from pig kidney. From the compounds tested it was shown that a variety of mononucleotides could act as phosphate donors. The results suggest that phosphotransfer reactions may be physiologically relevant in kidney. PMID:8110185

  20. Synthesis of 1,N6-etheno-2-aza-adenosine (2-aza-ε-adenosine): a new cytotoxic fluorescent nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, K.C.; Yip, K.F.; Miller, E.E.; Lo, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    1,N6-Etheno-2-aza-adenosine was synthesized by treating 1,N6-etheno-adenosine with alkali, followed by nitrosation. The mechanism of formation of this novel nucleoside was elucidated using adenosine tritiated at C-8 and C-2, and was found to deformylate exclusively at C-2. This new 2-aza nucleoside fluoresces at 494 nm when excited at 358 nm. Toxicity study showed the compound is active in a rat mammary tumor tissue culture line, but inactive in HeLa and Glioma 26 tissue culture lines. It was also found to selectively inhibit the thymidine incorporation into DNA in a rat mammary tumor, but exhibits no ill effect on normal proliferative tissue. The reactive intermediate 3-β-D-ribofuranosyl-4-amino-5-(imidazol-2-yl) imidazole was identified and was found to be an active agent in tissue culture. PMID:10793738

  1. Solubilization of active (H+ + K+)-ATPase from gastric membrane.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Grelac, F; Lewin, M J

    1983-08-10

    (H+ + K+)-ATPase-enriched membranes were prepared from hog gastric mucosa by sucrose gradient centrifugation. These membranes contained Mg2+-ATPase and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities (68 +/- 9 mumol Pi and 2.9 +/- 0.6 mumol p-nitrophenol/mg protein per h) which were insensitive to ouabain and markedly stimulated by 20 mM KCl (respectively, 2.2- and 14.8-fold). Furthermore, the membranes autophosphorylated in the absence of K+ (up to 0.69 +/- 0.09 nmol Pi incorporated/mg protein) and dephosphorylated by 85% in the presence of this ion. Membrane proteins were extracted by 1-2% (w/v) n-octylglucoside into a soluble form, i.e., which did not sediment in a 100 000 X g X 1 h centrifugation. This soluble form precipitated upon further dilution in detergent-free buffer. Extracted ATPase represented 32% (soluble form) and 68% (precipitated) of native enzyme and it displayed the same characteristic properties in terms of K+-stimulated ATPase and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities and K+-sensitive phosphorylation: Mg2+-ATPase (mumol Pi/mg protein per h) 32 +/- 9 (basal) and 86 +/- 20 (K+-stimulated); Mg2+-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (mumol p-nitrophenol/mg protein per h) 2.6 +/- 0.5 (basal) and 22.2 +/- 3.2 (K+-stimulated); Mg2+-phosphorylation (nmol Pi/mg protein) 0.214 +/- 0.041 (basal) and 0.057 +/- 0.004 (in the presence of K+). In glycerol gradient centrifugation, extracted enzyme equilibrated as a single peak corresponding to an apparent 390 000 molecular weight. These findings provide the first evidence for the solubilization of (H+ + K+)-ATPase in a still active structure.

  2. [The distribution of ATPase in developmental anther of rice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ying; Lü, Dan; Wei, Dong-Mei; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Tian, Hui-Qiao

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of ATPase was studied using lead precipitation technique during anther development in rice. The ATPase reactive precipitates (ppts) were located mostly in the nucleus of microspore mother cells (MMC) and only a few in the cytoplasm (Plate I-1). Anther wall had differentiated into four layers of cells and a few precipitates were located in the cells except the nucleus of tapetal cells where there were many ATPase reactive precipitates (Plate I-2). After meiosis of MMC, tapetal cells formed many endoplasmic reticula in its cytoplasm but still contained a few ppts. In the cells of epidermis, endothelium and middle layer, the ppts increased evidently in plasma membrane and near cytoplasm than before (Plate I-5). There were a large number of ppts located in the pollen wall during pollen development (Plate I-6), suggesting that ATPase is necessary for the construction of pollen wall. The exine of pollen wall of rice was constructed during microspore development and consisted of sporopollenin which came from tapetal cells. The ppts in exine also came from tapetal cell (Plate II-7). The intine of pollen wall was constructed during the stage of 2-cellular pollen and consisted of cellulose material coming from vegetative cell of pollen. The ATPase and ppts in intine came from vegetative cell of pollen (Plate III-7). Vegetative cell contained more ppts than generative cell during the development of 2-cellular pollen (Plate II-4, 5). The amount of ppts between two sperm cells in a pollen grain was also different (Plate IV-3,4). The physiological functions of ATPase located in different cells and different parts in the cells during anther development of rice were analyzed.

  3. Lack of conventional ATPase properties in CFTR chloride channel gating.

    PubMed

    Schultz, B D; Bridges, R J; Frizzell, R A

    1996-05-01

    CFTR shares structural homology with the ABC transporter superfamily of proteins which hydrolyze ATP to effect the transport of compounds across cell membranes. Some superfamily members are characterized as P-type ATPases because ATP-dependent transport is sensitive to the presence of vanadate. It has been widely postulated that CFTR hydrolyzes ATP to gate its chloride channel. However, direct evidence of CFTR hydrolytic activity in channel gating is lacking and existing circumstantial evidence is contradictory. Therefore, we evaluated CFTR chloride channel activity under conditions known to inhibit the activity of ATPases; i.e., in the absence of divalent cations and in the presence of a variety of ATPase inhibitors. Removal of the cytosolic cofactor, Mg2+, reduced both the opening and closing rates of CFTR suggesting that Mg2+ plays a modulatory role in channel gating. However, channels continued to both open and close showing that Mg2+ is not an absolute requirement for channel activity. The nonselective P-type ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, did not alter the gating of CFTR when used at concentrations which completely inhibit the activity of other ABC transporters (1 mM). Higher concentrations of vanadate (10 mM) blocked the closing of CFTR, but did not affect the opening of the channel. As expected, more selective P-type (Sch28080, ouabain), V-type (bafilomycin A1, SCN-) and F-type (oligomycin) ATPase inhibitors did not affect either the opening or closing of CFTR. Thus, CFTR does not share a pharmacological inhibition profile with other ATPases and channel gating occurs in the apparent absence of hydrolysis, although with altered kinetics. Vanadate inhibition of channel closure might suggest that a hydrolytic step is involved although the requirement for a high concentration raises the possibility of previously uncharacterized effects of this compound. Most conservatively, the requirement for high concentrations of vanadate demonstrates that the binding site for

  4. In vivo assessment of coronary flow and cardiac function after bolus adenosine injection in adenosine receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2016-06-01

    Bolus injections of adenosine and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) selective agonist (regadenoson) are used clinically as a substitute for a stress test in people who cannot exercise. Using isolated tissue preparations, our lab has shown that coronary flow and cardiac effects of adenosine are mostly regulated by the AR subtypes A1, A2A, and A2B In this study, we used ultrasound imaging to measure the in vivo effects of adenosine on coronary blood flow (left coronary artery) and cardiac function in anesthetized wild-type, A1 knockout (KO), A2AKO, A2BKO, A3KO, A1, and A3 double KO (A1/3 DKO) and A2A and A2B double KO (A2A/2B DKO) mice in real time. Echocardiographic and Doppler studies were performed using a Visualsonic Vevo 2100 ultrasound system. Coronary blood flow (CBF) baseline data were obtained when animals were anesthetized with 1% isoflourane. Diameter (D) and velocity time integral (VTI) were measured on the left coronary arteries (CBF = ((π/4) × D(2) × VTI × HR)/1000). CBF changes were the highest within 2 min of injection (about 10 mg/kg). Heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume were measured by tracing the left ventricle long axis. Our data support a role for the A2 AR in CBF and further support our conclusions of previous studies from isolated tissues. Adenosine-mediated decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume may be A2B and/or A3 AR-mediated; however, the A1 and A2 ARs also play roles in overall cardiac function. These data further provide a powerful translational tool in studying the cardiovascular effects of adenosine in disease states.

  5. Anticancer effect of adenosine on gastric cancer via diverse signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Ayako; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-10-21

    Extracellular adenosine induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In the former pathway, adenosine uptake into cells triggers apoptosis, and in the latter pathway, adenosine receptors mediate apoptosis. Extracellular adenosine also induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Extracellular adenosine is transported into cells through an adenosine transporter and converted to AMP by adenosine kinase. In turn, AMP activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is the factor responsible for caspase-independent apoptosis of GT3-TKB gastric cancer cells. Extracellular adenosine, on the other hand, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of MKN28 and MKN45 gastric cancer cells by two mechanisms. Firstly, AMP, converted from intracellularly transported adenosine, initiates apoptosis, regardless of AMPK. Secondly, the A3 adenosine receptor, linked to Gi/Gq proteins, mediates apoptosis by activating the Gq protein effector, phospholipase Cγ, to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which activate protein kinase C. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying adenosine-induced apoptosis vary, depending upon gastric cancer cell types. Understand the contribution of each downstream target molecule of adenosine to apoptosis induction may aid the establishment of tailor-made chemotherapy for gastric cancer.

  6. Expression, regulation and clinical relevance of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Aragó, M; Formentini, L; Martínez-Reyes, I; García-Bermudez, J; Santacatterina, F; Sánchez-Cenizo, L; Willers, I M; Aldea, M; Nájera, L; Juarránz, Á; López, E C; Clofent, J; Navarro, C; Espinosa, E; Cuezva, J M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings in colon cancer cells indicate that inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase by the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) promotes aerobic glycolysis and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signal that enhances proliferation and cell survival. Herein, we have studied the expression, biological relevance, mechanism of regulation and potential clinical impact of IF1 in some prevalent human carcinomas. We show that IF1 is highly overexpressed in most (>90%) of the colon (n=64), lung (n=30), breast (n=129) and ovarian (n=10) carcinomas studied as assessed by different approaches in independent cohorts of cancer patients. The expression of IF1 in the corresponding normal tissues is negligible. By contrast, the endometrium, stomach and kidney show high expression of IF1 in the normal tissue revealing subtle differences by carcinogenesis. The overexpression of IF1 also promotes the activation of aerobic glycolysis and a concurrent ROS signal in mitochondria of the lung, breast and ovarian cancer cells mimicking the activity of oligomycin. IF1-mediated ROS signaling activates cell-type specific adaptive responses aimed at preventing death in these cell lines. Remarkably, regulation of IF1 expression in the colon, lung, breast and ovarian carcinomas is exerted at post-transcriptional levels. We demonstrate that IF1 is a short-lived protein (t1/2 ∼100 min) strongly implicating translation and/or protein stabilization as main drivers of metabolic reprogramming and cell survival in these human cancers. Analysis of tumor expression of IF1 in cohorts of breast and colon cancer patients revealed its relevance as a predictive marker for clinical outcome, emphasizing the high potential of IF1 as therapeutic target. PMID:23608753

  7. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy.

  8. Structure determination using poorly diffracting membrane-protein crystals: the H+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase case history.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bjørn P; Morth, J Preben; Nissen, Poul

    2010-03-01

    An approach is presented for the structure determination of membrane proteins on the basis of poorly diffracting crystals which exploits molecular replacement for heavy-atom site identification at 6-9 A maximum resolution and improvement of the heavy-atom-derived phases by multi-crystal averaging using quasi-isomorphous data sets. The multi-crystal averaging procedure allows real-space density averaging followed by phase combination between non-isomorphous native data sets to exploit crystal-to-crystal nonisomorphism despite the crystals belonging to the same space group. This approach has been used in the structure determination of H(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase using Ca(2+)-ATPase models and its successful application to the Mhp1 symporter using LeuT as a search model is demonstrated.

  9. Purification and properties of adenylyl sulphate:ammonia adenylyltransferase from Chlorella catalysing the formation of adenosine 5' -phosphoramidate from adenosine 5' -phosphosulphate and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, H; Schiff, J A; Garber, L J

    1981-06-01

    Extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris, spinach, barley, Dictyostelium discoideum and Escherichia coli form an unknown compound enzymically from adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate in the presence of ammonia. This unknown compound shares the following properties with adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate: molar proportions of constituent parts (1 adenine:1 ribose:1 phosphate:1 ammonia released at low pH), co-electrophoresis in all buffers tested including borate, formation of AMP at low pH through release of ammonia, mass and i.r. spectra and conversion into 5'-AMP by phosphodiesterase. This unknown compound therefore appears to be identical with adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate. The enzyme that catalyses the formation of adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate from ammonia and adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate was purified 1800-fold (to homogeneity) from Chlorella by using (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex and Reactive Blue 2-agarose chromatography. The purified enzyme shows one band of protein, coincident with activity, at a position corresponding to 60000-65000 molecular weight, on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and yields three subunits on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of 26000, 21000 and 17000 molecular weight, consistent with a molecular weight of 64000 for the native enzyme. Isoelectrofocusing yields one band of pI4.2. The pH optimum of the enzyme-catalysed reaction is 8.8. ATP, ADP or adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate will not replace adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate, and the apparent K(m) for the last-mentioned compound is 0.82mm. The apparent K(m) for ammonia (assuming NH(3) to be the active species) is about 10mm. A large variety of primary, secondary and tertiary amines or amides will not replace ammonia. One mol.prop. of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reacts with 1 mol.prop. of ammonia to yield 1 mol.prop. each of adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate and sulphate; no AMP is found. The highly purified enzyme

  10. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  11. New insights on the Golgi complex of Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    De Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Caruso, Marjolly Brigido; Rodrigues, Silas Pessini; Geraldo, Reinaldo Barros; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Gonzaga, Luiz; DE Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Morgado-Díaz, Jose Andres; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Benchimol, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protist that causes bovine trichomoniasis and presents a well-developed Golgi. There are very few studies concerning the Golgi in trichomonads. In this work, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Golgi of T. foetus and used as a tool on morphologic and biochemical studies of this organelle. Among the antibodies produced, one was named mAb anti-Golgi 20.3, which recognized specifically the Golgi complex by fluorescence and electron microscopy. By immunoblotting this antibody recognized two proteins with 60 and 66 kDa that were identified as putative beta-tubulin and adenosine triphosphatase, respectively. The mAb 20.3 also recognized the Golgi complex of the Trichomonas vaginalis, a human parasite. In addition, the nucleotide coding sequences of these proteins were identified and included in the T. foetus database, and the 3D structure of the proteins was predicted. In conclusion, this study indicated: (1) adenosine triphosphatase is present in the Golgi, (2) ATPase is conserved between T. foetus and T. vaginalis, (3) there is new information concerning the nucleic acid sequences and protein structures of adenosine triphosphatase and beta-tubulin from T. foetus and (4) the mAb anti-Golgi 20.3 is a good Golgi marker and can be used in future studies.

  12. Laser photobleaching leads to a fluorescence grade adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Parola, A H; Caiolfa, V R; Bar, I; Rosenwaks, S

    1989-09-01

    The enzyme adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase EC 3.5.4.4) from calf intestinal mucosa is commercially available at high purity grade yet, at the sensitivity at which fluorescence studies may be undertaken, a nonpeptidic fluorescence is detectable at lambda exmax = 350 nm and lambda emmax = 420 nm. A sevenfold decrease of this nonpeptidic fluorescence was obtained upon irradiation by the third harmonic (355 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser for 16 min, at 5 mJ/pulse, with a pulse width of 6 ns at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The decline of fluorescence was accompanied by a negligible loss of enzymatic activity. Moreover, the integrity of the protein was ascertained by (i) its fluorescence (lambda exmax = 305 nm, lambda emmax = 335 nm) and lifetime distribution and (ii) its kinetics in the presence of the substrate adenosine and two inhibitors, all of which remained essentially unaltered. Laser photobleaching is a simple way to achieve a fluorescence grade adenosine deaminase.

  13. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation. This measurement is made on platelet-rich plasma using a photometer and a luminescent firefly extract. Simultaneous measurements of platelet aggregation and ATP release are used to evaluate platelet...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation. This measurement is made on platelet-rich plasma using a photometer and a luminescent firefly extract. Simultaneous measurements of platelet aggregation and ATP release are used to evaluate platelet...

  15. Quantitative changes in adenosine deaminase isoenzymes in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    ten Kate, J; Wijnen, J T; van der Goes, R G; Quadt, R; Griffioen, G; Bosman, F T; Khan, P M

    1984-10-01

    Several reports have suggested that a decrease or absence of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) is consistently associated with cancer. However, in other studies, decreased as well as increased ADCP levels were found. In the present study, we investigated ADCP levels in 37 colorectal adenocarcinomas and correlated the results with clinicopathological characteristics in individual carcinomas. The levels of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4) and soluble ADCP were determined in tissue samples by, respectively, a spectrophotometric assay and an ADCP specific radioimmunoassay. The values in the individual tumors were compared with their histological characteristics, such as degree of differentiation, nuclear grading, and the preoperative plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels in the patients. It was found that ADCP was decreased in about a third of the tumors but unaltered or even increased in others. However, there was an overall 40% increase of the adenosine deaminase activity in the tumors compared to normal tissue. There seems to be no simple correlation between any of the clinicopathological parameters and the ADCP or adenosine deaminase levels. Methods detecting ADCP at single cell level might be helpful in exploring its potential use as a cancer-associated marker.

  16. Correlation of transient adenosine release and oxygen changes in the caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Venton, B Jill

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside that modulates important physiological processes, such as vasodilation, in the central nervous system. A rapid, 2-4 s, mode of adenosine signaling has been recently discovered, but the relationship between this type of adenosine and blood flow change has not been characterized. In this study, adenosine and oxygen changes were simultaneously measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Oxygen changes occur when there is an increase in local cerebral blood flow and thus are a measure of vasodilation. About 34% of adenosine transients in the rat caudate-putamen are correlated with a subsequent transient change in oxygen. The amount of oxygen was correlated with the concentration of adenosine release and larger adenosine transients (over 0.4 μM) always had subsequent oxygen changes. The average duration of adenosine and oxygen transients was 3.2 and 3.5 s, respectively. On average, the adenosine release starts and peaks 0.2 s prior to the oxygen. The A2a antagonist, SCH442416, decreased the number of both adenosine and oxygen transient events by about 32%. However, the A1 antagonist, DPCPX, did not significantly affect simultaneous adenosine and oxygen release. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l-NAME also did not affect the concentration or number of adenosine and oxygen release events. These results demonstrate that both adenosine and oxygen release are modulated via A2a receptors. The correlation of transient concentrations, time delay between adenosine and oxygen peaks, and effect of A2a receptors suggests that adenosine modulates blood flow on a rapid, sub-second time scale. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 10.

