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Sample records for adenoviral gene delivery

  1. Readministration of adenoviral gene delivery to dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sarah C; McMenamin, Margaret M; Charlton, Harry M; Goodman, James; Lantos, Tibor; Simpson, Christine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2007-10-01

    An approach currently being explored as treatment for Parkinson's disease is gene therapy. An important question concerns the duration of transgene expression in dopamine neurons and the issues of vector persistence, neuronal damage and the feasibility of readministering vector to the same neuronal population. We show, using an adenoviral vector expressing the LacZ reporter gene, that transgene expression declined over time but with minimal loss of dopamine neurons or vector DNA. Readministration of vector resulted in low levels of transgene delivery to the neurons. Moreover, the neurons to which vector had already been delivered were unable to transport the retrograde tracer fluorogold. Our findings indicate that transgene expression declined in dopamine neurons despite the persistence of virus, and the capacity to readminister vector to these neurons was limited. PMID:17885611

  2. Nacystelyn enhances adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery to mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, R; Oliver, J R; Cao, H; Hu, J

    2007-08-01

    Adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery has been vastly investigated for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy; however, one of its drawbacks is the low efficiency of gene transfer, which is due to basolateral colocalization of viral receptors, immune responses to viral vectors and the presence of a thick mucus layer in the airways of CF patients. Therefore, enhancement of gene transfer can lead to reduction in the viral dosage, which could further reduce the acute toxicity associated with the use of adenoviral vectors. Nacystelyn (NAL) is a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used clinically in CF patients to reduce mucus viscosity in the airways. In this study, we show that pretreatment of the airways with NAL followed by administration of adenoviral vectors in complex with DEAE-Dextran can significantly enhance gene delivery to the airways of mice without any harmful effects. Moreover, NAL pretreatment can reduce the airway inflammation, which is normally observed after delivery of adenoviral particles. Taken together, these results indicate that NAL pretreatment followed by adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery can be beneficial to CF patients by increasing the efficiency of gene transfer to the airways, and reducing the acute toxicity associated with the administration of adenoviral vectors. PMID:17525704

  3. Nacystelyn enhances adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery to mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, R; Oliver, J R; Cao, H; Hu, J

    2007-08-01

    Adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery has been vastly investigated for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy; however, one of its drawbacks is the low efficiency of gene transfer, which is due to basolateral colocalization of viral receptors, immune responses to viral vectors and the presence of a thick mucus layer in the airways of CF patients. Therefore, enhancement of gene transfer can lead to reduction in the viral dosage, which could further reduce the acute toxicity associated with the use of adenoviral vectors. Nacystelyn (NAL) is a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used clinically in CF patients to reduce mucus viscosity in the airways. In this study, we show that pretreatment of the airways with NAL followed by administration of adenoviral vectors in complex with DEAE-Dextran can significantly enhance gene delivery to the airways of mice without any harmful effects. Moreover, NAL pretreatment can reduce the airway inflammation, which is normally observed after delivery of adenoviral particles. Taken together, these results indicate that NAL pretreatment followed by adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery can be beneficial to CF patients by increasing the efficiency of gene transfer to the airways, and reducing the acute toxicity associated with the administration of adenoviral vectors.

  4. Early osteoblastic differentiation induced by dexamethasone enhances adenoviral gene delivery to marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Blum, Jeremy S; Parrott, M Brandon; Mikos, Antonios G; Barry, Michael A

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the implications of induced osteogenic differentiation on gene delivery in multipotent rat marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Prior to genetic manipulation cells were cultured with or without osteogenic supplements (5x10(-8) M dexamethasone, 160 microM l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate). Comparison of liposome, retroviral, and adenoviral vectors demonstrated that all three vectors could mediate gene delivery to primary rat MSCs. When these vectors were applied in the absence or presence of osteogenic supplements, we found that MSCs differentiated prior to transduction with adenovirus type 5 vectors produced a 300% increase in transgene expression compared to MSCs that were not exposed to osteogenic supplements. This differentiation effect appeared specific to adenoviral mediated gene delivery, since there was minimal increase in retroviral gene delivery and no increase in liposome gene delivery when MSCs were treated with osteogenic supplements. In addition, we also determined this increase in transgene production to occur at a higher concentration of dexamethasone (5x10(-8) M) in the culture medium of MSCs prior to adenoviral transduction. We found that this increased transgene production could be extended to the osteogenic protein, human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP-2). When delivered by an adenoviral vector, hBMP-2 transgene production could be increased from 1.4 ng/10(5) cells/3 days to 4.3 ng/10(5) cells/3 days by culture of MSCs with osteogenic supplements prior to transduction. These results indicate that the utility of MSCs as a therapeutic protein delivery mechanism through genetic manipulation can be enhanced by pre-culture of these cells with dexamethasone. PMID:15013104

  5. Delivery of adenoviral DNA to mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Sheila; Mech, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The liver represents a major target organ for gene delivery owing to its high biosynthetic capacity and access to the bloodstream. Adenoviral vectors are highly efficient gene-transfer vehicles, making them among the most promising systems for in vivo gene transfer to the liver. Following intravenous administration of adenoviral vectors to a variety of mammalian models, including mice, dogs, and monkeys, hepatocytes are efficiently transduced. Several delivery methods to the liver have been described, including portal vein (2-4), hepatic artery (3,5), and peripheral vein infusions (6). This chapter describes the simple, nonsurgical method of intravenous (iv) administration of adenoviral vectors in mice, and an immunohistochemical method to qualitatively evaluate liver transduction efficiency following delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding a bgalactosidase (beta-gal) marker gene. Additionally, several alternative methods to verify efficient liver transduction are introduced.

  6. Improved Gene Delivery to Intestinal Mucosa by Adenoviral Vectors Bearing Subgroup B and D Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Lecollinet, S.; Gavard, F.; Havenga, M. J. E.; Spiller, O. B.; Lemckert, A.; Goudsmit, J.; Eloit, M.; Richardson, J.

    2006-01-01

    A major obstacle to successful oral vaccination is the lack of antigen delivery systems that are both safe and highly efficient. Conventional replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors, derived from human adenoviruses of subgroup C, are poorly efficient in delivering genetic material to differentiated intestinal epithelia. To date, 51 human adenovirus serotypes have been identified and shown to recognize different cellular receptors with different tissue distributions. This natural diversity was exploited in the present study to identify suitable adenoviral vectors for efficient gene delivery to the human intestinal epithelium. In particular, we compared the capacities of a library of adenovirus type 5-based vectors pseudotyped with fibers of several human serotypes for transduction, binding, and translocation toward the basolateral pole in human and murine tissue culture models of differentiated intestinal epithelia. In addition, antibody-based inhibition was used to gain insight into the molecular interactions needed for efficient attachment. We found that vectors differing merely in their fiber proteins displayed vastly different capacities for gene transfer to differentiated human intestinal epithelium. Notably, vectors bearing fibers derived from subgroup B and subgroup D serotypes transduced the apical pole of human epithelium with considerably greater efficiency than a subgroup C vector. Such efficiency was correlated with the capacity to use CD46 or sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates as opposed to CAR as attachment receptors. These results suggest that substantial gains could be made in gene transfer to digestive epithelium by exploiting the tropism of existing serotypes of human adenoviruses. PMID:16501084

  7. Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Lynda; Alba, Raul; Parker, Alan L.; Bradshaw, Angela C.; McNeish, Iain A.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans) and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX), which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad) have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon), pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR) substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies), can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX), or alternatively, through the use of polymer-coated

  8. Tropism-modification strategies for targeted gene delivery using adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Lynda; Alba, Raul; Parker, Alan L; Bradshaw, Angela C; McNeish, Iain A; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2010-10-01

    Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans) and "bridging" interactions. "Bridging" interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX), which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad) have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon), pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR) substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies), can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of "bridging interactions" such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX), or alternatively, through the use of polymer-coated "stealth" vectors

  9. Magnetofection Enhances Adenoviral Vector-based Gene Delivery in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Andrea Soledad; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Lockhart, Eugenia Falomir; Taylor, Jackson Richard; Delbono, Osvaldo; Goya, Rodolfo Gustavo; Plank, Christian; Hereñu, Claudia Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The goal of magnetic field-assisted gene transfer is to enhance internalization of exogenous nucleic acids by association with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). This technique named magnetofection is particularly useful in difficult-to-transfect cells. It is well known that human, mouse, and rat skeletal muscle cells suffer a maturation-dependent loss of susceptibility to Recombinant Adenoviral vector (RAd) uptake. In postnatal, fully differentiated myofibers, the expression of the primary Coxsackie and Adenoviral membrane receptor (CAR) is severely downregulated representing a main hurdle for the use of these vectors in gene transfer/therapy. Here we demonstrate that assembling of Recombinant Adenoviral vectors with suitable iron oxide MNPs into magneto-adenovectors (RAd-MNP) and further exposure to a gradient magnetic field enables to efficiently overcome transduction resistance in skeletal muscle cells. Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 was significantly enhanced after magnetofection with RAd-MNPs complexes in C2C12 myotubes in vitro and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo when compared to transduction with naked virus. These results provide evidence that magnetofection, mainly due to its membrane-receptor independent mechanism, constitutes a simple and effective alternative to current methods for gene transfer into traditionally hard-to-transfect biological models. PMID:27274908

  10. Co-transduction of lentiviral and adenoviral vectors for co-delivery of growth factor and shRNA genes in mesenchymal stem cells-based chondrogenic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Yongchang; Su, Kai; Fang, Yu; Citra, Fudiman; Wang, Dong-An

    2015-09-01

    Gene delivery takes advantage of cellular mechanisms to express gene products and is an efficient way to deliver them into cells, influencing cellular behaviours and expression patterns. Among the delivery methods, viral vectors are applied due to their high efficiency. Two typical viral vectors for gene delivery include lentiviral vector for integrative transduction and adenoviral vector for transient episomal transduction, respectively. The selection and formulation of proper viral vectors applied to cells can modulate gene expression profiles and further impact the downstream pathways. In this study, recombinant lentiviral and adenoviral vectors were co-transduced in a synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs)-based articular chondrogenic system by which two transgenes were co-delivered - the gene for transforming growth factor (TGF)β3, to facilitate SMSC chondrogenesis, and the gene for small hairpin RNA (shRNA), targeting the mRNA of type I collagen (Col I) α1 chain to silence Col I expression and minimize fibrocartilage formation. Delivery of either gene could be achieved with either lentiviral or adenoviral vectors. Therefore, co-delivery of the two transgenes via the two types of vectors was performed to determine which combination was optimal for three-dimensional (3D) articular chondrogenesis to construct articular hyaline cartilage tissue. Suppression of Col I and expression of cartilage markers, including type II collagen, aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), were assessed at both the transcriptome and protein phenotypic levels. It was concluded that the combination of lentiviral-mediated TGFβ3 release and adenoviral-mediated shRNA expression (LV-T + Ad-sh) generally demonstrated optimal efficacy in engineered articular cartilage with SMSCs.

  11. Receptor interactions involved in adenoviral-mediated gene delivery after systemic administration in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Theodore A G; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Marshall-Neff, Jennifer; Rollence, Michele L; Wright, Patrick; Kaloss, Michele; King, Laura; Mech, Christine; Dinges, Lisa; Iverson, William O; Sherer, Alfred D; Markovits, Judit E; Lyons, Russette M; Kaleko, Michael; Stevenson, Susan C

    2003-11-20

    Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors can bind at least three separate cell surface receptors for efficient cell entry: the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), alpha nu integrins, and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSG). To address the role of each receptor involved in adenoviral cell entry, we mutated critical amino acids in fiber or penton to inhibit receptor interaction. A series of five adenoviral vectors was prepared and the biodistribution of each was previously characterized in mice. To evaluate possible species differences in Ad vector tropism, we characterized the effects of each detargeting mutation in non-human primates after systemic delivery to confirm our conclusions made in mice. In non-human primates, CAR was found to have minimal effects on vector delivery to all organs examined including liver and spleen. Cell-surface alpha nu integrins played a significant role in delivery of vector to the spleen, lung and kidney. The fiber shaft mutation S*, which presumably inhibits HSG binding, was found to significantly decrease delivery to all organs examined. The ability to detarget the liver corresponded with decreased elevations in liver serum enzymes (aspartate transferase [AST] and alanine transferase [ALT]) 24 hr after vector administration and also in serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels 6 hr after vector administration. The biodistribution data generated in cynomolgus monkeys correspond with those data derived from mice, demonstrating that CAR binding is not the major determinant of viral tropism in vivo. Vectors containing the fiber shaft modification may provide for a detargeted adenoviral vector on which to introduce new tropisms for the development of targeted, systemically deliverable adenoviral vectors for human clinical application.

  12. Ex Vivo Adenoviral Vector Gene Delivery Results in Decreased Vector-associated Inflammation Pre- and Post–lung Transplantation in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Wagnetz, Dirk; Cypel, Marcelo; Rubacha, Matthew; Koike, Terumoto; Chun, Yi-Min; Hu, Jim; Waddell, Thomas K; Hwang, David M; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2012-01-01

    Acellular normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method of donor lung preservation for transplantation. As cellular metabolism is preserved during perfusion, it represents a potential platform for effective gene transduction in donor lungs. We hypothesized that vector-associated inflammation would be reduced during ex vivo delivery due to isolation from the host immune system response. We compared ex vivo with in vivo intratracheal delivery of an E1-, E3-deleted adenoviral vector encoding either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) to porcine lungs. Twelve hours after delivery, the lung was transplanted and the post-transplant function assessed. We identified significant transgene expression by 12 hours in both in vivo and ex vivo delivered groups. Lung function remained excellent in all ex vivo groups after viral vector delivery; however, as expected, lung function decreased in the in vivo delivered adenovirus vector encoding GFP (AdGFP) group with corresponding increases in IL-1β levels. Transplanted lung function was excellent in the ex vivo transduced lungs and inferior lung function was seen in the in vivo group after transplantation. In summary, ex vivo delivery of adenoviral gene therapy to the donor lung is superior to in vivo delivery in that it leads to less vector-associated inflammation and provides superior post-transplant lung function. PMID:22453765

  13. Ex vivo adenoviral vector gene delivery results in decreased vector-associated inflammation pre- and post-lung transplantation in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Wagnetz, Dirk; Cypel, Marcelo; Rubacha, Matthew; Koike, Terumoto; Chun, Yi-Min; Hu, Jim; Waddell, Thomas K; Hwang, David M; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2012-06-01

    Acellular normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method of donor lung preservation for transplantation. As cellular metabolism is preserved during perfusion, it represents a potential platform for effective gene transduction in donor lungs. We hypothesized that vector-associated inflammation would be reduced during ex vivo delivery due to isolation from the host immune system response. We compared ex vivo with in vivo intratracheal delivery of an E1-, E3-deleted adenoviral vector encoding either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) to porcine lungs. Twelve hours after delivery, the lung was transplanted and the post-transplant function assessed. We identified significant transgene expression by 12 hours in both in vivo and ex vivo delivered groups. Lung function remained excellent in all ex vivo groups after viral vector delivery; however, as expected, lung function decreased in the in vivo delivered adenovirus vector encoding GFP (AdGFP) group with corresponding increases in IL-1β levels. Transplanted lung function was excellent in the ex vivo transduced lungs and inferior lung function was seen in the in vivo group after transplantation. In summary, ex vivo delivery of adenoviral gene therapy to the donor lung is superior to in vivo delivery in that it leads to less vector-associated inflammation and provides superior post-transplant lung function. PMID:22453765

  14. Administration of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors and sequential delivery of different vector serotype for long-term liver-directed gene transfer in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Morral, Núria; O’Neal, Wanda; Rice, Karen; Leland, Michele; Kaplan, Johanne; Piedra, Pedro A.; Zhou, Heshan; Parks, Robin J.; Velji, Rizwan; Aguilar-Córdova, Estuardo; Wadsworth, Samuel; Graham, Frank L.; Kochanek, Stefan; Carey, K. Dee; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of first-generation adenoviral vectors as gene delivery tools is often limited by the short duration of transgene expression, which can be related to immune responses and to toxic effects of viral proteins. In addition, readministration is usually ineffective unless the animals are immunocompromised or a different adenovirus serotype is used. Recently, adenoviral vectors devoid of all viral coding sequences (helper-dependent or gutless vectors) have been developed to avoid expression of viral proteins. In mice, liver-directed gene transfer with AdSTK109, a helper-dependent adenoviral (Ad) vector containing the human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene, resulted in sustained expression for longer than 10 months with negligible toxicity to the liver. In the present report, we have examined the duration of expression of AdSTK109 in the liver of baboons and compared it to first-generation vectors expressing hAAT. Transgene expression was limited to approximately 3–5 months with the first-generation vectors. In contrast, administration of AdSTK109 resulted in transgene expression for longer than a year in two of three baboons. We have also investigated the feasibility of circumventing the humoral response to the virus by sequential administration of vectors of different serotypes. We found that the ineffectiveness of readministration due to the humoral response to an Ad5 first-generation vector was overcome by use of an Ad2-based vector expressing hAAT. These data suggest that long-term expression of transgenes should be possible by combining the reduced immunogenicity and toxicity of helper-dependent vectors with sequential delivery of vectors of different serotypes. PMID:10536005

  15. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer for human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Breyer, B; Jiang, W; Cheng, H; Zhou, L; Paul, R; Feng, T; He, T C

    2001-07-01

    Human gene therapy promises to change the practice of medicine by treating the causes of disease rather than the symptoms. Since the first clinical trial made its debut ten years ago, there are over 400 approved protocols in the United States alone, most of which have failed to show convincing data of clinical efficacy. This setback is largely due to the lack of efficient and adequate gene transfer vehicles. With the recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of human diseases and the imminent arrival of the post genomic era, there are increasing numbers of therapeutic genes or targets that are available for gene therapy. Therefore, the urgency and need for efficacious gene therapies are greater than ever. Clearly, the current fundamental obstacle is to develop delivery vectors that exhibit high efficacy and specificity of gene transfer. Recombinant adenoviruses have provided a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. Of late, there has been a remarkable increase in adenoviral vector-based clinical trials. Recent endeavors in the development of recombinant adenoviral vectors have focused on modification of virus tropism, accommodation of larger genes, increase in stability and control of transgene expression, and down-modulation of host immune responses. These modifications and continued improvements in adenoviral vectors will provide a great opportunity for human gene therapy to live up to its enormous potential in the second decade.

  16. Genetically engineering adenoviral vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) vectors are commonly used for various gene therapy applications. Significant advances in the genetic engineering of Ad vectors in recent years has highlighted their potential for the treatment of metastatic disease. There are several methods to genetically modify the Ad genome to incorporate retargeting peptides which will redirect the natural tropism of the viruses, including homologous recombination in bacteria or yeast. However, homologous recombination in yeast is highly efficient and can be achieved without the need for extensive cloning strategies. In addition, the method does not rely on the presence of unique restriction sites within the Ad genome and the reagents required for this method are widely available and inexpensive. Large plasmids containing the entire adenoviral genome (~36 kbp) can be modified within Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and genomes easily rescued in Escherichia coli hosts for analysis or amplification. A method for two-step homologous recombination in yeast is described in this chapter.

  17. Gene therapy for rhesus monkeys heterozygous for LDL receptor deficiency by balloon-catheter hepatic delivery of helper-dependent adenoviral vector

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Kazuhiro; Mullins, Charles E.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S.; Leen, Ann M; Chan, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a monogenic life-threatening disease. We tested the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene therapy using helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDAd) in a nonhuman primate model of FH, comparing intravenous injection versus intrahepatic arterial injection in the presence of balloon catheter-based hepatic venous occlusion. Rhesus monkeys heterozygous for mutant LDLR gene (LDLR+/−) developed hypercholesterolemia while on a high cholesterol diet. We treated them with HDAd-LDLR either by intravenous delivery, or by catheter-based intra-hepatic artery injection. Intravenous injection of ≤1.1×1012 viral particles (vp)/kg failed to have any effect on plasma cholesterol. Increasing the dose to 5×1012 vp/kg led to a 59% lowering of the plasma cholesterol that lasted for 30 days before it returned to pretreatment levels by day 40. A further increase in dose to 8.4×1012 vp/kg resulted in severe lethal toxicity. In contrast, direct hepatic artery injection following catheter-based hepatic venous occlusion enabled the use of a reduced HDAd-LDLR dose of 1×1012 vp/kg that lowered plasma cholesterol within a week, and reached a nadir of 59% pretreatment level on days 20 to 48 after injection. Serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) remained normal until day 48 when it went up slightly and stayed mildly elevated on day 72 before it returned to normal on day 90. In this monkey, the HDAd-LDLR-induced trough of hypocholesterolemia started trending upwards on day 72 and returned to pretreatment levels on day 120. We measured the LDL apolipoprotein B turnover rate at 10 days before, and again 79 days after, HDAd-LDLR treatment in two monkeys that exhibited a cholesterol lowering response. HDAd-LDLR therapy increased the LDL fractional catabolic rate by 78% and 50%, respectively, in the two monkeys, coincident with an increase in hepatic LDLR mRNA expression. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated LDLR gene delivery to

  18. Gene Transfer into Rat Brain Using Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Puntel, Mariana; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Sanderson, Nicholas S.R.; Thomas, Clare E.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector–mediated gene delivery is an attractive procedure for introducing genes into the brain, both for purposes of basic neuroscience research and to develop gene therapy for neurological diseases. Replication-defective adenoviruses possess many features which make them ideal vectors for this purpose—efficiently transducing terminally differentiated cells such as neurons and glial cells, resulting in high levels of transgene expression in vivo. Also, in the absence of anti-adenovirus immunity, these vectors can sustain very long-term transgene expression within the brain parenchyma. This unit provides protocols for the stereotactic injection of adenoviral vectors into the brain, followed by protocols to detect transgene expression or infiltrates of immune cells by immunocytochemistry or immunofluorescence. ELISPOT and neutralizing antibody assay methodologies are provided to quantitate the levels of cellular and humoral immune responses against adenoviruses. Quantitation of adenoviral vector genomes within the rat brain using qPCR is also described. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 50:4.24.1–4.24.49. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:20066657

  19. Differential integrity of TALE nuclease genes following adenoviral and lentiviral vector gene transfer into human cells.

    PubMed

    Holkers, Maarten; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Janssen, Josephine M; Miselli, Francesca; Mussolino, Claudio; Recchia, Alessandra; Cathomen, Toni; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2013-03-01

    The array of genome editing strategies based on targeted double-stranded DNA break formation have recently been enriched through the introduction of transcription activator-like type III effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs). To advance the testing of TALE-based approaches, it will be crucial to deliver these custom-designed proteins not only into transformed cell types but also into more relevant, chromosomally stable, primary cells. Viral vectors are among the most effective gene transfer vehicles. Here, we investigated the capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1- and adenovirus-based vectors to package and deliver functional TALEN genes into various human cell types. To this end, we attempted to assemble particles of these two vector classes, each encoding a monomer of a TALEN pair targeted to a bipartite sequence within the AAVS1 'safe harbor' locus. Vector DNA analyses revealed that adenoviral vectors transferred intact TALEN genes, whereas lentiviral vectors failed to do so, as shown by their heterogeneously sized proviruses in target cells. Importantly, adenoviral vector-mediated TALEN gene delivery resulted in site-specific double-stranded DNA break formation at the intended AAVS1 target site at similarly high levels in both transformed and non-transformed cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that adenoviral, but not lentiviral, vectors constitute a valuable TALEN gene delivery platform.

  20. Differential integrity of TALE nuclease genes following adenoviral and lentiviral vector gene transfer into human cells

    PubMed Central

    Holkers, Maarten; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Janssen, Josephine M.; Miselli, Francesca; Mussolino, Claudio; Recchia, Alessandra; Cathomen, Toni; Gonçalves, Manuel A. F. V.

    2013-01-01

    The array of genome editing strategies based on targeted double-stranded DNA break formation have recently been enriched through the introduction of transcription activator-like type III effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs). To advance the testing of TALE-based approaches, it will be crucial to deliver these custom-designed proteins not only into transformed cell types but also into more relevant, chromosomally stable, primary cells. Viral vectors are among the most effective gene transfer vehicles. Here, we investigated the capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1- and adenovirus-based vectors to package and deliver functional TALEN genes into various human cell types. To this end, we attempted to assemble particles of these two vector classes, each encoding a monomer of a TALEN pair targeted to a bipartite sequence within the AAVS1 ‘safe harbor’ locus. Vector DNA analyses revealed that adenoviral vectors transferred intact TALEN genes, whereas lentiviral vectors failed to do so, as shown by their heterogeneously sized proviruses in target cells. Importantly, adenoviral vector-mediated TALEN gene delivery resulted in site-specific double-stranded DNA break formation at the intended AAVS1 target site at similarly high levels in both transformed and non-transformed cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that adenoviral, but not lentiviral, vectors constitute a valuable TALEN gene delivery platform. PMID:23275534

  1. Hepatic Delivery of Artificial Micro RNAs Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Carol; Mowa, Betty; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The potential of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy has been demonstrated in many studies. However, clinical application of this technology has been hampered by a paucity of efficient and safe methods of delivering the RNAi activators. Prolonged transgene expression and improved safety of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HD AdVs) makes them well suited to delivery of engineered artificial intermediates of the RNAi pathway. Also, AdVs' natural hepatotropism makes them potentially useful for liver-targeted gene delivery. HD AdVs may be used for efficient delivery of cassettes encoding short hairpin RNAs and artificial primary microRNAs to the mouse liver. Methods for the characterization of HD AdV-mediated delivery of hepatitis B virus-targeting RNAi activators are described here.

  2. Formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a cationic emulsion as a vehicle for improving adenoviral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lim, Soo-Jeong

    2014-11-20

    Advancements in the use of adenoviral vectors in gene therapy have been limited by the need for specific receptors on targeted cell types, immunogenicity and hepatotoxicity following systemic administration. In an effort to overcome the current limitations of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, cationic emulsions were explored as a vehicle to improve adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Complexation of adenovirus with emulsions containing the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) enhanced the potency of adenoviral gene transfer as compared to DOTAP liposomes. Among the various emulsion formulations examined, those containing the iodized oil, Lipiodol, as an inner core and stabilized by DOTAP/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy(poly-ethylene glycol)-5000 most efficiently enhanced adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Optimized Lipiodol-containing emulsions appear to be more strongly associated with adenoviral particles, exhibiting higher complex stability compared to other formulations. They provide the adenovirus with an additional cellular entry mechanism through caveolae-dependent endocytosis, thereby increasing adenovirus entry into cells. Furthermore, adenovirus-emulsion complexation significantly reduced transgene expression in the liver following systemic administration. These findings indicate that emulsion complexation may be a promising strategy for overcoming many of the challenges associated with the use of adenoviruses in gene therapy. Additionally, the observation of increased transgene expression in lung together with reduced expression in liver demonstrates that the adenovirus-emulsion complex may act as a lung-targeting adenoviral gene delivery system.

  3. Radiation-Induced Upregulation of Gene Expression From Adenoviral Vectors Mediated by DNA Damage Repair and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nokisalmi, Petri; Rajecki, Maria; Pesonen, Sari; Escutenaire, Sophie; Soliymani, Rabah; Tenhunen, Mikko; Ahtiainen, Laura; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the combination of replication-deficient adenoviruses and radiotherapy in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mechanism of radiation-mediated upregulation of adenoviral transgene expression. Methods and Materials: Adenoviral transgene expression (luciferase or green fluorescent protein) was studied with and without radiation in three cell lines: breast cancer M4A4-LM3, prostate cancer PC-3MM2, and lung cancer LNM35/enhanced green fluorescent protein. The effect of the radiation dose, modification of the viral capsid, and five different transgene promoters were studied. The cellular responses were studied using mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Double strand break repair was modulated by inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, topoisomerase-I, and DNA protein kinase, and transgene expression was measured. Results: We found that a wide range of radiation doses increased adenoviral transgene expression regardless of the cell line, transgene, promoter, or viral capsid modification. Treatment with adenovirus, radiation, and double strand break repair inhibitors resulted in persistence of double strand breaks and subsequent increases in adenovirus transgene expression. Conclusions: Radiation-induced enhancement of adenoviral transgene expression is linked to DNA damage recognition and repair. Radiation induces a global cellular response that results in increased production of RNA and proteins, including adenoviral transgene products. This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery.

  4. Magnetically Responsive Biodegradable Nanoparticles Enhance Adenoviral Gene Transfer in Cultured Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chorny, Michael; Fishbein, Ilia; Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors have shown promise as a tool for gene delivery-based therapeutic applications. Their clinical use is however limited by therapeutically suboptimal transduction levels in cell types expressing low levels of Coxsackie-Ad receptor (CAR), the primary receptor responsible for the cell entry of the virus, and by systemic adverse reactions. Targeted delivery achievable with Ad complexed with biodegradable magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) may therefore be instrumental for improving both the safety and efficiency of these vectors. Our hypothesis was that magnetically driven delivery of Ad affinity-bound to biodegradable MNP can substantially increase transgene expression in CAR deficient vascular cells in culture. Fluorescently labeled MNP were formulated from polylactide with inclusion of iron oxide and surface-modified with the D1 domain of CAR as an affinity linker. MNP cellular uptake and GFP reporter transgene expression were assayed fluorimetrically in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells using λex/λem of 540 nm/575 nm and 485 nm/535 nm, respectively. Stable vector-specific association of Ad with MNP resulted in formation of MNP–Ad complexes displaying rapid cell binding kinetics following a brief exposure to a high gradient magnetic field with resultant gene transfer levels significantly increased compared to free vector or nonmagnetic control treatment. Multiple regression analysis suggested a mechanism of MNP–Ad mediated transduction distinct from that of free Ad, and confirmed the major contribution of the complexes to the gene transfer under magnetic conditions. The magnetically enhanced transduction was achieved without compromising the cell viability or growth kinetics. The enhancement of adenoviral gene delivery by affinity complexation with biodegradable MNP represents a promising approach with a potential to extend the applicability of the viral gene therapeutic strategies. PMID:19496618

  5. Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Nayerossadat, Nouri; Maedeh, Talebi; Ali, Palizban Abas

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells) and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein-Barr virus)] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection) and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers). In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed. PMID:23210086

  6. Pancreatic Transduction by Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors via Intraductal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Morró, Meritxell; Teichenne, Joan; Jimenez, Veronica; Kratzer, Ramona; Marletta, Serena; Maggioni, Luca; Mallol, Cristina; Ruberte, Jesus; Kochanek, Stefan; Bosch, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic gene transfer could be useful to treat several diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) are promising tools for gene therapy because of their large cloning capacity, high levels of transgene expression, and long-term persistence in immunocompetent animals. Nevertheless, the ability of HDAds to transduce the pancreas in vivo has not been investigated yet. Here, we have generated HDAds carrying pancreas-specific expression cassettes, that is, driven either by the elastase or insulin promoter, using a novel and convenient plasmid family and homologous recombination in bacteria. These HDAds were delivered to the pancreas of immunocompetent mice via intrapancreatic duct injection. HDAds, encoding a CMV-GFP reporter cassette, were able to transduce acinar and islet cells, but transgene expression was lost 15 days postinjection in correlation with severe lymphocytic infiltration. When HDAds encoding GFP under the control of the specific elastase promoter were used, expression was detected in acinar cells, but similarly, the expression almost disappeared 30 days postinjection and lymphocytic infiltration was also observed. In contrast, long-term transgene expression (>8 months) was achieved with HDAds carrying the insulin promoter and the secretable alkaline phosphatase as the reporter gene. Notably, transduction of the liver, the preferred target for adenovirus, was minimal by this route of delivery. These data indicate that HDAds could be used for pancreatic gene therapy but that selection of the expression cassette is of critical importance to achieve long-term expression of the transgene in this tissue. PMID:25046147

  7. Lipid- and adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campain, J A; Matassa, A A; Felgner, P L; Barnhart, K M; Curiel, D T; Harrison, G S

    1998-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent malignancy occurring in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS-KS is a more aggressive disease than the classical form, frequently having a rapid clinical course with numerous serious complications. Current systemic treatments for KS, such as chemotherapy and the administration of biological modifiers, are complicated by both the drug resistance of the tumor and the dose-limiting toxicity of the reagents. The relative accessibility of many KS lesions makes the disease a particularly attractive candidate for in vivo gene therapy protocols. In this regard, we are interested in delivering conditionally toxic suicide and/or antiangiogenic vectors to accomplish targeted cell death selectively in AIDS-KS cells. To this end, we examined both cationic lipid- and adenoviral-mediated DNA transfection methods. Using the firefly luciferase reporter gene, we optimized numerous variables known to be important in lipid-mediated DNA transfection, including lipid formulation, the amount of lipid and DNA, lipid/DNA ratio, and cell concentration. Under optimal transfection conditions, approximately 5-25% of KS cells expressed the introduced DNA sequences. Adenoviral-mediated DNA delivery was more efficient than lipid delivery in 4 of 5 primary KS cell lines. Two of the lines (RW248 and RW376) were transduced by adenovirus at frequencies approaching 100%; two cell lines (CVU-1 and RW80) gave efficiencies of 20-35%. Two immortalized KS cell lines (KS Y-1 and KS SLK) were poorly infected, giving a transduction efficiency of <5%. These findings demonstrate that gene transfer into AIDS-KS cells is feasible, and suggest that vector strategies may be permissive for translating gene therapy approaches for the disease.

  8. Progress and prospects: gene therapy for genetic diseases with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, N; Ng, P

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies in small and large animal models using helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) have generated promising results for the treatment of genetic diseases. However, clinical translation is complicated by the dose-dependent, capsid-mediated acute toxic response following systemic vector injection. With the advancements in vectorology, a better understanding of vector-mediated toxicity, and improved delivery methods, HDAds may emerge as an important vector for gene therapy of genetic diseases and this report highlights recent progress and prospects in this field. In briefProgressHDAds provide stable, long-term transgene expression in small and large animal models without chronic toxicity for liver-directed gene therapy.High vector doses are required for efficient hepatocyte transduction by systemic administration.Strategies to improve the therapeutic index of HDAd are available or currently under investigation for liver-directed gene therapy.High-efficiency pulmonary transduction and clinically relevant end points can be achieved delivering HDAd in conjunction with tight junction opening agents for CF gene therapy.HDAd delivered with an intracorporeal nebulizing catheter results in high-efficiency transduction of the respiratory epithelium in large animals.Encouraging results have been obtained with HDAd for brain- and muscle-directed gene therapy in animal models.ProspectsA better understanding of the acute innate response will provide new targets for pharmacological blockade to improve the therapeutic index of the vector.Further optimization of preferential liver targeting by HDAd through balloon catheter delivery has the potential of providing a clinically attractive method of vector delivery.Further assessment of Ad PEGylation and modulation of the liver fenestrations may provide attractive strategies to increase the therapeutic index of the vector.Capsid modification to increase the affinity of Ad for hepatocytes has the potential to improve

  9. Strategies to enhance transductional efficiency of adenoviral-based gene transfer to primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes as a platform in dermal wounds

    PubMed Central

    Stoff, Alexander; Rivera, Angel A.; Banerjee, N. S.; Mathis, J. Michael; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Antonio; Le, Long P.; De la Torre, Jorge I.; Vasconez, Luis O.; Broker, Thomas R.; Richter, Dirk F.; Stoff-Khalili, Mariam A.; Curiel, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified keratinocytes and fibroblasts are suitable for delivery of therapeutic genes capable of modifying the wound healing process. However, efficient gene delivery is a prerequisite for successful gene therapy of wounds. Whereas adenoviral vectors (Ads) exhibit superior levels of in vivo gene transfer, their transductional efficiency to cells resident within wounds may nonetheless be suboptimal, due to deficiency of the primary adenovirus receptor, coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). We explored CAR-independent transduction to fibroblasts and keratinocytes using a panel of CAR-independent fiber-modified Ads to determine enhancement of infectivity. These fiber-modified adenoviral vectors included Ad 3 knob (Ad5/3), canine Ad serotype 2 knob (Ad5CAV-2), RGD (Ad5.RGD), polylysine (Ad5.pK7), or both RGD and polylysine (Ad5.RGD.pK7). To evaluate whether transduction efficiencies of the fiber-modified adenoviral vectors correlated with the expression of their putative receptors on keratinocytes and fibroblasts, we analyzed the mRNA levels of CAR, αυ integrin, syndecan-1, and glypican-1 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Analysis of luciferase and green fluorescent protein transgene expression showed superior transduction efficiency of Ad5.pK7 in keratinocytes and Ad5.RGD.pK7 in fibroblasts. mRNA expression of αυ integrin, syndecan-1 and glypican-1 was significantly higher in primary fibroblasts than CAR. In keratinocytes, syndecan-1 expression was significantly higher than all the other receptors tested. Significant infectivity enhancement was achieved in keratinocytes and fibroblasts using fiber-modified adenoviral vectors. These strategies to enhance infectivity may help to achieve higher clinical efficacy of wound gene therapy. PMID:17014674

  10. Gene Therapy with Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors: Current Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vetrini, Francesco; Ng, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant Adenoviral vectors represent one of the best gene transfer platforms due to their ability to efficiently transduce a wide range of quiescent and proliferating cell types from various tissues and species. The activation of an adaptive immune response against the transduced cells is one of the major drawbacks of first generation Adenovirus vectors and has been overcome by the latest generation of recombinant Adenovirus, the Helper-Dependent Adenoviral (HDAd) vectors. HDAds have innovative features including the complete absence of viral coding sequences and the ability to mediate high level transgene expression with negligible chronic toxicity. This review summarizes the many aspects of HDAd biology and structure with a major focus on in vivo gene therapy application and with an emphasis on the unsolved issues that these vectors still presents toward clinical application. PMID:21994713

  11. Adenoviral-vector-mediated gene transfer to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Crystal, R G

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen presenting cells capable of initiating T-cell-dependent immune responses (1-5). This biologic potential can be harnessed to elicit effective antigen-specific immune responses by transferring the relevant antigens to the DC. Once the DC have been mobilized and purified, the relevant antigens can be transferred to the DC as intact proteins, or as peptides representing specific epitopes, or with gene transfer using sequences of DNA or RNA coding for the pertinent antigen(s) (6-15). Theoretically, genetically modifying DC with genes coding for specific antigens has potential advantages over pulsing the DC with peptides repeating the antigen or antigen fragment. First, the genetically modified DC may present previously unknown epitopes in association with different MHC molecules. Second, gene transfer to DC ensures that the gene product is endogenously processed, leading to the generation of MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), the effector arm of cell-mediated immune responses. Finally, in addition to genes coding for the antigen(s), genetic modification of the DC can induce genes coding for mediators relevant to generation of the immune response to the antigen(s), further boosting host responses to the antigens presented by the modified DC. Different gene transfer approaches have been explored to genetically modify DC, including retroviral vectors (16-18), recombinant vaccinia virus vectors (19), and recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors (19-23). The focus of this chapter is on using recombinant Ad vectors to transfer genes to murine DC. We have used a similar strategy to transfer genes to human DC (24). As an example of the power of this technology, we will describe the use of Ad-vector-modified DC to suppress the growth of tumor cells modified to express a specific antigen.

  12. Computer-assisted hydrodynamic gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Suda, Takeshi; Suda, Kieko; Liu, Dexi

    2008-06-01

    The recently developed hydrodynamic delivery method makes it possible to deliver DNA and RNA into parenchyma cells by intravascular injection of nucleic acid-containing solution. While this procedure is effective in rodents, it is difficult to perform in large animals, because manual control while delivering the injection cannot be sufficiently reliable for achieving a just-right hydrodynamic pressure in targeted tissue. In order to overcome this problem, we have developed a computer-controlled injection device that uses real-time intravascular pressure as a regulator. Using the new injection device, and mouse liver as the model organ, we demonstrated continuous injection at a single pressure and different pressures, and also serial (repeated) injections at intervals of 250 ms, by programming the computer according to the need. When assessed by reporter plasmids, the computer-controlled injection device exhibits gene delivery efficiency similar to that of conventional hydrodynamic injection. The device is also effective in gene delivery to kidney and muscle cells in rats, with plasmids or adenoviral vectors as gene carriers. Successful gene delivery to liver and kidney was also demonstrated in pigs, with the computer-controlled injection being combined with image-guided catheterization. These results represent a significant advance in in vivo gene delivery research, with potential for use in gene therapy in humans.

  13. Gene transfer into neural cells in vitro using adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Southgate, T D; Kingston, P A; Castro, M G

    2001-05-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have become a very attractive and versatile vector system for delivering genes into brain cells in vitro and in vivo. One of the main attractions of Ads is that they can mediate gene transfer into post-mitotic cells, i.e. neurons. Ads are easy to grow and manipulate, stable, and their biology is very well understood. This unit is designed to help newcomers into the field, to design, prepare and grow replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vectors with the aim of transferring genes into neurons and glial cells in primary culture. It provides step-by-step methods describing the preparation of brain cell cultures, their infection using recombinant adenovirus vectors and also the assessment of transgene expression using a variety of techniques including fluorescence immunocytochemistry and fluorescence activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis. The methods described will be useful to scientists wishing to enter the adenovirus field to construct adenovirus vectors to be used for gene transfer into neural cells.

  14. Immune responses to adenoviral vectors during gene transfer in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, K; Byrnes, A P; Charlton, H M; Wood, M J; Wood, K J

    1997-02-10

    We have investigated the immune response to E1-deleted adenovirus vectors encoding the lacZ gene introduced into the brains of adult mice. Injection of these nonreplicating vectors caused a marked inflammatory response in the brain as assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry of leukocytes. Infiltrating leukocytes were detectable within 2 days of injection and reached a maximum by 9 days. Thereafter, the number of infiltrating cells decreased, but a small number persisted in the brain until day 60. Between 2 and 4 days after injection, the percentage of CD8+ cells detectable increased whereas the percentage of CD4+ cells present in the infiltrating population did not significantly increase until day 6, peaking on day 15. Activated CD25+ T cells were detectable between days 6 and 15. beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal), the product of the lacZ gene encoded by the vector, was also detected, both at the injection site in the striatum and also in the substantia nigra. Expression peaked between 4 and 6 days but a small number of beta-Gal+ cells was still seen at 60 days after injection. This study demonstrates that a quantitative analysis of the immune responses caused by a nonreplicating adenovirus vector is possible in the brain. E1-deleted adenoviral vectors trigger a strong inflammatory response in the brain, but this immune response is not sufficient to eliminate completely expression of genes encoded by the adenoviral construct. PMID:9048192

  15. INSM1 promoter-driven adenoviral herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase cancer gene therapy for the treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Breslin, Mary B; Chen, Chiachen; Akerstrom, Victoria; Zhong, Qiu; Lan, Michael S

    2009-11-01

    The INSM1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated zinc finger transcription factor. INSM1 expression is normally absent in adult tissues, but is reactivated in neuroendocrine tumor cells. In the present study, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) construct in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). We constructed an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven HSV-tk gene for therapy in PNETs. The PNET-specific adeno-INSM1 promoter HSV-tk construct was tested both in vitro and in vivo in a nude mouse tumor model. Northern blot analysis and transient transfection of an INSM1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene indicated that the INSM1 promoter was active in neuroblastoma (IMR-32), retinoblastoma (Y79), and medulloblastoma (D283 Med) cells, but not in glioblastoma (U-87 MG) cells. After Ad-INSM1p-HSV-tk infection, the levels of HSV-tk protein expression were consistent with INSM1 promoter activities. Furthermore, in vitro multiplicity of infection and ganciclovir (GCV) sensitivity studies indicated that the INSM1 promoter could mediate specific expression of the HSV-tk gene and selective killing of INSM1-positive PNETs. In vivo intratumoral adenoviral delivery demonstrated that the INSM1 promoter could direct HSV-tk gene expression in a nude mouse tumor model and effectively repressed tumor growth in response to GCV treatment. Taken together, our data show that the INSM1 promoter is specific and effective for targeted cancer gene therapy in PNETs. PMID:19604042

  16. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    PubMed

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  17. Adenoviral vector-mediated insulin gene transfer in the mouse pancreas corrects streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, A L; Auricchio, A; Yu, Q C; Wilson, J; Raper, S E

    2001-10-01

    Therapy for type 1 diabetes consists of tight blood glucose (BG) control to minimize complications. Current treatment relies on multiple insulin injections or an insulin pump placement, beta-cell or whole pancreas transplantation. All approaches have significant limitations and have led to the realization that novel treatment strategies are needed. Pancreatic acinar cells have features that make them a good target for insulin gene transfer. They are not subject to autoimmune attack, a problem with pancreas or islets transplantation, they are avidly transduced by recombinant adenoviral vectors, and capable of exporting a variety of peptides into the portal circulation. Recombinant adenoviral vectors were engineered to express either wild-type or furin-modified human insulin cDNA (AdCMVhInsM). Immunodeficient mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin and injected intrapancreatically with the vectors. BG and blood insulin levels have normalized after administration of AdCMVhInsM. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed the presence of insulin in acinar cells throughout the pancreas and localization of insulin molecules to acinar cell vesicles. The data clearly establish a relationship between intrapancreatic vector administration, decreased BG and elevated blood insulin levels. The findings support the use of pancreatic acinar cells to express and secrete insulin into the blood stream. PMID:11593361

  18. Modifications to the INSM1 promoter to preserve specificity and activity for use in adenoviral gene therapy of neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Akerstrom, V; Chen, C; Lan, M S; Breslin, M B

    2012-12-01

    The INSM1 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that is exclusively expressed in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissue during embryonic development that is re-activated in neuroendocrine tumors. Using the 1.7 kbp INSM1 promoter, an adenoviral HSV thymidine kinase gene therapy was tested for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. An unforeseen interference on the INSM1 promoter specificity from the adenoviral genome was observed. Attempts were made to protect the INSM1 promoter from the influence of essential adenoviral sequences and to further enhance the tissue specificity of the INSM1 promoter region. Using the chicken β-globin HS4 insulator sequence, we eliminated off-target tissue expression from the Ad-INSM1 promoter-luciferase2 constructs in vivo. In addition, inclusion of two copies of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (n(AchR)) neuronal-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) reduced nonspecific activation of the INSM1 promoter both in vitro and in vivo. Further, inclusion of both the HS4 insulator with the n(AchR) 2 × NRSE modification showed a two log increase in luciferase activity measured from the NCI-H1155 xenograft tumors compared with the original adenovirus construct. The alterations increase the therapeutic potential of adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven suicide gene therapy for the treatment of a variety of neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:23079673

  19. Effects of an adenoviral vector containing a suicide gene fusion on growth characteristics of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Heng; Liu, Chunli; Zhu, Ting; Huang, Zonghai; Yang, Liucheng; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV‑TK/GCV) and the cytosine deaminase/5‑fluorocytosine (CD/5‑FC) systems have been widely applied in suicide gene therapy for cancer. Although suicide gene therapy has been successfully used in vitro and in vivo studies, the number of studies on the effects of recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) containing suicide genes on target cancer cells is limited. The aim of this study was to examine whether recombinant Ads containing the CD/TK fusion gene affect cell proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, we explored the use of a recombinant adenoviral vector to deliver the CD/TK fusion gene to the breast cancer cell line MCF‑7. We found that the recombinant adenoviral vector efficiently infected MCF‑7 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that CD and TK proteins are expressed in the infected cells. The infected breast cancer cells did not show any significant changes in morphology, ultrastructure, cell growth, and cell‑cycle distribution compared to the uninfected cells. This study revealed that the Ad‑vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGFp)‑CD/TK vector is non‑toxic to MCF‑7 cells at the appropriate titer. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the CD/TK fusion gene in suicide gene therapy to target breast cancer cells. PMID:25323393

  20. Robust Hepatic Gene Silencing for Functional Studies Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rafaela; Witting, Scott R.; Saxena, Romil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract RNA interference is currently envisioned as the basis of gene function and drug target validation studies. This novel technology has the advantage of providing a remarkably faster tool for gene silencing than traditional transgenic animal methodologies. In vivo administration of short interfering RNA (siRNA) typically results in reduced target gene expression for approximately 1 week. Viral vectors offer the possibility to express constitutive levels of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) so that the effects of knocking down the target gene can be studied for a few weeks, rather than a few days. Helper-dependent vectors have a significant advantage over previous generations of adenoviral vectors because of their much higher cloning capacity, potential for long-term transgene expression, and enhanced safety profiles on administration in vivo. Therefore, this advanced type of vector is an excellent tool to carry out in vivo studies directed at constitutive expression of shRNA. Here we show it is possible to obtain more than 90% target gene knockdown in an animal model of type 2 diabetes for several weeks, thereby consolidating this technology as an alternative to generating liver-specific knockout animals. PMID:18828727

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Modified Adenoviral Vectors for Gene Therapy: A View through Animal Models Tested.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Lopez, M E; Garza-Veloz, I; Lopez-Hernandez, Y; Barbosa-Cisneros, O Y; Martinez-Fierro, M L

    2016-07-01

    The central dogma of gene therapy relies on the application of novel therapeutic genes to treat or prevent diseases. The main types of vectors used for gene transfer are adenovirus, retrovirus, lentivirus, liposome, and adeno-associated virus vectors. Gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The main targets are cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and different types of cells from hematological and mesenchymal sources. In this review, we focus on molecules with anti-inflammatory effects used for in vivo gene therapy mediated by adenoviral gene transfer in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, with particular emphasis on autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  2. Restoration of β -Adrenergic Signaling in Failing Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shahab A.; Skaer, Christine A.; Kypson, Alan P.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Peppel, Karsten C.; Glower, Donald D.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Koch, Walter J.

    1997-10-01

    Cardiovascular gene therapy is a novel approach to the treatment of diseases such as congestive heart failure (CHF). Gene transfer to the heart would allow for the replacement of defective or missing cellular proteins that may improve cardiac performance. Our laboratory has been focusing on the feasibility of restoring β -adrenergic signaling deficiencies that are a characteristic of chronic CHF. We have now studied isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbits that have been chronically paced to produce hemodynamic failure. We document molecular β -adrenergic signaling defects including down-regulation of myocardial β -adrenergic receptors (β -ARs), functional β -AR uncoupling, and an upregulation of the β -AR kinase (β ARK1). Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of the human β 2-AR or an inhibitor of β ARK1 to these failing myocytes led to the restoration of β -AR signaling. These results demonstrate that defects present in this critical myocardial signaling pathway can be corrected in vitro using genetic modification and raise the possibility of novel inotropic therapies for CHF including the inhibition of β ARK1 activity in the heart.

  3. Adenoviral Delivery of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-2 Enables Successful Adoptive Cell Therapy of Immunosuppressive Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Siurala, Mikko; Havunen, Riikka; Saha, Dipongkor; Lumen, Dave; Airaksinen, Anu J; Tähtinen, Siri; Cervera-Carrascon, Víctor; Bramante, Simona; Parviainen, Suvi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2016-08-01

    Adoptive T-cell transfer is a promising treatment approach for metastatic cancer, but efficacy in solid tumors has only been achieved with toxic pre- and postconditioning regimens. Thus, adoptive T-cell therapies would benefit from complementary modalities that enable their full potential without excessive toxicity. We aimed to improve the efficacy and safety of adoptive T-cell transfer by using adenoviral vectors for direct delivery of immunomodulatory murine cytokines into B16.OVA melanoma tumors with concomitant T-cell receptor transgenic OT-I T-cell transfer. Armed adenoviruses expressed high local and low systemic levels of cytokine when injected into B16.OVA tumors, suggesting safety of virus-mediated cytokine delivery. Antitumor efficacy was significantly enhanced with adenoviruses coding for murine interleukin-2 (mIL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (mTNFα) when compared with T-cell transfer alone or viruses alone. Further improvement in efficacy was achieved with a triple combination of mIL-2, mTNFα, and OT-I T-cells. Mechanistic studies suggest that mIL-2 has an important role in activating T-cells at the tumor, while mTNFα induces chemokine expression. Furthermore, adenovirus treatments enhanced tumor-infiltration of OT-I T-cells as demonstrated by SPECT/CT imaging of (111)In-labeled cells. Our results suggest the utility of cytokine-coding adenoviruses for improving the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapies.

  4. Micro-computed tomography of pulmonary fibrosis in mice induced by adenoviral gene transfer of biologically active transforming growth factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a novel tool for monitoring acute and chronic disease states in small laboratory animals. Its value for assessing progressive lung fibrosis in mice has not been reported so far. Here we examined the importance of in vivo micro-CT as non-invasive tool to assess progression of pulmonary fibrosis in mice over time. Methods Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal delivery of an adenoviral gene vector encoding biologically active TGF-ß1 (AdTGF-ß1). Respiratory gated and ungated micro-CT scans were performed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post pulmonary adenoviral gene or control vector delivery, and were then correlated with respective histopathology-based Ashcroft scoring of pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Visual assessment of image quality and consolidation was performed by 3 observers and a semi-automated quantification algorithm was applied to quantify aerated pulmonary volume as an inverse surrogate marker for pulmonary fibrosis. Results We found a significant correlation between classical Ashcroft scoring and micro-CT assessment using both visual assessment and the semi-automated quantification algorithm. Pulmonary fibrosis could be clearly detected in micro-CT, image quality values were higher for respiratory gated exams, although differences were not significant. For assessment of fibrosis no significant difference between respiratory gated and ungated exams was observed. Conclusions Together, we show that micro-CT is a powerful tool to assess pulmonary fibrosis in mice, using both visual assessment and semi-automated quantification algorithms. These data may be important in view of pre-clinical pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of lung fibrosis in small laboratory animals. PMID:21176193

  5. Selection-free gene repair after adenoviral vector transduction of designer nucleases: rescue of dystrophin synthesis in DMD muscle cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Ignazio; Stefanucci, Luca; Janssen, Josephine M.; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyu; Mouly, Vincent; Gonçalves, Manuel A.F.V.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the 2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The integration of gene delivery and gene editing technologies based on viral vectors and sequence-specific designer nucleases, respectively, constitutes a potential therapeutic modality for permanently repairing defective DMD alleles in patient-derived myogenic cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate the feasibility of combining adenoviral vectors (AdVs) with CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) alone or together with transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), for endogenous DMD repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The strategies tested involved; incorporating small insertions or deletions at out-of-frame sequences for reading frame resetting, splice acceptor knockout for DNA-level exon skipping, and RGN-RGN or RGN-TALEN multiplexing for targeted exon(s) removal. We demonstrate that genome editing based on the activation and recruitment of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway after AdV delivery of designer nuclease genes, is a versatile and robust approach for repairing DMD mutations in bulk populations of patient-derived muscle progenitor cells (up to 37% of corrected DMD templates). These results open up a DNA-level genetic medicine strategy in which viral vector-mediated transient designer nuclease expression leads to permanent and regulated dystrophin synthesis from corrected native DMD alleles. PMID:26762977

  6. Selection-free gene repair after adenoviral vector transduction of designer nucleases: rescue of dystrophin synthesis in DMD muscle cell populations.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Ignazio; Stefanucci, Luca; Janssen, Josephine M; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyu; Mouly, Vincent; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2016-02-18

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the 2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The integration of gene delivery and gene editing technologies based on viral vectors and sequence-specific designer nucleases, respectively, constitutes a potential therapeutic modality for permanently repairing defective DMD alleles in patient-derived myogenic cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate the feasibility of combining adenoviral vectors (AdVs) with CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) alone or together with transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), for endogenous DMD repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The strategies tested involved; incorporating small insertions or deletions at out-of-frame sequences for reading frame resetting, splice acceptor knockout for DNA-level exon skipping, and RGN-RGN or RGN-TALEN multiplexing for targeted exon(s) removal. We demonstrate that genome editing based on the activation and recruitment of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway after AdV delivery of designer nuclease genes, is a versatile and robust approach for repairing DMD mutations in bulk populations of patient-derived muscle progenitor cells (up to 37% of corrected DMD templates). These results open up a DNA-level genetic medicine strategy in which viral vector-mediated transient designer nuclease expression leads to permanent and regulated dystrophin synthesis from corrected native DMD alleles. PMID:26762977

  7. Retargeted adenoviruses for radiation-guided gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaliberov, S A; Kaliberova, L N; Yan, H; Kapoor, V; Hallahan, D E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of radiation with radiosensitizing gene delivery or oncolytic viruses promises to provide an advantage that could improve the therapeutic results for glioblastoma. X-rays can induce significant molecular changes in cancer cells. We isolated the GIRLRG peptide that binds to radiation-inducible 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which is overexpressed on the plasma membranes of irradiated cancer cells and tumor-associated microvascular endothelial cells. The goal of our study was to improve tumor-specific adenovirus-mediated gene delivery by selectively targeting the adenovirus binding to this radiation-inducible protein. We employed an adenoviral fiber replacement approach to conduct a study of the targeting utility of GRP78-binding peptide. We have developed fiber-modified adenoviruses encoding the GRP78-binding peptide inserted into the fiber-fibritin. We have evaluated the reporter gene expression of fiber-modified adenoviruses in vitro using a panel of glioma cells and a human D54MG tumor xenograft model. The obtained results demonstrated that employment of the GRP78-binding peptide resulted in increased gene expression in irradiated tumors following infection with fiber-modified adenoviruses, compared with untreated tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of adenoviral retargeting using the GRP78-binding peptide that selectively recognizes tumor cells responding to radiation treatment. PMID:27492853

  8. In the rat liver, Adenoviral gene transfer efficiency is comparable to AAV.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Miranda, P S; Pichard, V; Aubert, D; Ten Bloemendaal, L; Duijst, S; de Waart, D R; Ferry, N; Bosma, P J

    2014-02-01

    Adenoviral (AdV) and Adenovirus-associated viral (AAV) vectors both are used for in vivo gene therapy of inherited liver disorders, such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1. In a relevant animal model, the Gunn rat, both vectors efficiently correct the severe hyperbilirubinemia characteristic of this liver disorder. Although the clinical use of AAV is more advanced, as demonstrated by the successful phase 1 trial in hemophilia B patients, because of its large cloning capacity AdV remains an attractive option. A direct comparison of the efficacy of these two vectors in the liver in a relevant disease model has not been reported. Aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of clinically applicable doses of both vectors in the Gunn rat. AdV or scAAV (self-complimentary AAV) ferrying identical liver-specific expression cassettes of the therapeutic gene, UGT1A1, were injected into the tail vein. As the titration methods of these two vectors are very different, a comparison based on vector titers is not valid. Therefore, their efficacy was compared by determining the amount of vector genomes delivered to the liver required for therapeutic correction of serum bilirubin. Like AAV, the liver-specific first-generation AdV also provided sustained correction in this relevant disease model. UGT1A1 mRNA expression provided per genome was comparable for both vectors. Flanking the expression cassette in AdV with AAV-ITRs (inverted terminal repeats), increased UGT1A1 mRNA expression eightfold which resulted in a significant improvement of efficacy. Compared with AAV, less AdV genomes were needed for complete correction of hyperbilirubinemia.