  17. Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; Ferraro, Luca; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Beggiato, Sarah; Pèzzola, Antonella; Bader, Michael; Fuxe, Kjell; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A Rs) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1 Rs) are highly expressed in the striatum, where they functionally interact and form A2A /CB1 heteroreceptor complexes. We investigated the effects of CB1 R stimulation in a transgenic rat strain over-expressing A2 A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats) and in age-matched wild-type (WT) animals. The effects of the CB1 R agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) were significantly lower in NSEA2A rats than in WT animals, as demonstrated by i) electrophysiological recordings of synaptic transmission in corticostriatal slices; ii) the measurement of glutamate outflow from striatal synaptosomes and iii) in vivo experiments on locomotor activity. Moreover, while the effects of WIN were modulated by both A2 A R agonist (CGS 21680) and antagonists (ZM 241385, KW-6002 and SCH-442416) in WT animals, the A2 A R antagonists failed to influence WIN-mediated effects in NSEA2A rats. The present results demonstrate that in rats with genetic neuronal over-expression of A2 A Rs, the effects mediated by CB1 R activation in the striatum are significantly reduced, suggesting a change in the stoichiometry of A2A and CB1 receptors and providing a strategy to dissect the involvement of A2 A R forming or not forming heteromers in the modulation of striatal functions. These findings add additional evidence for the existence of an interaction between striatal A2 A Rs and CB1 Rs, playing a fundamental role in the regulation of striatal functions. We studied A2A -CB1 receptor interaction in transgenic rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A ). In these rats, we demonstrated a reduced effect of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 in the modulation of corticostriatal synaptic transmission and locomotor activity, while CB1 receptor expression level did not change with respect to WT rats. A reduction in the expression of A2A -CB1

  18. Digoxin derivatives with enhanced selectivity for the α2 isoform of Na,K-ATPase: effects on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Katz, Adriana; Tal, Daniel M; Heller, Dan; Haviv, Haim; Rabah, Bilal; Barkana, Yaniv; Marcovich, Arie L; Karlish, Steven J D

    2014-07-25

    In the ciliary epithelium of the eye, the pigmented cells express the α1β1 isoform of Na,K-ATPase, whereas the non-pigmented cells express mainly the α2β3 isoform of Na,K-ATPase. In principle, a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor with selectivity for α2 could effectively reduce intraocular pressure with only minimal local and systemic toxicity. Such an inhibitor could be applied topically provided it was sufficiently permeable via the cornea. Previous experiments with recombinant human α1β1, α2β1, and α3β1 isoforms showed that the classical cardiac glycoside, digoxin, is partially α2-selective and also that the trisdigitoxose moiety is responsible for isoform selectivity. This led to a prediction that modification of the third digitoxose might increase α2 selectivity. A series of perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin have been synthesized by periodate oxidation and reductive amination using a variety of R-NH2 substituents. Several derivatives show enhanced selectivity for α2 over α1, close to 8-fold in the best case. Effects of topically applied cardiac glycosides on intraocular pressure in rabbits have been assessed by their ability to either prevent or reverse acute intraocular pressure increases induced by 4-aminopyridine or a selective agonist of the A3 adenosine receptor. Two relatively α2-selective digoxin derivatives efficiently normalize the ocular hypertension, by comparison with digoxin, digoxigenin, or ouabain. This observation is consistent with a major role of α2 in aqueous humor production and suggests that, potentially, α2-selective digoxin derivatives could be of interest as novel drugs for control of intraocular pressure.

  19. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  20. Ion permeation through the Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Nicolás; Gadsby, David C

    2006-09-28

    P-type ATPase pumps generate concentration gradients of cations across membranes in nearly all cells. They provide a polar transmembrane pathway, to which access is strictly controlled by coupled gates that are constrained to open alternately, thereby enabling thermodynamically uphill ion transport (for example, see ref. 1). Here we examine the ion pathway through the Na+,K+-ATPase, a representative P-type pump, after uncoupling its extra- and intracellular gates with the marine toxin palytoxin. We use small hydrophilic thiol-specific reagents as extracellular probes and we monitor their reactions, and the consequences, with cysteine residues introduced along the anticipated cation pathway through the pump. The distinct effects of differently charged reagents indicate that a wide outer vestibule penetrates deep into the Na+,K+-ATPase, where the pathway narrows and leads to a charge-selectivity filter. Acidic residues in this region, which are conserved to coordinate pumped ions, allow the approach of cations but exclude anions. Reversing the charge at just one of those positions converts the pathway from cation selective to anion selective. Close structural homology among the catalytic subunits of Ca2+-, Na+,K+- and H+,K+-ATPases argues that their extracytosolic cation exchange pathways all share these physical characteristics.

  1. A sulfur-based transport pathway in Cu+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Sitsel, Oleg; Pedersen, Lotte Thue; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Gourdon, Pontus; Rees, Douglas C; Nissen, Poul; Meloni, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Cells regulate copper levels tightly to balance the biogenesis and integrity of copper centers in vital enzymes against toxic levels of copper. PIB-type Cu+-ATPases play a central role in copper homeostasis by catalyzing the selective translocation of Cu+ across cellular membranes. Crystal structures of a copper-free Cu+-ATPase are available, but the mechanism of Cu+ recognition, binding, and translocation remains elusive. Through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ATPase activity assays, and charge transfer measurements on solid-supported membranes using wild-type and mutant forms of the Legionella pneumophila Cu+-ATPase (LpCopA), we identify a sulfur-lined metal transport pathway. Structural analysis indicates that Cu+ is bound at a high-affinity transmembrane-binding site in a trigonal-planar coordination with the Cys residues of the conserved CPC motif of transmembrane segment 4 (C382 and C384) and the conserved Met residue of transmembrane segment 6 (M717 of the MXXXS motif). These residues are also essential for transport. Additionally, the studies indicate essential roles of other conserved intramembranous polar residues in facilitating copper binding to the high-affinity site and subsequent release through the exit pathway. PMID:25956886

  2. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L.; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca2+ pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca2+ pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca2+ pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a 32P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca2+, thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca2+-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. PMID:20573858

  3. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca(2+) pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca(2+) pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus.

  4. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested.

  5. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  6. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Johannes D; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand; Olesen, Claus; Andersen, Jens Peter; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

    2016-04-05

    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca(2+). Vanadate is bound at the catalytic site as a planar VO3(-) in complex with water and Mg(2+) in a dephosphorylation transition-state-like conformation. Validating bound VO3(-) by anomalous difference Fourier maps using long-wavelength data we also identify a hitherto undescribed Cl(-) site near the dephosphorylation site. Crystallization was facilitated by trinitrophenyl (TNP)-derivatized nucleotides that bind with the TNP moiety occupying the binding pocket that normally accommodates the adenine of ATP, rationalizing their remarkably high affinity for E2P-like conformations of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the configurations of bound nucleotide analogs in the E2·VO3(-) structure with that in E2·BeF3(-) (E2P ground state analog) reveals multiple binding modes to the Ca(2+)-ATPase.

  7. The ATPase Motor Turns for Type IV Pilus Assembly.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Tainer, John A

    2016-11-01

    In this issue of Structure, Mancl et al. (2016) elucidate the crystal structure of the PilB ATPase domain in complex with ATPγS and unveil how ATP binding and hydrolysis coordinates conformational change. Their results reveal a distinct symmetric rotary mechanism for ATP hydrolysis to power bacterial pilus assembly.

  8. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Dias, Ana Sofia; Pelletier, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders. PMID:25210228

  9. Cation pumps in skeletal muscle: potential role in muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Green, H J

    1998-03-01

    Two membrane bound pumps in skeletal muscle, the sarcolemma Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, provide for the maintenance of transmembrane ionic gradients necessary for excitation and activation of the myofibrillar apparatus. The rate at which the pumps are capable of establishing ionic homeostasis depends on the maximal activity of the enzyme and the potential of the metabolic pathways for supplying adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The activity of the Ca2+-ATPase appears to be expressed in a fibre type specific manner with both the amount of the enzyme and the isoform type related to the speed of contraction. In contrast, only minimal differences exist between slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibres in Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Evidence is accumulating that both active transport of Na+ and K+ across the sarcolemma and Ca2+-uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum may be impaired in vivo in a task specific manner resulting in loss of contractile function. In contrast to the Ca2+-ATPase, the Na+-K+ ATPase can be rapidly upregulated soon after the onset of a sustained pattern of activity. Similar programmes of activity result in a downregulation of Ca2+-ATPase but at a much later time point. The manner in which the metabolic pathways reorganize following chronic activity to meet the changes in ATP demand by the cation pumps and the degree to which these adaptations are compartmentalized is uncertain.

  10. Modulation of bladder function by luminal adenosine turnover and A1 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, H. Sandeep; Herrington, Heather; Roppolo, James R.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    The bladder uroepithelium transmits information to the underlying nervous and musculature systems, is under constant cyclical strain, expresses all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), and is a site of adenosine production. Although adenosine has a well-described protective effect in several organs, there is a lack of information about adenosine turnover in the uroepithelium or whether altering luminal adenosine concentrations impacts bladder function or overactivity. We observed that the concentration of extracellular adenosine at the mucosal surface of the uroepithelium was regulated by ecto-adenosine deaminase and by equilibrative nucleoside transporters, whereas adenosine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporters modulated serosal levels. We further observed that enriching endogenous adenosine by blocking its routes of metabolism or direct activation of mucosal A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective agonist, stimulated bladder activity by lowering the threshold pressure for voiding. Finally, CCPA did not quell bladder hyperactivity in animals with acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis but instead exacerbated their irritated bladder phenotype. In conclusion, we find that adenosine levels at both surfaces of the uroepithelium are modulated by turnover, that blocking these pathways or stimulating A1 receptors directly at the luminal surface promotes bladder contractions, and that adenosine further stimulates voiding in animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. PMID:22552934

  11. Fast-scan Cyclic Voltammetry for the Characterization of Rapid Adenosine Release

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Michael D.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a signaling molecule and downstream product of ATP that acts as a neuromodulator. Adenosine regulates physiological processes, such as neurotransmission and blood flow, on a time scale of minutes to hours. Recent developments in electrochemical techniques, including fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), have allowed direct detection of adenosine with sub-second temporal resolution. FSCV studies have revealed a novel mode of rapid signaling that lasts only a few seconds. This rapid release of adenosine can be evoked by electrical or mechanical stimulations or it can be observed spontaneously without stimulation. Adenosine signaling on this time scale is activity dependent; however, the mode of release is not fully understood. Rapid adenosine release modulates oxygen levels and evoked dopamine release, indicating that adenosine may have a rapid modulatory role. In this review, we outline how FSCV can be used to detect adenosine release, compare FSCV with other techniques used to measure adenosine, and present an overview of adenosine signaling that has been characterized using FSCV. These studies point to a rapid mode of adenosine modulation, whose mechanism and function will continue to be characterized in the future. PMID:26900429

  12. Fast-scan Cyclic Voltammetry for the Characterization of Rapid Adenosine Release.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael D; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a signaling molecule and downstream product of ATP that acts as a neuromodulator. Adenosine regulates physiological processes, such as neurotransmission and blood flow, on a time scale of minutes to hours. Recent developments in electrochemical techniques, including fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), have allowed direct detection of adenosine with sub-second temporal resolution. FSCV studies have revealed a novel mode of rapid signaling that lasts only a few seconds. This rapid release of adenosine can be evoked by electrical or mechanical stimulations or it can be observed spontaneously without stimulation. Adenosine signaling on this time scale is activity dependent; however, the mode of release is not fully understood. Rapid adenosine release modulates oxygen levels and evoked dopamine release, indicating that adenosine may have a rapid modulatory role. In this review, we outline how FSCV can be used to detect adenosine release, compare FSCV with other techniques used to measure adenosine, and present an overview of adenosine signaling that has been characterized using FSCV. These studies point to a rapid mode of adenosine modulation, whose mechanism and function will continue to be characterized in the future.

  13. Transendothelial transport and metabolism of adenosine and inosine in the intact rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, K.; Kelm, M.K.; Buerrig, K.F.S.; Schrader, J.

    1989-06-01

    This study was aimed at defining the role of vascular endothelium in the transport and metabolism of adenosine. For this purpose, endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded isolated rat aortas, perfused at constant flow (2 ml/min), were prelabeled with 3H-adenosine or 3H-inosine for 10 minutes at concentrations of 0.012-100 microM. Sequestration of adenosine by endothelium was determined from radioactivity recovered during selective endothelial cell removal with deoxycholic acid (0.75% for 15 seconds). In the physiological concentration range of adenosine (0.012-1 microM), fractional sequestration by endothelium was 90-92% of the total adenosine incorporation by the aorta. Endothelial sequestration of inosine at 0.1 microM was 85%. At 100 microM adenosine or inosine, fractional sequestration by aortic endothelium was 33% and 39%, respectively. Analysis of the specific radioactivity of adenine nucleotides extracted from prelabeled aortas indicated that most of the adenosine was incorporated into endothelial adenine nucleotides. Incorporation of inosine into endothelial ATP was approximately 15% that of adenosine. Inhibition of aortic adenosine deaminase with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) did not influence sequestration of 0.1 microM adenosine, but resulted in a 49% reduction of total endothelial incorporation at 100 microM adenosine. Transfer of radioactive purines from the endothelium to underlying smooth muscle after prelabeling was equivalent to only 1%/hr of total endothelial radioactivity.

  14. Intracerebral adenosine infusion improves neurological outcome after transient focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Mori, Atsushi; Shimada, Jun; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2002-04-01

    Second Institute of New Drug Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima, Japan In order to elucidate the role of adenosine in brain ischemia, the possible protective effects of adenosine on ischemic brain injury were investigated in a rat model of brain ischemia both in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous adenosine dose-dependently rescued cortical neuronal cells from injury after glucose deprivation in vitro. Adenosine (1 mM) also significantly reduced hypoglycemia/hypoxia-induced glutamate release from the hippocampal slice. In a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), extracellular adenosine concentration was increased immediately after occlusion, and then returned to the baseline by 30 min after reperfusion. Adenosine infusion through a microdialysis probe into the ipsilateral striatum (1 mM adenosine, 2 microl min(-1), total 4.5 h from the occlusion to 3 h after reperfusion) showed a significant improvement in the neurological outcome, and about 25% reduction of infarct volume, although the effect did not reach statistical significance, compared with the vehicle-treated group at 20 h after 90 min of MCAO. These results demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of adenosine against ischemic brain injury both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the possible therapeutic application of adenosine regulating agents, which inhibit adenosine uptake or metabolism to enhance or maintain extracellular endogenous adenosine levels, for stroke treatment.

  15. Metabolic changes of cultured DRG neurons induced by adenosine using confocal microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqin; Huang, Yimei; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple effects on pain transmission in the peripheral nervous system. This study was performed to use confocal microscopy to evaluate whether adenosine could affect dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro and test which adenosine receptor mediates the effect of adenosine on DRG neurons. After adding adenosine with different concentration, we compared the metabolic changes by the real time imaging of calcium and mitochondria membrane potential using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the effect of 500 μM adenosine on the metabolic changes of DRG neurons was more significant than others. Furthermore, four different adenosine receptor antagonists were used to study which receptor mediated the influences of adenosine on the cultured DRG neurons. All adenosine receptor antagonists especially A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX) had effect on the Ca2+ and mitochondria membrane potential dynamics of DRG neurons. The above studies demonstrated that the effect of adenosine which may be involved in the signal transmission on the sensory neurons was dose-dependent, and all the four adenosine receptors especially the A1R may mediate the transmission.

  16. Adenosine augmentation therapies (AATs) for epilepsy: prospect of cell and gene therapies

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies in the brain’s own adenosine-based seizure control system contribute to seizure generation. Consequently, reconstitution of adenosinergic neuromodulation constitutes a rational approach for seizure control. This review will critically discuss focal adenosine augmentation strategies and their potential for antiepileptic and disease modifying therapy. Due to systemic side effects of adenosine focal adenosine augmentation – ideally targeted to an epileptic focus – becomes a therapeutic necessity. This has experimentally been achieved in kindled seizure models as well as in post status epilepticus models of spontaneous recurrent seizures using three different therapeutic strategies that will be discussed here: (i) Polymer-based brain implants that were loaded with adenosine; (ii) Brain implants comprised of cells engineered to release adenosine and embedded in a cell-encapsulation device; (iii) Direct transplantation of stem cells engineered to release adenosine. To meet the therapeutic goal of focal adenosine augmentation, genetic disruption of the adenosine metabolizing enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK) in rodent and human cells was used as a molecular strategy to induce adenosine release from cellular brain implants, which demonstrated antiepileptic and neuroprotective properties. New developments and therapeutic challenges in using AATs for epilepsy therapy will critically be evaluated. PMID:19428218

  17. Protective effect of adenosine against a calcium paradox in the isolated frog heart.

    PubMed

    Touraki, M; Lazou, A

    1992-01-01

    The effect of adenosine on the calcium paradox in the isolated frog heart was studied. Addition of adenosine during calcium depletion protected the frog heart against a calcium paradox. This protective effect was indicated by reduced protein and creatine kinase release, maintenance of electrical activity, and recovery of mechanical activity during reperfusion. Tissue calcium determination results showed that adenosine protected frog myocardial cells by reducing the massive calcium influx during reperfusion possibly through an action on calcium channels. Adenosine exerted its action in a dose-dependent manner; a concentration of 10 microM adenosine provided maximum protection of myocardial cells against the calcium paradox damage. Higher concentrations of adenosine produced side effects on both electrical and mechanical activity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanism involved in the protective effect of adenosine.

  18. Trypsin digestion for determining orientation of ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum membrane vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared by low pressure disruption of cells exhibited no ATPase activity in the absence of Triton X-100, although 43% of the total menadione reductase activity was detected. Trypsin digestion reduced menadione reductase activity by 45% whereas ATPase activity was not affected. Disruption of the membrane fraction at higher pressure solubilized about 45% of the ATPase activity. The soluble activity was still enhanced by Triton X-100, suggesting that the detergent, besides disrupting membrane vesicles, also activated the ATPase. The discrepancy in localization of menadione reductase and ATPase activities raised questions regarding the reliability of using a single marker enzyme as an indicator of vesicle orientation.

  19. F-subunit reinforces torque generation in V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Seino, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Tirtom, Naciye Esma; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken; Hayashi, Kumiko

    2014-09-01

    Vacuolar-type H(+)-pumping ATPases (V-ATPases) perform remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms. They are present in the membranes of many organelles and regulate the pH of several intracellular compartments. A family of V-ATPases is also present in the plasma membranes of some bacteria. Such V-ATPases function as ATP-synthases. Each V-ATPase is composed of a water-soluble domain (V1) and a membrane-embedded domain (Vo). The ATP-driven rotary unit, V[Formula: see text], is composed of A, B, D, and F subunits. The rotary shaft (the DF subcomplex) rotates in the central cavity of the A3B3-ring (the catalytic hexamer ring). The D-subunit, which has a coiled-coil domain, penetrates into the ring, while the F-subunit is a globular-shaped domain protruding from the ring. The minimal ATP-driven rotary unit of V[Formula: see text] is comprised of the A3B3D subunits, and we therefore investigated how the absence of the globular-shaped F-subunit affects the rotary torque generation of V[Formula: see text]. Using a single-molecule technique, we observed the motion of the rotary motors. To obtain the torque values, we then analyzed the measured motion trajectories based on the fluctuation theorem, which states that the law of entropy production in non-equilibrium conditions and has been suggested as a novel and effective method for measuring torque. The measured torque of A3B3D was half that of the wild-type V1, and full torque was recovered in the mutant V1, in which the F-subunit was genetically fused with the D-subunit, indicating that the globular-shaped F-subunit reinforces torque generation in V1.

  20. Decreased ATPase activity in adriamycin nephrosis is independent of proteinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.W.; Kalicharan, D.; Donga, J.; Hulstaert, C.E.; Hardonk, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory it has been shown that ATP-ase activity in situ in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is clearly reduced in rats rendered nephrotic after treatment with adriamycin (ADR). The question was raised whether this reduction of ATP-ase activity in the GBM is due to toxic activity of ADR or rather a result of the nephrotic condition per se. Therefore, we studied ATP-ase activity using the cerium-based method in kidneys from ADR-treated rats without proteinuria (48 hr after ADR injection), or with proteinuria (approximately 150 mg/24 hr) several weeks after ADR injection. Also kidneys from rats rendered nephrotic by surgical ablation and from non-nephrotic rats treated with local X-irradiation (2000 rads) as well as from normal control rats were studied. The results show that in the GBM of ADR-treated or irradiated rats, clear reduction of ATP-ase activity is observed irrespective of their proteinuria, whereas in the GBM of rats rendered nephrotic by renal ablation (approximately 156 mg/24 hr mean protein excretion) no reduction of enzyme activity is found. It is concluded that decreased ATP-ase activity of the glomerular filtration barrier in ADR-treated rats is due to an early toxic activity of this drug and not a result of the nephrotic state per se. In view of the identical results in X-irradiated rats, it is likely that ADR may act through production of toxic radicals leading to damage of this membrane-associated enzyme system.

  1. Functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji

    2017-01-01

    Dent’s disease is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and progressive renal failure. Disease aetiology is associated with mutations in the CLCN5 gene coding for the electrogenic 2Cl-/H+ antiporter chloride channel 5 (CLC-5), which is expressed in the apical endosomes of renal proximal tubules with the vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Initially identified as a member of the CLC family of Cl- channels, CLC-5 was presumed to provide Cl- shunt into the endosomal lumen to dissipate H+ accumulation by V-ATPase, thereby facilitating efficient endosomal acidification. However, recent findings showing that CLC-5 is in fact not a Cl- channel but a 2Cl-/H+ antiporter challenged this classical shunt model, leading to a renewed and intense debate on its physiological roles. Cl- accumulation via CLC-5 is predicted to play a critical role in endocytosis, as illustrated in mice carrying an artificial Cl- channel mutation E211A that developed defective endocytosis but normal endosomal acidification. Conversely, a recent functional analysis of a newly identified disease-causing Cl- channel mutation E211Q in a patient with typical Dent’s disease confirmed the functional coupling between V-ATPase and CLC-5 in endosomal acidification, lending support to the classical shunt model. In this editorial, we will address the current recognition of the physiological role of CLC-5 with a specific focus on the functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5. PMID:28101447

  2. Structure of Na+,K+-ATPase at 11-A resolution: comparison with Ca2+-ATPase in E1 and E2 states.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, W J; Young, H S; Martin, D W; Sachs, J R; Stokes, D L

    2001-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits and a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps. Here we present an 11-A structure of the heterodimer determined from electron micrographs of unstained frozen-hydrated tubular crystals. For this reconstruction, the enzyme was isolated from supraorbital glands of salt-adapted ducks and was crystallized within the native membranes. Crystallization conditions fixed Na+,K+-ATPase in the vanadate-inhibited E2 conformation, and the crystals had p1 symmetry. A large number of helical symmetries were observed, so a three-dimensional structure was calculated by averaging both Fourier-Bessel coefficients and real-space structures of data from the different symmetries. The resulting structure clearly reveals cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular regions of the molecule with densities separately attributable to alpha and beta subunits. The overall shape bears a remarkable resemblance to the E2 structure of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. After aligning these two structures, atomic coordinates for Ca2+-ATPase were fit to Na+,K+-ATPase, and several flexible surface loops, which fit the map poorly, were associated with sequences that differ in the two pumps. Nevertheless, cytoplasmic domains were very similarly arranged, suggesting that the E2-to-E1 conformational change postulated for Ca2+-ATPase probably applies to Na+,K+-ATPase as well as other P-type ATPases. PMID:11325721

  3. Vacuolar ATPases, like F1,F0-ATPases, show a strong dependence of the reaction velocity on the binding of more than one ATP per enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kasho, V N; Boyer, P D

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies with vacuolar ATPases have shown that multiple copies catalytic subunits are present and that these have definite sequence homology with catalytic subunits of the F1,F0-ATPases. Experiments are reported that assess whether the vacuolar ATPases may have the unusual catalytic cooperativity with sequential catalytic site participation as in the binding change mechanism for the F1,F0-ATPases. The extent of reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis to bound ADP and Pi as medium ATP concentration was lowered was determined by 18O-exchange measurements for yeast and neurospora vacuolar ATPases. The results show a pronounced increase in the extent of water oxygen incorporation into the Pi formed as ATP concentration is decreased to the micromolar range. The F1,F0-ATPase from neurospora mitochondria showed an even more pronounced modulation, similar to that of other F1-type ATPases. The vacuolar ATPases thus appear to have a catalytic mechanism quite analogous to that of the F1,F0-ATPases. PMID:2530585

  4. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance

    PubMed Central

    Schep, Daniel G.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in the S. cerevisae V-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases. PMID:26951669

  5. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance.

    PubMed

    Schep, Daniel G; Zhao, Jianhua; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-03-22

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in the S. cerevisae V-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases.

  6. Adenosine Signaling Increases Proinflammatory and Profibrotic Mediators through Activation of a Functional Adenosine 2B Receptor in Renal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Patrick F; Farrell, Francis X; Morel, Diane; Law, William; Murphy, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    Interstitial renal fibrosis is a major pathophysiological manifestation of patients diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) and other inflammatory diseases. Adenosine signaling is an innate autocrine and paracrine cellular signaling pathway involving several key mediators that are elevated in the blood and kidneys of patients with DN. In these studies, we hypothesized that extracellular adenosine signals through one or more functional adenosine GPCRs on renal fibroblasts which increases profibrotic and proinflammatory mediators by inducing an activated fibroblast phenotype. Utilizing the renal fibroblast cell line NRK-49F, the presence and relative abundance of adenosine receptors (AR) A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 were quantified by RT-PCR. Under normal homeostatic conditions, only AR1 and AR2B were detected. The functionality of each receptor was then assessed by receptor specific pharmacological agonism and antagonism and assessed for modulation of the GPCR associated secondary messenger molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Agonism of the AR2B receptor resulted in increased intracellular cAMP while agonism of the AR1 receptor inhibited cAMP modulation. Upon direct agonism of the AR2B receptor, transcripts for profibrotic and inflammatory mediators including SMA-α, IL-6, TGF-β, CTGF, and fibronectin were elevated between 2-4 fold. These data indicate that renal fibroblasts express a functional AR1 receptor that inhibits cAMP upon stimulation, leading to a functional AR2B receptor that increases cAMP upon stimulation and also induces an activated fibroblast phenotype resulting in increased fibrotic and inflammatory mediators.

  7. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate-putamen via A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate-putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 μM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2 s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7%, similar to the 54 ± 6% decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 min. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. Here, transient adenosine was shown to modulate phasic dopamine release on the order of seconds by acting at the A1 receptor. However, sustained increases in adenosine did not regulate phasic dopamine release. This study demonstrates for the first time a transient, neuromodulatory function of rapid adenosine to regulate rapid neurotransmitter release.

  8. Adenosine A2 receptors modulate haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandhane, S N; Chopde, C T; Ghosh, A K

    1997-06-11

    The effect of adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonists and antagonists was investigated on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Pretreatment (i.p.) with the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, theophylline, or the selective adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), significantly reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy, whereas the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonists, 8-phenyltheophylline and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine produced no effect. Similar administration of the adenosine A2 receptor agonists, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), and the mixed agonists with predominantly A1 site of action, N6-(2-phenylisopropyl) adenosine or 2-chloroadenosine, potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Higher doses of the adenosine agonists produced catalepsy when given alone. However, N6-cyclopentyladenosine, a highly selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist, was ineffective in these respects. The per se cataleptic effect of adenosine agonists was blocked by DMPX and the centrally acting anticholinergic agent, scopolamine. Scopolamine also attenuated the potentiation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy by adenosine agonists. Further, i.c.v. administration of NECA and DMPX produced a similar effect as that produced after their systemic administration. These findings demonstrate the differential influence of adenosine A1 and A2 receptors on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and support the hypothesis that the functional interaction between adenosine and dopamine mechanisms might occur through adenosine A2 receptors at the level of cholinergic neurons. The results suggest that adenosine A2, but not A1, receptor antagonists may be of potential use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Tributyltin inhibits the oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Vittoria; Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Bandiera, Patrizia; Pirini, Maurizio; Borgatti, Anna Rosa; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), widely employed in the past in antifouling paints, is one of the most toxic organic pollutants. Although recently banned, it still threatens coastal water ecosystems and accumulates in filter-feeding molluscs. TBT is known to act as a membrane-active toxicant; however data on mussels are scanty and exposure effects on mitochondrial ATPase activities remain hitherto unexplored. TBT effects on the mitochondrial Mg-ATPase activities in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated both in vitro and in TBT-exposed mussels. Both an oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase (OS Mg-ATPase) (70% of total Mg-ATPase activity) and an oligomycin-insensitive ATPase (OI Mg-ATPase) (30%) were found. The OS-Mg-ATPase was as much as 70% in vitro inhibited by 0.7 μM (203 μg/L) TBT, while higher concentrations promoted a partial inhibition release up to 5.0 μM TBT; higher than 10.0 μM TBT concentrations yielded nearly complete enzyme inhibition. Concentrations higher than 1 μM TBT enhanced the OI Mg-ATPase. Mussels exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 μg/L TBT in aquaria showed a 30% depressed OS Mg-ATPase activity, irrespective of TBT dose and exposure time (24 and 120 h). The OI Mg-ATPase activity was apparently refractory to TBT exposure and halved both in control and TBT-exposed mussels after 120 h exposure.

  10. Cancer with low cathepsin D levels is susceptible to V-ATPase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Satoru; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Funata, Masaaki; Nishimura, Kazuho; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Hara, Takahito

    2017-03-19

    Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPases (V-ATPases) have important roles in the supply of nutrients to tumors by mediating autophagy and the endocytic uptake of extracellular fluids. Accordingly, V-ATPases are attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. However, the clinical use of V-ATPase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has not been realized, possibly owing to their high toxicity in humans. V-ATPase inhibition may be an appropriate strategy in highly susceptible cancers. In this study, we explored markers of V-ATPase inhibitor sensitivity. V-ATPase inhibitors led to pH impairment in acidic intracellular compartments, suppression of macropinocytosis, and decreased intracellular amino acid levels. The sensitivity of cells to V-ATPase inhibitors was correlated with low cathepsin D expression, and cancer cells exhibited increased sensitivity to V-ATPase inhibitors after pretreatment with a cathepsin D inhibitor and siRNA targeting the cathepsin D gene (CTSD). In addition, V-ATPase inhibitor treatment led to the induction of the amino acid starvation response, upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, and suppression of mTOR signaling in cells expressing low levels of cathepsin D. Some colorectal cancer patients exhibited the downregulation of cathepsin D in tumor tissues compared with matched normal tissues. These findings indicate that V-ATPase inhibitors are promising therapeutic options for cancers with downregulated cathepsin D. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of the vacuolar H+-ATPase rotary motor reveals new mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Shaun; Phillips, Clair; Huss, Markus; Tiburcy, Felix; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A; Muench, Stephen P

    2015-03-03

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases are multisubunit complexes that operate with rotary mechanics and are essential for membrane proton transport throughout eukaryotes. Here we report a ∼ 1 nm resolution reconstruction of a V-ATPase in a different conformational state from that previously reported for a lower-resolution yeast model. The stator network of the V-ATPase (and by implication that of other rotary ATPases) does not change conformation in different catalytic states, and hence must be relatively rigid. We also demonstrate that a conserved bearing in the catalytic domain is electrostatic, contributing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of rotary ATPases. Analysis of the rotor axle/membrane pump interface suggests how rotary ATPases accommodate different c ring stoichiometries while maintaining high efficiency. The model provides evidence for a half channel in the proton pump, supporting theoretical models of ion translocation. Our refined model therefore provides new insights into the structure and mechanics of the V-ATPases.

  12. Multiple Roles of the Plasma Membrane H(+)-ATPase and Its Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is the pump that provides the driving force for transport of numerous solutes in plant cells, and plays an essential role for the growth and maintenance of cell homeostasis. Recent investigations using guard cells with respect to blue-light-induced stomatal opening uncovered the regulatory mechanisms of the H(+)-ATPase, and revealed that the phosphorylation status of penultimate threonine in the C-terminus of H(+)-ATPase is key step for the activity regulation. The same regulatory mechanisms for the H(+)-ATPase were evidenced in hypocotyl elongation in response to ABA and auxin, suggesting that the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine is a common regulatory mechanism for the H(+)-ATPase. We also present the data that the activity of the H(+)-ATPase limits the plant growth. Typical structure of the H(+)-ATPase in the C-terminus was acquired in the transition of plants from water to the terrestrial land.

  13. Spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors, are involved in antinociception by systemically administered amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-01-05

    The present study explored a link between spinal 5-HT(7) and adenosine A(1) receptors in antinociception by systemic amitriptyline in normal and adenosine A(1) receptor knock-out mice using the 2% formalin test. In normal mice, antinociception by systemic amitriptyline 3mg/kg was blocked by intrathecal administration of the selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) 10 nmol. Blockade was also seen in adenosine A(1) receptor +/+ mice, but not in -/- mice lacking these receptors. In both normal and adenosine A(1) receptor +/+ mice, the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (SB269970) 3 μg blocked antinociception by systemic amitriptyline, but it did not prevent antinociception in adenosine A(1) receptor -/- mice. In normal mice, flinching was unaltered when the selective 5-HT(7) receptor agonist (2S)-(+)-5-(1,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl)-2-(dimethylamino)tetralin (AS-19) 20 μg was administered alone, but increased when co-administered intrathecally with DPCPX 10 nmol or SB269970 3 μg. Intrathecal AS-19 decreased flinching in adenosine A(1) receptor +/+ mice compared to -/- mice. Systemic amitriptyline appears to reduce nociception by activating spinal adenosine A(1) receptors secondarily to 5-HT(7) receptors. Spinal actions constitute only one aspect of antinociception by amitriptyline, as intraplantar DPCPX 10 nmol blocked antinociception by systemic amitriptyline in normal and adenosine A(1) receptor +/+, but not -/- mice. Adenosine A(1) receptor interactions are worthy of attention, as chronic oral caffeine (0.1, 0.3g/L, doses considered relevant to human intake levels) blocked antinociception by systemic amitriptyline in normal mice. In conclusion, adenosine A(1) receptors contribute to antinociception by systemic amitriptyline in both spinal and peripheral compartments.

  14. Properties of enzyme fraction A from Chlorella and copurification of 3' (2'), 5'-biphosphonucleoside 3' (2')-phosphohydrolase, adenosine 5'phosphosulfate sulfohydrolase and adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate cyclase activities.

    PubMed

    Lik-Shing Tsang, M; Schiff, J A

    1976-05-17

    Enzyme fraction A from Chlorella which catalyzes the formation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate from adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate is further characterized. Fraction A is found to contain an Mg2+ -activated and Ca2+ -inhibited 3' (2')-nucleotidase specific for 3' (2'), 5'-biphosphonucleosides. This activity has been named 3' (2), 5'-biphosphonucleoside 3' (2')-phosphohydrolase. The A fraction is also found to contain an activity which catalyzes the formation of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate cyclase). Under the same conditions of assay, 5'-ATP and 5'-ADP are not substrated for cyclic AMP formation. Unlike the 3' (2'), 5'-biphosphonucleoside 3' (2')-phosphohydrolase activity, the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate cyclase activity does not require Mg2+, requires NH+4 or Na+, and is not inhibited by Ca2+. The A fraction also contains an adenosine 5'-phospho sulfate sulfohydrolase activity which forms 5'-AMP and sulfate. The three activities remain together during purification and acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified preparation yields a pattern where only one protein band has all three activities. The phosphohydrolase can be separated from the other two activities by affinity chromatography on agarose-hexyl-adenosine 3'n5'-bisphosphate yielding a phosphohydrolase preparation showing a single band on gel electrophoresis. The adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate cyclase may provide an alternate route of cyclic AMP formation from sulfate via ATP sulfurylase, but its regulatory significance in Chlorella, if any, remains to be demonstrated. In sulfate reduction, the phosphohydrolase may serve to provide a readily utilized pool of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as needed by the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase. The cyclase and sulfohydrolase activities would be regarded as side reactions incidental to this pathway, but may be of importance in other metabolic and regulatory reactions.

  15. Adenosine receptor control of cognition in normal and disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine and adenosine receptors (ARs) are increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets for controlling cognition under normal and disease conditions for its dual roles of neuromodulation as well as of homeostatic function in the brain. This chapter first presents the unique ability of adenosine, by acting on the inhibitory A1 and facilitating A2A receptor, to integrate dopamine, glutamate, and BNDF signaling and to modulate synaptic plasticity (e.g., long-term potentiation and long-term depression) in brain regions relevant to learning and memory, providing the molecular and cellular bases for adenosine receptor (AR) control of cognition. This led to the demonstration of AR modulation of social recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, reversal learning, goal-directed behavior/habit formation, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and effort-related behavior. Furthermore, human and animal studies support that AR activity can also, through cognitive enhancement and neuroprotection, reverse cognitive impairments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. Lastly, epidemiological evidence indicates that regular human consumption of caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive drug and nonselective AR antagonists, is associated with the reduced cognitive decline in aging and AD patients, and with the reduced risk in developing PD. Thus, there is a convergence of the molecular studies revealing AR as molecular targets for integrating neurotransmitter signaling and controlling synaptic plasticity, with animal studies demonstrating the strong procognitive impact upon AR antagonism in normal and disease brains and with epidemiological and clinical evidences in support of caffeine and AR drugs for therapeutic modulation of cognition. Since some of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are already in phase III clinical trials for motor benefits in PD patients with remarkable safety profiles

  16. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    PubMed

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-05-27

    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  17. Genomic Comparison of P-Type ATPase Ion Pumps in Arabidopsis and Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan; Tchieu, Jason; Sussman, Michael R.; Boutry, Marc; Palmgren, Michael G.; Gribskov, Michael; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Axelsen, Kristian B.

    2003-01-01

    Members of the P-type ATPase ion pump superfamily are found in all three branches of life. Forty-six P-type ATPase genes were identified in Arabidopsis, the largest number yet identified in any organism. The recent completion of two draft sequences of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome allows for comparison of the full complement of P-type ATPases in two different plant species. Here, we identify a similar number (43) in rice, despite the rice genome being more than three times the size of Arabidopsis. The similarly large families suggest that both dicots and monocots have evolved with a large preexisting repertoire of P-type ATPases. Both Arabidopsis and rice have representative members in all five major subfamilies of P-type ATPases: heavy-metal ATPases (P1B), Ca2+-ATPases (endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPase and autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase, P2A and P2B), H+-ATPases (autoinhibited H+-ATPase, P3A), putative aminophospholipid ATPases (ALA, P4), and a branch with unknown specificity (P5). The close pairing of similar isoforms in rice and Arabidopsis suggests potential orthologous relationships for all 43 rice P-type ATPases. A phylogenetic comparison of protein sequences and intron positions indicates that the common angiosperm ancestor had at least 23 P-type ATPases. Although little is known about unique and common features of related pumps, clear differences between some members of the calcium pumps indicate that evolutionarily conserved clusters may distinguish pumps with either different subcellular locations or biochemical functions. PMID:12805592

  18. Kinetic mechanism of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase and the highly efficient utilization of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Fardos N M; Rais, Reem H; Al Safarjalani, Omar N; el Kouni, Mahmoud H

    2015-10-01

    Initial velocity and product inhibition studies of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase (TgAK, EC 2.7.1.20) demonstrated that the basic mechanism of this enzyme is a hybrid random bi-uni ping-pong uni-bi. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, consistent with substrate-enzyme-co-substrate complex formation and a binding pattern indicating that binding of the substrate interferes with the binding of the co-substrate and vice versa. Estimated kinetic parameters were KAdo=0.002±0.0002 mM, KATP=0.05±0.008 mM, and Vmax=920±35 μmol/min/mg protein. Ado exhibited substrate inhibition suggesting the presence of more than one binding site for Ado on the enzyme. ATP relieved substrate inhibition by Ado. Thus, Ado also binds to the ATP binding site. AMP was competitive with ATP, inferring that AMP binds to the same site as ATP. AMP, ADP and ATP were non-competitive with Ado, therefore, none of these nucleotides binds to the Ado binding site. Combining ATP with ADP was additive. Therefore, the binding of either ATP or ADP does not interfere with the binding of the other. It is concluded that for every ATP consumed, TgAK generates three new AMPs. These findings along with the fact that a wide range of nucleoside 5'-mono, di, and triphosphates could substitute for ATP as phosphate donors in this reaction may explain the efficient and central role played by TgAK in the utilization of Ado as the major source from which all other purines can be synthesized in T. gondii.