  9. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Modified Adenoviral Vectors for Gene Therapy: A View through Animal Models Tested.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Lopez, M E; Garza-Veloz, I; Lopez-Hernandez, Y; Barbosa-Cisneros, O Y; Martinez-Fierro, M L

    2016-07-01

    The central dogma of gene therapy relies on the application of novel therapeutic genes to treat or prevent diseases. The main types of vectors used for gene transfer are adenovirus, retrovirus, lentivirus, liposome, and adeno-associated virus vectors. Gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The main targets are cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and different types of cells from hematological and mesenchymal sources. In this review, we focus on molecules with anti-inflammatory effects used for in vivo gene therapy mediated by adenoviral gene transfer in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, with particular emphasis on autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27245510

  11. Efficient gene transfer into normal human B lymphocytes with the chimeric adenoviral vector Ad5/F35.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Néron, Sonia; Drouin, Mathieu; Jacques, Annie

    2005-09-01

    The failure to efficiently introduce genes into normal cells such as human B lymphocytes limits the characterization of their function on cellular growth, differentiation and survival. Recent studies have shown that a new adenoviral vector Ad5/F35 can efficiently transduce human haematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells. In this study, we compared the gene transfer efficiencies of the Ad5/F35 vector to that of the parental vector Ad5 in human B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood B cells obtained from healthy individuals were cultured in vitro using CD40-CD154 system. Normal B lymphocytes were infected with replication-defectives Ad5 and Ad5/F35, both containing the GFP reporter gene, and transduction efficiencies were monitored by flow cytometry. Ad5 was highly ineffective, infecting only about 5% of human B lymphocytes. In contrast, Ad5/F35 transduced up to 60% of human B lymphocytes and GFP expression could be detected for up to 5 days post infection. Importantly, physiology of B lymphocytes such as proliferation, viability and antibodies secretion were unaffected following Ad5/F35 transduction. Finally, we observed that memory B lymphocytes were more susceptible to Ad5/F35 infection than naïve B lymphocytes. Thus, our results demonstrate that the adenoviral vector Ad5/F35 is an efficient tool for the functional characterization of genes in B lymphopoiesis.

  12. Novel recombinant adenoviral vector that targets the interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain permits effective gene transfer to malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ulasov, Ilya V; Tyler, Matthew A; Han, Yu; Glasgow, Joel N; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2007-02-01

    Transduction of malignant glioma with adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors is limited by the low levels of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on tumor cells. However, malignant brain tumors have been found to overexpress a glioma-associated receptor, interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2), a marker of both glial transformation and tumor grade. To selectively target Ad5 to IL-13Ralpha2, we constructed a replication-deficient adenoviral vector that possesses an IL-13 ligand presented by a T4 phage fibritin shaft, and designated the new virus LU-13. Western blot and sequence analyses confirmed proper trimerization and ligand presentation by the T4 fibritin shaft. Confocal microscopy analysis of primary glioma suspensions incubated with viral recombinants showed that LU-13 colocalized with IL-13Ralpha2. Luciferase transduction assays conducted in both primary and passaged glioma cell cultures exhibited at least 10-fold enhanced gene transduction. Moreover, the virus preferentially bound to glioma cells, as documented by increased adenoviral E4 DNA copy number. In vitro competition assays performed with anti-human IL-13 monoclonal antibody confirmed significant attenuation of LU-13 transduction. These results were further confirmed in vivo, where LU-13 showed a 300-fold increase in transgene expression. In summary, we describe here the development of a novel and targeted adenoviral vector that binds IL-13Ralpha2. Our findings confirm the ability of LU-13 to bind IL-13Ralpha2 and increase transgene expression, making it an attractive gene therapy vector for the treatment of malignant glioma in a clinical setting.

  13. Enhanced Prostacyclin Synthesis by Adenoviral Gene Transfer Reduced Glial Activation and Ameliorated Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, May-Jywan; Weng, Ching-Feng; Yu, Nien-Chu; Liou, Dann-Ying; Kuo, Fu-San; Huang, Ming-Chao; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Tam, Kabik; Shyue, Song-Kun; Cheng, Henrich

    2013-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2), a potent vasodilator and platelet antiaggregatory eicosanoid, is cytoprotective in cerebral circulation. It is synthesized from arachidonic acid (AA) by the sequential action of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 1 or 2 and prostacyclin synthase (PGIS). Because prostacyclin is unstable in vivo, PGI2 analogs have been developed and demonstrated to protect against brain ischemia. This work attempts to selectively augment PGI2 synthesis in mixed glial culture or in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by direct adenoviral gene transfer of prostacyclin biosynthetic enzymes and examines whether it confers protection in cultures or in vivo. Confluent mixed glial cultures actively metabolized exogenous AA into PGE2 and PGD2. These PGs were largely NS398 sensitive and considered as COX-2 products. Gene transfer of AdPGIS to the cultures effectively shunted the AA catabolism to prostacyclin synthesis and concurrently reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, PGIS overexpression significantly reduced LPS stimulation in cultures. In vivo, adenoviral gene transfer of bicistronic COX-1/PGIS to substantia nigra protected 6-OHDA- induced dopamine depletion and ameliorated behavioral deficits. Taken together, this study shows that enhanced prostacyclin synthesis reduced glial activation and ameliorated motor dysfunction in hemiparkinsonian rats. Prostacyclin may have a neuroprotective role in modulating the inflammatory response in degenerating nigra-striatal pathway. PMID:23691265

  14. Adenoviral gene transfer of Akt enhances myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Cittadini, A; Monti, M G; Iaccarino, G; Di Rella, F; Tsichlis, P N; Di Gianni, A; Strömer, H; Sorriento, D; Peschle, C; Trimarco, B; Saccà, L; Condorelli, G

    2006-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Akt/PKB mediates stimuli from different classes of cardiomyocyte receptors, including the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor and the beta-adrenergic receptors. Whereas the growth-promoting and antiapoptotic properties of Akt activation are well established, little is known about the effects of Akt on myocardial contractility, intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) handling, oxygen consumption, and beta-adrenergic pathway. To this aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a wild-type Akt in vivo adenoviral gene transfer using a catheter-based technique combined with aortopulmonary crossclamping. Left ventricular (LV) contractility and intracellular Ca(2+) handling were evaluated in an isolated isovolumic buffer-perfused, aequorin-loaded whole heart preparations 10 days after the surgery. The Ca(2+)-force relationship was obtained under steady-state conditions in tetanized muscles. No significant hypertrophy was detected in adenovirus with wild-type Akt (Ad.Akt) versus controls rats (LV-to-body weight ratio 2.6+/-0.2 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, controls versus Ad.Akt, P, NS). LV contractility, measured as developed pressure, increased by 41% in Ad.Akt. This was accounted for by both more systolic Ca(2+) available to the contractile machinery (+19% versus controls) and by enhanced myofilament Ca(2+) responsiveness, documented by an increased maximal Ca(2+)-activated pressure (+19% versus controls) and a shift to the left of the Ca(2+)-force relationship. Such increased contractility was paralleled by a slight increase of myocardial oxygen consumption (14%), while titrated dose of dobutamine providing similar inotropic effect augmented oxygen consumption by 39% (P<0.01). Phospholamban, calsequestrin, and ryanodine receptor LV mRNA and protein content were not different among the study groups, while sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase protein levels were significantly increased in Ad.Akt rats. beta-Adrenergic receptor density, affinity, kinase-1

  15. Photochemical control of the infectivity of adenoviral vectors using a novel photocleavable biotinylation reagent.

    PubMed

    Pandori, Mark W; Hobson, David A; Olejnik, Jerzy; Krzymanska-Olejnik, Edyta; Rothschild, Kenneth J; Palmer, Abraham A; Phillips, Tamara J; Sano, Takeshi

    2002-05-01

    We have explored a novel strategy for controlling the infectivity of adenoviral vectors. This strategy involves a method whereby the infectivity of adenoviral vectors is neutralized by treatment of viral particles with a water-soluble, photocleavable biotinylation reagent. These modified viral vectors possess little to no infectivity for target cells. Exposure of these modified viral vectors to 365 nm light induces a reversal of the neutralizing, chemical modification, resulting in restoration of infectivity to the viral vectors. The light-directed transduction of target cells by photoactivatable adenoviral vectors was demonstrated successfully both in vitro and in vivo. This photochemical infectivity trigger possesses great potential, both as a research tool and as a novel tactic for the delivery of gene-transfer agents, since the infectivity of adenoviral vectors can be controlled externally in a versatile manner. PMID:12031663

  16. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  17. Combined use of adenoviral vector Ad5/F35-mediated APE1 siRNA enhances the therapeutic efficacy of adenoviral-mediated p53 gene transfer in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cun, Yanping; Zhang, Qinhong; Xiong, Chengjie; Li, Mengxia; Dai, Nan; Zhang, Shiheng; Wang, Dong

    2013-06-01

    Gene therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. In order to establish a more effective therapeutic strategy against unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we evaluated, in the present study, the effects of combined treatment with adenoviral vector Ad5/F35-mediated APE1 siRNA (Ad5/F35-siAPE1) and adenoviral-mediated p53 gene transfer (Ad-p53) in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Infection of SMMC-7721 cells with Ad5/F35-siAPE1 resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of APE1 protein, while Ad-p53 treatment led to a time- and dose-dependent increase of p53 protein expression. Ad5/F35-siAPE1 significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of SMMC-7721 cells to Ad-p53 in cell survival assays, associated with increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, administration of Ad5/F35-siAPE1 and Ad-p53 into nude mice resulted in tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in SMMC-7721 xenografts compared to administration of either agent alone. These results suggest that combination of Ad5/F35-siAPE1 and Ad-p53 could be a promising gene therapeutic approach against human HCC.

  18. Correction of the nonlinear dose response improves the viability of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy of Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Robin J; Li, Chester; Cherry, Maribeth; Zhu, Yunxiang; Hempel, Donna; van Rooijen, Nico; Ioannou, Yiannis A; Desnick, Robert J; Goldberg, Mark A; Yew, Nelson S; Cheng, Seng H

    2002-05-20

    Systemic administration of recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy of chronic diseases such as Fabry disease can be limited by dose-dependent toxicity. Because administration of a high dose of Ad2/CMVHI-alpha gal encoding human alpha-galactosidase A results in expression of supraphysiological levels of the enzyme, we sought to determine whether lower doses would suffice to correct the enzyme deficiency and lysosomal storage abnormality observed in Fabry mice. Reducing the dose of Ad2/CMVHI-alpha gal by 10-fold (from 10(11) to 10(10) particles/mouse) resulted in a greater than 200-fold loss in transgene expression. In Fabry mice, the reduced expression of alpha-galactosidase A, using the lower dose of Ad2/CMVHI-alpha gal, was associated with less than optimal clearance of the accumulated glycosphingolipid (GL-3) from the affected lysosomes. It was determined that this lack of linearity in dose response was not due to an inability to deliver the recombinant viral vectors to the liver but rather to sequestration, at least in part, of the viral vectors by the Kupffer cells. This lack of correlation between dose and expression levels could be obviated by supplementing the low dose of Ad2/CMVHI-alpha gal with an unrelated adenoviral vector or by depleting the Kupffer cells before administration of Ad2/CMVHI-alpha gal. Prior removal of the Kupffer cells, using clodronate liposomes, facilitated the use of a 100-fold lower dose of Ad2/CMVHI-alpha gal (10(9) particles/mouse) to effect the nearly complete clearance of GL-3 from the affected organs of Fabry mice. These results suggest that practical strategies that minimize the interaction between the recombinant adenoviral vectors and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) may improve the therapeutic window of this vector system. In this regard, we showed that pretreatment of mice with gamma globulins also resulted in significantly enhanced adenovirus-mediated transduction and expression of alpha-galactosidase A in the

  19. Loss of Endothelial Barrier in Marfan Mice (mgR/mgR) Results in Severe Inflammation after Adenoviral Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Alexander; Arif, Rawa; Weber, Antje; Zaradzki, Marcin; Richter, Karsten; Ensminger, Stephan; Robinson, Peter Nicholas; Wagner, Andreas H.; Karck, Matthias; Kallenbach, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of connective tissue. The vascular complications of Marfan syndrome have the biggest impact on life expectancy. The aorta of Marfan patients reveals degradation of elastin layers caused by increased proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study we performed adenoviral gene transfer of human tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (hTIMP-1) in aortic grafts of fibrillin-1 deficient Marfan mice (mgR/mgR) in order to reduce elastolysis. Methods We performed heterotopic infrarenal transplantation of the thoracic aorta in female mice (n = 7 per group). Before implantation, mgR/mgR and wild-type aortas (WT, C57BL/6) were transduced ex vivo with an adenoviral vector coding for human TIMP-1 (Ad.hTIMP-1) or β-galactosidase (Ad.β-Gal). As control mgR/mgR and wild-type aortas received no gene therapy. Thirty days after surgery, overexpression of the transgene was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and collagen in situ zymography. Histologic staining was performed to investigate inflammation, the neointimal index (NI), and elastin breaks. Endothelial barrier function of native not virus-exposed aortas was evaluated by perfusion of fluorescent albumin and examinations of virus-exposed tissue were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results IHC and ISZ revealed sufficient expression of the transgene. Severe cellular inflammation and intima hyperplasia were seen only in adenovirus treated mgR/mgR aortas (Ad.β-Gal, Ad.hTIMP-1 NI: 0.23; 0.43), but not in native and Ad.hTIMP-1 treated WT (NI: 0.01; 0.00). Compared to native mgR/mgR and Ad.hTIMP-1 treated WT aorta, the NI is highly significant greater in Ad.hTIMP-1 transduced mgR/mgR aorta (p = 0.001; p = 0.001). As expected, untreated Marfan grafts showed significant more elastolysis compared to WT (p = 0.001). However, elastolysis in Marfan aortas was not reduced by adenoviral overexpression of hTIMP-1

  20. Electroporation-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer L; Dean, David A

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation has been used extensively to transfer DNA to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells in culture for the past 30 years. Over this time, numerous advances have been made, from using fields to facilitate cell fusion, delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to cells and tissues, and most importantly, gene and drug delivery in living tissues from rodents to man. Electroporation uses electrical fields to transiently destabilize the membrane allowing the entry of normally impermeable macromolecules into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, at the appropriate field strengths, the application of these fields to tissues results in little, if any, damage or trauma. Indeed, electroporation has even been used successfully in human trials for gene delivery for the treatment of tumors and for vaccine development. Electroporation can lead to between 100 and 1000-fold increases in gene delivery and expression and can also increase both the distribution of cells taking up and expressing the DNA as well as the absolute amount of gene product per cell (likely due to increased delivery of plasmids into each cell). Effective electroporation depends on electric field parameters, electrode design, the tissues and cells being targeted, and the plasmids that are being transferred themselves. Most importantly, there is no single combination of these variables that leads to greatest efficacy in every situation; optimization is required in every new setting. Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery has proven highly effective in vaccine production, transgene expression, enzyme replacement, and control of a variety of cancers. Almost any tissue can be targeted with electroporation, including muscle, skin, heart, liver, lung, and vasculature. This chapter will provide an overview of the theory of electroporation for the delivery of DNA both in individual cells and in tissues and its application for in vivo gene delivery in a number of animal models. PMID:25620008

  1. Electroporation-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer L; Dean, David A

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation has been used extensively to transfer DNA to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells in culture for the past 30 years. Over this time, numerous advances have been made, from using fields to facilitate cell fusion, delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to cells and tissues, and most importantly, gene and drug delivery in living tissues from rodents to man. Electroporation uses electrical fields to transiently destabilize the membrane allowing the entry of normally impermeable macromolecules into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, at the appropriate field strengths, the application of these fields to tissues results in little, if any, damage or trauma. Indeed, electroporation has even been used successfully in human trials for gene delivery for the treatment of tumors and for vaccine development. Electroporation can lead to between 100 and 1000-fold increases in gene delivery and expression and can also increase both the distribution of cells taking up and expressing the DNA as well as the absolute amount of gene product per cell (likely due to increased delivery of plasmids into each cell). Effective electroporation depends on electric field parameters, electrode design, the tissues and cells being targeted, and the plasmids that are being transferred themselves. Most importantly, there is no single combination of these variables that leads to greatest efficacy in every situation; optimization is required in every new setting. Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery has proven highly effective in vaccine production, transgene expression, enzyme replacement, and control of a variety of cancers. Almost any tissue can be targeted with electroporation, including muscle, skin, heart, liver, lung, and vasculature. This chapter will provide an overview of the theory of electroporation for the delivery of DNA both in individual cells and in tissues and its application for in vivo gene delivery in a number of animal models.

  2. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period. PMID:27103444

  3. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period.

  4. Neo-islet formation in liver of diabetic mice by helper-dependent adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongying; Oka, Kazuhiro; Yechoor, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Until now insulin replacement is still the major therapy, because islet transplantation has been limited by donor availability and by the need for long-term immunosuppression. Induced islet neogenesis by gene transfer of Neuogenin3 (Ngn3), the islet lineage-defining specific transcription factor and Betacellulin (Btc), an islet growth factor has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are highly efficient gene transfer vector; however, early generation Ads have several disadvantages for in vivo use. Helper-dependent Ads (HDAds) are the most advanced Ads that were developed to improve the safety profile of early generation of Ads and to prolong transgene expression(1). They lack chronic toxicity because they lack viral coding sequences(2-5) and retain only Ad cis elements necessary for vector replication and packaging. This allows cloning of up to 36 kb genes. In this protocol, we describe the method to generate HDAd-Ngn3 and HDAd-Btc and to deliver these vectors into STZ-induced diabetic mice. Our results show that co-injection of HDAd-Ngn3 and HDAd-Btc induces 'neo islets' in the liver and reverses hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. PMID:23093064

  5. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  6. Composite Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated gene and siRNA delivery has been an appealing area to gene therapists when they attempt to treat the diseases by manipulating the genetic information in the target cells. However, the advances in materials science could not keep up with the demand for multifunctional nanomaterials to achieve desired delivery efficiency. Researchers have thus taken an alternative approach to incorporate various materials into single composite nanoparticle using different fabrication methods. This approach allows nanoparticles to possess defined nanostructures as well as multiple functionalities to overcome the critical extracellular and intracellular barriers to successful gene delivery. This chapter will highlight the advances of fabrication methods that have the most potential to translate nanoparticles from bench to bedside. Furthermore, a major class of composite nanoparticle–lipid-based composite nanoparticles will be classified based on the components and reviewed in details. PMID:25409605

  7. Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sha; Leach, John C.; Ye, Kaiming

    Nonviral gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. Although the efficacy of DNA transfection, which is a major concern, is low in nonviral vector-mediated gene transfer compared with viral ones, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to prepare, less immunogenic and oncogenic, and have no potential of virus recombination and no limitation on the size of a transferred gene. The ability to incorporate genetic materials such as plasmid DNA, RNA, and siRNA into functionalized nanoparticles with little toxicity demonstrates a new era in pharmacotherapy for delivering genes selectively to tissues and cells. In this chapter, we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery using super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and functionalized silica nanoparticles. The experimental protocols related to these topics are described in the chapter.

  8. Enhanced anti-tumor effects of combined MDR1 RNA interference and human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) radioiodine gene therapy using an adenoviral system in a colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, S J; Jeon, Y H; Lee, Y J; Lee, Y L; Lee, S-W; Ahn, B-C; Ha, J-H; Lee, J

    2010-01-01

    Using an adenoviral system as a delivery mediator of therapeutic gene, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the use of combined MDR1 shRNA and human NIS (hNIS) radioiodine gene therapy in a mouse colon xenograft model. In vitro uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi was increased approximately two-fold in cells infected with an adenovirus vector that expressed MDR1 shRNA (Ad-shMDR1) and I-125 uptake was 25-fold higher in cells infected with an adenovirus vector that expressed human NIS (Ad-hNIS) as compared with control cells. As compared with doxorubicin or I-131 treatment alone, the combination of doxorubicin and I-131 resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity for both Ad-shMDR1- and Ad-hNIS-infected cells, but not for control cells. In vivo uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m pertechnetate was twofold and 10-fold higher for Ad-shMDR1 and Ad-hNIS-infected tumors as compared with tumors infected with a control adenovirus construct that expressed β-galactrosidase (Ad-LacZ), respectively. In mice treated with either doxorubicin or I-131 alone, there was a slight delay in tumor growth as compared to mice treated with Ad-LacZ. However, combination therapy with doxorubicin and I-131 induced further significant inhibition of tumor growth as compared with mice treated with Ad-LacZ. We have shown successful therapeutic efficacy of combined MDR shRNA and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy using an adenoviral vector system in a mouse colon cancer model. Adenovirus-mediated cancer gene therapy using MDR1 shRNA and hNIS would be a useful tool for the treatment of cancer cells expressing multi-drug resistant genes. PMID:20186172

  9. Hepatic gene therapy: efficient gene delivery and expression in primary hepatocytes utilizing a conjugated adenovirus-DNA complex.

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, R J; Smith, L C; Kay, M A; Brinkley, B R; Woo, S L

    1993-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is an effective method for gene delivery into target cells. We have previously shown that DNA molecules complexed with asialoglycoprotein can be efficiently endocytosed by primary hepatocytes and the internalized DNA can be released from endosomes by the use of a replication-defective adenovirus. Because the DNA and virus enter target cells independently, activity enhancement requires high concentrations of adenoviral particles. In this study, adenoviral particles were chemically conjugated to poly(L-lysine) and bound ionically to DNA molecules. Quantitative delivery to primary hepatocytes was achieved with significantly reduced viral titer when the asialoorosomucoid-poly(L-lysine) conjugate was included in the complex. The conjugated adenovirus was used to deliver a DNA vector containing canine factor IX to mouse hepatocytes, resulting in the expression of significant concentrations of canine factor IX in the culture medium. The results suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis coupled with an efficient endosomal lysis vector should permit the application of targeted and efficient gene delivery into the liver for gene therapy of hepatic deficiencies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8265587

  10. Chimeric Adenoviral Vectors Incorporating a Fiber of Human Adenovirus 3 Efficiently Mediate Gene Transfer into Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Miho; Ugai, Hideyo; Belousova, Natalya; Pereboev, Alexander; Dent, Paul; Fisher, Paul B.; Everts, Maaike; Curiel, David T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have developed a range of adenoviral (Ad) vectors based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) displaying the fiber shaft and knob domains of species B viruses (HAdV-3, HAdV-11, or HAdV-35). These species B Ads utilize different cellular receptors than HAdV-5 for infection. We evaluated whether Ad vectors displaying species B fiber shaft and knob domains (Ad5F3Luc1, Ad5F11Luc1, and Ad5F35Luc1) would efficiently infect cancer cells of distinct origins, including prostate cancer. METHODS The fiber chimeric Ad vectors were genetically generated and compared with the original Ad vector (Ad5Luc1) for transductional efficiency in a variety of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells and primary prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), using luciferase as a reporter gene. RESULTS Prostate cancer cell lines infected with Ad5F3Luc1 expressed higher levels of luciferase than Ad5Luc1, as well as the other chimeric Ad vectors. We also analyzed the transductional efficiency via monitoring of luciferase activity in prostate cancer cells when expressed as a fraction of the gene transfer in PrEC cells. In the PC-3 and DU145 cell lines, the gene transfer ratio of cancer cells versus PrEC was once again highest for Ad5F3Luc1. CONCLUSION Of the investigated chimeric HAdV-5/species B vectors, Ad5F3Luc1 was judged to be the most suitable for targeting prostate cancer cells as it showed the highest transductional efficiency in these cells. It is foreseeable that an Ad vector incorporating the HAdV-3 fiber could potentially be used for prostate cancer gene therapy. PMID:19902467

  11. Neonatal helper-dependent adenoviral vector gene therapy mediates correction of hemophilia A and tolerance to human factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Cela, Racel G.; Suzuki, Masataka; Lee, Brendan; Lipshutz, Gerald S.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal gene therapy is a promising strategy for treating a number of congenital diseases diagnosed shortly after birth as expression of therapeutic proteins during postnatal life may limit the pathologic consequences and result in a potential “cure.” Hemophilia A is often complicated by the development of antibodies to recombinant protein resulting in treatment failure. Neonatal administration of vectors may avoid inhibitory antibody formation to factor VIII (FVIII) by taking advantage of immune immaturity. A helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing human factor VIII was administered i.v. to neonatal hemophilia A knockout mice. Three days later, mice produced high levels of FVIII. Levels declined rapidly with animal growth to 5 wk of age with stable factor VIII expression thereafter to >1 y of age. Decline in factor VIII expression was not related to cell-mediated or humoral responses with lack of development of antibodies to capsid or human factor VIII proteins. Subsequent readministration and augmentation of expression was possible as operational tolerance was established to factor VIII without development of inhibitors; however, protective immunity to adenovirus remained. PMID:21245323

  12. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

  13. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    PubMed Central

    Gould, David

    2013-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

  14. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place.

  15. Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. Methods/Results We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. Conclusion In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline. PMID:20927353

  16. Construction of an adenoviral expression vector carrying FLAG and hrGFP-1 genes and its expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, G X; Hu, L; Zhang, Z; Liu, D P

    2014-02-20

    The aim of this study was to construct an adenoviral expression vector for vascular endothelium growth factor 121 (VEGF121)-FLAG and humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP-1) genes, and to observe their expressions in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Using pTG19T-VEGF121 as a template, polymerase chain reaction technology was adopted to mutate the VEGF121 gene by removing the stop codon and inserting NotI and XhoI restriction sites both before and after the gene sequences. The resultant gene was then subcloned into a pMD19-T plasmid, the pMD19-T-VEGF121 and pShuttle-CMV-IRES-hrGFP-1 plasmids were double-digested, and small and large fragments were linked after gel recovery to complete the construction of recombinant adenovirus vectors. After titer determination, the recombinant adenovirus vectors were used to affect rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and fluorescence intensity was observed under fluorescence microscopy. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing confirmed that the recombinant plasmids were successfully constructed, and observations under fluorescence microscopy showed significant expression of green fluorescent protein in recombinant adenovirus-infected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The constructed adenoviral gene expression vectors carrying VEGF121-FLAG and hrGFP-1 can be expressed in eukaryotic cells, which may be used for gene therapy of ischemic disorders.

  17. Adenoviral-mediated imaging of gene transfer using a somatostatin receptor-cytosine deaminase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Lears, K A; Parry, J J; Andrews, R; Nguyen, K; Wadas, T J; Rogers, B E

    2015-03-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy owing to the enzyme's ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  18. Adenoviral-Mediated Imaging of Gene Transfer Using a Somatostatin Receptor-Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lears, Kimberly A.; Parry, Jesse J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Nguyen, Kim; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Rogers, Buck E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy due to the enzyme’s ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that the both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays, and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies, and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  19. Analyses of chondrogenic induction of adipose mesenchymal stem cells by combined co-stimulation mediated by adenoviral gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the potential to differentiate into cartilage under stimulation with some reported growth and transcriptional factors, which may constitute an alternative for cartilage replacement approaches. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro chondrogenesis of ASCs transduced with adenoviral vectors encoding insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) either alone or in combinations. Methods Aggregate cultures of characterized ovine ASCs were transduced with 100 multiplicity of infections of Ad.IGF-1, Ad.TGF-β1, Ad.FGF-2, and Ad.SOX9 alone or in combination. These were harvested at various time points for detection of cartilage-specific genes expression by quantitative real-time PCR or after 14 and 28 days for histologic and biochemical analyses detecting proteoglycans, collagens (II, I and X), and total sulfated glycosaminoglycan and collagen content, respectively. Results Expression analyses showed that co-expression of IGF-1 and FGF-2 resulted in higher significant expression levels of aggrecan, biglycan, cartilage matrix, proteoglycan, and collagen II (all P ≤0.001 at 28 days). Aggregates co-transduced with Ad.IGF-1/Ad.FGF-2 showed a selective expression of proteoglycans and collagen II, with limited expression of collagens I and × demonstrated by histological analyses, and had significantly greater glycosaminoglycan and collagen production than the positive control (P ≤0.001). Western blot analyses for this combination also demonstrated increased expression of collagen II, while expression of collagens I and × was undetectable and limited, respectively. Conclusion Combined overexpression of IGF-1/FGF-2 within ASCs enhances their chondrogenic differentiation inducing the expression of chondrogenic markers, suggesting that this combination is more beneficial than the other factors tested for the

  20. Modulation of TNFalpha, a determinant of acute toxicity associated with systemic delivery of first-generation and helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Mane, V P; Toietta, G; McCormack, W M; Conde, I; Clarke, C; Palmer, D; Finegold, M J; Pastore, L; Ng, P; Lopez, J; Lee, B

    2006-09-01

    Understanding the determinants of the host innate immune response to systemic administration of adenoviral (Ad) vectors is critical for clinical gene therapy. Acute toxicity occurs within minutes to hours after vector administration and is characterized by activation of innate immune responses. Our data indicate that in mice, indicators of vector toxicity include elevations of cytokine levels, liver transaminase levels and thrombocytopenia. To discern potential targets for blunting this host response, we evaluated genetic factors in the host response to systemically administered first-generation Ad vectors (FGV) and helper-dependent Ad vectors (HDV) containing beta-galactosidase expression cassettes. A preliminary screen for modulation of vector-induced thrombocytopenia revealed no role for interferon-gamma, mast cells or perforin. However, vector-induced thrombocytopenia and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression are less evident in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-deficient mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that TNFalpha blockade via antibody or huTNFR:Fc pretreatment attenuates both thrombocytopenia (>40% increase in platelet count) and IL-6 expression (>80% reduction) without affecting interleukin 12 , liver enzymes, hematological indices or vector transduction in a murine model. Our data indicate that the use of HDV, in combination with clinically approved TNFalpha immunomodulation, may represent an approach for improving the therapeutic index of Ad gene therapy for human clinical trials. PMID:16708078

  1. Oncolytic Adenoviral Mutants with E1B19K Gene Deletions Enhance Gemcitabine-induced Apoptosis in Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells and Anti-Tumor Efficacy In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Stephan; Sweeney, Katrina; Öberg, Daniel; Davies, Derek; Miranda, Enrique; Lemoine, Nick R.; Halldén, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a rapidly progressive malignancy that is highly resistant to current chemotherapeutic modalities and almost uniformly fatal.We show that a novel targeting strategy combining oncolytic adenoviral mutants with the standard cytotoxic treatment, gemcitabine, can markedly improve the anticancer potency. Experimental Design Adenoviral mutants with the E1B19K gene deleted with and without E3B gene expression (AdΔE1B19K and dl337 mutants, respectively) were assessed for synergistic interactions in combination with gemcitabine. Cell viability, mechanism of cell death, and antitumor efficacy in vivo were determined in the pancreatic carcinoma cells PT45 and Suit2, normal human bronchial epithelial cells, and in PT45 xenografts. Results The ΔE1B19K-deleted mutants synergized with gemcitabine to selectively kill cultured pancreatic cancer cells and xenografts in vivo with no effect in normal cells. The corresponding wild-type virus (Ad5) stimulated drug-induced cell killing to a lesser degree. Gemcitabine blocked replication of all viruses despite the enhanced cell killing activity due to gemcitabine-induced delay in G1/S-cell cycle progression, with repression of cyclin E and cdc25A, which was not abrogated by viral E1A-expression. Synergistic cell death occurred through enhancement of gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in the presence of both AdΔE1B19K and dl337 mutants, shown by increased cell membrane fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions Our data suggest that oncolytic mutants lacking the antiapoptotic E1B19K gene can improve efficacy of DNA-damaging drugs such as gemcitabine through convergence on cellular apoptosis pathways.These findings imply that less toxic doses than currently practicedin the clinic could efficiently target pancreatic adenocarcinomas when combined with adenoviral mutants. PMID:19223497

  2. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  3. Targeting adeno-associated virus and adenoviral gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Gang; Huang, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Bu-Yun; Zhou, Xiu-Mei; Sun, Yan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) heavily endangers human heath worldwide. HCC is one of most frequent cancers in China because patients with liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis, have the highest cancer susceptibility. Traditional therapeutic approaches have limited efficacy in advanced liver cancer, and novel strategies are urgently needed to improve the limited treatment options for HCC. This review summarizes the basic knowledge, current advances, and future challenges and prospects of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and adenoviruses as vectors for gene therapy of HCC. This paper also reviews the clinical trials of gene therapy using adenovirus vectors, immunotherapy, toxicity and immunological barriers for AAV and adenoviruses, and proposes several alternative strategies to overcome the therapeutic barriers to using AAV and adenoviruses as vectors. PMID:26755879

  4. Targeting adeno-associated virus and adenoviral gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Gang; Huang, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Bu-Yun; Zhou, Xiu-Mei; Sun, Yan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) heavily endangers human heath worldwide. HCC is one of most frequent cancers in China because patients with liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis, have the highest cancer susceptibility. Traditional therapeutic approaches have limited efficacy in advanced liver cancer, and novel strategies are urgently needed to improve the limited treatment options for HCC. This review summarizes the basic knowledge, current advances, and future challenges and prospects of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and adenoviruses as vectors for gene therapy of HCC. This paper also reviews the clinical trials of gene therapy using adenovirus vectors, immunotherapy, toxicity and immunological barriers for AAV and adenoviruses, and proposes several alternative strategies to overcome the therapeutic barriers to using AAV and adenoviruses as vectors. PMID:26755879

  5. Gene delivery by functional inorganic nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; Lee, Tung-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Gene delivery into cells to elicit cellular response has received a great attention recently. Viruses, lipids, peptides, cationic polymers and certain inorganic nanomaterials have been reported as gene delivery vectors. In this review, we focus on the recent literature on gene delivery using inorganic nanoparticles. This emerging field of study is concisely summarized and illustrated by selected examples and recent patents. New approaches and directions towards the practical use of multifunctional nanocarriers are highlighted.

  6. Efficacy of recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene in the treatment of lung cancer-mediated pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    LI, KUN-LIN; KANG, JUN; ZHANG, PENG; LI, LI; WANG, YU-BO; CHEN, HENG-YI; HE, YONG

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion induced by lung cancer exerts a negative impact on quality of life and prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of the recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene (rAd-p53) in the local treatment of lung cancer and its synergistic effect with chemotherapy. The present study retrospectively recruited 210 patients with lung cancer-mediated pleural effusion who had adopted a treatment strategy of platinum chemotherapy. Pleurodesis was performed via the injection of cisplatin or rAd-p53. Long-term follow-up was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects of cisplatin and rAd-p53 administration on pleural effusion and other relevant clinical indicators. The short-term effect of pleurodesis was as follows: The efficacy rate of rAd-p53 therapy was significantly higher compared with cisplatin therapy (71.26 vs. 54.47%), and the efficacy of treatment with ≥2×1012 viral particles of rAd-p53 for pleurodesis was significantly greater than treatment with 40 mg cisplatin (P<0.05). Furthermore, efficacy analysis performed 6 and 12 months after pleurodesis indicated that the efficacy rate of rAd-p53 was significantly greater than that of cisplatin (P<0.05). A comparison of median progression-free survival (PFS) time identified a significant difference (P<0.05) between rAd-p53 and cisplatin therapy (3.3 vs. 2.7 months); however, a comparison of median overall survival time identified no significant difference (P>0.05) between rAd-p53 and cisplatin therapy (9.6 vs. 8.7 months). In addition, Cox regression analysis indicated that PFS was not affected by clinical indicators such as age, gender, prognostic staging and smoking status; however, PFS was affected by pathological subtype (adenocarcinoma or squamous carcinoma) in the rAd-p53 group. rAd-p53 administration for pleurodesis exerts long-term therapeutic effects on the local treatment of lung cancer. Thus, a combination of rAd-p53 and chemotherapy may exert a synergistic effect and

  7. Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Amanda; Vetrini, Francesco; Ng, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors are devoid of all viral coding sequences, possess a large cloning capacity, and can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle to mediate long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. These non-integrating vectors hold tremendous potential for a variety of gene transfer and gene therapy applications. Here, we review the production technologies, applications, obstacles to clinical translation and their potential resolutions, and the future challenges and unanswered questions regarding this promising gene transfer technology. PMID:24533227

  8. Good manufacturing practice production of adenoviral vectors for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lusky, Monika

    2005-03-01

    The increasing importance of recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy, cancer therapy, and the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines has led to worldwide efforts toward scalable process development suitable for commercial manufacturing of replication-deficient adenoviral vectors. This review focuses on the manufacturing of adenovirus for clinical trials in the context of good manufacturing practice conditions and regulations. PMID:15812223

  9. Adenoviral delivery of an antisense RNA complementary to the 3' coding sequence of transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits fibrogenic activities of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Arias, Monica; Lahme, Birgit; Van de Leur, Eddy; Gressner, Axel M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2002-06-01

    Liver fibrosis occurs as a consequence of the transdifferentiationof hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblasts and is associated with an increased expression and activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1. This pluripotent, profibrogenic cytokine stimulates matrix synthesis and decreases matrix degradation, resulting in fibrosis. Thus, blockade of synthesis or sequestering of mature TGF-beta1 is a primary target for the development of antifibrotic approaches. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the administration of adenoviruses constitutively expressing an antisense mRNA complementary to the 3' coding sequence of TGF-beta1 is able to suppress the synthesis of TGF-beta1 in culture-activated hepatic stellate cells. We demonstrate that the adenoviral vehicle directs high-level expression of the transgene and proved that the transduced antisense is biologically active by immunoprecipitation, Western blot, quantitative TGF-beta1 ELISA, and cell proliferation assays. Additionally, the biological function of the transgene was confirmed by analysis of differential activity of TGF-beta1-responsive genes using cell ELISA, Northern blotting, and by microarray technology, respectively. Furthermore, we examined the effects of that transgene on the expression of TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, collagen type alpha1(I), latent transforming growth factor binding protein 1, types I and II TGF-beta receptors, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Our results indicate that the administration of antisense mRNA offers a feasible approach to block autocrine TGF-beta1 signaling in hepatic stellate cells and may be useful and applicable in future to the treatment of fibrosis in chronic liver diseases.

  10. Race, genes and preterm delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    High rates of preterm delivery (PTD) among African Americans are the leading cause of excess infant mortality among African Americans. Failure to fully explain racial disparity in PTD has led to speculation that genetic factors might contribute to this disparity. Current evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute to PTD, but this does not imply that genetic factors contribute to racial disparity in PTD. Environmental factors clearly contribute to PTD. Many of these factors acting over a women's life prior to pregnancy disproportionately affect African Americans and contribute significantly to racial disparity in PTD. Thus, inferring genetic contribution to racial disparity in PTD by attempting to control for environmental factors measured at a single point in time is flawed. There is emerging evidence of gene-environment interactions for PTD, some of which disproportionately affect African Americans. There is also evidence of racial differences in the prevalence of polymorphisms potentially related to PTD. However, to date there is no direct evidence that these differences contribute significantly to racial disparity in PTD. Given the complexity of polygenic conditions such as PTD, the possibility of any single gene contributing substantially to racial disparity in PTD seems remote. PMID:16334498

  11. Cyclodextrins in non-viral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wing-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are naturally occurring cyclic oligosaccharides. They consist of (α-1,4)-linked glucose units, and possess a basket-shaped topology with an "inner-outer" amphiphilic character. Over the years, substantial efforts have been undertaken to investigate the possible use of CDs in drug delivery and controlled drug release, yet the potential of CDs in gene delivery has received comparatively less discussion in the literature. In this article, we will first discuss the properties of CDs for gene delivery, followed by a synopsis of the use of CDs in development and modification of non-viral gene carriers. Finally, areas that are noteworthy in CD-based gene delivery will be highlighted for future research. Due to the application prospects of CDs, it is anticipated that CDs will continue to emerge as an important tool for vector development, and will play significant roles in facilitating non-viral gene delivery in the forthcoming decades. PMID:24103652

  12. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rat using adenoviral gene transfer of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Gang; Huang, Xiang-Jun; Luo, Hong-Wu; Huang, Fei-Zhou; Liu, Xun-Yang; Wang, Yong-Heng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether a virus constitutively expressing active Akt is useful to prevent cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). METHODS: Using cre-loxp technique, we created an Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus, in which Akt is labeled by a HA tag and its expression is driven by myr promoter. Further, through measuring enzyme levels and histological structure, we determined the efficacy of this Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus in inhibiting the development of cirrhosis induced by CCl4 in rats. Lastly, using western blotting, we examined the expression levels and/or phosphorylation status of Akt, apoptotic mediators, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and markers for hepatic stellate cells activation to understand the underlying mechanisms of protective role of this virus. RESULTS: The Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of inserted Akt gene and sequencing for full length of inserted fragment, which was consistent with the sequence reported in the GenBank. The concentrations of Ad-myr-HA-Akt and adenoviral enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) virus used in the current study were 5.5 × 1011 vp/mL. The portal vein diameter, peak velocity of blood flow, portal blood flow and congestion index were significantly increased in untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups when compared to normal control after the virus was introduced to animal through tail veil injection. In contrast, these parameters in the Akt cirrhosis group were comparable to normal control group. Compared to the normal control, the liver function (Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase and Albumin) was significantly impaired in the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Akt cirrhosis group showed significant improvement of liver function when compared to the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Hyp level and portal vein pressure in Akt cirrhosis groups were also significantly lower than other cirrhosis groups

  13. Tuning Surface Charge and PEGylation of Biocompatible Polymers for Efficient Delivery of Nucleic Acid or Adenoviral Vector.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Kim, Jaesung; Bui, Quang Nam; Li, Yi; Yun, Chae-Ok; Lee, Doo Sung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-08-19

    As an effective and safe strategy to overcome the limits of therapeutic nucleic acid or adenovirus (Ad) vectors for in vivo application, various technologies to modify the surface of vectors with nonimmunogenic/biocompatible polymers have been emerging in the field of gene therapy. However, the transfection efficacy of the polymer to transfer genetic materials is still relatively weak. To develop more advanced and effective polymers to deliver not only Ad vectors, but also nucleic acids, 6 biocompatible polymers were newly designed and synthesized to different sizes (2k, 3.4k, or 5k) of poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) and different numbers of amine groups (2 or 5) based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly{N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]-l-glutamate (PNLG). We characterized size distribution and surface charge of 6 PNLGs after complexation with either nucleic acid or Ad. Among all 6 PNLGs, the 5 amine group PNLG showed the strongest efficacy in delivering nucleic acid as well as Ad vectors. Interestingly, cellular uptake results showed higher uptake ability in Ad complexed with 2 amine group PNLG than Ad/5 amine group PNLG, suggesting that the size of Ad/PNLGs is more essential than the surface charge for cellular uptake in polymers with charges greater than 30 mV. Moreover, the endosome escape ability of Ad/PNLGs increased depending on the number of amine groups, but decreased by PEG size. Cancer cell killing efficacy and immune response studies of oncolytic Ad/PNLGs showed 5 amine group PNLG to be a more effective and safe carrier for delivering Ad. Overall, these studies provide new insights into the functional mechanism of polymer-based approaches to either nucleic acid or Ad/nanocomplex. Furthermore, the identified ideal biocompatible PNLG polymer formulation (5 amine/2k PEG for nucleic acid, 5 amine/5k PEG for Ad) demonstrated high transduction efficiency as well as therapeutic value (efficacy and safety) and thus has strong potential for in vivo therapeutic

  14. Intra-testicular injection of adenoviral constructs results in Sertoli cell-specific gene expression and disruption of the seminiferous epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hooley, R P; Paterson, M; Brown, P; Kerr, K; Saunders, P T K

    2009-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process that cannot be modelled in vitro. The somatic Sertoli cells (SCs) within the seminiferous tubules perform a key role in supporting maturation of germ cells (GCs). Progress has been made in determining what aspects of SC function are critical to maintenance of fertility by developing rodent models based on the Cre/LoxP system; however, this is time-consuming and is only applicable to mice. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for direct injection of adenoviral vectors containing shRNA constructs into the testis as a way of inducing target-selective knock-down in vivo. This paper describes a series of experiments using adenovirus expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene. Injection via the efferent ductules resulted in SC-specific expression of GFP; expression levels paralleled the amount of infective viral particles injected. At the highest doses of virus seminiferous tubule architecture were grossly disturbed and immune cell invasion noted. At lower concentrations, the expression of GFP was variable/negligible, the seminiferous tubule lumen was maintained but stage-dependent GC loss and development of numerous basal vacuoles was observed. These resembled intercellular dilations of SC junctional complexes previously described in rats and may be a consequence of disturbances in SC function due to interaction of the viral particles with the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor that is a component of the junctional complexes within the blood testis barrier. In conclusion, intra-testicular injection of adenoviral vectors disturbs SC function in vivo and future work will therefore focus on the use of lentiviral delivery systems. PMID:18955374

  15. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of antiangiogenic genes as an antitumor approach.

    PubMed

    Régulier, E; Paul, S; Marigliano, M; Kintz, J; Poitevin, Y; Ledoux, C; Roecklin, D; Cauet, G; Calenda, V; Homann, H E

    2001-01-01

    Based on the observation that the growth of solid tumors is dependent on the formation of new blood vessels, therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting angiogenesis have been proposed. A number of proteins with angiostatic activity have been described, but their development as therapeutic agents has been hampered by difficulties in their production and their poor pharmacokinetics. These limitations may be resolved using a gene therapy approach whereby the genes are delivered and expressed in vivo. Here we compared adenoviral delivery of endostatin, proliferin-related protein (PRP), and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10) genes. Recombinant adenoviruses carrying the three angiostatic genes express biologically active gene products as determined in vitro in endothelial cell proliferation and migration assays, and in vivo by inhibition of neoangiogenesis in rat chambers. Eradication of established tumors in vivo, in the murine B16F10 melanoma model in immunocompetent mice, was not achieved by intratumoral injection of the different vectors. However, the combination of intravenous plus intratumoral injections allowed rejection of tumors. Ad-PRP or Ad-IP10 were significantly more efficient than Ad-endostatin, leading to complete tumor rejection and prolonged survival in a high proportion of treated animals. These data support the use of in vivo gene delivery approaches to produce high-circulating and local levels of antiangiogenic agents for the therapy of local and metastatic human tumors. PMID:11219493

  16. STRO-1 selected rat dental pulp stem cells transfected with adenoviral-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene show enhanced odontogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuechao; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Dolder, Juliette; Walboomers, X Frank; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Mingwen; Jansen, John A

    2007-11-01

    Dental pulp stem cells harbor great potential for tissue-engineering purposes. However, previous studies have shown variable results, and some have reported only limited osteogenic and odontogenic potential.Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-established agents to induce bone and dentin formation,in this study STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells were transfected with the adenoviral mediated human BMP-2 gene. Subsequently, the cells were evaluated for their odontogenic differentiation ability in medium not containing dexamethasone or other stimuli. Cultures were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and evaluated for cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity, and calcium content. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for gene expression of Alp, osteocalcin, collagen type I, bone sialoprotein, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1. Finally, an oligo-microarray was used to profile the expression of odontogenesis-related genes. Results of ALP activity, calcium content, and real-time PCR showed that only BMP2-transfected cells had the ability to differentiate into the odontoblast phenotype and to produce a calcified extracellular matrix. SEM and oligo-microarray confirmed these results. In contrast, the non-transfected cells represented a less differentiated cell phenotype. Based on our results, we concluded that the adenovirus can transfect STRO-1 selected cells with high efficacy. After BMP2 gene transfection, these cells had the ability to differentiate into odontoblast phenotype, even without the addition of odontogenic supplements to the medium. PMID:17824831

  17. Diseases originate and terminate by genes: unraveling nonviral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Khan, Wahid; Ramakrishna, Sistla

    2013-12-01

    The world is driving in to the era of transformation of chemical therapeutic molecules to biological genetic material therapeutics, and that is where the biological drugs especially "genes" come into existence. These genes worked as "magical bullets" to specifically silence faulty genes responsible for progression of diseases. Viral gene delivery research is far ahead of nonviral gene delivery technique. However, with more advancement in polymer science, new ways are opening for better and efficient nonviral gene delivery. But efficient delivery method is always considered as a bottleneck for gene delivery as success of which will decide the fate of gene in cells. During the past decade, it became evident that extracellular as well as intracellular barriers compromise the transfection efficiency of nonviral vectors. The challenge for gene therapy research is to pinpoint the rate-limiting steps in this complex process and implement strategies to overcome the biological physiochemical and metabolic barriers encountered during targeting. The synergy between studies that investigate the mechanism of breaking in and breaking out of nonviral gene delivery carrier through various extracellular and intracellular barriers with desired characteristics will enable the rational design of vehicles and revolutionize the treatment of various diseases.

  18. Local drug and gene delivery through microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Unger, E C; Hersh, E; Vannan, M; Matsunaga, T O; McCreery, T

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (microbubbles) lower the threshold for cavitation by ultrasound energy. Ultrasound microbubbles may be used as cavitation nuclei for drug and gene delivery. By tailoring the physical properties of microbubbles and coating materials, drugs and genetic drugs can be incorporated into ultrasound contrast agents. As the microbubbles enter the region of insonation, the microbubbles cavitate, locally releasing the therapeutic agents. Cavitation also causes a local shockwave that improves cellular uptake of the therapeutic agent. As a result of the human genome project and continuing advances in molecular biology, many therapeutic genes have been discovered. In the cardiovascular system, gene therapy has the potential to improve myocardial vascularization and ameliorate congestive heart failure. For successful development of clinical gene therapy, however, effective gene delivery vectors are needed. Ultrasound contrast agents can be used to develop new, more effective vectors for gene delivery. Transthoracic ultrasound can be focused on the heart so that an intravenous injection of gene-bearing microbubbles will deliver genes relatively selectively to the myocardium. Using this technique, we have produced high levels of transgene expression in the insonated region of the myocardium. This new technology, using microbubbles and ultrasound for drug and gene delivery, merits further study and development.

  19. Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

  20. Endovascular Gene Delivery from a Stent Platform: Gene- Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Forbes, Scott P; Corrales, Ricardo A; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A synergistic impact of research in the fields of post-angioplasty restenosis, drug-eluting stents and vascular gene therapy over the past 15 years has shaped the concept of gene-eluting stents. Gene-eluting stents hold promise of overcoming some biological and technical problems inherent to drug-eluting stent technology. As the field of gene-eluting stents matures it becomes evident that all three main design modules of a gene-eluting stent: a therapeutic transgene, a vector and a delivery system are equally important for accomplishing sustained inhibition of neointimal formation in arteries treated with gene delivery stents. This review summarizes prior work on stent-based gene delivery and discusses the main optimization strategies required to move the field of gene-eluting stents to clinical translation. PMID:26225356

  1. Osteogenic gene regulation and relative acceleration of healing by adenoviral-mediated transfer of human BMP-2 or -6 in equine osteotomy and ostectomy models.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Shields, Kathleen M; Litsky, Alan S; Mattoon, John S; Weisbrode, Steven E; Bartlett, Jeffrey S; Bertone, Alicia L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated healing of equine metatarsal osteotomies and ostectomies in response to percutaneous injection of adenoviral (Ad) bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Ad-BMP-6, or beta-galactosidase protein vector control (Ad-LacZ) administered 14 days after surgery. Radiographic and quantitative computed tomographic assessment of bone formation indicated greater and earlier mineralized callus in both the osteotomies and ostectomies of the metatarsi injected with Ad-BMP-2 or Ad-BMP-6. Peak torque to failure and torsional stiffness were greater in osteotomies treated with Ad-BMP-2 than Ad-BMP-6, and both Ad-BMP-2- and Ad-BMP-6-treated osteotomies were greater than Ad-LacZ or untreated osteotomies. Gene expression of ostectomy mineralized callus 8 weeks after surgery indicated upregulation of genes related to osteogenesis compared to intact metatarsal bone. Expression of transforming growth factor beta-1, cathepsin H, and gelsolin-like capping protein were greater in Ad-BMP-2- and Ad-BMP-6-treated callus compared to Ad-LacZ-treated or untreated callus. Evidence of tissue biodistribution of adenovirus in distant organs was not identified by quantitative PCR, despite increased serum antiadenoviral vector antibody. This study demonstrated a greater relative potency of Ad-BMP-2 over Ad-BMP-6 in accelerating osteotomy healing when administered in this regimen, although both genes were effective at increasing bone at both osteotomy and ostectomy sites.

  2. Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery to cells of the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, E. C.; Beltz, T. G.; Haskell, R. E.; Johnson, R. F.; Meyrelles, S. S.; Davidson, B. L.; Johnson, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the optimum conditions for using replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) to transfer the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei and cells of the neurohypophysis (NH). As indicated by characterizing cell survival over 15 days in culture and in electrophysiological whole cell patch-clamp studies, viral concentrations up to 2 x 10(7) pfu/coverslip did not affect viability of transfected PVN and NH cultured cells from preweanling rats. At 2 x 10(7) pfu, GFP gene expression was higher (40% of GFP-positive cells) and more sustained (up to 15 days). Using a stereotaxic approach in adult rats, we were able to directly transduce the PVN, SON, and NH and visualize gene expression in coronal brain slices and in the pituitary 4 days after injection of Ad. In animals receiving NH injections of Ad, the virus was retrogradely transported to PVN and SON neurons as indicated by the appearance of GFP-positive neurons in cultures of dissociated cells from those brain nuclei and by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses of PVN and SON tissues. Adenoviral concentrations of up to 8 x 10(6) pfu injected into the NH did not affect cell viability and did not cause inflammatory responses. Adenoviral injection into the pituitary enabled the selective delivery of genes to the soma of magnocellular neurons. The experimental approaches described here provide potentially useful strategies for the treatment of disordered expression of the hormones vasopressin or oxytocin. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Polymeric Gene Delivery for Diabetic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several polymers were used to delivery genes to diabetic animals. Polyaminobutyl glycolic acid was utilized to deliver IL-10 plasmid DNA to prevent autoimmune insulitis of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Polyethylene glycol grafted polylysine was combined with antisense glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) MRNA to represent GAD autoantigene expression. GLP1 and TSTA (SP-EX4) were delivered by bioreducible polymer to stop diabetic progression. Fas siRNA delivery was carried out to treat diabetic NOD mice animal. PMID:21977450

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for gene and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Stuart C; Yiu, Humphrey HP; Dobson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery began over 30 years ago. Since that time, major progress has been made in particle design and synthesis techniques, however, very few clinical trials have taken place. Here we review advances in magnetic nanoparticle design, in vitro and animal experiments with magnetic nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery, and clinical trials of drug targeting. PMID:18686777

  5. Electrostatic Surface Modifications to Improve Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shmueli, Ron B.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Gene therapy has the potential to treat a wide variety of diseases including genetic diseases and cancer. Areas covered in this review This review introduces biomaterials used for gene delivery and then focuses on the use of electrostatic surface modifications to improve gene delivery materials. These modifications have been used to stabilize therapeutics in vivo, add cell-specific targeting ligands, and promote controlled release. Coatings of nanoparticles and microparticles as well as non-particulate surface coatings are covered in this review. Electrostatic principles are crucial for the development of multilayer delivery structures fabricated by the layer-by-layer method. What the reader will gain The reader will gain knowledge about the composition of biomaterials used for surface modifications and how these coatings and multilayers can be utilized to improve spatial control and efficiency of delivery. Examples are shown for the delivery of nucleic acids, including DNA and siRNA, to in vitro and in vivo systems. Take home message The versatile and powerful approach of electrostatic coatings and multilayers will lead to the development of enhanced gene therapies. PMID:20201712

  6. Gene delivery using ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Unger, E C; Hersh, E; Vannan, M; McCreery, T

    2001-05-01

    With the human genome product and continuing advances in molecular biology many therapeutic genes have been discovered. In the cardiovascular system, gene therapy has the potential to improve myocardial vascularization and ameliorate congestive heart failure. For successful development of clinical gene therapy, however, effective gene delivery vectors are needed. Ultrasound contrast agents can be used to develop new, more effective vectors for gene delivery. Ultrasound contrast agents lower the threshold for cavitation by ultrasound energy. Using physical properties of microbubbles and coating materials, genetic drugs have been incorporated into ultrasound contrast agents. Gene-bearing microbubbles can be injected IV and ultrasound energy applied to the target region. As the microbubbles enter the region of insonation, the microbubbles cavitate, locally releasing DNA. Cavitation also likely causes a local shockwave that improves cellular uptake of DNA. With transthoracic ultrasound, using commercially available diagnostic ultrasound system and an IV injection of gene-bearing microbubbles, high levels of transgene expression are observed in the insonated region of the myocardium. This new technology using microbubbles and ultrasound for gene delivery merits further study and development.

  7. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Soo; George Priya Doss, C.; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  8. "Programmed packaging" for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, M; Sakurai, Y; Akita, H; Harashima, H

    2014-11-10

    We report on the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) based on our packaging concept "Programmed packaging" to control not only intracellular trafficking but also the biodistribution of encapsulated compounds such as nucleic acids/proteins/peptides. Our strategy for achieving this is based on molecular mechanisms of cell biology such as endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, etc. In this review, we summarize the concept of programmed packaging and discuss some of our recent successful examples of using MENDs. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was applied as a new methodology for identifying a new ligand toward cell or mitochondria. The delivery of siRNA to tumors and the tumor vasculature was achieved using pH sensitive lipid (YSK05), which was newly designed and optimized under in vivo conditions. The efficient delivery of pDNA to immune cells such as dendritic cells has also been developed using the KALA ligand, which can be a breakthrough technology for DNA vaccine. Finally, ss-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like surfactant (ssPalm) which is a lipid like material with pH-activatable and SS-cleavable properties is also introduced as a proof of our concept. PMID:24780263

  9. Circumventing antivector immunity: potential use of nonhuman adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Podgorski, Iva I; Downes, Nicholas; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Adenoviruses are efficient gene delivery vectors based on their ability to transduce a wide variety of cell types and drive high-level transient transgene expression. While there have been advances in modifying human adenoviral (HAdV) vectors to increase their safety profile, there are still pitfalls that need to be further addressed. Preexisting humoral and cellular immunity against common HAdV serotypes limits the efficacy of gene transfer and duration of transgene expression. As an alternative, nonhuman AdV (NHAdV) vectors can circumvent neutralizing antibodies against HAdVs in immunized mice and monkeys and in human sera, suggesting that NHAdV vectors could circumvent preexisting humoral immunity against HAdVs in a clinical setting. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in developing NHAdV vectors for gene delivery in humans. In this review, we outline the recent advances and limitations of HAdV vectors for gene therapy and describe examples of NHAdV vectors focusing on their immunogenicity, tropism, and potential as effective gene therapy vehicles.

  10. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of human BMP-6 gene accelerates healing in a rabbit ulnar osteotomy model.

    PubMed

    Bertone, A L; Pittman, D D; Bouxsein, M L; Li, J; Clancy, B; Seeherman, H J

    2004-11-01

    This study evaluated healing of rabbit bilateral ulnar osteotomies 6 and 8 weeks after surgery in response to percutaneous injection of transgenic adenoviral (Ad) bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) vector or green fluorescent protein vector control (Ad-GFP) administered 7 days after surgery compared to untreated osteotomy controls. The amount, composition and biomechanical properties of the healing bone repair tissue were compared among groups and to historical data for intact rabbit ulnae obtained from similar studies at the same institution. Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine area, density and mineral content of the mineralized callus in the harvested ulnae. Maximum torque, torsional stiffness, and energy absorbed to failure were determined at 1.5 degrees /s. Calcified sections of excised ulnae (5 microm) were stained with Goldner's Trichrome and Von Kossa, and evaluated for callus composition, maturity, cortical continuity, and osteotomy bridging. Radiographic assessment of bone formation indicated greater mineralized callus in the ulnae injected with Ad-hBMP-6 as early as 1 week after treatment (2 weeks after surgery) compared to untreated osteotomy ulnae (p < 0.006) and Ad-GFP treated osteotomy ulnae (p < 0.002). Quantitative computed tomography confirmed greater bone area and bone mineral content at the osteotomy at 6 weeks in Ad-BMP-6 treated osteotomy as compared to untreated osteotomy ulnae (p < 0.001) and Ad-GFP treated osteotomy ulnae (p < 0.01). Ad-BMP-6 treated osteotomy ulnae were stronger (p < 0.001 and 0.003) and stiffer (p < 0.004 and 0.003) in torsion at 6 weeks than untreated osteotomy ulnae or Ad-GFP treated osteotomy ulnae, respectively. Maximum torque, torsional stiffness, and energy absorbed to failure were greater in Ad-BMP-6 treated osteotomy ulnae compared to their respective untreated contralateral osteotomy ulnae at 8 weeks [p < 0.03]. Maximum torque and torsional stiffness in the Ad-BMP-6 treated osteotomy ulnae

  11. Reduced inflammation and improved airway expression using helper-dependent adenoviral vectors with a K18 promoter.

    PubMed

    Toietta, Gabriele; Koehler, David R; Finegold, Milton J; Lee, Brendan; Hu, Jim; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2003-05-01

    Efforts have been made to deliver transgenes to the airway epithelia of laboratory animals and humans to develop gene therapy for cystic fibrosis. These investigations have been disappointing due to combinations of transient and low-level gene expression, acute toxicity, and inflammation. We have developed new helper-dependent adenoviral vectors to deliver an epithelial cell-specific keratin 18 expression cassette driving the beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) reporter genes. Following intranasal administration to mice, we found that the reporter genes were widely expressed in airway epithelial and submucosal cells, and secreted human AFP was also detectable in serum. In contrast to a first-generation adenoviral vector, inflammation was negligible at doses providing efficient transduction, and expression lasted longer than typically reported-up to 28 days with beta-gal and up to 15 weeks with human AFP. These results suggest that delivery to the airway of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors utilizing a tissue-specific promoter could be a significant advance in the development of gene therapy for cystic fibrosis. PMID:12718908

  12. Novel Polymeric Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Rachel Jennifer

    The lung is an important target for gene and drug therapy of many diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), tubuerculosis (TB) and lung cancer. In fact, the pulmonary route has been employed as a means of delivering drugs for centuries, dating back 4000 years to India where inhaled vapors were used for medicinal purpose. Currently, pulmonary administration of small, hydrophobic drugs leads to rapid local and systemic absorption. However, delivery of large biomacromolecules, such as therapeutic genes, has not yet been accomplished. Here, I test the hypothesis that a rationally engineered nanoparticle (NP) vector can improve delivery of large biomacromolecules. . In this dissertation I tested this hypothesis using a hybrid NP delivery system consisting of a blend of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE), a cationic polymer that is particularly useful for delivery of nucleic acids.. PBAE/PLGA nanoparticles (15% PBAE) loaded with plasmid DNA were surface modified with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) via a PEGylated phospholipid linker. This optimized NP formulation was able to induce substantial intracellular uptake and transfect lung epithelial cells in vitro while imparting minimal cellular toxicity. In order to determine the most effective method to deliver these NPs to the lung I used fluorescently labeled particles to study the biodistribution of particles after administration to the lung of mice via various administration routes. I determined that the intranasal route was most effective. I further investigated this route and determined that an average of 37.1 +/- 15.1 % of lung cells had NP association after 4hrs. I also investigated the association of particles with different lung cell types like macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells and determined that our best particle formulations associated with approximately 80% of both of these cell types. To demonstrate the ability of the

  13. Mesocopic Structure of Nonviral Gene Delivery Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zanten, John; Hanes, Justin; Lai, Eva; Har-El, Yah-El

    2003-03-01

    In general, little is known about nonviral gene delivery vector formation kinetics and the interplay between vector structure, especially mesoscopic structure, and transfection efficiency. DNA complexation with various condensing agents is a self-assembly process driven primarily by electrostatic interactions and counterion release. DNA complexation kinetics influence two physical parameters that directly affect gene delivery and expression efficiency: DNA complex geometric size and molar mass (density). In this study we demonstrate the utility of time resolved multiangle laser light scattering (TR-MALLS) for probing DNA complexation kinetics, determining DNA complex size and density in real time and monitoring nonviral vector stability in liquid formulations and serum. The condensing agents considered are poly-L-lysine, polyethylenimine and various cationic liposome formulations.

  14. Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kami, Daisuke; Takeda, Shogo; Itakura, Yoko; Gojo, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle technology is being incorporated into many areas of molecular science and biomedicine. Because nanoparticles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including the circulatory system and cells, they have been and continue to be exploited for basic biomedical research as well as clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, nanoparticles hold great promise for enabling gene therapy to reach its full potential by facilitating targeted delivery of DNA into tissues and cells. Substantial progress has been made in binding DNA to nanoparticles and controlling the behavior of these complexes. In this article, we review research on binding DNAs to nanoparticles as well as our latest study on non-viral gene delivery using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:21747701

  15. Polymers for gene delivery across length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, David

    2006-06-01

    A number of human diseases stem from defective genes. One approach to treating such diseases is to replace, or override, the defective genes with normal genes, an approach called 'gene therapy'. However, the introduction of correctly functioning DNA into cells is a non-trivial matter, and cells must be coaxed to internalize, and then use, the DNA in the desired manner. A number of polymer-based synthetic systems, or 'vectors', have been developed to entice cells to use exogenous DNA. These systems work across the nano, micro and macro length scales, and have been under continuous development for two decades, with varying degrees of success. The design criteria for the construction of more-effective delivery vectors at each length scale are continually evolving. This review focuses on the most recent developments in polymer-based vector design at each length scale.

  16. Radiolabeled Adenoviral Sub-unit Proteins for Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Applications in Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.; Meinken, G.; Springer, K. Awasthi, V.; Freimuth, P.

    2004-10-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize new ligand systems, based on adenoviral vectors (intact adenovirus, adeno-viral fiber protein, and the knob protein), for delivering suitable radionuclides into tumor cells for molecular imaging and combined gene/radionuclide therapy of cancer.

  17. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  18. A Novel and Simple Method for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Porcine Adenoviral Vectors for Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K.; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620±49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes. PMID:26011074

  19. A novel and simple method for rapid generation of recombinant porcine adenoviral vectors for transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Enqi; Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620 ± 49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes.

  20. Synthetic virology: engineering viruses for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Caitlin M; Kuypers, Brianna E; Lam, Michael T; Robinson, Tawana M; Zhao, Julia; Suh, Junghae

    2014-01-01

    The success of gene therapy relies heavily on the performance of vectors that can effectively deliver transgenes to desired cell populations. As viruses have evolved to deliver genetic material into cells, a prolific area of research has emerged over the last several decades to leverage the innate properties of viruses as well as to engineer new features into them. Specifically, the field of synthetic virology aims to capitalize on knowledge accrued from fundamental virology research in order to design functionally enhanced gene delivery vectors. The enhanced viral vectors, or 'bionic' viruses, feature engineered components, or 'parts', that are natural (intrinsic to viruses or from other organisms) and synthetic (such as man-made polymers or inorganic nanoparticles). Various design strategies--rational, combinatorial, and pseudo-rational--have been pursued to create the hybrid viruses. The gene delivery vectors of the future will likely criss-cross the boundaries between natural and synthetic domains to harness the unique strengths afforded by the various functional parts that can be grafted onto virus capsids. Such research endeavors will further expand and enable enhanced control over the functional capacity of these nanoscale devices for biomedicine.

  1. Synthetic Virology: Engineering Viruses for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Caitlin M.; Kuypers, Brianna E.; Lam, Michael T.; Robinson, Tawana M.; Zhao, Julia; Suh, Junghae

    2014-01-01

    The success of gene therapy relies heavily on the performance of vectors that can effectively deliver transgenes to desired cell populations. As viruses have evolved to deliver genetic material into cells, a prolific area of research has emerged over the last several decades to leverage the innate properties of viruses as well as to engineer new features into them. Specifically, the field of synthetic virology aims to capitalize on knowledge accrued from fundamental virology research in order to design functionally enhanced gene delivery vectors. The enhanced viral vectors, or “bionic” viruses, feature engineered components, or “parts”, that are natural (intrinsic to viruses or from other organisms) and synthetic (such as man-made polymers or inorganic nanoparticles). Various design strategies – rational, combinatorial, and pseudo-rational – have been pursued to create the hybrid viruses. The gene delivery vectors of the future will likely criss-cross the boundaries between natural and synthetic domains to harness the unique strengths afforded by the various functional parts that can be grafted onto virus capsids. Such research endeavours will further expand and enable enhanced control over the functional capacity of these nanoscale devices for biomedicine. PMID:25195922

  2. Adenoviral vector-based strategies for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Tandon, Manish; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2009-01-01

    Definitive treatment of cancer has eluded scientists for decades. Current therapeutic modalities like surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and receptor-targeted antibodies have varied degree of success and generally have moderate to severe side effects. Gene therapy is one of the novel and promising approaches for therapeutic intervention of cancer. Viral vectors in general and adenoviral (Ad) vectors in particular are efficient natural gene delivery systems and are one of the obvious choices for cancer gene therapy. Clinical and preclinical findings with a wide variety of approaches like tumor suppressor and suicide gene therapy, oncolysis, immunotherapy, anti-angiogenesis and RNA interference using Ad vectors have been quite promising, but there are still many hurdles to overcome. Shortcomings like increased immunogenicity, prevalence of preexisting anti-Ad immunity in human population and lack of specific targeting limit the clinical usefulness of Ad vectors. In recent years, extensive research efforts have been made to overcome these limitations through a variety of approaches including the use of conditionally-replicating Ad and specific targeting of tumor cells. In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of Ad vectors for cancer therapy. PMID:20160875

  3. 24-h Langendorff-perfused neonatal rat heart used to study the impact of adenoviral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, S; El-Armouche, A; Rau, T; Zimmermann, W-H; Eschenhagen, T

    2003-08-01

    The human genome project has increased the demand for simple experimental systems that allow the impact of gene manipulations to be studied under controlled ex vivo conditions. We hypothesized that, in contrast to adult hearts, neonatal hearts allow long-term perfusion and efficient gene transfer ex vivo. A Langendorff perfusion system was modified to allow perfusion for >24 h with particular emphasis on uncompromised contractile activity, sterility, online measurement of force of contraction, inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation, and efficient gene transfer. The hearts were perfused with serum-free medium (DMEM + medium 199, 4 + 1) supplemented with hydrocortisone, triiodothyronine, ascorbic acid, insulin, pyruvate, l-carnitine, creatine, taurine, l-glutamine, mannitol, and antibiotics recirculating (500 ml/2 hearts) at 1 ml/min. Hearts from 2 day-old rats beat constantly at 135-155 beats/min and developed active force of 1-2 mN. During 24 h of perfusion, twitch tension increased to approximately 165% of initial values (P < 0.05), whereas the inotropic response to isoprenaline remained constant. A decrease in total protein content of 10% and histological examination indicated moderate edema, but actin and calsequestrin concentration remained unchanged and perfusion pressure remained constant at 7-11 mmHg. Perfusion with a LacZ-encoding adenovirus at 3 x 108 active virus particles yielded homogeneous transfection of approximately 80% throughout the heart and did not affect heart rate, force of contraction, or response to isoprenaline compared with uninfected controls (n = 7 each). Taken together, the 24-h Langendorff-perfused neonatal rat heart is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust new heart model that appears feasible as a test bed for functional genomics.

  4. Tissue-Specific Gene Delivery via Nanoparticle Coating

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd J.; Green, Jordan J.; Fung, Peter W.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomaterials for gene delivery can potentially avoid many of the safety concerns with viral gene delivery. However, the efficacy of polymeric gene delivery methods is low, particularly in vivo. One significant concern is that the interior and exterior composition of polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles are often coupled, with a single polymer backbone governing all functions from biophysical properties of the polymer/DNA particle to DNA condensation and release. In this work we develop electrostatically adsorbed poly(glutamic acid)-based peptide coatings to alter the exterior composition of a core gene delivery particle and thereby affect tissue-specificity of gene delivery function in vivo. We find that with all coating formulations tested, the coatings reduce potential toxicity associated with uncoated cationic gene delivery nanoparticles following systemic injection. Particles coated with a low 2.5:1 peptide:DNA weight ratio (w/w) form large 2 micron sized particles in the presence of serum that can facilitate specific gene delivery to the liver. The same particles coated at a higher 20:1 w/w form small 200 nm particles in the presence of serum that can facilitate specific gene delivery to the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, variations in nanoparticle peptide coating density can alter the tissue-specificity of gene delivery in vivo. PMID:19850333

  5. Adenoviral p16/CDKN2 gene transfer to malignant glioma: role of p16 in growth, invasion, and senescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Lim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Yim; Oh, Chang-Wan; Chung, You-Nam; Kim, Chae-Yong; Lee, Choon-Taek; Kim, Hyun Jib

    2003-01-01

    In gliomas, a high frequency of homozygous p16 gene deletions have been demonstrated, which are believed to be linked with malignant progression. The aim of this study was to assess the role of p16 in growth, invasion, and senescence. The human glioma cell lines U87 MG and U373 MG were transduced with Ad-p16, and cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. To examine the mechanism of cell growth inhibition, cell cycle analyses and annexin assays were performed. The invasive potential of Ad-p16 transduced cells was evaluated using a Matrigel invasion assay, and trimolecular complex (MMP-2/MT1-MMP/TIMP-2) synthesis was proven by zymography and Western blotting. To establish the link between p16 and cell senescence, we stained for Senescence-Associated beta-galactosidase activity. A cell proliferation assay demonstrated that Ad-p16 treatment significantly inhibits cell growth. Moreover, this cell growth inhibition was induced by cell cycle arrest, not by apoptosis. In vitro treatment of malignant glioma cells with Ad-p16 significantly decreased their invasive potential by Matrigel invasion assay. However, we were unable to demonstrate any differences in the constitutive productions and secretions of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and TIMP-2, among the mock-treated, Ad-lacZ-transduced, and Ad-p16-transduced cells. p16 expression caused an enlargement of all cells, and these were morphologically similar to senescent cells. Staining for Senescence-Associated beta-galactosidase activity showed that the enlarged cells stained positively. Taken together these data strongly suggest that the anti-cancer effect of p16 is modulated by p16-mediated cell cycle arrest and by the induction of senescence.

  6. [Developments in gene delivery vectors for ocular gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Khabou, Hanen; Dalkara, Deniz

    2015-05-01

    Gene therapy is quickly becoming a reality applicable in the clinic for inherited retinal diseases. Its remarkable success in safety and efficacy, in clinical trials for Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) type II generated significant interest and opened up possibilities for a new era of retinal gene therapies. Success in these clinical trials was mainly due to the favorable characteristics of the retina as a target organ. The eye offers several advantages as it is readily accessible and has some degree of immune privilege making it suitable for application of viral vectors. The viral vectors most frequently used for retinal gene delivery are lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we will discuss the use of these viral vectors in retinal gene delivery with a strong focus on favorable properties of AAV. Thanks to its small size, AAV diffuses well in the inter-neural matrix making it suitable for applications in neural retina. Building on this initial clinical success with LCA II, we have now many opportunities to extend this proof-of-concept to other retinal diseases using AAV as a vector. This article will discuss what are some of the most imminent cellular targets for such therapies and the AAV toolkit that has been built to target these cells successfully. We will also discuss some of the challenges that we face in translating AAV-based gene therapies to the clinic.

  7. High-level recombinant protein production in CHO cells using an adenoviral vector and the cumate gene-switch.

    PubMed

    Gaillet, Bruno; Gilbert, Rénald; Amziani, Rachid; Guilbault, Claire; Gadoury, Christine; Caron, Antoine W; Mullick, Alaka; Garnier, Alain; Massie, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate and accelerate the production of eukaryotic proteins with correct post-translational modifications, we have developed a protein production system based on the transduction of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using adenovirus vectors (AdVs). We have engineered a CHO cell line (CHO-cTA) that stably expresses the transactivator (cTA) of our newly developed cumate gene-switch transcription system. This cell line is adapted to suspension culture and can grow in serum-free and protein-free medium. To increase the transduction level of AdVs, we have also generated a cell line (CHO-cTA-CAR) that expresses additional amounts of the coxackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on its surface. Recombinant protein production was tested using an AdV carrying the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the control of the CR5 promoter, which is strongly and specifically activated by binding to cTA. The SEAP expression was linked to the expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to facilitate titration of the AdV. We monitored SEAP expression on a daily basis for 9 days after transduction of CHO-cTA and CHO-cTA-CAR using different quantities of AdVs at 37 and 30 degrees C. Incubation at the latter temperature increased the production of SEAP at least 10-fold, and the presence of CAR increased the transduction level of the AdV. Maximum SEAP production (63 mg/L) was achieved at 6-7 days post-infection at 30 degrees C by transducing CHO-cTA-CAR with 500 infectious particles/cell. Because numerous AdVs can now be generated within a few weeks and large-scale production of AdVs is now a routine procedure, this system could be used to produce rapidly milligram quantities of a battery of recombinant proteins as well as for large-scale protein production.

  8. Targeting of Synthetic Gene Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Safe, efficient, and specific delivery of therapeutic genes remains an important bottleneck for the development of gene therapy. Synthetic, nonviral systems have a unique pharmaceutical profile with potential advantages for certain applications. Targeting of the synthetic vector improves the specificity of gene medicines through a modulation of the carriers' biodistribution, thus creating a dose differential between healthy tissue and the target site. The biodistribution of current carrier systems is being influenced to a large extent by intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, such as charge and size. Consequently, such nonspecific interactions can interfere with specific targeting, for example, by ligands. Therefore, a carrier complex should ideally be inert, that is, free from intrinsic properties that would bias its distribution away from the target site. Strategies such as coating of DNA carrier complexes with hydrophilic polymers have been used to mask some of these intrinsic targeting effects and avoid nonspecific interactions. Preexisting endogenous ligand-receptor interactions have frequently been used for targeting to certain cell types or tumours. Recently exogenous ligands have been derived from microorganisms or, like antibodies or phage-derived peptides, developed de novo. In animal models, such synthetic vectors have targeted remote sites such as a tumour. Furthermore, the therapeutic proof of the concept has been demonstrated for fitting combinations of synthetic vectors and therapeutic gene. PMID:12721518

  9. Lipopolyplexes as nanomedicines for therapeutic gene delivery.

    PubMed

    García, Leire; Urbiola, Koldo; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Tros de Ilarduya, Conchita

    2012-01-01

    We describe an efficient, nonviral gene transfer system that employs polyethylenimine (PEI 800, 25, 22 kDa), and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP) and cholesterol (Chol) as lipids (lipopolyplex), at three different lipid/DNA molar ratios (2/1, 5/1, and 17/1), employing five different formulation strategies. PEIs of 800, 25, and 22 kDa are highly effective in condensing plasmid DNA, leading to a complete condensation at N/P⁺/⁻ ratios above 4. Increasing the molar ratio lipid/DNA in the complex results in higher positive values of the zeta potential, while the particle size increases in some protocols, but not in others. PEI of molecular weight 800 kDa used in the formulation of lipopolyplexes results in bigger particles compared to that obtained with the smaller PEI species. Transfection activity is measured using pCMVLuc expressing luciferase is maximal by using strategies 3 and 4 and an N/P molar ratio of 17/1. These complexes have a high efficiency of gene delivery to liver cancer cells, even in the presence of a high serum concentration. Complexes formed with linear PEI are more effective than lipopolyplexes containing branched PEI. The ternary complexes are much more efficient than conventional lipoplexes (cationic lipid and DNA) and polyplexes (cationic polymer and DNA). The same behavior is observed for complexes prepared with the therapeutic gene pCMVIL-12 expressing interleukin-12.

  10. Cyclodextrin-based gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M; Benito, Juan M

    2011-03-01

    Cyclodextrin (CD) history has been largely dominated by their unique ability to form inclusion complexes with guests fitting in their hydrophobic cavity. Chemical funcionalization was soon recognized as a powerful mean for improving CD applications in a wide range of fields, including drug delivery, sensing or enzyme mimicking. However, 100 years after their discovery, CDs are still perceived as novel nanoobjects of undeveloped potential. This critical review provides an overview of different strategies to promote interactions between CD conjugates and genetic material by fully exploiting the inside-outside/upper-lower face anisotropy of the CD nanometric platform. Covalent modification, self-assembling and supramolecular ligation can be put forward with the ultimate goal to build artificial viruses for programmed and efficient gene therapy (222 references).

  11. Current Strategies and Future Directions for Eluding Adenoviral Vector Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2006-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) vectors can efficiently transduce a broad range of cell types and have been used extensively in preclinical and clinical studies for gene delivery applications. The presence of preexisting Ad immunity in the majority of human population and a rapid development of immune response against the Ad vector backbone following the first inoculation with the vector have impeded clinical use of these vectors. In addition, a number of animal inoculation studies have demonstrated that high systemic doses of Ad vectors invariably lead to initiation of acute inflammatory responses. This is mainly due to activation of innate immunity by vector particles. In general, vector and innate immune responses drastically limit the vector transduction efficiency and the duration of transgene expression. In order to have a predictable response with Ad vectors for gene therapy applications, the above limitations must be overcome. Strategies that are being examined to circumvent these drawbacks of Ad vectors include immunosuppression, immunomodulation, serotype switching, use of targeted Ad vectors, microencapsulation of Ad vectors, use of helper-dependent (HD) Ad vectors, and development of nonhuman Ad vectors. Here we review the current understanding of immune responses to Ad vectors, and recent advances in the strategies for immune evasion to improve the vector transduction efficiency and the duration of transgene expression. Development of novel strategies for targeting specific cell types would further boost the utility of Ad vectors by enhancing the safety, efficacy and duration of transgene expression. PMID:16611043

  12. Rapid construction of capsid-modified adenoviral vectors through bacteriophage lambda Red recombination.

    PubMed

    Campos, Samuel K; Barry, Michael A

    2004-11-01

    There are extensive efforts to develop cell-targeting adenoviral vectors for gene therapy wherein endogenous cell-binding ligands are ablated and exogenous ligands are introduced by genetic means. Although current approaches can genetically manipulate the capsid genes of adenoviral vectors, these approaches can be time-consuming and require multiple steps to produce a modified viral genome. We present here the use of the bacteriophage lambda Red recombination system as a valuable tool for the easy and rapid construction of capsid-modified adenoviral genomes.

  13. Microneedles As a Delivery System for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Shi, De; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery systems can be divided to two major types: vector-based (either viral vector or non-viral vector) and physical delivery technologies. Many physical carriers, such as electroporation, gene gun, ultrasound start to be proved to have the potential to enable gene therapy. A relatively new physical delivery technology for gene delivery consists of microneedles (MNs), which has been studied in many fields and for many molecule types and indications. Microneedles can penetrate the stratum corneum, which is the main barrier for drug delivery through the skin with ease of administration and without significant pain. Many different kinds of MNs, such as metal MNs, coated MNs, dissolving MNs have turned out to be promising in gene delivery. In this review, we discussed the potential as well as the challenges of utilizing MNs to deliver nucleic acids for gene therapy. We also proposed that a combination of MNs and other gene delivery approaches may lead to a better delivery system for gene therapy. PMID:27303298

  14. Production and clinical development of nanoparticles for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Guo, Zhaopei; Tian, Huayu; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising strategy for specific treatment of numerous gene-associated human diseases by intentionally altering the gene expression in pathological cells. A successful clinical application of gene-based therapy depends on an efficient gene delivery system. Many efforts have been attempted to improve the safety and efficiency of gene-based therapies. Nanoparticles have been proved to be the most promising vehicles for clinical gene therapy due to their tunable size, shape, surface, and biological behaviors. In this review, the clinical development of nanoparticles for gene delivery will be particularly highlighted. Several promising candidates, which are closest to clinical applications, will be briefly reviewed. Then, the recent developments of nanoparticles for clinical gene therapy will be identified and summarized. Finally, the development of nanoparticles for clinical gene delivery in future will be prospected. PMID:27088105

  15. Recent progress in nanomaterials for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Keles, Erhan; Song, Yang; Du, Dan; Dong, Wen-Ji; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-16

    Nanotechnology-based gene delivery is the division of nanomedicine concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of nanomaterials to be used in targeted-gene delivery applications. Nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems hold great promise for curing fatal inherited and acquired diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, their use in clinical applications is still controversial. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any gene delivery system because of the unknown long-term toxicity and the low gene transfection efficiency of nanomaterials in vivo. Compared to viral vectors, nonviral gene delivery vectors are characterized by a low preexisting immunogenicity, which is important for preventing a severe immune response. In addition, nonviral vectors provide higher loading capacity and ease of fabrication. For these reasons, this review article focuses on applications of nonviral gene delivery systems, including those based on lipids, polymers, graphene, and other inorganic nanoparticles, and discusses recent advances in nanomaterials for gene therapy. Methods of synthesizing these nanomaterials are briefly described from a materials science perspective. Also, challenges, critical issues, and concerns about the in vivo applications of nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems are discussed. It should be noted that this article is not a comprehensive review of the literature. PMID:27480033

  16. Recent progress in nanomaterials for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Keles, Erhan; Song, Yang; Du, Dan; Dong, Wen-Ji; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-16

    Nanotechnology-based gene delivery is the division of nanomedicine concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of nanomaterials to be used in targeted-gene delivery applications. Nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems hold great promise for curing fatal inherited and acquired diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, their use in clinical applications is still controversial. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any gene delivery system because of the unknown long-term toxicity and the low gene transfection efficiency of nanomaterials in vivo. Compared to viral vectors, nonviral gene delivery vectors are characterized by a low preexisting immunogenicity, which is important for preventing a severe immune response. In addition, nonviral vectors provide higher loading capacity and ease of fabrication. For these reasons, this review article focuses on applications of nonviral gene delivery systems, including those based on lipids, polymers, graphene, and other inorganic nanoparticles, and discusses recent advances in nanomaterials for gene therapy. Methods of synthesizing these nanomaterials are briefly described from a materials science perspective. Also, challenges, critical issues, and concerns about the in vivo applications of nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems are discussed. It should be noted that this article is not a comprehensive review of the literature.

  17. Current Advances and Future Challenges in Adenoviral Vector Biology and Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Samuel K.; Barry, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene delivery vectors based on Adenoviral (Ad) vectors have enormous potential for the treatment of both hereditary and acquired disease. Detailed structural analysis of the Ad virion, combined with functional studies has broadened our knowledge of the structure/function relationships between Ad vectors and host cells/tissues and substantial achievement has been made towards a thorough understanding of the biology of Ad vectors. The widespread use of Ad vectors for clinical gene therapy is compromised by their inherent immunogenicity. The generation of safer and more effective Ad vectors, targeted to the site of disease, has therefore become a great ambition in the field of Ad vector development. This review provides a synopsis of the structure/function relationships between Ad vectors and host systems and summarizes the many innovative approaches towards achieving Ad vector targeting. PMID:17584037

  18. Retinal gene delivery by rAAV and DNA electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Aditya; Ma, Shan; Langellotto, Fernanda; Gao, Guangping; Punzo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy is a fast growing area of research. The eye is an ideal organ for gene therapy since it is immune privileged, easily accessible, and direct viral delivery results primarily in local infection. Because the eye is not a vital organ, mutations in eye specific genes tend to be more common. To date, over 40 eye specific genes have been identified which harbor mutations that lead to blindness. Gene therapy with recombinant Adeno Associated Virus (rAAV) holds the promise to treat patients with such mutations. However, proof-of-concept and safety evaluation for gene therapy remains to be established for most of these diseases. This unit describes the in vivo delivery of genes to the mouse eye by rAAV-mediated gene transfer and plasmid DNA electroporation. Advantages and limitations of these methods are discussed, and detailed protocols for gene delivery, required materials, as well as subsequent tissue processing methods are described. PMID:23408132

  19. Getting the most from gene delivery by repeated DNA transfections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montani, Maura; Marchini, Cristina; Badillo Pazmay, Gretta Veronica; Andreani, Cristina; Bartolacci, Caterina; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2015-06-01

    Intracellular delivery of reporter genes causes cells to be luminescent or fluorescent, this condition being of tremendous relevance in applied physics research. Potential applications range from the study of spatial distribution and dynamics of plasma membrane and cytosolic proteins up to the rational design of nanocarriers for gene therapy. Since efficiency of gene delivery is the main limit in most biophysical studies, versatile methods that can maximize gene expression are urgently needed. Here, we describe a robust methodology based on repeated gene delivery in mammalian cells. We find this procedure to be much more efficient than the more traditional route of gene delivery making it possible to get high-quality data without affecting cell viability. Implications for biophysical investigations are discussed.

  20. Investigation of a thiolated polymer in gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacalocostantis, Irene

    Thiol-containing bioreducible polymers show significant potential as delivery vectors in gene therapy, a rapidly growing field which seeks to treat genetic-based disorders by delivering functional synthetic genes to diseased cells. Studies have shown that thiolated polymers exhibit improved biodegradability and prolonged in vivo circulation times over non-thiolated polymers. However, the extent to which thiol concentrations impact the carrier's delivery potential has not been well explored. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate how relative concentrations of free thiols and disulfide crosslinks impact a polymeric carriers delivery performance with respect to DNA packaging, complex stability, cargo protection, gene release, internalization efficiency and cytotoxicity. To accomplish this goal, several fluorescent polymers containing varying concentrations of thiol groups were synthesized by conjugating thiol-pendant chains onto the primary amines of cationic poly(allylamine). In vitro delivery assays and characterization techniques were employed to assess the effect of thiols in gene delivery.

  1. Recent progresses in gene delivery-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Han; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Li, Kuei-Chang; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Gene therapy has converged with bone engineering over the past decade, by which a variety of therapeutic genes have been delivered to stimulate bone repair. These genes can be administered via in vivo or ex vivo approach using either viral or nonviral vectors. This article reviews the fundamental aspects and recent progresses in the gene therapy-based bone engineering, with emphasis on the new genes, viral vectors and gene delivery approaches.

  2. Recent progresses in gene delivery-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Han; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Li, Kuei-Chang; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Gene therapy has converged with bone engineering over the past decade, by which a variety of therapeutic genes have been delivered to stimulate bone repair. These genes can be administered via in vivo or ex vivo approach using either viral or nonviral vectors. This article reviews the fundamental aspects and recent progresses in the gene therapy-based bone engineering, with emphasis on the new genes, viral vectors and gene delivery approaches. PMID:23994567

  3. In Vivo Gene Delivery by Nonviral Vectors: Overcoming Hurdles?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Satterlee, Andrew; Huang, Leaf

    2012-01-01

    The promise of cancer gene therapeutics is hampered by difficulties in the in vivo delivery to the targeted tumor cells, and systemic delivery remains to be the biggest challenge to be overcome. Here, we concentrate on systemic in vivo gene delivery for cancer therapy using nonviral vectors. In this review, we summarize the existing delivery barriers together with the requirements and strategies to overcome these problems. We will also introduce the current progress in the design of nonviral vectors, and briefly discuss their safety issues. PMID:22525514

  4. Adenoviral delivery of truncated MMP-8 fused with the hepatocyte growth factor mutant 1K1 ameliorates liver cirrhosis and promotes hepatocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinghua; Li, Jianbo; Fu, Weiwei; Tang, Jiacheng; Feng, Xu; Chen, Jiang; Liang, Yuelong; Jin, Ren’an; Xie, Anyong; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease caused by chronic liver injury, which activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cirrhosis accounts for an extensive level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely due to lack of effective treatment options. In this study, we have constructed a fusion protein containing matrix metal-loproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and the human growth factor mutant 1K1 (designated cMMP8-1K1) and delivered it into hepatocytes and in vivo and in cell culture via intravenous injection of fusion protein-harboring adenovirus. In doing so, we found that the cMMP8-1K1 fusion protein promotes the proliferation of hepatocytes, likely resulting from the combined inhibition of type I collagen secretion and the degradation of the ECM in the HSCs. This fusion protein was also observed to ameliorate liver cirrhosis in our mouse model. These changes appear to be linked to changes in downstream gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest a possible strategy for the treatment of liver cirrhosis and additional work is warranted. PMID:26527860

  5. Adenoviral delivery of truncated MMP-8 fused with the hepatocyte growth factor mutant 1K1 ameliorates liver cirrhosis and promotes hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghua; Li, Jianbo; Fu, Weiwei; Tang, Jiacheng; Feng, Xu; Chen, Jiang; Liang, Yuelong; Jin, Ren'an; Xie, Anyong; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease caused by chronic liver injury, which activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cirrhosis accounts for an extensive level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely due to lack of effective treatment options. In this study, we have constructed a fusion protein containing matrix metal-loproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and the human growth factor mutant 1K1 (designated cMMP8-1K1) and delivered it into hepatocytes and in vivo and in cell culture via intravenous injection of fusion protein-harboring adenovirus. In doing so, we found that the cMMP8-1K1 fusion protein promotes the proliferation of hepatocytes, likely resulting from the combined inhibition of type I collagen secretion and the degradation of the ECM in the HSCs. This fusion protein was also observed to ameliorate liver cirrhosis in our mouse model. These changes appear to be linked to changes in downstream gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest a possible strategy for the treatment of liver cirrhosis and additional work is warranted.

  6. Vector systems for prenatal gene therapy: principles of adenovirus design and production.

    PubMed

    Alba, Raul; Baker, Andrew H; Nicklin, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Adenoviruses have many attributes, which have made them one of the most widely investigated vectors for gene therapy applications. These include ease of genetic manipulation to produce replication-deficient vectors, ability to readily generate high titer stocks, efficiency of gene delivery into many cell types, and ability to encode large genetic inserts. Recent advances in adenoviral vector engineering have included the ability to genetically manipulate the tropism of the vector by engineering of the major capsid proteins, particularly fiber and hexon. Furthermore, simple replication-deficient adenoviral vectors deleted for expression of a single gene have been complemented by the development of systems in which the majority of adenoviral genes are deleted, generating sophisticated Ad vectors which can mediate sustained transgene expression following a single delivery. This chapter outlines methods for developing simple transgene over expressing Ad vectors and detailed strategies to engineer mutations into the major capsid proteins.

  7. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  8. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  9. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  10. Theranostic agents for intracellular gene delivery with spatiotemporal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, Jennifer M.; Peters, Jonathan T.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is the modification of gene expression to treat a disease. However, efficient intracellular delivery and monitoring of gene therapeutic agents is an ongoing challenge. Use of theranostic agents with suitable targeted, controlled delivery and imaging modalities has the potential to greatly advance gene therapy. Inorganic nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, and quantum dots have been shown to be effective theranostic agents for the delivery and spatiotemporal tracking of oligonucleotides in vitro and even a few cases in vivo. Major concerns remain to be addressed including cytotoxicity, particularly of quantum dots; effective dosage of nanoparticles for optimal theranostic effect; development of real-time in vivo imaging; and further improvement of gene therapy efficacy. PMID:23606894

  11. Lentivectors for regulated and reversible cutaneous gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Siprashvili, Zurab; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    Systemic administration of therapeutic proteins has value in treating a wide variety of disorders, including erythropoietin (Epo)-responsive anemias. Recombinant proteins, however, are costly and require repeated injections, while gene delivery approaches have suffered from inefficiency and difficulties with regulation. The skin effectively delivers polypeptides to the circulation, and improved approaches would support sustainable, topically regulated protein expression after a single vector injection. Toward this goal, we generated lentivectors in which both gene delivery and persistence in skin are regulated by administration of distinct steroid ligands. Following a single injection of regulated lentivector into human skin regenerated on immunodeficient mice, topical glucocorticoid ligands regulated Epo levels and hematocrit over time. Abrogation of gene delivery was achieved by both glucocorticoid cessation and proviral excision via a 4-hydroxytamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase. These findings establish an approach to durable, topically controlled systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins from human skin tissue.

  12. Adenoviral Gene Transfer of PLD1-D4 Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Mice by Disrupting Phospholipase D1 Interaction with PED/PEA-15

    PubMed Central

    Fiory, Francesca; Nigro, Cecilia; Ulianich, Luca; Castanò, Ilenia; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Terracciano, Daniela; Pastore, Lucio; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco; Miele, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Over-expression of phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA-15) causes insulin resistance by interacting with the D4 domain of phospholipase D1 (PLD1). Indeed, the disruption of this association restores insulin sensitivity in cultured cells over-expressing PED/PEA-15. Whether the displacement of PLD1 from PED/PEA-15 improves insulin sensitivity in vivo has not been explored yet. In this work we show that treatment with a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the human D4 cDNA (Ad-D4) restores normal glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Tg ped/pea-15) by improving both insulin sensitivity and secretion. In skeletal muscle of these mice, D4 over-expression inhibited PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction, decreased Protein Kinase C alpha activation and restored insulin induced Protein Kinase C zeta activation, leading to amelioration of insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Interestingly, Ad-D4 administration improved insulin sensitivity also in high-fat diet treated obese C57Bl/6 mice. We conclude that PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction may represent a novel target for interventions aiming at improving glucose tolerance. PMID:23585839

  13. Biodegradable polymer-metal complexes for gene and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hosseinkhani, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    The delivery of genes and drugs into cells has increasingly attracted attention for the generation of genetically engineered cells. Successful drug delivery will have enormous academic, clinical, and practical impacts on gene therapy, cell and molecular biology, pharmaceutical and food industries, and bio-production. The major aim of gene therapy is to deliver genetic materials into cells effectively, genetically modifying and repairing cell functions with the possibility of inducing therapeutic healing of disease. The genetic material includes DNA, RNA, antisense, decoy DNA, and ribozymes. The aim is that the appropriate transfection would allow diseased cells to return to a healthy condition. The genetic manipulation is often manifested in the mechanisms of intracellular actions of genes and proteins, and may play an important role in making clear the key genes associated with various diseases. Based on fundamental and scientific knowledge, the delivery technology of genetic material should be applicable to producing various proteins of pharmaceutical value (e.g. cytokines, growth factors, and antibodies) and also to producing seeds resistant to harmful insects and cold weather damage. This implies that the cells might be enhanced to produce valuable pharmaceutical and food products. For each approach, it is important, for successful gene expression, to select an appropriate gene to be delivered as well as to develop the gene delivery technology to enhance transfection efficiency. This review will provide an overview of the enhanced gene expression of plasmid DNA complexed with new non-viral gene delivery vehicles by biodegradable biopolymer-metal complex, introducing our recent research data to emphasize the technical feasibility of biopolymer-metal complexes in gene therapy and biotechnology.

  14. Cationic Polymer Based Gene Delivery: Uptake and Intracellular Trafficking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yoonkhei; Too, Heng-Phon

    2014-04-01

    To date, low transfection efficiency remains the major drawback of polymer based gene delivery. Many cell types including stem cells, fibroblast and neurons are known to be poorly transfected with polymer based gene carriers and the high toxicity severely restrict their utility in gene delivery. Continual efforts are made to identify cellular barriers to efficient transfection as these carriers have low immunogenicity, ease of manufacturing and scalability. Here, we summarize the current status of understanding on uptake mechanism of polymer-DNA complexes (polyplexes), their endosomal escape, cytosolic transport and nuclear entry of pDNA.

  15. Aptamer modification improves the adenoviral transduction of malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xiaojing; Di, BingYan; Wang, Dongyang; Zhang, Yaling; Xia, Haibin; Mao, Qinwen

    2013-12-01

    Adenovirus has shown increasing promise in the gene-viral therapy for glioblastoma, a treatment strategy that relies on the delivery of viruses or transgenes into tumor cells. However, targeting of adenovirus to human glioblastoma remains a challenge due to the low expression level of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in glioma cells. Aptamers are small and highly structured single-stranded oligonucleotides that bind at high affinity to a target molecule, and are good candidates for targeted imaging and therapy. In this study, to construct an aptamer-modified Ad5, we first genetically modified the HVR5 of Ad hexon by biotin acceptor peptide (BAP), which would be metabolically biotinylated during production in HEK293 cells, and then attached the biotin labeled aptamer to the modified Ad through avidin–biotin binding. The aptamers used in this study includes AS1411 and GBI-10. The former is a DNA aptamer that can bind to nucleolin, a nuclear matrix protein found on the surface of cancer cells. The latter is a DNA aptamer that can recognize the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C on the surface of human glioblastoma cells. To examine if aptamer-modification of the hexon protein could improve the adenoviral transduction efficiency, a glioblastoma cell line, U251, was transduced with aptamer-modified Ads. The transduction efficiency of AS1411- or GBI-10-modified Ad was approximately 4.1-fold or 5.2-fold higher than that of the control. The data indicated that aptamer modified adenovirus would be a useful tool for cancer gene therapy.

  16. Characterisation of gene delivery using liposomal bubbles and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshima, Risa; Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Negishi, Yoichi; Utoguchi, Naoki; Kudo, Nobuki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    The combination of nano/microbubbles and ultrasound is a novel technique for a non-viral gene deliver. We have previously developed novel ultrasound sensitive liposomes (Bubble liposomes) which contain the ultrasound imaging gas perfluoropropane. In this study, Bubble liposomes were compared with cationic lipid (CL)-DNA complexes as potential gene delivery carriers into tumors in vivo. The delivery of genes by bubble liposomes depended on the intensity of the applied ultrasound. The transfection efficiency plateaued at 0.7 W/cm2 ultrasound intensity. Bubble liposomes efficiently transferred genes into cultured cells even when the cells were exposed to ultrasound for only 1 s. In addition, bubble liposomes were able to introduce the luciferase gene more effectively than CL-DNA complexes into mouse ascites tumor cells. We conclude that the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound is a good method for gene transfer in vivo.

  17. Bioengineered Silk Protein-Based Gene Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Keiji; Subramanian, Balajikarthick; Currie, Heather A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Silk proteins self-assemble into mechanically robust material structures that are also biodegradable and non-cytotoxic, suggesting utility for gene delivery. Since silk proteins can also be tailored in terms of chemistry, molecular weight and other design features via genetic engineering, further control of this system for gene delivery can be considered. In the present study, silk-based block copolymers were bioengineered with poly(l-lysine) domains for gene delivery. Ionic complexes of these silk-polylysine based block copolymers with plasmid DNA (pDNA) were prepared for gene delivery to human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. The material systems were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The polymers self-assembled in solution and complexed plasmid DNA through ionic interactions. The pDNA complexes with 30-lysine residues prepared at a polymer/nucleotide ratio of 10 and with a solution diameter of 380 nm, showed the highest efficiency for transfection. The pDNA complexes were also immobilized on silk films and demonstrated direct cell transfection from these surfaces. The results demonstrate the potential of bioengineered silk proteins as a new family of highly tailored gene delivery systems. PMID:19577803

  18. Engineered nonviral nanocarriers for intracellular gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Tort, Olivia; Lorenzo, Julia; Puntes, Victor F

    2012-10-01

    The efficient delivery of nucleic acids into mammalian cells is a central aspect of cell biology and of medical applications, including cancer therapy and tissue engineering. Non-viral chemical methods have been received with great interest for transfecting cells. However, further development of nanocarriers that are biocompatible, efficient and suitable for clinical applications is still required. In this paper, the different material platforms for gene delivery are comparatively addressed, and the mechanisms of interaction with biological systems are discussed carefully.

  19. Engineered nonviral nanocarriers for intracellular gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Tort, Olivia; Lorenzo, Julia; Puntes, Victor F

    2012-10-01

    The efficient delivery of nucleic acids into mammalian cells is a central aspect of cell biology and of medical applications, including cancer therapy and tissue engineering. Non-viral chemical methods have been received with great interest for transfecting cells. However, further development of nanocarriers that are biocompatible, efficient and suitable for clinical applications is still required. In this paper, the different material platforms for gene delivery are comparatively addressed, and the mechanisms of interaction with biological systems are discussed carefully. PMID:22972254

  20. Smart Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The massive amount of human genetic information already available has accelerated the identification of target genes, making gene and nucleic acid therapy the next generation of medicine. Nanoparticle (NP)-based anticancer gene therapy treatment has received significant interest in this evolving field. Recent advances in vector technology have improved gene transfection efficiencies of nonviral vectors to a level similar to viruses. This review serves as an introduction to surface modifications of NPs based on polymeric structural improvements and target moieties. A discussion regarding the future perspective of multifunctional NPs in cancer therapy is also included. PMID:25531409

  1. Au nanoinjectors for electrotriggered gene delivery into the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of exogenous materials is an essential technique required for many fundamental biological researches and medical treatments. As our understanding of cell structure and function has been improved and diverse therapeutic agents with a subcellular site of action have been continuously developed, there is a demand to enhance the performance of delivering devices. Ideal intracellular delivery devices should convey various kinds of exogenous materials without deteriorating cell viability regardless of cell type and, furthermore, precisely control the location and the timing of delivery as well as the amount of delivered materials for advanced researches.In this chapter the development of a new intracellular delivery device, a nanoinjector made of a Au (gold) nanowire (a Au nanoinjector) is described in which delivery is triggered by external application of an electric pulse. As a model study, a gene was delivered directly into the nucleus of a neuroblastoma cell, and successful delivery without cell damage was confirmed by the expression of the delivered gene. The insertion of a Au nanoinjector directly into a cell can be generally applied to any kind of cell, and a high degree of surface modification of Au allows attachment of diverse materials such as proteins, small molecules, or nanoparticles as well as genes on Au nanoinjectors. This expands their applicability, and it is expected that they will provide important information on the effects of delivered exogenous materials and consequently contribute to the development of related therapeutic or clinical technologies.

  2. Hyperbranched polysiloxysilane nanoparticles for nonviral gene delivery vectors and nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Jin; Bonoiu, Adela C.; Lee, Kwang-Sup; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Xia, Cheng; Kakimoto, Masa-aki; Pudavar, Haridas E.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2009-08-01

    We report an approach to produce predefined surface charge tunable gene delivery vectors using siloxysilsane-based polymer for gene delivery studies. To obtain nonviral vectors, new series of hyperbranched polysiloxysilane (HBPS) were synthesized, and the end groups in polymer structures have modified with hydrophilic molecules; in other words, carboxylic acid and quaternary ammonium groups were employed into terminal structures to give the amphiphilicity. The novelty of these amphiphilic HBPS polymers lies in the fact that nanoparticles with different zeta potential (surface charge density) can be easily tailored and functionalized. These polymeric nanoparticles which containing various chemical groups on the surface indicated altered surface charge distributions (from -40 to +64mV). Finally, the use of these nanoparticles as efficient gene delivery vectors was demonstrated by means of in vitro transfection study using β- galactosidase plasmid and pEGFP-N1 plasmid, and the most efficient combination was obtained using HBPS-CN30:70.

  3. Micelles and Nanoparticles for Ultrasonic Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Pitt, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Drug delivery research employing micelles and nanoparticles has expanded in recent years. Of particular interest is the use of these nanovehicles that deliver high concentrations of cytotoxic drugs to diseased tissues selectively, thus reducing the agent’s side effects on the rest of the body. Ultrasound, traditionally used in diagnostic medicine, is finding a place in drug delivery in connection with these nanoparticles. In addition to their non-invasive nature and the fact that they can be focused on targeted tissues, acoustic waves have been credited with releasing pharmacological agents from nanocarriers, as well as rendering cell membranes more permeable. In this article, we summarize new technologies that combine the use of nanoparticles with acoustic power both in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasonic drug delivery from micelles usually employs polyether block copolymers, and has been found effective in vivo for treating tumors. Ultrasound releases drug from micelles, most probably via shear stress and shock waves from collapse of cavitation bubbles. Liquid emulsions and solid nanoparticles are used with ultrasound to deliver genes in vitro and in vivo. The small packaging allows nanoparticles to extravasate into tumor tissues. Ultrasonic drug and gene delivery from nano-carriers has tremendous potential because of the wide variety of drugs and genes that could be delivered to targeted tissues by fairly non-invasive means. PMID:18486269

  4. A New Technique of ex vivo Gene Delivery of VEGF to Wounds Using Genetically Modified Skin Particles Promotes Wound Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Taro; Hackl, Florian; Aflaki, Pejman; Bergmann, Juri; Zuhaili, Baraa; Waisbren, Emily; Govindarajulu, Usha; Yao, Feng; Eriksson, Elof

    2011-01-01

    Background Transplantation of genetically modified keratinocytes has been shown to accelerate wound healing. However, this method is labor-intensive and time-consuming. We have developed a new technique of intraoperative gene-delivery to wounds that involves transplantation of transfected minced skin particles (MSPs) derived from harvested partial-thickness skin. Study Design MSPs measuring 0.8×0. ×0.35 mm were created from a split-thickness skin graft of a pig. In vitro transfection was carried out with adenoviral-LacZ (Ad-LacZ) for qualitative and adenoviral-VEGF (Ad-VEGF) for quantitative analysis. Transfected MSPs were transplanted to each of 2.5×2.5 cm full-thickness wounds on the dorsum of the pig. Non-transfected MSPs served as controls. Wound chambers were applied and injected with saline to create a wet environment. Results LacZ expression was detected in migrating cells originating from MSPs both in vitro and in vivo. VEGF expression in the wound fluid of Ad-VEGF-MSPs transplanted wounds on each of days 2–4 (mean±SEM (ng/ml): 6.74±1.89: day 2, 9.88±2.27: day 3, 9.87±1.28: day 4) was significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared to wounds transplanted with either untransfected MSPs, Ad-LacZ-MSPs or untransplanted controls. In vitro VEGF expression was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in Ad-VEGF 1×1010 transfected-MSPs compared to either Ad-VEGF 1×109 transfected MSPs or untransfected MSPs. Wounds transplanted with Ad-VEGF-MSPs showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) numbers of newly formed blood vessels (12.6±0.9 vessels/HPF) compared to wounds transplanted either Ad-LacZ-MSPs (4.4±0.5) or untransfected MSPs (5.2±0.7). All MSP transplanted wounds (Ad-VEGF-MSPs, Untransfected-MSPs, Ad-LacZ-MSPs) showed significantly higher reepithelialization compared to untransplanted wounds on days 10 and 14 (p<0.0001). Conclusions We demonstrated successful transfection of MSPs that can be transplanted to wounds as a source of gene expressing cells. This technique

  5. Surface modification of nonviral nanocarriers for enhanced gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Charles; Durocher, Yves; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology has given a new lease of life to gene therapy with the ever-developing and ever-diversifying nonviral gene delivery nanocarriers. These are designed to pass a series of barriers in order to bring their nucleic acid cargo to the right subcellular location of particular cells. For a given application, each barrier has its dedicated strategy, which translates into a physicochemical, biological and temporal identity of the nanocarrier surface. Different strategies have thus been explored to implement adequate surface identities on nanocarriers over time for systemic delivery. In that context, this review will mainly focus on organic nanocarriers, for which these strategies will be described and discussed. PMID:24354815

  6. Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23676471

  7. Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-05-15

    Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering.

  8. Chlorotoxin labeled magnetic nanovectors for targeted gene delivery to glioma.

    PubMed

    Kievit, Forrest M; Veiseh, Omid; Fang, Chen; Bhattarai, Narayan; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-08-24

    Glioma accounts for 80% of brain tumors and currently remains one of the most lethal forms of cancers. Gene therapy could potentially improve the dismal prognosis of patients with glioma, but this treatment modality has not yet reached the bedside from the laboratory due to the lack of safe and effective gene delivery vehicles. In this study we investigate targeted gene delivery to C6 glioma cells in a xenograft mouse model using chlorotoxin (CTX) labeled nanoparticles. The developed nanovector consists of an iron oxide nanoparticle core, coated with a copolymer of chitosan, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyethylenimine (PEI). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoding DNA was bound to these nanoparticles, and CTX was then attached using a short PEG linker. Nanoparticles without CTX were also prepared as a control. Mice bearing C6 xenograft tumors were injected intravenously with the DNA-bound nanoparticles. Nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor site was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed by histology, and GFP gene expression was monitored through Xenogen IVIS fluorescence imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, the CTX did not affect the accumulation of nanoparticles at the tumor site but specifically enhanced their uptake into cancer cells as evidenced by higher gene expression. These results indicate that this targeted gene delivery system may potentially improve treatment outcome of gene therapy for glioma and other deadly cancers.

  9. Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good

  10. Practical delivery of genes to the marketplace.

    PubMed

    Fischhoff, David A; Cline, Molly N

    2009-01-01

    Although new technologies in genomics are powerful tools for discovering genes and gaining insight into their function, discovery of a gene itself does not ensure its practical application. Commercialization of transgenic crop plants has now taken place for more than a decade. Plant biotechnology, which can be seen as an extension of traditional plant breeding for crop improvement, offers one way to boost food, feed, fiber, and fuel production and has provided significant environmental and economic benefits. Like plant breeding, biotechnology introduces new traits with specific benefits into plants, and does so in a selective, precise, and controlled manner. Several steps are necessary before commercializing a crop with a biotechnology trait, including not only gene discovery and product development but also regulatory clearance, stewardship evaluation, and stakeholder dialogue. Examples will be drawn from the work at Monsanto on the development and commercialization of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, which is representative of the first wave of agronomic traits. PMID:19347653

  11. Practical delivery of genes to the marketplace.

    PubMed

    Fischhoff, David A; Cline, Molly N

    2009-01-01

    Although new technologies in genomics are powerful tools for discovering genes and gaining insight into their function, discovery of a gene itself does not ensure its practical application. Commercialization of transgenic crop plants has now taken place for more than a decade. Plant biotechnology, which can be seen as an extension of traditional plant breeding for crop improvement, offers one way to boost food, feed, fiber, and fuel production and has provided significant environmental and economic benefits. Like plant breeding, biotechnology introduces new traits with specific benefits into plants, and does so in a selective, precise, and controlled manner. Several steps are necessary before commercializing a crop with a biotechnology trait, including not only gene discovery and product development but also regulatory clearance, stewardship evaluation, and stakeholder dialogue. Examples will be drawn from the work at Monsanto on the development and commercialization of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, which is representative of the first wave of agronomic traits.

  12. Strategies on the nuclear-targeted delivery of genes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jing; Fan, Ying; Li, Yuanke; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    To improve the nuclear-targeted delivery of non-viral vectors, extensive effort has been carried out on the development of smart vectors which could overcome multiple barriers. The nuclear envelope presents a major barrier to transgene delivery. Viruses are capable of crossing the nuclear envelope to efficiently deliver their genome into the nucleus through the specialized protein components. However, non-viral vectors are preferred over viral ones because of the safety concerns associated with the latter. Non-viral delivery systems have been designed to include various types of components to enable nuclear translocation at the periphery of the nucleus. This review summarizes the progress of research regarding nuclear transport mechanisms. “Smart” non-viral vectors that have been modified by peptides and other small molecules are able to facilitate the nuclear translocation and enhance the efficacy of gene expression. The resulting technology may also enhance delivery of other macromolecules to the nucleus. PMID:23964565

  13. Gene delivery to the heart by magnetic nanobeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenzhong; Nesselmann, Catharina; Zhou, Zhaohui; Ong, Lee-Lee; Öri, Ferenc; Tang, Guping; Kaminski, Alexander; Lützow, Karola; Lendlein, Andreas; Liebold, Andreas; Stamm, Christof; Wang, John; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ma, Nan

    2007-04-01

    Gene delivery with non-viral gene vectors to the cardiovascular system suffers from low transfection efficiency. In this study, magnetic fields were investigated to assist cardiovascular gene delivery via magnetic nanobeads both in vitro and in vivo. The magnetic field was provided with a 1120 mT Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet while complexes of poly-ethyleneimine (PEI) and various DNA plasmids were conjugated with magnetic nanobeads (MNB) using a Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin linker. In vitro results showed that transfection in two cell lines was 30-80-fold higher in magnetically conjugated MNB/PEI/DNA complexes than transfection from PEI/DNA complexes alone. Similarly, in vivo results using mouse models showed 72 h after injection observable gene expression in the heart with conjugated MNB/PEI/DNA complexes, but barely with PEI/DNA complexes alone.

  14. The magnetofection method: using magnetic force to enhance gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Plank, Christian; Schillinger, Ulrike; Scherer, Franz; Bergemann, Christian; Rémy, Jean-Serge; Krötz, Florian; Anton, Martina; Lausier, Jim; Rosenecker, Joseph

    2003-05-01

    In order to enhance and target gene delivery we have previously established a novel method, termed magnetofection, which uses magnetic force acting on gene vectors that are associated with magnetic particles. Here we review the benefits, the mechanism and the potential of the method with regard to overcoming physical limitations to gene delivery. Magnetic particle chemistry and physics are discussed, followed by a detailed presentation of vector formulation and optimization work. While magnetofection does not necessarily improve the overall performance of any given standard gene transfer method in vitro, its major potential lies in the extraordinarily rapid and efficient transfection at low vector doses and the possibility of remotely controlled vector targeting in vivo.

  15. Efficient, Long-term Hepatic Gene Transfer Using Clinically Relevant HDAd Doses by Balloon Occlusion Catheter Delivery in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Stapleton, Gary E; Law, Mark; Breinholt, John; Palmer, Donna J; Zuo, Yu; Grove, Nathan C; Finegold, Milton J; Rice, Karen; Beaudet, Arthur L; Mullins, Charles E; Ng, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAd) are devoid of all viral coding sequences and are thus an improvement over early generation Ad because they can provide long-term transgene expression in vivo without chronic toxicity. However, high vector doses are required to achieve efficient hepatic transduction by systemic intravenous injection, and this unfortunately results in dose-dependent acute toxicity. To overcome this important obstacle, we have developed a minimally invasive method to preferentially deliver HDAd into the liver of nonhuman primates. Briefly, a balloon occlusion catheter was percutaneously positioned in the inferior vena cava to occlude hepatic venous outflow. HDAd was injected directly into the occluded liver via a percutaneously placed hepatic artery catheter. Compared to systemic vector injection, this approach resulted in substantially higher hepatic transduction efficiency using clinically relevant low vector doses and was accompanied by mild-to-moderate acute but transient toxicities. Transgene expression was sustained for up to 964 days. These results suggest that our minimally invasive method of delivery can significantly improve the vector's therapeutic index and may be a first step toward clinical application of HDAd for liver-directed gene therapy. PMID:19050700

  16. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  17. Bioengineered Silk Gene Delivery System for Nuclear Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Sezin; Tokareva, Olena; Varone, Antonio; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery research has gained momentum with the use of lipophilic vectors that mimic viral systems to increase transfection efficiency. However, maintaining cell viability with these systems remains a major challenge. Therefore biocompatible and nontoxic biopolymers that are designed by combining non-immunological viral mimicking components with suitable carriers have been explored to address these limitations. In the present study recombinant DNA technology was used to design a multi-functional gene delivery system for nuclear targeting, while also supporting cell viability. Spider dragline silk recombinant proteins were modified with DNA condensing units and the proton sponge endosomal escape pathway was utilized for enhanced delivery. Short-term transfection efficiency in a COS-7 cell line (adherent kidney cells isolated from African green monkey) was enhanced compared to lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine (PEI), as was cell viability with these recombinant bio-polyplexes. Endosomal escape and consequent nuclear targeting were shown with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24889658

  18. Novel Approaches for Retinal Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The ARVO 2014 minisymposium on “Novel Approaches for Retinal Drug and Gene Delivery” was held on May 6, 2014 in Orlando, FL. The main intent of the symposium was to review recent advances in retinal drug and gene delivery with specific emphasis on novel approaches that address current limitations and have the potential to translate into clinical practice. The symposium was sponsored by Translational Vision Science and Technology. PMID:25346872

  19. Gene Delivery Strategies to Promote Spinal Cord Repair

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M; Seidlits, Stephanie K

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapies hold great promise for the treatment of many neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic injuries in the central nervous system. However, development of effective methods to deliver such therapies in a controlled manner to the spinal cord is a necessity for their translation to the clinic. Although essential progress has been made to improve efficiency of transgene delivery and reduce the immunogenicity of genetic vectors, there is still much work to be done to achieve clinical strategies capable of reversing neurodegeneration and mediating tissue regeneration. In particular, strategies to achieve localized, robust expression of therapeutic transgenes by target cell types, at controlled levels over defined time periods, will be necessary to fully regenerate functional spinal cord tissues. This review summarizes the progress over the last decade toward the development of effective gene therapies in the spinal cord, including identification of appropriate target genes, improvements to design of genetic vectors, advances in delivery methods, and strategies for delivery of multiple transgenes with synergistic actions. The potential of biomaterials to mediate gene delivery while simultaneously providing inductive scaffolding to facilitate tissue regeneration is also discussed. PMID:25922572

  20. Thymine, adenine and lipoamino acid based gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Ziora, Zyta M; Coles, Daniel J; Lin, I-Chun; Toth, Istvan

    2010-05-14

    A novel class of thymine, adenine and lipoamino acid based non-viral carriers for gene delivery has been developed. Their ability to bind to DNA by hydrogen bonding was confirmed by NMR diffusion, isothermal titration calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy experiments.