  19. Adenosine gates synaptic plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kimberly A.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2003-11-01

    The release properties of synapses in the central nervous system vary greatly, not only across anatomically distinct types of synapses but also among the same class of synapse. This variation manifests itself in large part by differences in the probability of transmitter release, which affects such activity-dependent presynaptic forms of plasticity as paired-pulse facilitation and frequency facilitation. This heterogeneity in presynaptic function reflects differences in the intrinsic properties of the synaptic terminal and the activation of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Here we show that the unique presynaptic properties of the hippocampal mossy fiber synapse are largely imparted onto the synapse by the continuous local action of extracellular adenosine at presynaptic A1 adenosine receptors, which maintains a low basal probability of transmitter release.

  20. Adenosine: an endogenous mediator in the pathogenesis of psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Festugato, Moira

    2015-01-01

    It is known that inflammatory and immune responses protect us from the invasion of micro-organisms and eliminate "wastes" from the injured sites, but they may also be responsible for significant tissue damage. Adenosine, as a purine nucleoside, which is produced in inflamed or injured sites, fulfills its role in limiting tissue damage. Although, it may have a pleiotropic effect, which signals it with a proinflammatory state in certain situations, it can be considered a potent anti-inflammatory mediator. The effects of adenosine, which acts through its receptors on T cell, on mast cell and macrophages, on endothelial cells, on neutrophils and dendritic cells, as they indicate TNF-alpha and cytokines, show that this mediator has a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The way it acts in psoriasis will be reviewed in this study. PMID:26734868

  1. Expression of human adenosine deaminase in murine hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belmont, J W; MacGregor, G R; Wager-Smith, K; Fletcher, F A; Moore, K A; Hawkins, D; Villalon, D; Chang, S M; Caskey, C T

    1988-01-01

    Multiple replication-defective retrovirus vectors were tested for their ability to transfer and express human adenosine deaminase in vitro and in vivo in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model. High-titer virus production was obtained from vectors by using both a retrovirus long terminal repeat promoter and internal transcriptional units with human c-fos and herpes virus thymidine kinase promoters. After infection of primary murine bone marrow with one of these vectors, human adenosine deaminase was detected in 60 to 85% of spleen colony-forming units and in the blood of 14 of 14 syngeneic marrow transplant recipients. This system offers the opportunity to assess methods for increasing efficiency of gene transfer, for regulation of expression of foreign genes in hematopoietic progenitors, and for long-term measurement of the stability of expression in these cells. Images PMID:3072474

  2. Evidence for an A1-adenosine receptor in the guinea-pig atrium.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    1 The purpose of this study was to determine whether the adenosine receptor that mediates a decrease in the force of contraction of the guinea-pig atrium is of the A1- or A2-sub-type. 2 Concentration-response curves to adenosine and a number of 5'- and N6-substituted analogues were constructed and the order of potency of the purines was: 5'-N-cyclopropylcarboxamide adenosine (NCPCA) = 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) greater than N6cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) greater than L-N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (L-PIA) = 2-chloroadenosine- greater than adenosine greater than D-N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (D-PIA). 3 The difference in potency between the stereoisomers D- and L-PIA was over 100 fold. 4 The adenosine transport inhibitor, dipyridamole, potentiated submaximal responses to adenosine but had no significant effect on those evoked by the other purines. 5 Theophylline antagonized responses evoked by all purines, and with D-PIA revealed a positive inotropic effect that was abolished by atenolol. 6 The results indicate the existence of an adenosine A1-receptor in the guinea-pig atrium. PMID:6297647

  3. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Witts, Emily C.; Nascimento, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925–1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output. PMID:26311185

  4. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Witts, Emily C; Nascimento, Filipe; Miles, Gareth B

    2015-10-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925-1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output.

  5. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Khalaf F.; Thomas, Mark R.; Judge, Heather M.; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R.; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C.; Storey, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7% ± 4.4 vs. control 22.6% ± 2.4; p < 0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10− 8 M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6 ± 6.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.6; p = 0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  6. Extracellular adenosine levels are associated with the progression and exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fayong; Le, Ngoc-Bao; Mills, Tingting; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Molina, Jose G; Davies, Jonathan; Philip, Kemly; Volcik, Kelly A; Liu, Hong; Xia, Yang; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating lung disease with limited treatment options. The signaling molecule adenosine is produced in response to injury and serves a protective role in early stages of injury and is detrimental during chronic stages of disease such as seen in lung conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis. Understanding the association of extracellular adenosine levels and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis is critical for designing adenosine based approaches to treat pulmonary fibrosis. The goal of this study was to use various models of experimental lung fibrosis to understand when adenosine levels are elevated during pulmonary fibrosis and whether these elevations were associated with disease progression and severity. To accomplish this, extracellular adenosine levels, defined as adenosine levels found in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid, were determined in mouse models of resolvable and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. We found that relative bronchioalveolar lavage fluid adenosine levels are progressively elevated in association with pulmonary fibrosis and that adenosine levels diminish in association with the resolution of lung fibrosis. In addition, treatment of these models with dipyridamole, an inhibitor of nucleoside transporters that potentiates extracellular adenosine levels, demonstrated that the resolution of lung fibrosis is blocked by the failure of adenosine levels to subside. Furthermore, exacerbating adenosine levels led to worse fibrosis in a progressive fibrosis model. Increased adenosine levels were associated with elevation of IL-6 and IL-17, which are important inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary fibrosis. These results demonstrate that extracellular adenosine levels are closely associated with the progression of experimental pulmonary fibrosis and that this signaling pathway may mediate fibrosis by regulating IL-6 and IL-17 production.

  7. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Khalaf F; Thomas, Mark R; Judge, Heather M; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C; Storey, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7%±4.4 vs. control 22.6%±2.4; p<0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6±6.6 vs. 28.0±6.6; p=0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection.

  8. Effects of adenosine metabolism in astrocytes on central nervous system oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ya-nan; Wang, Zhong-zhuang; Xu, Wei-gang; Li, Run-ping; Zhang, Jun-dong

    2016-03-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is widely used in military operations, especially underwater missions. However, prolonged and continuous inhalation of HBO can cause central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT), which greatly limits HBO's application. The regulation of astrocytes to the metabolism of adenosine is involved in epilepsy. In our study, we aimed to observe the effects of HBO exposure on the metabolism of adenosine in the brain. Furthermore, we aimed to confirm the possible mechanism underlying adenosine's mediation of the CNS-OT. Firstly, anesthetized rats exposed to 5 atm absolute HBO for 80 min. The concentrations of extracellular adenosine, ATP, ADP, and AMP were detected. Secondly, free-moving rats were exposed to HBO at the same pressure for 20 min, and the activities of 5'-nucleotidase and ADK in brain tissues were measured. For the mechanism studies, we observed the effects of a series of different doses of drugs related to adenosine metabolism on the latency of CNS-OT. Results showed HBO exposure could increase adenosine content by inhibiting ADK activity and improving 5'-nucleotidase activity. And adenosine metabolism during HBO exposure may be a protective response against HBO-induced CNS-OT. Moreover, the improvement of adenosine concentration, activation of adenosine A1R, or suppression of ADK and adenosine A2AR, which are involved in the prevention of HBO-induced CNS-OT. This is the first study to demonstrate HBO exposure regulated adenosine metabolism in the brain. Adenosine metabolism and adenosine receptors are related to HBO-induced CNS-OT development. These results will provide new potential targets for the termination or the attenuation of CNS-OT.

  9. Mechanical stimulation evokes rapid increases in extracellular adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley E; Nguyen, Michael D; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical perturbations can release ATP, which is broken down to adenosine. In this work, we used carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure mechanically stimulated adenosine in the brain by lowering the electrode 50 μm. Mechanical stimulation evoked adenosine in vivo (average: 3.3 ± 0.6 μM) and in brain slices (average: 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) in the prefrontal cortex. The release was transient, lasting 18 ± 2 s. Lowering a 15-μm-diameter glass pipette near the carbon-fiber microelectrode produced similar results as lowering the actual microelectrode. However, applying a small puff of artificial cerebral spinal fluid was not sufficient to evoke adenosine. Multiple stimulations within a 50-μm region of a slice did not significantly change over time or damage cells. Chelating calcium with EDTA or blocking sodium channels with tetrodotoxin significantly decreased mechanically evoked adenosine, signifying that the release is activity dependent. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, did not affect mechanically stimulated adenosine; however, the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,2 and 3 (NTDPase) inhibitor POM-1 significantly reduced adenosine so a portion of adenosine is dependent on extracellular ATP metabolism. Thus, mechanical perturbations from inserting a probe in the brain cause rapid, transient adenosine signaling which might be neuroprotective. We have discovered immediate changes in adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex following mechanical stimulation. The adenosine increase lasts only about 20 s. Mechanically stimulated adenosine was activity dependent and mostly because of extracellular ATP metabolism. This rapid, transient increase in adenosine may help protect tissue and would occur during implantation of any electrode, such as during deep brain stimulation.

  10. Application of a coupled enzyme assay to characterize nicotinamide riboside kinases.

    PubMed

    Dölle, Christian; Ziegler, Mathias

    2009-02-15

    The recently identified nicotinamide riboside kinases (Nrks) constitute a distinct pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Here we present the combination of an established optical adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) test, the pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase system, with the Nrk-catalyzed reaction to determine kinetic properties of these enzymes, in particular affinities for ATP. The assay allows variation of both nucleoside and phosphate donor substrates, thereby providing major advantages for the characterization of these enzymes. We confirm previously established kinetic parameters and identify differences in substrate selectivity between the two human Nrk isoforms. The proposed assay is inexpensive and may be applied for high-throughput screening.

  11. Subcellular redistribution of trimeric G-proteins--potential mechanism of desensitization of hormone response: internalization, solubilization, down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Drastichová, Z; Bourová, L; Lisý, V; Hejnová, L; Rudajev, V; Stöhr, J; Durchánková, D; Ostasov, P; Teisinger, J; Soukup, T; Novotný, J; Svoboda, P

    2008-01-01

    Agonist-induced subcellular redistribution of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and of trimeric guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) represent mechanisms of desensitization of hormone response, which have been studied in our laboratory since 1989. This review brings a short summary of these results and also presents information about related literature data covering at least small part of research carried out in this area. We have also mentioned sodium plus potassium dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase) and 3H-ouabain binding as useful reference standard of plasma membrane purity in the brain.

  12. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Pike, Tasha L; Eisenach, John H; Dietz, Niki M; Joyner, Michael J; Wilkins, Brad W

    2009-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml x min(-1).100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (DeltaFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 +/- 29 and 314 +/- 34 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect DeltaFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 +/- 29 ml x min(-1)x100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.4) or 20% (287 +/- 48 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.3). In protocol 2, DeltaFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 +/- 30 and 453 +/- 41 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20% respectively). DeltaFVC was similar at 10% (352 +/- 39 ml min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.8) and 20% (528 +/- 45 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, DeltaFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans.

  13. Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Waqar; Batool, Asma; Ahmed, Tahir Aziz; Bashir, Muhammad Mukarram

    2012-03-01

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency is the term applied to a group of rare genetic disorders characterised by defective or absent T and B cell functions. Patients usually present in first 6 months of life with respiratory/gastrointestinal tract infections and failure to thrive. Among the various types of severe combined immunodeficiency, enzyme deficiencies are relatively less common. We report the case of a 6 years old girl having severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.

  14. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  15. Activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase with DRm217 attenuates oxidative stress-induced myocardial cell injury via closing Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/Src/Ros amplifier.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaofei; Xun, Meng; Dou, Xiaojuan; Wu, Litao; Zhang, Fujun; Zheng, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has close relationship with cardiomyocyte death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays an important role in cardiac cell damage. It has been proved that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and ROS form a feed-forward amplifier. The aim of this study was to explore whether DRm217, a proved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase's DR-region specific monoclonal antibody and direct activator, could disrupt Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier and protect cardiac cells from ROS-induced injury. We found that DRm217 protected myocardial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cardiac cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. DRm217 also alleviated the effect of H2O2 on inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface expression, and Src phosphorylation. H2O2-treatment increased intracellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS and induced intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. DRm217 closed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier, alleviated Ca(2+) accumulation and finally inhibited ROS and mitochondrial ROS generation. These novel results may help us to understand the important role of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related disease.

  16. Changes in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and alpha 3 subunit expression in CNS after administration of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bersier, María Geraldina; Peña, Clara; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores

    2011-02-01

    The expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity were analyzed after administration of ouabain and endobain E, respectively commercial and endogenous Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors. Wistar rats received intracerebroventricularly ouabain or endobain E dissolved in saline solution or Tris-HCl, respectively or the vehicles (controls). Two days later, animals were decapitated, cerebral cortex and hippocampus removed and crude and synaptosomal membrane fractions were isolated. Western blot analysis showed that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit expression increased roughly 40% after administration of 10 or 100 nmoles ouabain in cerebral cortex but remained unaltered in hippocampus. After administration of 10 μl endobain E (1 μl = 28 mg tissue) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit enhanced 130% in cerebral cortex and 103% in hippocampus. The activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in cortical synaptosomal membranes diminished or increased after administration of ouabain or endobain E, respectively. It is concluded that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors modify differentially the expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and enzyme activity, most likely involving compensatory mechanisms.

  17. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contribute to the tolerance against high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Taisuke; Furukawa, Soichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takatsuki, Akira; Hirata, Ryogo; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2005-11-25

    As a non-thermal sterilization process, high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment (HPCT) is considered to be promising. The main sterilizing effect of HPCT is thought to be acidification in cytoplasm of microorganisms. We investigated the tolerance mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to HPCT with special reference to vacuolar and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases. HPCT was imposed at 35 degrees C, 4 to 10 MPa, for 10 min. slp1 mutant defective in vacuole morphogenesis was more sensitive to HPCT than its isogenic parent. Concanamycin A, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), at 10 microM rendered the parent more HPCT-sensitive to the level of slp1. To confirm further the contribution of V-ATPase to the tolerance against HPCT in S. cerevisiae, we compared vma1 mutant of V-ATPase with its isogenic parent for their HPCT sensitivity. vma1 mutant was more sensitive to HPCT than its parent. Addition of 10 microM vanadate, an inhibitor of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (P-ATPase), to the wild type strains also increased the inactivation ratio. These results clearly show that V- and P-ATPases contribute to the tolerance against HPCT in S. cerevisiae by accumulating excess H(+) from cytoplasm to vacuole and excluding H(+) outside of the cell, respectively.

  18. Regulation of Cardiac Remodeling by Cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Wu, Jian; Kennedy, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1-3). The expression of the α subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1) the distribution and function of isoform specific Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2) the role of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling.

  19. Anesthetics alter the physical and functional properties of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Karon, B S; Geddis, L M; Kutchai, H; Thomas, D D

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the local anesthetic lidocaine, and the general anesthetic halothane, on the function and oligomeric state of the CA-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Oligomeric changes were detected by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA). Lidocaine inhibited and aggregated the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Micromolar calcium or 0.5 M lithium chloride protected against lidocaine-induced inhibition, indicating that electrostatic interactions are essential to lidocaine inhibition of the Ca-ATPase. The phospholamban (PLB) antibody 2D12, which mimics PLB phosphorylation, had no effect on lidocaine inhibition of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Inhibition and aggregation of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR occurred at lower concentrations of lidocaine than necessary to inhibit and aggregate the Ca-ATPase in skeletal SR, suggesting that the cardiac isoform of the enzyme has a higher affinity for lidocaine. Halothane inhibited and aggregated the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Both inhibition and aggregation of the Ca-ATPase by halothane were much greater in the presence of PLB antibody or when PLB was phosphorylated, indicating a protective effect of PLB on halothane-induced inhibition and aggregation. The effects of halothane on cardiac SR are opposite from the effects of halothane observed in skeletal SR, where halothane activates and dissociates the Ca-ATPase. These results underscore the crucial role of protein-protein interactions on Ca-ATPase regulation and anesthetic perturbation of cardiac SR. PMID:7756557

  20. Regulation of Cardiac Remodeling by Cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijun; Wu, Jian; Kennedy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na+/K+-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1–3). The expression of the α subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na+/K+-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1) the distribution and function of isoform specific Na+/K+-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2) the role of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling. PMID:27667975

  1. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics.

  2. Role of ENA ATPase in Na(+) efflux at high pH in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso; Benito, Begoña

    2009-12-01

    Potassium or Na(+) efflux ATPases, ENA ATPases, are present in all fungi and play a central role in Na(+) efflux and Na(+) tolerance. Flowering plants lack ENA ATPases but two ENA ATPases have been identified in the moss Physcomitrella patens, PpENA1 and PpENA2. PpENA1 mediates Na(+) efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To propose a general function of ENA ATPases in bryophytes it was necessary to demonstrate that these ATPases mediate Na(+) efflux in planta and that they exist in more bryophytes than P. patens. For these demonstrations (1) we cloned a third ATPase from P. patens, PpENA3, and studied the expression pattern of the three PpENA genes; (2) we constructed and studied the single and double Deltappena1 and Deltappena2 mutants; and (3) we cloned two ENA ATPases from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, MpENA1 and MpENA2, and expressed them in S. cerevisiae. The results from the first two approaches revealed that the expression of ENA ATPases was greatly enhanced at high pH and that Na(+) efflux at high pH depended on PpENA1. The ENA1 ATPase of M. polymorpha suppressed the defective growth of a S. cerevisiae mutant at high K(+) or Na(+) concentrations, especially at high K(+).

  3. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  4. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  5. Rotating proton pumping ATPases: subunit/subunit interactions and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Sekiya, Mizuki; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we discuss single molecule observation of rotational catalysis by E. coli ATP synthase (F-ATPase) using small gold beads. Studies involving a low viscous drag probe showed the stochastic properties of the enzyme in alternating catalytically active and inhibited states. The importance of subunit interaction between the rotor and the stator, and thermodynamics of the catalysis are also discussed. "Single Molecule Enzymology" is a new trend for understanding enzyme mechanisms in biochemistry and physiology.

  6. Protein import into chloroplasts requires a chloroplast ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, D.; Blobel, G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have transcribed mRNA from a cDNA clone coding for pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, translated the mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system, and studied the energy requirement for posttranslational import of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled protein into the stroma of pea chloroplasts. They found that import depends on ATP hydrolysis within the stroma. Import is not inhibited when H/sup +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, or divalent cation gradients across the chloroplast membranes are dissipated by ionophores, as long as exogenously added ATP is also present during the import reaction. The data suggest that protein import into the chloroplast stroma requires a chloroplast ATPase that does not function to generate a membrane potential for driving the import reaction but that exerts its effect in another, yet-to-be-determined, mode. They have carried out a preliminary characterization of this ATPase regarding its nucleotide specificity and the effects of various ATPase inhibitors.