  1. Upconversion luminescence tracking of gene delivery via multifunctional nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xilin; Xu, Suying; Liu, Jiali; Wang, Leyu

    2016-04-01

    The real-time fluorescence tracking of gene delivery is very important as it helps to figure out how a vector enters a cell and also to follow its fate within the cell interior. Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have shown great potential in biomedical applications in virtue of their unique optical and biological properties. Herein, we report a simple and versatile strategy to fabricate a multifunctional nanocapsule for effective gene delivery and real-time luminescence tracking. The hydrophobic UCNPs were modified by positively charged amphiphilic polymer together with polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) polymer, affording biocompatible nanocapsules with high gene loading capacity and good stability. Red UC luminescence of UCNPs are able to track the delivery of nanocapsules in cells without background fluorescence interference, in the meantime, the green fluorescence of green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressed by the pDNA could subtly monitor the gene transfection efficacy. The results demonstrated that our nanocapsule has ideal biocompatibility, satisfactory gene loading capacity and great bioimaging ability, which is promising for imaging guided cell therapy and gene engineering. PMID:26838389

  2. Aerosol delivery of programmed cell death protein 4 using polysorbitol-based gene delivery system for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Xing, Lei; Chen, Bao-An; Xu, Fengguo; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Zhang, Can

    2014-11-01

    The development of a safe and effective gene delivery system is the most challenging obstacle to the broad application of gene therapy in the clinic. In this study, we report the development of a polysorbitol-based gene delivery system as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy. The copolymer was prepared by a Michael addition reaction between sorbitol diacrylate (SD) and spermine (SPE); the SD-SPE copolymer effectively condenses with DNA on the nanoscale and protects it from nucleases. SD-SPE/DNA complexes showed excellent transfection with low toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, and aerosol delivery of SD-SPE complexes with programmed cell death protein 4 DNA significantly suppressed lung tumorigenesis in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice. These results demonstrate that SD-SPE has great potential as a gene delivery system based on its excellent biocompatibility and high gene delivery efficiency for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:24983766

  3. Delivery of gene-expressing fragments using quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fujioka, Kouki; Yasuhara, Masato; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive approach to supplement a deficient gene function. Although there has been some success with specific gene delivery using various methods including viral vectors and liposomes, most of these methods have a limited efficiency or also carry a risk for oncogenesis. Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs), have potential to be applied to molecular biology and bioimaging, since some nanocrystals emit higher and longer lasting fluorescence than conventional organic probes do. We herein report that quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with nuclear localizing signal peptides (NLSP) successfully introduced the gene-fragments with promoter elements, which promoted the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene in mammalian cells. The expression of eGFP protein was observed when the QD/geneconstruct was added to the culture media. The gene-expression efficiency varied depending on multiple factors around QDs, such as 1) the reading direction of gene fragments, 2) the quantity of gene fragments attached on the surface of QD-constructs, 3) the surface electronic charges varied according to the structure of QD/gene-constructs, and 4) the particle size of QD/gene complex varied according to the structure and amounts of gene fragments. Using this QD/geneconstruct system, eGFP protein could be detected 28 days after the gene-introduction whereas the fluorescence of QDs was disappeared. This system therefore provides another method for the intracellular delivery of gene-fragments without using either viral vectors or specific liposomes. These results suggest that inappropriate treatment and disposal of QDs may still have risks to the environmental pollution including human health under certain conditions. Here we propose the further research for the immune and physiological responses in not only immune cells but also other cells, in order to clear the effect of all other nanoscale products as well as nanocrystal

  4. Gene Delivery Potential of Biofunctional Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles in Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, Suleiman Yusuf; Chowdhury, Ezharul Houque; Rosli, Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Existing nonviral gene delivery systems to lungs are inefficient and associated with dose limiting toxicity in mammalian cells. Therefore, carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) nanoparticles were examined as an alternative strategy for effective gene delivery to the lungs. This study aimed to (1) assess the gene delivery efficiency of CO3Ap in vitro and in mouse lungs, (2) evaluate the cytotoxicity effect of CO3Ap/pDNA in vitro, and (3) characterize the CO3Ap/pDNA complex formulations. A significantly high level of reporter gene expression was detected from the lung cell line transfected with CO3Ap/pDNA complex prepared in both serum and serum-free medium. Cytotoxicity analysis revealed that the percentage of the viable cells treated with CO3Ap to be almost similar to the untreated cells. Characterization analyses showed that the CO3Ap/pDNA complexes are in a nanometer range with aggregated spherical structures and tended to be more negatively charged. In the lung of mice, highest level of transgene expression was observed when CO3Ap (8 μL) was complexed with 40 μg of pDNA at day 1 after administration. Although massive reduction of gene expression was seen beyond day 1 post administration, the level of expression remained significant throughout the study period. PMID:25143941

  5. Gene gun delivery systems for cancer vaccine approaches.

    PubMed

    Aravindaram, Kandan; Yang, Ning Sun

    2009-01-01

    Gene-based immunization with transgenic DNA vectors expressing tumor-associated antigens (TAA), cytokines, or chemokines, alone or in combination, provides an attractive approach to increase the cytotoxic T cell immunity against various cancer diseases. With this consideration, particle-mediated or gene gun technology has been developed as a nonviral method for gene transfer into various mammalian tissues. It has been shown to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in both small and large experimental animals. A broad range of somatic cell types, including primary cultures and established cell lines, has been successfully transfected ex vivo or in vitro by gene gun technology, either as suspension or adherent cultures. Here, we show that protocols and techniques for use in gene gun-mediated transgene delivery system for skin vaccination against melanoma using tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human gpl00 and reporter gene assays as experimental systems.

  6. Baculovirus-mediated gene delivery and RNAi applications.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Kaisa-Emilia; Airenne, Kari; Ylä-Herttulala, Seppo

    2015-04-22

    Baculoviruses are widely encountered in nature and a great deal of data is available about their safety and biology. Recently, these versatile, insect-specific viruses have demonstrated their usefulness in various biotechnological applications including protein production and gene transfer. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies exist and support their use as gene delivery vehicles in vertebrate cells. Recently, baculoviruses have also demonstrated high potential in RNAi applications in which several advantages of the virus make it a promising tool for RNA gene transfer with high safety and wide tropism.

  7. Baculovirus-mediated Gene Delivery and RNAi Applications

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Kaisa-Emilia; Airenne, Kari; Ylä-Herttulala, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are widely encountered in nature and a great deal of data is available about their safety and biology. Recently, these versatile, insect-specific viruses have demonstrated their usefulness in various biotechnological applications including protein production and gene transfer. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies exist and support their use as gene delivery vehicles in vertebrate cells. Recently, baculoviruses have also demonstrated high potential in RNAi applications in which several advantages of the virus make it a promising tool for RNA gene transfer with high safety and wide tropism. PMID:25912715

  8. Group V and X secretory phospholipase A2 prevents adenoviral infection in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuishi, Michiko; Masuda, Seiko; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    sPLA2 (secretory phospholipase A2) enzymes have been implicated in various biological events, yet their precise physiological functions remain largely unresolved. In the present study we show that group V and X sPLA2s, which are two potent plasma membrane-acting sPLA2s, are capable of preventing host cells from being infected with an adenovirus. Bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts pre-expressing group V and X sPLA2s showed marked resistance to adenovirus-mediated gene delivery in a manner dependent on their catalytic activity. Although adenovirus particles were insensitive to recombinant group V and X sPLA2s, direct addition of these enzymes to 293A cells suppressed both number and size of adenovirus plaque formation. Group V and X sPLA2s retarded the entry of adenovirus into endosomes. Moreover, adenoviral infection was suppressed by LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine), a membrane-hydrolytic product of these sPLA2s. Thus hydrolysis of the plasma membrane by these sPLA2s may eventually lead to the protection of host cells from adenovirus entry. Given that group V and X sPLA2s are expressed in human airway epithelium and macrophages and that the expression of endogenous group V sPLA2 is upregulated by virus-related stimuli in these cells, our present results raise the possibility that group V and X sPLA2s may play a role in innate immunity against adenoviral infection in the respiratory tract. PMID:16146426

  9. Physical methods for gene transfer: improving the kinetics of gene delivery into cells.

    PubMed

    Mehier-Humbert, Sophie; Guy, Richard H

    2005-04-01

    One factor critical to successful gene therapy is the development of efficient delivery systems. Although advances in gene transfer technology, including viral and non-viral vectors, have been made, an ideal vector system has not yet been constructed. This review describes the basic principles behind various physical methods for gene transfer and assesses the advantages and performance of such approaches, compared to other transfection systems. In particular, the kinetics and efficiency of gene delivery, the toxicity, in vivo feasibility, and targeting ability of different physical methodologies are discussed and evaluated.

  10. The evolution of adenoviral vectors through genetic and chemical surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Cristian; Garofalo, Mariangela; Hirvinen, Mari; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2014-02-17

    A long time has passed since the first clinical trial with adenoviral (Ad) vectors. Despite being very promising, Ad vectors soon revealed their limitations in human clinical trials. The pre-existing immunity, the marked liver tropism and the high toxicity of first generation Ad (FG-Ad) vectors have been the main challenges for the development of new approaches. Significant effort toward the development of genetically and chemically modified adenoviral vectors has enabled researchers to create more sophisticated vectors for gene therapy, with an improved safety profile and a higher transduction ability of different tissues. In this review, we will describe the latest findings in the high-speed, evolving field of genetic and chemical modifications of adenoviral vectors, a field in which different disciplines, such as biomaterial research, virology and immunology, co-operate synergistically to create better gene therapy tools for modern challenges.

  11. The design of cationic lipids for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Sainlos, M; Aissaoui, A; Oudrhiri, N; Hauchecorne, M; Vigneron, J-P; Lehn, J-M; Lehn, P

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic gene delivery vectors are gaining increasing importance in gene therapy as an alternative to recombinant viruses. Among the various types of non-viral vectors, cationic lipids are especially attractive as they can be prepared with relative ease and extensively characterised. Further, each of their constituent parts can be modified, thereby facilitating the elucidation of structure-activity relationships. In this forward-looking review, cationic lipid-mediated gene delivery will mainly be discussed in terms of the structure of the three basic constituent parts of any cationic lipid: the polar headgroup, hydrophobic moiety and linker. Particular emphasis will be placed on recent advances in the field as well as on our own original contributions. In addition to reviewing critical physicochemical features (such as headgroup hydration) of monovalent lipids, the use of headgroups with known nucleic-acid binding modes, such as linear and branched polyamines, aminoglycosides and guanidinium functions, will be comprehensively assessed. A particularly exciting innovation in linker design is the incorporation of environment-sensitive groups, the intracellular hydrolysis of which may lead to more controlled DNA delivery. Examples of pH-, redox- and enzyme-sensitive functional groups integrated into the linker are highlighted and the benefits of such degradable vectors can be evaluated in terms of transfection efficiency and cationic lipid-associated cytotoxicity. Finally, possible correlations between the length and type of hydrophobic moiety and transfection efficiency will be discussed. In conclusion it may be foreseen that in order to be successful, the future of cationic lipid-based gene delivery will probably require the development of sophisticated virus-like systems, which can be viewed as "programmed supramolecular systems" incorporating the various functions required to perform in a chronological order the different steps involved in gene transfection.

  12. Toxicity of cationic lipids and cationic polymers in gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongtao; Zhang, Shubiao; Wang, Bing; Cui, Shaohui; Yan, Jie

    2006-08-10

    Gene therapy, as a promising therapeutics to treat genetic or acquired diseases, has achieved exciting development in the past two decades. Appropriate gene vectors can be crucial for gene transfer. Cationic lipids and polymers, the most important non-viral vectors, have many advantages over viral ones as non-immunogenic, easy to produce and not oncogenic. They hold the promise to replace viral vectors to be used in clinic. However, the toxicity is still an obstacle to the application of non-viral vectors to gene therapy. For overcoming the problem, many new cationic compounds have been developed. This article provides a review with respect to toxicity of cationic lipids and polymers in gene delivery. We evaluate the structural features of cationic compounds and summarize the relationship of toxicity and structure and hope to provide available suggestions on the development of these cationic compounds.

  13. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  14. Dendrimer type bio-reducible polymer for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Yeong; Nam, Kihoon; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Sung Wan; Bull, David A

    2012-06-28

    Arginine-grafted bio-reducible poly(disulfide amine) (ABP) was incorporated into the poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer, creating a high molecular weight bio-reducible polymer, PAM-ABP, to overcome the limitations of the low molecular weight ABP. The newly synthesized PAM-ABP was studied to determine its efficacy as a gene delivery carrier. The PAM-ABP demonstrated superior condensing ability for plasmid DNA through the formation of compact nanosized polyplexes. These compact polyplexes enhanced cellular uptake and were less susceptible to reducing agents, resulting in greater transfection efficiency compared to ABP alone. Based on these results, this newly developed PAM-ABP polyplex is a promising delivery system for clinical gene therapy. PMID:22546681

  15. Characterization of novel cationic amphiphiles for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiang

    Gene therapy has drawn vast interest for treating, preventing, or controlling a myriad of diseases. The two most common methods for gene delivery use either synthetic or viral vectors. Viral vectors (infection) are by far the most effective and efficient means of DNA delivery, but their use is tempered by safety and immunogenicity concerns. Consequently, there has been a significant effort to develop and evaluate non- viral vectors, which include cationic amphiphiles and polymers, and more recently anionic amphiphiles. Non-viral vectors have the advantages of ease of production, better stability and low immunogenicity. At the same time, they also have a number of limitations, including low in vitro and in vivo transfection efficiencies, and cytotoxicity in many instances. My research project has been focused on design, development and characterizations of novel amphiphilic lipids for gene delivery. Through rational design and characterization of the amphiphile structures, it not only yielded vectors showing high transfection activities, but also provided information of the structure-activity relationship. These results provide us with a better understanding on the transfection process and future directions to further optimize the amphiphile structures. More specifically, my dissertation research included the following three parts: (i) characterization of novel lipopeptides possessing di- or tri- peptide head groups; (ii) determination of the effect of spacer (between the cationic domain and the hydrophobic domain of charge-reversal amphiphiles) length, rigidity and hydrophilicity on gene delivery; (iii) identification of the cellular uptake pathway and the transfection mechanism of a known enzyme-sensitive charge-reversal amphiphile.

  16. Chondroitin sulfate-based nanocarriers for drug/gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Liu, Mengrui; Wang, Juan; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-11-20

    In recent years, the naturally occurring polysaccharides captured an increasing amount of attention in the field of drug/gene delivery systems owing to their outstanding propensities, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogenicity, extremely low toxicity, and so on. Chondroitin sulfate (ChS), a member of glycosaminoglycan family, consists of repeating disaccharide units of b-1,3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) and b-1,4-linked d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) with certain position(s) sulfated, which has been widely applied in nano-sized carriers. This review will focus on shared and unique properties of ChS and its latest development in drug/gene delivery systems. In detail, the application of ChS as nanocarriers will be discussed in three dimensions: self-assembly of hydrophobically modified ChS, ChS decorated nanocarriers, and some other nanocarriers based on ChS. A discussion relating to the future perspectives of ChS-based nanocarriers for drug/gene delivery is also included.

  17. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems.

  18. Chondroitin sulfate-based nanocarriers for drug/gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Liu, Mengrui; Wang, Juan; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-11-20

    In recent years, the naturally occurring polysaccharides captured an increasing amount of attention in the field of drug/gene delivery systems owing to their outstanding propensities, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogenicity, extremely low toxicity, and so on. Chondroitin sulfate (ChS), a member of glycosaminoglycan family, consists of repeating disaccharide units of b-1,3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) and b-1,4-linked d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) with certain position(s) sulfated, which has been widely applied in nano-sized carriers. This review will focus on shared and unique properties of ChS and its latest development in drug/gene delivery systems. In detail, the application of ChS as nanocarriers will be discussed in three dimensions: self-assembly of hydrophobically modified ChS, ChS decorated nanocarriers, and some other nanocarriers based on ChS. A discussion relating to the future perspectives of ChS-based nanocarriers for drug/gene delivery is also included. PMID:26344295

  19. Viral Vectors for Gene Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Thomas B.; Gray, Steven J.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    The potential benefits of gene therapy for neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s are enormous. Even a delay in the onset of severe symptoms would be invaluable to patients suffering from these and other diseases. Significant effort has been placed in developing vectors capable of delivering therapeutic genes to the CNS in order to treat neurological disorders. At the forefront of potential vectors, viral systems have evolved to efficiently deliver their genetic material to a cell. The biology of different viruses offers unique solutions to the challenges of gene therapy, such as cell targeting, transgene expression and vector production. It is important to consider the natural biology of a vector when deciding whether it will be the most effective for a specific therapeutic function. In this review, we outline desired features of the ideal vector for gene delivery to the CNS and discuss how well available viral vectors compare to this model. Adeno-associated virus, retrovirus, adenovirus and herpesvirus vectors are covered. Focus is placed on features of the natural biology that have made these viruses effective tools for gene delivery with emphasis on their application in the CNS. Our goal is to provide insight into features of the optimal vector and which viral vectors can provide these features. PMID:22001604

  20. Adenoviral vector-based strategies against infectious disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenoviral vectors are widely employed against infectious diseases or cancers, as they can elicit specific antibody responses and T cell responses when they are armed with foreign genes as vaccine carriers, and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells when they are genetically modified for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics of adenovirus (Ad) and the latest development of Ad vector-based strategies for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases or cancers. Strategies to circumvent the pre-existing neutralizing antibodies which dampen the immunogenicity of Ad-based vaccines are also discussed. PMID:27105067

  1. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  2. Modification of nanostructured calcium carbonate for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a facile method to modify nanostructured calcium carbonate (CaCO3) gene delivery systems by adding calcium phosphate (CaP) component was developed. CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation of Ca(2+) ions with plasmid DNA in the presence of carbonate and phosphate ions. For comparison, CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles and CaP/DNA co-precipitates were also prepared. The effects of carbonate ion/phosphate ion (CO3(2-)/PO4(3-)) ratio on the particle size and gene delivery efficiency were investigated. With an appropriate CO3(2-)/PO4(3-) ratio, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate ions could control the size of co-precipitates effectively, and CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles with a decreased size and improved stability could be obtained. The in vitro gene transfections mediated by different nanoparticles in 293T cells and HeLa cells were carried out, using pGL3-Luc as a reporter plasmid. The gene transfection efficiency of CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles could be significantly improved as compared with CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles and CaP/DNA co-precipitates. The confocal microscopy study indicated that the cellular uptake and nuclear localization of CaCO3/CaP/DNA nanoparticles were significantly enhanced as compared with unmodified CaCO3/DNA nanoparticles.

  3. Gene therapy for cancer: dairy bacteria as delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Tangney, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The prime obstacle to achieving an effective treatment for cancer is that of eradicating tumors without harming healthy organs and cells of the patient. The concept of utilizing biological agents for delivery of therapeutic genes to patients to kill cancer cells has been under investigation for two decades, which exploits the natural ability of disease causing microbes to invade human cells. Safety-modified versions of pathogenic viruses or bacteria can deposit genes and induce production of anti-cancer agents upon administration to tumors and promising clinical trial successes have been achieved with various types of gene delivery vehicles. Bacteria present an attractive class of gene vectors, possessing a natural ability to grow specifically within tumors following intravenous (IV) injection. Several species such as Clostridium and Salmonella have been examined in clinical trials. However, as foreign, disease-causing bugs, their inherent toxicity has outweighed therapeutic responses in patients, despite efforts to reduce toxicity through genetic modification. A promising alternative exploits non-pathogenic bacterial species that have an existing natural relationship with humans. Our recent study (Cronin et al., 2010) has demonstrated that IV injection or ingestion of a species of probiotic bacterium, Bifidobacterium breve, in high numbers, results in trafficking of the bacteria throughout the body and accumulation specifically within cancerous tissue.

  4. Polyphosphazenes: Multifunctional, Biodegradable Vehicles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Ian; Brüggemann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Poly[(organo)phosphazenes] are a unique class of extremely versatile polymers with a range of applications including tissue engineering and drug delivery, as hydrogels, shape memory polymers and as stimuli responsive materials. This review aims to divulge the basic principles of designing polyphosphazenes for drug and gene delivery and portray the huge potential of these extremely versatile materials for such applications. Polyphosphazenes offer a number of distinct advantages as carriers for bioconjugates; alongside their completely degradable backbone, to non-toxic degradation products, they possess an inherently and uniquely high functionality and, thanks to recent advances in their polymer chemistry, can be prepared with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities, as well as self-assembled supra-molecular structures. Importantly, the rate of degradation/hydrolysis of the polymers can be carefully tuned to suit the desired application. In this review we detail the recent developments in the chemistry of polyphosphazenes, relevant to drug and gene delivery and describe recent investigations into their application in this field. PMID:24729871

  5. Nanomedicines for Back of the Eye Drug Delivery, Gene Delivery, and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kompella, Uday B.; Amrite, Aniruddha C.; Ravi, Rashmi Pacha; Durazo, Shelley A.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment and management of diseases of the posterior segment of the eye such as diabetic retinopathy, retinoblastoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and choroidal neovascularization is a challenging task due to the anatomy and physiology of ocular barriers. For instance, traditional routes of drug delivery for therapeutic treatment are hindered by poor intraocular penetration and/or rapid ocular elimination. One possible approach to improve ocular therapy is to employ nanotechnology. Nanomedicines, products of nanotechnology, having at least one dimension in the nanoscale include nanoparticles, micelles, nanotubes, and dendrimers, with and without targeting ligands, are making a significant impact in the fields of ocular drug delivery, gene delivery, and imaging, the focus of this review. Key applications of nanotechnology discussed in this review include a) bioadhesive nanomedicines; b) functionalized nanomedicines that enhance target recognition and/or cell entry; c) nanomedicines capable of controlled release of the payload; d) nanomedicines capable of enhancing gene transfection and duration of transfection; f) nanomedicines responsive to stimuli including light, heat, ultrasound, electrical signals, pH, and oxidative stress; g) diversely sized and colored nanoparticles for imaging, and h) nanowires for retinal prostheses. Additionally, nanofabricated delivery systems including implants, films, microparticles, and nanoparticles are described. Although the above nanomedicines may be administered by various routes including topical, intravitreal, intravenous, transscleral, suprachoroidal, and subretinal routes, each nanomedicine should be tailored for the disease, drug, and site of administration. In addition to the nature of materials used in nanomedicine design, depending on the site of nanomedicine administration, clearance and toxicity are expected to differ. PMID:23603534

  6. Identification of a cellular repressor of transcription of the adenoviral late IVa(2) gene that is unaltered in activity in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, H J; Flint, S J

    2000-11-25

    The gene encoding the adenovirus type 2 IVa(2) protein, a sequence-specific activator of transcription from the viral major late promoter, is itself transcribed only during the late phase of infection. We previously identified a cellular protein (IVa(2)-RF) that binds specifically to an intragenic sequence of the IVa(2) transcription unit. We now report that precise substitutions within the IVa(2)-RF-binding site that decreased binding affinity increased the efficiency of IVa(2) transcription in in vitro reactions containing IVa(2)-RF. Consistent with the conclusion that this cellular protein represses IVa(2) transcription, mutations that led to more efficient transcription in the presence of IVa(2)-RF were without effect in reactions lacking this cellular protein. No change in the concentration or activity of IVa(2)-RF could be detected in adenovirus-infected cells during the period in which the IVa(2) gene is transcribed. We therefore propose that restriction of IVa(2) transcription to the late phase is the result of titration of this cellular repressor as the number of copies of the IVa(2) promoter increases upon replication of the viral genome.

  7. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of suicide genes in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vago, Riccardo; Collico, Veronica; Zuppone, Stefania; Prosperi, Davide; Colombo, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutics have been employed in cancer treatment for decades due to their efficacy in killing the malignant cells, but the other side of the coin showed off-target effects, onset of drug resistance and recurrences. To overcome these limitations, different approaches have been investigated and suicide gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative. This approach consists in the introduction of genetic materials into cancerous cells or the surrounding tissue to cause cell death or retard the growth of the tumor mass. Despite promising results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, this innovative approach has been limited, for long time, to the treatment of localized tumors, due to the suboptimal efficiency in introducing suicide genes into cancer cells. Nanoparticles represent a valuable non-viral delivery system to protect drugs in the bloodstream, to improve biodistribution, and to limit side effects by achieving target selectivity through surface ligands. In this scenario, the real potential of suicide genes can be translated into clinically viable treatments for patients. In the present review, we summarize the recent advances of inorganic nanoparticles as non-viral vectors in terms of therapeutic efficacy, targeting capacity and safety issues. We describe the main suicide genes currently used in therapy, with particular emphasis on toxin-encoding genes of bacterial and plant origin. In addition, we discuss the relevance of molecular targeting and tumor-restricted expression to improve treatment specificity to cancer tissue. Finally, we analyze the main clinical applications, limitations and future perspectives of suicide gene therapy.

  8. Poly(ethylenimine) conjugated bioreducible dendrimer for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Jung, Simhyun; Nam, Joung-Pyo; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-12-28

    Branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) 25 kDa is an efficient gene delivery vector with outstanding gene condensation ability and great endosome escape activity. However, it also induces higher cytotoxicity. Transfection efficiency and toxicity of PEI are highly dependent upon their molecular weight and structure. We developed a bioreducible poly(ethylenimine) (PEI (-s-s-)) derived from low molecular weight PEI (1.8 kDa) for efficient gene delivery. Bioreducible core molecule is expected to increase molecular weight and reduce the cytotoxicity of the copolymer. PEI (-s-s-) polyplexes showed higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity compared to branched PEI 25 kDa, Lipofectamine® 2000 and, FuGENE® 6. In addition, PEI (-s-s-) derivative (16 kDa) formed stable polyplexes with a zeta-potential value of +34 mV and polyplex size of 61 nm. PEI (-s-s-) derivative (16 kDa) showed excellent transfection efficiency: 3.6 times higher than branched PEI 25 kDa in HeLa cells and 7.4 times higher than Lipofectamine® 2000 in H9C2 cell. The derivatives also showed lower cytotoxicity compared with Lipofectamine® 2000 and PEI 25 kDa in various cell types. In addition, newly synthesized PEI (-s-s-) derivatives have high reproducibility. PMID:26551343

  9. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  10. E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, R; Rafii, S; Worgall, S; Brough, D E; Crystal, R G

    1999-05-01

    Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.

  11. Peptide vectors for gene delivery: from single peptides to multifunctional peptide nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Raad, Markus de; Teunissen, Erik A; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    The therapeutic use of nucleic acids relies on the availability of sophisticated delivery systems for targeted and intracellular delivery of these molecules. Such a gene delivery should possess essential characteristics to overcome several extracellular and intracellular barriers. Peptides offer an attractive platform for nonviral gene delivery, as several functional peptide classes exist capable of overcoming these barriers. However, none of these functional peptide classes contain all the essential characteristics required to overcome all of the barriers associated with successful gene delivery. Combining functional peptides into multifunctional peptide vectors will be pivotal for improving peptide-based gene delivery systems. By using combinatorial strategies and high-throughput screening, the identification of multifunctional peptide vectors will accelerate the optimization of peptide-based gene delivery systems.

  12. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  13. Gene delivery into plant cells for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  14. Arginine-Rich Polyplexes for Gene Delivery to Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Viola B.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal gene therapy potentially offers an effective therapeutic intervention to cure or slow the progression of neurological diseases. However, neuronal cells are difficult to transfect with nonviral vectors, and in vivo their transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is inefficient. We synthesized a series of arginine-rich oligopeptides, grafted with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and modified with a short-chain polyethylene glycol (PEG). We hypothesized that the arginine would enhance cellular uptake and transport of these polyplexes across the BBB, with PEG imparting biocompatibility and “stealth” properties and PEI facilitating DNA condensation and gene transfection. The optimized composition of the polyplexes demonstrated hemocompatibility with red blood cells, causing no lysis or aggregation, and showed significantly better cytocompatibility than PEI in vitro. Polyplexes formulated with luciferase-expressing plasmid DNA could transfect rat primary astrocytes and neurons in vitro. Confocal imaging data showed efficient cellular uptake of DNA and its sustained intracellular retention and nuclear localization with polyplexes. Intravenous administration of the optimized polyplexes in mice led to gene expression in the brain, which upon further immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated gene expression in neurons. In conclusion, we have successfully designed a nonviral vector for in vitro and in vivo neuronal gene delivery. PMID:26000961

  15. [Development of gene delivery system using PLGA nanospheres].

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kohei; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2007-10-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for the efficient and safe delivery to cells has long been awaited to facilitate gene therapy. Recently, many nonviral vectors modified with cationic lipids, cationic polymers, etc. have been reported. However, those nonviral vectors with cationic materials require improved stability, longer duration of gene expression, and reduced cytotoxicity. We successfully prepared mucoadhesive poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres (PLGA NS) by modifying the nanoparticulate surface with chitosan to improve mucosal peptide absorption after oral and pulmonary administration. Furthermore, we found that nucleic acid, which was not dispersed in the organic solvent, could be dispersed by forming a complex with cationic lipid. Using this phenomenon, polynucleic acids for gene therapy (plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotide, small interfering RNA, etc.) can be encapsulated into the matrix of the polymer particles with the emulsion solvent diffusion method. The advantages of this preparation method are its simple process and avoidance of an ultrasonication process for submicronization of particles. The resultant nanospheres show better cellular uptake and different gene therapeutic effects compared with conventional vectors due to their improved adherence to cells and sustained release of polynucleic acid in the cells. In conclusion, chitosan-coated PLGA NS can possibly be applied in nonviral vectors for gene therapy.

  16. Modified pectin-based carrier for gene delivery: Cellular barriers in gene delivery course

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharides as DNA carriers has high potential for gene therapy applications. Pectin is a structural plant polysaccharide heterogeneous with respect to its chemical structure. It contains branches rich in galactose residues which serve as potential liga...

  17. Ultrasound mediated delivery of drugs and genes to solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Victor

    2008-01-01

    It has long been shown that therapeutic ultrasound can be used effectively to ablate solid tumors, and a variety of cancers are presently being treated in the clinic using these types of ultrasound exposures. There is, however, an ever-increasing body of preclinical literature that demonstrates how ultrasound energy can also be used non-destructively for increasing the efficacy of drugs and genes for improving cancer treatment. In this review, a summary of the most important ultrasound mechanisms will be given with a detailed description of how each one can be employed for a variety of applications. This includes the manner by which acoustic energy deposition can be used to create changes in tissue permeability for enhancing the delivery of conventional agents, as well as for deploying and activating drugs and genes via specially tailored vehicles and formulations. PMID:18474406

  18. Polyamine-DNA interactions and development of gene delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A; Thomas, Thresia

    2016-10-01

    Polyamines are positively charged organic cations under physiologic ionic and pH conditions and hence they interact with negatively charged macromolecules such as DNA and RNA. Although electrostatic interaction is the predominant mode of polyamine-nucleic acid interactions, site- and structure-specific binding has also been recognized. A major consequence of polyamine-DNA interaction is the collapse of DNA to nanoparticles of approximately 100 nm diameter. Electron and atomic force microscopic studies have shown that these nanoparticles are spheroids, toroids and rods. DNA transport to cells for gene therapy applications requires the condensation of DNA to nanoparticles and hence the study of polyamines and related compounds with nucleic acids has received technological importance. In addition to natural and synthetic polyamines, several amine-terminated or polyamine-substituted agents are under intense investigation for non-viral gene delivery vehicles.

  19. Fenton-treated functionalized diamond nanoparticles as gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Martín, Roberto; Alvaro, Mercedes; Herance, José Raúl; García, Hermenegildo

    2010-01-26

    When raw diamond nanoparticles (Dnp, 7 nm average particle size) obtained from detonation are submitted to harsh Fenton-treatment, the resulting material becomes free of amorphous soot matter and the process maintains the crystallinity, reduces the particle size (4 nm average particle size), increases the surface OH population, and increases water solubility. All these changes are beneficial for subsequent Dnp covalent functionalization and for the ability of Dnp to cross cell membranes. Fenton-treated Dnps have been functionalized with thionine and the resulting sample has been observed in HeLa cell nuclei. A triethylammonium-functionalized Dnp pairs electrostatically with a plasmid having the green fluorescent protein gene and acts as gene delivery system permitting the plasmid to cross HeLa cell membrane, something that does not occur for the plasmid alone without assistance of polycationic Dnp. PMID:20047335

  20. Dual-Purpose Magnetic Micelles for MRI and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyan; Ravi, Sowndharya; Martinez, Gary.V.; Chinnasamy, Vignesh; Raulji, Payal; Howell, Mark; Davis, Yvonne; Seehra, Mohindar S.; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for treating disease, but the efficient delivery of genes to desired locations with minimal side effects remains a challenge. In addition to gene therapy, it is also highly desirable to provide sensitive imaging information in patients for disease diagnosis, screening and post-therapy monitoring. Here, we report on the development of dual-purpose chitosan and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic micelles (CP-mag-micelles) that can deliver nucleic acid-based therapeutic agents and also provide magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These ‘theranostic’ CP-mag-micelles are composed of monodisperse hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) loaded into the cores of micelles that are self-assembled from a block copolymer of poly (D, L-lactide) (PLA) and monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG). For efficient loading and protection of the nucleic acids the micelles were coated with cationic polymers, such as chitosan and PEI. The morphology and size distribution of the CP-mag-micelles were characterized and their potential for use as an MRI-probe was tested using an MRI scanner. The T2 relaxivity of micelles was similar to CP-mag-micelles confirming that coating with cationic polymers did not alter magnetism. Nanoparticles coated with chitosan:PEI at a weight ratio of 5:5 showed higher transfection efficiency in HEK293, 3T3 and PC3 cells than with weight ratios of 3:7 or 7:3. CP-mag-micelles are biocompatible, can be delivered to various organs and are safe. A single injection of CP-mag-micelles carrying reporter plasmids in vivo expressed genes for at least one week. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a structural reinforcement of SPIONs loaded in the core of an mPEG-PLA micelle coated with cationic polymers provides efficient DNA delivery and enhanced MRI potential, and affords a promising candidate for theranostics in the future. PMID:22561339

  1. Polyethyleneimine-coating enhances adenoviral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xinglei; Zhou, Na; Wan, Li; Su, Xiaodong; Sun, Zhao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells with multi-lineage potential, which makes them attractive targets for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential for basic research in developmental biology and for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors (CARs), but not into MSCs, which lack CAR expression. To overcome this problem, an Adv coated with cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) was developed. In this study, we demonstrated that PEI coating with an optimal ratio can enhance adenoviral transduction of MSCs without cytotoxicity. We also investigated the physicochemical properties and internalization mechanisms of the PEI-coated Adv. These results could help to evaluate the potentiality of the PEI-coated Adv as a prototype vector for efficient and safe transduction into MSCs. PMID:24727452

  2. Cytotoxic effect of replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying L-plastin promoter regulated E1A and cytosine deaminase genes in cancers of the breast, ovary and colon.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Hakan; Zhang, Lixin; Tang, Yucheng; Deisseroth, Albert

    2003-05-01

    Prodrug activating transcription unit gene therapy is one of several promising approaches to cancer gene therapy. Combining that approach with conditionally replication-competent viral vectors that are truly tumor specific has been an important objective of recent work. In this study, we report the construction of a new conditionally replication-competent bicistronic adenoviral vector in which the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the E1a gene are driven by the L-plastin tumor-specific promoter (AdLpCDIRESE1a). A similar vector driven by the CMV promoter has also been constructed (AdCMVCDIRESE1a) as a control. We have carried out in vitro cytotoxicity in carcinomas of the breast, ovary and colon, and in vivo efficacy studies with these vectors in an animal model of colon cancer. While the addition of the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector to established cancer cell lines showed significant cytotoxicity in tumor cells derived from carcinomas of the breast (MCF-7), colon (HTB-38) and ovary (Ovcar 5), no significant toxicity was seen in explant cultures of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) exposed to this vector. The addition of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) significantly increased the cytotoxicity in an additive fashion of both the AdLpCDIRESE1a and AdCMVCDIRESE1a vectors as well as that of the AdLpCD replication incompetent vector to established tumor cell lines. However, no significant cytotoxicity was observed with the addition of 5FC to explant cultures of normal human mammary epithelial cells that had been exposed to the L-plastin-driven vectors. Studies with mixtures of infected and uninfected tumor cell lines showed that the established cancer cell lines infected with the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector generated significant toxicity to surrounding uninfected cells (the "bystander effect") even at a ratio of 0.25 of infected cells to infected + uninfected cells in the presence of 5FC. The injection of the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector into subcutaneous deposits of human tumor nodules in the

  3. Tumor targeting and microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shixian; Shao, Kun; Kuang, Yuyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Jianfeng; An, Sai; Guo, Yubo; Ma, Haojun; He, Xi; Jiang, Chen

    2013-07-01

    A tumor targeting nanoparticle system has been successfully developed to response to the lowered tumor extracellular pH (pHe) and upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in the tumor microenvironment. The nanoparticles are modified with activatable cell-penetrating peptide (designated as dtACPP) that's dual-triggered by the lowered pHe and MMP2. In dtACPP, the internalization function of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is quenched by a pH-sensitive masking peptide, linking by a MMP2 substrate. The masking peptide is negatively charged to quench the cationic CPP well after systemic administration. Hence, dtACPP-modified nanoparticles possesses passive tumor targetability via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Once reaching the tumor microenvironment, the pre-existing attraction would be eliminated due to the lowered pHe, accompanying the linker cleaved by MMP2, dtACPP would be activated to expose CPP to drive the nanoparticles' internalization into the intratumoral cells. The studies of plasmid DNA loading, toxicity assessment, cellular uptake, tumor targeting delivery, and gene transfection demonstrate that dtACPP-modified nanoparticle system is a potential candidate for tumor targeting gene delivery.

  4. Immunocompromised Children with Severe Adenoviral Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, Joanna C.; McCrory, Michael C.; Gertz, Shira J.; Custer, Jason W.; Spaeder, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the impact of severe respiratory adenoviral infection on morbidity and case fatality in immunocompromised children. Methods. Combined retrospective-prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in four children's hospitals with severe adenoviral respiratory infection and an immunocompromised state between August 2009 and October 2013. We performed a secondary case control analysis, matching our cohort 1 : 1 by age and severity of illness score with immunocompetent patients also with severe respiratory adenoviral infection. Results. Nineteen immunocompromised patients were included in our analysis. Eleven patients (58%) did not survive to hospital discharge. Case fatality was associated with cause of immunocompromised state (p = 0.015), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (p = 0.001), requirement of renal replacement therapy (p = 0.01), ICU admission severity of illness score (p = 0.011), and treatment with cidofovir (p = 0.005). Immunocompromised patients were more likely than matched controls to have multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (p = 0.01), require renal replacement therapy (p = 0.02), and not survive to hospital discharge (p = 0.004). One year after infection, 43% of immunocompromised survivors required chronic mechanical ventilator support. Conclusions. There is substantial case fatality as well as short- and long-term morbidity associated with severe adenoviral respiratory infection in immunocompromised children. PMID:27242924

  5. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of suicide genes in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vago, Riccardo; Collico, Veronica; Zuppone, Stefania; Prosperi, Davide; Colombo, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutics have been employed in cancer treatment for decades due to their efficacy in killing the malignant cells, but the other side of the coin showed off-target effects, onset of drug resistance and recurrences. To overcome these limitations, different approaches have been investigated and suicide gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative. This approach consists in the introduction of genetic materials into cancerous cells or the surrounding tissue to cause cell death or retard the growth of the tumor mass. Despite promising results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, this innovative approach has been limited, for long time, to the treatment of localized tumors, due to the suboptimal efficiency in introducing suicide genes into cancer cells. Nanoparticles represent a valuable non-viral delivery system to protect drugs in the bloodstream, to improve biodistribution, and to limit side effects by achieving target selectivity through surface ligands. In this scenario, the real potential of suicide genes can be translated into clinically viable treatments for patients. In the present review, we summarize the recent advances of inorganic nanoparticles as non-viral vectors in terms of therapeutic efficacy, targeting capacity and safety issues. We describe the main suicide genes currently used in therapy, with particular emphasis on toxin-encoding genes of bacterial and plant origin. In addition, we discuss the relevance of molecular targeting and tumor-restricted expression to improve treatment specificity to cancer tissue. Finally, we analyze the main clinical applications, limitations and future perspectives of suicide gene therapy. PMID:27436147

  6. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  7. Production of human epidermal growth factor using adenoviral based system

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Babak; Shahosseini, Zahra; Baniasadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth factor involved in cell growth and differentiation, is a small polypeptide with molecular weight of approximately 6 kDa known to be present in a number of different mammalian species. Experimental studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that the topical application of EGF accelerates the rate of epidermal regeneration of partial-thickness wounds and second-degree burns. Due to its commercial applications, Human EGF (hEGF) has been cloned in several forms. In the present study, adenoviral based expression system was used to produce biologically active recombinant hEGF. The presence of secreted recombinant hEGF was confirmed by a dot blot and its expression level was determined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Moreover, biological activity of secreted hEGF was evaluated by a proliferation assay performed on A549 cells. For production of hEGF in a secretory form, a chimeric gene coding for the hEGF fused to the signal peptide was expressed using adenoviral based method. This method enables the production of hEGF at the site of interest and moreover it could be used for cell proliferation and differentiation assays in tissue engineering research experiments instead of using commercially available EGF. PMID:27051431

  8. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-07-19

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  9. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose. PMID:27434682

  10. Functionalized nanoparticles for AMF-induced gene and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Souvik

    The properties and broad applications of nano-magnetic colloids have generated much interest in recent years. Specially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention since their magnetic properties can be used for hyperthermia treatment or drug targeting. For example, enhanced levels of intracellular gene delivery can be achieved using Fe3O4 nano-vectors in the presence of an external magnetic field, a process known as 'magnetofection'. The low cytotoxicity, tunable particle size, ease of surface functionalization, and ability to generate thermal energy using an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) are properties have propelled Fe3O4 research to the forefront of nanoparticle research. The strategy of nanoparticle-mediated, AMF-induced heat generation has been used to effect intracellular hyperthermia. One application of this 'magnetic hyperthermia' is heat activated local delivery of a therapeutic effector (e.g.; drug or polynucleotide). This thesis describes the development of a magnetic nano-vector for AMF-induced, heat-activated pDNA and small molecule delivery. The use of heat-inducible vectors, such as heat shock protein ( hsp) genes, is a promising mode of gene therapy that would restrict gene expression to a local region by focusing a heat stimulus only at a target region. We thus aimed to design an Fe3O4 nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer vehicle for AMF-induced localized gene expression. We opted to use 'click' oximation techniques to assemble the magnetic gene transfer vector. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis, characterization, and transfection studies of the oxime ether lipid-based nano-magnetic vectors MLP and dMLP. The synthesis and characterization of a novel series of quaternary ammonium aminooxy reagents (2.1--2.4) is described. These cationic aminooxy compounds were loaded onto nanoparticles for ligation with carbonyl groups and also to impart a net positive charge on the nanoparticle surface. Our studies indicated that the

  11. Magnetofection: A Reproducible Method for Gene Delivery to Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prosen, Lara; Prijic, Sara; Music, Branka; Lavrencak, Jaka; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Magnetofection is a nanoparticle-mediated approach for transfection of cells, tissues, and tumors. Specific interest is in using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as delivery system of therapeutic genes. Magnetofection has already been described in some proof-of-principle studies; however, fine tuning of the synthesis of SPIONs is necessary for its broader application. Physicochemical properties of SPIONs, synthesized by the co-precipitation in an alkaline aqueous medium, were tested after varying different parameters of the synthesis procedure. The storage time of iron(II) sulfate salt, the type of purified water, and the synthesis temperature did not affect physicochemical properties of SPIONs. Also, varying the parameters of the synthesis procedure did not influence magnetofection efficacy. However, for the pronounced gene expression encoded by plasmid DNA it was crucial to functionalize poly(acrylic) acid-stabilized SPIONs (SPIONs-PAA) with polyethyleneimine (PEI) without the adjustment of its elementary alkaline pH water solution to the physiological pH. In conclusion, the co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) sulfate salts with subsequent PAA stabilization, PEI functionalization, and plasmid DNA binding is a robust method resulting in a reproducible and efficient magnetofection. To achieve high gene expression is important, however, the pH of PEI water solution for SPIONs-PAA functionalization, which should be in the alkaline range. PMID:23862136

  12. Adenoviral Mediated Expression of BMP2 by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in 3D Copolymer Scaffolds Enhances Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunita; Sapkota, Dipak; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bruland, Ove; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Selection of appropriate osteoinductive growth factors, suitable delivery method and proper supportive scaffold are critical for a successful outcome in bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This study examined the molecular and functional effect of a combination of adenoviral mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in BMSC and recently developed and characterized, biodegradable Poly(L-lactide-co-є-caprolactone){poly(LLA-co-CL)}scaffolds in osteogenic molecular changes and ectopic bone formation by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Pathway-focused custom PCR array, validation using TaqMan based quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ALP staining showed significant up-regulation of several osteogenic and angiogenic molecules, including ALPL and RUNX2 in ad-BMP2 BMSC group grown in poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds both at 3 and 14 days. Micro CT and histological analyses of the subcutaneously implanted scaffolds in NOD/SCID mice revealed significantly increased radiopaque areas, percentage bone volume and formation of vital bone in ad-BMP2 scaffolds as compared to the control groups both at 2 and 8 weeks. The increased bone formation in the ad-BMP2 group in vivo was paralleled at the molecular level with concomitant over-expression of a number of osteogenic and angiogenic genes including ALPL, RUNX2, SPP1, ANGPT1. The increased bone formation in ad-BMP2 explants was not found to be associated with enhanced endochondral activity as evidenced by qRT-PCR (SOX9 and FGF2) and Safranin O staining. Taken together, combination of adenoviral mediated BMP-2 expression in BMSC grown in the newly developed poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds induced expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced bone formation in vivo. PMID:26808122

  13. Adenoviral Mediated Expression of BMP2 by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in 3D Copolymer Scaffolds Enhances Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunita; Sapkota, Dipak; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bruland, Ove; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Selection of appropriate osteoinductive growth factors, suitable delivery method and proper supportive scaffold are critical for a successful outcome in bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This study examined the molecular and functional effect of a combination of adenoviral mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in BMSC and recently developed and characterized, biodegradable Poly(L-lactide-co-є-caprolactone){poly(LLA-co-CL)}scaffolds in osteogenic molecular changes and ectopic bone formation by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Pathway-focused custom PCR array, validation using TaqMan based quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ALP staining showed significant up-regulation of several osteogenic and angiogenic molecules, including ALPL and RUNX2 in ad-BMP2 BMSC group grown in poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds both at 3 and 14 days. Micro CT and histological analyses of the subcutaneously implanted scaffolds in NOD/SCID mice revealed significantly increased radiopaque areas, percentage bone volume and formation of vital bone in ad-BMP2 scaffolds as compared to the control groups both at 2 and 8 weeks. The increased bone formation in the ad-BMP2 group in vivo was paralleled at the molecular level with concomitant over-expression of a number of osteogenic and angiogenic genes including ALPL, RUNX2, SPP1, ANGPT1. The increased bone formation in ad-BMP2 explants was not found to be associated with enhanced endochondral activity as evidenced by qRT-PCR (SOX9 and FGF2) and Safranin O staining. Taken together, combination of adenoviral mediated BMP-2 expression in BMSC grown in the newly developed poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds induced expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced bone formation in vivo. PMID:26808122

  14. Design of novel polysaccharidic nanostructures for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente, M.; Seijo, B.; Alonso, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of the present work was to develop a new synthetic nanosystem for gene delivery. For this purpose, we chose two polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan (CS), as the main components of the nanocarrier. Nanoparticles with different hyaluronate:chitosan (HA:CS) mass ratios (0.5:1 and 1:1) and different polymer molecular weights (hyaluronate 170 (HA) or <10 kDa (HAO) and chitosan 125 (CS) or 10-12 (CSO) kDa) could be obtained using an ionic crosslinking method. These nanoparticles were loaded with pDNA and characterized for their size, zeta potential and pDNA association efficiency. Moreover, their toxicity and ability to transfect the model plasmid pEGFP-C1 were evaluated in the cell line HEK 293, as well as their intracellular fate. The results showed that HA:CS nanoparticles have a small size in the range of 110-230 nm, a positive zeta potential of +10 to +32 mV and a very high pDNA association efficiency of 87-99% (w/w). On the other hand, nanoparticles exhibited low cell toxicity and transfection levels up to 25% GFP expressing HEK 293 cells, lasting for the whole observation period of 10 days. We also provide basic information about the role of both polymers, HA and CS, and the effect of their molecular weight on the effectiveness of the resulting DNA nanocarrier, being the highest transfection levels observed with HAO:CSO 1:1 nanoparticles. In conclusion, HA:CS nanoparticles are promising carriers for gene delivery.

  15. Biological delivery approaches for gene therapy: strategies to potentiate efficacy and enhance specificity.

    PubMed

    Mohit, Elham; Rafati, Sima

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays many therapeutic agents such as suicide genes, anti-angiogenesis agents, cytokines, chemokines and other therapeutic genes were delivered to cancer cells. Various biological delivery systems have been applied for directing therapeutic gene to target cells. Some of these successful preclinical studies, steps forward to clinical trials and a few are examined in phase III clinical trials. In this review, the biological gene delivery systems were categorized into microorganism and cell based delivery systems. Viral, bacterial, yeast and parasite are among microorganism based delivery systems which are expanded in this review. In cell based approach, different strategies such as tumor cells, stem cells, dendritic cells and sertoli cells will be discussed. Different drawbacks are associated with each delivery system; therefore, many strategies have been improved and potentiated their direction toward specific target cells. Herein, further to the principle of each delivery system, the progresses of these approaches for development of newer generation are discussed.

  16. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Efficient Drug and Gene Delivery Systems: Recent Breakthroughs

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely applied as advanced drug and gene delivery nanosystems. Among them, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted great attention as colloidal drug delivery systems for incorporating hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs and various macromolecules as well as proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, SLNs offer great promise for controlled and site specific drug and gene delivery. This article includes general information about SLN structures and properties, production procedures, characterization. In addition, recent progress on development of drug and gene delivery systems using SLNs was reviewed. PMID:26236652

  17. Therapeutic immunisation with COPV early genes by epithelial DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard A; Walcott, Sarah; White, Kate L; Anderson, Davina M; Jain, Suchitra; Lloyd, Andrew; Topley, Peter; Thomsen, Lindy; Gough, Gerald W; Stanley, Margaret A

    2003-09-30

    Following challenge with COPV (canine oral papillomavirus), DNA plasmids encoding COPV L1, E1 or E2 protein were delivered into oral mucosal and cutaneous sites in beagles using particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery (PMID). Two weeks post-challenge, a priming dose of 8 microg DNA was delivered followed by a booster dose after a further two weeks. A group of control dogs were vaccinated using plasmid DNA encoding Hepatitis B virus surface (HBVs) gene. All of the control animals developed warts at the vast majority of sites (94%). All of the animals given wild type L1, E1, or E2 developed warts at most sites (88%, 75%, and 88%, respectively). The animals given codon optimised E2 however, were protected from wart growth with only one tiny lesion seen on a single animal that persisted for only a few days. The E1 codon optimised group was also significantly protected with a far lower number of smaller warts (48%) that persisted for a shorter duration. These data suggest that therapeutic immunisation by PMID with papillomavirus early genes is effective and emphasizes the importance of antigen load in the generation of protective responses to papillomavirus proteins. PMID:14554090

  18. A sight on the current nanoparticle-based gene delivery vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, gene delivery for therapeutic objects is considered one of the most promising strategies to cure both the genetic and acquired diseases of human. The design of efficient gene delivery vectors possessing the high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicity is considered the major challenge for delivering a target gene to specific tissues or cells. On this base, the investigations on non-viral gene vectors with the ability to overcome physiological barriers are increasing. Among the non-viral vectors, nanoparticles showed remarkable properties regarding gene delivery such as the ability to target the specific tissue or cells, protect target gene against nuclease degradation, improve DNA stability, and increase the transformation efficiency or safety. This review attempts to represent a current nanoparticle based on its lipid, polymer, hybrid, and inorganic properties. Among them, hybrids, as efficient vectors, are utilized in gene delivery in terms of materials (synthetic or natural), design, and in vitro/in vivo transformation efficiency. PMID:24936161

  19. A sight on the current nanoparticle-based gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Jafari, Samira; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, gene delivery for therapeutic objects is considered one of the most promising strategies to cure both the genetic and acquired diseases of human. The design of efficient gene delivery vectors possessing the high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicity is considered the major challenge for delivering a target gene to specific tissues or cells. On this base, the investigations on non-viral gene vectors with the ability to overcome physiological barriers are increasing. Among the non-viral vectors, nanoparticles showed remarkable properties regarding gene delivery such as the ability to target the specific tissue or cells, protect target gene against nuclease degradation, improve DNA stability, and increase the transformation efficiency or safety. This review attempts to represent a current nanoparticle based on its lipid, polymer, hybrid, and inorganic properties. Among them, hybrids, as efficient vectors, are utilized in gene delivery in terms of materials (synthetic or natural), design, and in vitro/ in vivo transformation efficiency.

  20. Production of first generation adenoviral vectors for preclinical protocols: amplification, purification and functional titration.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Bastidas-Ramírez, Blanca Estela; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Ana; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Gómez-Meda, Belinda; García-Bañuelos, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach in the treatment of several diseases. Currently, the ideal vector has yet to be designed; though, adenoviral vectors (Ad-v) have provided the most utilized tool for gene transfer due principally to their simple production, among other specific characteristics. Ad-v viability represents a critical variable that may be affected by storage or shipping conditions and therefore it is advisable to be assessed previously to protocol performance. The present work is unique in this matter, as the complete detailed process to obtain Ad-v of preclinical grade is explained. Amplification in permissive HEK-293 cells, purification in CsCl gradients in a period of 10 h, spectrophotometric titration of viral particles (VP) and titration of infectious units (IU), yielding batches of AdβGal, AdGFP, AdHuPA and AdMMP8, of approximately 10¹³-10¹⁴ VP and 10¹²-10¹³ IU were carried out. In vivo functionality of therapeutic AdHuPA and AdMMP8 was evidenced in rats presenting CCl₄-induced fibrosis, as more than 60% of fibrosis was eliminated in livers after systemic delivery through iliac vein in comparison with irrelevant AdβGal. Time required to accomplish the whole Ad-v production steps, including IU titration was 20 to 30 days. We conclude that production of Ad-v following standard operating procedures assuring vector functionality and the possibility to effectively evaluate experimental gene therapy results, leaving aside the use of high-cost commercial kits or sophisticated instrumentation, can be performed in a conventional laboratory of cell culture.

  1. PLGA Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Delivery to Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Marxa; Esenaliev, Rinat

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on novel approaches in the field of nanotechnology-based carriers utilizing ultrasound stimuli as a means to spatially target gene delivery in vivo, using nanoparticles made with either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or other polymers. We specifically discuss the potential for gene delivery by particles that are echogenic (amenable to destruction by ultrasound) composed either of polymers (PLGA, polystyrene) or other contrast agent materials (Optison, SonoVue microbubbles). The use of ultrasound is an efficient tool to further enhance gene delivery by PLGA or other echogenic particles in vivo. Echogenic PLGA nanoparticles are an attractive strategy for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery since this polymer is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for drug delivery and diagnostics in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and also other applications such as vaccines and tissue engineering. This paper will review recent successes and the potential of applying PLGA nanoparticles for gene delivery, which include (a) echogenic PLGA used with ultrasound to enhance local gene delivery in tumors or muscle and (b) PLGA nanoparticles currently under development, which could benefit in the future from ultrasound-enhanced tumor targeted gene delivery. PMID:22506124

  2. Generation of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Toietta, Gabriele; Pastore, Lucio; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Finegold, Milton; Beaudet, Arthur L; Lee, Brendan

    2002-02-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HD-Ad) represent a potentially valuable tool for safe and prolonged gene expression in vivo. The current approach for generating these vectors is based on ligation of the expression cassette into large plasmids containing the viral inverted terminal repeats flanking "stuffer" DNA to maintain a final size above the lower limit for efficient packaging into the adenovirus capsid (approximately 28 kb). The ligation to produce the viral plasmid is generally very inefficient. Similar problems in producing first-generation adenoviral (FG-Ad) vectors were circumvented with the development of a system taking advantage of efficient homologous recombination between a shuttle plasmid containing the expression cassette and a FG-Ad vector backbone in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183. Here we describe a method for fast and efficient generation of HD-Ad vector plasmids that can accommodate expression cassettes of any size up to 35 kb. To validate the system, we generated a HD-Ad vector expressing the fusion protein between beta-galactosidase and neomycin resistance genes under the control of the SR alpha promoter, and one expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The viruses were rescued and tested in vitro and for in vivo expression in mice. The data collected indicate the possibility for achieving a high level of hepatocyte transduction using HD-Ad vectors derived from plasmids obtained by homologous recombination in E. coli, with no significant alteration of liver enzymes and a less severe, transient thrombocytopenia in comparison with previous reports with similar doses of a FG-Ad vector. PMID:11829528

  3. An efficient method for in vitro gene delivery via regulation of cellular endocytosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Li, Caixia; Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Gang; Gao, Rong; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Transfection efficiency was the primary goal for in vitro gene delivery mediated by nonviral gene carriers. Here, we report a modified gene transfection method that could greatly increase the efficiency of, and accelerate the process mediated by, 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in a broad range of cell strains, including tumor, normal, primary, and embryonic stem cells. In this method, the combination of transfection procedure with optimized complexation volume had a determinant effect on gene delivery result. The superiorities of the method were found to be related to the change of cellular endocytosis pathway and decrease of particle size. The efficient and simple method established in this study can be widely used for in vitro gene delivery into cultured cells. We think it may also be applicable for many more nonviral gene delivery materials than polyethyleneimine and liposome. PMID:25767387

  4. Nonviral gene delivery systems by the combination of bubble liposomes and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Omata, Daiki; Negishi, Yoichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of therapeutic ultrasound (US) and nano/microbubbles is an important system for establishing a novel and noninvasive gene delivery system. Genes are delivered more efficiently using this system compared with a conventional nonviral vector system such as the lipofection method, resulting in higher gene expression. This higher efficiency is due to the gene being delivered into the cytosol and bypassing the endocytosis pathway. Many in vivo studies have demonstrated US-mediated gene delivery with nano/microbubbles, and several gene therapy feasibility studies for various diseases have been reported. In addition, nano/microbubbles can deliver genes site specifically by the control of US exposure site. In the present review, we summarize the gene delivery systems by the combination of nano/microbubbles and US, describe their properties, and assess applications and challenges of US theranostics.

  5. Nonviral gene delivery to the rat kidney with polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Boletta, A; Benigni, A; Lutz, J; Remuzzi, G; Soria, M R; Monaco, L

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a nonviral method for gene delivery to the rat kidney. To this purpose, a panel of reagents was tested, including a monocationic lipid, DOTAP, a polycationic lipid, DOGS (or Transfectam), and three different forms of the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI). A comparison among these compounds was performed in vivo, using luciferase as reporter gene. Complexes containing 10 microg of DNA were injected into the left renal artery of rats and allowed to remain in contact with the kidney for 10 min. Forty-eight hours later, luciferase expression levels in kidney extracts were measured. Kidneys injected with DNA complexed to the branched, 25-kD PEI polymer (PEI 25k) yielded activity levels significantly higher than control, sham-operated kidneys (2.7 x 10(4) vs. 5.2 x 10(3) RLU/kidney, respectively), whereas the other transfecting agents did not yield significant activity over controls. PEI 25k was therefore chosen for further optimization of transfection conditions. Dose-dependent luciferase expression was shown for 10, 50, and 100 microg of PEI-complexed DNA, reaching maximal levels of 2.4 x 10(5) RLU/kidney at 100 microg DNA. The optimal PEI nitrogen/DNA phosphate molar ratio was 10 equivalents. Luciferase activity peaked at 2 days, was still significantly higher than controls at 7 days, and was undetectable at 14 days post-injection. Using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a reporter, transgene expression was localized almost exclusively in proximal tubular cells.

  6. Discovery of Cationic Polymers for Non-viral Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Sutapa; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Taylor, David; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Montanez, Gabriela; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive treatment option for diseases of genetic origin, including several cancers and cardiovascular diseases. While viruses are effective vectors for delivering exogenous genes to cells, concerns related to insertional mutagenesis, immunogenicity, lack of tropism, decay and high production costs necessitate the discovery of non-viral methods. Significant efforts have been focused on cationic polymers as non-viral alternatives for gene delivery. Recent studies have employed combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening methods for enhancing the efficacy of gene delivery, biocompatibility of the delivery vehicle, and overcoming cellular level barriers as they relate to polymer-mediated transgene uptake, transport, transcription, and expression. This review summarizes and discusses recent advances in combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening of cationic polymer libraries for the discovery of efficient and safe gene delivery systems. PMID:21843141

  7. Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Kai K.; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Leal, Cecília

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are studied worldwide as carriers of DNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA) for gene delivery and gene silencing, and related clinical trials are ongoing. Optimization of transfection efficiency and silencing efficiency by cationic liposome carriers requires a comprehensive understanding of the structures of CL–nucleic acid complexes and the nature of their interactions with cell membranes as well as events leading to release of active nucleic acids within the cytoplasm. Synchrotron x-ray scattering has revealed that CL–nucleic acid complexes spontaneously assemble into distinct liquid crystalline phases including the lamellar, inverse hexagonal, hexagonal, and gyroid cubic phases, and fluorescence microscopy has revealed CL–DNA pathways and interactions with cells. The combining of custom synthesis with characterization techniques and gene expression and silencing assays has begun to unveil structure–function relations in vitro. As a recent example, this review will briefly describe experiments with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL–DNA nanoparticles. The functionalization, which is achieved through custom synthesis, is intended to address and overcome cell targeting and endosomal escape barriers to nucleic acid delivery faced by PEGylated nanoparticles designed for in vivo applications. PMID:25587216

  8. Acidity-Activated Shielding Strategies of Cationic Gene Delivery for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jialiang; Feng, Zongcai; Yang, Hongyan; Lin, Sanqing; Han, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Cationic gene vectors increased attractive for gene therapy. However, unstable systemic circulation due to the interaction of gene delivery system with blood cells limited the further application. Therefore, pH sensitive shielding systems were exploited, by which, the positive surface charge density of polyplexes was reduced, circulation time was improved and pH-triggered targeting delivery was promised. This mini review mainly focuses on the development of solid tumors pH environment activated shielding systems for cationic gene vectors. This shielding strategy shows great potential for enhancing efficient gene transporting and achieving better therapeutic effects in acidic tumor treatment.

  9. Delivery of nucleic acids for cancer gene therapy: overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers.

    PubMed

    McErlean, Emma M; McCrudden, Cian M; McCarthy, Helen O

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic potential of cancer gene therapy has been limited by the difficulty of delivering genetic material to target sites. Various biological and molecular barriers exist which need to be overcome before effective nonviral delivery systems can be applied successfully in oncology. Herein, various barriers are described and strategies to circumvent such obstacles are discussed, considering both the extracellular and intracellular setting. Development of multifunctional delivery systems holds much promise for the progression of gene delivery, and a growing body of evidence supports this approach involving rational design of vectors, with a unique molecular architecture. In addition, the potential application of composite gene delivery platforms is highlighted which may provide an alternative delivery strategy to traditional systemic administration. PMID:27582234

  10. Current Progress in Gene Delivery Technology Based on Chemical Methods and Nano-carriers

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lian; Zeng, Xin; Liu, Ming; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue

    2014-01-01

    Gene transfer methods are promising in the field of gene therapy. Current methods for gene transfer include three major groups: viral, physical and chemical methods. This review mainly summarizes development of several types of chemical methods for gene transfer in vitro and in vivo by means of nano-carriers like; calcium phosphates, lipids, and cationic polymers including chitosan, polyethylenimine, polyamidoamine dendrimers, and poly(lactide-co-glycolide). This review also briefly introduces applications of these chemical methods for gene delivery. PMID:24505233

  11. Novel endosomolytic peptides for enhancing gene delivery in nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Zhang, Weikai; Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2015-02-01

    Trapping in the endosomes is currently believed to represent the main barrier for transfection. Peptides, which allow endosomal escape have been demonstrated to overcome this barrier, similarly to the entry of viruses. However, the design principles of such endosomolytic peptides remain unclear. We characterized three analogs derived from membrane disrupting antimicrobial peptides (AMP), viz. LL-37, melittin, and bombolitin V, with glutamic acid substituting for all basic residues. These analogs are pH-sensitive and cause negligible membrane permeabilization and insignificant cytotoxicity at pH7.4. However, at pH5.0, prevailing in endosomes, membrane binding and hemolysis of human erythrocytes become evident. We first condensed the emerald green fluorescent protein (emGFP) containing plasmid by protamine, yielding 115 nm diameter soluble nanoplexes. For coating of the nanoplex surface with a lipid bilayer we introduced a hydrophobic tether, stearyl-octa-arginine (SR8). The indicated peptides were dissolved in methanol and combined with lipid mixtures in chloroform, followed by drying at RT under a nitrogen flow. The dry residues were hydrated with nanoplexes in Hepes, pH7.4 yielding after a 30 min incubation at RT,rather monodisperse nanoparticles having an average diameter of 150-300 nm, measured by DLS and cryo-TEM. Studies with cell cultures showed the above peptides to yield expression levels comparable to those obtained using Lipofectamine 2000. However, unlike the polydisperse aggregates formed upon mixing Lipofectamine 2000 and plasmid, the procedure described yields soluble, and reasonably monodisperse nanoparticles, which can be expected to be suitable for gene delivery in vivo, using intravenous injection. PMID:25445677

  12. Complexation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in gene delivery and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklovskii, Boris

    2009-03-01

    Charge inversion of a DNA double helix by a positively charged flexible polymer (polyelectrolyte) is widely used to facilitate DNA contact with negative cell membranes for gene delivery. Motivated by this application in the first part of the talk I study the phase diagram a solution of long polyanions (PA) with a shorter polycations (PC) as a function the ratio of total charges of PC and PA in the solution, x, and the concentration of monovalent salt. Each PA attracts many PCs to form a complex. When x= 1, the complexes are neutral and condense in a macroscopic drop. When x is far away from 1, complexes are strongly charged and stable. PA are overcharged by PC at x > 1 and undercharged by PC at x < 1. As x approaches 1, PCs attached to PA disproportionate between complexes. Some complexes become neutral and condensed in a macroscopic drop while others become even stronger charged and stay free. The second part of the talk deals with biological example of PA -PC complexes namely self-assembly of vegetable viruses from long ss-RNA molecule paying role of scaffold and identical capsid proteins with long positive tails. I show that optimization Coulomb energy of the virus leads to the charge of RNA twice larger than the total charge of the capsid, in agreement with the experimental data. Then I discuss kinetics of the Coulomb complexation driven virus self-assembly. Capsid proteins stick to unassembled chain of ss RNA (which we call ``antenna'') and slide on it towards the assembly site. I show that at excess of capsid proteins such one-dimensional diffusion accelerates self-assembly more than ten times. On the other hand at excess of ss-RNA, antenna slows self-assembly down. Several experiments are proposed to verify the role of ss-RNA antenna in self-assembly.

  13. Effects of Fibrotic Tissue on Liver-targeted Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Kamimura, Kenya; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kohei; Shinagawa-Kobayashi, Yoko; Goto, Ryo; Inoue, Ryosuke; Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Suda, Takeshi; Tsuchida, Masanori; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Zhang, Guisheng; Liu, Dexi; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamic gene delivery is a common method for gene transfer to the liver of small animals, and its clinical applicability in large animals has been demonstrated. Previous studies focused on functional analyses of therapeutic genes in animals with normal livers and little, however, is known regarding its effectiveness and safety in animals with liver fibrosis. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of liver fibrosis on hydrodynamic gene delivery efficiency using a rat liver fibrosis model. We demonstrated for the first time, using pCMV-Luc plasmid, that this procedure is safe and that the amount of fibrotic tissue in the liver decreases gene delivery efficiency, resulting in decrease in luciferase activity depending on the volume of fibrotic tissue in the liver and the number of hepatocytes that are immunohistochemically stained positive for transgene product. We further demonstrate that antifibrotic gene therapy with matrix metalloproteinase-13 gene reduces liver fibrosis and improves efficiency of hydrodynamic gene delivery. These results demonstrate the negative effects of fibrotic tissue on hydrodynamic gene delivery and its recovery by appropriate antifibrotic therapy. PMID:27574785

  14. Effects of Fibrotic Tissue on Liver-targeted Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Kamimura, Kenya; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kohei; Shinagawa-Kobayashi, Yoko; Goto, Ryo; Inoue, Ryosuke; Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Suda, Takeshi; Tsuchida, Masanori; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Zhang, Guisheng; Liu, Dexi; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamic gene delivery is a common method for gene transfer to the liver of small animals, and its clinical applicability in large animals has been demonstrated. Previous studies focused on functional analyses of therapeutic genes in animals with normal livers and little, however, is known regarding its effectiveness and safety in animals with liver fibrosis. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of liver fibrosis on hydrodynamic gene delivery efficiency using a rat liver fibrosis model. We demonstrated for the first time, using pCMV-Luc plasmid, that this procedure is safe and that the amount of fibrotic tissue in the liver decreases gene delivery efficiency, resulting in decrease in luciferase activity depending on the volume of fibrotic tissue in the liver and the number of hepatocytes that are immunohistochemically stained positive for transgene product. We further demonstrate that antifibrotic gene therapy with matrix metalloproteinase-13 gene reduces liver fibrosis and improves efficiency of hydrodynamic gene delivery. These results demonstrate the negative effects of fibrotic tissue on hydrodynamic gene delivery and its recovery by appropriate antifibrotic therapy. PMID:27574785

  15. Biodegradable poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymers for targeted gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangbing; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christopher J.; Patel, Toral R.; Weller, Caroline E.; Piepmeier, Joseph M.; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Many synthetic polycationic vectors for non-viral gene delivery show high efficiency in vitro, but their usually excessive charge density makes them toxic for in vivo applications. Here we describe the synthesis of a series of high molecular weight terpolymers with low charge density, and show that they exhibit efficient gene delivery, some surpassing the efficiency of the commercial transfection reagents Polyethylenimine and Lipofectamine 2000. The terpolymers were synthesized via enzyme-catalyzed copolymerization of lactone with dialkyl diester and amino diol, and their hydrophobicity adjusted by varying the lactone content and by selecting a lactone comonomer of specific ring size. Targeted delivery of the pro-apoptotic TRAIL gene to tumour xenografts by one of the terpolymers results in significant inhibition of tumour growth, with minimal toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that the gene delivery ability of the terpolymers stems from their high molecular weight and increased hydrophobicity, which compensates for their low charge density.

  16. A visible, targeted high-efficiency gene delivery and transfection strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To enhance myocardial angiogenic gene expression, a novel gene delivery strategy was tested. Direct intramyocardial injection of an angiogenic gene with microbubbles and insonation were applied in a dog animal model. Dogs received one of the four different treatments in conjunction with either the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene: gene with microbubbles (MB) and ultrasound (US); gene with US; gene with MB; or the gene alone. Results Distribution of MB and the gene in the myocardium was visualized during the experiment. Compared with the EGFP gene group, an average 14.7-fold enhancement in gene expression was achieved in the EGFP+MB/US group (P < 0.01). Compared with the HGF gene group, an average 10.7-fold enhancement in gene expression was achieved in the HGF+MB/US group (P < 0.01). In addition, capillary density increased from 20.8 ± 3.4/mm2 in the HGF gene group to 146.7 ± 31.4/mm2 in HGF+MB/US group (P < 0.01). Conclusions Thus, direct intramyocardial injection of an angiogenic gene in conjunction with microbubbles plus insonation synergistically enhances angiogenesis. This method offers an observable gene delivery procedure with enhanced expression efficiency of the delivered gene. PMID:21600027

  17. Nanocarrier-mediated co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and gene agents for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lin; Gao, Zhonggao; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming

    2015-05-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug in cancer treatment is often hampered by drug resistance of tumor cells, which is usually caused by abnormal gene expression. RNA interference mediated by siRNA and miRNA can selectively knock down the carcinogenic genes by targeting specific mRNAs. Therefore, combining chemotherapeutic drugs with gene agents could be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Due to poor stability and solubility associated with gene agents and drugs, suitable protective carriers are needed and have been widely researched for the co-delivery. In this review, we summarize the most commonly used nanocarriers for co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and gene agents, as well as the advances in co-delivery systems. PMID:26579443

  18. Nanocarrier-mediated co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and gene agents for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lin; Gao, Zhonggao; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug in cancer treatment is often hampered by drug resistance of tumor cells, which is usually caused by abnormal gene expression. RNA interference mediated by siRNA and miRNA can selectively knock down the carcinogenic genes by targeting specific mRNAs. Therefore, combining chemotherapeutic drugs with gene agents could be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Due to poor stability and solubility associated with gene agents and drugs, suitable protective carriers are needed and have been widely researched for the co-delivery. In this review, we summarize the most commonly used nanocarriers for co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and gene agents, as well as the advances in co-delivery systems. PMID:26579443

  19. A cost-effective method to enhance adenoviral transduction of primary murine osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Buo, Atum M; Williams, Mark S; Kerr, Jaclyn P; Stains, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    We report here a method for the use of poly-l-lysine (PLL) to markedly improve the adenoviral transduction efficiency of primary murine osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in culture and in situ, which are typically difficult to transduce. We show by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry that the addition of PLL to the viral-containing medium significantly increases the number of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive osteoblasts and BMSCs transduced with an enhanced GFP-expressing adenovirus. We also demonstrate that PLL can greatly enhance the adenoviral transduction of osteoblasts and osteocytes in situ in ex vivo tibia and calvaria, as well as in long bone fragments. In addition, we validate that PLL can improve routine adenoviral transduction studies by permitting the use of low multiplicities of infection to obtain the desired biologic effect. Ultimately, the use of PLL to facilitate adenoviral gene transfer in osteogenic cells can provide a cost-effective means of performing efficient gene transfer studies in the context of bone research. PMID:27547486

  20. Asialoglycoprotein Receptor-Mediated Gene Delivery to Hepatocytes Using Galactosylated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Bindu; Kumar, Piyush; Zeng, Hongbo; Narain, Ravin

    2015-09-14

    Highly efficient, specific, and nontoxic gene delivery vector is required for gene therapy to the liver. Hepatocytes exclusively express asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which can recognize and bind to galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine. Galactosylated polymers are therefore explored for targeted gene delivery to the liver. A library of safe and stable galactose-based glycopolymers that can specifically deliver genes to hepatocytes were synthesized having different architectures, compositions, and molecular weights via the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process. The physical and chemical properties of these polymers have a great impact on gene delivery efficacy into hepatocytes, as such block copolymers are found to form more stable complexes with plasmid and have high gene delivery efficiency into ASGPR expressing hepatocytes. Transfection efficiency and uptake of polyplexes with these polymers decreased significantly by preincubation of hepatocytes with free asialofetuin or by adding free asialofetuin together with polyplexes into hepatocytes. The results confirmed that polyplexes with these polymers were taken up specifically by hepatocytes via ASGPR-mediated endocytosis. The results from transfection efficiency and uptake of these polymers in cells without ASGPR, such as SK Hep1 and HeLa cells, further support this mechanism. Since in vitro cytotoxicity assays prove these glycopolymers to be nontoxic, they may be useful for delivery of clinically important genes specifically to the liver.

  1. Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Liu, Dexi

    2013-01-01

    Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 40–65 kg) using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume) are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human α-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:24129227

  2. Portal Vein Delivery of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy for Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Alexandra; Schlachterman, Alexander; Cooper, Mario; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Raymer, Robin A.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Nichols, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a very complex organ with a large variety of functions, making it an attractive organ for gene replacement therapy. Many genetic disorders can be corrected by delivering gene products directly into the liver using viral vectors. In this chapter, we will describe gene delivery via portal vein administration in mice and dogs to correct the blood coagulation disorder hemophilia B. Although there are multiple delivery routes for both viral and non-viral vectors in animals, portal vein administration delivers vectors directly and efficiently into the liver. Complete correction of murine hemophilia B and multi-year near-correction of canine hemophilia B have been achieved following portal vein delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing factor IX from hepatocyte-specific promoters. Peripheral vein injection can lead to increased vector dissemination to off-target organ such as the lung and spleen. Below, we will describe portal vein injection delivery route via laparotomy. PMID:24557919

  3. Hydroxyl PAMAM dendrimer-based gene vectors for transgene delivery to human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Wu, Tony; Song, Eric; Hanes, Justin; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2015-02-01

    Ocular gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of numerous blinding disorders. Despite the significant progress in the field of viral and non-viral gene delivery to the eye, significant obstacles remain in the way of achieving high-level transgene expression without adverse effects. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and is a key target for a number of gene-based therapeutics. In this study, we addressed the inherent drawbacks of non-viral gene vectors and combined different approaches to design an efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene-delivery platform for delivery to human RPE cells. We used hydroxyl-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with various amounts of amine groups to achieve effective plasmid compaction. We further used triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as a nuclear localization enhancer for the dendrimer-gene complex and achieved significant improvement in cell uptake and transfection of hard-to-transfect human RPE cells. To improve colloidal stability, we further shielded the gene vector surface through incorporation of PEGylated dendrimer along with dendrimer-TA for DNA complexation. The resultant complexes showed improved stability while minimally affecting transgene delivery, thus improving the translational relevance of this platform.Ocular gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of numerous blinding disorders. Despite the significant progress in the field of viral and non-viral gene delivery to the eye, significant obstacles remain in the way of achieving high-level transgene expression without adverse effects. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and is a key target for a number of gene-based therapeutics. In this study, we addressed the inherent drawbacks of non-viral gene vectors and combined different approaches to design an efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene-delivery platform for delivery to human RPE

  4. Bioplex technology: novel synthetic gene delivery pharmaceutical based on peptides anchored to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Oscar E; Svahn, Mathias G; Törnquist, Elisabeth; Lundin, Karin E; Smith, C I E

    2005-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery is an important approach in order to establish safe in vivo gene therapy in the clinic. Although viral vectors currently exhibit superior gene transfer efficacy, the safety aspect of viral gene delivery is a concern. In order to improve non-viral in vivo gene delivery we have designed a pharmaceutical platform called Bioplex (biological complex). The concept of Bioplex is to link functional entities via hybridising anchors, such as Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA), directly to naked DNA. In order to promote delivery functional entities consisting of biologically active peptides or carbohydrates, are linked to the PNA anchor. The PNA acts as genetic glue and hybridises with DNA in a sequence specific manner. By using functional entities, which elicit receptor-mediated endocytosis, improved endosomal escape and enhance nuclear entry we wish to improve the transfer of genetic material into the cell. An important aspect is that the functional entities should also have tissue-targeting properties in vivo. Examples of functional entities investigated to date are the Simian virus 40 nuclear localisation signal to improve nuclear uptake and different carbohydrate ligands in order to achieve receptor specific uptake. The delivery system is also endowed with regulatory capability, since the release of functional entities can be controlled. The aim is to create a safe, pharmaceutically defined and stable delivery system for nucleic acids with enhanced transfection properties that can be used in the clinic.

  5. Rapid titration of adenoviral infectivity by flow cytometry in batch culture of infected HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Gueret, Vincent; Negrete-Virgen, Juan A; Lyddiatt, Andrew; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    There is a constant and growing interest in exploitingadenoviruses as vectors for gene therapy when transientexpression of a therapeutic protein is necessary. Therequirement for an increased viral titre has prompted asearch for techniques by which this virus may be assayedwith greater speed and simplicity. Conventional plaqueassay for quantification of adenoviral vectors titre incurrent use is laborious and time-consuming (up to 14days). We report herein a method for the monitoring ofadenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein thatincorporates rapid and easy sample handling by means offlow cytometric analysis. Cells (HEK293) were infectedwith adenovirus at various multiplicity of infection(MOI), harvested 17 to 20 h post infection and analysedby flow cytometry. Assumptions were made that onefluorescent cell was infected by a single infectiousparticle at a relatively low MOI. The adenoviral titrewas subsequently estimated from cell analysis in arelatively short time. The results obtained with an E1-complementing cell line (HEK293) were compared with thatobtained using a non-complementing cell line (A549). APoisson distribution successfully modelled the profile ofinfection as a function of MOI. This provided a betterunderstanding of adenoviral infection at the earlieststage possible. Monitoring of GFP fluorescence and viruspropagation in a batch culture of infected cells wassubsequently used as a practical application of thevalidated method.

  6. Microbubbles in Ultrasound-Triggered Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hernot, Sophie; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles, are becoming popular in perfusion monitoring; they are employed as molecular imaging agents. Microbubbles are manufactured from biocompatible materials, they can be injected intravenously, and some are approved for clinical use. Microbubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound irradiation. This destruction phenomenon can be applied to targeted drug delivery and enhancement of drug action. The ultrasonic field can be focused at the target tissues and organs; thus, selectivity of the treatment can be improved, reducing undesirable side effects. Microbubbles enhance ultrasound energy deposition in the tissues and serve as cavitation nuclei, increasing intracellular drug delivery. DNA delivery and successful tissue transfection is observed in the areas of the body where ultrasound is applied after intravascular administration of microbubbles and plasmid DNA. Accelerated blood clot dissolution in the areas of insonation by cooperative action of thrombolytic agents and microbubbles is demonstrated in several clinical trials. PMID:18486268

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  8. Up-Scaled Synthesis and Characterization of Nonviral Gene Delivery Particles for Transient In Vitro and In Vivo Transgene Expression.

    PubMed

    Taschauer, Alexander; Geyer, Antonia; Gehrig, Sebastian; Maier, Julia; Sami, Haider; Ogris, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylenimine-based polyplexes are promising nonviral gene delivery systems for preclinical and clinical applications. Pipette-based polyplexing is associated with several disadvantages, such as batch-to-batch variability, restriction to smaller volumes, and variable gene delivery results. The present protocol describes syringe-pump-mediated upscaled synthesis of well-defined gene delivery nanoparticles capable of efficient in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. Syringe-pump-based synthesis ensures controlled mixing, upscaling, and reproducible gene delivery. Nanoparticle tracking analysis of the upscaled formulations involved single nanoparticle tracking, thereby generating highly resolved biophysical characterization. Gene delivery performance was investigated by luciferase gene expression in cells and three-dimensional bioluminescence imaging in mice. PMID:27169568

  9. Cationic liposome-nucleic acid nanoparticle assemblies with applications in gene delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey N; Ewert, Kai K; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-07-28

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are synthetic carriers of nucleic acids in gene delivery and gene silencing therapeutics. The introduction will describe the structures of distinct liquid crystalline phases of CL-nucleic acid complexes, which were revealed in earlier synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. When mixed with plasmid DNA, CLs containing lipids with distinct shapes spontaneously undergo topological transitions into self-assembled lamellar, inverse hexagonal, and hexagonal CL-DNA phases. CLs containing cubic phase lipids are observed to readily mix with short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules creating double gyroid CL-siRNA phases for gene silencing. Custom synthesis of multivalent lipids and a range of novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids with attached targeting ligands and hydrolysable moieties have led to functionalized equilibrium nanoparticles (NPs) optimized for cell targeting, uptake or endosomal escape. Very recent experiments are described with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL-DNA NPs, including fluorescence microscopy colocalization with members of the Rab family of GTPases, which directly reveal interactions with cell membranes and NP pathways. In vitro optimization of CL-DNA and CL-siRNA NPs with relevant primary cancer cells is expected to impact nucleic acid therapeutics in vivo. This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298431

  10. Polymeric Carriers for Gene Delivery: Chitosan and Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingxing; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Pack, Daniel Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is a potential medical solution that promises new treatments and may hold the cure for many different types of diseases and disorders of the human race. However, gene therapy is still a growing medical field and the technology is still in its infancy. The main challenge for gene therapy is to find safe and effective vectors that are able to deliver genes to the specific cells and get them to express inside the cells. Due to safety concerns, synthetic delivery systems, rather than viral vectors, are preferred for gene delivery and significant efforts have been focused on the development of this field. However, we are faced with problems like low gene transfer efficiency, cytotoxicity and lack of cell-targeting capability for these synthetic delivery systems. Over the years, we have seen a variety of new and effective polymers which have been designed and synthesized specifically for gene delivery. Moreover, various strategies that aimed at enhancing their physicochemical properties, improving transfection efficiency, reducing cytotoxicity as well as incorporating functional groups that offer better targetability and higher cellular uptake are established. Here, we look at two potential polymeric carriers, chitosan and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers, which have been widely reported for gene delivery. For chitosan, the interest arises from their availability, excellent non-cytotoxicity profile, biodegradability and ease of modification. For poly(amidoamine) dendrimers, the interest arises from their ease of synthesis with controlled structure and size, minimal cytotoxicity, biodegradability and high transfection efficiencies. The latest developments on these polymers for gene delivery will be the main focus of this article. PMID:20618156

  11. Modulating polymer chemistry to enhance non-viral gene delivery inside hydrogels with tunable matrix stiffness.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Michael; Onyiah, Sheila; Zhang, Zhe; Tong, Xinming; Han, Li-Hsin; Yang, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Non-viral gene delivery holds great promise for promoting tissue regeneration, and offers a potentially safer alternative than viral vectors. Great progress has been made to develop biodegradable polymeric vectors for non-viral gene delivery in 2D culture, which generally involves isolating and modifying cells in vitro, followed by subsequent transplantation in vivo. Scaffold-mediated gene delivery may eliminate the need for the multiple-step process in vitro, and allows sustained release of nucleic acids in situ. Hydrogels are widely used tissue engineering scaffolds given their tissue-like water content, injectability and tunable biochemical and biophysical properties. However, previous attempts on developing hydrogel-mediated non-viral gene delivery have generally resulted in low levels of transgene expression inside 3D hydrogels, and increasing hydrogel stiffness further decreased such transfection efficiency. Here we report the development of biodegradable polymeric vectors that led to efficient gene delivery inside poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels with tunable matrix stiffness. Photocrosslinkable gelatin was maintained constant in the hydrogel network to allow cell adhesion. We identified a lead biodegradable polymeric vector, E6, which resulted in increased polyplex stability, DNA protection and achieved sustained high levels of transgene expression inside 3D PEG-DMA hydrogels for at least 12 days. Furthermore, we demonstrated that E6-based polyplexes allowed efficient gene delivery inside hydrogels with tunable stiffness ranging from 2 to 175 kPa, with the peak transfection efficiency observed in hydrogels with intermediate stiffness (28 kPa). The reported hydrogel-mediated gene delivery platform using biodegradable polyplexes may serve as a local depot for sustained transgene expression in situ to enhance tissue engineering across broad tissue types.

  12. Efficient intranuclear gene delivery by CdSe aqueous quantum dots electrostatically-coated with polyethyleneimine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Giang H. T.; Y Shih, Wan; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanoparticles with photoluminescence properties that do not photobleach. Due to these advantages, using QDs for non-viral gene delivery has the additional benefit of being able to track the delivery of the genes in real time as it happens. We investigate the efficacy of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) electrostatically complexed with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) both as a non-viral gene delivery vector and as a fluorescent probe for tracking the delivery of genes into nuclei. The MPA-capped CdSe AQDs that were completely synthesized in water were the model AQDs. A nominal MPA:Cd:Se = 4:3:1 was chosen for optimal photoluminescence and zeta potential. The gene delivery study was carried out in vitro using a human colon cancer cell line, HT29 (ATCC). The model gene was a plasmid DNA (pDNA) that can express red fluorescent protein (RFP). Positively charged branched PEI was employed to provide a proton buffer to the AQDs to allow for endosomal escape. It is shown that by using a PEI-AQD complex with a PEI/AQD molar ratio of 300 and a nominal pDNA/PEI-AQD ratio of 6, we can achieve 75 ± 2.6% RFP expression efficiency with cell vitality remaining at 78 ± 4% of the control.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted nonviral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, P C; Trombetta, M; Passineau, M J

    2015-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial using Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system used in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial, and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted nonviral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10-Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 h and 1 week post treatment (1.62±0.48 ml and 1.87±0.45 ml) to preinjury levels (1.34±0.14 ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32±0.6 ml and 1.33±0.97 ml). UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model, and it is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, PC; Trombetta, M; Passineau, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial utilizing Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system utilized in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Findings Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 hours and one week post-treatment (1.62+/−0.48ml, 1.87+/−0.45ml) to pre-injury levels (1.34+/−0.14ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32+/−0.6ml, 1.33+/−0.97ml). Conclusions UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model and is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial. PMID:25871828

  15. Gene delivery to the neurulating embryo during culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modulating expression of specific genes during embryogenesis will help elucidate their role in development. Transient overexpression of specific genes can be accomplished by adding additional copies, or else antisense transcripts can be used to block expression. Manipulation of g...

  16. Design and fabrication of N-alkyl-polyethylenimine-stabilized iron oxide nanoclusters for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiyong; Lee, Seulki; Ai, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, inorganic magnetic nanoparticles, especially iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs), have emerged as great vehicles for biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In order to rationally design IO-based gene delivery nanovectors, surface modification is essential and determines the loading and release of the gene of interest. Here we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery vehicles based on low molecular weight N-alkyl polyethylenimine-stabilized IOs. The experimental protocols related to these topics are described in this chapter. PMID:22568910

  17. Microvesicle-associated AAV Vector as a Novel Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Casey A; Balaj, Leonora; Sivaraman, Sarada; Crommentuijn, Matheus HW; Ericsson, Maria; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia; Baranov, Vladimir; Gianni, Davide; Tannous, Bakhos A; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Breakefield, Xandra O; Skog, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have shown remarkable efficiency for gene delivery to cultured cells and in animal models of human disease. However, limitations to AAV vectored gene transfer exist after intravenous transfer, including off-target gene delivery (e.g., liver) and low transduction of target tissue. Here, we show that during production, a fraction of AAV vectors are associated with microvesicles/exosomes, termed vexosomes (vector-exosomes). AAV capsids associated with the surface and in the interior of microvesicles were visualized using electron microscopy. In cultured cells, vexosomes outperformed conventionally purified AAV vectors in transduction efficiency. We found that purified vexosomes were more resistant to a neutralizing anti-AAV antibody compared to conventionally purified AAV. Finally, we show that vexosomes bound to magnetic beads can be attracted to a magnetized area in cultured cells. Vexosomes represent a unique entity which offers a promising strategy to improve gene delivery. PMID:22314290

  18. Hyaluronic acid and fibrin hydrogels with concentrated DNA/PEI polyplexes for local gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuguo; Rahim, Maha; Ng, Quinn; Segura, Tatiana

    2011-08-10

    Local delivery of DNA through a hydrogel scaffold would increase the applicability of gene therapy in tissue regeneration and cancer therapy. However, the delivery of DNA/cationic polymer nanoparticles (polyplexes) using hydrogels is challenging due to the aggregation and inactivation of polyplexes during their incorporation into hydrogel scaffolds. We developed a novel process (termed caged nanoparticle encapsulation or CnE) to load concentrated and unaggregated non-viral gene delivery nanoparticles into various hydrogels. Previously, we showed that PEG hydrogels loaded with DNA/PEI polyplexes through this process were able to deliver genes both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that hyaluronic acid and fibrin hydrogels with concentrated and unaggregated polyplexes loaded through CnE were able to deliver genes in vivo as well, demonstrating the universality of the process.

  19. Development of a Targeted Gene-Delivery System Using Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2016-01-01

    A gene-delivery system based on microbes is useful for development of targeted gene therapy of non-phagocytic cancer cells. Here, the feasibility of the delivery system is illustrated by targeted delivery of a transgene (i.e., eukaryotic GFP) by Escherichia coli to HER2/neu-positive cancer cells. An E. coli strain was engineered with surface display of the anti-HER2/neu affibody. To release the gene cargo, a programmed lysis system based on phage ϕX174 gene E was introduced into the E. coli strain. As a result, 3 % of HER2/neu-positive cells that were infected with engineered E. coli were able to express the GFP. PMID:26846805

  20. Role of nanotechnology and gene delivery systems in TRAIL-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Naoum, George E; Tawadros, Fady; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Tabassum, Sobia; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Arafat, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Since its identification as a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) has emerged as a new avenue in apoptosis-inducing cancer therapies. Its ability to circumvent the chemoresistance of conventional therapeutics and to interact with cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal pathways, amplified its potential as a cancer apoptotic agent. Many recombinant preparations of this death ligand and monoclonal antibodies targeting its death receptors have been tested in monotherapy and combinational clinical trials. Gene therapy is a new approach for cancer treatment which implies viral or non-viral functional transgene induction of apoptosis in cancer cells or repair of the underlying genetic abnormality on a molecular level. The role of this approach in overcoming the traditional barriers of radiation and chemotherapeutics systemic toxicity, risk of recurrence, and metastasis made it a promising platform for cancer treatment. The recent first Food Drug Administration (FDA) approved oncolytic herpes virus for melanoma treatment brings forth the potency of the cancer gene therapy approach in the future. Many gene delivery systems have been studied for intratumoural TRAIL gene delivery alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to produce synergistic cancer cytotoxicity. However, there still remain many obstacles to be conquered for this different gene delivery systems. Nanomedicine on the other hand offers a new frontier for clinical trials and biomedical research. The FDA approved nanodrugs motivates horizon exploration for other nanoscale designed particles’ implications in gene delivery. In this review we aim to highlight the molecular role of TRAIL in apoptosis and interaction with cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal pathways. Finally, we also aim to discuss the different roles of gene delivery systems, mesenchymal cells, and nanotechnology designs in TRAIL gene delivery. PMID:27594905

  1. Role of nanotechnology and gene delivery systems in TRAIL-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Naoum, George E; Tawadros, Fady; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Tabassum, Sobia; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Arafat, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Since its identification as a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) has emerged as a new avenue in apoptosis-inducing cancer therapies. Its ability to circumvent the chemoresistance of conventional therapeutics and to interact with cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal pathways, amplified its potential as a cancer apoptotic agent. Many recombinant preparations of this death ligand and monoclonal antibodies targeting its death receptors have been tested in monotherapy and combinational clinical trials. Gene therapy is a new approach for cancer treatment which implies viral or non-viral functional transgene induction of apoptosis in cancer cells or repair of the underlying genetic abnormality on a molecular level. The role of this approach in overcoming the traditional barriers of radiation and chemotherapeutics systemic toxicity, risk of recurrence, and metastasis made it a promising platform for cancer treatment. The recent first Food Drug Administration (FDA) approved oncolytic herpes virus for melanoma treatment brings forth the potency of the cancer gene therapy approach in the future. Many gene delivery systems have been studied for intratumoural TRAIL gene delivery alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to produce synergistic cancer cytotoxicity. However, there still remain many obstacles to be conquered for this different gene delivery systems. Nanomedicine on the other hand offers a new frontier for clinical trials and biomedical research. The FDA approved nanodrugs motivates horizon exploration for other nanoscale designed particles' implications in gene delivery. In this review we aim to highlight the molecular role of TRAIL in apoptosis and interaction with cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal pathways. Finally, we also aim to discuss the different roles of gene delivery systems, mesenchymal cells, and nanotechnology designs in TRAIL gene delivery. PMID:27594905

  2. Role of nanotechnology and gene delivery systems in TRAIL-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Naoum, George E; Tawadros, Fady; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Tabassum, Sobia; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Arafat, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Since its identification as a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) has emerged as a new avenue in apoptosis-inducing cancer therapies. Its ability to circumvent the chemoresistance of conventional therapeutics and to interact with cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal pathways, amplified its potential as a cancer apoptotic agent. Many recombinant preparations of this death ligand and monoclonal antibodies targeting its death receptors have been tested in monotherapy and combinational clinical trials. Gene therapy is a new approach for cancer treatment which implies viral or non-viral functional transgene induction of apoptosis in cancer cells or repair of the underlying genetic abnormality on a molecular level. The role of this approach in overcoming the traditional barriers of radiation and chemotherapeutics systemic toxicity, risk of recurrence, and metastasis made it a promising platform for cancer treatment. The recent first Food Drug Administration (FDA) approved oncolytic herpes virus for melanoma treatment brings forth the potency of the cancer gene therapy approach in the future. Many gene delivery systems have been studied for intratumoural TRAIL gene delivery alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to produce synergistic cancer cytotoxicity. However, there still remain many obstacles to be conquered for this different gene delivery systems. Nanomedicine on the other hand offers a new frontier for clinical trials and biomedical research. The FDA approved nanodrugs motivates horizon exploration for other nanoscale designed particles’ implications in gene delivery. In this review we aim to highlight the molecular role of TRAIL in apoptosis and interaction with cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal pathways. Finally, we also aim to discuss the different roles of gene delivery systems, mesenchymal cells, and nanotechnology designs in TRAIL gene delivery.

  3. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Kashentseva, Elena A.; Yeh, Anthony J.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Curiel, David T.; Leppla, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  4. Self-assembled pentablock copolymers for selective and sustained gene delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingqi

    2011-05-15

    The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. The work highlights the importance of identifying intracellular barriers for different gene delivery systems and provides a new paradigm for designing targeting vectors based on intracellular differences between cell types, rather than through the use of targeting ligands. The PB vector was further developed to simultaneously deliver anticancer drugs and genes, which showed a synergistic effect demonstrated by significantly enhanced gene expression in vitro. Due to the thermosensitive gelation behavior, the PB vector packaging both drug and gene was also investigated for its in vitro sustained release properties by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate as a barrier gel to mimic the tumor matrix in vivo. Overall, this work resulted in the development of a gene delivery vector for sustained and selective gene delivery to tumor cells for cancer therapy.

  5. A novel cationic liposome formulation for efficient gene delivery via a pulmonary route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Donghua; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Chunxi; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Na

    2011-06-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy for lung cancer is not only dependent on efficient gene carriers but also on a suitable delivery route. A pulmonary delivery route can directly deliver gene vectors to the lung which is more efficient than a systemic delivery route. For gene carriers, cationic liposomes have recently emerged as leading non-viral vectors in worldwide gene therapy clinical trials. However, cytotoxic effects or apoptosis are often observed which is mostly dependent on the cationic lipid used. Therefore, an efficient and safe cationic lipid, 6-lauroxyhexyl lysinate (LHLN), previously synthesized by our group was first used to prepare cationic liposomes. Physicochemical and biological properties of LHLN-liposomes were investigated. LHLN-liposome/DNA complexes showed positive surface charge, spherical morphology, a relatively narrow particle size distribution and strong DNA binding capability. Compared with Lipofectamine2000, the new cationic liposome formulation using LHLN exhibited not only lower cytotoxicity (P < 0.05) but also similar transfection efficiency in A549 and HepG2 lung cancer cells for in vitro tests. When administered by intratracheal instillation into rat lungs for in vivo evaluation, LHLN-liposome/DNA complexes exhibited higher pulmonary gene transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine2000/DNA complexes (P < 0.05). These results suggested that LHLN-liposomes may have great potential for efficient pulmonary gene delivery.

  6. Self-assembled pentablock copolymers for selective and sustained gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingqi

    The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of cancer cells. The work highlights the importance of identifying intracellular barriers for different gene delivery systems and provides a new paradigm for designing targeting vectors based on intracellular differences between cell types, rather than through the use of targeting ligands. The PB vector was further developed to simultaneously deliver anticancer drugs and genes, which showed a synergistic effect demonstrated by significantly enhanced gene expression in vitro. Due to the thermosensitive gelation behavior, the PB vector packaging both drug and gene was also investigated for its in vitro sustained release properties by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate as a barrier gel to mimic the tumor matrix in vivo . Overall, this work resulted in the development of a gene delivery vector for sustained and selective gene delivery to tumor cells for cancer therapy.

  7. Multifunctional nanocarrier based on clay nanotubes for efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Shi, Yinfeng; Huang, Chusen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Jiahui; Shen, Hebai; Jia, Nengqin

    2014-04-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing relating to disease has recently emerged as a powerful method in gene therapy. Despite the promises, effective transport of siRNA with minimal side effects remains a challenge. Halloysites are cheap and naturally available aluminosilicate clay nanotubes with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In this study, a novel multifunctional nanocarrier based on functionalized halloysite nanotubes (f-HNTs) has been developed via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembling approach for loading and intracellular delivery of therapeutic antisurvivin siRNA and simultaneously tracking their intracellular transport, in which PEI-modified HNTs are used as gene vector, antisurvivin siRNA as gene therapeutic agent, and mercaptoacetic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots as fluorescent labeling probes. The successful assembly of the f-HNTs-siRNA complexes was systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, Zeta potential measurement, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy, biological TEM, and flow cytometry studies revealed that the complexes enabled the efficient intracellular delivery of siRNA for cell-specific gene silencing. MTT assays exhibited that the complexes can enhance antitumor activity. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that f-HNTs-mediated siRNA delivery effectively knocked down gene expression of survivin and thereby decreased the levels of target proteins of PANC-1 cells. Therefore, this study suggested that the synthesized f-HNTs were a new effective drug delivery system for potential application in cancer gene therapy.

  8. DOPC-Detergent Conjugates: Fusogenic Carriers for Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Casset, Anne; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Pons, Françoise; Lebeau, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Phospholipid-detergent conjugates are proposed as fusogenic carriers for gene delivery. Eleven compounds are prepared and their properties are investigated. The ability of the conjugates to promote fusion with a negatively charged model membrane is determined. Their DNA delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity are assessed in vitro. Lipoplexes are administered in the mouse lung, and transgene expression Indeterminate inflammatory activity are measured. The results show that conjugation of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) with C12 E4 produces a carrier that can efficiently deliver DNA to cells, with negligible -associated toxicity. Fusogenicity of the conjugates shows good correlation with in vitro transfection efficiency and crucially depends on the length of the polyether moiety of the detergent. Finally, DOPC-C12 E4 reveals highly potent for in vivo DNA delivery and favorably compares to GL67A, the current golden standard for gene delivery to the airway, opening the way for further promising developments. PMID:26990218

  9. DOPC-Detergent Conjugates: Fusogenic Carriers for Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Casset, Anne; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Pons, Françoise; Lebeau, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Phospholipid-detergent conjugates are proposed as fusogenic carriers for gene delivery. Eleven compounds are prepared and their properties are investigated. The ability of the conjugates to promote fusion with a negatively charged model membrane is determined. Their DNA delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity are assessed in vitro. Lipoplexes are administered in the mouse lung, and transgene expression Indeterminate inflammatory activity are measured. The results show that conjugation of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) with C12 E4 produces a carrier that can efficiently deliver DNA to cells, with negligible -associated toxicity. Fusogenicity of the conjugates shows good correlation with in vitro transfection efficiency and crucially depends on the length of the polyether moiety of the detergent. Finally, DOPC-C12 E4 reveals highly potent for in vivo DNA delivery and favorably compares to GL67A, the current golden standard for gene delivery to the airway, opening the way for further promising developments.

  10. A chemistry/physics pathway with nanofibrous scaffolds for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fen; Tang, Zhaohui; He, Weidong; Chu, Benjamin

    2010-10-21

    This perspective is to introduce a new pathway for non-viral gene delivery by taking advantage of nanofibrous scaffolds as gene storage devices, gene carriers and homing devices. During gene delivery to the target, the DNA has to be protected in order to pass through a set of barriers before reaching the nucleus. The DNA can form a complex with polycations, and numerous publications exist on how to stabilize the DNA fragments by natural and synthetic materials. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds can be used to store the DNA, especially in the form of a more stabilized polyplex, and then to deliver the DNA (polyplex) to cells that are attached to the scaffold. While each essential step has been tested experimentally, the overall yet untested process, especially for in vivo experiments, may lead to a promising specific approach for gene/drug storage and delivery. The pathway described herein is based mainly on our understanding of the physics and chemistry of gene storage and delivery processes, in contrast to using pure biological concepts. Novel biodegradable, biocompatible nanofibrous materials with imbedded DNA (e.g., in the polyplex form) can then be designed to fabricate an intelligent scaffold for gene delivery. To achieve the above goal, the first step is to stabilize the DNA so that it can be incorporated into nanofibrous scaffolds. In this respect, we shall discuss the different methods of DNA/gene condensation and complex formation, and then explain the strategy used to incorporate DNA into electrospun nanofibers. Solvent-induced DNA condensation and then encapsulation were achieved. However, the released naked DNA was not sufficiently protected for gene transfection in cells. The objective of the current perspective is to suggest that, instead of the solvent-induced DNA condensation, one can combine the recently developed polyplex formation by using branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI). More importantly, free bPEI can be incorporated into the nanofibers

  11. Micro- and nanobubbles: a versatile non-viral platform for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Roberta; Bisazza, Agnese; Lembo, David

    2013-11-18

    Micro- and nanobubbles provide a promising non-viral strategy for ultrasound mediated gene delivery. Microbubbles are spherical gas-filled structures with a mean diameter of 1-8 μm, characterised by their core-shell composition and their ability to circulate in the bloodstream following intravenous injection. They undergo volumetric oscillations or acoustic cavitation when insonified by ultrasound and, most importantly, they are able to resonate at diagnostic frequencies. It is due to this behaviour that microbubbles are currently being used as ultrasound contrast agents, but their use in therapeutics is still under investigation. For example, microbubbles could play a role in enhancing gene delivery to cells: when combined with clinical ultrasound exposure, microbubbles are able to favour gene entry into cells by cavitation. Two different delivery strategies have been used to date: DNA can be co-administered with the microbubbles (i.e. the contrast agent) or 'loaded' in purposed-built bubble systems - indeed a number of different technological approaches have been proposed to associate genes within microbubble structures. Nanobubbles, bubbles with sizes in the nanometre order of magnitude, have also been developed with the aim of obtaining more efficient gene delivery systems. Their small sizes allow the possibility of extravasation from blood vessels into the surrounding tissues and ultrasound-targeted site-specific release with minimal invasiveness. In contrast, microbubbles, due to their larger sizes, are unable to extravasate, thus and their targeting capacity is limited to specific antigens present within the vascular lumen. This review provides an overview of the use of microbubbles as gene delivery systems, with a specific focus on recent research into the development of nanosystems. In particular, ultrasound delivery mechanisms, formulation parameters, gene-loading approaches and the advantages of nanometric systems will be described. PMID:24008081

  12. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miyanohara, Atsushi; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Navarro, Michael; Marsala, Silvia; Lukacova, Nada; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Ahrens, Eric T; Kaspar, Brian K; Cleveland, Don; Marsala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i) potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii) delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii) potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem); and (iv) the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients. PMID:27462649

  13. Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin for targeted gene delivery of VEGF165-Ang-1 with PEI.

    PubMed

    Ma, Caili; Lv, Linlin; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; You, Renchuan; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is a crucial challenge in tissue engineering. One solution for this problem is to implant scaffolds that contain functional genes that promote vascularization by providing angiogenic growth factors via a gene delivery carrier. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is a gene delivery carrier with high transfection efficiency but with cytotoxicity. To solve this problem, we utilized Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), which has favorable cytocompatibility and biodegradability, RGD sequences and a negative charge, in conjunction with PEI, as the delivery vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165-angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene simultaneous expression plasmid, creating an ASF/PEI/pDNA complex. The results suggested that the zeta potential of the ASF/PEI/pDNA complex was significantly lower than that of the PEI/pDNA complex. Decreased nitrogen and increased oxygen on the surface of the complex demonstrated that the ASF had successfully combined with the surface of the PEI/pDNA. Furthermore, the complexes resisted digestion by nucleic acid enzymes and degradation by serum. L929 cells were cultured and transfected in vitro and improved cytotoxicity was found when the cells were transfected with ASF/PEI/pDNA compared with PEI/pDNA. In addition, the transfection efficiency and VEGF secretion increased. In general, this study provides a novel method for decreasing the cytotoxicity of PEI gene delivery vectors and increasing transfection efficiency of angiogenesis-related genes.

  14. Understanding Intracellular Transport Processes Pertinent to Synthetic Gene Delivery via Stochastic Simulations and Sensitivity Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Anh-Tuan; Pangarkar, Chinmay; Theofanous, Theo; Mitragotri, Samir

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge in synthetic gene delivery is to quantitatively predict the optimal design of polymer-based gene carriers (polyplexes). Here, we report a consistent, integrated, and fundamentally grounded computational methodology to address this challenge. This is achieved by accurately representing the spatio-temporal dynamics of intracellular structures and by describing the interactions between gene carriers and cellular components at a discrete, nanoscale level. This enables the applications of systems tools such as optimization and sensitivity analysis to search for the best combination of systems parameters. We validate the approach using DNA delivery by polyethylenimine as an example. We show that the cell topology (e.g., size, circularity, and dimensionality) strongly influences the spatiotemporal distribution of gene carriers, and consequently, their optimal intracellular pathways. The model shows that there exists an upper limit on polyplexes' intracellular delivery efficiency due to their inability to protect DNA until nuclear entry. The model predicts that even for optimally designed polyethylenimine vectors, only ∼1% of total DNA is delivered to the nucleus. Based on comparison with gene delivery by viruses, the model suggests possible strategies to significantly improve transfection efficiencies of synthetic gene vectors. PMID:17085500

  15. Gene Delivery from Supercharged Coiled-coil Protein and Cationic Lipid Hybrid Complex

    PubMed Central

    More, Haresh T.; Frezzo, Joseph A.; Dai, Jisen; Yamano, Seiichi; Montclare, Jin K.

    2014-01-01

    A lipoproteoplex comprised of an engineered supercharged coiled-coil protein (CSP) bearing multiple arginines and the cationic lipid formulation FuGENE HD (FG) was developed for effective condensation and delivery of nucleic acids. The CSP was able to maintain helical structure and self-assembly properties while exhibiting binding to plasmid DNA. The ternary CSP•DNA(8:1)•FG lipoproteoplex complex demonstrated enhanced transfection of β-galactosidase DNA into MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts. The lipoproteoplexes showed significant increases in transfection efficiency when compared to conventional FG and an mTat•FG lipopolyplex with a 6- and 2.5-fold increase in transfection, respectively. The CSP•DNA(8:1)•FG lipoproteoplex assembled into spherical particles with a net positive surface charge, enabling efficient gene delivery. These results support the application of lipoproteoplexes with protein engineered CSP for non-viral gene delivery. PMID:24875765

  16. Pullulan-protamine as efficient haemocompatible gene delivery vector: synthesis and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Priya, S S; Rekha, M R; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-02-15

    Biodegradable non-viral vectors with good transfection efficiency is essential for successful gene delivery. The purpose of this study was to design a non-viral vector by conjugating protamine to pullulan and elucidate the potential use of pullulan protamine conjugate (PPA) as an effective, non toxic and haemocompatible gene delivery system. The particle size and surface charge were measured using Nanosizer. Derivatization was confirmed by NMR, FTIR and DSC analyses. Acid base titration revealed the buffering behaviour of the conjugate. The protection of DNA from nuclease enzyme and interaction of plasma components on the stability of nanoplexes were also analysed. The uptake studies confirmed the plasmid delivery into the nucleus and the inhibitor studies determined the uptake mechanism. Transfection experiments revealed the capability of PPA to cellular uptake in C6 cells and facilitate high gene expression. Thus, PPA proves to be a promising non-viral vector.

  17. Rapid and efficient gene delivery into the adult mouse brain via focal electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yusuke; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    In vivo gene delivery is required for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various biological events. Virus-mediated gene transfer or generation of transgenic animals is widely used; however, these methods are time-consuming and expensive. Here we show an improved electroporation technique for acute gene delivery into the adult mouse brain. Using a syringe-based microelectrode, local DNA injection and the application of electric current can be performed simultaneously; this allows rapid and efficient gene transduction of adult non-neuronal cells. Combining this technique with various expression vectors that carry specific promoters resulted in targeted gene expression in astrocytic cells. Our results constitute a powerful strategy for the genetic manipulation of adult brains in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. PMID:27430903

  18. Rapid and efficient gene delivery into the adult mouse brain via focal electroporation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yusuke; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    In vivo gene delivery is required for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various biological events. Virus-mediated gene transfer or generation of transgenic animals is widely used; however, these methods are time-consuming and expensive. Here we show an improved electroporation technique for acute gene delivery into the adult mouse brain. Using a syringe-based microelectrode, local DNA injection and the application of electric current can be performed simultaneously; this allows rapid and efficient gene transduction of adult non-neuronal cells. Combining this technique with various expression vectors that carry specific promoters resulted in targeted gene expression in astrocytic cells. Our results constitute a powerful strategy for the genetic manipulation of adult brains in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. PMID:27430903

  19. Transient Gene Expression in Epidermal Cells of Plant Leaves by Biolistic DNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Shoko; Magori, Shimpei; Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Transient gene expression is a useful approach for studying the functions of gene products. In the case of plants, Agrobacterium infiltration is a method of choice for transient introduction of genes for many species. However, this technique does not work efficiently in some species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the infection of Agrobacterium is known to induce dynamic changes in gene expression patterns in the host plants, possibly affecting the function and localization of the proteins to be tested. These problems can be circumvented by biolistic delivery of the genes of interest. Here, we present an optimized protocol for biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA into epidermal cells of plant leaves, which can be easily performed using the Bio-Rad Helios gene gun system. This protocol allows efficient and reproducible transient expression of diverse genes in Arabidopsis, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum, and is suitable for studies of the biological function and subcellular localization of the gene products directly in planta. The protocol also can be easily adapted to other species by optimizing the delivery gas pressure. PMID:23104330

  20. Non-viral gene delivery strategies for cancer therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhise, Nupura S.

    Gene therapy involves the delivery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into cells to override or replace a malfunctioning gene for treating debilitating genetic diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to its use as a therapeutic, it can also serve as a technology to enable regenerative medicine strategies. The central challenge of the gene therapy research arena is developing a safe and effective delivery agent. Since viral vectors have critical immunogenic and tumorogenic safety issues that limit their clinical use, recent efforts have focused on developing non-viral biomaterial based delivery vectors. Cationic polymers are an attractive class of gene delivery vectors due to their structural versatility, ease of synthesis, biodegradability, ability to self-complex into nanoparticles with negatively charged DNA, capacity to carry large cargo, cellular uptake and endosomal escape capacity. In this thesis, we hypothesized that developing a biomaterial library of poly(betaamino esters) (PBAE), a newer class of cationic polymers consisting of biodegradable ester groups, would allow investigating vector design parameters and formulating effective non-viral gene delivery strategies for cancer drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell engineering. Consequently, a high-throughput transfection assay was developed to screen the PBAE-based nanoparticles in hard to transfect fibroblast cell lines. To gain mechanistic insights into the nanoparticle formulation process, biophysical properties of the vectors were characterized in terms of molecular weight (MW), nanoparticle size, zeta potential and plasmid per particle count. We report a novel assay developed for quantifying the plasmid per nanoparticle count and studying its implications for co-delivery of multiple genes. The MW of the polymers ranged from 10 kDa to 100 kDa, nanoparticle size was about 150 run, zeta potential was about 30 mV in sodium acetate buffer (25 mM, pH 5) and 30 to 100

  1. Ionic α-Helical Polypeptides towards Non-Viral Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rujing; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Zheng, Nan; Tang, Haoyu; Lu, Hua; Gabrielson, Nathan P.; Lin, Yao; Kim, Kyung; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The advent of polymeric materials has significantly promoted the development and rapid growth of various technologies in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering and controlled drug and gene delivery. Water-soluble polypeptides bearing functional side chains and adopting stable secondary structures are a new class of functional polymeric materials of potentially broad applications in medicine and biotechnology. In this article, we summarize our recent effort on the design and synthesis of the water-soluble α-helical ionic polypeptides originally developed in our laboratory and highlight their applications in cell membrane penetration and non-viral gene/siRNA delivery. PMID:25377262

  2. Sui generis: gene therapy and delivery systems for the treatment of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. Robert; Miska, Jason; Young, Jacob S.; Kanojia, Deepak; Kim, Julius W.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy offers a multidimensional set of approaches intended to treat and cure glioblastoma (GBM), in combination with the existing standard-of-care treatment (surgery and chemoradiotherapy), by capitalizing on the ability to deliver genes directly to the site of neoplasia to yield antitumoral effects. Four types of gene therapy are currently being investigated for their potential use in treating GBM: (i) suicide gene therapy, which induces the localized generation of cytotoxic compounds; (ii) immunomodulatory gene therapy, which induces or augments an enhanced antitumoral immune response; (iii) tumor-suppressor gene therapy, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells; and (iv) oncolytic virotherapy, which causes the lysis of tumor cells. The delivery of genes to the tumor site is made possible by means of viral and nonviral vectors for direct delivery of therapeutic gene(s), tumor-tropic cell carriers expressing therapeutic gene(s), and “intelligent” carriers designed to increase delivery, specificity, and tumoral toxicity against GBM. These vehicles are used to carry genetic material to the site of pathology, with the expectation that they can provide specific tropism to the desired site while limiting interaction with noncancerous tissue. Encouraging preclinical results using gene therapies for GBM have led to a series of human clinical trials. Although there is limited evidence of a therapeutic benefit to date, a number of clinical trials have convincingly established that different types of gene therapies delivered by various methods appear to be safe. Due to the flexibility of specialized carriers and genetic material, the technology for generating new and more effective therapies already exists. PMID:25746089

  3. Prodrug converting enzyme gene delivery by L. monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Stritzker, Jochen; Pilgrim, Sabine; Szalay, Aladar A; Goebel, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is a highly versatile bacterial carrier system for introducing protein, DNA and RNA into mammalian cells. The delivery of tumor antigens with the help of this carrier into tumor-bearing animals has been successfully carried out previously and it was recently reported that L. monocytogenes is able to colonize and replicate within solid tumors after local or even systemic injection. Methods Here we report on the delivery of two prodrug converting enzymes, purine-deoxynucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a fusion protein consisting of yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (FCU1) into cancer cells in culture by L. monocytogenes. Transfer of the prodrug converting enzymes was achieved by bacterium mediated transfer of eukaryotic expression plasmids or by secretion of the proteins directly into the host cell cytosol by the infecting bacteria. Results The results indicate that conversion of appropriate prodrugs to toxic drugs in the cancer cells occured after both procedures although L. monocytogenes-mediated bactofection proved to be more efficient than enzyme secretion 4T1, B16 and COS-1 tumor cells. Exchanging the constitutively PCMV-promoter with the melanoma specific P4xTETP-promoter resulted in melanoma cell-specific expression of the prodrug converting enzymes but reduced the efficiencies. Conclusion These experiments open the way for bacterium mediated tumor specific activation of prodrugs in live animals with tumors. PMID:18402662

  4. Gastrointestinal gene delivery by cyclodextrins--in vitro quantification of extracellular barriers.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Martin J; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Byrne, Colin; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2013-11-18

    Local gene delivery represents a promising therapeutic approach for diseases of the intestine. However, the gastrointestinal tract poses significant challenges to successful gene delivery. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively investigated as non-viral vectors. Here, we assessed the suitability of an amphiphilic cationic CD for intestinal gene transfer, with particular focus on extracellular barriers. Stability and transfection efficiency of CD·DNA complexes were assessed post incubation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, bile salts and mucin, or with intestinal enzymes to represent extracellular barriers to intestinal gene delivery. Stability was determined by gel electrophoresis and transfection was measured by luciferase expression in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Transfection efficiency of CD·DNA complexes was enhanced after incubation in bile salts but was reduced after incubation in gastric and intestinal fluids and mucin. CD·DNA complexes were stable after incubation with pancreatic enzymes and with a model lower intestinal enzyme. Furthermore, the CD protected pDNA from degradation by DNase. In summary, physiologically relevant in vitro models were established and used to quantify the barriers posed by the intestinal extracellular environment to gene delivery. This systematic assessment identified the advantages and limitations of the CD vector and facilitated the proposal of formulation strategies to overcome these barriers.