  7. The Mechanism of Hsp90 ATPase Stimulation by Aha1

    PubMed Central

    Wolmarans, Annemarie; Lee, Brian; Spyracopoulos, Leo; LaPointe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone responsible for the folding, maturation, and activation of hundreds of substrate proteins called ‘clients’. Numerous co-chaperone proteins regulate progression through the ATP-dependent client activation cycle. The most potent stimulator of the Hsp90 ATPase activity is the co-chaperone Aha1p. Only one molecule of Aha1p is required to fully stimulate the Hsp90 dimer despite the existence of two, presumably identical, binding sites for this regulator. Using ATPase assays with Hsp90 heterodimers, we find that Aha1p stimulates ATPase activity by a three-step mechanism via the catalytic loop in the middle domain of Hsp90. Binding of the Aha1p N domain to the Hsp90 middle domain exerts a small stimulatory effect but also drives a separate conformational rearrangement in the Hsp90 N domains. This second event drives a rearrangement in the N domain of the opposite subunit and is required for the stimulatory action of the Aha1p C domain. Furthermore, the second event can be blocked by a mutation in one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer but not the other. This work provides a foundation for understanding how post-translational modifications regulate co-chaperone engagement with the Hsp90 dimer. PMID:27615124

  8. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A/sup -1/, additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A/sup -1/ was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2/sup 0/ when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured.

  9. Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase of Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria I.; Rasi-Caldogno, Franca

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we exploited the capability of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase to utilize ITP as a substrate to study its characteristics in plasma membrane vesicles purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. The majority of the ITPase activity of plasma membrane was Ca2+-dependent. The Ca2+-dependent ITPase activity was Mg2+-dependent and was stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. It was inhibited by erythrosin B (concentration giving 50% inhibition, 50 nanomolar) and by vanadate (concentration giving 50% inhibition, 3 micromolar) and displayed a broad pH optimum around pH 7.2 to 7.5. Both the hydrolytic and the transport activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase were half-saturated by Ca2+ in the micromolar concentration range. No major effect of EGTA on the saturation kinetics of the enzyme was observed. The affinity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase for Ca2+ was about fourfold higher at pH 7.5 than at pH 6.9. The Ca2+-dependent ITPase activity was stimulated about twofold by polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether, although it was inhibited by Triton X-100 and by lysolecithin. PMID:16668746

  10. Ion pathways in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Maike; Musgaard, Maria; Poulsen, Hanne; Thøgersen, Lea; Olesen, Claus; Schiøtt, Birgit; Morth, J Preben; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

    2013-04-12

    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is a transmembrane ion transporter belonging to the P(II)-type ATPase family. It performs the vital task of re-sequestering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum store, thereby also terminating Ca(2+)-induced signaling such as in muscle contraction. This minireview focuses on the transport pathways of Ca(2+) and H(+) ions across the lipid bilayer through SERCA. The ion-binding sites of SERCA are accessible from either the cytoplasm or the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum lumen, and the Ca(2+) entry and exit channels are both formed mainly by rearrangements of four N-terminal transmembrane α-helices. Recent improvements in the resolution of the crystal structures of rabbit SERCA1a have revealed a hydrated pathway in the C-terminal transmembrane region leading from the ion-binding sites to the cytosol. A comparison of different SERCA conformations reveals that this C-terminal pathway is exclusive to Ca(2+)-free E2 states, suggesting that it may play a functional role in proton release from the ion-binding sites. This is in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and mutational studies and is in striking analogy to a similar pathway recently described for the related sodium pump. We therefore suggest a model for the ion exchange mechanism in P(II)-ATPases including not one, but two cytoplasmic pathways working in concert.

  11. The oligomeric state of the active Vps4 AAA ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Eckert, Debra M.; Karren, Mary Anne; Whitby, Frank G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits. PMID:24161953

  12. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Perut, Francesca; Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  13. Enzyme activation of human prolactin: a potential basis for a bioassay.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M; Bertrand, P V

    1989-07-01

    Small cultures of human amniotic cells were preincubated for 24 h. Human prolactin was then added to the medium. After a further short period of incubation the tubes were chilled, the medium removed and the cells rinsed with saline. The tubes then received cold Tris-sucrose and were frozen, to disrupt the cells. After thawing, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (PNPase) were measured. Buffer was added containing either ATP or PNP and the tubes were incubated for 30 min. Inorganic phosphate released from ATP and p-nitrophenol was measured spectrophotometrically. Prolactin stimulated both enzyme activities. The ATPase log dose-response curve was linear between approximately 12.5 and 200 mIU/l. It was inhibited by ouabain. Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine inhibited the ATPase but not the alkaline phosphatase activity. One of these human amniotic cell enzymes may provide the basis for a sensitive bioassay for human prolactin.

  14. [Effects of dopamine and adenosine on regulation of water-electrolyte exchange in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine and adenosine both regulate transport of sodium chloride in the renal tubules in mammals. We have studied the effect of dopamine and adenosine on spontaneous activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteous. Both substances stimulated contractile vacuole. The effect of dopamine was suppressed by D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol, but not by D1 antagonist, SCH 39166. Adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2.5-dideoxyadenosine, suppressed the effect of dopamine, but not of adenosine. Inhibitor of protein kinase C, staurosporine, in contrast, blocked the effect of adenosine, but not dopamine. Notably, dopamine opposed effect of adenosine and vice versa. These results suggest that similar effects of dopamine and adenosine could be mediated by different intracellulare mechanisms.

  15. Arginine substitution of a cysteine in transmembrane helix M8 converts Na+,K+-ATPase to an electroneutral pump similar to H+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rikke; Khandelwal, Jaanki; Einholm, Anja P; Andersen, Jens P; Artigas, Pablo; Vilsen, Bente

    2017-01-10

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and H(+),K(+)-ATPase are electrogenic and nonelectrogenic ion pumps, respectively. The underlying structural basis for this difference has not been established, and it has not been revealed how the H(+),K(+)-ATPase avoids binding of Na(+) at the site corresponding to the Na(+)-specific site of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (site III). In this study, we addressed these questions by using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with enzymatic, transport, and electrophysiological functional measurements. Replacement of the cysteine C932 in transmembrane helix M8 of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with arginine, present in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase at the corresponding position, converted the normal 3Na(+):2K(+):1ATP stoichiometry of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to electroneutral 2Na(+):2K(+):1ATP stoichiometry similar to the electroneutral transport mode of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase. The electroneutral C932R mutant of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase retained a wild-type-like enzyme turnover rate for ATP hydrolysis and rate of cellular K(+) uptake. Only a relatively minor reduction of apparent Na(+) affinity for activation of phosphorylation from ATP was observed for C932R, whereas replacement of C932 with leucine or phenylalanine, the latter of a size comparable to arginine, led to spectacular reductions of apparent Na(+) affinity without changing the electrogenicity. From these results, in combination with structural considerations, it appears that the guanidine(+) group of the M8 arginine replaces Na(+) at the third site, thus preventing Na(+) binding there, although allowing Na(+) to bind at the two other sites and become transported. Hence, in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase, the ability of the M8 arginine to donate an internal cation binding at the third site is decisive for the electroneutral transport mode of this pump.

  16. Crystal Structure of Schistosoma mansoni Adenosine Phosphorylase/5’-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase and Its Importance on Adenosine Salvage Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Torini, Juliana Roberta; Brandão-Neto, José; DeMarco, Ricardo; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni do not have de novo purine pathways and rely on purine salvage for their purine supply. It has been demonstrated that, unlike humans, the S. mansoni is able to produce adenine directly from adenosine, although the enzyme responsible for this activity was unknown. In the present work we show that S. mansoni 5´-deoxy-5´-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP, E.C. 2.4.2.28) is capable of use adenosine as a substrate to the production of adenine. Through kinetics assays, we show that the Schistosoma mansoni MTAP (SmMTAP), unlike the mammalian MTAP, uses adenosine substrate with the same efficiency as MTA phosphorolysis, which suggests that this enzyme is part of the purine pathway salvage in S. mansoni and could be a promising target for anti-schistosoma therapies. Here, we present 13 SmMTAP structures from the wild type (WT), including three single and one double mutant, and generate a solid structural framework for structure description. These crystal structures of SmMTAP reveal that the active site contains three substitutions within and near the active site when compared to it mammalian counterpart, thus opening up the possibility of developing specific inhibitors to the parasite MTAP. The structural and kinetic data for 5 substrates reveal the structural basis for this interaction, providing substract for inteligent design of new compounds for block this enzyme activity. PMID:27935959

  17. Dissecting striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions. New clues from rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi; Sebastião, Ana Maria

    2016-03-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Chiodi et al. () showing that the effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) activation in the striatum are significantly reduced in rats with neuronal over-expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). Two hypotheses are derived from that study. Hypothesis A: two subpopulations of pre-synaptic CB1R in corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals exist, one forming and another not forming heteromers with A2AR. Hypothesis B: CB1R are predominantly forming heteromers with A2AR. In the case of hypothesis A, the A2AR might be required for CB1R-A2AR heteromeric signaling, whereas non-heteromeric CB1R activity is inhibited by A2ARs. In the case of hypothesis B, up-regulation of A2ARs may perturb heteromeric stoichiometry, thus reducing CB1R functioning. In any case, pre-synaptic striatal A2AR-CB1R heteromers emerge as important targets of the effects of cannabinoids demonstrated at the neuronal and behavioral level. Read the highlighted article 'Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors' on page 907.

  18. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent vascular responses to purinergic agonists adenosine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate in the anesthetized mouse.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mrugeshkumar K; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism by which purinergic agonist adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) decrease systemic arterial pressure in the anesthetized mouse was investigated. Intravenous injections of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) produced dose-dependent decreases in systemic blood pressure in the mouse. The order of potency was ATP > UTP. Vasodilator responses to ATP and UTP were altered by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram. The vascular responses to ATP and UTP were not altered by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or a particular P2 receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ATP and UTP cause a decrease in systemic arterial pressure in the mouse via a cAMP-dependent pathway via a novel P2 receptor linked to adenylate cyclase and that nitric oxide release, prostaglandin synthesis, cGMP, and P2X1, P2Y1, and P2Y4 receptors play little or no role in the vascular effects of these purinergic agonists in the mouse.

  19. Adenosine stimulates Ca2+ fluxes and increases cytosolic free Ca2+ in cultured rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, A; López-Rivas, A; López-Novoa, J M

    1992-01-01

    Adenosine has been associated with cellular Ca2+ metabolism in some cell types. Since adenosine is able to contract glomerular mesangial cells in culture, and since Ca2+ is the main messenger mediating contractile responses, we studied the effect of adenosine on 45Ca2+ movements into and out of mesangial cells and on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Adenosine at 0.1 mM increased 45Ca2+ uptake (basal, 9993 +/- 216; + adenosine, 14823 +/- 410 d.p.m./mg; P less than 0.01) through verapamil-sensitive Ca2+ channels. These channels seem to be of the A1-adenosine receptor subtype. Adenosine also stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from 45Ca(2+)-loaded mesangial cells. This effect was accompanied by a net depletion of intracellular 45Ca2+ content under isotopic equilibrium conditions (basal, 24213 +/- 978; + adenosine, 18622 +/- 885 d.p.m./mg; P less than 0.05). The increase in 45Ca2+ efflux was inhibited by a Ca(2+)-free medium or in the presence of 10 microM-verapamil. However, the intracellular Ca(2+)-release blocker TMB-8 (10 microM) only partially inhibited the adenosine-stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux. In addition, adenosine induced an elevation in [Ca2+]i in mesangial cells with an initial transient peak within 15 s (basal, 113 +/- 7; adenosine, 345 +/- 46 nM), and a secondary increase which was slower (3-4 min) and of lower magnitude than the initial peak (250 +/- 21 nM). In summary, adenosine elevates [Ca2+]i and stimulates both Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular pool and Ca2+ efflux from intracellular pools in mesangial cells. The Ca2+ release from internal stores is produced by a combination of a TMB-8-inhibitable and a non-TMB-8-inhibitable mechanism, and seems to be dependent on Ca2+ influx. PMID:1554371

  20. Estimation of skeletal muscle interstitial adenosine during forearm dynamic exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, F.; Heusinkveld, J.; Ballog, R.; Davis, S.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that adenosine is a metabolic signal that triggers activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex. Furthermore, exogenous adenosine induces sympathetic activation that mimics the exercise pressor reflex, and blockade of adenosine receptors inhibits sympathetic activation induced by exercise. Thus, we hypothesize that adenosine is released locally by the muscle during exercise. We used microdialysis probes, placed in the flexor digitorium superficialis muscle, to estimate muscle interstitial adenosine levels in humans. We estimated resting in vivo muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations (0.292+/-0.058 micromol/L, n=4) by perfusing increasing concentrations of adenosine to determine the gradient produced in the dialysate. Muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations increased from 0.23+/-0.04 to 0.82+/-0.14 micromol/L (n=14, P<0.001) during intermittent dynamic exercise at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. Lactate increased from 0.8+/-0.1 to 2.3+/-0.3 mmol/L (P<0.001). Lower intensity (15% maximal voluntary contraction) intermittent dynamic exercise increased adenosine concentrations from 0.104+/-0.02 to 0.42+/-0.16 micromol/L (n=7). The addition of ischemia to this low level of exercise produced a greater increase in adenosine (from 0.095+/-0.02 to 0.48+/-0.2 micromol/L) compared with nonischemic exercise (0. 095+/-0.02 to 0.25+/-0.12 micromol/L). These results indicate that microdialysis is useful in estimating adenosine concentrations and in reflecting changes in muscle interstitial adenosine during dynamic exercise in humans.

  1. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  2. The plant Ca2+ -ATPase repertoire: biochemical features and physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Bonza, M C; De Michelis, M I

    2011-05-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases are P-type ATPases that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump Ca(2+) from the cytoplasm into intracellular compartments or into the apoplast. Plant cells possess two types of Ca(2+) -pumping ATPase, named ECAs (for ER-type Ca(2+)-ATPase) and ACAs (for auto-inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase). Each type comprises different isoforms, localised on different membranes. Here, we summarise available knowledge of the biochemical characteristics and the physiological role of plant Ca(2+)-ATPases, greatly improved after gene identification, which allows both biochemical analysis of single isoforms through heterologous expression in yeast and expression profiling and phenotypic analysis of single isoform knock-out mutants.

  3. [Structure and function of heavy metal transporter P(1B)-ATPase in plant: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiu; Zhang, Yuanya; Sun, Tao; Chai, Tuanyao

    2010-06-01

    The regulation of the heavy-metal accumulation in vivo for plant survival is very complex. The metal cation transporter plays key roles in the metabolic process. P(1B)-ATPases are the only subgroup of P-ATPases that contribute to heavy metal homeostasis presented in most organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana contains eight genes encoding P(1B)-ATPases. The current reports show that the functions of P(1B)-ATPases are involved in maintaining metal homeostasis, transporting and detoxification in plants. P(1B)-ATPases not only mediated metal ion mobilization and uptake in roots, but also contribute to the metal transport, storage and tolerance in shoots, especially in heavy metal hyperaccumulators. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed the evolution, classification, structure and function of P(1B)-ATPases in plants. HMAs-transgenic manipulation could be a feasible approach for phytoremediation and mineral nutrition fortification.

  4. The Chromodomains of the Chd1 Chromatin Remodeler Regulate DNA Access to the ATPase Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hauk, G.; McKnight, J; Nodelman, I; Bowman, G

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.

  5. Modulation of adenosine signaling prevents scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Josiane Woutheres; Melo, Gabriela Madalena de; Cognato, Giana de Paula; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-02-01

    Adenosine, a purine ribonucleoside, exhibits neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects in the brain and is involved in memory formation and cognitive function. Adenosine signaling is mediated by adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3); in turn, nucleotide and nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes and adenosine transporters regulate its levels. Scopolamine, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, has profound amnesic effects in a variety of learning paradigms and has been used to induce cognitive deficits in animal models. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to caffeine (a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors A1 and A2A), ZM 241385 (adenosine receptor A2A antagonist), DPCPX (adenosine receptor A1 antagonist), dipyridamole (inhibitor of nucleoside transporters) and EHNA (inhibitor of adenosine deaminase) in a model of pharmacological cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in adult zebrafish. Caffeine, ZM 241385, DPCPX, dipyridamole, and EHNA were acutely administered independently via i.p. in zebrafish, followed by exposure to scopolamine dissolved in tank water (200μM). These compounds prevented the scopolamine-induced amnesia without impacting locomotor activity or social interaction. Together, these data support the hypothesis that adenosine signaling may modulate memory processing, suggesting that these compounds present a potential preventive strategy against cognitive impairment.

  6. Adenosine induces apoptosis through TNFR1/RIPK1/P38 axis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shunji; Hou, Daisen; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Lv, Bin; Ma, Yunfang; Liu, Fuchen; Liu, Hui; Song, Evelyn J; Yang, Dongqin; Liu, Jie

    2015-05-08

    Adenosine, a metabolite of ATP, ubiquitously exists in a wide range of organs and tissues. We previously reported that adenosine was implicated in apoptosis in many cancer cells by extrinsic and/or intrinsic pathways. Here, we found that adenosine suppresses the cell growth by induction of apoptosis of human colonic cancer cells through a novel mechanism. Adenosine suppresses the cell growth of human SW620 and SW480 colon cells in an adenosine transporter and adenosine kinase dependent manner. Moreover, the cell growth suppression is induced by apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 and PARP, and accumulation of ROS in cells. Importantly, we found that adenosine increases the expression of TNFR1 and RIPK1 and the phosphorylation of p38. Knockdown of TNFR1 or RIPK1 impairs the activation of p38, blocks the cleavage of PARP, and provides partially, yet significantly protection from cell death, including reducing the ROS generation in the colon cancer cells. These results indicate that a TNFR1/RIPK1/P38 axis is present in adenosine-induced apoptosis of colonic cancer cells. This axis triggers apoptosis and plays crucial roles in relay of the death signaling. Our study also provides additional experimental evidence for adenosine as a potent therapeutic drug in cancer therapy.

  7. Adenosine deaminase deficiency with normal immune function. An acidic enzyme mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Daddona, P E; Mitchell, B S; Meuwissen, H J; Davidson, B L; Wilson, J M; Koller, C A

    1983-01-01

    In most instances, marked deficiency of the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase results in lymphopenia and severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Over a 2-yr period, we studied a white male child with markedly deficient erythrocyte and lymphocyte adenosine deaminase activity and normal immune function. We have documented that (a) adenosine deaminase activity and immunoreactive protein are undetectable in erythrocytes, 0.9% of normal in lymphocytes, 4% in cultured lymphoblasts, and 14% in skin fibroblasts; (b) plasma adenosine and deoxyadenosine levels are undetectable and deoxy ATP levels are only slightly elevated in lymphocytes and in erythrocytes; (c) no defect in deoxyadenosine metabolism is present in the proband's cultured lymphoblasts; (d) lymphoblast adenosine deaminase has normal enzyme kinetics, absolute specific activity, S20,w, pH optimum, and heat stability; and (e) the proband's adenosine deaminase exhibits a normal apparent subunit molecular weight but an abnormal isoelectric pH. In contrast to the three other adenosine deaminase-deficient healthy subjects who have been described, the proband is unique in demonstrating an acidic, heat-stable protein mutation of the enzyme that is associated with less than 1% lymphocyte adenosine deaminase activity. Residual adenosine deaminase activity in tissues other than lymphocytes may suffice to metabolize the otherwise lymphotoxic enzyme substrate(s) and account for the preservation of normal immune function. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6603477

  8. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  9. A Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity in subcellular fractions from Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V M; de Souza, W; Noël, F

    1988-12-05

    A Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity was found in subcellular fractions from Schistosoma mansoni. Its specific and relative activities were higher in the heterogeneous cuticle fraction and in the microsomal fraction. The K0.5 for ATPase activation by free Ca2+ was 0.2-0.5 microM. This is the first description of an ATPase activity stimulated by Ca2+ in the micromolar range in S. mansoni.