  5. Gastrointestinal gene delivery by cyclodextrins--in vitro quantification of extracellular barriers.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Martin J; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Byrne, Colin; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2013-11-18

    Local gene delivery represents a promising therapeutic approach for diseases of the intestine. However, the gastrointestinal tract poses significant challenges to successful gene delivery. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively investigated as non-viral vectors. Here, we assessed the suitability of an amphiphilic cationic CD for intestinal gene transfer, with particular focus on extracellular barriers. Stability and transfection efficiency of CD·DNA complexes were assessed post incubation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, bile salts and mucin, or with intestinal enzymes to represent extracellular barriers to intestinal gene delivery. Stability was determined by gel electrophoresis and transfection was measured by luciferase expression in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Transfection efficiency of CD·DNA complexes was enhanced after incubation in bile salts but was reduced after incubation in gastric and intestinal fluids and mucin. CD·DNA complexes were stable after incubation with pancreatic enzymes and with a model lower intestinal enzyme. Furthermore, the CD protected pDNA from degradation by DNase. In summary, physiologically relevant in vitro models were established and used to quantify the barriers posed by the intestinal extracellular environment to gene delivery. This systematic assessment identified the advantages and limitations of the CD vector and facilitated the proposal of formulation strategies to overcome these barriers. PMID:24016741

  6. Local delivery of gene-modifying triplex-forming molecules to epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Faye A.; Hu, Rong-Hua; Milstone, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are particularly suitable candidates for in situ gene correction. Intraperitoneal administration of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) was shown previously to introduce DNA base changes in a reporter gene in skin, without identifying which cells had been targeted. We extend those previous experiments using two triplex-forming molecules (TFMs), a peptide nucleic acid (PNA-Antp) and a TFO (AG30), and two lines of transgenic mice that have the chromosomally integrated λsupFG1 shuttle-reporter transgene. Successful in vivo genomic modification occurs in epidermis and dermis in CD1 transgenic mice following either intraperitoneal or intradermal delivery of the PNA-Antennapedia conjugate. FITC-PNA-Antp accumulates in nuclei of keratinocytes and, after intradermal delivery of the PNA-Antp, chromosomally modified, keratin 5 positive basal keratinocytes persist for at least 10 days. In hairless (SKH1) mice with the λsupFG1 transgene, intradermal delivery of the TFO, AG30, introduces gene modifications in both tail and back skin and those chromosomal modifications persist in basal keratinocytes for 10 days. Hairless mice should facilitate comparison of various targeting agents and methods of delivery. Gene targeting by repeated local administration of oligonucleotides may prove clinically useful for judiciously selected disease-causing genes in the epidermis. PMID:23014335

  7. Biodegradable Poly(aminoester)-Mediated p53 Gene Delivery for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, He; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-03-01

    Gene therapy is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. However, efficient gene translation still remains challenging. In the previous work, a hydrolytically degradable poly(aminoester) with good biocompatibility was synthesized. Herein, the poly(aminoester) was explored as a vector for gene delivery and cancer therapy. The experiments revealed that the poly(aminoester) condensed plasmid DNA into nanosized particles via electrostatic interaction. The pEGFP-N1 and pGL-3 were first used as two reporter genes to study intracellular transfection. The poly(aminoester) showed higher GFP expression (33%) than PEI 25 kDa (21%). Intracellular trafficking of Cy3-labelled pGL-3 also indicated that the poly(aminoester) showed superior DNA delivery ability to nucleus compared to PEI 25 kDa. Furthermore, the therapeutic gene (p53) was translated into the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), and then induced cell apoptosis. These results suggested that the degradable poly(aminoester) is a promising and efficient gene delivery vector for gene therapeutic applications.

  8. Biodegradable Poly(aminoester)-Mediated p53 Gene Delivery for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, He; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-03-01

    Gene therapy is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. However, efficient gene translation still remains challenging. In the previous work, a hydrolytically degradable poly(aminoester) with good biocompatibility was synthesized. Herein, the poly(aminoester) was explored as a vector for gene delivery and cancer therapy. The experiments revealed that the poly(aminoester) condensed plasmid DNA into nanosized particles via electrostatic interaction. The pEGFP-N1 and pGL-3 were first used as two reporter genes to study intracellular transfection. The poly(aminoester) showed higher GFP expression (33%) than PEI 25 kDa (21%). Intracellular trafficking of Cy3-labelled pGL-3 also indicated that the poly(aminoester) showed superior DNA delivery ability to nucleus compared to PEI 25 kDa. Furthermore, the therapeutic gene (p53) was translated into the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), and then induced cell apoptosis. These results suggested that the degradable poly(aminoester) is a promising and efficient gene delivery vector for gene therapeutic applications. PMID:27455620

  9. Mechanical oscillations enhance gene delivery into suspended cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z. L.; Sun, X. X.; Ma, J.; Man, C. H.; Wong, A. S. T.; Leung, A. Y.; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Suspended cells are difficult to be transfected by common biochemical methods which require cell attachment to a substrate. Mechanical oscillations of suspended cells at certain frequencies are found to result in significant increase in membrane permeability and potency for delivery of nano-particles and genetic materials into the cells. Nanomaterials including siRNAs are found to penetrate into suspended cells after subjecting to short-time mechanical oscillations, which would otherwise not affect the viability of the cells. Theoretical analysis indicates significant deformation of the actin-filament network in the cytoskeleton cortex during mechanical oscillations at the experimental frequency, which is likely to rupture the soft phospholipid bilayer leading to increased membrane permeability. The results here indicate a new method for enhancing cell transfection. PMID:26956215

  10. Lignin nanotubes as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells.

    PubMed

    Ten, Elena; Ling, Chen; Wang, Yuan; Srivastava, Arun; Dempere, Luisa Amelia; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2014-01-13

    Lignin nanotubes (LNTs) synthesized from the aromatic plant cell wall polymer lignin in a sacrificial alumina membrane template have as useful features their flexibility, ease of functionalization due to the availability of many functional groups, label-free detection by autofluorescence, and customizable optical properties. In this report we show that the physicochemical properties of LNTs can be varied over a wide range to match requirements for specific applications by using lignin with different subunit composition, a function of plant species and genotype, and by choosing the lignin isolation method (thioglycolic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid (Klason), sodium hydroxide lignin), which influences the size and reactivity of the lignin fragments. Cytotoxicity studies with human HeLa cells showed that concentrations of up to 90 mg/mL are tolerated, which is a 10-fold higher concentration than observed for single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that all LNT formulations enter HeLa cells without auxiliary agents and that LNTs made from NaOH-lignin penetrate the cell nucleus. We further show that DNA can adsorb to LNTs. Consequently, exposure of HeLa cells to LNTs coated with DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) leads to transfection and expression of GFP. The highest transfection efficiency was obtained with LNTs made from NaOH-lignin due to a combination of high DNA binding capacity and DNA delivery directly into the nucleus. These combined features of LNTs make LNTs attractive as smart delivery vehicles of DNA without the cytotoxicity associated with CNTs or the immunogenicity of viral vectors.

  11. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Controlled Release Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Igor I. Slowing; Juan L. Viveo-Escoto; Chia-Wen Wu; Victor S. Y. Lin

    2008-04-10

    In this review, we highlight the recent research developments of a series of surface-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials as efficient drug delivery carriers. The synthesis of this type of MSN materials is described along with the current methods for controlling the structural properties and chemical functionalization for biotechnological and biomedical applications. We summarized the advantages of using MSN for several drug delivery applications. The recent investigations of the biocompatibility of MSN in vitro are discussed. We also describe the exciting progress on using MSN to penetrate various cell membranes in animal and plant cells. The novel concept of gatekeeping is introduced and applied to the design of a variety of stimuli-responsive nanodevices. We envision that these MSN-based systems have a great potential for a variety of drug delivery applications, such as the site-specific delivery and intracellular controlled release of drugs, genes, and other therapeutic agents.

  12. Gene delivery in bone tissue engineering: progress and prospects using viral and nonviral strategies.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Kris A; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2004-01-01

    Bone tissue loss as a consequence of the natural aging process or as a result of trauma and degenerative disease has led to the need for procedures to generate cartilage and bone for a variety of orthopedic applications. The ability to transfer genes into multipotential mesenchymal stem cells, while still in its infancy, offers considerable therapeutic hope in a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. However, the choice of gene delivery method is key. This review examines the various techniques and methods currently available to enable gene transfer into a target population from viral methods (transduction) to nonviral (transfection) methods and the limitations associated with each method. The potential applications and current understanding of each method are presented. Given the demographic challenge of an aging population, the ultimate goal remains the development of simple, safe, and reproducible strategies for gene delivery that will address the pressing orthopedic clinical imperatives of many.

  13. Lipopolyplex for Therapeutic Gene Delivery and Its Application for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolyplex is a core-shell structure composed of nucleic acid, polycation and lipid. As a non-viral gene delivery vector, lipopolyplex combining the advantages of polyplex and lipoplex has shown superior colloidal stability, reduced cytotoxicity, extremely high gene transfection efficiency. Following intravenous administration, there are many strategies based on lipopolyplex to overcome the complex biological barriers in systemic gene delivery including condensation of nucleic acids into nanoparticles, long circulation, cell targeting, endosomal escape, release to cytoplasm and entry into cell nucleus. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and severely influences the patients’ life quality. Current gene therapy clinical trials for PD employing viral vectors didn’t achieve satisfactory efficacy. However, lipopolyplex may become a promising alternative approach owing to its stability in blood, ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and specific targeting to diseased brain cells. PMID:27092073

  14. Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: advances in vector development, targeting, and delivery for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Melvin Y; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. The identification of the molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure and other associated cardiac diseases led to encouraging preclinical gene therapy studies in small and large animal models. However, the initial clinical results yielded only modest or no improvement in clinical endpoints. The presence of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses directed against the viral vector and/or the gene-modified cells, the insufficient gene expression levels, and the limited gene transduction efficiencies accounted for the overall limited clinical improvements. Nevertheless, further improvements of the gene delivery technology and a better understanding of the underlying biology fostered renewed interest in gene therapy for heart failure. In particular, improved vectors based on emerging cardiotropic serotypes of the adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) are particularly well suited to coax expression of therapeutic genes in the heart. This led to new clinical trials based on the delivery of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase protein (SERCA2a). Though the first clinical results were encouraging, a recent Phase IIb trial did not confirm the beneficial clinical outcomes that were initially reported. New approaches based on S100A1 and adenylate cyclase 6 are also being considered for clinical applications. Emerging paradigms based on the use of miRNA regulation or CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering open new therapeutic perspectives for treating cardiovascular diseases by gene therapy. Nevertheless, the continuous improvement of cardiac gene delivery is needed to allow the use of safer and more effective vector doses, ultimately bringing gene therapy for heart failure one step closer to reality.

  15. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Dutheil, Nathalie; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood–brain barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery. PMID:24917785

  16. Correction of Hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn Rats Using Clinically Relevant Low Doses of Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, David; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Palmer, Donna J.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Crigler–Najjar syndrome type I is a severe inborn error of bilirubin metabolism caused by a complete deficiency of uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and results in life-threatening unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Lifelong correction of hyperbilirubinemia by liver-directed gene therapy using a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector has been previously reported in the Gunn rat, a model of Crigler–Najjar syndrome, but was only achieved using high doses (≥3 × 1012 viral particles [vp]/kg), which are likely to elicit a severe toxic response in humans. Therefore, in this study, we investigate strategies to achieve correction of hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat using clinically relevant low HDAd doses. We have found that correction of hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat can be achieved with a low dose of 5 × 1011 vp/kg by using an HDAd vector bearing a more potent UGT1A1 expression cassette. Furthermore, by using hydrodynamic injection of the improved HDAd vector, correction of hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat can be achieved using an even lower dose of 5 × 1010 vp/kg. Although hydrodynamic injection as performed in rats is not acceptable in humans, clinically attractive, minimally invasive methods have been successfully developed to mimic hydrodynamic injection of HDAd vector in non-human primates. Therefore, using an improved expression cassette combined with a more efficient method of vector delivery permits correction of hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat using clinically relevant low HDAd doses and may thus pave the way to clinical application of HDAd vectors for Crigler–Najjar syndrome gene therapy. PMID:20973621

  17. Autophagy and formation of tubulovesicular autophagosomes provide a barrier against nonviral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rebecca; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T; Whelband, Matthew; Thomas, Paul; Jefferson, Matthew; van den Bossche, Jeroen; Powell, Penny P; Kostarelos, Kostas; Wileman, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Cationic liposome (lipoplex) and polymer (polyplex)-based vectors have been developed for nonviral gene delivery. These vectors bind DNA and enter cells via endosomes, but intracellular transfer of DNA to the nucleus is inefficient. Here we show that lipoplex and polyplex vectors enter cells in endosomes, activate autophagy and generate tubulovesicular autophagosomes. Activation of autophagy was dependent on ATG5, resulting in lipidation of LC3, but did not require the PtdIns 3-kinase activity of PIK3C3/VPS34. The autophagosomes generated by lipoplex fused with each other, and with endosomes, resulting in the delivery of vectors to large tubulovesicular autophagosomes, which accumulated next to the nucleus. The tubulovesicular autophagosomes contained autophagy receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 and ubiquitin, suggesting capture of autophagy cargoes, but fusion with lysosomes was slow. Gene delivery and expression from both lipoplex and polyplex increased 8-fold in atg5 (-/-) cells unable to generate tubulovesicular autophagosomes. Activation of autophagy and capture within tubulovesicular autophagosomes therefore provides a new cellular barrier against efficient gene transfer and should be considered when designing efficient nonviral gene delivery vectors.

  18. Non-Condensing Polymeric Nanoparticles for Targeted Gene and siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Ganesh, Shanthi; Amiji, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy has shown a tremendous potential to benefit patients in a variety of disease conditions. However, finding a safe and effective systemic delivery system is the major obstacle in this area. Although viral vectors showed promise for high transfection rate, the immunogenicity associated with these systems has hindered further development. As an alternative to viral gene delivery, this review focuses on application of novel safe and effective non-condensing polymeric systems that have shown high transgene expression when administered systemically or by the oral route. Type B gelatin-based engineered nanocarriers were evaluated for passive and active tumor-targeted delivery and transfection using both reporter and therapeutic plasmid DNA. Additionally, we have shown that nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) can efficiently deliver reporter and therapeutic gene constructs in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, there has been a significant recent interest in the use small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a therapeutic system for gene silencing. Both gelatin nanoparticles and NiMOS have shown activity in systemic and oral delivery of siRNA, respectively. PMID:21621597

  19. Development of Therapeutic Microbubbles for Enhancing Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ryan R.; Noble, Misty L.; Sun, Samuel S.; Song, Shuxian; Miao, Carol H.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-mediated gene delivery has emerged as a promising non-viral method for safe and selective gene delivery. When enhanced by the cavitation of microbubbles (MBs), US exposure can induce sonoporation that transiently increases cell membrane permeability for localized delivery of DNA. The present study explores the effect of generalizable MB customizations on MB facilitation of gene transfer compared to Definity®, a clinically available contrast agent. These modifications are 1) increased MB shell acyl chain length (RN18) for elevated stability and 2) addition of positive charge on MB (RC5K) for greater DNA associability. The MB types were compared in their ability to facilitate transfection of luciferase and GFP reporter plasmid DNA in vitro and in vivo under various conditions of US intensity, MB dosage, and pretreatment MB-DNA incubation. The results indicated that both RN18 and RC5K were more efficient than Definity®, and that the cationic RC5K can induce even greater transgene expression by increasing payload capacity with prior DNA incubation without compromising cell viability. These findings could be applied to enhance MB functions in a wide range of therapeutic US/MB gene and drug delivery approach. With further designs, MB customizations have the potential to advance this technology closer to clinical application. PMID:24650644

  20. Dependence of PEI and PAMAM Gene Delivery on Clathrin- and Caveolin-Dependent Trafficking Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Mark E.; Keswani, Rahul K.; Pack, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Non-viral gene delivery vehicles such as polyethylenimine and polyamidoamine dendrimer effectively condense plasmid DNA, facilitate endocytosis, and deliver nucleic acid cargo to the nucleus in vitro. Better understanding of intracellular trafficking mechanisms involved in polymeric gene delivery is a prerequisite to clinical application. This study investigates the role of clathrin and caveolin endocytic pathways in cellular uptake and subsequent vector processing. Methods We formed 25-kD polyethylenimine (PEI) and generation 4 (G4) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) polyplexes at N/P 10 and evaluated internalization pathways and gene delivery in HeLa cells. Clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis inhibitors were used at varying concentrations to elucidate the roles of these important pathways. Results PEI and PAMAM polyplexes were internalized by both pathways. However, the amount of polyplex internalized poorly correlated with transgene expression. While the caveolin-dependent pathway generally led to effective gene delivery with both polymers, complete inhibition of the clathrin-dependent pathway was also deleterious to transfection with PEI polyplexes. Inhibition of one endocytic pathway may lead to an overall increase in uptake via unaffected pathways, suggesting the existence of compensatory endocytic mechanisms. Conclusions The well-studied clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis pathways are not necessarily independent, and perturbing one mechanism of trafficking influences the larger trafficking network. PMID:25511918

  1. Controlling mesenchymal stem cell gene expression using polymer-mediated delivery of siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Boutin, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    siRNA treatment has great promise to specifically control gene expression and select cell behaviors but have delivery challenges limiting their use. Particularly for applications in regenerative medicine, uniform and consistent delivery of siRNA to control gene expression and subsequent stem cell functions, such as differentiation, is paramount. Therefore, a diblock copolymer was examined for its ability to effective delivery siRNA to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The diblock copolymers, which are composed of cationic blocks for siRNA complexation, protection, and uptake and pH-responsive blocks for endosomal escape, were shown to facilitate nearly 100% MSC uptake of siRNA, which is vastly superior to a commercially-available control, DharmaFECT, which resulted in only ~60% siRNA positive MSCs. Moreover, the diblock copolymer, at conditions that result in excellent knockdown (down to ~10% of control gene expression), is cytocompatible, causing no negative effects on MSC survivability. In contrast, DharmaFECT:siRNA treatment results in only ~60% survivability of MSCs. Longitudinal knockdown after siRNA treatment was examined and protein knockdown persists for ~6 days regardless of delivery system (diblock copolymer or DharmaFECT). Finally, MSC phenotype and differentiation capacity was examined after treatment with control siRNA. There is no statistically significant differences on cell surface markers of diblock copolymer:siRNA or DharmaFECT:siRNA treated or cells measured 2 weeks after siRNA delivery compared to untreated cells. Upon differentiation with typical media/culture conditions to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages and examination of histological staining markers, there is no discernable differences between treated and untreated cells, regardless of delivery mechanism. Thus, diblock copolymers examined herein facilitate uniform siRNA treatment of MSCs, inducing siRNA-specific gene and protein knockdown without adversely affecting MSC

  2. Cationic surface modification of PLG nanoparticles offers sustained gene delivery to pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baoum, Abdulgader; Dhillon, Navneet; Buch, Shilpa; Berkland, Cory

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles are currently being explored as a nonviral gene delivery system; however, many obstacles impede the translation of these nanomaterials. For example, nanoparticles delivered systemically are inherently prone to adsorbing serum proteins and agglomerating as a result of their large surface/volume ratio. What is desired is a simple procedure to prepare nanoparticles that may be delivered locally and exhibit minimal toxicity while improving entry into cells for effectively delivering DNA. The objective of this study was to optimize the formulation of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles for gene delivery performance to a model of the pulmonary epithelium. Using a simple solvent diffusion technique, the chemistry of the particle surface was varied by using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (approximately 200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for 2 weeks. In A549 alveolar lung epithelial cells, high levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least 2 weeks. In contrast, PEI gene expression ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium.

  3. Synthesis of Electroneutralized Amphiphilic Copolymers with Peptide Dendrons for Intramuscular Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pu, Linyu; Wang, Jiali; Li, Na; Chai, Qiuxia; Irache, Juan M; Wang, Gang; Tang, James Zhenggui; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    Intramuscular gene delivery materials are of great importance in plasmid-based gene therapy system, but there is limited information so far on how to design and synthesize them. A previous study showed that the peptide dendron-based triblock copolymer with its components arranged in a reversed biomembrane architecture could significantly increase intramuscular gene delivery and expression. Herein, we wonder whether copolymers with biomembrane-mimicking arrangement may have similar function on intramuscular gene delivery. Meanwhile, it is of great significance to uncover the influence of electric charge and molecular structure on the function of the copolymers. To address the issues, amphiphilic triblock copolymers arranged in hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic structure were constructed despite the paradoxical characteristics and difficulties in synthesizing such hydrophilic but electroneutral molecules. The as-prepared two copolymers, dendronG2(l-lysine-OH)-poly propylene glycol2k(PPG2k)-dendronG2(l-lysine-OH) (rL2PL2) and dendronG3(l-lysine-OH)-PPG2k-dendronG3(l-lysine-OH) (rL3PL3), were in similar structure but had different hydrophilic components and surface charges, thus leading to different capabilities in gene delivery and expression in skeletal muscle. rL2PL2 was more efficient than Pluronic L64 and rL3PL3 when mediating luciferase, β-galactosidase, and fluorescent protein expressions. Furthermore, rL2PL2-mediated growth-hormone-releasing hormone expression could significantly induce mouse body weight increase in the first 21 days after injection. In addition, both rL2PL2 and rL3PL3 showed good in vivo biosafety in local and systemic administration. Altogether, rL2PL2-mediated gene expression in skeletal muscle exhibited applicable potential for gene therapy. The study revealed that the molecular structure and electric charge were critical factors governing the function of the copolymers for intramuscular gene delivery. It can be concluded that, combined

  4. Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Candolfi, Marianela; Xiong, Weidong; Yagiz, Kader; Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, A K M G; Puntel, Mariana; Foulad, David; Zadmehr, Ali; Ahlzadeh, Gabrielle E; Kroeger, Kurt M; Tesarfreund, Matthew; Lee, Sharon; Debinski, Waldemar; Sareen, Dhruv; Svendsen, Clive N; Rodriguez, Ron; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2010-11-16

    Restricting the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents by targeting receptors exclusively expressed on tumor cells is critical when treating infiltrative brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBMs express an IL-13 receptor (IL13Rα2) that differs from the physiological IL4R/IL13R receptor. We developed a regulatable adenoviral vector (Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE) encoding a mutated human IL-13 fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin (mhIL-13-PE) that specifically binds to IL13Rα2 to provide sustained expression, effective anti-GBM cytotoxicity, and minimal neurotoxicity. The therapeutic Ad also encodes mutated human IL-4 that binds to the physiological IL4R/IL13R without interacting with IL13Rα2, thus inhibiting potential binding of mhIL-13-PE to normal brain cells. Using intracranial GBM xenografts and syngeneic mouse models, we tested the Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE and two protein formulations, hIL-13-PE used in clinical trials (Cintredekin Besudotox) and a second-generation mhIL-13-PE. Cintredekin Besudotox doubled median survival without eliciting long-term survival and caused severe neurotoxicity; mhIL-13-PE led to ∼40% long-term survival, eliciting severe neurological toxicity at the high dose tested. In contrast, Ad-mediated delivery of mhIL-13-PE led to tumor regression and long-term survival in over 70% of the animals, without causing apparent neurotoxicity. Although Cintredekin Besudotox was originally developed to target GBM, when tested in a phase III trial it failed to achieve clinical endpoints and revealed neurotoxicity. Limitations of Cintredekin Besudotox include its short half-life, which demanded frequent or continued administration, and binding to IL4R/IL13R, present in normal brain cells. These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM.

  5. Viral vectors and delivery strategies for CNS gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Steven J; Woodard, Kenton T; Samulski, R Jude

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to provide a broad overview of the targets, challenges and potential for gene therapy in the CNS, citing specific examples. There are a broad range of therapeutic targets, with very different requirements for a suitable viral vector. By utilizing different vector tropisms, novel routes of administration and engineered promoter control, transgenes can be targeted to specific therapeutic applications. Viral vectors have proven efficacious in preclinical models for several disease applications, spurring several clinical trials. While the field has pushed the limits of existing adeno-associated virus-based vectors, a next generation of vectors based on rational engineering of viral capsids should expand the application of gene therapy to be more effective in specific therapeutic applications. PMID:22833965

  6. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs.

  7. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs. PMID:26026665

  8. Rare serotype adenoviral vectors for HIV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Michael, Nelson L

    2012-01-01

    Human adenoviral vectors are being developed for use in candidate vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens. However, this approach suffered a setback when an HIV-1 vaccine using an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector failed to reduce, and might even have increased, the rate of HIV infection in men who were uncircumcised and who had preexisting antibodies specific for Ad5. This increased interest in the evaluation of serologically distinct adenoviral vectors. In this issue of the JCI, Frahm and coworkers report evidence that preexisting cellular immune responses directed toward Ad5 reduce the immunogenicity of antigens expressed in Ad5-vectored vaccines and have cross-reacting potential with non-Ad5 adenoviral vectors. The implications of this observation need to be carefully evaluated in future clinical trials of all serotypes of adenovirus-vectored vaccines.

  9. Split vector systems for ultra-targeted gene delivery: a contrivance to achieve ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2014-08-01

    Tightly controlled spatial localisation of therapeutic gene delivery is essential to maximize the benefits of somatic gene therapy in vivo and to reduce its undesired effects on the 'bystander' cell populations, most importantly germline cells. Indeed, complete ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy can only be achieved with ultra-targeted gene delivery, which excludes the risk of inadvertent germline gene transfer. Thus, it is desired to supplement existing strategies of physical focusing and biological (cell-specific) targeting of gene delivery with an additional principle for the rigid control over spread of gene transfer within the body. In this paper I advance the concept of 'combinatorial' targeting of therapeutic gene transfer in vivo. I hypothesize that it is possible to engineer complex gene delivery vector systems consisting of several components, each one of them capable of independent spread within the human body but incapable of independent facilitation of gene transfer. As the gene delivery augmented by such split vector systems would be reliant on the simultaneous availability of all the vector system components at a predetermined body site, it is envisaged that higher order reaction kinetics required for the assembly of the functional gene transfer configuration would sharpen spatial localisation of gene transfer via curtailing the blurring effect of the vector spread within the body. A particular implementation of such split vector system could be obtained through supplementing a viral therapeutic gene vector with a separate auxiliary vector carrying a non-integrative and non-replicative form of a gene (e.g., mRNA) coding for a cellular receptor of the therapeutic vector component. Gene-transfer-enabling components of the vector system, which would be delivered separately from the vector component loaded with the therapeutic gene cargo, could also be cell-membrane-insertion-proficient receptors, elements of artificial transmembrane channels

  10. The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Laube, Beth L

    2005-09-01

    Aerosolized medications have been used for centuries to treat respiratory diseases. Until recently, inhalation therapy focused primarily on the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler was the delivery device of choice. However, the role of aerosol therapy is clearly expanding beyond that initial focus. This expansion has been driven by the Montreal protocol and the need to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from traditional metered-dose inhalers, by the need for delivery devices and formulations that can efficiently and reproducibly target the systemic circulation for the delivery of proteins and peptides, and by developments in medicine that have made it possible to consider curing lung diseases with aerosolized gene therapy and preventing epidemics of influenza and measles with aerosolized vaccines. Each of these drivers has contributed to a decade or more of unprecedented research and innovation that has altered how we think about aerosol delivery and has expanded the role of aerosol therapy into the fields of systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination. During this decade of innovation, we have witnessed the coming of age of dry powder inhalers, the development of new soft mist inhalers, and improved pressurized metered-dose inhaler delivery as a result of the replacement of CFC propellants with hydrofluoroalkane. The continued expansion of the role of aerosol therapy will probably depend on demonstration of the safety of this route of administration for drugs that have their targets outside the lung and are administered long term (eg, insulin aerosol), on the development of new drugs and drug carriers that can efficiently target hard-to-reach cell populations within the lungs of patients with disease (eg, patients with cystic fibrosis or lung cancer), and on the development of devices that improve aerosol delivery to infants, so that early intervention in disease processes with aerosol

  11. Lipid nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery systems to the retina.

    PubMed

    del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Delgado, Diego; Gascón, Alicia R; Solinís, Maria Ángeles

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the application of lipid nanoparticles (Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, or Lipid Drug Conjugates) as effective drug/gene delivery systems for retinal diseases. Most drug products for ocular disease treatment are marketed as eye drop formulations but, due to ocular barriers, the drug concentration in the retina hardly ever turns out to be effective. Up to this date, several delivery systems have been designed to deliver drugs to the retina. Drug delivery strategies may be classified into 3 groups: noninvasive techniques, implants, and colloidal carriers. The best known systems for drug delivery to the posterior eye are intravitreal implants; in fact, some of them are being clinically used. However, their long-term accumulation might impact the patient's vision. On the contrary, colloidal drug delivery systems (microparticles, liposomes, or nanoparticles) can be easily administered in a liquid form. Nanoparticular systems diffuse rapidly and are better internalized in ocular tissues than microparticles. In comparison with liposomes, nanoparticles have a higher loading capacity and are more stable in biological fluids and during storage. In addition, their capacity to adhere to the ocular surface and interact with the endothelium makes these drug delivery systems interesting as new therapeutic tools in ophthalmology. Within the group of nanoparticles, those composed of lipids (Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Nanostructred Lipid Carriers, and Lipid Drug Conjugates) are more biocompatible, easy to produce at large scale, and they may be autoclaved or sterilized. The present review summarizes scientific results that evidence the potential application of lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems for the retina and also as nonviral vectors in gene therapy of retina disorders, although much more effort is still needed before these lipidic systems could be available in the market. PMID:23286300

  12. Enhancement of the efficiency of non-viral gene delivery by application of pulsed magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Kamau, Sarah W.; Hassa, Paul O.; Steitz, Benedikt; Petri-Fink, Alke; Hofmann, Heinrich; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    New approaches to increase the efficiency of non-viral gene delivery are still required. Here we report a simple approach that enhances gene delivery using permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. DNA plasmids and novel DNA fragments (PCR products) containing sequence encoding for green fluorescent protein were coupled to polyethylenimine coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs). The complexes were added to cells that were subsequently exposed to permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. Presence of these magnetic fields significantly increased the transfection efficiency 40 times more than in cells not exposed to the magnetic field. The transfection efficiency was highest when the nanoparticles were sedimented on the permanent magnet before the application of the pulsating field, both for small (50 nm) and large (200–250 nm) nanoparticles. The highly efficient gene transfer already within 5 min shows that this technique is a powerful tool for future in vivo studies, where rapid gene delivery is required before systemic clearance or filtration of the gene vectors occurs. PMID:16540591

  13. Multifunctional Spider Silk Polymers for Gene Delivery to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Glettig, Dean; Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery systems are important transport vehicles that can be safe and effective alternatives to currently available viral systems. A new family of multifunctional spider silk-based gene carriers was bioengineered and found capable of targeting human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). These carriers successfully delivered DNA to the nucleus of these mammalian cells. The presence of specific functional sequences in the recombinant proteins, such as a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the large tumor (T) antigen of the Simian virus 40 (SV40), an hMSC high affinity binding peptide (HAB), and a translocation motif (TLM) of the hepatitis-B virus surface protein (PreS2), and their roles in mitigation and enhancement of gene transfection efficiency towards hMSCs were characterized. The results demonstrate that these bioengineered spider silk proteins serve as effective carriers, without the well-known complications associated with viral delivery systems. PMID:25399785

  14. Tailoring the Surface of a Gene Delivery Vector with Carboxymethylated Dextran: A Systematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Charles; Louvier, Elodie; Durocher, Yves; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric nanocarriers are attractive nonviral vectors for gene delivery purposes in vivo. For such applications, numerous physiological and subcellular bottlenecks have to be overcome. In that endeavor, each structural feature of nanocarriers can be optimized with respect to its corresponding challenges. Here, we focused on the interface between a model gene delivery nanocarrier and relevant constituents of the physiological environment. We screened a library of carboxymethylated dextrans (CMD) for the electrostatic coating of positively charged nanocarriers. We evaluated the jointed influence of the CMD molecular weight and charge density upon nanocarrier coating with respect to DNase, small ions, plasma proteins, red blood cells, and target cells. A total of 4 out of 26 CMD coated nanocarriers successfully passed every screening assay, but did not yield increased reporter gene expression in target cells compared to uncoated nanocarriers. The fine-tuning of CMD for nanocarrier coating yielded a relevant shortlist of candidates that will be further tested in vivo. PMID:25876439

  15. Formation of liposome by microfluidic flow focusing and its application in gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Rinbok; Oh, Yeonsu; Chae, Chanhee; Kim, Do Hyun

    2012-06-01

    We report the formation of liposomes in a simple procedure using a microfluidic hydrodynamic flow focusing method for the application in gene delivery. We fabricated microfluidic device using soft lithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding technique. Lipid-containing stream was surrounded by aqueous stream and liposomes were formed at the lipid-water interface. Size distribution of liposomes and zeta potential of liposome dispersion were investigated under various flow rate ratio (FRR) and processing temperature. Size distributions of liposomes were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential was measured to quantify the colloidal stability. Prepared liposomes were used as a vehicle for gene delivery, and the successful expression of delivered gene was observed by fluorescent microscope.

  16. Bacterial spores as particulate carriers for gene gun delivery of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Aps, Luana R M M; Tavares, Milene B; Rozenfeld, Julio H K; Lamy, M Teresa; Ferreira, Luís C S; Diniz, Mariana O

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus subtilis spores represent a suitable platform for the adsorption of proteins, enzymes and viral particles at physiological conditions. In the present work, we demonstrate that purified spores can also adsorb DNA on their surface after treatment with cationic molecules. In addition, we demonstrate that DNA-coated B. subtilis spores can be used as particulate carriers and act as an alternative to gold microparticles for the biolistic (gene gun) administration of plasmid DNA in mice. Gene gun delivery of spores pre-treated with DODAB (dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide) allowed efficient plasmid DNA absorption and induced protein expression levels similar to those obtained with gold microparticles. More importantly, we demonstrated that a DNA vaccine adsorbed on spores can be loaded into biolistic cartridges and efficiently delivered into mice, which induced specific cellular and antibody responses. Altogether, these data indicate that B. subtilis spores represent a simple and low cost alternative for the in vivo delivery of DNA vaccines by the gene gun technology.

  17. Preparation and characterization of gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as intravesical gene delivery scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Wen; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Yu, Tsan-Jung; Tsai, Ching-Chung; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Tsai, Tong-Rong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as scaffolds for intravesical gene delivery to the urothelium. Hydrogels were prepared by chemically crosslinking gelatin A or B with glutaraldehyde. Physicochemical and delivery properties including hydration ratio, viscosity, size, yield, thermosensitivity, and enzymatic degradation were studied, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out. The optimal hydrogels (H), composed of 15% gelatin A175, displayed an 81.5% yield rate, 87.1% hydration ratio, 42.9 Pa·s viscosity, and 125.8 nm particle size. The crosslinking density of the hydrogels was determined by performing pronase degradation and ninhydrin assays. In vitro lentivirus (LV) release studies involving p24 capsid protein analysis in 293T cells revealed that hydrogels containing lentivirus (H-LV) had a higher cumulative release than that observed for LV alone (3.7-, 2.3-, and 2.3-fold at days 1, 3, and 5, resp.). Lentivirus from lentivector constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP) was then entrapped in hydrogels (H-LV-GFP). H-LV-GFP showed enhanced gene delivery in AY-27 cells in vitro and to rat urothelium by intravesical instillation in vivo. Cystometrogram showed mucoadhesive H-LV reduced peak micturition and threshold pressure and increased bladder compliance. In this study, we successfully developed first optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as intravesical gene delivery scaffolds. PMID:25580433

  18. Versatile types of polysaccharide-based supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Bingran; Liu, Fusheng; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2014-06-01

    Different polysaccharide-based supramolecular polycations were readily synthesized by assembling multiple β-cyclodextrin-cored star polycations with an adamantane-functionalized dextran via host-guest interaction in the absence or presence of bioreducible linkages. Compared with nanoplexes of the starting star polycation and pDNA, the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes exhibited similarly low cytotoxicity, improved cellular internalization and significantly higher gene transfection efficiencies. The incorporation of disulfide linkages imparted the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes with the advantage of intracellular bioreducibility, resulting in better gene delivery properties. In addition, the antitumor properties of supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes were also investigated using a suicide gene therapy system. The present study demonstrates that the proper assembly of cyclodextrin-cored polycations with adamantane-functionalized polysaccharides is an effective strategy for the production of new nanoplex delivery systems.Different polysaccharide-based supramolecular polycations were readily synthesized by assembling multiple β-cyclodextrin-cored star polycations with an adamantane-functionalized dextran via host-guest interaction in the absence or presence of bioreducible linkages. Compared with nanoplexes of the starting star polycation and pDNA, the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes exhibited similarly low cytotoxicity, improved cellular internalization and significantly higher gene transfection efficiencies. The incorporation of disulfide linkages imparted the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes with the advantage of intracellular bioreducibility, resulting in better gene delivery properties. In addition, the antitumor properties of supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes were also investigated using a suicide gene therapy system. The present study demonstrates that the proper assembly of cyclodextrin-cored polycations

  19. High capacity nanoporous silicon carrier for systemic delivery of gene silencing therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianliang; Xu, Rong; Mai, Junhua; Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2013-11-26

    Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91 and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of subacute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents.

  20. Design and characterization of novel recombinant listeriolysin O-protamine fusion proteins for enhanced gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Hyung; Provoda, Chester; Lee, Kyung-Dall

    2015-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of gene delivery for effective gene therapy, it is essential that the vector carries functional components that can promote overcoming barriers in various steps leading to the transport of DNA from extracellular to ultimately nuclear compartment. In this study, we designed genetically engineered fusion proteins as a platform to incorporate multiple functionalities in one chimeric protein. Prototypes of such a chimera tested here contain two domains: one that binds to DNA; the other that can facilitate endosomal escape of DNA. The fusion proteins are composed of listeriolysin O (LLO), the endosomolytic pore-forming protein from Listeria monocytogenes, and a 22 amino acid sequence of the DNA-condensing polypeptide protamine (PN), singly or as a pair: LLO-PN and LLO-PNPN. We demonstrate dramatic enhancement of the gene delivery efficiency of protamine-condensed DNA upon incorporation of a small amount of LLO-PN fusion protein and further improvement with LLO-PNPN in vitro using cultured cells. Additionally, the association of anionic liposomes with cationic LLO-PNPN/protamine/DNA complexes, yielding a net negative surface charge, resulted in better in vitro transfection efficiency in the presence of serum. An initial, small set of data in mice indicated that the observed enhancement in gene expression could also be applicable to in vivo gene delivery. This study suggests that incorporation of a recombinant fusion protein with multiple functional components, such as LLO-protamine fusion protein, in a nonviral vector is a promising strategy for various nonviral gene delivery systems.

  1. A Cell-Penetrating Peptide with a Guanidinylethyl Amine Structure Directed to Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Makoto; Kato, Takuma; Furukawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A peptide composed of lysine with a guanidinylethyl (GEt) amine structure in the side chain [Lys(GEt)] was developed as a cell-penetrating peptide directed to plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery. The GEt amine adopted a diprotonated form at neutral pH, which may have led to the more efficient cellular uptake of a Lys(GEt)-peptide than an arginine-peptide at a low concentration. Lys(GEt)-peptide/pDNA complexes showed the highest transfection efficiency due to efficient endosomal escape without any cytotoxicity. Lys(GEt)-peptide may be a promising candidate as a gene delivery carrier.

  2. Gene delivery in conjunction with gold nanoparticle and tumor treating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pawan K.; Soo Lee, Yeon

    2013-08-01

    The advances in electrotherapy to treat the diseased biological cell instigate its extension in gene therapy through the delivery of gene into the nucleus. The objective of this study is to investigate the application of moderate intensity alternating electric field, also known as tumor treating electric field on a carrier system consisting of a charged gene complex conjugated to the surface of a gold nanoparticle. The gene delivery mechanism relies on the magnitude and direction of the induced electric field inside the cytoplasm in presence of carrier system. The induced electric field strength is significant in breaking the gene complex-gold nanoparticle bonding, and exerting an electric force pushing the charged gene into the nucleus. The electric force orientation is dependent on the aspect ratio (AR) of the gold nanoparticle and a relationship between them is studied via Maxwell two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulation analyzer. The development of charge density on the surface of carrier system and the required electric field strength to break the bonding are investigated utilizing the Gouy-Chapman-Grahame-Stern (GCGS) theoretical model. A carrier system having the aspect ratio of the gold nanoparticle in the range 1 < AR ≤ 5 and AR = 1 are substantial delivering cationic and anionic genes into the nucleus, respectively.

  3. Adenoviral infection or deferoxamine? Two approaches to overexpress VEGF in beta-cell lines.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Allan; Bietiger, William; Sencier, Marie-Christine; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Kessler, Laurence; Sigrist, Severine

    2009-07-01

    Rapid and adequate revascularization of transplanted islets is important for their survival and function during transplantation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a critical role with respect to islet revascularization. The aim of this study was to compare two strategies that are used to overexpress VEGF in beta-cells: (1) gene therapy through adenoviral infection and (2) a pharmacological approach using deferoxamine (DFO). beta-Cell lines from rat insulinoma (RINm5F) were either infected using an adenovirus encoding the gene of human VEGF 165 or incubated with DFO. One day after treatment, the viability of RINm5F cells was preserved with 10 micromol/L of DFO (103.95 +/- 5.66% toward control; n = 4). In addition, adenoviral infection maintained the viability of cells for all the concentrations used. In both treatments, overexpression of VEGF was in a comparable level. Finally, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 indicated that the apoptosis increased in infected beta-cells whereas treatment with DFO seems to be antiapoptotic. Our results suggest that the use of DFO could be a realistic approach to improve the vascularization of islets during transplantation. PMID:19527112

  4. Delivery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-11-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms.

  5. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polyaminoacidic polycations for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Mariano; Campisi, Monica; Cavallaro, Gennara; Cervello, Melchiorre; Azzolina, Antonina; Giammona, Gaetano

    2006-03-01

    The properties as non viral gene vector of a protein-like polymer, the alpha,beta-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA) were exploited after its derivatization with 3-(carboxypropyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CPTA) as molecule bearing a cationic group, in order to obtain stable polycations able to condense DNA. PHEA was firstly functionalized with aminic pendant groups by reaction with ethylenediamine (EDA) obtaining the alpha,beta-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)(2-aminoethylcarbamate)-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA-EDA) copolymer. We demonstrated that polymer functionalization degree is easily modulable by varying reaction conditions, so allowing to produce two PHEA-EDA derivatives at different molar percentage of amine groups. Subsequently, the condensation reaction of PHEA-EDA copolymers with CPTA yielded alpha,beta-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)(2-[3-(trimethylammonium chloride)propylamide]-amidoethylcarbamate)-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA-EDA-CPTA) polycation derivatives. In vitro studies were carried out to evaluate polycations ability to complex DNA and to protect it from nuclease degradation. Obtained results demonstrated the good ability of our new PHEA polycationic derivatives, PHEA-EDA-CPTA, to complex and condense genomic material, neutralizing its anionic charge even at very low polycation/DNA weight ratio. Finally, PHEA-EDA-CPTA polycations were characterized by in vitro cytotoxicity studies to evaluate their effects on the viability of HuH-6 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by MTS assay. No cytotoxicity was evidenced by both polycationic derivatives after 48h of incubation at all tested concentrations.

  7. New development and application of ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction in gene therapy and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Qiu, Ri-Xiang; Jiang, Lan; Zhou, Xing-Xing; Yu, Jiang-Xiu

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasound is a common used technique for clinical imaging. In recent years, with the advances in preparation technology of microbubbles and the innovations in ultrasound imaging, ultrasound is no longer confined to detection of tissue perfusion, but extends to specific ultrasound molecular imaging and target therapy gradually. With the development of research, ultrasound molecular imaging and target therapy have made great progresses. Targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging are achieved by binding target molecules, specific antibody or ligand to the surface of microbubbles to obtain specific imaging by attaching to target tissues. Meanwhile, it can also achieve targeting gene therapy or drug delivery by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) mediating genes or drugs to specific target sites. UTMD has a number of advantages, such as target-specific, highly effective, non-invasivity, relatively low-cost and no radiation, and has broad application prospects, which is regarded as one hot spot in medical studies. We reviewed the new development and application of UTMD in gene therapy and drug delivery in this paper. With further development of technology and research, the gene or drug delivery system and related methods will be widely used in application and researches.

  8. Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. Methods In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize delivery of a plasmid construct that expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Transgene expression was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry. Toxicities of the methods were estimated by trypan blue staining. In order to evaluate the density of the transfected gene, we used a plasmid construct that expressed the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) gene and measured its expression by real-time PCR. Results Mean levels of GFP-expressing cells 48 hr after transfection were 8.4% (CaP), 8.2% (DEAE-dextran), 4.9% (superfect), 34.1% (electroporation), and 40.1% (lipofection). Lipofection had the highest intense SDF-1 expression of the analyzed methods. Conclusion This study has shown that the lipofection and electroporation methods were more efficient at gene delivery to Mehr-80 cells. The quantity of DNA per transfection, reagent concentration, and incubation time were identified as essential factors for successful transfection in all of the studied methods. PMID:23799175

  9. Trastuzumab-targeted gene delivery to Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mann, K; Kullberg, M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel gene delivery system that specifically targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The targeting complexes consist of a PEGylated polylysine core that is bound to DNA molecules coding for either green fluorescent protein or shrimp luciferase. The complex is disulfide linked to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and to a pore-forming protein, Listeriolysin O (LLO). Trastuzumab is responsible for specific targeting of Her2 receptors and uptake of the gene delivery complex into endosomes of recipient cells, whereas LLO ensures that the DNA molecules are capable of transit from the endosomes into the cytoplasm. Omission of either trastuzumab or LLO from the nanocomplexes results in minimal gene product in targeted cells. Treatment of isogeneic MCF7 and MCF7/Her18 cell lines, differing only in number of Her2 receptors, with the complete gene delivery system results in a 30-fold greater expression of luciferase activity in the Her2-overexpressing MCF7/Her18 cells. Our nanocomplexes are small (150–250 nm), stable to storage, nontoxic and generic in make-up such that any plasmid DNA or antibody specific for cell-surface receptors can be coupled to the PEGylated polylysine core. PMID:27199219

  10. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to mucosal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Samuel K.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Hanes, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Mucus is a viscoelastic and adhesive gel that protects the lung airways, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, vagina, eye and other mucosal surfaces. Most foreign particulates, including conventional particle-based drug delivery systems, are efficiently trapped in human mucus layers by steric obstruction and/or adhesion. Trapped particles are typically removed from the mucosal tissue within seconds to a few hours depending on anatomical location, thereby strongly limiting the duration of sustained drug delivery locally. A number of debilitating diseases could be treated more effectively and with fewer side effects if drugs and genes could be more efficiently delivered to the underlying mucosal tissues in a controlled manner. This review first describes the tenacious mucus barrier properties that have precluded the efficient penetration of therapeutic particles. It then reviews the design and development of new mucus-penetrating particles that may avoid rapid mucus clearance mechanisms, and thereby provide targeted or sustained drug delivery for localized therapies in mucosal tissues. PMID:19133304

  11. Polyethylenimine-cyclodextrin-tegafur conjugate shows anti-cancer activity and a potential for gene delivery*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-da; Fan, Hui; Lou, Wei-jian; Wang, Qing-qing; Tang, Gu-ping

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylenimine-cyclodextrin-tegafur (PEI-CyD-tegafur) conjugate was synthesized as a novel multifunctional prodrug of tegafur for co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agent tegafur and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter plasmid DNA. Conjugation of tegafur to PEI-CyD via chemical linkage was characterized by 1H NMR spectrometry and ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. PEI-CyD-tegafur was able to condense plasmid DNA into complexes of around 150 nm with positive charge at the N/P ratio of 25, in accordance with electron microscopy observation of compact and monodisperse nanoparticles. The results of in vitro experiments showed enhanced cytotoxicity and considerable transfection efficiency in B16F10 cell line. Therefore, PEI-CyD-tegafur may have great potential as a co-delivery system with anti-cancer activity and potential for gene delivery. PMID:21887847

  12. Surface-Engineered Viral Vectors for Selective and Cell Type-Specific Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Christian J; Friedel, Thorsten; Büning, Hildegard

    2015-12-01

    Recent progress in gene transfer technology enables the delivery of genes precisely to the application-relevant cell type ex vivo on cultivated primary cells or in vivo on local or systemic administration. Gene vectors based on lentiviruses or adeno-associated viruses can be engineered such that they use a cell surface marker of choice for cell entry instead of their natural receptors. Binding to the surface marker is mediated by a targeting ligand displayed on the vector particle surface, which can be a peptide, single-chain antibody, or designed ankyrin repeat protein. Examples include vectors that deliver genes to specialized endothelial cells or lymphocytes, tumor cells, or particular cells of the nervous system with potential applications in gene function studies and molecular medicine.

  13. Cell-Targeting Cationic Gene Delivery System Based on a Modular Design Rationale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Xu, Luming; Jin, Yang; Qi, Chao; Li, Qilin; Zhang, Yunti; Jiang, Xulin; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    En route to target cells, a gene carrier faces multiple extra- and intracellular hurdles that would affect delivery efficacy. Although diverse strategies have been proposed to functionalize gene carriers for individually overcoming these barriers, it is challenging to generate a single multifunctional gene carrier capable of surmounting all these barriers. Aiming at this challenge, we have developed a supramolecular modular approach to fabricate a multifunctional cationic gene delivery system. It consists of two prefunctionalized modules: (1) a host module: a polymer (PCD-SS-PDMAEMA) composed of poly(β-cyclodextrin) backbone and disulfide-linked PDMAEMA arms, expectedly acting to compact DNA and release DNA upon cleavage of disulfide linkers in reductive microenvironment; and (2) a guest module: adamantyl and folate terminated PEG (Ad-PEG-FA), expectedly functioning to reduce nonspecific interactions, improve biocompatibility, and provide folate-mediated cellular targeting specificity. Through the host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin units of the "host" module and adamantyl groups of the "guest" module, the PCD-SS-PDMAEMA-1 (host) and Ad-PEG-FA (guest) self-assemble forming a supramolecular pseudocopolymer (PCD-SS-PDMAEMA-1/PEG-FA). Our comprehensive analyses demonstrate that the functions preassigned to the two building modules are well realized. The gene carrier effectively compacts DNA into stable nanosized polyplexes resistant to enzymatic digestion, triggers DNA release in reducing environment, possesses significantly improved hemocompatibility, and specifically targets folate-receptor positive cells. Most importantly, endowed with these predesigned functions, the PCD-SS-PDMAEMA-1/PEG-FA supramolecular gene carrier exhibits excellent transfection efficacy for both pDNA and siRNA. Thus, this work represents a proof-of-concept example showing the efficiency and convenience of an adaptable, modular approach for conferring multiple functions to a single

  14. Real-time fluorescence tracking of gene delivery via multifunctional nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bai, Min; Bai, Xilin; Wang, Leyu

    2014-11-18

    Fluorescence imaging of transduced cells and tissues is valuable in the development of gene vectors and the evaluation of gene therapy efficacy. We report here the simple and rational design of multifunctional nanocomposites (NCs) for simultaneous gene delivery and fluorescence tracking based on ZnS:Mn(2+) quantum dots (QDs) and positively charged polymer coating. The positively charged imidazole in the as-synthesized amphiphilic copolymer can be used for gene loading via electrostatic interaction. While the introduced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can be used to reduce the binding of plasma proteins to nanovectors and minimize clearance by the reticuloendothelial system after intravenous administration. Most importantly, these multifunctional nanovectors showed much lower cellular toxicity than the commercial polyethylenimine (PEI) transfection vectors. On the basis of the red fluorescence of QDs, we can real-time track the gene delivery in cells, and the transfection efficacy of pDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP) was monitored via the green fluorescence of the GFP expressed by the pDNA delivered into the nuclei. Fluorescence imaging analysis confirmed that the QDs-based nanovectors delivered pDNA into HepG2 cells efficiently. These new insights and capabilities pave a new way toward nanocomposite engineering for fluorescence imaging tracking of gene therapy.

  15. Avidin-biotin interaction mediated peptide assemblies as efficient gene delivery vectors for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wei; Chen, Wei-Hai; Kuang, Ying; Zeng, Xuan; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhou, Xiang; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy offers a bright future for the treatment of cancers. One of the research highlights focuses on smart gene delivery vectors with good biocompatibility and tumor-targeting ability. Here, a novel gene vector self-assembled through avidin-biotin interaction with optimized targeting functionality, biotinylated tumor-targeting peptide/avidin/biotinylated cell-penetrating peptide (TAC), was designed and prepared to mediate the in vitro and in vivo delivery of p53 gene. TAC exhibited efficient DNA-binding ability and low cytotoxicity. In in vitro transfection assay, TAC/p53 complexes showed higher transfection efficiency and expression amount of p53 protein in MCF-7 cells as compared with 293T and HeLa cells, primarily due to the specific recognition between tumor-targeting peptides and receptors on MCF-7 cells. Additionally, by in situ administration of TAC/p53 complexes into tumor-bearing mice, the expression of p53 gene was obviously upregulated in tumor cells, and the tumor growth was significantly suppressed. This study provides an alternative and unique strategy to assemble functionalized peptides, and the novel self-assembled vector TAC developed is a promising gene vector for cancer therapy.

  16. Evaluation and mechanism studies of PEGylated dendrigraft poly-L-lysines as novel gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongqin; Liu, Shuhuan; Shao, Kun; Han, Liang; Ke, Weilun; Liu, Yang; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Shixian; Jiang, Chen

    2010-07-01

    Dendrimers have attracted great interest in the field of gene delivery due to their synthetic controllability and excellent gene transfection efficiency. In this work, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs) were evaluated as a novel gene vector for the first time. Derivatives of DGLs (generation 2 and 3) with different extents of PEGylation were successfully synthesized and used to compact pDNA as complexes. The result of gel retardation assay showed that pDNA could be effectively packed by all the vectors at a DGLs to pDNA weight ratio greater than 2. An increase in the PEGylation extent of vectors resulted in a decrease in the incorporation efficiency and cytotoxicity of complexes in 293 cells, which also decreased the zeta potential a little but did not affect the mean diameter of complexes. Higher generation of DGLs could mediate higher gene transfection in vitro. Confocal microscopy and cellular uptake inhibition studies demonstrated that caveolae-mediated process and macropinocytosis were involved in the cellular uptake of DGLs-based complexes. Also the results indicate that proper PEGylated DGLs could mediate efficient gene transfection, showing their potential as an alternate biodegradable vector in the field of nonviral gene delivery.

  17. The potential of adeno-associated viral vectors for gene delivery to muscle tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nahid, M Abu; Gao, Guangping

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Muscle-directed gene therapy is rapidly gaining attention primarily because muscle is an easily accessible target tissue and is also associated with various severe genetic disorders. Localized and systemic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors of several serotypes results in very efficient transduction of skeletal and cardiac muscles, which has been achieved in both small and large animals, as well as in humans. Muscle is the target tissue in gene therapy for many muscular dystrophy diseases, and may also be exploited as a biofactory to produce secretory factors for systemic disorders. Current limitations of using rAAVs for muscle gene transfer include vector size restriction, potential safety concerns such as off-target toxicity and the immunological barrier composing of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T-cell response against AAV capsid in humans. Areas covered In this article, we will discuss basic AAV vector biology and its application in muscle-directed gene delivery, as well as potential strategies to overcome the aforementioned limitations of rAAV for further clinical application. Expert opinion Delivering therapeutic genes to large muscle mass in humans is arguably the most urgent unmet demand in treating diseases affecting muscle tissues throughout the whole body. Muscle-directed, rAAV-mediated gene transfer for expressing antibodies is a promising strategy to combat deadly infectious diseases. Developing strategies to circumvent the immune response following rAAV administration in humans will facilitate clinical application. PMID:24386892

  18. Carbon nanotubes part II: a remarkable carrier for drug and gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahdi; Solati, Navid; Ghasemi, Amir; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Hashemkhani, Mahshid; Kiani, Parnian; Mohamed, Elmira; Saeidi, Ahad; Taheri, Mahdiar; Avci, Pinar; Aref, Amir R; Amiri, Mohammad; Baniasadi, Fazel; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have recently been studied as novel and versatile drug and gene delivery vehicles. When CNT are suitably functionalized, they can interact with various cell types and are taken up by endocytosis. Areas covered Anti-cancer drugs cisplatin and doxorubicin have been delivered by CNT, as well as methotrexate, taxol and gemcitabine. The delivery of the antifungal compound amphotericin B and the oral administration of erythropoietin have both been assisted using CNT. Frequently, targeting moieties such as folic acid, epidermal growth factor or various antibodies are attached to the CNT-drug nanovehicle. Different kinds of functionalization (e.g., polycations) have been used to allow CNT to act as gene delivery vectors. Plasmid DNA, small interfering RNA and micro-RNA have all been delivered by CNT vehicles. Significant concerns are raised about the nanotoxicology of the CNT and their potentially damaging effects on the environment. Expert opinion CNT-mediated drug delivery has been studied for over a decade, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have been reported. The future success of CNTs as vectors in vivo and in clinical application will depend on achievement of efficacious therapy with minimal adverse effects and avoidance of possible toxic and environmentally damaging effects. PMID:25613837

  19. New cyclodextrin derivative containing poly(L-lysine) dendrons for gene and drug co-delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Yu-Yun; Lin, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2013-09-01

    To develop a multifunctional polymeric carrier for gene and drug co-delivery, a new cyclodextrin derivative containing poly(L-lysine) dendrons was prepared by the click conjugation of per-6-azido-β-cyclodextrin with propargyl focal point poly(L-lysine) dendron of third generation and then characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, and GPC analyses. It was found that such a conjugate could form colloidally stable nanocomplexes with plasmid DNA in aqueous system and exhibited high gene transfection efficiency. Moreover, it could load efficiently methotrexate drug with anticancer activity and showed a sustained release behavior. Different from commonly used amphiphilic copolymers with cationic character, the as obtained cyclodextrin derivative may be used directly for the combinatorial delivery of nucleic acid and lipophilic anticancer drugs without a complicated micellization process. PMID:23769303

  20. Asymmetric 1-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidylcholine: a helper lipid for enhanced non-viral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaohua; Li, Weijun; Szoka, Francis C

    2012-05-01

    Rationally designed asymmetrical alkylacyl phosphatidylcholines (APC) have been synthesized and evaluated as helper lipids for non-viral gene delivery. A long aliphatic chain (C22-C24) was introduced at the 1-position of glycerol backbone, a branched lipid chain (C18) at the 2-position, and a phosphocholine head group at the 3-position. The fusogenicity of APC depends on the length and degree of saturation of the alkyl chain. Cationic lipids were formulated with APC as either lipoplexes or nanolipoparticles, and evaluated for their stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. APC mediated high in vitro transfection efficiency, and had low cytotoxicity. Small nanolipoparticles (less than 100 nm) can be obtained with APC by applying as low as 0.1% PEG-lipid. Our study extends the type of helper lipids that are suitable for gene transfer and points the way to improve non-viral nucleic acid delivery system other than the traditional cationic lipids optimization.