  10. Biochemical characterization of a V-ATPase of tracheal smooth muscle plasma membrane fraction.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, G; Lippo de Bécemberg, I; Gonzalez de Alfonzo, R; Alfonzo, M J

    1996-07-25

    A biochemical characterization of a Mg(2+)-ATPase activity associated with a plasma membrane fraction isolated from airway (tracheal) smooth muscle was performed. This enzyme is an integral part of the membrane remaining tightly bound after 0.6 M KCl extraction. This enzyme activity showed a cold inactivation in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. Also, this Mg(2+)-ATPase was stimulated by monovalent anions being Cl-, the best anion for such stimulation, even though Br- and I- were good substitutes and F- was ineffective. This Cl--stimulated activity showed a powerful nucleosidetriphosphatase activity having the following divalent cation specificity: Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Ca2+, where Zn2+ and Fe2+ were ineffective. This ATPase activity was not inhibited by ouabain oligomycin C and vanadate indicating that neither P- or F-ATPases were associated with this enzyme activity. However, the existence of a V-ATPase was shown by the significant inhibition causes by bafilomycin A1. Additionally, this V-ATPase seems to be coupled to Cl- conductor because duramycin inhibited this ATPase activity. The presence of a H+ pump associated to this V-ATPase was shown indirectly, through the stimulatory effect produced by uncouplers such as FCCP and 1799, which were able to produce significant stimulation of this V-ATPase indicating the existence of a H(+)-ATPase. Finally, the immunodetection of a 72 kDa polypeptide using a specific antibody against the A subunit (72 kDa) of V-ATPase from chromaffin granule demonstrated the presence of a V-ATPase in this plasma membrane fraction.

  11. Intracoronary adenosine versus intravenous adenosine during primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: which one offers better outcomes in terms of microvascular obstruction?

    PubMed

    Doolub, Gemina; Dall'armellina, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Previous studies have suggested that intravenous administration of adenosine improves myocardial reperfusion and reduces infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Intracoronary administration of adenosine has shown conflicting results. Methods. In this retrospective, single-centre, blinded clinical study, we assessed whether selective intracoronary administration of adenosine distal to the occlusion site immediately before initial balloon inflation reduces microvascular obstruction (MVO) as assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using contrast-enhanced sequences, microvascular obstruction (MVO) was calculated. We found 81 patients presenting with STEMI within 12 h from symptom onset who were eligible for the study. In 80/81 (100%) patients receiving the study drug, MRI was performed on Day 1 after primary angioplasty. Results. The prevalence of MVO was reduced in the patients treated with intracoronary adenosine, (45%) compared to 85% of patients who were administered intravenous adenosine (P = 0.0043). We found that the size of MVO in patients receiving intracoronary adenosine was significantly reduced compared to 0.91 g in the intravenous-treated group (P = 0.027). There was no statistically significant difference in TIMI flow and clinical outcomes after primary PCI. Conclusion. We found significant evidence that selective high-dose intracoronary administration of adenosine distal to the occlusion site of the culprit lesion in STEMI patients results in a decrease in microvascular obstruction.

  12. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases—Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens P.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Mogensen, Louise S.; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase by exoplasmic K+. How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca2+ in the opposite direction in the Ca2+-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca2+- and Na+/K+-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association with the

  13. ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane in patients with trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Xue, Q M; Shen, D G; Dong, W

    1984-11-01

    ATPase activity of crythroyte membranes was determined in 25 cases of Down's syndrome verified by cytological and psychological examinations. The age range of the patients was 8-25 years; 16 males and 9 females. Thirty health male volunteers were selected as the control group. There was a marked reduction of total ATPase, Na+, K+-ATPase, Mg++ATPase activities and rate of ouabain inhibition in the patients with Down's syndrome. The authors suggest that there might exist transport defects in the red cell membranes in such patients.

  14. Regulation of branchial V-H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NHE2 in response to acid and base infusions in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katoh, Fumi; Fenton, Heather; Jasinska, Edyta; Goss, Greg G

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of branchial acid-base regulation, Pacific spiny dogfish were infused intravenously for 24 h with either HCl (495+/- 79 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or NaHCO(3) (981+/-235 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Infusion of HCl produced a transient reduction in blood pH. Despite continued infusion of acid, pH returned to normal by 12 h. Infusion of NaHCO(3) resulted in a new steady-state acid-base status at approximately 0.3 pH units higher than the controls. Immunostained serial sections of gill revealed the presence of separate vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase)-rich or sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)-rich cells in all fish examined. A minority of the cells also labeled positive for both transporters. Gill cell membranes prepared from NaHCO(3)-infused fish showed significant increases in both V-H(+)-ATPase abundance (300+/-81%) and activity. In addition, we found that V-H(+)-ATPase subcellular localization was mainly cytoplasmic in control and HCl-infused fish, while NaHCO(3)-infused fish demonstrated a distinctly basolateral staining pattern. Western analysis in gill membranes from HCl-infused fish also revealed increased abundance of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 2 (213+/-5%) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (315+/-88%) compared to the control.

  15. Recovery from blood alkalosis in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii): involvement of gill V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Goss, Greg G

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the base secretory mechanisms in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii), we injected animals with NaHCO3 into the subcutaneous sinus. In the first series of experiments, hagfish were injected with 6000 micromol kg(-1) NaHCO3 (base-infused hagfish, BIH) or NaCl (controls). Blood pH increased significantly 1 h after injection in BIH (8.05+/-0.05 vs. 7.82+/-0.03 pH units), but returned to control values by t=6 h. Plasma total CO2 (TCO2) followed the same pattern. Immunolabeled sections revealed that Na+/K+-ATPase and V-H+-ATPase were usually located in the same cells. Western blotting revealed that the abundance of both proteins remained unchanged in whole gill homogenates and in a fraction enriched in cell membranes 6 h after the injections. The second experimental series was to induce long-term alkalosis by serially injecting 6000 micromol kg(-1) NaHCO3 every 6 h for 24 h. Blood pH completely recovered from the base loads within 6 h after each injection. Moreover, plasma TCO2 was not elevated 3 h after the second infusion, suggesting that HCO3(-) secreting mechanisms had been upregulated by that time. Na+/K+-ATPase and V-H+-ATPase cellular localizations did not change in the 24 h base infusion protocol. Na+/K+-ATPase abundance was similar in gill homogenates from fish from both treatments. However, Na+/K+-ATPase abundance in the membrane fraction was significantly lower in BIH, while V-H+-ATPase was greater both in whole gill and membrane fractions. Our results suggest that differential insertion of V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase into the basolateral membrane is involved in recovering from alkalotic stress in hagfish.

  16. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing meets cancer.

    PubMed

    Dominissini, Dan; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2011-11-01

    The role of epigenetics in tumor onset and progression has been extensively addressed. Discoveries in the last decade completely changed our view on RNA. We now realize that its diversity lies at the base of biological complexity. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing emerges a central generator of transcriptome diversity and regulation in higher eukaryotes. It is the posttranscriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA catalyzed by enzymes of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family. Thought at first to be restricted to coding regions of only a few genes, recent bioinformatic analyses fueled by high-throughput sequencing revealed that it is a widespread modification affecting mostly non-coding repetitive elements in thousands of genes. The rise in scope is accompanied by discovery of a growing repertoire of functions based on differential decoding of inosine by the various cellular machineries: when recognized as guanosine, it can lead to protein recoding, alternative splicing or altered microRNA specificity; when recognized by inosine-binding proteins, it can result in nuclear retention of the transcript or its degradation. An imbalance in expression of ADAR enzymes with consequent editing dysregulation is a characteristic of human cancers. These alterations may be responsible for activating proto-oncogenes or inactivating tumor suppressors. While unlikely to be an early initiating 'hit', editing dysregulation seems to contribute to tumor progression and thus should be considered a 'driver mutation'. In this review, we examine the contribution of A-to-I RNA editing to carcinogenesis.

  17. Evidence for a substrate cycle between AMP and adenosine in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bontemps, F; Van den Berghe, G; Hers, H G

    1983-01-01

    The effect of adenosine on the metabolism of prelabeled adenine nucleotides was investigated in isolated hepatocytes. Adenosine caused an approximately equal to 2-fold increase in the ATP content of the cells. This effect was in part counteracted by an increased rate of adenine nucleotide catabolism that could be explained by a stimulation of both AMP deaminase (AMP aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.6) and the cytoplasmic 5'-nucleotidase (5'-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.5) because of the increased concentration of ATP. The unexpected finding that labeled adenosine was formed immediately after the addition of the unlabeled nucleoside could be explained by the trapping effect of adenosine. An accumulation of labeled adenosine was observed also in the presence of 5-iodotubercidin, a potent inhibitor of adenosine kinase (ATP:adenosine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.20). Under these conditions, there was a decrease in the concentration of ATP in the cell and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the rate of formation of allantoin. This formation of adenosine was only slightly decreased by inhibition of the membranous 5'-nucleotidase; it led to the accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine in the presence of coformycin and an excess of L-homocysteine. It was concluded that, under basal conditions, the cytoplasmic 5'-nucleotidase present in the liver cell continuously produces adenosine, which is immediately reconverted into AMP by adenosine kinase, without giving rise to allantoin. This futile cycle between AMP and adenosine amounts to at least 20 nmol/min per g of liver and, thus, exceeds the basic rate of allantoin formation. PMID:6304684

  18. Effect of phentolamine on the hyperemic response to adenosine in patients with microvascular disease.

    PubMed

    Aarnoudse, Wilbert; Geven, Maartje; Barbato, Emanuele; Botman, Kees-joost; De Bruyne, Bernard; Pijls, Nico H J

    2005-12-15

    For accurate measurement of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of the myocardium, the presence of maximum hyperemia is of paramount importance. It has been suggested that the hyperemic effect of the conventionally used hyperemic stimulus, adenosine, could be submaximal in patients who have microvascular dysfunction and that adding alpha-blocking agents could augment the hyperemic response in these patients. We studied the effect of the nonselective alpha-blocking agent phentolamine, which was administered in addition to adenosine after achieving hyperemia, in patients who had microvascular disease and those who did not. Thirty patients who were referred for percutaneous coronary intervention were selected. Of these 30 patients, 15 had strong indications for microvascular disease and 15 did not. FFR was measured using intracoronary adenosine, intravenous adenosine, and intracoronary papaverine before and after intracoronary administration of the nonselective alpha blocker phentolamine. In patients who did not have microvascular disease, no differences in hyperemic response to adenosine were noted, whether or not alpha blockade was given before adenosine administration; FFR levels before and after phentolamine were 0.76 and 0.75, respectively, using intracoronary adenosine (p = 0.10) and 0.75 and 0.74, respectively, using intravenous adenosine (p = 0.20). In contrast, in patients who had microvascular disease, some increase in hyperemic response was observed after administration of phentolamine; FFR levels decreased from 0.74 to 0.70 using intracoronary adenosine (p = 0.003) and from 0.75 to 0.72 using intravenous adenosine (p = 0.04). Although statistically significant, the observed further decrease in microvascular resistance after addition of phentolamine was small and did not affect clinical decision making in any patient. In conclusion, when measuring FFR, routinely adding an alpha-blocking agent to adenosine does not affect clinical decision making.

  19. Adenosine signaling contributes to ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongsheng; Borea, Pier Andrea; Wilder, Tuere; Yee, Herman; Chiriboga, Luis; Blackburn, Michael R.; Azzena, Gianfranco; Resta, Giuseppe; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver is commonly associated with alcohol ingestion and abuse. While the molecular pathogenesis of these fatty changes is well understood, the biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms by which ethanol stimulates these molecular changes remain unknown. During ethanol metabolism, adenosine is generated by the enzyme ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and adenosine production and adenosine receptor activation are known to play critical roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. We therefore investigated whether adenosine and its receptors play a role in the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver. WT mice fed ethanol on the Lieber-DeCarli diet developed hepatic steatosis, including increased hepatic triglyceride content, while mice lacking ecto-5′-nucleotidase or adenosine A1 or A2B receptors were protected from developing fatty liver. Similar protection was also seen in WT mice treated with either an adenosine A1 or A2B receptor antagonist. Steatotic livers demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A1 receptors, and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A2B receptors. In vitro studies supported roles for adenosine A1 receptors in promoting fatty acid synthesis and for A2B receptors in decreasing fatty acid metabolism. These results indicate that adenosine generated by ethanol metabolism plays an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis via both A1 and A2B receptors and suggest that targeting adenosine receptors may be effective in the prevention of alcohol-induced fatty liver. PMID:19221436

  20. Evidence for an A2/Ra adenosine receptor in the guinea-pig trachea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C.M.; Collis, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    1 An attempt was made to determine whether the extracellular adenosine receptor that mediates relaxation in the guinea-pig trachea is of the A1/Ri or A2/Ra subtype. 2 Dose-response curves to adenosine and a number of 5′- and N6-substituted analogues were constructed for the isolated guinea-pig trachea, contracted with carbachol. 3 The 5′-substituted analogues of adenosine were the most potent compounds tested, the order of potency being 5′-N-cyclopropylcarboxamide adenosine (NCPCA) > 5′-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) > 2-chloroadenosine > L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA) > adenosine > D-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (D-PIA). 4 The difference in potency between the stereoisomers D- and L-PIA on the isolated trachea was at the most five fold. 5 Responses to low doses of adenosine and its analogues were attenuated after treatment with either theophylline or 8-phenyltheophylline. The responses to 2-chloroadenosine were affected to a lesser extent than were those to the other purines. 6 Adenosine transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and dilazep, potentiated responses to adenosine, did not affect those to NCPCA, NECA, L-PIA and D-PIA but significantly reduced the responses to high doses of 2-chloroadenosine. 7 Relaxations evoked by 9-β-D-xylofuranosyladenosine which can activate intracellular but not extracellular adenosine receptors, were attenuated by dipyridamole but unaffected by 8-phenyltheophylline. 8 The results support the existence of an extracellular A2/Ra subtype of adenosine receptor and an intracellular purine-sensitive site, both of which mediate relaxation. PMID:6286021

  1. Characterization of spontaneous, transient adenosine release in the caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael D; Lee, Scott T; Ross, Ashley E; Ryals, Matthew; Choudhry, Vishesh I; Venton, B Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuroprotective agent that inhibits neuronal activity and modulates neurotransmission. Previous research has shown adenosine gradually accumulates during pathologies such as stroke and regulates neurotransmission on the minute-to-hour time scale. Our lab developed a method using carbon-fiber microelectrodes to directly measure adenosine changes on a sub-second time scale with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Recently, adenosine release lasting a couple of seconds has been found in murine spinal cord slices. In this study, we characterized spontaneous, transient adenosine release in vivo, in the caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex of anesthetized rats. The average concentration of adenosine release was 0.17±0.01 µM in the caudate and 0.19±0.01 µM in the prefrontal cortex, although the range was large, from 0.04 to 3.2 µM. The average duration of spontaneous adenosine release was 2.9±0.1 seconds and 2.8±0.1 seconds in the caudate and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The concentration and number of transients detected do not change over a four hour period, suggesting spontaneous events are not caused by electrode implantation. The frequency of adenosine transients was higher in the prefrontal cortex than the caudate-putamen and was modulated by A1 receptors. The A1 antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 6 mg/kg i.p.) increased the frequency of spontaneous adenosine release, while the A1 agonist CPA (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, 1 mg/kg i.p.) decreased the frequency. These findings are a paradigm shift for understanding the time course of adenosine signaling, demonstrating that there is a rapid mode of adenosine signaling that could cause transient, local neuromodulation.

  2. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  3. Adenosine receptor expression and function in rat striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Preston, Z; Lee, K; Widdowson, L; Freeman, T C; Dixon, A K; Richardson, P J

    2000-06-01

    Cholinergic neurons were identified in rat striatal slices by their size, membrane properties, sensitivity to the NK(1) receptor agonist (Sar(9), Met(O(2))(11)) Substance P, and expression of choline acetyltransferase mRNA. A(1) receptor mRNA was detected in 60% of the neurons analysed, and A(2A) receptor mRNA in 67% (n=15). The A(1) receptor agonist R-N(6)-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA) hyperpolarized cholinergic neurons in a concentration dependent manner sensitive to the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 100 nM). In dual stimulus experiments, the A(2A) receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC, 500 nM) decreased release of [(3)H]-acetylcholine from striatal slices (S2/S1 0.78+/-0.07 versus 0.95+/-0.05 in control), as did adenosine deaminase (S2/S1 ratio 0.69+/-0.05), whereas the A(1) receptor antagonist DPCPX (100 nM) had no effect (S2/S1 1.05+/-0.14). In the presence of adenosine deaminase the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-((carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadeno sin e (CGS21680, 10 nM) increased release (S2/S1 ratio 1.03+/-0.05 versus 0.88+/-0.05 in control), an effect blocked by the antagonist CSC (500 nM, S2/S1 0.68+/-0.05, versus 0.73+/-0.08 with CSC alone). The combined superfusion of bicuculline (10 microM), saclofen (1 microM) and naloxone (10 microM) had no effect on the stimulation by CGS21680 (S2/S1 ratio 0.99+/-0.04). The A(1) receptor agonist R-PIA (100 nM) inhibited the release of [(3)H]-acetylcholine (S2/S1 ratio 0.70+/-0.03), an effect blocked by DPCPX (S2/S1 ratio 1.06+/-0.07). It is concluded that both A(1) and A(2A) receptors are expressed on striatal cholinergic neurons where they are functionally active.

  4. Adenosine conjugated lipidic nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Naidu, V G M; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Delivering chemotherapeutics by nanoparticles into tumor is impeded majorly by two factors: nonspecific targeting and inefficient penetration. Targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents solely to tumor cells introduces a smart strategy because it enhances the therapeutic index compared with untargeted drugs. The present study was performed to investigate the efficiency of adenosine (ADN) to target solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to over expressing adenosine receptor cell lines such as human breast cancer and prostate cancer (MCF-7 and DU-145 cells), respectively. SLN were prepared by emulsification and solvent evaporation process using docetaxel (DTX) as drug and were characterized by various techniques like dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimeter and transmission electron microscopy. DTX loaded SLNs were surface modified with ADN, an adenosine receptors ligand using carbodiimide coupling. Conjugation was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy and quantified using phenol-sulfuric acid method. Conjugated SLN were shown to have sustained drug release as compared to unconjugated nanoparticles and drug suspension. Compared with free DTX and unconjugated SLN, ADN conjugated SLN showed significantly higher cytotoxicity of loaded DTX, as evidenced by in vitro cell experiments. The IC50 was 0.41 μg/ml for native DTX, 0.30 μg/ml for unconjugated SLN formulation, and 0.09 μg/ml for ADN conjugated SLN formulation in MCF-7 cell lines. Whereas, in DU-145, there was 2 fold change in IC50 of ADN-SLN as compared to DTX. IC50 was found to be 0.44 μg/ml for free DTX, 0.39 μg/ml for unconjugated SLN and 0.22 μg/ml for ADN-SLN. Annexin assay and cell cycle analysis assay further substantiated the cell cytotoxicity. Fluorescent cell uptake and competitive ligand-receptor binding assay corroborated the receptor mediated endocytosis pathway indicated role of adenosine receptors in internalization of conjugated particles. Pharmacokinetic studies of lipidic

  5. Ribosome-inactivating lectins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Barbieri, L; Bolognesi, A; Buonamici, L; Valbonesi, P; Polito, L; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Stirpe, F

    1997-05-26

    Lectins from Aegopodium podagraria (APA), Bryonia dioica (BDA), Galanthus nivalis (GNA), Iris hybrid (IRA) and Sambucus nigra (SNAI), and a new lectin-related protein from Sambucus nigra (SNLRP) were studied to ascertain whether they had the properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP). IRA and SNLRP inhibited protein synthesis by a cell-free system and, at much higher concentrations, by cells and had polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity, thus behaving like non-toxic type 2 (two chain) RIP. APA and SNAI had much less activity, and BDA and GNA did not inhibit protein synthesis.