  1. Early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression and risk of preterm delivery: a nested case control study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery (PTD) is a significant public health problem associated with greater risk of mortality and morbidity in infants and mothers. Pathophysiologic processes that may lead to PTD start early in pregnancy. We investigated early pregnancy peripheral blood global gene expression and PTD risk. Methods As part of a prospective study, ribonucleic acid was extracted from blood samples (collected at 16 weeks gestational age) from 14 women who had PTD (cases) and 16 women who delivered at term (controls). Gene expressions were measured using the GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Student's T-test and fold change analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes. We used hierarchical clustering and principle components analysis to characterize signature gene expression patterns among cases and controls. Pathway and promoter sequence analyses were used to investigate functions and functional relationships as well as regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes. Results A total of 209 genes, including potential candidate genes (e.g. PTGDS, prostaglandin D2 synthase 21 kDa), were differentially expressed. A set of these genes achieved accurate pre-diagnostic separation of cases and controls. These genes participate in functions related to immune system and inflammation, organ development, metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid) and cell signaling. Binding sites of putative transcription factors such as EGR1 (early growth response 1), TFAP2A (transcription factor AP2A), Sp1 (specificity protein 1) and Sp3 (specificity protein 3) were over represented in promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR confirmed microarray expression measurements of selected genes. Conclusions PTD is associated with maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression changes. Maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression patterns may be useful for better understanding of PTD pathophysiology and PTD risk

  2. Integrating mitosis, toxicity, and transgene expression in a telecommunications packet-switched network model of lipoplex-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Timothy M; Wysocki, Beata J; Beyersdorf, Jared P; Wysocki, Tadeusz A; Pannier, Angela K

    2014-08-01

    Gene delivery systems transport exogenous genetic information to cells or biological systems with the potential to directly alter endogenous gene expression and behavior with applications in functional genomics, tissue engineering, medical devices, and gene therapy. Nonviral systems offer advantages over viral systems because of their low immunogenicity, inexpensive synthesis, and easy modification but suffer from lower transfection levels. The representation of gene transfer using models offers perspective and interpretation of complex cellular mechanisms,including nonviral gene delivery where exact mechanisms are unknown. Here, we introduce a novel telecommunications model of the nonviral gene delivery process in which the delivery of the gene to a cell is synonymous with delivery of a packet of information to a destination computer within a packet-switched computer network. Such a model uses nodes and layers to simplify the complexity of modeling the transfection process and to overcome several challenges of existing models. These challenges include a limited scope and limited time frame, which often does not incorporate biological effects known to affect transfection. The telecommunication model was constructed in MATLAB to model lipoplex delivery of the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein to HeLa cells. Mitosis and toxicity events were included in the model resulting in simulation outputs of nuclear internalization and transfection efficiency that correlated with experimental data. A priori predictions based on model sensitivity analysis suggest that increasing endosomal escape and decreasing lysosomal degradation, protein degradation, and GFP-induced toxicity can improve transfection efficiency by three-fold. Application of the telecommunications model to nonviral gene delivery offers insight into the development of new gene delivery systems with therapeutically relevant transfection levels.

  3. Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Various Cancer Types Using a Modified Sleeping Beauty-Based Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Successful gene therapy largely depends on the selective introduction of therapeutic genes into the appropriate target cancer cells. One of the most effective and promising approaches for targeting tumor tissue during gene delivery is the use of viral vectors, which allow for high efficiency gene delivery. However, the use of viral vectors is not without risks and safety concerns, such as toxicities, a host immune response towards the viral antigens or potential viral recombination into the host's chromosome; these risks limit the clinical application of viral vectors. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based system is an attractive, non-viral alternative to viral delivery systems. SB may be less immunogenic than the viral vector system due to its lack of viral sequences. The SB-based gene delivery system can stably integrate into the host cell genome to produce the therapeutic gene product over the lifetime of a cell. However, when compared to viral vectors, the non-viral SB-based gene delivery system still has limited therapeutic efficacy due to the lack of long-lasting gene expression potential and tumor cell specific gene transfer ability. These limitations could be overcome by modifying the SB system through the introduction of the hTERT promoter and the SV40 enhancer. In this study, a modified SB delivery system, under control of the hTERT promoter in conjunction with the SV40 enhancer, was able to successfully transfer the suicide gene (HSV-TK) into multiple types of cancer cells. The modified SB transfected cancer cells exhibited a significantly increased cancer cell specific death rate. These data suggest that our modified SB-based gene delivery system can be used as a safe and efficient tool for cancer cell specific therapeutic gene transfer and stable long-term expression. PMID:24466025

  4. [Gene therapy: nucleic acids as drugs. Action mechanisms and delivery into the cell].

    PubMed

    Cavagnari, Brian M

    2011-06-01

    Gene therapy involves the transference of new genetic material to the cell in order to obtain a therapeutic benefit, offering a new option for the treatment of various diseases. In this article, some of these nucleic acid-based drugs, such as plasmids, aptamers, oligonucleotides, ribozymes and small interfering ribonucleic acid, are presented. Their mechanism and level of action is commented and several delivery systems, such as liposomes, cationic polymers, direct nucleic acid transfer and viral vectors, are also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles by nanoparticle tracking analysis and high-throughput flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, Ron B; Bhise, Nupura S; Green, Jordan J

    2013-03-01

    Non-viral gene delivery using polymeric nanoparticles has emerged as an attractive approach for gene therapy to treat genetic diseases(1) and as a technology for regenerative medicine(2). Unlike viruses, which have significant safety issues, polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, non-mutagenic, easier to synthesize, chemically versatile, capable of carrying larger nucleic acid cargo and biodegradable and/or environmentally responsive. Cationic polymers self-assemble with negatively charged DNA via electrostatic interaction to form complexes on the order of 100 nm that are commonly termed polymeric nanoparticles. Examples of biomaterials used to form nanoscale polycationic gene delivery nanoparticles include polylysine, polyphosphoesters, poly(amidoamines)s and polyethylenimine (PEI), which is a non-degradable off-the-shelf cationic polymer commonly used for nucleic acid delivery(1,3) . Poly(beta-amino ester)s (PBAEs) are a newer class of cationic polymers(4) that are hydrolytically degradable(5,6) and have been shown to be effective at gene delivery to hard-to-transfect cell types such as human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs)(7), mouse mammary epithelial cells(8), human brain cancer cells(9) and macrovascular (human umbilical vein, HUVECs) endothelial cells(10). A new protocol to characterize polymeric nanoparticles utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is described. In this approach, both the particle size distribution and the distribution of the number of plasmids per particle are obtained(11). In addition, a high-throughput 96-well plate transfection assay for rapid screening of the transfection efficacy of polymeric nanoparticles is presented. In this protocol, poly(beta-amino ester)s (PBAEs) are used as model polymers and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) are used as model human cells. This protocol can be easily adapted to evaluate any polymeric nanoparticle and any cell type of interest in a multi

  6. Lipid peptide nanocomplexes for gene delivery and magnetic resonance imaging in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Writer, Michele J.; Kyrtatos, Panagiotis G.; Bienemann, Alison S.; Pugh, John A.; Lowe, Andrew S.; Villegas-Llerena, Claudio; Kenny, Gavin D.; White, Edward A.; Gill, Steven S.; McLeod, Cameron W.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Hart, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Gadolinium-labelled nanocomplexes offer prospects for the development of real-time, non-invasive imaging strategies to visualise the location of gene delivery by MRI. In this study, targeted nanoparticle formulations were prepared comprising a cationic liposome (L) containing a Gd-chelated lipid at 10, 15 and 20% by weight of total lipid, a receptor-targeted, DNA-binding peptide (P) and plasmid DNA (D), which electrostatically self-assembled into LPD nanocomplexes. The LPD formulation containing the liposome with 15% Gd-chelated lipid displayed optimal peptide-targeted, transfection efficiency. MRI conspicuity peaked at 4 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes with cells, suggesting enhancement by cellular uptake and trafficking. This was supported by time course confocal microscopy analysis of transfections with fluorescently-labelled LPD nanocomplexes. Gd-LPD nanocomplexes delivered to rat brains by convection-enhanced delivery were visible by MRI at 6 h, 24 h and 48 h after administration. Histological brain sections analysed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) confirmed that the MRI signal was associated with the distribution of Gd3 + moieties and differentiated MRI signals due to haemorrhage. The transfected brain cells near the injection site appeared to be mostly microglial. This study shows the potential of Gd-LPD nanocomplexes for simultaneous delivery of contrast agents and genes for real-time monitoring of gene therapy in the brain. PMID:22800579

  7. A self-assembled system for tumor-targeted co-delivery of drug and gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Min; Yang, Tie; Ding, Xuefang; Bao, Xiuli; Ding, Yang; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Ying; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-11-01

    A new cationic polymer eprosartan-graft-PEI (ESP) containing eprosartan (ES) and polyethylenimine 1.8K was successfully developed and employed as a safe gene vector to assemble a drug (ES) and gene co-delivery complex (ESP/pDNA). Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was then used as a coating polymer to shield the surface charge of ESP/pDNA complexes, as well as a tumor targeting entity to ensure specific delivery of CS/ESP/pDNA complexes. The CS/ESP/pDNA complexes with desirable particle size and zeta potential, exhibited amidase-responsive drug release and CS-mediated endocytosis in vitro. As compared with ESP/pDNA complexes, in vivo imaging results demonstrated decreased reticuloendothelial system uptake and remarkably increased tumor accumulation of CS/ESP/pDNA complexes. All these findings indicated the potential of CS/ESP/pDNA as a promising tumor-targeted drug and gene co-delivery system. PMID:26249591

  8. Gene Delivery Mediated by Recombinant Silk Proteins Containing Cationic and Cell Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Keiji; Hamasaki, Juliana; Subramanian, Balajikarthick; Kaplan, David L

    2010-01-01

    Silk proteins are biodegradable and biocompatible, and can also be tailored to contain additional features via genetic engineering, suggesting utility for gene delivery. In the present study, novel silk-based block copolymers were bioengineered both with poly(L-lysine) domains to interact with plasmid DNA (pDNA) and RGD, to enhance cell-binding and transfection efficiency. Ionic complexes of these silk-polylysine-RGD block copolymers with pDNA were prepared, characterized and utilized for gene delivery to HeLa cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. The material systems were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, zeta-potentialmeter, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Sizes and charges of the pDNA complexes were regulated by the polymer/nucleotide molar ratio. Samples with 30-lysine residues and 11 RGD sequences, prepared at the ratio of number of amines/phosphates from pDNA (N/P) of 2, had an average solution diameter of 186 nm and showed the highest transfection efficiency. The intracellular distribution of complexes of Cy5-labeled pDNA was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The Cy5-labeled pDNA was distributed near the cell membrane and around the nuclei, indicating that the pDNA was transferred near the nucleus. The results demonstrated the potential of bioengineered silk proteins with additional functional features as a new family of highly tailored gene delivery systems. PMID:20457191

  9. Preparation and characterization of liposome-encapsulated plasmid DNA for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rachel M; Pearce, Timothy R; Adil, Maroof; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2013-07-23

    The success of common nonviral gene delivery vehicles, lipoplexes and polyplexes, is limited by the toxicity and instability of these charged molecules. Stealth liposomes could provide a stable, safe alternative to cationic DNA complexes for effective gene delivery. DNA encapsulations in three stealth liposomal formulations prepared by thin film, reverse phase evaporation, and asymmetric liposome formation were compared, and the thin film method was found to produce the highest yields of encapsulated DNA. A DNA quantification method appropriate for DNA encapsulated within liposomes was also developed and verified for accuracy. The effect of initial lipid and DNA concentrations on the encapsulation yield and fraction of DNA-filled liposomes was evaluated. Higher encapsulation yields were achieved by higher lipid contents, while a higher fraction of DNA-filled liposomes was produced by either lower lipid content or higher DNA concentration. Control of these parameters allows for the design of gene delivery nanoparticles with high DNA encapsulation yields or higher fraction of DNA-filled liposomes. PMID:23837701

  10. Particle tracking in drug and gene delivery research: State-of-the-art applications and methods.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Benjamin S; Ensign, Laura M; Allan, Daniel B; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    2015-08-30

    Particle tracking is a powerful microscopy technique to quantify the motion of individual particles at high spatial and temporal resolution in complex fluids and biological specimens. Particle tracking's applications and impact in drug and gene delivery research have greatly increased during the last decade. Thanks to advances in hardware and software, this technique is now more accessible than ever, and can be reliably automated to enable rapid processing of large data sets, thereby further enhancing the role that particle tracking will play in drug and gene delivery studies in the future. We begin this review by discussing particle tracking-based advances in characterizing extracellular and cellular barriers to therapeutic nanoparticles and in characterizing nanoparticle size and stability. To facilitate wider adoption of the technique, we then present a user-friendly review of state-of-the-art automated particle tracking algorithms and methods of analysis. We conclude by reviewing technological developments for next-generation particle tracking methods, and we survey future research directions in drug and gene delivery where particle tracking may be useful.

  11. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Sachiko Kaihara; Numata, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin), protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin). The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed. PMID:23344060

  12. A pH-sensitive multifunctional gene carrier assembled via layer-by-layer technique for efficient gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Liu, Donghua; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chunxi; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Na

    2012-01-01

    Background The success of gene therapy asks for the development of multifunctional vectors that could overcome various gene delivery barriers, such as the cell membrane, endosomal membrane, and nuclear membrane. Layer-by-layer technique is an efficient method with easy operation which can be used for the assembly of multifunctional gene carriers. This work describes a pH-sensitive multifunctional gene vector that offered long circulation property but avoided the inhibition of tumor cellular uptake of gene carriers associated with the use of polyethylene glycol. Methods Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was firstly condensed with protamine into a cationic core which was used as assembly template. Then, additional layers of anionic DNA, cationic liposomes, and o-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMCS) were alternately adsorbed onto the template via layer-by-layer technique and finally the multifunctional vector called CMCS-cationic liposome-coated DNA/protamine/DNA complexes (CLDPD) was constructed. For in vitro test, the cytotoxicity and transfection investigation was carried out on HepG2 cell line. For in vivo evaluation, CMCS-CLDPD was intratumorally injected into tumor-bearing mice and the tumor cells were isolated for fluorescence determination of transfection efficiency. Results CMCS-CLDPD had ellipsoidal shapes and showed “core-shell” structure which showed stabilization property in serum and effective protection of DNA from nuclease degradation. In vitro and in vivo transfection results demonstrated that CMCS-CLDPD had pH-sensitivity and the outermost layer of CMCS fell off in the tumor tissue, which could not only protect CMCS- CLDPD from serum interaction but also enhance gene transfection efficiency. Conclusion These results demonstrated that multifunctional CMCS-CLDPD had pH- sensitivity, which may provide a new approach for the antitumor gene delivery. PMID:22393290

  13. Protein antigen delivery by gene gun-mediated epidermal antigen incorporation (EAI).

    PubMed

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Ritter, Uwe; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The gene gun technology can not only be employed for efficient transfer of gene vaccines into upper layers of the skin, but also for application of protein antigens. As a tissue rich in professional antigen presenting cells, the skin represents an attractive target for immunizations. In this chapter we present a method for delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin into the skin of mice termed epidermal antigen incorporation and describe in detail how antigen-specific proliferation in draining lymph nodes can be followed by flow cytometry.

  14. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gaelen R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1) they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2) they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution. PMID:26467950

  15. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controlled loading of cationic dendrimer for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian-Tao; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Guan-Hai

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a series of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with predictable and adjustable cationic charge densities for gene delivery were designed, synthesized and characterized. The ‘clickable’ MSNs with controlled and randomly distributed azide groups were synthesized by co-condensation method, and PAMAM dendrimer was conjugated to MSNs via quantitative click modification. The structures of PAMAM-functionalized MSNs were characterized by FTIR, XRD and TEM analyses. Dendrimer-functionalized MSNs formed complexes with plasmid DNA (pDNA), and the complexes were successfully transfected into human kidney cell 293 T. The in vitro cytotoxicity and gene transfection efficacy were also investigated.

  16. A novel gene delivery composite system based on biodegradable folate-poly (ester amine) polymer and thermosensitive hydrogel for sustained gene release

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Hang; Jia, YanPeng; Guo, QingFa; Qu, Ying; Su, Jing; Lu, XiaoLing; Zhao, YongXiang; Qian, ZhiYong

    2016-01-01

    Local anti-oncogene delivery providing high local concentration of gene, increasing antitumor effect and decreasing systemic side effects is currently attracting interest in cancer therapy. In this paper, a novel local sustained anti-oncogene delivery system, PECE thermoresponsive hydrogel containing folate-poly (ester amine) (FA-PEA) polymer/DNA (tumor suppressor) complexes, is demonstrated. First, a tumor-targeted biodegradable folate-poly (ester amine) (FA-PEA) polymer based on low-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) was synthesized and characterized, and the application for targeted gene delivery was investigated. The polymer had slight cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency in vitro compared with PEI 25k, which indicated that FA-PEA was a potential vector for targeted gene delivery. Meanwhile, we successfully prepared a thermoresponsive PECE hydrogel composite containing FA-PEA/DNA complexes which could contain the genes and slowly release the genes into cells. We concluded the folate-poly (ester amine) (FA-PEA) polymer would be useful for targeted gene delivery, and the novel gene delivery composite based on biodegradable folate-poly (ester amine) polymer and thermosensitive PECE hydrogel showed potential for sustained gene release. PMID:26883682

  17. A novel gene delivery composite system based on biodegradable folate-poly (ester amine) polymer and thermosensitive hydrogel for sustained gene release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Hang; Jia, Yanpeng; Guo, Qingfa; Qu, Ying; Su, Jing; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang; Qian, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    Local anti-oncogene delivery providing high local concentration of gene, increasing antitumor effect and decreasing systemic side effects is currently attracting interest in cancer therapy. In this paper, a novel local sustained anti-oncogene delivery system, PECE thermoresponsive hydrogel containing folate-poly (ester amine) (FA-PEA) polymer/DNA (tumor suppressor) complexes, is demonstrated. First, a tumor-targeted biodegradable folate-poly (ester amine) (FA-PEA) polymer based on low-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) was synthesized and characterized, and the application for targeted gene delivery was investigated. The polymer had slight cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency in vitro compared with PEI 25k, which indicated that FA-PEA was a potential vector for targeted gene delivery. Meanwhile, we successfully prepared a thermoresponsive PECE hydrogel composite containing FA-PEA/DNA complexes which could contain the genes and slowly release the genes into cells. We concluded the folate-poly (ester amine) (FA-PEA) polymer would be useful for targeted gene delivery, and the novel gene delivery composite based on biodegradable folate-poly (ester amine) polymer and thermosensitive PECE hydrogel showed potential for sustained gene release.

  18. Prevention of adverse events of interferon γ gene therapy by gene delivery of interferon γ-heparin-binding domain fusion protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Ando, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Yuki; Yamashita, Takuma; Fujimoto, Mai; Nishikawa, Makiya; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Sustained gene delivery of interferon (IFN) γ can be an effective treatment, but our previous study showed high levels of IFNγ-induced adverse events, including the loss of body weight. These unwanted events could be reduced by target-specific delivery of IFNγ after in vivo gene transfer. To achieve this, we selected the heparin-binding domain (HBD) of extracellular superoxide dismutase as a molecule to anchor IFNγ to the cell surface. We designed three IFNγ derivatives, IFNγ-HBD1, IFNγ-HBD2, and IFNγ-HBD3, each of which had 1, 2, or 3 HBDs, respectively. Each plasmid-encoding fusion proteins was delivered to the liver, a model target in this study, by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. The serum concentration of IFNγ-HBD2 and IFNγ-HBD3 after gene delivery was lower than that of IFNγ or IFNγ-HBD1. Gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2, but not of IFNγ-HBD3, effectively increased the mRNA expression of IFNγ-inducible genes in the liver, suggesting liver-specific distribution of IFNγ-HBD2. Gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2-suppressed tumor growth in the liver as efficiently as that of IFNγ with much less symptoms of adverse effects. These results indicate that the adverse events of IFNγ gene transfer can be prevented by gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2, a fusion protein with high cell surface affinity. PMID:26015966

  19. Targeting Motor End Plates for Delivery of Adenoviruses: An Approach to Maximize Uptake and Transduction of Spinal Cord Motor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Tosolini, Andrew Paul; Morris, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy can take advantage of the skeletal muscles/motor neurons anatomical relationship to restrict gene expression to the spinal cord ventral horn. Furthermore, recombinant adenoviruses are attractive viral-vectors as they permit spatial and temporal modulation of transgene expression. In the literature, however, several inconsistencies exist with regard to the intramuscular delivery parameters of adenoviruses. The present study is an evaluation of the optimal injection sites on skeletal muscle, time course of expression and mice's age for maximum transgene expression in motor neurons. Targeting motor end plates yielded a 2.5-fold increase in the number of transduced motor neurons compared to injections performed away from this region. Peak adenoviral transgene expression in motor neurons was detected after seven days. Further, greater numbers of transduced motor neurons were found in juvenile (3-7 week old) mice as compared with adults (8+ weeks old). Adenoviral injections produced robust transgene expression in motor neurons and skeletal myofibres. In addition, dendrites of transduced motor neurons were shown to extend well into the white matter where the descending motor pathways are located. These results also provide evidence that intramuscular delivery of adenovirus can be a suitable gene therapy approach to treat spinal cord injury. PMID:27619631

  20. Targeting Motor End Plates for Delivery of Adenoviruses: An Approach to Maximize Uptake and Transduction of Spinal Cord Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tosolini, Andrew Paul; Morris, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy can take advantage of the skeletal muscles/motor neurons anatomical relationship to restrict gene expression to the spinal cord ventral horn. Furthermore, recombinant adenoviruses are attractive viral-vectors as they permit spatial and temporal modulation of transgene expression. In the literature, however, several inconsistencies exist with regard to the intramuscular delivery parameters of adenoviruses. The present study is an evaluation of the optimal injection sites on skeletal muscle, time course of expression and mice’s age for maximum transgene expression in motor neurons. Targeting motor end plates yielded a 2.5-fold increase in the number of transduced motor neurons compared to injections performed away from this region. Peak adenoviral transgene expression in motor neurons was detected after seven days. Further, greater numbers of transduced motor neurons were found in juvenile (3–7 week old) mice as compared with adults (8+ weeks old). Adenoviral injections produced robust transgene expression in motor neurons and skeletal myofibres. In addition, dendrites of transduced motor neurons were shown to extend well into the white matter where the descending motor pathways are located. These results also provide evidence that intramuscular delivery of adenovirus can be a suitable gene therapy approach to treat spinal cord injury. PMID:27619631

  1. Enhanced gene delivery of low molecular weight PEI by flower-like ZnO microparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Tang, Yaqin; Wang, Tingting; Long, Qipeng; Zeng, Ziying; Chen, Houwen; Feng, Xuli

    2016-12-01

    Low molecular weight (1.8 kDa) branched polyethylenimine (PEI) has been used as non-viral vector for gene delivery because of its low toxicity, however, its further application in biomedical field has been restricted due to its low gene transfection efficiency. Herein, ZnO microflowers were prepared to increase the gene expression level mediated by PEI. Four methods have been applied to tune the shape of ZnO microstructures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the successful preparation of four kinds of flower like ZnO microparticles. By loading PEI/pDNA into ZnO microparticles, the formed new complexes showed enhanced gene transfection compared to PEI/pDNA alone. Cell uptaking experiments explained a possible mechanism that the tips of ZnO microflowers penetrated into the surface of cells, thus facilitating the entry of gene cargo into cells. These findings highlight the potential of needle like microstructure as adjuvant for efficient biomacromolecular delivery. PMID:27612838

  2. Human Artificial Chromosomes for Gene Delivery and the Development of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Random integration of conventional gene delivery vectors such as viruses, plasmids, P1 phage-derived artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes and yeast artificial chromosomes can be associated with transgene silencing. Furthermore, integrated viral sequences can activate oncogenes adjacent to the insertion site resulting in cancer. Various human artificial chromosomes (HACs) exhibit several potential characteristics desired for an ideal gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance and the capacity to carry large genomic loci with their regulatory elements, thus allowing the physiological regulation of the introduced gene in a manner similar to that of native chromosomes. HACs have been generated mainly using either a “top-down approach” (engineered chromosomes), or a “bottom-up approach” (de novo artificial chromosomes). The recent emergence of stem cell–based tissue engineering has opened up new avenues for gene and cell therapies. This review describes the lessons learned and prospects identified mainly from studies in the construction of HACs and HAC-mediated gene expression systems in cultured cells, as well as in animals. PMID:21750534

  3. Dextran-protamine polycation: an efficient nonviral and haemocompatible gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jane Joy; Rekha, M R; Sharma, Chandra P

    2010-11-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the field of gene therapy with viral vectors, nonviral vectors have attracted great interests due to their unique properties. Imparting desired characteristics to nonviral gene delivery systems requires the development of cationic polymers. The purpose of this work was to design a cationic derivative (Dex-P) of dextran using protamine in order to assert target specific cellular binding. Our objective was to elucidate the potential use of Dex-P as a haemocompatible, nontoxic and efficient nonviral candidate for gene therapy. Nanoplexes were prepared with calf thymus DNA and Dex-P. Derivatization was confirmed by FTIR, gel permeation chromatography and TNBS assay. Dynamic light scattering and TEM studies determined the size and morphology of the nanoplex. The buffering behaviour was assessed by acid base titration. Complexation stability was evaluated using agarose gel electrophoresis and EtBr displacement assay. The protection of ctDNA from nuclear digestion and the effect of plasma components towards stability of the nanoplexes were also analyzed. Various haemocompatible studies were performed to check haemolysis, aggregation, clotting time, and complement activation. Transfection and cytotoxicity experiments were performed in vitro. The nanosize, spherical shape and stability of nanoplexes were affirmed. Various experiments conducted confirmed Dex-P to be nontoxic and haemocompatible. Transfection experiments revealed the capability of Dex-P to facilitate high gene expression and cellular uptake in HepG2 cells. With the improved physicochemical, biological and transfection properties, Dex-P seems to be a promising gene delivery system.

  4. Development of hybrid baculovirus vectors for artificial MicroRNA delivery and prolonged gene suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Ling; Luo, Wen-Yi; Lo, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Kun-Ju; Sung, Li-Yu; Shih, Yung-Shen; Chang, Yu-Han; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) plays essential roles in regulating gene expression, but miRNA delivery remains a hurdle, thus entailing a vector system for efficient transfer. Baculovirus emerges as a promising gene delivery vector but its inherent transient expression restricts its applications in some scenarios. Therefore, this study primarily aimed to develop baculovirus as a miRNA expression vector for prolonged gene suppression. We constructed recombinant baculoviruses carrying artificial egfp-targeting miRNA sequences within the miR155 backbone, which after expression by the cytomegalovirus promoter could knockdown the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. By swapping the mature miRNA sequences, the baculovirus miRNA shuttle effectively repressed the overexpression of endogenous TNF-α in arthritic synoviocytes without inducing apoptosis. To prolong the baculovirus-mediated expression, we further developed a hybrid baculovirus vector that exploited the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon for gene integration and sustained miRNA expression. The hybrid baculovirus vector that combined the miR155 scaffold and SB transposon effectively repressed the transgene expression for a prolonged period of time, hence diversifying the applications of baculovirus to indications necessitating prolonged gene regulation such as arthritis. PMID:21732325

  5. Galactose-functionalized cationic polycarbonate diblock copolymer for targeted gene delivery to hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Yang, Chuan; Gao, Shu Jun; Ke, Xi-Yu; Hedrick, James L; Yan Yang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    To mediate selective gene delivery to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs), we designed and synthesized well-defined and narrowly dispersed galactose- and glucose-functionalized cationic polycarbonate diblock copolymers (designated as Gal-APC and Glu-APC, respectively) using organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of functionalized carbonate monomers, with a subsequent quaternization step using bis-tertiary amines to confer quaternary and tertiary amines for DNA binding and endosomal buffering, respectively. The sugar-functionalized diblock copolymers effectively bound and condensed DNA to form positively charged nanoparticles (<100 nm in diameter and ≈30 mV zeta-potential) that were stable under high physiological salt conditions. In comparison to the control Glu-APC/DNA complexes, Gal-APC/DNA complexes mediated significantly higher gene expression in ASGP-R positive HepG2 cells with no significant difference observed in ASGP-R negative HeLa cells. The co-incubation of Gal-APC/DNA complexes with a natural ASGP-R ligand effectively led to a decrease in gene expression, hence providing evidence for the ASGP-R mediated endocytosis of the polyplexes. Importantly, the Gal-APC/DNA complexes induced minimal cytotoxicities in HepG2 cells at the N/P ratios tested. Taken together, the galactose-functionalized cationic polycarbonate diblock copolymer has potential for use as a non-viral gene vector for the targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to hepatocytes in the treatment of liver diseases.

  6. A novel magnetic crystal-lipid nanostructure for magnetically guided in vivo gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Yoshihisa; Namiki, Tamami; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishii, Yukiko; Tsubota, Akihito; Koido, Shigeo; Nariai, Kouichi; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Satoru; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Mabashi, Yasuo; Yumoto, Yoko; Hoshina, Sadayori; Fujise, Kiyotaka; Tada, Norio

    2009-09-01

    Cancer gene therapy requires a safe and effective gene delivery system. Polymer- and lipid-coated magnetic nanocrystals have been used to deliver silencing RNA, but synthesizing these magnetic vectors is difficult. Here, we show that a new nanoparticle formulation can be magnetically guided to deliver and silence genes in cells and tumours in mice. This formulation, termed LipoMag, consists of an oleic acid-coated magnetic nanocrystal core and a cationic lipid shell. When compared with the commercially available PolyMag formulation, LipoMag displayed more efficient gene silencing in 9 of 13 cell lines, and better anti-tumour effects when systemically administered to mice bearing gastric tumours. By delivering an optimized sequence of a silencing RNA that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor of tumour vessels, the intended therapeutic benefit was achieved with no evident adverse immune reaction or untoward side effects.

  7. Magnetic Microbubbles: Magnetically Targeted and Ultrasound-Triggered Vectors for Gene Delivery in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaskou, Dialechti; Pradhan, Pallab; Bergemann, Christian; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg; Plank, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga

    2010-12-01

    Based on the concept of magnetofection, we prepared lipid shell microbubbles loaded with highly positively charged iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles through electrostatic and matrix affinity interactions. These magnetic microbubbles showed strong ultrasound contrast. When the magnetic microbubbles were mixed with plasmid DNA encoding a reporter gene, gene delivery to HeLa cells was achieved only when ultrasound was applied. Gene transfer efficiency strongly depended on the application of a gradient magnetic field. Treatment of HeLa cells with the microbubbles and ultrasound resulted in strong concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects, whereas ultrasound alone, lipid microbubbles alone, magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic microbubbles alone did not significantly affect cell viability. These magnetic microbubbles could be used as magnetically targeted diagnostic agents for real-time ultrasound imaging or for cancer therapy, therapy of vascular thrombosis and gene therapy.

  8. Development of an adenoviral vector with robust expression driven by p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Strauss, Bryan E.

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a new adenoviral vector where transgene expression is driven by p53. We first developed a synthetic promoter, referred to as PGTx{beta}, containing a p53-responsive element, a minimal promoter and the first intron of the rabbit {beta}-globin gene. Initial assays using plasmid-based vectors indicated that expression was tightly controlled by p53 and was 5-fold stronger than the constitutive CMV immediate early promoter/enhancer. The adenoviral vector, AdPG, was also shown to offer p53-responsive expression in prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP (wt p53), DU-145 (temperature sensitive mutant of p53) and PC3 (p53-null, but engineered to express temperature-sensitive p53 mutants). AdPG served as a sensor of p53 activity in LNCaP cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents. Since p53 can be induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, this new vector could be further developed for use in combination with conventional therapies to bring about cooperation between the genetic and pharmacologic treatment modalities.

  9. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  10. Adenoviral protein VII packages intracellular viral DNA throughout the early phase of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Vayda, M E; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The proteins associated with parental, adenoviral DNA in productively-infected HeLa cells have been examined both directly and indirectly. HeLa cells infected with 32P-labelled Ad2 were irradiated with u.v. light at various points in the infectious cycle. Following degradation of the DNA, nuclear proteins carrying cross-linked nucleotides, or oligonucleotides, were distinguished from virion phosphoproteins by the resistance of their 32P radioactivity to 1 M NaOH. The major core protein of the virion, protein VII, was found to be associated with viral DNA throughout infection, even when cells were infected at a multiplicity of 0.14. Micrococcal nuclease digestion of intranuclear viral DNA 4 h after infection liberated two nucleoprotein particles containing viral DNA, neither of which co-migrated with HeLa cell mononucleosomes. These results indicate that core protein VII remains associated with parental adenoviral DNA during productive infections. The observation that protein VII can be cross-linked to DNA in cells infected at very low multiplicity, together with the results of a comparison of proteins cross-linkable to viral DNA in cells infected by wild-type virus and a non-infectious mutant containing the precursor to protein VII, suggest that nucleoproteins comprising viral DNA and protein VII must be the templates for expression of pre-early and early viral genes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3743550

  11. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development. PMID:27278133

  12. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development. PMID:27278133

  13. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  14. Targeted delivery of genes to endothelial cells and cell- and gene-based therapy in pulmonary vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Suen, Colin M; Mei, Shirley H J; Kugathasan, Lakshmi; Stewart, Duncan J

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that, despite significant advances in medical therapies over the last several decades, continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. Gene therapy is a method to deliver therapeutic genes to replace defective or mutant genes or supplement existing cellular processes to modify disease. Over the last few decades, several viral and nonviral methods of gene therapy have been developed for preclinical PAH studies with varying degrees of efficacy. However, these gene delivery methods face challenges of immunogenicity, low transduction rates, and nonspecific targeting which have limited their translation to clinical studies. More recently, the emergence of regenerative approaches using stem and progenitor cells such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have offered a new approach to gene therapy. Cell-based gene therapy is an approach that augments the therapeutic potential of EPCs and MSCs and may deliver on the promise of reversal of established PAH. These new regenerative approaches have shown tremendous potential in preclinical studies; however, large, rigorously designed clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety.

  15. Quantification of High-Capacity Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vector Genomes In Vitro and In Vivo, Using Quantitative TaqMan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    PUNTEL, M.; CURTIN, J.F.; ZIRGER, J.M.; MUHAMMAD, A.K.M.; XIONG, W.; LIU, C.; HU, J.; KROEGER, K.M.; CZER, P.; SCIASCIA, S.; MONDKAR, S.; LOWENSTEIN, P.R.; CASTRO, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    First-generation adenoviral (Ad) and high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors are efficient delivery vehicles for transferring therapeutic transgenes in vivo into tissues/organs. The initial successes reported with adenoviral vectors in preclinical trials have been limited by immune-related adverse side effects. This has been, in part, attributed to the use of poorly characterized preparations of adenoviral vectors and also to the untoward immune adverse side effects elicited when high doses of these vectors were used. HC-Ads have several advantages over Ads, including the lack of viral coding sequences, which after infection and uncoating, makes them invisible to the host’s immune system. Another advantage is their large cloning capacity (up to ~35 kb). However, accurate characterization of HC-Ad vectors, and of contaminating replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) or helper virus, is necessary before these preparations can be used safely in clinical trials. Consequently, the development of accurate, simple, and reproducible methods to standardize and validate adenoviral preparations for the presence of contaminant genomes is required. By using a molecular method that allows accurate, reproducible, and simultaneous determination of HC-Ad, contaminating helper virus, and RCA genome copy numbers based on real-time quantitative PCR, we demonstrate accurate detection of these three genomic entities, within CsCl-purified vector stocks, total DNA isolated from cells transduced in vitro, and from brain tissue infected in vivo. This approach will allow accurate assessment of the levels and biodistribution of HC-Ad and improve the safety and efficacy of clinical trials. PMID:16716110

  16. Stable Somatic Gene Expression in Mouse Lungs Following Electroporation-mediated Tol2 Transposon Delivery.

    PubMed

    Muliawan, Hary Sakti; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yagi, Keiko; Ikeda, Koji; Yagita, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2015-10-07

    Gene delivery to the lung has rapidly progressed as an important method for studying various chronic lung diseases. Viral vectors, albeit highly efficient, are limited by the host immune response. Electroporation, a well-known non-viral method, can efficiently deliver genes to the lung, but is unable to induce stable gene expression. The Tol2 transposon is another non-viral method that can induce stable gene expression by reinserting its genes into the host genome. In this study, we combined electroporation and Tol2 transposons to obtain stable, high-level gene expression in the mouse lung. Tol2 transposon plasmids (pT2A-EGFP; Tol2, pCAGGS-TP; transposase) were optimized in vitro, and the electroporation procedure (pCAG-EGFP) was optimized in mouse lungs. After optimization, a combination of electroporation plus the Tol2 transposon was used in a comparative analysis with electroporation plus pCAG-EGFP. GFP expression levels were quantified and visualized on days 4 and 7 post-electroporation. We successfully reproduced the Tol2 transposon system in vitro and the electroporation procedure in vivo. We observed sustainable GFP expression using electroporation plus the Tol2 transposon on days 4 and 7, while electroporation plus pCAG-EGFP resulted in decreased GFP expression on day 7. We were able to induce high-level, stable gene expression in mouse lungs using a combination of electroporation and the Tol2 transposon. This represents a safer method for lung gene delivery that can be used as an alternative to viral vectors.

  17. Depletion of autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1 enhances the efficiency of gene delivery in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Megumi; Ogawa, Hidesato; Koujin, Takako; Kobayashi, Shouhei; Mori, Chie; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2016-08-01

    Novel methods that increase the efficiency of gene delivery to cells will have many useful applications. Here, we report a simple approach involving depletion of p62/SQSTM1 to enhance the efficiency of gene delivery. The efficiency of reporter gene delivery was remarkably higher in p62-knockout murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells compared with normal MEF cells. This higher efficiency was partially attenuated by ectopic expression of p62. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p62 clearly increased the efficiency of transfection of murine embryonic stem (mES) cells and human HeLa cells. These data indicate that p62 acts as a key regulator of gene delivery. PMID:27317902

  18. Development of a gene delivery system in Streptococcus gordonii using thymidylate synthase as a selection marker.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song F; Hulbah, Maram; Halperin, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, a commensal bacterium of the human oral cavity, is a potential live vaccine vector. In this study, we have developed a system that delivers a vaccine antigen gene onto the chromosome of S. gordonii. The system consisted of a recipient strain, that is a thymidine auxotroph constructed by deletion of a portion of thyA gene, and a linear gene delivery construct, composed of the functional thyA gene, the vaccine antigen gene, and a DNA fragment immediately downstream of thyA. The construct is assembled by a ligation and polymerase chain reaction strategy. Upon introduction into the thyA mutant, the vaccine antigen gene integrated into the chromosome via a double crossing-over event. Using the above strategy, a test vaccine antigen gene coding for a fusion protein composed of the Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin type I domain and the single chain antibody against complement receptor 1 was successfully delivered to S. gordonii. The resulting S. gordonii expressed the fusion protein and the delivered gene was stable in the bacterium in vitro and in a mouse colonization experiment. Mice colonized by the fusion protein-expressing S. gordonii developed antibodies that recognized the native filamentous hemagglutinin protein suggesting that an immune response was elicited. PMID:27062990

  19. BMP2 gene delivery to bone mesenchymal stem cell by chitosan-g-PEI nonviral vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jianhui; Wu, Jun; Liu, Di; Zhao, Xiaoli; Lu, William W.

    2015-04-01

    Nanotechnology has made a significant impact on the development of nanomedicine. Nonviral vectors have been attracting more attention for the advantage of biosafety in gene delivery. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated chitosan (chitosan-g-PEI) emerged as a promising nonviral vector and has been demonstrated in many tumor cells. However, there is a lack of study focused on the behavior of this vector in stem cells which hold great potential in regenerative medicine. Therefore, in this study, in vitro gene delivering effect of chitosan-g-PEI was investigated in bone marrow stem cells. pIRES2-ZsGreen1-hBMP2 dual expression plasmid containing both the ZsGreen1 GFP reporter gene and the BMP2 functional gene was constructed for monitoring the transgene expression level. Chitosan-g-PEI-mediated gene transfer showed 17.2% of transfection efficiency and more than 80% of cell viability in stem cells. These values were higher than that of PEI. The expression of the delivered BMP2 gene in stem cells enhanced the osteogenic differentiation. These results demonstrated that chitosan-g-PEI is capable of applying in delivering gene to stem cells and providing potential applications in stem cell-based gene therapy.

  20. CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) are required for the superstimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription by adenoviral E1a and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Routes, J M; Colton, L A; Ryan, S; Klemm, D J

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we observed superstimulated levels of cAMP-stimulated transcription from the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter in cells infected with wild-type adenovirus expressing 12 S and 13 S E1a proteins, or in cells expressing 13 S E1a alone. cAMP-stimulated transcription was inhibited in cells expressing only 12 S E1a, but slightly elevated in cells expressing E1a proteins with mutations in conserved regions 1 or 2, leading us to conclude that the superstimulation was mediated by conserved region 3 of 13 S E1a. E1a failed to enhance cAMP-stimulated transcription from promoters containing mutations that abolish binding by cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). This result was supported by experiments in which expression of dominant-negative CREB and/or C/EBP proteins repressed E1a- and cAMP-stimulated transcription from the PEPCK gene promoter. In reconstitution experiments using a Gal4-responsive promoter, E1a enhanced cAMP-stimulated transcription when chimaeric Gal4-CREB and Gal4-C/EBPalpha were co-expressed. Phosphorylation of CREB on serine-133 was stimulated in cells treated with dibutyryl cAMP, whereas phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha was increased by E1a expression. Our data support a model in which cAMP agonists increase CREB activity and stimulate PEPCK gene transcription, a process that is enhanced by E1a through the phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. PMID:11085926

  1. Spider Silk-Based Gene Carriers for Tumor Cell-Specific Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Keiji; Reagan, Michaela R; Goldstein, Robert H; Rosenblatt, Michael; Kaplan, David L

    2011-01-01

    The present study demonstrates pDNA complexes of recombinant silk proteins containing poly(L-lysine) and tumor-homing peptides (THPs), which are globular and approximately 150–250 nm in diameter, show significant enhancement of target specificity to tumor cells by additions of F3 and CGKRK THPs. We report herein the preparation and study of novel nano-scale silk-based ionic complexes containing pDNA able to home specifically to tumor cells. Particular focus was on how the THP, F3 (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK) and CGKRK, enhanced transfection specificity to tumor cells. Genetically engineered silk proteins containing both poly(L-lysine) domains to interact with pDNA and the THP to bind to specific tumor cells for target-specific pDNA delivery were prepared using Escherichia coli, followed by in-vitro and in-vivo transfection experiments into MDA-MB-435 melanoma cells and highly metastatic human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 cells. Non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast epithelial cells were used as a control cell line for in-vitro tumor-specific delivery studies. These results demonstrate that combination of the bioengineered silk delivery systems and THP can serve as a versatile and useful new platform for non-viral gene delivery. PMID:21739966

  2. Modulation of Gene Expression by Polymer Nanocapsule Delivery of DNA Cassettes Encoding Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Wen, Jing; Liang, Min; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs, including siRNAs, gRNAs and miRNAs, modulate gene expression and serve as potential therapies for human diseases. Delivery to target cells remains the fundamental limitation for use of these RNAs in humans. To address this challenge, we have developed a nanocapsule delivery technology that encapsulates small DNA molecules encoding RNAs into a small (30 nm) polymer nanocapsule. For proof of concept, we transduced DNA expression cassettes for three small RNAs. In one application, the DNA cassette encodes an shRNA transcriptional unit that downregulates CCR5 and protects from HIV-1 infection. The DNA cassette nanocapsules were further engineered for timed release of the DNA cargo for prolonged knockdown of CCR5. Secondly, the nanocapsules provide an efficient means for delivery of gRNAs in the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate integrated HIV-1. Finally, delivery of microRNA-125b to mobilized human CD34+ cells enhances survival and expansion of the CD34+ cells in culture. PMID:26035832

  3. Intrathecal polymer-based interleukin-10* gene delivery for neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    MILLIGAN, ERIN D.; SODERQUIST, RYAN G.; MALONE, STEPHANIE M.; MAHONEY, JOHN H.; HUGHES, TRAVIS S.; LANGER, STEPHEN J.; SLOANE, EVAN M.; MAIER, STEVEN F.; LEINWAND, LESLIE A.; WATKINS, LINDA R.; MAHONEY, MELISSA J.

    2007-01-01

    Research on communication between glia and neurons has increased in the past decade. The onset of neuropathic pain, a major clinical problem that is not resolved by available therapeutics, involves activation of spinal cord glia through the release of proinflammatory cytokines in acute animal models of neuropathic pain. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the spinal action of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is involved in maintaining persistent (2 months) allodynia induced by chronic-constriction injury (CCI). The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 can suppress proinflammatory cytokines and spinal cord glial amplification of pain. Given that IL-1 is a key mediator of neuropathic pain, developing a clinically viable means of long-term delivery of IL-10 to the spinal cord is desirable. High doses of intrathecal IL-10-gene therapy using naked plasmid DNA (free pDNA-IL-10) is effective, but the dose required limits its potential clinical utility. Here we show that intrathecal gene therapy for neuropathic pain is improved sufficiently using two, distinct synthetic polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) and polyethylenimine, that substantially lower doses of pDNA-IL-10 are effective. In conclusion, synthetic polymers used as i.t. gene-delivery systems are well-tolerated and improve the long-duration efficacy of pDNA-IL-10 gene therapy. PMID:18079973

  4. Self-Immolative Polycations as Gene Delivery Vectors and Prodrugs Targeting Polyamine Metabolism in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycations are explored as carriers to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids. Polycations are conventionally pharmacological inert with the sole function of delivering therapeutic cargo. This study reports synthesis of a self-immolative polycation (DSS-BEN) based on a polyamine analogue drug N1,N11-bisethylnorspermine (BENSpm). The polycation was designed to function dually as a gene delivery carrier and a prodrug targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism in cancer. Using a combination of NMR and HPLC, we confirm that the self-immolative polycation undergoes intracellular degradation into the parent drug BENSpm. The released BENSpm depletes cellular levels of spermidine and spermine and upregulates polyamine catabolic enzymes spermine/spermidine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and spermine oxidase (SMO). The synthesized polycations form polyplexes with DNA and facilitate efficient transfection. Taking advantage of the ability of BENSpm to sensitize cancer cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis, we show that DSS-BEN enhances the cell killing activity of TNFα gene therapy. The reported findings validate DSS-BEN as a dual-function delivery system that can deliver a therapeutic gene and improve the outcome of gene therapy as a result of the intracellular degradation of DSS-BEN to BENSpm and the subsequent beneficial effect of BENSpm on dysregulated polyamine metabolism in cancer. PMID:25153488

  5. Enhancing gene delivery of adeno-associated viruses by cell-permeable peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yarong; Kim, Young Joo; Ji, Man; Fang, Jinxu; Siriwon, Natnaree; Zhang, Li I; Wang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) is considered a promising gene delivery vector and has been extensively applied in several disease models; however, inefficient transduction in various cells and tissues has limited its widespread application in many areas of gene therapy. In this study, we have developed a general, but efficient, strategy to enhance viral transduction, both in vitro and in vivo, by incubating viral particles with cell-permeable peptides (CPPs). We show that CPPs increase internalization of viral particles into cells by facilitating both energy-independent and energy-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, CPPs can significantly enhance the endosomal escape process of viral particles, thus enhancing viral transduction to those cells that have exhibited very low permissiveness to AAV2 infection as a result of impaired intracellular viral processing. We also demonstrated that this approach could be applicable to other AAV serotypes. Thus, the membrane-penetrating ability of CPPs enables us to generate an efficient method for enhanced gene delivery of AAV vectors, potentially facilitating its applicability to human gene therapy. PMID:26015948

  6. Progranulin Gene Delivery Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M.; Baranowski, David; Kay, Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD. PMID:24804730

  7. Structure and function studies of cationic lipid non-viral gene delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Nelle Lynn

    Gene and drug delivery systems incorporating lipids mimic the biological environment and thus offer many advantages. In order to design successful gene or drug delivery vehicles based on lipid molecules an understanding of the affects of biopolymers on lipid membranes is necessary. We have examined the structures and interactions involved in two systems based on model biomembrane/biopolymer mixtures that are relevant for gene and drug delivery research. Liposomes incorporating PEG-lipids have shown great promise as drug carriers since they have proven to increase blood circulation times by evading the immune system. Previously, it was found that the addition of single-end-anchored (SEA)-PEG-surfactants to fluid lamellar membrane systems induces a novel hydrogel. As an extension of this work, we examine the affects of adding double-end-anchored (DEA)-PEG-surfactants to fluid membrane systems. The DEA-PEG-surfactants can adopt either a looping or bridging configuration which could deeply alter the microstructure of lamellar phases. We show that the DEA-PEG-surfactants induce gelation of fluid Lalpha phases in a way similar to that previously reported for SEA-PEG-surfactants. We also show, via x-ray diffraction, two striking differences between the SEA-and DEA-PEG-surfactant systems which demonstrate the existence of a large concentration of bridging polymers in the DEA system. The use of cationic liposomes (formed by mixtures of cationic and neutral lipids) as carriers of DNA for delivery in cells is a promising alternative to viral carriers for gene therapy. Using x-ray diffraction and biological assays, we show key parameters for optimizing gene transfer with these systems that are mediated by properties of the lipid. We have found cationic liposomes complexed with supercoiled plasmid DNA in solution self-assemble into a lamellar or an inverted hexagonal structure depending on lipid composition. Transfection efficiencies, determined by X-Gal and Luciferase assays

  8. SOCS-1 gene delivery cooperates with cisplatin plus pemetrexed to exhibit preclinical antitumor activity against malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, Kota; Serada, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Ripley, Barry; Nomura, Shintaro; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Kazuki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Naka, Tetsuji

    2013-01-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis for which an effective therapy remains to be established. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of gene delivery using suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), an endogenous inhibitor of intracellular signaling pathways, for the treatment of MPM. We infected MPM cells (MESO-4, H28 and H226) with adenovirus-expressing SOCS-1 vector to examine the effect of SOCS-1 overexpression on MPM cells. We evaluated the antitumor effect of SOCS-1 gene delivery combined with cisplatin plus pemetrexed by cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion assay. We also investigated the regulation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling related to apoptotic pathways. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibition of tumor growth by SOCS-1 gene delivery combined with cisplatin plus pemetrexed in vivo. SOCS-1 gene delivery cooperated with cisplatin plus pemetrexed to inhibit cell proliferation, invasiveness and induction of apoptosis in MPM cells. SOCS-1 regulated NF-κB and STAT3 signaling to induce apoptosis in MESO-4 and H226 cells. Furthermore, SOCS-1 gene delivery cooperated with cisplatin plus pemetrexed to regulate NF-κB signaling and significantly inhibit tumor growth of MPM in vivo. These results suggest that SOCS-1 gene delivery has a potent antitumor effect against MPM and a potential for clinical use in combination with cisplatin plus pemetrexed.

  9. Multi-layered nanoparticles for combination gene and drug delivery to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ediriwickrema, Asiri; Zhou, Jiangbing; Deng, Yang; Saltzman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance and toxicity are major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Combination therapies can overcome resistance, and synergies can minimize dosing. Polymer nanocarriers are interesting vehicles for cancer therapeutics for their delivery and tumor targeting abilities. We synthesized a multilayered polymer nanoparticle (MLNP), comprising of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with surface polyethyleneimine and functional peptides, for targeted drug and gene delivery. We confirmed the particle’s ability to inhibit tumor growth through synergistic action of the drug and gene product. MLNPs achieved transfection levels similar to lipofectamine, while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity. The particles delivered camptothecin (CPT), and plasmid encoding TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (pTRAIL) (CT MLNPs), and synergistically inhibited growth of multiple cancer cells in vitro. The synergy of co-delivering CPT and pTRAIL via CT MLNPs was confirmed using the Chou-Talalay method: the combination index (CI) values at 50% inhibition ranged between 0.31–0.53 for all cell lines. Further, co-delivery with MLNPs resulted in a 3.1–15 fold reduction in CPT and 4.7–8.0 fold reduction in pTRAIL dosing. CT MLNPs obtained significant HCT116 growth inhibition in vivo compared to monotherapy. These results support our hypothesis that MLNPs can deliver both small molecules and genetic agents towards synergistically inhibiting tumor growth. PMID:25112935

  10. Intracellular Protein Delivery and Gene Transfection by Electroporation Using a Microneedle Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of many biopharmaceuticals, including protein- and gene-based therapies, has been limited by the need for better methods of delivery into cells within tissues. Here, we present intracellular delivery of molecules and transfection with plasmid DNA by electroporation using a novel microneedle electrode array designed for targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces. The microneedle array is molded out of polylactic acid. Electrodes and circuitry required for electroporation are applied to the microneedle array surface by a new metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle array maintains mechanical integrity after insertion into pig cadaver skin and is able to electroporate human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Quantitative measurements show that increasing electroporation pulse voltage increases uptake efficiency of calcein and bovine serum albumin, whereas increasing pulse length has lesser effects over the range studied. Uptake of molecules by up to 50 % of cells and transfection of 12 % of cells with a gene for green fluorescent protein is demonstrated at high cell viability. We conclude that the microneedle electrode array is able to electroporate cells, resulting in intracellular uptake of molecules, and has potential applications to improve intracellular delivery of proteins, DNA and other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22328093

  11. The effect of cholesterol domains on PEGylated liposomal gene delivery in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Long; Wempe, Michael F; Anchordoquy, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Aim PEGylated components have been widely used to reduce particle aggregation in serum and extend circulation lifetime for lipid- and polymer-based gene-delivery systems. However, PEGylation is known to interfere with cell interaction and intracellular trafficking, resulting in decreased biological activity. In the present study, the effect of cholesterol domains on PEGylated liposome-mediated gene delivery was evaluated by PEGylating formulations with and without a cholesterol domain, and also by altering the location of PEG on the particle surface (i.e., within or excluded from the domain). Materials and methods Lipoplexes formulated with PEG–cholesterol or PEG–diacyl lipid were used to transfect various cell lines, including human and mouse cancer cells. Cellular uptake of lipoplexes was also quantified and compared with the transfection results. Results Our findings are consistent with previous work demonstrating that PEGylation reduces transfection rates; however, formulations in which PEG was incorporated into the cholesterol domain did not exhibit this detrimental effect. In some cell lines, the incorporation of PEG into the domain actually increased transfection rates, despite no enhancement of cellular uptake. Discussion These results suggest that the adverse alterations in intracellular trafficking that are a consequence of PEGylation may be avoided by utilizing delivery vehicles that allow PEG to partition into a cholesterol domain. PMID:22428082

  12. Efficient gene silencing by delivery of locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides, unassisted by transfection reagents.

    PubMed

    Stein, C A; Hansen, J Bo; Lai, Johnathan; Wu, SiJian; Voskresenskiy, Anatoliy; Høg, Anja; Worm, Jesper; Hedtjärn, Maj; Souleimanian, Naira; Miller, Paul; Soifer, Harris S; Castanotto, Daniella; Benimetskaya, Luba; Ørum, Henrik; Koch, Troels

    2010-01-01

    For the past 15-20 years, the intracellular delivery and silencing activity of oligodeoxynucleotides have been essentially completely dependent on the use of a delivery technology (e.g. lipofection). We have developed a method (called 'gymnosis') that does not require the use of any transfection reagent or any additives to serum whatsoever, but rather takes advantage of the normal growth properties of cells in tissue culture in order to promote productive oligonucleotide uptake. This robust method permits the sequence-specific silencing of multiple targets in a large number of cell types in tissue culture, both at the protein and mRNA level, at concentrations in the low micromolar range. Optimum results were obtained with locked nucleic acid (LNA) phosphorothioate gap-mers. By appropriate manipulation of oligonucleotide dosing, this silencing can be continuously maintained with little or no toxicity for >240 days. High levels of oligonucleotide in the cell nucleus are not a requirement for gene silencing, contrary to long accepted dogma. In addition, gymnotic delivery can efficiently deliver oligonucleotides to suspension cells that are known to be very difficult to transfect. Finally, the pattern of gene silencing of in vitro gymnotically delivered oligonucleotides correlates particularly well with in vivo silencing. The establishment of this link is of particular significance to those in the academic research and drug discovery and development communities.

  13. Multi-layered nanoparticles for combination gene and drug delivery to tumors.

    PubMed

    Ediriwickrema, Asiri; Zhou, Jiangbing; Deng, Yang; Saltzman, W Mark

    2014-11-01

    Drug resistance and toxicity are major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Combination therapies can overcome resistance, and synergies can minimize dosing. Polymer nanocarriers are interesting vehicles for cancer therapeutics for their delivery and tumor targeting abilities. We synthesized a multi-layered polymer nanoparticle (MLNP), comprising of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with surface polyethyleneimine and functional peptides, for targeted drug and gene delivery. We confirmed the particle's ability to inhibit tumor growth through synergistic action of the drug and gene product. MLNPs achieved transfection levels similar to lipofectamine, while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity. The particles delivered camptothecin (CPT), and plasmid encoding TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (pTRAIL) (CT MLNPs), and synergistically inhibited growth of multiple cancer cells in vitro. The synergy of co-delivering CPT and pTRAIL via CT MLNPs was confirmed using the Chou-Talalay method: the combination index (CI) values at 50% inhibition ranged between 0.31 and 0.53 for all cell lines. Further, co-delivery with MLNPs resulted in a 3.1-15 fold reduction in CPT and 4.7-8.0 fold reduction in pTRAIL dosing. CT MLNPs obtained significant HCT116 growth inhibition in vivo compared to monotherapy. These results support our hypothesis that MLNPs can deliver both small molecules and genetic agents towards synergistically inhibiting tumor growth.

  14. A new liposome-based gene delivery system targeting lung epithelial cells using endothelin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Allon, Nahum; Saxena, Ashima; Chambers, Carolyn; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2012-06-10

    We formulated a new gene delivery system based on targeted liposomes. The efficacy of the delivery system was demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models. The targeting moiety consists of a high-affinity 7-amino-acid peptide, covalently and evenly conjugated to the liposome surface. The targeting peptide acts as an endothelin antagonist, and accelerates liposome binding and internalization. It is devoid of other biological activity. Liposomes with high phosphatidyl serine (PS) were specially formulated to help their fusion with the endosomal membrane at low pH and enable release of the liposome payload into the cytoplasm. A DNA payload, pre-compressed by protamine, was encapsulated into the liposomes, which directed the plasmid into the cell's nucleus. Upon exposure to epithelial cells, binding of the liposomes occurred within 5-10 min, followed by facilitated internalization of the complex. Endosomal escape was complete within 30 min, followed by DNA accumulation in the nucleus 2h post-transfection. A549 lung epithelial cells transfected with plasmid encoding for GFP encapsulated in targeted liposomes expressed significantly more protein than those transfected with plasmid complexed with Lipofectamine. The intra-tracheal instillation of plasmid encoding for GFP encapsulated in targeted liposomes into rat lungs resulted in the expression of GFP in bronchioles and alveoli within 5 days. These results suggest that this delivery system has great potential in targeting genes to lungs.