  6. The Probable Pathogenic Role of Adenosine in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Onabanjo, A. O.; Maegraith, B. G.

    1970-01-01

    An increase in concentration of 0·14 mg./ml. of adenosine was demonstrated in the blood of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi at the advanced stages of the infection. The recorded increase may help to explain the physiological and pathological changes that occur in malaria, especially in relation to the dynamic and permeability functions of the smaller blood vessels. It is, however, suggested that the release of this agent into the circulation in greater concentration in the acute stages of malarial infection, could probably play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:4992731

  7. Does a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPase contribute to hepatic microsomal calcium uptake?

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, S; Söling, H D

    1987-01-01

    Solubilization of microsomal proteins followed by calmodulin affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of two distinct Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPases (Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPases), one being insensitive to calmodulin (ATPase-1), the other being stimulated about 5-fold by calmodulin (ATPase-2). ATPase-2 accounts for only 8% of total microsomal Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase-activity. ATPase-1 and -2 can also be distinguished by different pH optima, different sensitivity towards inhibition by vanadate and LaCl3, and different apparent Mr values of the phosphoenzyme intermediates (115,000 and 150,000 for ATPase-1 and ATPase-2 respectively). ATPase-1 from liver co-migrated with Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase from rat skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas ATPase-2 from liver co-migrated with calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase derived from rat skeletal-muscle sarcolemma. After separation of parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells, a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase of Mr 150,000 was found only in the non-parenchymal cells. The kinetic parameters of ATPase-2 and the similarity of the apparent Mr of its phosphoenzyme intermediate to that of skeletal-muscle sarcolemma Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase makes it likely that the calmodulin-sensitive Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase found in rat liver microsomal fractions reflects a contamination with plasma membranes (possibly from non-parenchymal cells) rather than a true location in the endoplasmic reticulum of parenchymal liver cells. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2959269

  8. Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2011-05-03

    F(o)F(1)-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded F(o) generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F(1). Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F(1) catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F(1) torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F(1)-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F(1) shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F(1) energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F(1)-ATPase.

  9. Proton accumulation and ATPase activity in Golgi apparatus-enriched vesicles from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.I.; van Rossum, G.D. )

    1991-03-01

    We have studied the mechanism by which liver Golgi apparatus maintains the acidity of its contents, using a subcellular fraction from rat liver highly enriched in Golgi marker enzymes. Proton accumulation (measured by quenching of acridine-orange fluorescence) and anion-dependent ATPase were characterized and compared. Maximal ATPase and proton accumulation required ATP; GTP and other nucleotides gave 10% to 30% of maximal activity. Among anions, Cl- and Br- approximately doubled the activities; others were much less effective. Half-maximal increase of ATPase and H+ uptake required 55 mmol/L and 27 mmol/L Cl-, respectively. In predominantly chloride media, SCN- and NO3- markedly inhibited H+ uptake. Nitrate competitively inhibited both the chloride-dependent ATPase (apparent Ki 6 mmol/L) and proton uptake (apparent Ki 2 mmol/L). Nitrate and SCN- also inhibited uptake of 36Cl. Replacing K+ with Na+ had no effect on the initial rate of proton uptake but somewhat reduced the steady state attained. Replacement of K+ with NH4+ and choline reduced proton uptake without affecting ATPase. The ATPase and H+ uptake were supported equally well by Mg2+ or Mn2+. The ATPase was competitively inhibited by 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (apparent Ki 39 mumol/L). Other agents inhibiting both H+ uptake and ATPase were N-ethylmaleimide, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, chlorpromazine, diethylstilbestrol, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+. In the Cl- medium, accumulated protons were released by ionophores at the relative rates, monensin = nigericin greater than valinomycin greater than carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone; the last of these also reduced ATPase activity. In the absence of Cl-, monensin and valinomycin both stimulated the ATPase. These results show a close association between ATPase activity and acidification of liver Golgi vesicles.

  10. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Monomers of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase catalyze efficient proton translocation.

    PubMed

    Goormaghtigh, E; Chadwick, C; Scarborough, G A

    1986-06-05

    Liposomes prepared by sonication of asolectin were fractionated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation, and the small liposomes contained in the upper region of the gradients were used for reconstitution of purified, radiolabeled Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase molecules by our previously published procedures. The reconstituted liposomes were then subjected to two additional rounds of glycerol density gradient centrifugation, which separate the H+-ATPase-bearing proteoliposomes from ATPase-free liposomes by virtue of their greater density. The isolated H+-ATPase-bearing proteoliposomes in two such preparations exhibited a specific H+-ATPase activity of about 11 mumol of Pi liberated/mg of protein/min, which was approximately doubled in the presence of nigericin plus K+, indicating that a large percentage of the H+-ATPase molecules in both preparations were capable of generating a transmembrane protonic potential difference sufficient to impede further proton translocation. Importantly, quantitation of the number of 105,000-dalton ATPase monomers and liposomes in the same preparations by radioactivity determination and counting of negatively stained images in the electron microscope indicated ATPase monomer to liposome ratios of 0.97 and 1.06. Because every liposome in the preparations must have had at least one ATPase monomer, these ratios indicate that very few of the liposomes had more than one, and simple calculations show that the great majority of active ATPase molecules in the preparations must have been present as proton-translocating monomers. The results thus clearly demonstrate that 105,000-dalton monomers of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase can catalyze efficient ATP hydrolysis-driven proton translocation.

  12. Function-related positioning of the type II secretion ATPase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Lin; Hu, Nien-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use the type II secretion (T2S) system to secrete exoproteins for attacking animal or plant cells or to obtain nutrients from the environment. The system is unique in helping folded proteins traverse the outer membrane. The secretion machine comprises multiple proteins spanning the cell envelope and a cytoplasmic ATPase. Activity of the ATPase, when copurified with the cytoplasmic domain of an interactive ATPase partner, is stimulated by an acidic phospholipid, suggesting the membrane-associated ATPase is actively engaged in secretion. How the stimulated ATPase activity is terminated when secretion is complete is unclear. We fused the T2S ATPase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot in the crucifers, with fluorescent protein and found that the ATPase in secretion-proficient cells was mainly diffused in cytoplasm. Focal spots at the cell periphery were detectable only in a few cells. The discrete foci were augmented in abundance and intensity when the secretion channel was depleted and the exoprotein overproduced. The foci abundance was inversely related to secretion efficiency of the secretion channel. Restored function of the secretion channel paralleled reduced ATPase foci abundance. The ATPase foci colocalized with the secretion channel. The ATPase may be transiently associated with the T2S machine by alternating between a cytoplasmic and a machine-associated state in a secretion-dependent manner. This provides a logical means for terminating the ATPase activity when secretion is completed. Function-related dynamic assembly may be the essence of the T2S machine.

  13. The Gastric H,K ATPase as a Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, George; Shin, Jai Moo; Vagin, Olga; Lambrecht, Nils; Yakubov, Iskandar; Munson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The recent progress in therapy if acid disease has relied heavily on the performance of drugs targeted against the H,K ATPase of the stomach and the H2 receptor antagonists. It has become apparent in the last decade that the proton pump is the target that has the likelihood of being the most sustainable area of therapeutic application in the regulation of acid suppression. The process of activation of acid secretion requires a change in location of the ATPase from cytoplasmic tubules into the microvilli of the secretory canaliculus of the parietal cell. Stimulation of the resting parietal cell, with involvement of F-actin and ezrin does not use significant numbers of SNARE proteins, because their message is depleted in the pure parietal cell transcriptome. The cell morphology and gene expression suggest a tubule fusion-eversion event. As the active H,K ATPase requires efflux of KCl for activity we have, using the transcriptome derived from 99% pure parietal cells and immunocytochemistry, provided evidence that the KCl pathway is mediated by a KCQ1/KCNE2 complex for supplying K+ and CLIC6 for supplying the accompanying Cl−. The pump has been modeled on the basis of the structures of different conformations of the sr Ca ATPase related to the catalytic cycle. These models use the effects of site directed mutations and identification of the binding domain of the K competitive acid pump antagonists or the defined site of binding for the covalent class of proton pump inhibitors. The pump undergoes conformational changes associated with phosphorylation to allow the ion binding site to change exposure from cytoplasmic to luminal exposure. We have been able to postulate that the very low gastric pH is achieved by lysine 791 motion extruding the hydronium ion bound to carboxylates in the middle of the membrane domain. These models also allow description of the K+ entry to form the K+ liganded form of the enzyme and the reformation of the ion site inward conformation thus

  14. Pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidines as adenosine receptor antagonists: Effect of the N-5 bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Bolcato, Chiara; Cusan, Claudia; Pastorin, Giorgia; Cacciari, Barbara; Klotz, Karl Norbert; Morizzo, Erika

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, many efforts have been made to search for potent and selective human A3 adenosine antagonists. In particular, one of the most promising human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists is represented by the pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine family. This class of compounds has been strongly investigated from the point of view of structure-activity relationships. In particular, it has been observed that fundamental requisites for having both potency and selectivity at the human A3 adenosine receptors are the presence of a small substituent at the N8 position and an unsubstitued phenyl carbamoyl moiety at the N5 position. In this study, we report the role of the N5-bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes. The observed structure-activity relationships of this class of antagonists are also exhaustively rationalized using the recently published ligand-based homology modeling approach. PMID:18368532

  15. Transient Delivery of Adenosine as a Novel Therapy to Prevent Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Using silk-based brain implants engineered to release adenosine we demonstrated that reversal of epigenetic changes prevents epileptogenesis. We...biodegradable silk-based brain implants ) to prevent epileptogenesis long term. These findings constitute a novel scientific advance with direct clinical...implications. Specifically, using bioengineered silk- based brain implants we demonstrated that transient delivery of a defined focal dose of adenosine

  16. Beneficial and detrimental role of adenosine signaling in diseases and therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Xia, Yang

    2015-11-15

    Adenosine is a major signaling nucleoside that orchestrates cellular and tissue adaptation under energy depletion and ischemic/hypoxic conditions by activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The regulation and generation of extracellular adenosine in response to stress are critical in tissue protection. Both mouse and human studies reported that extracellular adenosine signaling plays a beneficial role during acute states. However, prolonged excess extracellular adenosine is detrimental and contributes to the development and progression of various chronic diseases. In recent years, substantial progress has been made to understand the role of adenosine signaling in different conditions and to clarify its significance during the course of disease progression in various organs. These efforts have and will identify potential therapeutic possibilities for protection of tissue injury at acute stage by upregulation of adenosine signaling or attenuation of chronic disease progression by downregulation of adenosine signaling. This review is to summarize current progress and the importance of adenosine signaling in different disease stages and its potential therapeutic effects.

  17. Photomodulation of G Protein-Coupled Adenosine Receptors by a Novel Light-Switchable Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The adenosinergic system operates through G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, which have become promising therapeutic targets for a wide range of pathological conditions. However, the ubiquity of adenosine receptors and the eventual lack of selectivity of adenosine-based drugs have frequently diminished their therapeutic potential. Accordingly, here we aimed to develop a new generation of light-switchable adenosine receptor ligands that change their intrinsic activity upon irradiation, thus allowing the spatiotemporal control of receptor functioning (i.e., receptor activation/inactivation dependent on location and timing). Therefore, we synthesized an orthosteric, photoisomerizable, and nonselective adenosine receptor agonist, nucleoside derivative MRS5543 containing an aryl diazo linkage on the N6 substituent, which in the dark (relaxed isomer) behaved as a full adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and partial adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist. Conversely, upon photoisomerization with blue light (460 nm), it remained a full A3R agonist but became an A2AR antagonist. Interestingly, molecular modeling suggested that structural differences encountered within the third extracellular loop of each receptor could modulate the intrinsic, receptor subtype-dependent, activity. Overall, the development of adenosine receptor ligands with photoswitchable activity expands the pharmacological toolbox in support of research and possibly opens new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. PMID:25248077

  18. Role of adenosine in postprandial and reactive hyperemia in canine jejunum.

    PubMed

    Sawmiller, D R; Chou, C C

    1992-10-01

    The role of adenosine in postprandial jejunal hyperemia was investigated by determining the effect of placement of predigested food into the jejunal lumen on blood flow and oxygen consumption before and during intra-arterial infusion of dipyridamole (1.5 microM arterial concn) or adenosine deaminase (9 U/ml arterial concn) in anesthetized dogs. Neither drug significantly altered resting jejunal blood flow and oxygen consumption. Before dipyridamole or deaminase, food placement increased blood flow by 30-36%, 26-42%, and 21-46%, and oxygen consumption by 13-22%, 21-22%, and 26-29%, during 0- to 3-, 4- to 7-, and 8- to 11-min placement periods, respectively. Adenosine deaminase abolished the entire 11-min hyperemia, whereas dipyridamole significantly enhanced the initial 7-min hyperemia (45-49%). Both drugs abolished the initial 7-min food-induced increase in oxygen consumption. Dipyridamole attenuated (14%), whereas deaminase did not alter (28%), the increased oxygen consumption that occurred at 8-11 min. Adenosine deaminase also prevented the food-induced increase in venoarterial adenosine concentration difference. In separate series of experiments, luminal placement of food significantly increased jejunal lymphatic adenosine concentration and release. Also, reactive hyperemia was accompanied by an increase in venous adenosine concentration and release. This study provides further evidence to support the thesis that adenosine plays a role in postprandial and reactive hyperemia in the canine jejunum.

  19. Adenosine phosphonoacetic acid is slowly metabolized by NDP kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Morera, S; Pasti, C; Angusti, A; Solaroli, N; Véron, M; Janin, J; Manfredini, S; Deville-Bonne, D

    2005-11-01

    NDP kinase catalyzes the last step in the phosphorylation of nucleotides. It is also involved in the activation by cellular kinases of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies. Adenosine phosphonoacetic acid, a close analog of ADP already proposed as an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, was found to be a poor substrate for human NDP kinase, as well as a weak inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 0.6 mM to be compared to 0.025 mM for ADP. The X-ray structure of a complex of adenosine phosphonoacetic acid and the NDP kinase from Dictyostelium was determined to 2.0 A resolution showing that the analog adopts a binding mode similar to ADP, but that no magnesium ion is present at the active site. As ACP may also interfere with other cellular kinases, its potential as a drug targeting NDP kinase or ribonucleotide reductase is likely to be limited due to strong side effects. The design of new molecules with a narrower specificity and a stronger affinity will benefit from the detailed knowledge of the complex ACP-NDP kinase.

  20. Sustained release carrier for adenosine triphosphate as signaling molecule.

    PubMed

    Wischke, Christian; Weigel, Judith; Bulavina, Larisa; Lendlein, Andreas

    2014-12-10

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule with a fascinating variety of intracellular and extracellular biological functions that go far beyond energy metabolism. Due to its limited passive diffusion through biological membranes, controlled release systems may allow to interact with ATP-mediated extracellular processes. In this study, two release systems were explored to evaluate the capacity for either long-term or short-term release: (i) Poly[(rac-lactide)-co-glycolide] (PLGA) implant rods were capable of ATP release over days to weeks, depending on the PLGA molecular weight and end-group capping, but were also associated with partial hydrolytic degradation of ATP to ADP and AMP, but not adenosine. (ii) Thermosensitive methylcellulose hydrogels with a gelation occurring at body temperature allowed combining adjustable loading levels and the capacity for injection, with injection forces less than 50N even for small 27G needles. Finally, a first in vitro study illustrated purinergic-triggered response of primary murine microglia to ATP released from hydrogels, demonstrating the potential relevance for biomedical applications.

  1. Appearance of adenosine triphosphate in the coronary sinus effluent from isolated working rat heart in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, M G; Forrester, T

    1981-01-01

    1. A working rat heart preparation was used to study the release of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) into the coronary sinus effluent in response to hypoxia. 2. The left ventricle was set to pump against an hydrostatic pressure of 65 cm water; the left atrial filling pressure was kept constant at 10 cm water. The power output of the heart at these pressures was estimated to be approximately one half of the maximum power development. 3. Samples for ATP assay were collected (a) 30 sec before onset of hypoxia, (b) 60-90 sec after onset of hypoxia, (c) 5 min after restoration of oxygenated buffer solution. Respective concentrations of ATP were (nM +/- S.E.) 0.63 (+/- 0.18), 4.70 (+/- 0.39) and 0.63 (+/- 0.06). The total amounts of ATP detected were (p-mole/min) 5.9 (+/- 0.9), 46.1 (+/- 6.0) and 5.5 (+/- 1.2) respectively. 4. Viability of the hearts was judged to be satisfactory on the following grounds. Alterations in left atrial filling pressure produced typical Frank-Starling responses of the left ventricle. Oxygen extraction from the perfusate increased in response to increased workload. Coronary blood flow increased immediately upon introduction of hypoxic conditions and mechanical recovery from hypoxia was always complete within 5 min of restoring oxygen. 5. In view of the marked extracellular ATPase activity it is concluded that significant vasodilatory concentrations of ATP are released into the myocardial extracellular space in response to hypoxia. A scheme is proposed describing the possible role of adenine nucleotides in the local control of myocardial blood flow. PMID:7264990

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive male rats after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jaqueline S; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Sudo, Roberto T; Wang, Hao; Groban, Leanne; Ferraz, Emanuele B; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Fraga, Carlos Alberto M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Background This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic parameters measured left ventricle (LV) structure and function. Exercise tolerance was evaluated using a treadmill test. Cardiac remodeling was accessed by LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Results Early mitral inflow velocity was significantly reduced in the SHR-MI group, and there was significant recovery in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Exercise intolerance observed in the SHR-MI group was prevented by 10 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASS-Bio-294, and exercise tolerance exceeded that of the SHR-Sham group at 20 mg.kg−1.d−1. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI, and this was prevented by 10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASSBio-294. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase levels were restored in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Fibrosis and inflammatory processes were also counteracted by LASSBio-294, with reductions in LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Conclusion In summary, oral administration of LASSBio-294 after MI in a dose-dependent manner prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, demonstrating this compound’s potential as an alternative treatment for heart failure in the setting of ischemic heart disease with superimposed chronic hypertension. PMID:28293100

  3. Astrocyte-derived adenosine is central to the hypnogenic effect of glucose.

    PubMed

    Scharbarg, Emeric; Daenens, Marion; Lemaître, Frédéric; Geoffroy, Hélène; Guille-Collignon, Manon; Gallopin, Thierry; Rancillac, Armelle

    2016-01-12

    Sleep has been hypothesised to maintain a close relationship with metabolism. Here we focus on the brain structure that triggers slow-wave sleep, the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), to explore the cellular and molecular signalling pathways recruited by an increase in glucose concentration. We used infrared videomicroscopy on ex vivo brain slices to establish that glucose induces vasodilations specifically in the VLPO via the astrocytic release of adenosine. Real-time detection by in situ purine biosensors further revealed that the adenosine level doubles in response to glucose, and triples during the wakefulness period. Finally, patch-clamp recordings uncovered the depolarizing effect of adenosine and its A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680, on sleep-promoting VLPO neurons. Altogether, our results provide new insights into the metabolically driven release of adenosine. We hypothesise that adenosine adjusts the local energy supply to local neuronal activity in response to glucose. This pathway could contribute to sleep-wake transition and sleep intensity.

  4. [Protective effect of adenosine receptor agonists in a model of spinal cord injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Sufianova, G Z; Usov, L A; Sufianov, A A; Perelomov, Iu P; Raevskaia, L Iu; Shapkin, A G

    2002-01-01

    Possibilities of the neuroprotector therapy using adenosine and cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine receptor agonist, were studied on a model of spinal cord injury by compression in rats (most closely reproducing the analogous clinical pathological process in humans). The model was induced by slow, graded compression of the spinal cord at the thoracic level. Adenosine and CPA were introduced 60 min before injury by subcutaneous injections in a dose of 300 and 2.5 micrograms/kg, respectively. The protective effect was judged by comparing the neurological, electromyographic, and histopathological changes in animals with the model injury and in the control group (adenosine and CPA background). The A1-agonist CPA injections produced a pronounced, statistically significant neuroprotector effect on the given spinal cord injury model in rats. The neuroprotective effect of adenosine was significant but not as strong. It is concluded that it is expedient to use A-agonists in clinics.

  5. Suppression of adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR)-mediated adenosine signaling improves disease phenotypes in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Seng Kah; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela; Yang, Yongjie

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease in which the majority of upper and lower motor neurons are degenerated. Despite intensive efforts to identify drug targets and develop neuroprotective strategies, effective therapeutics for ALS remains unavailable. The identification and characterization of novel targets and pathways remain crucial in the development of ALS therapeutics. Adenosine is a major neuromodulator that actively regulates synaptic transmission. Interestingly, adenosine levels are significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of progressing human ALS patients. In the current study, we showed that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR), but not adenosine 1 receptor (A1R), is highly enriched in spinal (motor) neurons. A2aR expression is also selectively increased at the symptomatic onset in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice and end-stage human ALS spinal cords. Interestingly, we found that direct adenosine treatment is sufficient to induce embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron (ESMN) cell death in cultures. Subsequent pharmacological inhibition and partial genetic ablation of A2aR (A2aR(+/-)) significantly protect ESMN from SOD1G93A(+) astrocyte-induced cell death and delay disease progression of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, our results provide compelling novel evidence that A2aR-mediated adenosine signaling contributes to the selective spinal motor neuron degeneration observed in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS.

  6. Autophagy occurs within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment after nerve cell damage: the neuroprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate against apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Wang, Baoying; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhao, Honggang; Wang, Yong; Li, Dongliang

    2014-09-01

    After hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammatory injuries to the central nervous system, the damaged cells release a large amount of adenosine triphosphate, which may cause secondary neuronal death. Autophagy is a form of cell death that also has neuroprotective effects. Cell Counting Kit assay, monodansylcadaverine staining, flow cytometry, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to determine the effects of exogenous adenosine triphosphate treatment at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mmol/L) over time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours) on the apoptosis and autophagy of SH-SY5Y cells. High concentrations of extracellular adenosine triphosphate induced autophagy and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. The enhanced autophagy first appeared, and peaked at 1 hour after treatment with adenosine triphosphate. Cell apoptosis peaked at 3 hours, and persisted through 6 hours. With prolonged exposure to the adenosine triphosphate treatment, the fraction of apoptotic cells increased. These data suggest that the SH-SY5Y neural cells initiated autophagy against apoptosis within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment to protect themselves against injury.

  7. Suppression of adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR)-mediated adenosine signaling improves disease phenotypes in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Seng kah; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela; Yang, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease in which the majority of upper and lower motor neurons are degenerated. Despite intensive efforts to identify drug targets and develop neuroprotective strategies, effective therapeutics for ALS remains unavailable. The identification and characterization of novel targets and pathways remain crucial in the development of ALS therapeutics. Adenosine is a major neuromodulator that actively regulates synaptic transmission. Interestingly, adenosine levels are significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of progressing human ALS patients. In the current study, we showed that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR), but not adenosine 1 receptor (A1R), is highly enriched in spinal (motor) neurons. A2aR expression is also selectively increased at the symptomatic onset in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice and end-stage human ALS spinal cords. Interestingly, we found that direct adenosine treatment is sufficient to induce embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron (ESMN) cell death in cultures. Subsequent pharmacological inhibition and partial genetic ablation of A2aR (A2aR+/−) significantly protect ESMN from SOD1G93A+ astrocyte-induced cell death and delay disease progression of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, our results provide compelling novel evidence that A2aR-mediated adenosine signaling contributes to the selective spinal motor neuron degeneration observed in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. PMID:25779930

  8. Autophagy occurs within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment after nerve cell damage: the neuroprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate against apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Na; Wang, Baoying; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhao, Honggang; Wang, Yong; Li, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    After hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammatory injuries to the central nervous system, the damaged cells release a large amount of adenosine triphosphate, which may cause secondary neuronal death. Autophagy is a form of cell death that also has neuroprotective effects. Cell Counting Kit assay, monodansylcadaverine staining, flow cytometry, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to determine the effects of exogenous adenosine triphosphate treatment at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mmol/L) over time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours) on the apoptosis and autophagy of SH-SY5Y cells. High concentrations of extracellular adenosine triphosphate induced autophagy and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. The enhanced autophagy first appeared, and peaked at 1 hour after treatment with adenosine triphosphate. Cell apoptosis peaked at 3 hours, and persisted through 6 hours. With prolonged exposure to the adenosine triphosphate treatment, the fraction of apoptotic cells increased. These data suggest that the SH-SY5Y neural cells initiated autophagy against apoptosis within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment to protect themselves against injury. PMID:25368646

  9. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  10. Functional Interaction Between Na/K-ATPase and NMDA Receptor in Cerebellar Neurons.

    PubMed

    Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Lopacheva, Olga M; Kruusmägi, Markus; Lopachev, Alexandr V; Shah, Zahoor A; Boldyrev, Alexander A; Liu, Lijun

    2015-12-01

    NMDA receptors play a crucial role in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory. Activation of NMDA receptors changes intracellular concentrations of Na(+) and K(+), which are subsequently restored by Na/K-ATPase. We used immunochemical and biochemical methods to elucidate the potential mechanisms of interaction between these two proteins. We observed that NMDA receptor and Na/K-ATPase interact with each other and this interaction was shown for both isoforms of α subunit (α1 and α3) of Na/K-ATPase expressed in neurons. Using Western blotting, we showed that long-term exposure of the primary culture of cerebellar neurons to nanomolar concentrations of ouabain (a cardiotonic steroid, a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) leads to a decrease in the levels of NMDA receptors which is likely mediated by the α3 subunit of Na/K-ATPase. We also observed a decrease in enzymatic activity of the α1 subunit of Na/K-ATPase caused by NMDA receptor activation. This effect is mediated by an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Thus, Na/K-ATPase and NMDA receptor can interact functionally by forming a macromolecular complex which can be important for restoring ionic balance after neuronal excitation. Furthermore, this interaction suggests that NMDA receptor function can be regulated by endogenous cardiotonic steroids which recently have been found in cerebrospinal fluid or by pharmacological drugs affecting Na/K-ATPase function.

  11. Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Preeya T; Martin, Rebecca; Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Joseph I; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT).

  12. Membrane-Bound ATPase Contributes to Hop Resistance of Lactobacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kanta; van Veen, H. W.; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Konings, Wil N.

    2002-01-01

    The activity of the membrane-bound H+-ATPase of the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45 increased upon adaptation to bacteriostatic hop compounds. The ATPase activity was optimal around pH 5.6 and increased up to fourfold when L. brevis was exposed to 666 μM hop compounds. The extent of activation depended on the concentration of hop compounds and was maximal at the highest concentration tested. The ATPase activity was strongly inhibited by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a known inhibitor of FoF1-ATPase. Western blots of membrane proteins of L. brevis with antisera raised against the α- and β-subunits of FoF1-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae showed that there was increased expression of the ATPase after hop adaptation. The expression levels, as well as the ATPase activity, decreased to the initial nonadapted levels when the hop-adapted cells were cultured further without hop compounds. These observations strongly indicate that proton pumping by the membrane-bound ATPase contributes considerably to the resistance of L. brevis to hop compounds. PMID:12406727

  13. Membrane-bound ATPase contributes to hop resistance of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Van Veen, H W; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Konings, Wil N

    2002-11-01

    The activity of the membrane-bound H+-ATPase of the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45 increased upon adaptation to bacteriostatic hop compounds. The ATPase activity was optimal around pH 5.6 and increased up to fourfold when L. brevis was exposed to 666 microM hop compounds. The extent of activation depended on the concentration of hop compounds and was maximal at the highest concentration tested. The ATPase activity was strongly inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a known inhibitor of FoF1-ATPase. Western blots of membrane proteins of L. brevis with antisera raised against the alpha- and beta-subunits of FoF1-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae showed that there was increased expression of the ATPase after hop adaptation. The expression levels, as well as the ATPase activity, decreased to the initial nonadapted levels when the hop-adapted cells were cultured further without hop compounds. These observations strongly indicate that proton pumping by the membrane-bound ATPase contributes considerably to the resistance of L. brevis to hop compounds.

  14. Properties of the V-type ATPase from the excretory system of the usherhopper, Poekilocerus bufonius.

    PubMed

    Al-Fifi, Z I A; Al-Robai, A; Khoja, S M

    2002-09-01

    The bafilomycin A(1) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive (V-type) ATPase was partially purified from the apical membrane-rich fractions of excretory system (Malpighian tubules and hind gut) of P. bufonius. Enzymatic activity was inhibited by bafilomycin A(1) (IC(50) = 1.3 nM) and NEM (IC(50) = 10.1 microM). The V-type ATPase activity is confined to the apical membrane fraction, while the activity of Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase forms the major part of the basal membrane fraction. The optimal pH required for maximal activity of V-type ATPase was pH 7.5. The effect of 30 mM of various salts on ATPase activity was investigated. NaCl and KCl caused increases of 175% and 184%, respectively. Other chloride salts also caused an increase in activity in the following ascending order: RbCl, LiCI, choline Cl, NaCI, KCl and tris-HCl. The activity of V-type ATPase was stimulated by a variety of different anions and cations, and HCO(3)(-) was found to be the most potent cationic activator of ATPase activity. The present results show that the properties of V-type ATPase of P. bufonius are similar to those reported for other insect tissues.

  15. Fluorescence energy transfer as an indicator of Ca2+-ATPase interactions in sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, S; Pikula, S; Martonosi, A

    1987-01-01

    Ca2+-ATPase molecules were labeled in intact sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, sequentially with a donor fluorophore, fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate (FITC), and with an acceptor fluorophore, eosin-5'-isothiocyanate (EITC), each at a mole ratio of 0.25-0.5 mol/mol of ATPase. The resonance energy transfer was determined from the effect of acceptor on the intensity and lifetime of donor fluorescence. Due to structural similarities, the two dyes compete for the same site(s) on the Ca2+-ATPase, and under optimal conditions each ATPase molecule is labeled either with donor or acceptor fluorophore, but not with both. There is only slight labeling of phospholipids and other proteins in SR, even at concentrations of FITC or EITC higher than those used in the reported experiments. Efficient energy transfer was observed from the covalently bound FITC to EITC that is assumed to reflect interaction between ATPase molecules. Protein denaturing agents (8 M urea and 4 M guanidine) or nonsolubilizing concentrations of detergents (C12E8 or lysolecithin) abolish the energy transfer. These results are consistent with earlier observations that a large portion of the Ca2+-ATPase is present in oligomeric form in the native membrane. The technique is suitable for kinetic analysis of the effect of various treatments on the monomer-oligomer equilibrium of Ca2+-ATPase. A drawback of the method is that the labeled ATPase, although it retains conformational responses, is enzymatically inactive. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:2950938

  16. Autocrine inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase by nitric oxide in mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, N J; Fang, M Z; Tang, S S; Ingelfinger, J R; Garg, L C

    1995-01-01

    An inducible nitric oxide synthase has recently been described in proximal tubule epithelium. To investigate the effects of proximal tubule NO on Na+/K(+)-ATPase, we induced NO production in mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) followed by determinations of ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity. Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity decreased after 4 h of LPS/IFN gamma treatment, reaching maximal inhibition after 24 h (34% reduction in activity). The inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity by LPS/IFN gamma was prevented by simultaneous incubation with N omega-nitro L-arginine and markedly blunted by removal of L-arginine from the medium. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside and SIN-1 also inhibited Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity to a similar extent than LPS/IFN gamma. However, treatment with 8-pCPT-cGMP only modestly reduced Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, superoxide dismutase prevented the inhibitory effects of NO on Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, suggesting a role for peroxynitrite in this inhibition. We conclude that NO generated by mouse proximal tubule epithelial cell iNOS inhibits Na/K ATPase activity in an autocrine fashion and that this inhibition is accompanied by a reduction in Na-dependent solute transport. PMID:7537754

  17. Regulation of caveolin-1 membrane trafficking by the Na/K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ting; Wang, Haojie; Chen, Yiliang; Liu, Lijun; Gunning, William T; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M.; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Here, we show that the Na/K-ATPase interacts with caveolin-1 (Cav1) and regulates Cav1 trafficking. Graded knockdown of Na/K-ATPase decreases the plasma membrane pool of Cav1, which results in a significant reduction in the number of caveolae on the cell surface. These effects are independent of the pumping function of Na/K-ATPase, and instead depend on interaction between Na/K-ATPase and Cav1 mediated by an N-terminal caveolin-binding motif within the ATPase α1 subunit. Moreover, knockdown of the Na/K-ATPase increases basal levels of active Src and stimulates endocytosis of Cav1 from the plasma membrane. Microtubule-dependent long-range directional trafficking in Na/K-ATPase–depleted cells results in perinuclear accumulation of Cav1-positive vesicles. Finally, Na/K-ATPase knockdown has no effect on processing or exit of Cav1 from the Golgi. Thus, the Na/K-ATPase regulates Cav1 endocytic trafficking and stabilizes the Cav1 plasma membrane pool. PMID:18794328

  18. Organochlorine insecticide, herbicide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) inhibition of NaK-ATPase in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Friedhoff, Jacqueline M.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1972-01-01

    The current widespread presence of chlorinated insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and herbicides in world waterways has elicited much interest in the mechanisms of their toxicity in fishes. Inhibition of Na+,K+-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) and Mg++-dependent ATPase (Mg-ATPase) by DDT, endosulfan and dicofol has been demonstrated in gill, brain and kidney microsomes of rainbow trout (1,2). Intestinal and gill ATPases in marine teleosts were recently reported to be sensitive to organochlorines (3). CutkonTp et al (4) noted inhibition of NaK-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in bluegill brain, liver, muscle and kidney by DDT and related chlorinated hydrocarbons. Inhibition of ATPases by PCB's has been recently shown in bluegill kidney, brain and liver (5). In the present study, we have further examined the NaK-ATPase enzyme system in trout gill as a site for the possible toxicity of selected organopolychlors, i.e., chlorinated insecticides, herbicides and PCB's.

  19. Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Preeya T.; Martin, Rebecca; Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT). PMID:27445847

  20. Effect of tetrandrine on myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, N H; Wang, Y L; Ding, J H

    1991-11-01

    In renovascular hypertensive rats (RVHR, two-kidney, one-clip model), the myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase showed a reduced activity. Though its sensitivities to K+ and ouabain (Oua) were not changed, the enzyme was less responsive to Na+ and ATP, and also much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of Ca2+. Tetrandrine (Tet, ig 50 mg.kg-1, qd x 26 d) increased the myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in RVHR. However, in vitro, Tet elevated moderately the enzyme activity in RVHR only at high concentrations (100-1,000 mumol.L-1), and failed to influence the enzyme activity in normotensive rats. In RVHR, treatment by Tet in vivo increased the degree of the Na+, K(+)-ATPase activation under suboptimal substrate (Na+, K+, or ATP) concentrations and antagonized the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ or Oua. Similar results were found when the enzyme preparation from RVHR was incubated with Tet 10 mumol.L-1 during ATPase analysis. On the contrary, the myocardial Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was higher in RVHR. Tet depressed this enzyme both in vivo and in vitro. These facts indicate that the increased myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in RVHR is not only secondary to the calcium channel blocking or antihypertensive action of Tet but also due to its direct effects on the Na+, K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase.

  1. The Na/K-ATPase-mediated signal transduction as a target for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zijian; Xie, Joe

    2005-09-01

    The Na/K-ATPase, or Na+ pump, is a member of the P-type ATPase superfamily. In addition to pumping ions, the Na/K-ATPase is a receptor that not only regulates the function of protein kinases, but also acts as a scaffold, capable of tethering different proteins into a signalplex. The signaling Na/K-ATPase resides in caveolae and forms a "binary receptor" with the tyrosine kinase Src. Endogenous cardiotonic steroids and digitalis drugs such as ouabain act as agonists and provoke this binary receptor, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins that are either associated with, or in close proximity to, the signaling Na/K-ATPase. Subsequently, this initiates protein kinase cascades including ERKs and PKC isozymes. It also increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Like other receptors, activation of the Na/K-ATPase/Src by ouabain induces the endocytosis of the plasma membrane Na/K-ATPase. Significantly, this newly appreciated signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, therefore serving as an important target for development of novel therapeutic agents.

  2. Overexpression, purification and crystallographic analysis of a unique adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimin; Long, Mary C.; Ranganathan, Senthil; Escuyer, Vincent; Parker, William B.; Li, Rongbao

    2005-06-01

    Adenosine kinase from M. tuberculosis has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of adenosine. Structure determination using molecular replacement with diffraction data collected at 2.2 Å reveals a dimeric structure. Adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the only prokaryotic adenosine kinase that has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to adenosine monophosphate and is involved in the activation of 2-methyladenosine, a compound that has demonstrated selective activity against M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of action of 2-methyladenosine is likely to be different from those of current tuberculosis treatments and this compound (or other adenosine analogs) may prove to be a novel therapeutic intervention for this disease. The M. tuberculosis adenosine kinase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the enzyme was purified with activity comparable to that reported previously. The protein was crystallized in the presence of adenosine using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to high resolution and a complete data set was collected to 2.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.2, c = 111.6 Å, and contained a single protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. An initial structural model of the protein was obtained by the molecular-replacement method, which revealed a dimeric structure. The monomers of the dimer were related by twofold crystallographic symmetry. An understanding of how the M. tuberculosis adenosine kinase differs from the human homolog should aid in the design of more potent and selective antimycobacterial agents that are selectively activated by this enzyme.

  3. Real-time monitoring of extracellular adenosine using enzyme-linked microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hinzman, Jason M; Gibson, Justin L; Tackla, Ryan D; Costello, Mark S; Burmeister, Jason J; Quintero, Jorge E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Hartings, Jed A

    2015-12-15

    Throughout the central nervous system extracellular adenosine serves important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory functions. However, current understanding of the in vivo regulation and effects of adenosine is limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of available measurement techniques. Here, we describe an enzyme-linked microelectrode array (MEA) with high spatial (7500 µm(2)) and temporal (4 Hz) resolution that can selectively measure extracellular adenosine through the use of self-referenced coating scheme that accounts for interfering substances and the enzymatic breakdown products of adenosine. In vitro, the MEAs selectively measured adenosine in a linear fashion (r(2)=0.98±0.01, concentration range=0-15 µM, limit of detection =0.96±0.5 µM). In vivo the limit of detection was 0.04±0.02 µM, which permitted real-time monitoring of the basal extracellular concentration in rat cerebral cortex (4.3±1.5 µM). Local cortical injection of adenosine through a micropipette produced dose-dependent transient increases in the measured extracellular concentration (200 nL: 6.8±1.8 µM; 400 nL: 19.4±5.3 µM) [P<0.001]. Lastly, local injection of dipyridamole, which inhibits transport of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporter, raised the measured extracellular concentration of adenosine by 120% (5.6→12.3 µM) [P<0.001]. These studies demonstrate that MEAs can selectively measure adenosine on temporal and spatial scales relevant to adenosine signaling and regulation in normal and pathologic states.

  4. Sawhorse waveform voltammetry for selective detection of adenosine, ATP, and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2014-08-05

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemistry technique which allows subsecond detection of neurotransmitters in vivo. Adenosine detection using FSCV has become increasingly popular but can be difficult because of interfering agents which oxidize at or near the same potential