  15. Polydioxanone-based bio-materials for tissue engineering and drug/gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Jeetah, Roubeena; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2015-11-01

    Since the commercialization of polydioxanone (PDX) as a biodegradable monofilament suture by Ethicon in 1981, the polymer has received only limited interest until recently. The limitations of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) coupled with the growing need for materials with enhanced features and the advent of new fabrication techniques such as electrospinning have revived interest for PDX in medical devices, tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Electrospun PDX mats show comparable mechanical properties as the major structural components of native vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) i.e. collagen and elastin. In addition, PDX's unique shape memory property provides rebound and kink resistance when fabricated into vascular conduits. The synthesis of methyl dioxanone (MeDX) monomer and copolymers of dioxanone (DX) and MeDX have opened up new perspectives for poly(ester-ether)s, enabling the design of the next generation of tissue engineering scaffolds for application in regenerating such tissues as arteries, peripheral nerve and bone. Tailoring of polymer properties and their formulation as nanoparticles, nanomicelles or nanofibers have brought along important developments in the area of controlled drug or gene delivery. This paper reviews the synthesis of PDX and its copolymers and provides for the first time an exhaustive account of its applications in the (bio)medical field with focus on tissue engineering and drug/gene delivery. PMID:26614558

  16. Intracellular protein delivery and gene transfection by electroporation using a microneedle electrode array.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Jung-Hwan; Prausnitz, Mark R; Allen, Mark G

    2012-04-10

    The impact of many biopharmaceuticals, including protein- and gene-based therapies, has been limited by the need for better methods of delivery into cells within tissues. Here, intracellular delivery of molecules and transfection with plasmid DNA by electroporation is presented using a novel microneedle electrode array designed for the targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces. The microneedle array is molded out of polylactic acid. Electrodes and circuitry required for electroporation are applied to the microneedle array surface by a new metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle array maintains mechanical integrity after insertion into pig cadaver skin and is able to electroporate human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Quantitative measurements show that increasing electroporation pulse voltage increases uptake efficiency of calcein and bovine serum albumin, whereas increasing pulse length has lesser effects over the range studied. Uptake of molecules by up to 50% of cells and transfection of 12% of cells with a gene for green fluorescent protein is demonstrated at high cell viability. It is concluded that the microneedle electrode array is able to electroporate cells, resulting in intracellular uptake of molecules, and has potential applications to improve intracellular delivery of proteins, DNA, and other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22328093

  17. Synthetic vectors for gene delivery: An overview of their evolution depending on routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Belmadi, Nawal; Midoux, Patrick; Loyer, Pascal; Passirani, Catherine; Pichon, Chantal; Le Gall, Tony; Jaffres, Paul-Alain; Lehn, Pierre; Montier, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid delivery constitutes an emerging therapeutic strategy to cure various human pathologies. This therapy consists of introducing genetic material into the whole body or isolated cells to correct a cellular abnormality or disfunction. As with any drug, the main objective of nucleic acid delivery is to establish optimal balance between efficacy and tolerance. The methods of administration and the vectors used are selected depending on whether the goal of treatment is the production of an active protein; the replacement of a missing or inactive gene; or the combat of acquired diseases, such as cancer or AIDS. In that sense, synthetic vectors represent a valuable solution because they are well characterized, their structure can be fine tuned, and their potential toxicity can be reduced, since toxicity depends on the composition of the formulations. Here we review various synthetic vectors for gene delivery and address the question of their biodistribution as a function of the route of administration. We highlight the modifications to vectors structure and formulations necessary to overcome the major hurdles limiting the effectiveness of nucleic acid therapies.

  18. Polydioxanone-based bio-materials for tissue engineering and drug/gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Jeetah, Roubeena; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2015-11-01

    Since the commercialization of polydioxanone (PDX) as a biodegradable monofilament suture by Ethicon in 1981, the polymer has received only limited interest until recently. The limitations of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) coupled with the growing need for materials with enhanced features and the advent of new fabrication techniques such as electrospinning have revived interest for PDX in medical devices, tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Electrospun PDX mats show comparable mechanical properties as the major structural components of native vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) i.e. collagen and elastin. In addition, PDX's unique shape memory property provides rebound and kink resistance when fabricated into vascular conduits. The synthesis of methyl dioxanone (MeDX) monomer and copolymers of dioxanone (DX) and MeDX have opened up new perspectives for poly(ester-ether)s, enabling the design of the next generation of tissue engineering scaffolds for application in regenerating such tissues as arteries, peripheral nerve and bone. Tailoring of polymer properties and their formulation as nanoparticles, nanomicelles or nanofibers have brought along important developments in the area of controlled drug or gene delivery. This paper reviews the synthesis of PDX and its copolymers and provides for the first time an exhaustive account of its applications in the (bio)medical field with focus on tissue engineering and drug/gene delivery.

  19. Spermine-modified Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin as a gene delivery carrier

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanni; Hu, Yongpei; Li, Xiufang; Liu, Yu; Li, Mingzhong; Yang, Jicheng; Sheng, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    The development of a novel cationized polymer used as a gene delivery carrier that can conveniently and effectively transfect cells resulting in a stably expressed target gene remains a challenge. Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF) is a cytocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer, and it possesses Arg–Gly–Asp sequences but a negative charge. In order to render ASF amenable to packaging plasmid DNA (pDNA), spermine was used to modify ASF to synthesize cationized ASF (CASF), which was used as a gene delivery carrier. CASF was characterized using trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid assay, the zeta potential determination, and a Fourier transform infrared analysis, and the results of these characterizations indicated that the –NH2 in spermine effectively reacts with the –COOH in the side chains of ASF. Spermine grafted to the side chains of ASF resulted in the conversion of the negative charge of ASF to a positive charge. CASF packaged pDNA and formed CASF/pDNA complexes, which exhibited spherical morphology with average particle sizes of 215–281 nm and zeta potential of approximately +3.0 mV to +3.2 mV. The results of the MTT assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry analysis in a human endothelial cell line revealed that CASF/pDNA complexes exhibited lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency compared to the pDNA complexes of polyethyleneimine. These results indicate that our synthesized CASF, a cationized polymer, is a potential gene delivery carrier with the advantages of biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. PMID:27042056

  20. Aerosol delivery of DNA/liposomes to the lung for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Lee A; Nunez-Alonso, Graciela A; McLachlan, Gerry; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Lung gene therapy is being evaluated for a range of acute and chronic diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF). As these therapies approach clinical realization, it is becoming increasingly clear that the ability to efficiently deliver gene transfer agents (GTAs) to target cell populations within the lung may prove just as critical as the gene therapy formulation itself in terms of generating positive clinical outcomes. Key to the success of any aerosol gene therapy is the interaction between the GTA and nebulization device. We evaluated the effects of aerosolization on our preferred formulation, plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexed with the cationic liposome GL67A (pDNA/GL67A) using commercially available nebulizer devices. The relatively high viscosity (6.3±0.1 cP) and particulate nature of pDNA/GL67A formulations hindered stable aerosol generation in ultrasonic and vibrating mesh nebulizers but was not problematic in the jet nebulizers tested. Aerosol size characteristics varied significantly between devices, but the AeroEclipse II nebulizer operating at 50 psi generated stable pDNA/GL67A aerosols suitable for delivery to the CF lung (mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.4±0.1 μm). Importantly, biological function of pDNA/GL67A formulations was retained after nebulization, and although aerosol delivery rate was lower than that of other devices (0.17±0.01 ml/min), the breath-actuated AeroEclipse II nebulizer generated aerosol only during the inspiratory phase and as such was more efficient than other devices with 83±3% of generated aerosol available for patient inhalation. On the basis of these results, we have selected the AeroEclipse II nebulizer for the delivery of pDNA/GL67A formulations to the lungs of CF patients as part of phase IIa/b clinical studies. PMID:24865497

  1. Optimization of Brush-like Cationic Copolymers for Non-viral Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Pahang, JoshuelA; Pun, Suzie H.

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most broadly used polycations for gene delivery due to its high transfection efficiency and commercial availability but materials are cytotoxic and often polydisperse. The goal of current work is to develop an alternative family of polycations based on controlled living radical polymerization (CLRP) and to optimize the polymer structure for efficient gene delivery. In this study, well-defined poly(glycidyl methacrylate)(P(GMA)) homopolymers were synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization followed by decoration using three different types of oligoamines, i.e., tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA), and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN), respectively, to generate various P(GMA-oligoamine) homopolycations. The effect of P(GMA) backbone length and structure of oligoamine on gene transfer efficiency was then determined. The optimal polymer, P(GMA-TEPA)50, provided comparable transfection efficiency but lower cytotoxicity than PEI. P(GMA-TEPA)50 was then used as the cationic block in di-block copolymers containing hydrophilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA). Polyplexes of block copolymers were stable against aggregation in physiological salt condition and in Opti-MEM due to the shielding effect of P(HPMA) and P(OEGMA). However, the presence of the HPMA/OEGMA block significantly decreased the transfection efficacy of P(GMA-TEPA)50homopolycation. To compensate for reduced cell uptake caused by the hydrophilic shell of polyplex, the integrin-binding peptide, RGD, was conjugated to the hydrophilic chain end of P(OEGMA)15-b-P(GMA-TEPA)50 copolymer by Michael-type addition reaction. At low polymer to DNA ratios, the RGD-functionalized polymer showed increased gene delivery efficiency to HeLa cells compared to analogous polymers lacking RGD. PMID:23240866

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutics and Vehicles for Gene and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Porada, Christopher D.; Almeida-Porada, Graça

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess a set of several fairly unique properties which make them ideally suited both for cellular therapies/regenerative medicine, and as vehicles for gene and drug delivery. These include: 1) relative ease of isolation; 2) the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of seemingly functional cell types of both mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal origin; 3) the ability to be extensively expanded in culture without a loss of differentiative capacity; 4) they are not only hypoimmunogenic, but they produce immunosuppression upon transplantation; 5) their pronounced anti-inflammatory properties; and 6) their ability to home to damaged tissues, tumors, and metastases following in vivo administration. In this review, we summarize the latest research in the use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine, as immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory agents, and as vehicles for transferring both therapeutic genes in genetic disease and genes designed to destroy malignant cells. PMID:20828588

  3. Silk-based nanocomplexes with tumor-homing peptides for tumor-specific gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Mieszawska-Czajkowska, Aneta J; Kvenvold, Laura A; Kaplan, David L

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale complexes of recombinant silk molecules containing THPs with DNA are designed as less cytotoxic and highly target-specific gene carriers. Genetically engineered silk proteins containing poly(L-lysine) domains to interact with pDNA and the THP to bind to specific tumorigenic cells for target-specific pDNA delivery are prepared, followed by in vitro transfection into MDA-MB-435 melanoma cells, highly metastatic human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 cells, and non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The silk/poly(L-lysine) block copolymer containing Lyp1 (ML-Lyp1) shows significant differences from silk/poly(L-lysine) block copolymer containing F3 (ML-F3) in cytotoxicity to MCF10A cells. ML-F3 is the most promising candidate for target delivery into tumorigenic cells.

  4. Generation of stable cell line by using chitosan as gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Şalva, Emine; Turan, Suna Özbaş; Ekentok, Ceyda; Akbuğa, Jülide

    2016-08-01

    Establishing stable cell lines are useful tools to study the function of various genes and silence or induce the expression of a gene of interest. Nonviral gene transfer is generally preferred to generate stable cell lines in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins. In this study, we aimed to establish stable recombinant HEK-293 cell lines by transfection of chitosan complexes preparing with pDNA which contain LacZ and GFP genes. Chitosan which is a cationic polymer was used as gene delivery system. Stable HEK-293 cell lines were established by transfection of cells with complexes which were prepared with chitosan and pVitro-2 plasmid vector that contains neomycin drug resistance gene, beta gal and GFP genes. The transfection efficiency was shown with GFP expression in the cells using fluorescence microscopy. Beta gal protein expression in stable cells was examined by beta-galactosidase assay as enzymatically and X-gal staining method as histochemically. Full complexation was shown in the above of 1/1 ratio in the chitosan/pDNA complexes. The highest beta-galactosidase activity was obtained with transfection of chitosan complexes. Beta gal gene expression was 15.17 ng/ml in the stable cells generated by chitosan complexes. In addition, intensive blue color was observed depending on beta gal protein expression in the stable cell line with X-gal staining. We established a stable HEK-293 cell line that can be used for recombinant protein production or gene expression studies by transfecting the gene of interest.

  5. Topical Non-Invasive Gene Delivery using Gemini Nanoparticles in Interferon-gamma-deficient Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Badea,I.; Wettig, S.; Verrall, R.; Foldvari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous gene therapy, although a promising approach for many dermatologic diseases, has not progressed to the stage of clinical trials, mainly due to the lack of an effective gene delivery system. The main objective of this study was to construct and evaluate gemini nanoparticles as a topical formulation for the interferon gamma (IFN-{gamma}) gene in an IFN-{gamma}-deficient mouse model. Nanoparticles based on the gemini surfactant 16-3-16 (NP16-DNA) and another cationic lipid cholesteryl 3{beta}-(-N-[dimethylamino-ethyl] carbamate) [Dc-chol] (NPDc-DNA) were prepared and characterized. Zetasizer measurement indicated a bimodal distribution of 146 and 468 nm average particle sizes for the NP16-DNA ({zeta}-potential +51 mV) nanoparticles and monomodal distribution of 625 nm ({zeta}-potential +44 mV) for the NPDc-DNA. Circular dichroism studies showed that the gemini surfactant compacted the plasmid more efficiently compared to the Dc-chol. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed structural polymorphism in the NP16-DNA nanoparticles, with lamellar and Fd3m cubic phases present, while for the NPDc-DNA two lamellar phases could be distinguished. In vivo, both topically applied nanoparticles induced higher gene expression compared to untreated control and naked DNA (means of 0.480 and 0.398 ng/cm{sup 2} vs 0.067 and 0.167 ng/cm{sup 2}). However, treatment with NPDc-DNA caused skin irritation, and skin damage, whereas NP16-DNA showed no skin toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that topical cutaneous gene delivery using gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles in IFN-{gamma}-deficient mice was safe and may provide increased gene expression in the skin due to structural complexity of NP16 nanoparticles (lamellar-cubic phases).

  6. Efficacious redox-responsive gene delivery in serum by ferrocenylated monomeric and dimeric cationic cholesterols.

    PubMed

    Vulugundam, Gururaja; Kumar, Krishan; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-04-14

    Herein, we present the design and synthesis of new redox-active monomeric and dimeric (gemini) cationic lipids based on ferrocenylated cholesterol derivatives for gene delivery. The cationic cholesterols are shown to be transfection efficient after being formulated with the neutral helper lipid DOPE in the presence of serum (FBS). The redox activity of the resulting co-liposomes and their lipoplexes could be regulated using the alkanyl ferrocene moiety attached to the ammonium head groups of the cationic cholesterols. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements were performed to characterize the co-liposomal aggregates and their complexes with pDNA. The transfection efficiency of lipoplexes could be tuned by changing the oxidation state of the ferrocene moiety. The gene transfection capability was assayed in terms of green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression using pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA in three cell lines of different origins, namely Caco-2, HEK293T and HeLa, in the presence of serum. The vesicles possessing ferrocene in the reduced state induced an efficient transfection, even better than a commercial reagent Lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo 2000) as evidenced by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. All the co-liposomes containing the oxidized ferrocene displayed diminished levels of gene expression. Gene transfection events from the oxidized co-liposomes were further potentiated by introducing ascorbic acid (AA) as a reducing agent during lipoplex incubation with cells, leading to the resumption of transfection activity. Assessment of transfection capability of both reduced and oxidized co-liposomes was also undertaken following cellular internalization of labelled pDNA using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Overall, we demonstrate here controlled gene transfection activities using redox-driven, transfection efficient cationic monomeric and dimeric cholesterol lipids. Such systems could be used in gene

  7. Synthesis and characterization of an octaarginine functionalized graphene oxide nano-carrier for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Imani, Rana; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati; Faghihi, Shahab

    2015-03-01

    The success of gene therapy is largely dependent on the development of a gene carrier. Recently cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been employed for enhancing the gene and drug delivery efficacy of nano-particles. The feasibility of octaarginine (R8) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) as a novel nano-carrier for gene delivery is investigated. A DNA plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) is used as a model gene to study the R8-GO transfection ability into mammalian cells. R8 peptide is conjugated in different ratios (0.1-1.5 μmol per mg of GO) to carboxylated graphene oxide by a two step amidation process. The process of peptide conjugation is analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In order to obtain the highest transfection of pEGFP into the cells, the amount of peptide bound to GO is optimized which is evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, TNBS and gel retardation assays. The cytotoxicity of R8-functionalized GO is also tested by MTT assay. The results confirm the successful attachment of R8 peptide to GO. The AFM and XRD results show a significant increase in the thickness of nano graphene oxide sheets (NGOS) from 0.8 to 2-7 nm as well as an increase in the GO interlying space after the R8-functionalization process. A reduction in nano-carrier stability in both aqueous solution and cell culture media is observed when the amount of peptide is increased to more than 1 μmol mg(-1). Gel electrophoresis analysis shows the highest DNA loading on the peptide functionalized GO at the ratios of 0.5 and 1 μmol mg(-1). As a result, the conjugated peptide sample with a peptide molar ratio of 1 μmol per mg of GO shows the highest conjugational efficiency and EGFP gene expression along with improved dispersibility and biocompatibility. Overall, the findings reveal the importance of peptide density on the surface of NGOS in order to obtain

  8. Enteral siRNA delivery technique for therapeutic gene silencing in the liver via the lymphatic route.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Nishina, Kazutaka; Watanabe, Chie; Yoshida-Tanaka, Kie; Piao, Wenying; Kuwahara, Hiroya; Horikiri, Yuji; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Yoshida, Masayuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-11-23

    An efficient targeting delivery technology is needed for functional oligonucleotides to exert their potential effect on the target gene without an adverse effect in vivo. Development of enteral delivery systems for nucleic acids is a major challenge because of their large molecular size and instability. Here, we describe a new enteral delivery technique that enables small interfering RNA (siRNA) selectively delivered to the liver to silence its target Apolipoprotein B gene expression. A nuclease-resistant synthetic siRNA was conjugated with α-tochopherol and administered as lipid nanoparticle to the large intestine of the mice in a postprandial state. The selective transport into the liver, effective gene silence, and consequently significant reduction in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, were demonstrated. The chylomicron-mediated pathway via the lymphatic route was suggested as major mechanism. This unique approach may provide a basis for developing oral and rectal delivery systems for nucleic acids targeting liver.

  9. Enteral siRNA delivery technique for therapeutic gene silencing in the liver via the lymphatic route

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Masahiro; Nishina, Kazutaka; Watanabe, Chie; Yoshida-Tanaka, Kie; Piao, Wenying; Kuwahara, Hiroya; Horikiri, Yuji; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Yoshida, Masayuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    An efficient targeting delivery technology is needed for functional oligonucleotides to exert their potential effect on the target gene without an adverse effect in vivo. Development of enteral delivery systems for nucleic acids is a major challenge because of their large molecular size and instability. Here, we describe a new enteral delivery technique that enables small interfering RNA (siRNA) selectively delivered to the liver to silence its target Apolipoprotein B gene expression. A nuclease-resistant synthetic siRNA was conjugated with α-tochopherol and administered as lipid nanoparticle to the large intestine of the mice in a postprandial state. The selective transport into the liver, effective gene silence, and consequently significant reduction in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, were demonstrated. The chylomicron-mediated pathway via the lymphatic route was suggested as major mechanism. This unique approach may provide a basis for developing oral and rectal delivery systems for nucleic acids targeting liver. PMID:26593819

  10. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  11. Macrophages in gene therapy: cellular delivery vehicles and in vivo targets.

    PubMed

    Burke, B; Sumner, S; Maitland, N; Lewis, C E

    2002-09-01

    The appearance and activation of macrophages are thought to be rapid events in the development of many pathological lesions, including malignant tumors, atherosclerotic plaques, and arthritic joints. This has prompted recent attempts to use macrophages as novel cellular vehicles for gene therapy, in which macrophages are genetically modified ex vivo and then reintroduced into the body with the hope that a proportion will then home to the diseased site. Here, we critically review the efficacy of various gene transfer methods (viral, bacterial, protozoan, and various chemical and physical methods) in transfecting macrophages in vitro, and the results obtained when transfected macrophages are used as gene delivery vehicles. Finally, we discuss the use of various viral and nonviral methods to transfer genes to macrophages in vivo. As will be seen, definitive evidence for the use of macrophages as gene transfer vehicles has yet to be provided and awaits detailed trafficking studies in vivo. Moreover, although methods for transfecting macrophages have improved considerably in efficiency in recent years, targeting of gene transfer specifically to macrophages in vivo remains a problem. However, possible solutions to this include placing transgenes under the control of macrophage-specific promoters to limit expression to macrophages or stably transfecting CD34(+) precursors of monocytes/macrophages and then differentiating these cells into monocytes/macrophages ex vivo. The latter approach could conceivably lead to the bone marrow precursor cells of patients with inherited genetic disorders being permanently fortified or even replaced with genetically modified cells. PMID:12223508

  12. Effective delivery of large genes to the retina by dual AAV vectors

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Ivana; Colella, Pasqualina; Sommella, Andrea; Iodice, Carolina; Cesi, Giulia; de Simone, Sonia; Marrocco, Elena; Rossi, Settimio; Giunti, Massimo; Palfi, Arpad; Farrar, Gwyneth J; Polishchuk, Roman; Auricchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. However, AAV's limited cargo capacity prevents its application to therapies of inherited retinal diseases due to mutations of genes over 5 kb, like Stargardt's disease (STGD) and Usher syndrome type IB (USH1B). Previous methods based on ‘forced’ packaging of large genes into AAV capsids may not be easily translated to the clinic due to the generation of genomes of heterogeneous size which raise safety concerns. Taking advantage of AAV's ability to concatemerize, we generated dual AAV vectors which reconstitute a large gene by either splicing (trans-splicing), homologous recombination (overlapping), or a combination of the two (hybrid). We found that dual trans-splicing and hybrid vectors transduce efficiently mouse and pig photoreceptors to levels that, albeit lower than those achieved with a single AAV, resulted in significant improvement of the retinal phenotype of mouse models of STGD and USH1B. Thus, dual AAV trans-splicing or hybrid vectors are an attractive strategy for gene therapy of retinal diseases that require delivery of large genes. PMID:24150896

  13. Gene delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity of heterocyclic amine-modified PAMAM and PPI dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Maryam; Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Parhiz, Hamideh; Milanizadeh, Soroush; Amel Farzad, Sara; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Poly-(amidoamine) (PAMAM) and poly-(propylenimine) (PPI) are the two most widely investigated dendrimers for drug and gene delivery. In order to enhance DNA transfection activity of these dendrimers, generation 3 and 4 PAMAM and generation 4 and 5 PPI were modified by partial substitution of surface primary amines with histidine, pyridine, and piperazine, which have buffering capacity properties. It was shown that higher dendrimer generations and higher grafting percentages (30% and 50% of primary amines) were associated with higher transfection activity. Pyridine was the most effective substituent for PPI, while piperazine-modified PAMAM dendrimers showed the best transfection efficiency among PAMAM-based vectors in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells. None of the modified carriers showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with bafilomycin A indicated that endosomal buffering capacity is the main mechanism of endosomal escape. In conclusion, PAMAM and PPI may exhibit different gene delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity profiles with the same chemical modifications. These modified dendrimers could be considered as efficient and safe gene carriers in neuroblastoma cells in vitro. PMID:26838910

  14. Close-field electroporation gene delivery using the cochlear implant electrode array enhances the bionic ear.

    PubMed

    Pinyon, Jeremy L; Tadros, Sherif F; Froud, Kristina E; Y Wong, Ann C; Tompson, Isabella T; Crawford, Edward N; Ko, Myungseo; Morris, Renée; Klugmann, Matthias; Housley, Gary D

    2014-04-23

    The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the "bionic ear" is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel "close-field" electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model. In this model, delivery of a control GFP-only vector failed to restore neuron structure, with atrophied neurons indistinguishable from unimplanted cochleae. With BDNF therapy, the regenerated spiral ganglion neurites extended close to the cochlear implant electrodes, with localized ectopic branching. This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This development may broadly improve neural interfaces and extend molecular medicine applications.

  15. Water soluble cationic dextran derivatives containing poly(amidoamine) dendrons for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kaijin; Zhang, Shanshan; Liang, Bing; Gao, Cong; Du, Wenjun; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2015-06-01

    To develop new dextran derivatives for efficient gene delivery, the conjugation of poly(amidoamine) dendrons onto biocompatible dextran was carried out by a Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, as confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses. For resultant dextran conjugates with various generations of poly(amidoamine) dendrons, their buffering capacity and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated by acid-base titration and MTT tests, respectively. In particular, their physicochemical characteristics for the complexation with plasmid DNA were investigated by the combined analyses from agarose gel electrophoresis, zeta potential, particle size, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence emission spectra. Moreover, their complexes with plasmid DNA were studied with respect to their transfection efficiency in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lines. In the case of a higher generation of poly(amidoamine) dendrons, such a dextran conjugate was found to have much lower cytotoxicity and better gene delivery capability when compared to branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25kDa), a commonly used gene vector. PMID:25843855

  16. Cholesterol derived cationic lipids as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors and their serum compatibility.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jia; Huan, Meng-Lei; Wan, Ning; Hou, Yi-Lin; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jia, Yi-Yang; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-05-15

    Cholesterol derivatives M1-M6 as synthetic cationic lipids were designed and the biological evaluation of the cationic liposomes based on them as non-viral gene delivery vectors were described. Plasmid pEGFP-N1, used as model gene, was transferred into 293T cells by cationic liposomes formed with M1-M6 and transfection efficiency and GFP expression were tested. Cationic liposomes prepared with cationic lipids M1-M6 exhibited good transfection activity, and the transfection activity was parallel (M2 and M4) or superior (M1 and M6) to that of DC-Chol derived from the same backbone. Among them, the transfection efficiency of cationic lipid M6 was parallel to that of the commercially available Lipofectamine2000. The optimal formulation of M1 and M6 were found to be at a mol ratio of 1:0.5 for cationic lipid/DOPE, and at a N/P charge mol ratio of 3:1 for liposome/DNA. Under optimized conditions, the efficiency of M1 and M6 is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes DC-Chol and Lipofectamine2000, even in the presence of serum. The results indicated that M1 and M6 exhibited low cytotoxicity, good serum compatibility and efficient transfection performance, having the potential of being excellent non-viral vectors for gene delivery. PMID:27072908

  17. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Noura; Taylor, Leeanne; Troja, Weston; Owens, Kathryn; Ayres, Neil; Pauletti, Giovanni; Jones, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA) complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1). Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies.

  18. Interleukin-27 Gene Delivery for Modifying Malignant Interactions Between Prostate Tumor and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Zolochevska, Olga; Ellis, Jayne; Parelkar, Sangram; Chan-Seng, Delphine; Emrick, Todd; Wei, Jingna; Patrikeev, Igor; Motamedi, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We have examined the role of a novel cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), in mediating interactions between prostate cancer and bone. IL-27 is the most recently characterized member of the family of heterodimeric IL-12-related cytokines and has shown promise in halting tumor growth and mediating tumor regression in several cancer models, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is frequently associated with metastases to the bone, where the tumor induces a vicious cycle of communication with osteoblasts and osteoclasts to induce bone lesions, which are a significant cause of pain and skeletal-related events for patients, including a high fracture risk. We describe our findings in the effects of IL-27 gene delivery on prostate cancer cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts at different stages of differentiation. We applied the IL-27 gene delivery protocol in vivo utilizing sonoporation (sonodelivery) with the goal of treating and reducing the growth of prostate cancer at a bone metastatic site in vivo. We used a new model of immune-competent prostate adenocarcinoma and characterized the tumor growth reduction, gene expression, and effector cellular profiles. Our results suggest that IL-27 can be effective in reducing tumor growth, can help normalize bone structure, and can promote enhanced accumulation of effector cells in prostate tumors. These results are promising, because they are relevant to developing a novel IL-27-based strategy that can treat both the tumor and the bone, by using this simple and effective sonodelivery method for treating prostate tumor bone metastases. PMID:24028178

  19. Characterization and Investigation of Redox-Sensitive Liposomes for Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, Daniele; Tallarita, Elena; Rosini, Elena; Candiani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    A number of smart nonviral gene delivery vectors relying on bioresponsiveness have been introduced in the past few years to overcome the limits of the first generation of gene carriers. Among them, redox-sensitive lipidic and polymeric vectors exploit the presence of disulfide bonds in their structure to take advantage of the highly reductive intracellular milieu and to promote complex unpacking and nucleic acids release after cellular uptake (disulfide linker strategy). Glutathione (GSH) has been often identified as the leading actor in the intracellular reduction of bioreducible vectors but their actual mechanisms of action have been rarely investigated in depth and doubts about the real effectiveness of the disulfide linker strategy have been raised. Herein, we outline a simple protocol for the preparation and investigation of nano-sized reducible cationic liposomes, focusing on their thorough characterization and optimization as gene delivery vectors. In addition, we carefully describe the techniques and procedures necessary for the assessment of the bioreducibility of the vectors and to demonstrate that the GSH-mediated intracellular cleavage of disulfide bonds is a pivotal step in their transfection process. Liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and of the reducible cationic lipid SS14 are reported as a practical example but the proposed protocol can be easily shifted to other formulations of reducible lipids/liposomes and to reducible polymers. PMID:27436322

  20. Gene delivery by surface immobilization of plasmid to tissue-engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Salvay, D M; Zelivyanskaya, M; Shea, L D

    2010-09-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds that serve as vehicles for gene delivery to promote expression of inductive factors have numerous regenerative medicine applications. In this report, we investigate plasmid delivery from biomaterial scaffolds using a surface immobilization strategy. Porous scaffolds were fabricated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG), and plasmids were immobilized by drying. In vitro plasmid release indicated that the majority (>70%) of adsorbed plasmids were released within 24 h and >98% within 3 days; however, in vivo implantation of the scaffolds at the subcutaneous site yielded transgene expression that persisted for at least 28 weeks and was localized to the site of implantation. Histological analysis of DNA-adsorbed scaffolds indicated that macrophages at the scaffold were transfected in the first 2 weeks after implantation, whereas muscle cells adjacent to the implant primarily expressed the transgene at 4 weeks. In addition to localized gene expression, a secreted protein (human factor IX) was retained at the implant site and not available systemically after 3 days, indicating minimal off-target effects. These findings show that surface immobilization of plasmid onto microporous PLG scaffolds can produce localized and long-term gene expression in vivo, which may be used to enhance the bioactivity of scaffolds used for regenerative medicine.

  1. Development of TMTP-1 targeted designer biopolymers for gene delivery to prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McBride, John W; Massey, Ashley S; McCaffrey, J; McCrudden, Cian M; Coulter, Jonathan A; Dunne, Nicholas J; Robson, Tracy; McCarthy, Helen O

    2016-03-16

    Designer biopolymers (DBPs) represent state of the art genetically engineered biomacromolecules designed to condense plasmid DNA, and overcome intra- and extra- cellular barriers to gene delivery. Three DBPs were synthesized, each with the tumor molecular targeting peptide-1 (TMTP-1) motif to specifically target metastases. Each DBP was complexed with a pEGFP-N1 reporter plasmid to permit physiochemical and biological assay analysis. Results indicated that two of the biopolymers (RMHT and RM3GT) effectively condensed pEGFP-N1 into cationic nanoparticles <100 nm and were capable of transfecting PC-3 metastatic prostate cancer cells. Conversely the anionic RMGT DBP nanoparticles could not transfect PC-3 cells. RMHT and RM3GT nanoparticles were stable in the presence of serum and protected the cargo from degradation. Additionally it was concluded that cell viability could recover post-transfection with these DBPs, which were less toxic than the commercially available transfection reagent Lipofectamine(®) 2000. With both DBPs, a higher transfection efficacy was observed in PC-3 cells than in the moderately metastatic, DU145, and normal, PNT2-C2, cell lines. Blocking of the TMTP-1 receptors inhibited gene transfer indicating internalization via this receptor. In conclusion RMHT and RM3GT are fully functional DBPs that address major obstacles to gene delivery and target metastatic cells expressing the TMTP-1 receptor.

  2. Nanoparticle-Mediated Target Delivery of TRAIL as Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Jeon, Mike; Silber, John R; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-12-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive cancer therapeutic because of its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells while having a negligible effect on normal cells. However, the short serum half-life of TRAIL and lack of efficient in vivo administration approaches have largely hindered its clinical use. Using nanoparticles (NPs) as carriers in gene therapy is considered as an alternative approach to increase TRAIL delivery to tumors as transfected cells would be induced to secrete TRAIL into the tumor microenvironment. To enable effective delivery of plasmid DNA encoding TRAIL into glioblastoma (GBM), we developed a targeted iron oxide NP coated with chitosan-polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine copolymer and chlorotoxin (CTX) and evaluated its effect in delivering TRAIL in vitro and in vivo. NP-TRAIL successfully delivers TRAIL into human T98G GBM cells and induces secretion of 40 pg mL(-1) of TRAIL in vitro. Transfected cells show threefold increased apoptosis as compared to the control DNA bound NPs. Systemic administration of NP-TRAIL-CTX to mice bearing T98G-derived flank xenografts results in near-zero tumor growth and induces apoptosis in tumor tissue. Our results suggest that NP-TRAIL-CTX can potentially serve as a targeted anticancer therapeutic for more efficient TRAIL delivery to GBM. PMID:26498165

  3. Nanoparticle-Mediated Target Delivery of TRAIL as Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Jeon, Mike; Silber, John R; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-12-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive cancer therapeutic because of its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells while having a negligible effect on normal cells. However, the short serum half-life of TRAIL and lack of efficient in vivo administration approaches have largely hindered its clinical use. Using nanoparticles (NPs) as carriers in gene therapy is considered as an alternative approach to increase TRAIL delivery to tumors as transfected cells would be induced to secrete TRAIL into the tumor microenvironment. To enable effective delivery of plasmid DNA encoding TRAIL into glioblastoma (GBM), we developed a targeted iron oxide NP coated with chitosan-polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine copolymer and chlorotoxin (CTX) and evaluated its effect in delivering TRAIL in vitro and in vivo. NP-TRAIL successfully delivers TRAIL into human T98G GBM cells and induces secretion of 40 pg mL(-1) of TRAIL in vitro. Transfected cells show threefold increased apoptosis as compared to the control DNA bound NPs. Systemic administration of NP-TRAIL-CTX to mice bearing T98G-derived flank xenografts results in near-zero tumor growth and induces apoptosis in tumor tissue. Our results suggest that NP-TRAIL-CTX can potentially serve as a targeted anticancer therapeutic for more efficient TRAIL delivery to GBM.

  4. Integration of Drug, Protein, and Gene Delivery Systems with Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lorden, Elizabeth R.; Levinson, Howard M.; Leong, Kam W.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine has the potential to drastically change the field of health care from reactive to preventative and restorative. Exciting advances in stem cell biology and cellular reprogramming have fueled the progress of this field. Biochemical cues in the form of small molecule drugs, growth factors, zinc finger protein transcription factors and nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, monoclonal antibodies, plasmid DNA, aptamers, or RNA interference agents can play an important role to influence stem cell differentiation and the outcome of tissue regeneration. Many of these biochemical factors are fragile and must act intracellularly at the molecular level. They require an effective delivery system, which can take the form of a scaffold (e.g. hydrogels and electrospun fibers), carrier (viral and nonviral), nano- and micro-particle, or genetically modified cell. In this review, we will discuss the history and current technologies of drug, protein and gene delivery in the context of regenerative medicine. Next we will present case examples of how delivery technologies are being applied to promote angiogenesis in non-healing wounds or prevent angiogenesis in age related macular degeneration. Finally, we will conclude with a brief discussion of the regulatory pathway from bench-to-bedside for the clinical translation of these novel therapeutics. PMID:25787742

  5. Subretinal delivery of recombinant AAV serotype 8 vector in dogs results in gene transfer to neurons in the brain.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Knut; Colle, Marie-Anne; Dubreil, Laurence; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Deschamps, Jack Yves; Provost, Nathalie; Nivard, Delphine; Cherel, Yan; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2008-05-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are among the most efficient gene delivery vehicles for gene transfer to the retina. This study evaluates the behavior of the rAAV8 serotype vector with regard to intraocular delivery in rats and dogs. Subretinal delivery of an AAV2/8.gfp vector results in efficient gene transfer in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the photoreceptors and, surprisingly, in the cells of the inner nuclear layer as well as in ganglion cells. Most importantly, in dogs, gene transfer also occurred distal to the injection site in neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the brain. Because green fluorescent protein (GFP) was detected along the visual pathway within the brain, we analyzed total DNA extracted from various brain slices using PCR. Vector sequences were detected in many parts of the brain, but chiefly in the contralateral hemisphere.

  6. Novel hyperbranched polyamidoamine nanoparticle based gene delivery: transfection, cytotoxicity and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Guo, Changfa; Lai, Hao; Yang, Wuli; Wang, Chunsheng

    2012-02-28

    In this study, hyperbranched polyamidoamine (hPAMAM) was developed as a novel non-viral gene vector for the first time. The hPAMAM was synthesized using a modified "one-pot" method. DNA was then bound to hPAMAM at different weight ratios (w(hPAMAM)/w(DNA)). The higher weight ratio could bring larger particle size and higher zeta potential of hPAMAM-DNA complexes. The encapsulated DNA was protected by hPAMAM from degradation for over 3h. Under the optimal condition, high gene transfection efficiency could be achieved in COS7 (47.47 ± 1.42%) and HEK293 (40.8 ± 0.98%) cell lines. And hPAMAM showed rather minor cytotoxicity in vitro (cell viability=91.38 ± 0.46% in COS7 and 92.38 ± 0.61% in HEK293). The hPAMAM mediated human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (hVEGF(165)) gene transfected cells could express hVEGF(165) stably for 14 days, with the peak expression at day 2. In conclusion, hPAMAM based gene delivery was economical, effective and biocompatible, and may serve as a promising non-viral vehicle for gene therapy.

  7. Synergistically combined gene delivery for enhanced VEGF secretion and anti-apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Won, Young-Wook; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Bull, David A.; Kim, Sung Wan

    2013-01-01

    With current pharmacological treatments, preventing the remodeling of the left ventricle and the progression to heart failure is a difficult task. Gene therapy is considered to provide a direct treatment to the long-term complications of ischemic heart diseases. Although current gene therapies that use single molecular targets seem potentially possible, they have not achieved a success in the treatment of ischemic diseases. With an efficient polymeric gene carrier, PAM-ABP, we designed a synergistically combined gene delivery strategy to enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and prolong anti-apoptotic effects. A hypoxia-inducible plasmid expressing both hypoxia-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the Src homology domain-2 containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 microRNA (miSHP 1) and a hypoxia-responsive VEGF plasmid were combined in this study. The positive feedback circuit between HO-1 and VEGF, and the negative regulatory role of SHP-1 in angiogenesis enhance VEGF secretion synergistically. The synergy in VEGF secretion as a consequence of the gene combination and the prolonged HO-1 activity was confirmed in hypoxic cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxia, and was decreased synergistically. These results suggest that the synergistic combination of VEGF, HO-1, and miSHP-1 may be promising for the clinical treatment of ischemic diseases. PMID:24007285

  8. Delivery of cationic polymer-siRNA nanoparticles for gene therapies in neural regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yanran; Liu, Zhonglin; Shuai, Xintao; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jun; Bi, Wei; Wang, Chuanming; Jing, Xiuna; Liu, Yunyun; Tao, Enxiang

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nogo receptor can inhibit growth of injured axons, thus affecting neural regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The delivery of siRNA is crucial to inhibit NgR expression in NSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-viral vector PEG-PEI condensed siRNA targeting NgR into nanoscale particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG-PEI/siRNA at N/P = 15 displayed high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG-PEI has great potential in carrying siRNA to diminish the gene expression in NSCs. -- Abstract: The therapeutic applications of neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential to promote recovery in many obstinate diseases in central nervous system. Regulation of certain gene expressions using siRNA may have significant influence on the fate of NSC. To achieve the optimum gene silencing effect of siRNA, non-viral vector polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI) was investigated in the delivery of siRNA to NSCs. The characteristics of PEG-PEI/siRNA polyplexes were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of nanoparticles on cell viability were measured via CCK-8 assay. In addition, the transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, and real-time PCR and Western Blot were employed to detect the gene inhibition effect of siRNA delivered by PEG-PEI. The SEM micrographs showed that PEG-PEI could condense siRNA to form diffuse and spherical nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes (N/P = 15) was significantly lower when compared with that of Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA (P < 0.05). Moreover, the highest transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was obtained at an N/P ratio of 15, which was better than that achieved in the transfection using Lipofectamine 2000 (P < 0.05). Finally, the gene knockdown effect of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was verified at the levels of mRNA and protein. These results suggest that

  9. Ultrasound-Triggered Phase-Transition Cationic Nanodroplets for Enhanced Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Di; Xu, Ming; Cao, Zhong; Gao, Jinbiao; Chen, Ya; Li, Yingqin; Yang, Zhe; Xie, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-24

    Ultrasound as an external stimulus for enhanced gene transfection represents a safe, noninvasive, cost-effective delivery strategy for gene therapy. Herein, we have developed an ultrasound-triggered phase-transition cationic nanodroplet based on a novel perfluorinated amphiphilic poly(amino acid), which could simultaneously load perfluoropentane (PFP) and nucleic acids. The heptadecafluoroundecylamine (C11F17-NH2) was chosen to initiate β-benzyl-L-aspartate N-carboxyanhydride (BLA-NCA) ring-opening polymerization to prepare C11F17-poly(β-benzyl-L-aspartate) (C11F17-PBLA). Subsequently, C11F17-poly{N-[N'-(2-aminoethyl)]aspartamide} [C11F17-PAsp(DET)] was synthesized by aminolysis reaction of C11F17-PBLA with diethylenetriamine (DET). PFP/pDNA-loaded nanodroplets PFP-TNDs [PFP/C11F17-PAsp(DET)/LucDNA/γ-PGA or poly(glutamic acid)-g-MeO-poly(ethylene glycol) (PGA-g-mPEG) ternary nanodroplets] were primarily formulated by an oil/water emulsification method, followed by surface modification with PGA-g-mPEG. The average diameter of PFP-TNDs ranged from 300 to 400 nm, and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanodroplets were nearly spherical in shape. The ζ potential of the nanodroplets dramatically decreased from +54.3 to +15.3 mV after modification with PGA-g-mPEG, resulting in a significant increase of the stability of the nanodroplets in the serum-containing condition. With ultrasound irradiation, the gene transfection efficiency was enhanced 14-fold on HepG2 cells, and ultrasound-triggered phase-transition cationic nanodroplets also displayed a good ultrasound contrast effect. These results suggest that the PFP/DNA-loaded phase-transition cationic nanodroplets can be utilized as efficient theranostic agents for targeting gene delivery. PMID:26016606

  10. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lukashchuk, Vera; Lewis, Katherine E; Coldicott, Ian; Grierson, Andrew J; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2016-01-01

    Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS) when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV) or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG). To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications. PMID:26942208

  11. A Simple Zn2+ Complex-Based Composite System for Efficient Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Yanjie; Meng, Xianggao; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Liu, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Metal complexes might become a new type of promising gene delivery systems because of their low cytotoxicity, structural diversity, controllable aqua- and lipo-solubility, and appropriate density and distribution of positive charges. In this study, Zn2+ complexes (1-10) formed with a series of ligands contained benzimidazole(bzim)were prepared and characterized. They were observed to have different affinities for DNA, dependent on their numbers of positive charges, bzim groups, and coordination structures around Zn2+. The binding induced DNA to condensate into spherical nanoparticles with ~ 50 nm in diameter. The cell transfection efficiency of the DNA nanoparticles was poor, although they were low toxic. The sequential addition of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) TAT(48-60) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) resulted in the large DNA condensates (~ 100 nm in diameter) and the increased cellular uptake. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis was found to be a key cellular uptake pathway of the nanoparticles formed with or without TAT(48-60) or/and PEG. The DNA nanoparticles with TAT(48-60) and PEG was found to have the cell transfection efficiency up to 20% of the commercial carrier Lipofect. These results indicated that a simple Zn2+-bzim complex-based composite system can be developed for efficient and low toxic gene delivery through the combination with PEG and CPPs such as TAT. PMID:27433798

  12. A Simple Zn2+ Complex-Based Composite System for Efficient Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Yanjie; Meng, Xianggao; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Liu, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Metal complexes might become a new type of promising gene delivery systems because of their low cytotoxicity, structural diversity, controllable aqua- and lipo-solubility, and appropriate density and distribution of positive charges. In this study, Zn2+ complexes (1–10) formed with a series of ligands contained benzimidazole(bzim)were prepared and characterized. They were observed to have different affinities for DNA, dependent on their numbers of positive charges, bzim groups, and coordination structures around Zn2+. The binding induced DNA to condensate into spherical nanoparticles with ~ 50 nm in diameter. The cell transfection efficiency of the DNA nanoparticles was poor, although they were low toxic. The sequential addition of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) TAT(48–60) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) resulted in the large DNA condensates (~ 100 nm in diameter) and the increased cellular uptake. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis was found to be a key cellular uptake pathway of the nanoparticles formed with or without TAT(48–60) or/and PEG. The DNA nanoparticles with TAT(48–60) and PEG was found to have the cell transfection efficiency up to 20% of the commercial carrier Lipofect. These results indicated that a simple Zn2+-bzim complex-based composite system can be developed for efficient and low toxic gene delivery through the combination with PEG and CPPs such as TAT. PMID:27433798

  13. Mapping the AAV Capsid Host Antibody Response toward the Development of Second Generation Gene Delivery Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2). Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion, or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from MAbs, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed. PMID:24523720

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of New Multivalent Cationic Lipids for Applications in Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Ewert, K.; Evans, Heather M.; Schmidt, H. W.; Safinya, C. R.

    2002-03-01

    Cationic lipid mediated delivery of foreign DNA into cells is a promising alternative to viral based gene therapy, although its comparatively low efficiency may result from a lack of understanding of these DNA-lipid complexes. Understanding the effect of different components of the lipid, such as size and charge of the head group, tail length, etc., is essential to the design of an efficient carrier for use in gene delivery. Here we investigate a new class of multivalent lipids (MVLs) to examine the role of the charge of the head group, providing a short description of the synthesis of these lipids and characterization of the lamellar structure of complexes of these lipids with DNA through x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Cationic lipid:DNA(CL:DNA) complexes containing mixtures of these MVLs and the neutral lipid DOPC are compared with CL:DNA complexes containing the monovalent lipid DOTAP and DOPC. We demonstrate that due to the higher membrane charge density, certain MVLs have a structural advantage resulting in a higher transfection efficiency at smaller ratios of cationic to neutral lipid. Funding: NIH GM59288, NSF DMR-9972246

  15. Supramolecular anchoring of DNA polyplexes in cyclodextrin-based polypseudorotaxane hydrogels for sustained gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibiao; Yin, Hui; Zhang, Zhongxing; Liu, Kerh Li; Li, Jun

    2012-10-01

    A cyclodextrin-based supramolecular hydrogel system with supramolecularly anchored active cationic copolymer/plasmid DNA (pDNA) polyplexes was studied as a sustained gene delivery carrier. A few biodegradable triblock copolymers of methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (MPEG-PCL-PDMAEMA) with well-defined cationic block lengths were prepared to condense pDNA. The MPEG-PCL-PDMAEMA copolymers exhibit good ability to condense pDNA into 275-405 nm polyplexes with hydrophilic MPEG in the outer corona. The MPEG corona imparted greater stability to the pDNA polyplexes and also served as an anchoring segment when the pDNA polyplexes were encapsulated in α-CD-based supramolecular polypseudorotaxane hydrogels. More interestingly, the resultant hydrogels were able to sustain release of pDNA up to 6 days. The pDNA was released in the form of polyplex nanoparticles as it was bound electrostatically to the cationic segment of the MPEG-PCL-PDMAEMA copolymers. The bioactivity of the released pDNA polyplexes at various durations was further investigated. Protein expression level of pDNA polyplexes released over the durations was comparable to that of freshly prepared PEI polyplexes. Being thixotropic and easily prepared without using organic solvent, this supramolecular in situ gelling system has immense potential as an injectable carrier for sustained gene delivery.

  16. Biofunctionalized nanoparticles with pH-responsive and cell penetrating blocks for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, V. M.; Marques, J. G.; Sousa, F.; Louro, R. O.; Queiroz, J. A.; Correia, I. J.

    2013-07-01

    Bridging the gap between nanoparticulate delivery systems and translational gene therapy is a long sought after requirement in nanomedicine-based applications. However, recent developments regarding nanoparticle functionalization have brought forward the ability to synthesize materials with biofunctional moieties that mimic the evolved features of viral particles. Herein we report the versatile conjugation of both cell penetrating arginine and pH-responsive histidine moieties into the chitosan polymeric backbone, to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the native material. Amino acid coupling was confirmed by 2D TOCSY NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized chitosan-histidine-arginine (CH-H-R) polymer complexed plasmid DNA biopharmaceuticals, and spontaneously assembled into stable 105 nm nanoparticles with spherical morphology and positive surface charge. The functionalized delivery systems were efficiently internalized into the intracellular compartment, and exhibited remarkably higher transfection efficiency than unmodified chitosan without causing any cytotoxic effect. Additional findings regarding intracellular trafficking events reveal their preferential escape from degradative lysosomal pathways and nuclear localization. Overall, this assembly of nanocarriers with bioinspired moieties provides the foundations for the design of efficient and customizable materials for cancer gene therapy.

  17. Safety and angiogenic effects of systemic gene delivery of a modified erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    de Lucas Cerrillo, A M; Bond, W S; Rex, T S

    2015-05-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is critical for red blood cell production and is also an effective neuroprotective agent. However, it may contribute to pathological angiogenesis. Here we investigate the angiogenic potential of EPO and a mutant form with attenuated erythropoietic activity, EPO-R76E, on primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and in the adult retina. Assays of death, proliferation and tube formation were performed on HRMECs exposed to EPO, EPO-R76E or media alone. Postnatal day-9 wild-type mice were injected intramuscularly with adeno-associated virus vectors expressing either enhanced green fluorescent protein or EpoR76E. At 3 months, levels of EPO-R76E in the eye were quantified, and the health of the retinal vasculature was assessed by fluorescein angiography and isolectin immunolabeling. Immunohistochemistry, histology and electroretinogram (ERG) assessments were performed as measures of retinal health. Neither EPO nor EPO-R76E induced proliferation or tube formation in HRMECs under the conditions used. EPO-R76E decreased HRMEC death in a dose-dependent manner. Long-term systemic gene delivery of EPO-R76E was safe in terms of retinal vasculature, histology and the ERG in vivo. Our results show that EPO-R76E can block HRMEC death, consistent with its role in erythropoiesis and neuroprotection. In addition, long-term gene delivery of EPO-R76E is safe in the adult retina. PMID:25716531

  18. Chitosan enhanced gene delivery of cationic liposome via non-covalent conjugation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Zhang, Shubiao; Cui, Shaohui; Yang, Baoling; Zhao, Yinan; Chen, Huiying; Hao, Xiaomin; Shen, Qiong; Zhou, Jiti

    2012-01-01

    Two new types of stable ternary complexes were formed by mixing chitosan with DOTAP/pDNA lipoplex and DOTAP with chitosan/pDNA polyplex via non-covalent conjugation for the efficient delivery of plasmid DNA. They were characterized by atomic force microscopy, gel retarding, and dynamic light scattering. The DOTAP/CTS/pDNA complexes were in compacted spheroids and irregular lump of larger aggregates in structure, while the short rod- and toroid-like and donut shapes were found in CTS/DOTAP/pDNA complexes. The transfection efficiency of the lipopolyplexes showed higher GFP gene expression than DOTAP/pDNA and CTS/pDNA controls in Hep-2 and Hela cells, and luciferase gene expression 2-3-fold than DOTAP/pDNA control and 70-120-fold than CTS/pDNA control in Hep-2 cells. The intracellular trafficking was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rapid pDNA delivery to the nucleus enchanced by chitosan was achieved after 4 h transfection. PMID:22009568

  19. Physical Factors Affecting Plasmid DNA Compaction in Stearylamine-Containing Nanoemulsions Intended for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, André Leandro; Júnior, Francisco Alexandrino; Verissimo, Lourena Mafra; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Egito, Lucila Carmem Monte; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa

    2012-01-01

    Cationic lipids have been used in the development of non-viral gene delivery systems as lipoplexes. Stearylamine, a cationic lipid that presents a primary amine group when in solution, is able to compact genetic material by electrostatic interactions. In dispersed systems such as nanoemulsions this lipid anchors on the oil/water interface confering a positive charge to them. The aim of this work was to evaluate factors that influence DNA compaction in cationic nanoemulsions containing stearylamine. The influence of the stearylamine incorporation phase (water or oil), time of complexation, and different incubation temperatures were studied. The complexation rate was assessed by electrophoresis migration on agarose gel 0.7%, and nanoemulsion and lipoplex characterization was done by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The results demonstrate that the best DNA compaction process occurs after 120 min of complexation, at low temperature (4 ± 1 °C), and after incorporation of the cationic lipid into the aqueous phase. Although the zeta potential of lipoplexes was lower than the results found for basic nanoemulsions, the granulometry did not change. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lipoplexes are suitable vehicles for gene delivery. PMID:24281666

  20. Influence of molecular weight upon mannosylated bio-synthetic hybrids for targeted antigen presenting cell gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Jones, Charles H; Gollakota, Akhila; Chen, Mingfu; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Zhang, Guojian; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2015-07-01

    Given the rise of antibiotic resistant microbes, genetic vaccination is a promising prophylactic strategy that enables rapid design and manufacture. Facilitating this process is the choice of vector, which is often situationally-specific and limited in engineering capacity. Furthermore, these shortcomings are usually tied to an incomplete understanding of the structure-function relationships driving vector-mediated gene delivery. Building upon our initial report of a hybrid bacterial-biomaterial gene delivery vector, a comprehensive structure-function assessment was completed using a class of mannosylated poly(beta-amino esters). Through a top-down screening methodology, an ideal polymer was selected on the basis of gene delivery efficacy and then used for the synthesis of a stratified molecular weight polymer library. By eliminating contributions of polymer chemical background, we were able to complete an in-depth assessment of gene delivery as a function of (1) polymer molecular weight, (2) relative mannose content, (3) polymer-membrane biophysical properties, (4) APC uptake specificity, and (5) serum inhibition. In summary, the flexibility and potential of the hybrid design featured in this work highlights the ability to systematically probe vector-associated properties for the development of translational gene delivery candidates.

  1. Cancer Screening by Systemic Administration of a Gene Delivery Vector Encoding Tumor-Selective Secretable Biomarker Expression

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Andrew W.; Leddon, Jennifer L.; Currier, Mark A.; Williams, Jon P.; Frischer, Jason S.; Collins, Margaret H.; Ahn, Chong H.; Cripe, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers facilitate screening and early detection but are known for only a few cancer types. We demonstrated the principle of inducing tumors to secrete a serum biomarker using a systemically administered gene delivery vector that targets tumors for selective expression of an engineered cassette. We exploited tumor-selective replication of a conditionally replicative Herpes simplex virus (HSV) combined with a replication-dependent late viral promoter to achieve tumor-selective biomarker expression as an example gene delivery vector. Virus replication, cytotoxicity and biomarker production were low in quiescent normal human foreskin keratinocytes and high in cancer cells in vitro. Following intravenous injection of virus >90% of tumor-bearing mice exhibited higher levels of biomarker than non-tumor-bearing mice and upon necropsy, we detected virus exclusively in tumors. Our strategy of forcing tumors to secrete a serum biomarker could be useful for cancer screening in high-risk patients, and possibly for monitoring response to therapy. In addition, because oncolytic vectors for tumor specific gene delivery are cytotoxic, they may supplement our screening strategy as a “theragnostic” agent. The cancer screening approach presented in this work introduces a paradigm shift in the utility of gene delivery which we foresee being improved by alternative vectors targeting gene delivery and expression to tumors. Refining this approach will usher a new era for clinical cancer screening that may be implemented in the developed and undeveloped world. PMID:21589655

  2. Combinational Spinal GAD65 Gene Delivery and Systemic GABA-Mimetic Treatment for Modulation of Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kakinohana, Osamu; Hefferan, Michael P.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Nejime, Tetsuya; Marsala, Silvia; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Kucharova, Karolina; Strnadel, Jan; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Lazar, Peter; Galik, Jan; Vinay, Laurent; Marsala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of GABA-mediated pre-synaptic inhibition after spinal injury plays a key role in the progressive increase in spinal reflexes and the appearance of spasticity. Clinical studies show that the use of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with major side effects such as general sedation and progressive tolerance development. The goal of the present study was to assess if a combined therapy composed of spinal segment-specific upregulation of GAD65 (glutamate decarboxylase) gene once combined with systemic treatment with tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor) will lead to an antispasticity effect and whether such an effect will only be present in GAD65 gene over-expressing spinal segments. Methods/Principal Findings Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to transient spinal ischemia (10 min) to induce muscle spasticity. Animals then received lumbar injection of HIV1-CMV-GAD65 lentivirus (LVs) targeting ventral α-motoneuronal pools. At 2–3 weeks after lentivirus delivery animals were treated systemically with tiagabine (4, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg or vehicle) and the degree of spasticity response measured. In a separate experiment the expression of GAD65 gene after spinal parenchymal delivery of GAD65-lentivirus in naive minipigs was studied. Spastic SD rats receiving spinal injections of the GAD65 gene and treated with systemic tiagabine showed potent and tiagabine-dose-dependent alleviation of spasticity. Neither treatment alone (i.e., GAD65-LVs injection only or tiagabine treatment only) had any significant antispasticity effect nor had any detectable side effect. Measured antispasticity effect correlated with increase in spinal parenchymal GABA synthesis and was restricted to spinal segments overexpressing GAD65 gene. Conclusions/Significance These data show that treatment with orally bioavailable GABA-mimetic drugs if combined with spinal-segment-specific GAD65 gene overexpression can represent a novel

  3. Establishment of medakafish as a model for stem cell-based gene therapy: efficient gene delivery and potential chromosomal integration by baculoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Du, Juan; Chen, Tiansheng; Yi, Meisheng; Li, Mingyou; Wang, Shu; Li, Chang Ming; Hong, Yunhan

    2009-08-01

    Viral vectors hold promise and challenges in gene therapy. Specifically, we have previously shown that baculoviral (BV) vectors have a high efficiency of gene delivery in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we report the development of a complementary system to further our evaluation by utilizing the laboratory fish medaka that has ES cell lines and tools for experimental analyses in vitro and in vivo. We show that BV vectors can give rise to almost 100% of transient gene delivery in the medaka ES cell line MES1. BV-transduced MES1 cells reproducibly (at approximately 10(-5)) produce GFP-expressing colonies that, upon manual isolation, develop into stable clones during 300 days of culture. Surprisingly, BV transduction can also mediate efficient gene integration in the medaka genome, as fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed the presence of the BV-delivered gfp transgene in multiple locations in nuclei and on various chromosomes of metaphase spreads. We show that BV transduction does not compromise the genome stability and pluripotency of MES1 cells. We conclude that BV can efficiently mediate gene delivery and chromosomal integration in medaka ES cells. Therefore, medaka provides a powerful system for analyzing the potential of BV-mediated gene delivery in stem cells and gene therapy.

  4. A Review of Gene Delivery and Stem Cell Based Therapies for Regenerating Inner Ear Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammal