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Sample records for adenovirus ad gene

  1. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  2. Influence of cell physiological state on gene delivery to T lymphocytes by chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-feng; Shao, Hong-wei; Wu, Feng-lin; Xie, Xin; Li, Zhu-Ming; Bo, Hua-Ben; Shen, Han; Wang, Teng; Huang, Shu-lin

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically-modified T cells is a promising approach for treatment of both human malignancies and viral infections. Due to its ability to efficiently infect lymphocytes, the chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35 is potentially useful as an immunotherapeutic for the genetic modification of T cells. In previous studies, it was found that the infection efficiency of Ad5F35 was significantly increased without enhanced expression of the viral receptor after T cell stimulation; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Nonetheless, cell physiology has long been thought to affect viral infection. Therefore, we aimed to uncover the physiologic changes responsible for the increased infection efficiency of Ad5F35 following T cell stimulation. Given the complexity of intracellular transport we analyzed viral binding, entry, and escape using a Jurkat T cell model and found that both cell membrane fluidity and endosomal escape of Ad5F35 were altered under different physiological states. This, in turn, resulted in differences in the amount of virus entering cells and reaching the cytoplasm. These results provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying Ad5F35 infection of T cells and consequently, will help further the clinical application of genetically-modified T cells for immunotherapy. PMID:26972139

  3. Adenovirus serotype 5 hexon mediates liver gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Simon N; McVey, John H; Bhella, David; Parker, Alan L; Barker, Kristeen; Atoda, Hideko; Pink, Rebecca; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Greig, Jenny A; Denby, Laura; Custers, Jerome; Morita, Takashi; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Monteiro, Robson Q; Barouch, Dan H; van Rooijen, Nico; Napoli, Claudio; Havenga, Menzo J E; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2008-02-01

    Adenoviruses are used extensively as gene transfer agents, both experimentally and clinically. However, targeting of liver cells by adenoviruses compromises their potential efficacy. In cell culture, the adenovirus serotype 5 fiber protein engages the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) to bind cells. Paradoxically, following intravascular delivery, CAR is not used for liver transduction, implicating alternate pathways. Recently, we demonstrated that coagulation factor (F)X directly binds adenovirus leading to liver infection. Here, we show that FX binds to the Ad5 hexon, not fiber, via an interaction between the FX Gla domain and hypervariable regions of the hexon surface. Binding occurs in multiple human adenovirus serotypes. Liver infection by the FX-Ad5 complex is mediated through a heparin-binding exosite in the FX serine protease domain. This study reveals an unanticipated function for hexon in mediating liver gene transfer in vivo. PMID:18267072

  4. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    knob domain and triggers intracellular signaling that culminates in the cleavage of the extracellular domain of DSG2, thereby disrupting DSG2 homodimers between epithelial cells. We confirmed this pathway with a second DSG2-interacting serotype, Ad14, and its recently emerged strain Ad14P1. These new insights in basic adenovirus biology can be employed to develop novel drugs to treat adenovirus infection as well as be used as tools for gene delivery into epithelial tissues or epithelial tumors. PMID:26292319

  5. Ad 2.0: a novel recombineering platform for high-throughput generation of tailored adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mück-Häusl, Martin; Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-04-30

    Recombinant adenoviruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome of 26-45 kb were broadly explored in basic virology, for vaccination purposes, for treatment of tumors based on oncolytic virotherapy, or simply as a tool for efficient gene transfer. However, the majority of recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdVs) is based on a small fraction of adenovirus types and their genetic modification. Recombineering techniques provide powerful tools for arbitrary engineering of recombinant DNA. Here, we adopted a seamless recombineering technology for high-throughput and arbitrary genetic engineering of recombinant adenoviral DNA molecules. Our cloning platform which also includes a novel recombination pipeline is based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). It enables generation of novel recombinant adenoviruses from different sources and switching between commonly used early generation AdVs and the last generation high-capacity AdVs lacking all viral coding sequences making them attractive candidates for clinical use. In combination with a novel recombination pipeline allowing cloning of AdVs containing large and complex transgenes and the possibility to generate arbitrary chimeric capsid-modified adenoviruses, these techniques allow generation of tailored AdVs with distinct features. Our technologies will pave the way toward broader applications of AdVs in molecular medicine including gene therapy and vaccination studies. PMID:25609697

  6. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  7. Novel bat adenoviruses with an extremely large E3 gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Yang, Xing-Lou; Ge, Xing-Yi; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Bats carry diverse RNA viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. Compared to bat-borne RNA viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne DNA viruses. In this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (BtAdV WIV9-11) from Rhinolophus sinicus. Their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (AdVs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. An unusually large E3 gene was identified in their genomes. Phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses suggested that these isolates represent a distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. Cell susceptibility assays revealed a broad cell tropism for these isolates, indicating that they have a potentially wide host range. Our results expand the understanding of genetic diversity of bat AdVs. PMID:27032099

  8. Mechanism by which calcium phosphate coprecipitation enhances adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Walters, R; Welsh, M

    1999-11-01

    Delivery of a normal copy of CFTR cDNA to airway epithelia may provide a novel treatment for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Unfortunately, current vectors are inefficient because of limited binding to the apical surface of airway epithelia. We recently reported that incorporation of adenovirus in a calcium phosphate coprecipitate (Ad:CaPi) improves adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo. To understand better how coprecipitation improves gene transfer, we tested the hypothesis that incorporation in a CaPi coprecipitate increases the binding of adenovirus to the apical surface of differentiated human airway epithelia. When a Cy3-labelled adenovirus was delivered in a coprecipitate, binding increased 54-fold as compared with adenovirus alone. Moreover, infection by Ad:CaPi was independent of fiber knob-CAR and penton base-integrin interactions. After binding to the cell surface, the virus must enter the cell in order to infect. We hypothesized that Ad:CaPi may stimulate fluid phase endocytosis, thereby facilitating entry. However, we found that neither adenovirus nor Ad:CaPi coprecipitates altered fluid phase endocytosis. Nevertheless, Ad:CaPi preferentially infected cells showing endocytosis. Thus, CaPi coprecipitation improves adenovirus-mediated gene transfer by coating the epithelial surface with a layer of virus which enters cells during the normal process of endocytosis. PMID:10602380

  9. Polymeric oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Young Sook; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a promising modality to treat cancer. Many clinical trials have been done with either naked oncolytic Ad or combination with chemotherapies. However, the systemic injection of oncolytic Ad in clinical applications is restricted due to significant liver toxicity and immunogenicity. To overcome these issues, Ad has been engineered physically or chemically with numerous polymers for shielding the Ad surface, accomplishing extended blood circulation time and reduced immunogenicity as well as hepatotoxicity. In this review, we describe and classify the characteristics of polymer modified oncolytic Ad following each strategy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, this review concludes with the highlights of various polymer-coated Ads and their prospects, and directions for future research. PMID:26453806

  10. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vectors are engineered to replicate preferentially in cancer cells and to destroy cancer cells through the natural process of lytic virus replication. Many clinical trials indicate that replication-defective and replication-competent adenovirus vectors are safe and have therapeutic activity. PMID:24279313

  11. NF-κB promotes leaky expression of adenovirus genes in a replication-incompetent adenovirus vector

    PubMed Central

    Machitani, M.; Sakurai, F.; Wakabayashi, K.; Nakatani, K.; Shimizu, K.; Tachibana, M.; Mizuguchi, H.

    2016-01-01

    The replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad) vector is one of the most promising vectors for gene therapy; however, systemic administration of Ad vectors results in severe hepatotoxicities, partly due to the leaky expression of Ad genes in the liver. Here we show that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) mediates the leaky expression of Ad genes from the Ad vector genome, and that the inhibition of NF-κB leads to the suppression of Ad gene expression and hepatotoxicities following transduction with Ad vectors. Activation of NF-κB by recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α significantly enhanced the leaky expression of Ad genes. More than 50% suppression of the Ad gene expression was found by inhibitors of NF-κB signaling and siRNA-mediated knockdown of NF-κB. Similar results were found when cells were infected with wild-type Ad. Compared with a conventional Ad vector, an Ad vector expressing a dominant-negative IκBα (Adv-CADNIκBα), which is a negative regulator of NF-κB, mediated approximately 70% suppression of the leaky expression of Ad genes in the liver. Adv-CADNIκBα did not induce apparent hepatotoxicities. These results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB leads to suppression of Ad vector-mediated tissue damages via not only suppression of inflammatory responses but also reduction in the leaky expression of Ad genes. PMID:26814140

  12. Efficient construction of recombinant adenovirus expression vector of the Qinchuan cattle LYRM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Y K; Fu, C Z; Zhang, Y R; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we cloned the coding DNA sequence (CDS) region of Qinchuan cattle LYR motif-containing 1 (LYRM1) and constructed a recombinant adenovirus expression vector to examine the function of LYRM1 on the cellular level. Total RNA was extracted from the adipose tissue of Qinchuan cattle, cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription, and polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the CDS region of the LYRM1 gene. The CDS-containing fragment was inserted into the shuttle vector pAdTrack-CMV to construct pAdTrack-CMV-LYRM1 vector. After linearization of pAdTrack-CMV-LYRM1 and the negative control vector pAdTrack-CMV by restriction endonuclease PmeI, the vectors were transformed into Escherichia coli BJ5183 containing pAdEasy-1 to obtain the recombinant adenovirus vector pAd-LYRM1 and pAd-CMV through homologous recombination. pAd-LYRM1 and pAd-CMV were then digested by PacI and transfected into the 293A cell line. The recombinant adenovirus Ad-LYRM1 and Ad-CMV was obtained at a concentration of 7 x 108 and 1.3 x 109 green fluorescent units/mL, respectively. Preadipocytes derived from Qinchuan cattle were separately infected with Ad-LYRM1 and Ad- CMV. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the expression of LYRM1 was increased by approximate 28,000-folds after the infection with recombinant adenovirus for 48 h. In conclusion, we successfully cloned the CDS region of the Qinchuan cattle LYRM1 gene, constructed the recombinant adenovirus expression vector, and obtained the adenovirus with high titer, providing valuable materials for studying the function of LYRM1 at the cellular level. PMID:26345880

  13. Gene Delivery by Subconjunctival Injection of Adenovirus in Rats: A Study of Local Distribution, Transgene Duration and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jia Hui; Tsai, Pei-Jhen; Tsai, Han-En; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Dusting, Gregory J.; Tai, Ming-Hong; Bee, Youn-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Subconjunctival injection is a minimally invasive route for gene delivery to ocular tissues, but has traditionally been limited to use in the cornea. The accurate ocular distribution of virus has not, however, been previously investigated. Adenovirus is an attractive gene vector as it can deliver large genes and allow for short-term gene expression, but how safe it is when delivered via subconjunctival injection remains to be established. We have characterized the bio-distribution and safety of subconjunctivally administered adenovirus in Brown Norway rats. The bio-distribution and transgene duration of adenovirus carrying luciferase gene (Ad-Luci) at various time intervals were evaluated via bioluminescence imaging after subconjunctival injection. Adenovirus carrying a reporter gene, β-galactosidase (Ad-LacZ) or hrGFP (Ad-hrGFP) was administered subconjunctivally and the viral distribution in various ocular tissues was assessed by histological analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Hepatic damage was assessed by biochemical and immunohistological analysis with TUNEL stain. Systemic immunogenicity was assessed by measuring serum level of TNF-α via ELISA, 2 hours and 14 days after administration of adenovirus. Retinal function was examined by electroretinography. Subconjunctival injection of Ad-Luci induced luciferase expression in the injected eyes within 24 hours, for at least 64 days. Histological analysis showed adenovirus distributed across anterior and posterior ocular tissues. qPCR demonstrated different amounts of adenovirus in different ocular tissues, with the highest amounts closest to the injection site Unlike the intravenous route, subconjunctivally delivered adenovirus did not elicit any detectable hepatic injury or systemic immunogenicity. Retinal function was unaffected by adenovirus irrespective of administration route. In conclusion, an adenoviral vector administered subconjunctivally can infiltrate into different ocular tissues and lead to short

  14. Efficient gene delivery to the inflamed colon by local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, S; Galle, P; Neurath, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Replication deficient recombinant adenoviruses represent an efficient means of transferring genes in vivo into a wide variety of dividing and quiescent cells from many different organs. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially attractive target for gene therapy approaches, only a few studies on the use of viral gene transfer vehicles in the gut have been reported. The prospects of using recombinant adenoviruses for gene delivery into epithelial and subepithelial cells of the normal and inflamed colon are here analysed.
METHODS—An E1/E3 deleted recombinant adenovirus (denoted AdCMVβGal) and an adenovirus with modified fibre structure (denoted AdZ.F(pk7)) both expressing the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter were used for reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. β-Galactosidase activity was determined by specific chemiluminescent reporter gene assay.
RESULTS—Intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AdCMVβGal into healthy Balb/c mice caused strong reporter gene expression in the liver and spleen but not in the colon. In contrast, local administration of AdCMVβGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVβGal caused a higher β-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. Furthermore, isolated lamina propria cells from mice with colitis infected in vitro showed a significant increase in reporter gene activity compared with controls. Finally, AdZ.F(pk7) adenoviruses with modified fibre structure produced 10- to 40-fold higher reporter gene activity in spleen T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells of colitic mice compared with

  15. Genetic organization, size, and complete sequence of early region 3 genes of human adenovirus type 41.

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, H Y; Pieniazek, N; Pieniazek, D; Luftig, R B

    1996-01-01

    The complete nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences for open reading frames (ORFs) of the human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) early region 3 (E3) gene have been determined. The sequence of the Ad41 E3 gene (map units 74 to 83.9) consists of 3,373 nucleotides and has one TATA box and two polyadenylation signals (AATAAA). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals that the E3 gene can encode six ORFs, designated RL1 to RL6. These are all expressed at the mRNA level, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of AD41-infected cell RNA. When compared with known E3 sequences of most other human adenoviruses deposited in GenBank, the sequences of RL1 to RL3 were found to be unique to subgroup F adenoviruses (Ad40 and Ad41). They encode putative proteins of 173 amino acids (19.4 kDa) and 276 amino acids (31.6 kDa) in one reading frame as well as a 59- amino-acid (6.7 kDa) protein in an overlapping reading frame. RL4 encodes a 90-amino-acid protein (10.1 kDa) with 40% homology to the Ad2 E3 10.4-kDa protein, which induces degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and functions together with the Ad2 E3 14.5-kDa protein to protect mouse cell lines against lysis. RL5 encodes a protein of 107 amino acid residues (12.3 kDa) and is analogous to the Ad E3 14.5-kDa protein. RL6 codes for a protein of 122 amino acids (14.7 kDa) that is analogous to the Ad2 14.7-kDa protein, which functions to protect Ad-infected cells from tumor necrosis factor-induced cytolysis. This finding of three unique (RL1 to RL3) E3 gene ORFs may explain why subgroup F adenoviruses differ substantially from other human adenoviruses in their host range; i.e., they replicate predominantly in the host's gastrointestinal rather than respiratory tract. A recent phylogenetic study that compared subgroup F Ad40 DNA sequences with representatives of subgroups B (Ad3), C (Ad2), and E (Ad4) reached a similar conclusion about the uniqueness of RL1 and RL2. PMID:8642703

  16. Molecular Characterization of a Lizard Adenovirus Reveals the First Atadenovirus with Two Fiber Genes and the First Adenovirus with Either One Short or Three Long Fibers per Penton

    PubMed Central

    Pénzes, Judit J.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Condezo, Gabriela N.; Ball, Inna; Papp, Tibor; Doszpoly, Andor; Paradela, Alberto; Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; López-Sanz, María; Nguyen, Thanh H.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Marschang, Rachel E.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although adenoviruses (AdVs) have been found in a wide variety of reptiles, including numerous squamate species, turtles, and crocodiles, the number of reptilian adenovirus isolates is still scarce. The only fully sequenced reptilian adenovirus, snake adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1), belongs to the Atadenovirus genus. Recently, two new atadenoviruses were isolated from a captive Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) and Mexican beaded lizards (Heloderma horridum). Here we report the full genomic and proteomic characterization of the latter, designated lizard adenovirus 2 (LAdV-2). The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of LAdV-2 is 32,965 bp long, with an average G+C content of 44.16%. The overall arrangement and gene content of the LAdV-2 genome were largely concordant with those in other atadenoviruses, except for four novel open reading frames (ORFs) at the right end of the genome. Phylogeny reconstructions and plesiomorphic traits shared with SnAdV-1 further supported the assignment of LAdV-2 to the Atadenovirus genus. Surprisingly, two fiber genes were found for the first time in an atadenovirus. After optimizing the production of LAdV-2 in cell culture, we determined the protein compositions of the virions. The two fiber genes produce two fiber proteins of different sizes that are incorporated into the viral particles. Interestingly, the two different fiber proteins assemble as either one short or three long fiber projections per vertex. Stoichiometry estimations indicate that the long fiber triplet is present at only one or two vertices per virion. Neither triple fibers nor a mixed number of fibers per vertex had previously been reported for adenoviruses or any other virus. IMPORTANCE Here we show that a lizard adenovirus, LAdV-2, has a penton architecture never observed before. LAdV-2 expresses two fiber proteins—one short and one long. In the virion, most vertices have one short fiber, but a few of them have three long fibers attached to the same penton

  17. Incorporation of adenovirus in calcium phosphate precipitates enhances gene transfer to airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Fasbender, A; Lee, J H; Walters, R W; Moninger, T O; Zabner, J; Welsh, M J

    1998-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia is inefficient because the apical membrane lacks the receptor activity to bind adenovirus fiber protein. Calcium phosphate (CaPi) precipitates have been used to deliver plasmid DNA to cultured cell lines. However, such precipitates are not effective in many primary cultures or in vivo. Here we show that incorporating recombinant adenovirus into a CaPi coprecipitate markedly enhances transgene expression in cells that are resistant to adenovirus infection. Enhancement requires that the virus be contained in the precipitate and viral proteins are required to increase expression. Ad: CaPi coprecipitates increase gene transfer by increasing fiber-independent binding of virus to cells. With differentiated cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia in vitro, a 20-min application of Ad:CaPi coprecipitates that encode CF transmembrane conductance regulator produced as much CF transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- current as a 24-h application of adenovirus alone. We found that Ad:CaPi coprecipitates also increased transgene expression in mouse lung in vivo; importantly, expression was particularly prominent in airway epithelia. These results suggest a new mechanism for gene transfer that may be applicable to a number of different gene transfer applications and could be of value in gene transfer to CF airway epithelia in vivo. PMID:9649572

  18. Development of replication-competent adenovirus for bladder cancer by controlling adenovirus E1a and E4 gene expression with the survivin promoter

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ho Kyung; Seo, Jeong Bin; Nam, Jae-Kook; Jeong, Kyung-Chae; Shin, Seung-Pil; Kim, In-Hoo; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family. Here, we examined survivin expression and confirmed abundant survivin expression in bladder cancer cells. This expression pattern indicated that the transcriptional regulatory elements that control survivin expression could be utilized to discriminate cancer from normal cells. We therefore generated a novel adenovirus termed Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 with the following characteristics: 1) E1A and E4 protein expression was dependent on survivin promoter activity; 2) the green fluorescence protein gene was inserted into the genome under the control of the CMV promoter; 3) most of the E3 sequences were deleted, but the construct was still capable of expressing the adenovirus death protein with potent cytotoxic effects; and 4) the fiber knob was from serotype 35 adenovirus. As expected from the abundant survivin expression observed in bladder cancer cells, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 replicated better in cancer cells than in normal cells by a factor of 106 to 102. Likewise, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 exerted greater cytotoxic effects on all bladder cancer cell lines tested. Importantly, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 inhibited the growth of Ku7-Luc orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Taken together, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 indicates that the survivin promoter may be utilized for the development of a replication-competent adenovirus to target bladder cancers. PMID:25015402

  19. Control of adenovirus early gene expression: Posttranscriptional control mediated by both viral and cellular gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Katze, M.G.; Persson, H.; Philipson, L.

    1981-09-01

    An adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (hr-1) located in region E1A and phenotypically defective in expressing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) from other early regions was analyzed for accumulation of viral RNA in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Nuclear RNA was transcribed from all early regions at the same rate, regardless of whether the drug was present or absent. As expected, low or undetectable levels of RNA were found in the cytoplasm of hr-1-infected cells compared with the wild-type adenovirus type 5 in the absence of drug. When anisomycin was added 30 min before hr-1 infection, cytoplasmic RNA was abundant from early regions E3 and E4 when assayed by filter hybridization. In accordance, early regions E3 and E4 viral messenger RNA species were detected by the S1 endonuclease mapping technique only in hr-1-infected cells that were treated with the drug. Similar results were obtained by in vitro translation studies. Together, these results suggest that this adenovirus type 5 mutant lacks a viral gene product necessary for accumulation of viral messenger RNA, but not for transcription. It is proposed that a cellular gene product serves as a negative regulator of viral messenger RNA accumulation at the posttranscriptional level.

  20. Treatment of experimental human mesothelioma using adenovirus transfer of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Smythe, W R; Hwang, H C; Elshami, A A; Amin, K M; Eck, S L; Davidson, B L; Wilson, J M; Kaiser, L R; Albelda, S M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors demonstrate the ability of an adenovirus vector expressing the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene to treat human malignant mesothelioma growing within the peritoneal cavity of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. BACKGROUND DATA: Introduction of the HSVtk gene into tumor cells renders them sensitive to the antiviral drug ganciclovir (GCV). This approach has been used previously to treat experimental brain tumors. Although malignant mesothelioma is refractory to current therapies, its localized nature and the accessibility of the pleural space make it a potential target for a similar type of in vivo gene therapy using adenovirus. METHODS: An adenovirus containing the HSVtk gene (Ad.RSVtk) was used to transduce mesothelioma cells in vitro. These cells were then injected into the flanks of SCID mice. Ad.RSVtk was also injected directly into the peritoneal cavity of SCID mice with established human mesothelioma tumors. Mice were subsequently treated for 7 days with GCV at a dose of 5 mg/kg. RESULTS: Mesothelioma cells transduced in vitro with Ad.RSVtk formed nodules when injected in the subcutaneous tissue. These tumors could be eliminated by the administration of GCV, even when as few as 10% of cells were transduced to express HSVtk (bystander effect). Administration of Ad.RSVtk into the peritoneal space of animals with established multifocal human mesothelioma followed by GCV therapy resulted in the eradication of macroscopic tumor in 90% of animals and microscopic tumor in 80% of animals when evaluated after 30 days. The median survival of animals treated with Ad.RSVtk/GCV was significantly longer than that of control animals treated with similar protocols. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that an adenoviral vector containing the HSVtk gene is effective in treating established malignant mesothelioma in an in vivo setting and raise the possibility of using adenovirus transfer of HSVtk for clinical trials in mesothelioma and

  1. Combination of adenovirus and cross-linked low molecular weight PEI improves efficiency of gene transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianfeng; Zhao, Dong; Zhong, Zhirong; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene therapy is an exciting novel strategy in cancer treatment. However, poor infection efficiency with coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) down-regulated cancer cell lines is one of the major challenges for its practical and extensive application. As an alternative method of viral gene delivery, a non-viral carrier using cationic materials could compensate for the limitation of adenovirus. In our study, adenovectors were complexed with a new synthetic polymer PEI-DEG-bis-NPC (PDN) based on polyethylenimine (PEI), and then the properties of the vehicle were characterized by measurement of size distribution, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Enhancement of gene transduction by Ad/PDN complexes was observed in both CAR-overexpressing cell lines (A549) and CAR-lacking cell lines (MDCK, CHO, LLC), as a result of facilitating binding and cell uptake of adenoviral particles by the cationic component. Ad/PDN complexes also promoted the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that a combination of viral and non-viral gene delivery methods may offer a new approach to successful cancer gene therapy.

  2. Suppression of leaky expression of adenovirus genes by insertion of microRNA-targeted sequences in the replication-incompetent adenovirus vector genome.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kahori; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tomita, Kyoko; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Shin-Ichiro; Katayama, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Masashi; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Leaky expression of adenovirus (Ad) genes occurs following transduction with a conventional replication-incompetent Ad vector, leading to an induction of cellular immunity against Ad proteins and Ad protein-induced toxicity, especially in the late phase following administration. To suppress the leaky expression of Ad genes, we developed novel Ad vectors by incorporating four tandem copies of sequences with perfect complementarity to miR-122a or miR-142-3p into the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the E2A, E4, or pIX gene, which were mainly expressed from the Ad vector genome after transduction. These Ad vectors easily grew to high titers comparable to those of a conventional Ad vector in conventional 293 cells. The leaky expression of these Ad genes in mouse organs was significantly suppressed by 2- to 100-fold, compared with a conventional Ad vector, by insertion of the miRNA-targeted sequences. Notably, the Ad vector carrying the miR-122a-targeted sequences into the 3'-UTR of the E4 gene expressed higher and longer-term transgene expression and more than 20-fold lower levels of all the Ad early and late genes examined in the liver than a conventional Ad vector. miR-122a-mediated suppression of the E4 gene expression in the liver significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity which an Ad vector causes via both adaptive and non-adaptive immune responses. PMID:26015975

  3. [Development and Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus Vector Exhibiting MicroRNA-mediated Suppression of the Leaky Expression of Adenovirus Genes].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kahori

    2015-01-01

    Replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad) vectors have gained attention as gene delivery vehicles. Theoretically, no Ad genes should be expressed following transduction; however, Ad genes are expressed from the vector genome, leading to induction of cellular immunity against Ad proteins and Ad protein-induced toxicity. To suppress the leaky expression of Ad genes, a microRNA (miRNA)-regulated gene expression system was utilized. We developed novel Ad vectors by incorporating targeted sequences of miR-122a or miR-142-3p, which exhibit liver- or spleen-specific expression, respectively, in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the E2A, E4, or pIX genes. These Ad vectors easily grew to high titers comparable to those of a conventional Ad vector in conventional human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The leaky expression of these Ad genes in mouse organs was significantly suppressed by 2- to 100-fold in an miRNA-dependent manner, compared with a conventional Ad vector, by the insertion of the miRNA-targeted sequences. Notably, the Ad vector carrying the miR-122a-targeted sequences into the 3'-UTR of the E4 gene (Ad-E4-122aT) expressed 1.5- to 34-fold higher and longer-term transgene expression and more than 20-fold lower levels of all the Ad early and late genes examined in the liver compared with a conventional Ad vector. miR-122a-mediated suppression of E4 gene expression in the liver significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity that an Ad vector causes via both adaptive and non-adaptive immune responses. Ad-E4-122aT would be a promising framework for efficient gene delivery due to its ability to mediate higher and longer-term transgene expression and lower hepatotoxicity than a conventional Ad vector. PMID:26632150

  4. Increased in vitro and in vivo gene transfer by adenovirus vectors containing chimeric fiber proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, T J; Tzeng, E; Shears, L L; Roelvink, P W; Li, Y; Lee, G M; Brough, D E; Lizonova, A; Kovesdi, I

    1997-01-01

    Alteration of the natural tropism of adenovirus (Ad) will permit gene transfer into specific cell types and thereby greatly broaden the scope of target diseases that can be treated by using Ad. We have constructed two Ad vectors which contain modifications to the Ad fiber coat protein that redirect virus binding to either alpha(v) integrin [AdZ.F(RGD)] or heparan sulfate [AdZ.F(pK7)] cellular receptors. These vectors were constructed by a novel method involving E4 rescue of an E4-deficient Ad with a transfer vector containing both the E4 region and the modified fiber gene. AdZ.F(RGD) increased gene delivery to endothelial and smooth muscle cells expressing alpha(v) integrins. Likewise, AdZ.F(pK7) increased transduction 5- to 500-fold in multiple cell types lacking high levels of Ad fiber receptor, including macrophage, endothelial, smooth muscle, fibroblast, and T cells. In addition, AdZ.F(pK7) significantly increased gene transfer in vivo to vascular smooth muscle cells of the porcine iliac artery following balloon angioplasty. These vectors may therefore be useful in gene therapy for vascular restenosis or for targeting endothelial cells in tumors. Although binding to the fiber receptor still occurs with these vectors, they demonstrate the feasibility of tissue-specific receptor targeting in cells which express low levels of Ad fiber receptor. PMID:9343173

  5. A chimeric adenovirus with an Ad 3 fiber knob modification augments glioma virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Suvobroto; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Rolle, Cleo E.; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Malignant gliomas remain refractory to treatment despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical techniques. Viral vectors developed to treat gliomas have had low transduction capabilities, limiting their use. Gliomas over-express CD46, CD80, and CD86, all of which bind adenovirus serotype 3. Methods To increase the infectivity and replication of oncolytic vectors in malignant brain tumors, we created a conditionally replicating adenovirus, CRAd-Survivin-5/3, which contains a survivin promoter-driving E1A and a chimeric fiber consisting of adenovirus serotype 3 knob. Results In vitro, this modified CRAd showed ten- to 100-fold increased cytotoxicity against glioma cells. Ex vivo analysis of primary glioblastoma multiforme samples infected with CRAd-Survivin-5/3 showed an increase in cytotoxicity of 20–30% compared to adenovirus wild-type (AdWT). Innormal human astrocytes and normal brain tissues, CRAd-Survivin-5/3 exhibited 30–40% and 10–15% lower cytotoxicity than AdWT, respectively. In an intracranial xenograft model of glioma, this oncolytic virus increased tumor-free survival and overall lifespan by 50% compared to controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions CRAd-Survivin-5/3 represents an attractive alternative to existing vectors and should be tested further in the pre-clinical setting. PMID:19688792

  6. Development and assessment of human adenovirus type 11 as a gene transfer vector.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel; Ni, Shaoheng; Li, Zong-Yi; Gaggar, Anuj; DiPaolo, Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Sandig, Volker; Lieber, André

    2005-04-01

    Adenovirus vectors based on human serotype 5 (Ad5) have successfully been used as gene transfer vectors in many gene therapy-based approaches to treat disease. Despite their widespread application, many potential therapeutic applications are limited by the widespread prevalence of vector-neutralizing antibodies within the human population and the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce important therapeutic target cell types. In an attempt to circumvent these problems, we have developed Ad vectors based on human Ad serotype 11 (Ad11), since the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to Ad11 in humans is low. E1-deleted Ad11 vector genomes were generated by homologous recombination in 293 cells expressing the Ad11-E1B55K protein or by recombination in Escherichia coli. E1-deleted Ad11 genomes did not display transforming activity in rodent cells. Transduction of primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and immature dendritic cells was more efficient with Ad11 vectors than with Ad5 vectors. Thirty minutes after intravenous injection into mice that express one of the Ad11 receptors (CD46), we found, in a pattern and at a level comparable to what is found in humans, Ad11 vector genomes in all analyzed organs, with the highest amounts in liver, lung, kidney, and spleen. Neither Ad11 genomes nor Ad11 vector-mediated transgene expression were, however, detected at 72 h postinfusion. A large number of Ad11 particles were also found to be associated with circulating blood cells. We also discovered differences in in vitro transduction efficiencies and in vivo biodistributions between Ad11 vectors and chimeric Ad5 vectors possessing Ad11 fibers, indicating that Ad11 capsid proteins other than fibers influence viral infectivity and tropism. Overall, our study provides a basis for the application of Ad11 vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer and for gaining an understanding of the factors that determine Ad tropism. PMID:15795294

  7. Mutation in fiber of adenovirus serotype 5 gene therapy vector decreases liver tropism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Baoming; Lou, Junfang; Yan, Jingyi; Gao, Lei; Geng, Ranshen; Yu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors are widely used for both in vitro and in vivo gene transfer. However, intravenous administration of Ad vectors results mainly in hepatocyte transduction and subsequent hepatotoxicity. Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and αvβ integrins, which are functional receptors for the fiber and penton proteins, respectively, are the tropism determinants of Ad type 5 (Ad5). We previously developed a system for rapid construction of fiber-modified Ad5 vectors. We also constructed a fiber-modified Ad5 containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the HI-loop and showed that it could enhance anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Here, we constructed a novel Ad5 vector containing two amino acid mutations in the AB loop of the fiber-modified Ad5 fiber knob and showed that it could significantly reduce liver tropism and increase gene transfer in low-CAR or CAR-deficient cancer cells following intravascular delivery. However, anti-tumor effects of the fiber-mutated Ad5 expressing HSV-TK under control of the hTERT promoter was not found when compared with an unmodified Ad5 vector in cancer lines expressing different levels of CAR, likely due to the activity of the hTERT promoter being lower than that of the CMV promoter. Nevertheless, this study describes an enhanced Ad5 vector for intravascular gene delivery, and further modifications such as changes in the promoter may facilitate the development of this vector for cancer treatment. PMID:25663991

  8. Multiple proteins bind to VA RNA genes of adenovirus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, M W; Roeder, R G

    1987-01-01

    Using fractionated HeLa cell nuclear extracts and both nuclease (DNase I) cleavage and chemical cleavage (methidiumpropyl-EDTA X Fe(II) protection methodologies, we demonstrated the presence of three proteins which interacted specifically, yet differentially, with the two VA genes of adenovirus type 2. One, previously identified as transcription initiation factor TFIIIC, bound to a site centered on the transcriptionally essential B-block concensus element of the VAI gene and, with a lower affinity, to the analogous site in the VAII gene. Another, identified as the cellular protein involved in adenovirus replication, nuclear factor I, bound to sites immediately downstream from the two VAI terminators (at approximately +160 and +200). The third, a previously unrecognized VA gene binding protein termed VBP, bound immediately upstream of the B-block element in the VAI gene but showed no binding to VAII. Possible roles for these proteins in VA gene transcription were investigated in in vitro assay systems reconstituted with partially purified transcription factors (RNA polymerase III, TFIIIB, and TFIIIC). Although TFIIIC activity was present predominantly in fractions containing B-block binding activity, there was not complete correspondence between functional and DNA binding activities. The nuclear factor I-like protein had no effect when added to a complete transcription reaction. The presence of VBP appeared to depress the intrinsic ratio of VAI-VAII synthesis, thereby simulating the relative transcription levels observed early in adenovirus infection of HeLa cells. These observations suggest a model, involving both intragenic binding factors (VBP and TFIIIC) and variable template concentrations, for the differential regulation of VA transcription during the course of adenovirus infection. Images PMID:3561405

  9. The Challenge for Gene Therapy: Innate Immune Response to Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Thaci, Bart; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Wainwright, Derek A.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy. Despite the promising safety profile demonstrated in clinical trials, the efficacy of using adenoviruses for gene therapy is poor. A major hurdle to adenoviral-mediated gene therapy is the innate immune system. Cell-mediated recognition of viruses via capsid components or nucleic acids has received significant attention, principally thought to be regulated by the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Antiviral innate immune responses are initiated by the infected cell, which activates the interferon (IFN) response to block viral replication, while simultaneously releasing chemokines to attract neutrophils, mononuclear- and natural killer-cells. While the IFN and cellular recruitment pathways are activated and regulated independently of each other, both are required to overcome immune escape mechanisms by adenoviruses. Recent work has shown that the generation of adenoviral vectors lacking specific transcriptionally-active regions decreases immune system activation and increases the chance for immune escape. In this review, we elucidate how adenoviral vector modifications alter the IFN and innate inflammatory pathway response and propose future targets with clinically-translational relevance. PMID:21399236

  10. Targeted adenovirus gene transfer to endothelial and smooth muscle cells by using bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, T J; Segal, D M; Roelvink, P W; Carrion, M E; Lizonova, A; Lee, G M; Kovesdi, I

    1996-01-01

    A major hurdle to adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer is that the target issue lacks sufficient levels of receptors to mediate vector attachment via its fiber coat protein. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells are primary targets in gene therapy approaches to prevent restenosis following angioplasty or to promote or inhibit angiogenesis. However, Ad poorly binds and transduces these cells because of their low or undetectable levels of functional Ad fiber receptor. The Ad-binding deficiency of these cells was overcome by targeting Ad binding to alpha v integrin receptors that are sufficiently expressed by these cells. In order to target alpha v integrins, a bispecific antibody (bsAb) that comprised a monoclonal Ab to the FLAG peptide epitope, DYKDDDDK, and a monoclonal Ab to alpha v integrins was constructed. In conjunction with the bsAb, a new vector, AdFLAG, which incorporated the FLAG peptide epitope into its penton base protein was constructed. Complexing AdFLAG with the bsAb increased the beta-glucuronidase transduction of human venule endothelial cells and human intestinal smooth muscle cells by seven- to ninefold compared with transduction by AdFLAG alone. The increased transduction efficiency was shown to occur through the specific interaction of the complex with alpha v integrins. These results demonstrate that bsAbs can be successfully used to target Ad to a specific cellular receptor and thereby increase the efficiency of gene transfer. PMID:8794324

  11. Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Can Be Significantly Enhanced by the Cationic Polymer Polybrene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Wu, Ningning; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Yin, Liangjun; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Zhonglin; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Wu, Di; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhou, Guolin; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Si, Weike; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors, which can undergo self-renewal and give rise to multi-lineages. A great deal of attentions have been paid to their potential use in regenerative medicine as potential therapeutic genes can be introduced into MSCs. Genetic manipulations in MSCs requires effective gene deliveries. Recombinant adenoviruses are widely used gene transfer vectors. We have found that although MSCs can be infected in vitro by adenoviruses, high virus titers are needed to achieve high efficiency. Here, we investigate if the commonly-used cationic polymer Polybrene can potentiate adenovirus-mediated transgene delivery into MSCs, such as C2C12 cells and iMEFs. Using the AdRFP adenovirus, we find that AdRFP transduction efficiency is significantly increased by Polybrene in a dose-dependent fashion peaking at 8 μg/ml in C2C12 and iMEFs cells. Quantitative luciferase assay reveals that Polybrene significantly enhances AdFLuc-mediated luciferase activity in C2C12 and iMEFs at as low as 4 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml, respectively. FACS analysis indicates that Polybrene (at 4 μg/ml) increases the percentage of RFP-positive cells by approximately 430 folds in AdRFP-transduced iMEFs, suggesting Polybrene may increase adenovirus infection efficiency. Furthermore, Polybrene can enhance AdBMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs as early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase activity can be increased more than 73 folds by Polybrene (4 μg/ml) in AdBMP9-transduced iMEFs. No cytotoxicity was observed in C2C12 and iMEFs at Polybrene up to 40 μg/ml, which is about 10-fold higher than the effective concentration required to enhance adenovirus transduction in MSCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Polybrene should be routinely used as a safe, effective and inexpensive augmenting agent for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in MSCs, as well as other types of mammalian cells. PMID:24658746

  12. [Construction of recombinant adenovirus co-expressing M1 and HA genes of influenza virus type A].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Qiang; Yao, Li-Hong; Chen, Ai-Jun; Xu, Yi; Jia, Run-Qing; Bo, Hong; Dong, Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Shu, Yue-Long; Zhang, Zhi-Qing

    2009-03-01

    Based on the human H5N1 influenza virus strain A/Anhui/1/2005, recombinant adenovirus co-expressing M1 and HA genes of H5N1 influenza virus was constructed using an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence to link the two genes. The M1 and HA genes of H5N1 influenza virus were amplified by PCR and subcloned into pStar vector separately. Then the M1-IRES-HA fragment was amplified and subcloned into pShuttle-CMV vector, the shuttle plasmid was then linearized and transformed into BJ5183 bacteria which contained backbone vector pAd-Easy. The recombinant vector pAd-Easy was packaged in 293 cells to get recombinant adenovirus Ad-M1/HA. CPE was observed after 293 cells were transfected by Ad-M1/HA. The co-expression of M1 and HA genes was confirmed by Western-blot and IFA (immunofluorescence assay). The IRES containing recombinant adenovirus allowed functional co-expression of M1 and HA genes and provided the foundation for developing new influenza vaccines with adenoviral vector. PMID:19678564

  13. Fiber-mutant technique can augment gene transduction efficacy and anti-tumor effects against established murine melanoma by cytokine-gene therapy using adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yuka; Okada, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kanehira, Makiko; Nishino, Naoko; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizuno, Nobuyasu; Hayakawa, Takao; Mayumi, Tadanori

    2002-03-01

    Melanoma cells are relatively resistant to adenovirus vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer due to the low expression of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which acts as a primitive Ad-receptor. Therefore, extremely high doses of Ad are required for effective gene therapy against melanoma. In the present study, we investigated whether fiber-mutant Ad containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the fiber knob could promote gene delivery and anti-tumor effects in the murine B16 BL6 tumor model. B16 BL6 cells (in vitro) and tumors (in vivo) infected with RGD fiber-mutant Ad containing a tumor necrosis factor alpha gene (Ad-RGD-TNFalpha) produced more TNFalpha than those infected with conventional Ad-TNFalpha. In addition, Ad-RGD-TNFalpha required about one-tenth the dosage of Ad-TNFalpha for induction of equal therapeutic effects upon intratumoral injection into established B16 BL6 tumors. Furthermore, the combination of both TNFalpha- and interleukin 12-expressing RGD fiber-mutant Ads exhibited more effective tumor regression than the Ad expressing each alone. These results suggested that the fiber-mutant for altering Ad-tropism is a very potent technology for advancing gene therapy for melanoma. PMID:11809531

  14. Efficient Gene Transfer into Human CD34+ Cells by a Retargeted Adenovirus Vector

    PubMed Central

    Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Lieber, André

    2000-01-01

    Efficient infection with adenovirus (Ad) vectors based on serotype 5 (Ad5) requires the presence of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptors (CAR) and αv integrins on cells. The paucity of these cellular receptors is thought to be a limiting factor for Ad gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells. In a systematic approach, we screened different Ad serotypes for interaction with noncycling human CD34+ cells and K562 cells on the level of virus attachment, internalization, and replication. From these studies, serotype 35 emerged as the variant with the highest tropism for CD34+ cells. A chimeric vector (Ad5GFP/F35) was generated which contained the short-shafted Ad35 fiber incorporated into an Ad5 capsid. This substitution was sufficient to transplant all infection properties from Ad35 to the chimeric vector. The retargeted, chimeric vector attached to a receptor different from CAR and entered cells by an αv integrin-independent pathway. In transduction studies, Ad5GFP/F35 expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 54% of CD34+ cells. In comparison, the standard Ad5GFP vector conferred GFP expression to only 25% of CD34+ cells. Importantly, Ad5GFP transduction, but not Ad5GFP/F35, was restricted to a specific subset of CD34+ cells expressing αv integrins. The actual transduction efficiency was even higher than 50% because Ad5GFP/F35 viral genomes were found in GFP-negative CD34+ cell fractions, indicating that the cytomegalovirus promoter used for transgene expression was not active in all transduced cells. The chimeric vector allowed for gene transfer into a broader spectrum of CD34+ cells, including subsets with potential stem cell capacity. Fifty-five percent of CD34+ c-Kit+ cells expressed GFP after infection with Ad5GFP/F35, whereas only 13% of CD34+ c-Kit+ cells were GFP positive after infection with Ad5GFP. These findings represent the basis for studies aimed toward stable gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:10684271

  15. Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with Hsp70 gene exerts effective antitumor efficacy in gastric cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiguo; Ji, Weidan; Hu, Huanzhang; Ma, Juming; Li, Xiaoya; Mei, Weiqun; Xu, Yang; Hu, Huizhen; Yan, Yan; Song, Qizhe; Li, Zhigang; Su, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising adjuvant therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. To overcome the limitations of current gene therapy, such as poor transfection efficiency of vectors, low levels of transgene expression and lack of tumor targeting, the Survivin promoter was used to regulate the selective replication of oncolytic adenovirus in tumor cells, and the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) gene was loaded as the anticancer transgene to generate an AdSurp-Hsp70 viral therapy system. The efficacy of this targeted immunotherapy was examined in gastric cancer. The experiments showed that the oncolytic adenovirus can selectively replicate in and lyse the Survivin-positive gastric cancer cells, without significant toxicity to normal cells. AdSurp-Hsp70 reduced viability of cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth of gastric cancer xenografts in immuno-deficient and immuno-reconstruction mouse models. AdSurp-Hsp70 produced dual antitumor effects due to viral replication and high Hsp70 expression. This therapeutic system used the Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus vector to mediate targeted expression of the Hsp70 gene and ensure safety and efficacy for subsequent gene therapy programs against a variety of cancers. PMID:24473833

  16. Using a magnetic field to redirect an oncolytic adenovirus complexed with iron oxide augments gene therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Park, Ji Won; Na, Youjin; Jung, Soo-Jung; Hwang, June Kyu; Choi, Dongho; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-10-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a widely used vector for cancer gene therapy but its therapeutic efficacy is limited by low coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression in tumors and non-specifically targeted infection. Ad infectivity and specificity can be markedly improved by creating Ad-magnetic nanoparticles cluster complexes and directing their migration with an external magnetic field (MGF). We electrostatically complexed GFP-expressing, replication-incompetent Ad (dAd) with PEGylated and cross-linked iron oxide nanoparticles (PCION), generating dAd-PCION complexes. The dAd-PCION showed increased transduction efficiency, independent of CAR expression, in the absence or presence of an MGF. Cancer cell killing and intracellular oncolytic Ad (HmT)-PCION replication significantly increased with MGF exposure. Site-directed, magnetically-targeted delivery of the HmT-PCION elicited significantly greater therapeutic efficacy versus treatment with naked HmT or HmT-PCION without MGF in CAR-negative MCF7 tumors. Immunohistochemical tumor analysis showed increased oncolytic Ad replication in tumors following infection by HmT-PCION using an MGF. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging of tumor-bearing mice showed a 450-fold increased tumor-to-liver ratio for HmT-PCION with, versus without, MGF. These results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of external MGF-responsive PCION-coated oncolytic Ads as smart hybrid vectors for cancer gene therapy. PMID:26164117

  17. Alternative Serotype Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Elicit Memory T Cells with Enhanced Anamnestic Capacity Compared to Ad5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Provine, Nicholas M.; Ra, Joshua; Borducchi, Erica N.; McNally, Anna; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; Iampietro, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine in the STEP study has led to the development of adenovirus vectors derived from alternative serotypes, such as Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48. We have recently demonstrated that vaccines using alternative-serotype Ad vectors confer partial protection against stringent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges in rhesus monkeys. However, phenotypic differences between the T cell responses elicited by Ad5 and those of alternative-serotype Ad vectors remain unexplored. Here, we report the magnitude, phenotype, functionality, and recall capacity of memory T cell responses elicited in mice by Ad5, Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP). Our data demonstrate that memory T cells elicited by Ad5 vectors were high in magnitude but exhibited functional exhaustion and decreased anamnestic potential following secondary antigen challenge compared to Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors. These data suggest that vaccination with alternative-serotype Ad vectors offers substantial immunological advantages over Ad5 vectors, in addition to circumventing high baseline Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. PMID:23152535

  18. Limited entry of adenovirus vectors into well-differentiated airway epithelium is responsible for inefficient gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Pickles, R J; McCarty, D; Matsui, H; Hart, P J; Randell, S H; Boucher, R C

    1998-07-01

    Investigations of the efficiency and safety of human adenovirus vector (AdV)-mediated gene transfer in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in vivo have demonstrated little success in correcting the CF bioelectrical functional defect, reflecting the inefficiency of AdV-mediated gene transfer to the epithelial cells that line the airway luminal surface. In this study, we demonstrate that low AdV-mediated gene transfer efficiency to well-differentiated (WD) cultured airway epithelial cells is due to three distinct steps in the apical membrane of the airway epithelial cells: (i) the absence of specific adenovirus fiber-knob protein attachment receptors; (ii) the absence of alphavbeta3/5 integrins, reported to partially mediate the internalization of AdV into the cell cytoplasm; and (iii) the low rate of apical plasma membrane uptake pathways of WD airway epithelial cells. Attempts to increase gene transfer efficiency by increasing nonspecific attachment of AdV were unsuccessful, reflecting the inability of the attached vector to enter (penetrate) WD cells via nonspecific entry paths. Strategies to improve the efficiency of AdV for the treatment of CF lung disease will require methods to increase the attachment of AdV to and promote its internalization into the WD respiratory epithelium. PMID:9621064

  19. Limited Entry of Adenovirus Vectors into Well-Differentiated Airway Epithelium Is Responsible for Inefficient Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Pickles, Raymond J.; McCarty, Douglas; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Hart, Pádraig J.; Randell, Scott H.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations of the efficiency and safety of human adenovirus vector (AdV)-mediated gene transfer in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in vivo have demonstrated little success in correcting the CF bioelectrical functional defect, reflecting the inefficiency of AdV-mediated gene transfer to the epithelial cells that line the airway luminal surface. In this study, we demonstrate that low AdV-mediated gene transfer efficiency to well-differentiated (WD) cultured airway epithelial cells is due to three distinct steps in the apical membrane of the airway epithelial cells: (i) the absence of specific adenovirus fiber-knob protein attachment receptors; (ii) the absence of αvβ3/5 integrins, reported to partially mediate the internalization of AdV into the cell cytoplasm; and (iii) the low rate of apical plasma membrane uptake pathways of WD airway epithelial cells. Attempts to increase gene transfer efficiency by increasing nonspecific attachment of AdV were unsuccessful, reflecting the inability of the attached vector to enter (penetrate) WD cells via nonspecific entry paths. Strategies to improve the efficiency of AdV for the treatment of CF lung disease will require methods to increase the attachment of AdV to and promote its internalization into the WD respiratory epithelium. PMID:9621064

  20. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cascalló, Manel; Alemany, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Cell transduction in vitro is only the first step toward proving that a genetherapy vector can be useful to treat tumors. However, tumor targeting in vivo is now the milestone for gene therapy to succeed against disseminated cancer. Therefore, most valuable information is obtained from studies of vector biodistribution. Owing to the hepatotropism of adenoviral vectors, a particularly important parameter is the tumor/liver ratio. This ratio can be given at the level of gene expression if the amount of transgene expression is measured. To optimize the targeting, however, the levels of viral particles that reach the tumor compared to other organs must be studied. Most of this chapter deals with methods to quantify the virus fate in tumor-bearing animals. We present a radioactive labeling method that can be used to study biodistribution. After a small section dealing with tumor models, we describe methods to quantify different parameters related to adenovirus-mediated tumor targeting. PMID:14970588

  1. Development and Characterization of Novel Empty Adenovirus Capsids and Their Impact on Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Stilwell, Jackie L.; McCarty, Douglas M.; Negishi, Atsuko; Superfine, Richard; Samulski, R. Jude

    2003-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) has been extensively studied as a eukaryotic viral vector. As these vectors have evolved from first-generation vectors to vectors that contain either very few or no viral genes (“gutless” Ad), significant reductions in the host innate immune response upon infection have been observed. Regardless of these vector improvements an unknown amount of toxicity has been associated with the virion structural proteins. Here we demonstrate the ability to generate high particle numbers (1011 to 1012) of Ad empty virions based on a modification of Cre/lox gutless Ad vectors. Using a battery of analyses (electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, confocal images, and competition assays) we characterized this reagent and determined that it (i) makes intact virion particles, (ii) competes for receptor binding with wild-type Ad, and (iii) enters the cell proficiently, demonstrating an ability to carry out essential steps of viral entry. To further study the biological impact of these Ad empty virions on infected cells, we carried out DNA microarray analysis. Compared to that for recombinant Ad, the number of mRNAs modulated upon infection was significantly reduced but the expression signatures were similar. This reagent provides a valuable tool for studies of Ad in that researchers can examine the effect of infection in the presence of the virion capsid alone. PMID:14610209

  2. Genetic analysis of a novel human adenovirus with a serologically unique hexon and a recombinant fiber gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Elizabeth B; Ferreyra, Leonardo; Fischer, Stephen L; Pavan, Jorge V; Nates, Silvia V; Hudson, Nolan Ryan; Tirado, Damaris; Dyer, David W; Chodosh, James; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S

    2011-01-01

    In February of 1996 a human adenovirus (formerly known as Ad-Cor-96-487) was isolated from the stool of an AIDS patient who presented with severe chronic diarrhea. To characterize this apparently novel pathogen of potential public health significance, the complete genome of this adenovirus was sequenced to elucidate its origin. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses of this genome demonstrate that this virus, heretofore referred to as HAdV-D58, contains a novel hexon gene as well as a recombinant fiber gene. In addition, serological analysis demonstrated that HAdV-D58 has a different neutralization profile than all previously characterized HAdVs. Bootscan analysis of the HAdV-D58 fiber gene strongly suggests one recombination event. PMID:21915339

  3. Prevention of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis after adenovirus-mediated transfer of the bacterial bleomycin resistance gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tran, P L; Weinbach, J; Opolon, P; Linares-Cruz, G; Reynes, J P; Grégoire, A; Kremer, E; Durand, H; Perricaudet, M

    1997-01-01

    A serious limitation in the use of the DNA-cleaving, antitumoral-antibiotic, bleomycin during chemotherapy is pulmonary toxicity. Lung injury induced by bleomycin is characterized by an increased deposition of interstitial extracellular matrix proteins in the alveolar wall that compromises respiratory function. Several drugs have been tested in animal models to prevent the pulmonary toxicity of bleomycin, but have not led to a useful clinical treatment because of their adverse effects on other tissues. We have shown that transgenic mice expressing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus (Sh) ble bleomycin resistance protein in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs are protected against bleomycin-induced toxicity in lungs. In the present study, we used intranasal administration by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the bleomycin resistance Sh ble gene to mouse lung for prevention of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We constructed recombinant adenoviruses Ad.CMVble and Ad.RSVble harboring the bleomycin resistance Sh ble gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus early promoter and the Rous sarcoma virus early promoter, respectively. Transgene expression was detected in epithelia of conducting airways and alveolar septa by immunostaining with a rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the bleomycin resistance protein and persisted for the duration of drug treatment; i.e., up to 17 d. No toxic effect was seen in adenovirus-treated mice. Pretreatment of mice with Ad.CMVble or Ad.RSVble completely prevented collagen deposition 42-133 d after bleomycin treatment, as measured by lung OH-proline content. Histologic studies indicated that there was little or no lung injury in the adenovirus/bleomycin-treated mice compared with the bleomycin-treated mice. These observations may lead to new approaches for the prevention of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:9045862

  4. Construction of recombinant adenovirus Ad-rat PLCg2-shRNA and successful suppression of PLCg2 expression in BRL-3A cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, X G; Lv, Q X; Zhou, X Q

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase Cg2 (PLCg2) induces apoptosis of immune and tumor cells; however, it remains unclear whether PLCg2 promotes hepatocyte apoptosis during liver regeneration (LR). Therefore, to establish a framework for further exploring the function of PLCg2, we generated recombinant adenoviruses carrying a template encoding short hairpin (sh)-RNA targeting PLCg2 (Ad-PLCg2-shRNA), which were used to silence the expression of PLCg2 in BRL-3A cells. First, three pairs of PLCg2-shRNAs were designed, synthesized, and cloned into a shuttle vector, pHBAd-U6-GFP, after annealing. The recombinant shuttle plasmids were co-transfected with the backbone vector pHBAd-BHG into HK293 cells to package the recombinant Ad-PLCg2-shRNAs used to infect BRL-3A cells. Infection efficiency was monitored by observing the number of GFP-positive cells under a fluorescent microscope. To determine the recombinant adenoviruses with the highest silencing efficiency, levels of PLCg2 mRNA were evaluated by qRT-PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed that the correct shRNA coding sequences were inserted into the shuttle vectors and adenoviral plasmids. The titers of three recombinant adenoviruses were at least 1 x 10(10) PFU/mL. The most effective adenoviral construct, with interference efficiency of 77%, was determined by qRT-PCR. These results show that a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-PLCg2-shRNA, was developed and was effective at silencing the rat PLCg2 gene. This construct may contribute to the study of PLCg2 in hepatocyte apoptosis during LR. PMID:27323081

  5. Comparison between Sendai virus and adenovirus vectors to transduce HIV-1 genes into human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Noriaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Shioda, Tatsuo; Odawara, Takashi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Kano, Munehide; Kato, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2008-03-01

    Immuno-genetherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) can be applied to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Sendai virus (SeV) has unique features such as cytoplasmic replication and high protein expression as a vector for genetic manipulation. In this study, we compared the efficiency of inducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and HIV-1 gene expression in human monocyte-derived DCs between SeV and adenovirus (AdV). Human monocyte-derived DCs infected with SeV showed the maximum gene expression 24 hr after infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2. Although SeV vector showed higher cytopathic effect on DCs than AdV, SeV vector induced maximum gene expression earlier and at much lower MOI. In terms of cell surface phenotype, both SeV and AdV vectors induced DC maturation. DCs infected with SeV as well as AdV elicited HIV-1 specific T-cell responses detected by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot). Our data suggest that SeV could be one of the reliable vectors for immuno-genetherapy for HIV-1 infected patients. PMID:18205221

  6. Construction and characterization of recombinant adenovirus carrying a mouse TIGIT-GFP gene.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J M; Cui, J L; He, W T; Yu, D W; Gao, Y; Wang, L; Chen, Z K; Zhou, H M

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus vector systems have been used extensively in protein research and gene therapy. However, the construction and characterization of recombinant adenovirus is a tedious and time-consuming process. TIGIT is a recently discovered immunosuppressive molecule that plays an important role in maintaining immunological balance. The construction of recombinant adenovirus mediating TIGIT expression must be simplified to facilitate its use in the study of TIGIT. In this study, the TIGIT gene was combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP); the TIGIT-GFP gene was inserted into a gateway plasmid to construct a TIGIT-GFP adenovirus. HEK 293A cells were infected with the adenovirus, which was then purified and subjected to virus titering. TIGIT-GFP adenovirus was characterized by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, and its expression in mouse liver was detected by infection through caudal vein injection. The results showed the successful construction of the TIGIT-GFP adenovirus (5 x 10(10) PFU/mL). Co-expression of TIGIT and GFP was identified in 293A and liver cells; synthesis and positioning of TIGIT-GFP was viewed under a fluorescence microscope. TIGIT-GFP was highly expressed on liver cells 1 day (25.53%) after infection and faded 3 days (11.36%) after injection. In conclusion, the fusion of TIGIT with GFP allows easy, rapid, and uncomplicated detection of TIGIT translation. The construction of a TIGIT-GFP adenovirus, mediating TIGIT expression in vitro and in vivo, lays the foundation for further research into TIGIT function and gene therapy. Moreover, the TIGIT-GFP adenovirus is a helpful tool for studying other proteins (which could replace the TIGIT gene). PMID:26782515

  7. Adenovirus E1A gene induction of susceptibility to lysis by natural killer cells and activated macrophages in infected rodent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J L; May, D L; Lewis, A M; Walker, T A

    1987-01-01

    Rodent cells immortalized by the E1A gene of nononcogenic adenoviruses are susceptible to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells and activated macrophages. This cytolysis-susceptible phenotype may contribute to the rejection of adenovirus-transformed cells by immunocompetent animals. Such increased cytolytic susceptibility has also been observed with infected rodent cells. This infection model provided a means to study the role of E1A gene products in induction of cytolytic susceptibility without cell selection during transformation. Deletion mutations outside of the E1A gene had no effect on adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) or Ad5 induction of cytolytic susceptibility in infected hamster cells, while E1A-minus mutant viruses could not induce this phenotype. E1A mutant viruses that induced expression of either E1A 12S or 13S mRNA in infected cells were competent to induce cytolytic susceptibility. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the accumulation of E1A gene products in Ad5-infected cells and the level of susceptibility of such target cells to lysis by NK cells. The results of coinfection studies indicated that the E1A gene products of highly oncogenic Ad12 could not complement the lack of induction of cytolytic susceptibility by E1A-minus Ad5 virus in infected cells and also could not block induction of this infected-cell phenotype by Ad5. These data suggest that expression of the E1A gene of nononcogenic adenoviruses may cause the elimination of infected cells by the immunologically nonspecific host inflammatory cell response prior to cellular transformation. The lack of induction of this cytolysis-susceptible phenotype by Ad12 E1A may result in an increased persistence of Ad12-infected cells in vivo and may lead to an increased Ad12-transformed cell burden for the host. Images PMID:2959793

  8. Immune Recognition of Gene Transfer Vectors: Focus on Adenovirus as a Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Aldhamen, Yasser Ali; Seregin, Sergey S.; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant Adenovirus (Ad) based vectors have been utilized extensively as a gene transfer platform in multiple pre-clinical and clinical applications. These applications are numerous, and inclusive of both gene therapy and vaccine based approaches to human or animal diseases. The widespread utilization of these vectors in both animal models, as well as numerous human clinical trials (Ad-based vectors surpass all other gene transfer vectors relative to numbers of patients treated, as well as number of clinical trials overall), has shed light on how this virus vector interacts with both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ability to generate and administer large amounts of this vector likely contributes not only to their ability to allow for highly efficient gene transfer, but also their elicitation of host immune responses to the vector and/or the transgene the vector expresses in vivo. These facts, coupled with utilization of several models that allow for full detection of these responses has predicted several observations made in human trials, an important point as lack of similar capabilities by other vector systems may prevent detection of such responses until only after human trials are initiated. Finally, induction of innate or adaptive immune responses by Ad vectors may be detrimental in one setting (i.e., gene therapy) and be entirely beneficial in another (i.e., prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine based applications). Herein, we review the current understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses to Ad vectors, as well some recent advances that attempt to capitalize on this understanding so as to further broaden the safe and efficient use of Ad-based gene transfer therapies in general. PMID:22566830

  9. Replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy with radiation in a preclinical model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Freytag, Svend O; Barton, Kenneth N; Brown, Stephen L; Narra, Vinod; Zhang, Yingshu; Tyson, Don; Nall, Colleen; Lu, Mei; Ajlouni, Munther; Movsas, Benjamin; Kim, Jae Ho

    2007-09-01

    In preparation for a Phase I trial, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy in combination with radiation in a preclinical model of pancreatic cancer. Human MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were found to be sensitive to the oncolytic effects of the Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP adenovirus and also to the cytotoxic effects of the yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK(SR39)) genes in vitro. Combining Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP-mediated suicide gene therapy with radiation significantly increased tumor control beyond that of either modality alone. Injection of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP in the dog pancreas at doses (10(12) virus particle (vp)) to be used in humans resulted in mild pancreatitis but not peritonitis or hepatotoxicity. Following administration of 9-(4-[(18)F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([(18)F]-FHBG), a positron-emitting substrate of HSV-1 TK, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP activity could be monitored non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET). [(18)F]-FHBG uptake was readily detected in the pancreas but not in other major abdominal organs, indicating that little of the injected adenovirus disseminates to collateral tissues. These results demonstrate that Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP-mediated suicide gene therapy has the potential to augment the effectiveness of pancreatic radiotherapy without resulting in excessive toxicity. Hence they provide the scientific basis for an ongoing Phase I trial in pancreatic cancer. PMID:17551507

  10. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of interferon-γ gene inhibits the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is regarded as a potent antitumor agent, but its clinical application is limited by its short half-life and significant side effects. In this paper, we tried to develop IFN-γ gene therapy by a replication defective adenovirus encoding the human IFN-γ (Ad-IFNγ), and evaluate the antitumoral effects of Ad-IFNγ on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines in vitro and in xenografts model. Methods The mRNA levels of human IFN-γ in Ad-IFNγ-infected NPC cells were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IFN-γ protein concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the culture supernatants of NPC cells and tumor tissues and bloods of nude mice treated with Ad-IFNγ. The effects of Ad-IFNγ on NPC cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry analysis for DNA content, and cells apoptosis were analyzed by Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD binding assay and hoechst 33342/PI double staining. The anti-tumor effects and toxicity of Ad-IFNγ were evaluated in BALB/c nude mice carrying NPC xenografts. Results The results demonstrated that Ad-IFNγ efficiently expressed human IFN-γ protein in NPC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Ad-IFNγ infection resulted in antiproliferative effects on NPC cells by inducing G1 phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Intratumoral administration of Ad-IFNγ significantly inhibited the growth of CNE-2 and C666-1 cell xenografts in nude mice, while no significant toxicity was observed. Conclusions These findings indicate IFN-γ gene therapy mediated by replication defective adenoviral vector is likely a promising approach in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:23272637

  11. EGFR-Targeted Adenovirus Dendrimer Coating for Improved Systemic Delivery of the Theranostic NIS Gene

    PubMed Central

    Grünwald, Geoffrey K; Vetter, Alexandra; Klutz, Kathrin; Willhauck, Michael J; Schwenk, Nathalie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Zach, Christian; Wagner, Ernst; Göke, Burkhard; Holm, Per S; Ogris, Manfred; Spitzweg, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of combined radiovirotherapy after systemic delivery of the theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene using a dendrimer-coated adenovirus. To further improve shielding and targeting we physically coated replication-selective adenoviruses carrying the hNIS gene with a conjugate consisting of cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer linked to the peptidic, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand GE11. In vitro experiments demonstrated coxsackie-adenovirus receptor-independent but EGFR-specific transduction efficiency. Systemic injection of the uncoated adenovirus in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model led to high levels of NIS expression in the liver due to hepatic sequestration, which were significantly reduced after coating as demonstrated by 123I-scintigraphy. Reduction of adenovirus liver pooling resulted in decreased hepatotoxicity and increased transduction efficiency in peripheral xenograft tumors. 124I-PET-imaging confirmed EGFR-specificity by significantly lower tumoral radioiodine accumulation after pretreatment with the EGFR-specific antibody cetuximab. A significantly enhanced oncolytic effect was observed following systemic application of dendrimer-coated adenovirus that was further increased by additional treatment with a therapeutic dose of 131I. These results demonstrate restricted virus tropism and tumor-selective retargeting after systemic application of coated, EGFR-targeted adenoviruses therefore representing a promising strategy for improved systemic adenoviral NIS gene therapy. PMID:24193032

  12. Suppression of proliferative cholangitis in a rat model with direct adenovirus-mediated retinoblastoma gene transfer to the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Terao, R; Honda, K; Hatano, E; Uehara, T; Yamamoto, M; Yamaoka, Y

    1998-09-01

    Proliferative cholangitis (PC) associated with hepatolithiasis develops the stricture of main bile ducts, and is the main cause of residual and/or recurrent stones after repeated treatments for hepatolithiasis. The aim of this study was to inhibit PC using the cytostatic gene therapy with direct adenovirus-mediated retinoblastoma (Rb) gene transfer to the biliary tract. PC was induced by introducing a fine nylon thread into the bile duct in a rat model. The adenovirus vector encoding a nonphosphorylatable, constitutively active form of retinoblastoma gene product (AdRb) was administered directly into the biliary tract. The adenovirus vector encoding beta-galactosidase (AdlacZ) was also given as a control. The bile duct wall thickness and 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index were compared among uninfected, AdlacZ-infected, and AdRb-infected PC rats. The Rb expression in the bile duct was detected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical study. AdRb-infected bile ducts showed inhibition of the epithelial and fibrous tissue proliferation and the peribiliary gland hyperplasia, resulting in a significant reduction of wall thickness compared with uninfected and AdlacZ-infected ones. The BrdU labeling index was 4.87% +/- 3.06% in the AdRb-infected bile ducts, while those of uninfected and AdlacZ-infected ones were 15.48% +/- 4.61% and 11.72% +/- 1.23%, respectively (P < .05). In conclusion, our cytostatic gene therapy approach using direct Rb gene transfer into the biliary tract suppressed PC in a rat model and may offer an effective therapeutic option for reducing recurrences following treatments against hepatolithiasis. PMID:9731547

  13. An Adenovirus Type 5 Mutant with the Preterminal Protein Gene Deleted Efficiently Provides Helper Functions for the Production of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Ian H.; Maxwell, Francoise; Schaack, Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Production of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) requires helper functions that have routinely been provided by infection of the producer cells with adenovirus. Complete removal and/or inactivation of progeny adenovirus, present in such rAAV preparations, presents significant difficulty. Here, we report that an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) mutant with the preterminal protein (pTP) gene deleted can provide helper function for the growth of rAAV. At high multiplicity, Ad5dl308ΔpTP was as efficient as the phenotypically wild-type Ad5dl309 in permitting growth of rAAV. Use of Ad5dl308ΔpTP, which is incapable of replication in the absence of complementation for pTP, as a helper avoids the need to remove contaminating adenovirus infectious activity by heat inactivation or by purification. Comparison of the transducing ability of rAAV generated with either Ad5dl308ΔpTP or Ad5dl309 as a helper demonstrated that the heat inactivation protocol generally used does not remove all of the helper Ad5dl309 function. PMID:9733887

  14. Hexon Hypervariable Region-Modified Adenovirus Type 5 (Ad5) Vectors Display Reduced Hepatotoxicity but Induce T Lymphocyte Phenotypes Similar to Ad5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Obeng, Rebecca; Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.

    2014-01-01

    Hexon modification of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors with the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad48 has been shown to allow Ad5HVR48 vectors to circumvent the majority of the preexisting Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. However, it remains unclear whether modifying hexon HVRs impacts innate or adaptive immune responses elicited by this vector. In this study, we investigated the influence of the HVR substitution of Ad5 on innate and adaptive immune responses following vaccination. Ad5HVR48 displayed an intermediate level of innate immune cytokines and chemokines relative to those of Ad5 and Ad48, consistent with its chimeric nature. Hepatotoxicity was observed after Ad5 immunization but not after Ad5HVR48 or Ad48 immunization. However, the CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by Ad5HVR48 vectors displayed a partially exhausted phenotype, as evidenced by the sustained expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), decreased effector-to-central memory conversion, and reduced memory recall responses, similar to those elicited by Ad5 vectors and in contrast to those induced by Ad48 vectors. Taken together, these results indicate that although Ad5HVR48 largely bypasses preexisting Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and shows reduced hepatotoxicity compared to that of Ad5, it induces adaptive immune phenotypes that are functionally exhausted similar to those elicited by Ad5. PMID:24943382

  15. Improving gene transfer in human renal carcinoma cells: Utilization of adenovirus vectors containing chimeric type 5 and type 35 fiber proteins

    PubMed Central

    ACHARYA, BISHNU; TERAO, SHUJI; SUZUKI, TORU; NAOE, MICHIO; HAMADA, KATSUYUKI; MIZUGUCHI, HIROYUKI; GOTOH, AKINOBU

    2010-01-01

    The transduction efficacy of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector in human renal carcinoma cells is generally low due to the down-regulated expression of Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in target cells. By contrast, the infectivity of adenovirus serotype 35 vectors depends on the binding rate to CD46 receptor, independent of CAR. In this study, we examined whether an adenovirus vector containing chimeric type 5 and type 35 fiber proteins (Ad5/F35) increases transduction efficiency compared to Ad5 vector in human renal carcinoma cells in vitro. The expression of CAR was much lower in the human renal carcinoma cells than in control HEK293 cells. By contrast, the expression of CD46 was similar and perhaps at a higher level in the human renal carcinoma cells than in the HEK293 cells. The transduction efficacy of Ad5/F35 vector was dramatically higher compared to that of Ad5 in human renal carcinoma cells, and was correlated to the expression of CD46. Thus, Ad5/35 vector may be useful for the development of novel gene therapy approaches to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:22993573

  16. Human adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 1 genes encode growth-transforming proteins that may be distantly related to dUTP pyrophosphatase enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, R S; Lee, S S; Prasad, B V; Javier, R T

    1997-01-01

    An essential oncogenic determinant of subgroup D human adenovirus type 9 (Ad9), which uniquely elicits estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in rats, is encoded by early region 4 open reading frame 1 (E4 ORF1). Whereas Ad9 E4 ORF1 efficiently induces transformed foci on the established rat embryo fibroblast cell line CREF, the related subgroup A Ad12 and subgroup C Ad5 E4 ORF1s do not (R. T. Javier, J. Virol. 68:3917-3924, 1994). In this study, we found that the lack of transforming activity associated with non-subgroup D adenovirus E4 ORF1s in CREF cells correlated with significantly reduced protein levels compared to Ad9 E4 ORF1 in these cells. In the human cell line TE85, however, the non-subgroup D adenovirus E4 ORF1s produced protein levels higher than those seen in CREF cells as well as transforming activities similar to that of Ad9 E4 ORF1, suggesting that all adenovirus E4 ORF1 polypeptides possess comparable cellular growth-transforming activities. In addition, searches for known proteins related to these novel viral transforming proteins revealed that the E4 ORF1 proteins had weak sequence similarity, over the entire length of the E4 ORF1 polypeptides, with a variety of organismal and viral dUTP pyrophosphatase (dUTPase) enzymes. Even though adenovirus E4 ORF1 proteins lacked conserved protein motifs of dUTPase enzymes or detectable enzymatic activity, E4 ORF1 and dUTPase proteins were predicted to possess strikingly similar secondary structure arrangements. It was also established that an avian adenovirus protein, encoded within a genomic location analogous to that of the human adenovirus E4 ORF1s, was a genuine dUTPase enzyme. Although no functional similarity was found for the E4 ORF1 and dUTPase proteins, we propose that human adenovirus E4 ORF1 genes have evolved from an ancestral adenovirus dUTPase and, from this structural framework, developed novel transforming properties. PMID:9032316

  17. Transfer of beta-amyloid precursor protein gene using adenovirus vector causes mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured normal human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Askanas, V; McFerrin, J; Baqué, S; Alvarez, R B; Sarkozi, E; Engel, W K

    1996-01-01

    As in Alzheimer-disease (AD) brain, vacuolated muscle fibers of inclusion-body myositis (IBM) contain abnormally accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), including its beta-amyloid protein epitope, and increased beta APP-751 mRNA. Other similarities between IBM muscle and AD brain phenotypes include paired helical filaments, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, apolipoprotein E, and mitochondrial abnormalities, including decreased cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity. The pathogenesis of these abnormalities in IBM muscle and AD brain is not known. We now report that direct transfer of the beta APP gene, using adenovirus vector, into cultured normal human muscle fibers causes structural abnormalities of mitochondria and decreased COX activity. In this adenovirus-mediated beta APP gene transfer, we demonstrated that beta APP overproduction can induce mitochondrial abnormalities. The data suggest that excessive beta APP may be responsible for mitochondrial and COX abnormalities in IBM muscle and perhaps AD brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8577761

  18. Adenovirus vector induced Innate Immune responses: Impact upon efficacy and toxicity in gene therapy and vaccine applications

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Zachary C.; Appledorn, Daniel M.; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Extensively characterized, modified, and employed for a variety of purposes, Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are generally regarded as having great potential by many applied virologists who wish to manipulate and use viral biology to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes. Despite widespread functional prominence and utility, (i.e.: Ad based clinical trials have begun to progress to critical Phase III levels, it has recently become apparent that investigations regarding the innate immune response to Ads may reveal not only reasons behind previous failures, but also reveal novel insights that will allow for safer, more efficacious uses of this important gene transfer platform. Insights gained by the exploration of Ad induced innate immune responses will likely be most important to the fields of vaccine development, since Ad based vaccines are highly acknowledged as one of the more promising vaccine platforms in development today. Adenovirus is currently known to interact with several different extracellular, intracellular, and membrane bound innate immune sensing systems. Past and recent studies involving manipulation of the Ad infectious cycle as well as use of different mutants have shed light on some of the initiation mechanisms underlying Ad induced immune responses. More recent studies using microarray based analyses, genetically modified cell lines and/or mouse mutants, and advanced generation Ad vectors have revealed important new insights into the scope and mechanism of this cellular defensive response. This review is an attempt to synthesize these studies, update Ad biologists to the current knowledge surrounding these increasingly important issues, as well point areas where future research should be directed. It should also serve as a sobering reality to researchers exploring the use of any gene transfer vector, as to the complexities potentially involved when contemplating use of such vectors for human applications. PMID:18036698

  19. Adenovirus-Mediated Efficient Gene Transfer into Cultured Three-Dimensional Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Zhang, Hongmei; Deng, Fang; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Yin, Liangjun; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Liang, Houjie; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional organoids have been recently established from various tissue-specific progenitors (such as intestinal stem cells), induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. These cultured self-sustaining stem cell–based organoids may become valuable systems to study the roles of tissue-specific stem cells in tissue genesis and disease development. It is thus conceivable that effective genetic manipulations in such organoids may allow us to reconstruct disease processes and/or develop novel therapeutics. Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most commonly used viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene deliveries. In this study, we investigate if adenoviruses can be used to effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured “mini-gut” organoids derived from intestinal stem cells. Using adenoviral vectors that express fluorescent proteins, we demonstrate that adenoviruses can effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured 3-D “mini-gut” organoids. The transgene expression can last at least 10 days in the cultured organoids. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated noggin expression effectively support the survival and self-renewal of mini-gut organoids, while adenovirus-mediated expression of BMP4 inhibits the self-sustainability and proliferation of the organoids. Thus, our results strongly suggest that adenovirus vectors can be explored as effective gene delivery vehicles to introduce genetic manipulations in 3-D organoids. PMID:24695466

  20. Adenovirus-mediated efficient gene transfer into cultured three-dimensional organoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Zhang, Hongmei; Deng, Fang; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Yin, Liangjun; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Liang, Houjie; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional organoids have been recently established from various tissue-specific progenitors (such as intestinal stem cells), induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. These cultured self-sustaining stem cell-based organoids may become valuable systems to study the roles of tissue-specific stem cells in tissue genesis and disease development. It is thus conceivable that effective genetic manipulations in such organoids may allow us to reconstruct disease processes and/or develop novel therapeutics. Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most commonly used viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene deliveries. In this study, we investigate if adenoviruses can be used to effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured "mini-gut" organoids derived from intestinal stem cells. Using adenoviral vectors that express fluorescent proteins, we demonstrate that adenoviruses can effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured 3-D "mini-gut" organoids. The transgene expression can last at least 10 days in the cultured organoids. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated noggin expression effectively support the survival and self-renewal of mini-gut organoids, while adenovirus-mediated expression of BMP4 inhibits the self-sustainability and proliferation of the organoids. Thus, our results strongly suggest that adenovirus vectors can be explored as effective gene delivery vehicles to introduce genetic manipulations in 3-D organoids. PMID:24695466

  1. Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery to hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, E. C.; Beltz, T. G.; Meyrelles, S. S.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vasopressin is synthesized by magnocellular neurons in supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei and released by their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis (NH). With its actions as an antidiuretic hormone and vasoactive agent, vasopressin plays a pivotal role in the control of body fluids and cardiovascular homeostasis. Because of its well-defined neurobiology and functional importance, the SON/PVN-NH system is ideal to establish methods for gene transfer of genetic material into specific pathways in the mouse central nervous system. In these studies, we compared the efficiency of transferring the gene lacZ, encoding for beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), versus a gene encoding for green fluorescent protein by using replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors in adult mice. Transfection with viral concentrations up to 2 x 10(7) plaque-forming units per coverslip of NH, PVN, and SON in dissociated, cultured cells caused efficient transfection without cytotoxicity. However, over an extended period of time, higher levels (50% to 75% of the cells) of beta-gal expression were detected in comparison with green fluorescent protein (5% to 50% of the cells). With the use of a stereotaxic approach, the pituitary glands of mice were injected with Ad (4 x 10(6) plaque-forming units). In material from these animals, we were able to visualize the expression of the beta-gal gene in the NH and in magnocellular neurons of both the PVN and SON. The results of these experiments indicate that Ad-Rous sarcoma virus promoter-beta-gal is taken up by nerve terminals at the injection site (NH) and retrogradely transported to the soma of the neurons projecting to the NH. We conclude that the application of these experimental approaches will provide powerful tools for physiological studies and potential approaches to deliver therapeutic genes to treat diseases.

  2. Peripheral infection with adenovirus causes unexpected long-term brain inflammation in animals injected intracranially with first-generation, but not with high-capacity, adenovirus vectors: Toward realistic long-term neurological gene therapy for chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Clare E.; Schiedner, Gudrun; Kochanek, Stefan; Castro, Maria G.; Löwenstein, Pedro R.

    2000-01-01

    Although adenoviral vectors provide prolonged gene expression in the brain by comparison to peripheral organs, expression is eliminated by a severe inflammatory infiltration (i.e., activated macrophages/microglia and T-lymphocytes) after peripheral infection with adenovirus. Here, we demonstrate that high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors succeed in maintaining long-term transgene expression in the brain, even in the presence of an active peripheral immunization with adenovirus that completely eliminates expression from first-generation vectors within 60 days. Importantly, even 60 days after the peripheral infection, brains injected with first-generation vectors exhibited evidence of a chronic infiltration of CD8+ cells, macrophage/microglial activation, and up-regulation of brain MHC-I expression. No inflammation was observed in the brains injected with the HC-Ad vector. Thus, these results demonstrate that HC-Ad vectors will allow safe, stable, and long-term transgene expression in the brain, even in the presence of peripheral infection with adenovirus. This markedly improves the prospects for the use of adenoviral vectors for long-term gene therapy of neurological disorders. PMID:10840055

  3. Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery to cells of the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, E. C.; Beltz, T. G.; Haskell, R. E.; Johnson, R. F.; Meyrelles, S. S.; Davidson, B. L.; Johnson, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the optimum conditions for using replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) to transfer the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei and cells of the neurohypophysis (NH). As indicated by characterizing cell survival over 15 days in culture and in electrophysiological whole cell patch-clamp studies, viral concentrations up to 2 x 10(7) pfu/coverslip did not affect viability of transfected PVN and NH cultured cells from preweanling rats. At 2 x 10(7) pfu, GFP gene expression was higher (40% of GFP-positive cells) and more sustained (up to 15 days). Using a stereotaxic approach in adult rats, we were able to directly transduce the PVN, SON, and NH and visualize gene expression in coronal brain slices and in the pituitary 4 days after injection of Ad. In animals receiving NH injections of Ad, the virus was retrogradely transported to PVN and SON neurons as indicated by the appearance of GFP-positive neurons in cultures of dissociated cells from those brain nuclei and by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses of PVN and SON tissues. Adenoviral concentrations of up to 8 x 10(6) pfu injected into the NH did not affect cell viability and did not cause inflammatory responses. Adenoviral injection into the pituitary enabled the selective delivery of genes to the soma of magnocellular neurons. The experimental approaches described here provide potentially useful strategies for the treatment of disordered expression of the hormones vasopressin or oxytocin. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to ciliated airway epithelia requires prolonged incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Zabner, J; Zeiher, B G; Friedman, E; Welsh, M J

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia will be an important factor in determining whether recombinant adenoviruses can be developed as vectors for transferring cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA to patients with cystic fibrosis. Current understanding of the biology of CF lung disease suggests that vectors should express transgene in mature, ciliated airway epithelia. We evaluated the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to primary cultures of normal and CF human airway epithelia. Our studies showed that the airway cells developed from an undifferentiated epithelium with markers characteristic of basal cells and a surface covered by short microvilli 3 days after seeding to a mature epithelium whose apical surface was covered with cilia by 10 to 14 days. The ability of adenovirus vectors to express a reporter gene and to correct defective cyclic AMP-stimulated Cl- transport in CF epithelia was correlated inversely with the state of differentiation. However, the inefficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer could be partially corrected when the contact time between vector and epithelium was prolonged. After prolonged contact, we observed complete correction of the CF Cl- transport defect in differentiated CF airway epithelia in culture and of the Cl- transport defect in the nasal epithelia of mice homozygous for the deltaF508 mutation. The fact that gene transfer to airway epithelia required prolonged incubation with vector contrasts with the rapid infection observed in cell models such as 293 and HeLa cells, which are commonly used to study adenovirus infection. Gene transfer observed after prolonged incubation may result from mechanisms different from those that mediate infection of 293 cells. These observations suggest that interventions that either increase the contact time or alter the epithelium or the vector may be required to facilitate gene transfer to ciliated respiratory epithelia

  5. Gene transfer into experimental brain tumors mediated by adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and retrovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Boviatsis, E J; Chase, M; Wei, M X; Tamiya, T; Hurford, R K; Kowall, N W; Tepper, R I; Breakefield, X O; Chiocca, E A

    1994-02-01

    Three vectors derived from retrovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV), and adenovirus were compared in cultured rat 9L gliosarcoma cells for gene transfer efficiency and in a 9L rat brain tumor model for histologic pattern and distribution of foreign gene delivery, as well as for associated tumor necrosis and inflammation. At a multiplicity of infection of 1, in vitro transfer of a foreign gene (lacZ from Escherichia coli) into cells was more efficient with either the replication-defective retrovirus vector or the replication-conditional thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient HSV vector than with the replication-defective adenovirus vector. In vivo, stereotactic injections of each vector into rat brain tumors revealed three main histopathologic findings: (i) retrovirus and HSV vector-mediated gene transfer was relatively selective for cells within the tumor, whereas adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer occurred into several types of endogenous neural cells, as well as into cells within the tumor; (ii) gene transfer to multiple infiltrating tumor deposits without apparent gene transfer to intervening normal brain tissue occurred uniquely in one animal inoculated with the HSV vector, and (iii) extensive necrosis and selective inflammation in the tumor were evident with the HSV vector, whereas there was minimal evidence of tumor necrosis and inflammation with either the retrovirus or adenovirus vectors. PMID:8186298

  6. Homologous Recombination in E3 Genes of Human Adenovirus Species D

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurdeep; Robinson, Christopher M.; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Jones, Morris S.; Dyer, David W.; Seto, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Genes within the E3 transcription unit of human adenoviruses modulate host immune responses to infection. A comprehensive genomics and bioinformatics analysis of the E3 transcription unit for 38 viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) revealed distinct and surprising patterns of homologous recombination. Homologous recombination was identified in open reading frames for E3 CR1α, CR1β, and CR1γ, similar to that previously observed with genes encoding the three major structural capsid proteins, the penton base, hexon, and fiber. PMID:24027303

  7. Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology study of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, a novel dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Yanxin; Guo, Huanhuan; Hu, Ningning; He, Dongyun; Zhang, Shi; Chu, Yunjie; Huang, Yubin; Li, Xiao; Sun, LiLi; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-10-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that conditionally replicating adenovirus is safe. We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, using a cancer-specific promoter (human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, hTERTp) and a cancer cell-selective apoptosis-inducing gene (Apoptin). Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo in our previous study. In this study, the preclinical safety profiles of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in animal models were investigated. At doses of 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} viral particles (VP)/kg, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin had no adverse effects on mouse behavior, muscle cooperation, sedative effect, digestive system, and nervous systems, or on beagle cardiovascular and respiratory systems at 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg doses. In acute toxicity tests in mice, the maximum tolerated dose > 5 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg. There was no inflammation or ulceration at the injection sites within two weeks. In repeat-dose toxicological studies, the no observable adverse effect levels of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in rats (1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg) and beagles (2.5 × 10{sup 9} VP/kg) were 62.5- and 12.5-fold of the proposed clinical dose, respectively. The anti-virus antibody was produced in animal sera. Bone marrow examination revealed no histopathological changes. Guinea pigs sensitized by three repeated intraperitoneal injections of 1.35 × 10{sup 10} VP/mL Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin each and challenged by one intravenous injection of 1.67 × 10{sup 8} VP/kg Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin did not exhibit any sign of systemic anaphylaxis. Our data from different animal models suggest that Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • We use the rodents and non-rodents animal models to evaluation Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin. • Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. • Demonstrate the safety and feasibility dose of injected Ad

  8. Recombinant adenovirus encoding the HA gene from swine H3N2 influenza virus partially protects mice from challenge with heterologous virus: A/HK/1/68 (H3N2).

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Harp, J A; Wesley, R D

    2002-11-01

    Immunization with recombinant adenoviral vaccine that induces potent immunity has been applied to many infectious diseases. We report here developing a recombinant adenoviral vaccine encoding the HA gene from swine H3N2 influenza virus (SIV). Two replication-defective recombinant adenoviruses were generated: (1) rAd-HA: recombinant adenovirus encoding the HA gene from swine H3N2 influenza virus, and (2) rAd-vector: a control recombinant adenovirus containing adenovirus and transfer plasmids without a foreign HA gene. Mice given rAd-HA developed high titers of neutralizing and hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to SIV in comparison to mice inoculated with rAd-vector or PBS as early as 2 weeks after immunization, and these antibodies were substantially increased in the mice given rAd-HA within the next 3 weeks following the first dose. However, these antibodies were not able to neutralize the virus, A/HK/68 (H3N2), used for challenge. Nonetheless mice immunized with one or two doses of rAd-HA were protected from lethal challenge with heterologous virus, A/HK/1/68 (H3N2). A statistically significant ( P < 0.03) difference between survival rates of rAd-HA mice vs. rAd-vector or PBS mice was observed. PMID:12417948

  9. Adenovirus-induced alterations in host cell gene expression prior to the onset of viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Fredrik; Svensson, Catharina; Pettersson, Ulf; Zhao, Hongxing

    2006-09-15

    In this report, we have studied gene expression profiles in human primary lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) during the very early phase of an adenovirus infection. Eight out of twelve genes with known functions encoded transcription factors linked to two major cellular processes; inhibition of cell growth (ATF3, ATF4, KLF4, KLF6 and ELK3) and immune response (NR4A1 and CEBPB), indicating that the earliest consequences of an adenovirus infection are growth arrest and induction of an immune response. A time course analysis showed that the induction of these immediate-early response genes was transient and suppressed after the onset of the adenovirus early gene expression. PMID:16860366

  10. Evaluation of polymer shielding for adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) for systemic virotherapy against human prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tien V; Heller, Greg J; Barry, Mary E; Crosby, Catherine M; Turner, Mallory A; Barry, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses hold promise as “self-amplifying” cancer therapies wherein a virally killed cell can produce thousands of new viral “drugs” that can kill more cancer cells. Adenoviruses (Ads) are one family of oncolytic viruses. Most human studies have used human Ad serotype 5 (Ad5). Unfortunately, most patients are already immune to Ad5 increasing the likelihood that the agent will be neutralized if used as a cancer therapy. In this work, lower seroprevalence Ad6 was tested as a systemic therapy for prostate cancer. Ad5 and Ad6 were injected intravenously a single time in nude mice bearing human prostate tumors, and toxicity and efficacy were assessed. Ad6 was chemically shielded with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to test if this would further improve its pharmacology. Ad6 produced 30-fold lower liver damage and less toxicity than Ad5. Ad6 significantly repressed the growth of androgen-resistant human DU145 prostate tumors and androgen-sensitive LNCaP tumors after single intravenous injection. PEGylation did not change virus distribution, but blunted liver damage and cytokine production by Ad6. PEGylated Ad6 eradicated LNCaP tumors and maintained body mass, but lost potency against the more challenging DU145 tumors. These and other data suggest that low seroprevalent Ad6 has better efficacy and safety than the benchmark oncolytic virus Ad5 for systemic therapy of prostate cancer. These data also indicate that PEGylation may improve Ad6 safety, but that this shielding may reduce oncolytic efficacy after intravenous treatment. PMID:26900598

  11. Group D Adenoviruses Infect Primary Central Nervous System Cells More Efficiently than Those from Group C

    PubMed Central

    Chillon, Miguel; Bosch, Assumpció; Zabner, Joseph; Law, Lane; Armentano, Donna; Welsh, Michael J.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    1999-01-01

    Group C adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to central nervous system cells is inefficient. We found that wild-type group D viruses, or recombinant adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) (group C) modified to contain Ad17 (group D) fiber, were more efficient in infecting primary cultures of neurons. Together with studies on primary vascular endothelial cells and tissue culture cell lines, our results indicate that there is not a universally applicable adenovirus serotype for use as a gene transfer vector. PMID:9971839

  12. A Phase I Clinical Trial of Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD, a Novel Infectivity-Enhanced Bicistronic Adenovirus, in Patients with Recurrent Gynecologic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kenneth H.; Dmitriev, Igor; O’Malley, Janis P.; Wang, Minghui; Saddekni, Souheil; You, Zhiying; Preuss, Meredith A.; Harris, Raymond D.; Aurigemma, Rosemarie; Siegal, Gene P.; Zinn, Kurt R.; Curiel, David T.; Alvarez, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD is an infectivity-enhanced adenovirus expressing a therapeutic thymidine kinase suicide gene and a somatostatin receptor that allows for noninvasive gene transfer imaging. The purpose of this study was to identify the MTD, toxicities, clinical efficacy and biologic effects of Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD in patients with recurrent gynecologic cancer. Experimental Design Eligible patients were treated intraperitoneally (IP) for 3 days with 1×109 to 1×1012 vp/dose of Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD followed by intravenous ganciclovir for 14 days. Toxicity and clinical efficacy were assessed utilizing CTC Adverse Events grading and RECIST criteria. Imaging utilizing In-111 pentetreotide was obtained before and after treatment. Tissue samples were obtained to evaluate for gene transfer, generation of wild-type virus, viral shedding and antibody response. Results Twelve patients were treated in three cohorts. The most common vector-related clinical toxicities were grade 1–2 constitutional or pain symptoms, experienced most often in patients treated at the highest dose. MTD was not identified. Five patients demonstrated stable disease; all others experienced progressive disease. One patient with stable disease experienced complete resolution of disease and normalization of CA125 on further follow-up. Imaging detected increased In-111 pentetreotide retention in patients treated at the highest dose. Ancillary studies demonstrated presence of Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD virus and HSV1-tk expression in ascites samples collected at various time points in most patients treated within the higher dose cohorts. Conclusions This study demonstrates the safety, potential efficacy, and possible gene transfer imaging capacity of Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD in patients with recurrent gynecologic cancer. Further development of this novel gene therapeutic appears to be warranted. PMID:22510347

  13. BTK gene targeting by homologous recombination using a helper-dependent adenovirus/adeno-associated virus hybrid vector.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Ishimura, M; Ochiai, M; Takada, H; Kusuhara, K; Nakatsu, Y; Tsuzuki, T; Mitani, K; Hara, T

    2016-02-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is one of the most common humoral immunodeficiencies, which is caused by mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. To examine the possibility of using gene therapy for XLA, we constructed a helper-dependent adenovirus/adeno-associated virus BTK targeting vector (HD-Ad.AAV BTK vector) composed of a genomic sequence containing BTK exons 6-19 and a green fluorescence protein-hygromycin cassette driven by a cytomegalovirus promoter. We first used NALM-6, a human male pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, as a recipient to measure the efficiency of gene targeting by homologous recombination. We identified 10 clones with the homologous recombination of the BTK gene among 107 hygromycin-resistant stable clones isolated from two independent experiments. We next used cord blood CD34⁺ cells as the recipient cells for the gene targeting. We isolated colonies grown in medium containing cytokines and hygromycin. We found that the targeting of the BTK gene occurred in four of the 755 hygromycin-resistant colonies. Importantly, the gene targeting was also observed in CD19⁺ lymphoid progenitor cells that were differentiated from the homologous recombinant CD34⁺ cells during growth in selection media. Our study shows the potential for the BTK gene therapy using the HD-Ad.AAV BTK vector via homologous recombination in hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:26280081

  14. Spontaneous mutants of the adenovirus-simian virus 40 hybrid, Ad2/sup +/ND3, that grow efficiently in monkey cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.

    1981-05-01

    An attempt was made to isolate spontaneous mutants of adenovirus type 2 and of the adenovirus-SV40 hybrids, Ad2/sup +/ND3 and Ad2/sup +/ND5, that would grow efficiently on monkey cells. Virus stocks were serially passaged through the semipermissive established monkey line CV-1. After five serial passages in the absence of intentional mutagenesis, only stocks of Ad2/sup +/ND3 yielded significant numbers of variants that plaqued with similar efficiency on human and on monkey cell monolayers. Four independent Ad2/sup +/ND3 variants, designated hr600, hr601, hr602, and hr603, have been isolated and partially characterized. No difference was found between the genomes of these variants and the genome of parental Ad2/sup +/ND3 by restriction enzyme analysis or by the analysis of heteroduplexes between Ad2/sup +/ND3 (or variant) DNA and DNA of the hybrid Ad2/sup +/ND1.

  15. In vivo expression of adenovirus-mediated lacZ gene in murine nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Yukiko; Nagata, Hiroshi; Isegawa, Naohisa; Kumahara, Keiichiro; Isoyama, Kyoko; Konno, Akiyoshi; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    Adenovirus is a good tool for transferring exogenous genes into various organs because the virus has a wide spectrum of infection. In this report, we demonstrate that a recombinant adenovirus, Ax1CAlacZ, can transfer an exogenous lacZ gene into murine nasal mucosa in vivo. The efficiency of the exogenous gene expression varied for different cell types and was improved by optimizing the method of administration. In the olfactory region, the olfactory epithelia, sustentacular cells and olfactory nerve efficiently expressed lacZ gene transferred by Ax1CAlacZ using either of two administration methods, dripping or injecting. In contrast, in the respiratory region, the respiratory epithelia but not the subepithelial tissues expressed lacZ gene transferred by Ax1CAlacZ, and the efficiency of the gene transfer, which was low when the virus was administered by nasal drops, was improved when the virus was administered by injection. Our study demonstrated that gene transfer mediated by adenovirus is more efficient in the olfactory epithelia than in the respiratory epithelia, and may be applicable to nasal or paranasal diseases such as olfactory epithelial disturbances. PMID:12403125

  16. Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. Methods/Results We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. Conclusion In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline. PMID:20927353

  17. Clinical Assessment of a Novel Recombinant Simian Adenovirus ChAdOx1 as a Vectored Vaccine Expressing Conserved Influenza A Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Antrobus, Richard D; Coughlan, Lynda; Berthoud, Tamara K; Dicks, Matthew D; Hill, Adrian VS; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses are potent vectors for inducing and boosting cellular immunity to encoded recombinant antigens. However, the widespread seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to common human adenovirus serotypes limits their use. Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same drawbacks. We have constructed a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing the conserved influenza antigens, nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein 1 (M1). Here, we report safety and T-cell immunogenicity following vaccination with this novel recombinant simian adenovirus, ChAdOx1 NP+M1, in a first in human dose-escalation study using a 3+3 study design, followed by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the same antigens in some volunteers. We demonstrate ChAdOx1 NP+M1 to be safe and immunogenic. ChAdOx1 is a promising vaccine vector that could be used to deliver vaccine antigens where strong cellular immune responses are required for protection. PMID:24374965

  18. Clinical assessment of a novel recombinant simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 as a vectored vaccine expressing conserved Influenza A antigens.

    PubMed

    Antrobus, Richard D; Coughlan, Lynda; Berthoud, Tamara K; Dicks, Matthew D; Hill, Adrian Vs; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2014-03-01

    Adenoviruses are potent vectors for inducing and boosting cellular immunity to encoded recombinant antigens. However, the widespread seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to common human adenovirus serotypes limits their use. Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same drawbacks. We have constructed a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing the conserved influenza antigens, nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein 1 (M1). Here, we report safety and T-cell immunogenicity following vaccination with this novel recombinant simian adenovirus, ChAdOx1 NP+M1, in a first in human dose-escalation study using a 3+3 study design, followed by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the same antigens in some volunteers. We demonstrate ChAdOx1 NP+M1 to be safe and immunogenic. ChAdOx1 is a promising vaccine vector that could be used to deliver vaccine antigens where strong cellular immune responses are required for protection. PMID:24374965

  19. Image-aided Suicide Gene Therapy Utilizing Multifunctional hTERT-targeting Adenovirus for Clinical Translation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hee; Moon, Ju Young; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sukyoung; Kim, Eun Ok; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Seok Ki; Choi, Sun Il; Goh, Sung Ho; Kim, Daehong; Lee, Seong-Wook; Ju, Mi Ha; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, In-Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Trans-splicing ribozyme enables to sense and reprogram target RNA into therapeutic transgene and thereby becomes a good sensing device for detection of cancer cells, judging from transgene expression. Previously we proposed PEPCK-Rz-HSVtk (PRT), hTERT targeting trans-splicing ribozyme (Rz) driven by liver-specific promoter phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with downstream suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene therapy. Here, we describe success of a re-engineered adenoviral vector harboring PRT in obtaining greater antitumor activity with less off-target effect for clinical application as a theranostics. We introduced liver-selective apolipoprotein E (ApoE) enhancer to the distal region of PRT unit to augment activity and liver selectivity of PEPCK promoter, and achieved better transduction into liver cancer cells by replacement of serotype 35 fiber knob on additional E4orf1-4 deletion of E1&E3-deleted serotype 5 back bone. We demonstrated that our refined adenovirus harboring PEPCK/ApoE-Rz-HSVtk (Ad-PRT-E) achieved great anti-tumor efficacy and improved ability to specifically target HCC without damaging normal hepatocytes. We also showed noninvasive imaging modalities were successfully employed to monitor both how well a therapeutic gene (HSVtk) was expressed inside tumor and how effectively a gene therapy took an action in terms of tumor growth. Collectively, this study suggests that the advanced therapeutic adenoviruses Ad-PRT-E and its image-aided evaluation system may lead to the powerful strategy for successful clinical translation and the development of clinical protocols for HCC therapy. PMID:26909111

  20. Image-aided Suicide Gene Therapy Utilizing Multifunctional hTERT-targeting Adenovirus for Clinical Translation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hee; Moon, Ju Young; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sukyoung; Kim, Eun Ok; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Seok Ki; Choi, Sun Il; Goh, Sung Ho; Kim, Daehong; Lee, Seong-Wook; Ju, Mi Ha; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, In-Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Trans-splicing ribozyme enables to sense and reprogram target RNA into therapeutic transgene and thereby becomes a good sensing device for detection of cancer cells, judging from transgene expression. Previously we proposed PEPCK-Rz-HSVtk (PRT), hTERT targeting trans-splicing ribozyme (Rz) driven by liver-specific promoter phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with downstream suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene therapy. Here, we describe success of a re-engineered adenoviral vector harboring PRT in obtaining greater antitumor activity with less off-target effect for clinical application as a theranostics. We introduced liver-selective apolipoprotein E (ApoE) enhancer to the distal region of PRT unit to augment activity and liver selectivity of PEPCK promoter, and achieved better transduction into liver cancer cells by replacement of serotype 35 fiber knob on additional E4orf1-4 deletion of E1&E3-deleted serotype 5 back bone. We demonstrated that our refined adenovirus harboring PEPCK/ApoE-Rz-HSVtk (Ad-PRT-E) achieved great anti-tumor efficacy and improved ability to specifically target HCC without damaging normal hepatocytes. We also showed noninvasive imaging modalities were successfully employed to monitor both how well a therapeutic gene (HSVtk) was expressed inside tumor and how effectively a gene therapy took an action in terms of tumor growth. Collectively, this study suggests that the advanced therapeutic adenoviruses Ad-PRT-E and its image-aided evaluation system may lead to the powerful strategy for successful clinical translation and the development of clinical protocols for HCC therapy. PMID:26909111

  1. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...

  2. Differential activation of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes by the polyomavirus enhancer and the adenovirus E1A gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, S L; Folk, W R

    1985-01-01

    We have compared the effect of the polyomavirus cis-acting transcriptional enhancer and the adenovirus trans-acting E1A gene on expression of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes (the adenovirus VAI gene and a bacterial tRNA gene) using DNA transfection and transient expression assays. The polyomavirus enhancer has little effect upon transcription of the VAI gene by RNA polymerase III in any cell type tested (murine, hamster, or human). In contrast, expression of the E1A gene within adenovirus infected cells stimulates transcription of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes from co-transfected DNAs. Human 293 cells, which constitutively produce adenovirus E1A gene products, also express high levels of RNA polymerase III transcripts from transfected DNAs. Images PMID:2987823

  3. Evaluation of the concentration and bioactivity of adenovirus vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mittereder, N; March, K L; Trapnell, B C

    1996-01-01

    Development of adenovirus vectors as potential therapeutic agents for multiple applications of in vivo human gene therapy has resulted in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. However, lack of standardization of the methods for quantifying the physical concentration and functionally active fraction of virions in these studies has often made comparison between various studies difficult or impossible. This study was therefore carried out to define the variables for quantification of the concentration of adenovirus vectors. The methods for evaluation of total virion concentration included electron microscopy and optical absorbance. The methods for evaluation of the concentration of functional virions included detection of gene transfer (transgene transfer and expression) and the plaque assay on 293 cells. Enumeration of total virion concentration by optical absorbance was found to be a precise procedure, but accuracy was dependent on physical disruption of the virion to eliminate artifacts from light scattering and also on a correct value for the extinction coefficient. Both biological assays for enumerating functional virions were highly dependent on the assay conditions and in particular the time of virion adsorption and adsorption volume. Under optimal conditions, the bioactivity of the vector, defined as the fraction of total virions which leads to detected target cell infection, was determined to be 0.10 in the plaque assay and 0.29 in the gene transfer assay. This difference is most likely due to the fact that detection by gene transfer requires only measurement of levels of transgene expression in the infected cell whereas plaque formation is dependent on a series of biological events of much greater complexity. These results show that the exact conditions for determination of infectious virion concentration and bioactivity of recombinant adenovirus vectors are critical and must be standardized for comparability. These observations may be very useful in

  4. Application of conditionally replicating adenoviruses in tumor early diagnosis technology, gene-radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; Ou, Mengting; Wang, Guixue; Tang, Liling

    2016-10-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or known as replication-selective adenoviruses, were discovered as oncolytic gene vectors several years ago. They have a strong ability of scavenging tumor and lesser toxicity to normal tissue. CRAds not only have a tumor-killing ability but also can combine with gene therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy to induce tumor cell apoptosis. In this paper, we review the structure of CRAds and CRAd vectors and summarize the current application of CRAds in tumor detection as well as in radiotherapy and suicide gene-mediating chemotherapy. We also propose further research strategies that can improve the application value of CRAds, including enhancing tumor destruction effect, further reducing toxic effect, reducing immunogenicity, constructing CRAds that can target tumor stem cells, and trying to use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as the carriers for oncolytic adenoviruses. As their importance to cancer diagnosis, gene-radiation, and chemotherapy, CRAds may play a considerable role in clinical diagnosis and various cancer treatments in the future. PMID:27557721

  5. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses III. Base Composition, Molecular Weight, and Conformation of the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Kakefuda, Tuyoski; Rowe, Wallace P.; Levin, Myron J.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    The nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, differs from the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, in that this hybrid virus can replicate without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from this virus, which can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA, is well suited for biophysical studies on Ad-SV40 hybrid DNA. Such studies have been performed and demonstrate Ad2+ND1 DNA to have a buoyant density (1.715 g/cm3) and thermal denaturation profile (Tm = 75.1 C) almost identical with nonhybrid Ad2 DNA. Furthermore, its molecular weight, as determined by analytical zone sedimentation and electron microscopy, was 22 × 106 to 25 × 106 daltons, which is also very similar to that determined for Ad2. Electron micrographs showed all of the hybrid molecules to be double-stranded and linear. By using this determination of the molecular weight of Ad2+ND1 DNA and assuming that 1% of this molecule consists of covalently linked SV40 DNA (see companion paper), we calculate that the hybrid DNA molecule contains 220 × 103 to 250 × 103 daltons of SV40 DNA, or the equivalent of one-tenth of the SV40 genome. PMID:4323710

  6. Regulation of adenovirus transcription by an Ela gene in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.C.; Richter, J.D.; Weeks, D.L.; Smith, L.D.

    1983-12-01

    The regulation of adenovirus type 5 gene expression by the E1a gene product was examined in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes. Chimeric genes were constructed which included the promoter region of early adenovirus type 5 gene 3 and the structural sequence which codes for the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol-3-O-acetyltransferase (CAT). A plasmid containing this chimeric gene as well as plasmids containing the E1a gene were coinjected into oocyte nuclei. The presence of the E1a gene was shown to increase CAT activity by up to 8.5-fold over basal levels. Synthesis of the functional product from the E1a gene requires the removal of intron sequences by RNA splicing. The E1a gene and a derivative that precisely lacks the intron were equally effective in increasing CAT activity, suggesting that splicing of the primary E1a transcript is efficiently accomplished in the oocyte nucleus. This was confirmed by directly examining the E1a mRNAs by the S1 mapping procedure. A protein extract from adenovirus type 5-infected HeLa cells enriched for the E1a protein may supplant the E1a plasmid in enhancing CAT activity. Synthesis of the CAT enzyme after gene injection is invariant in oocytes from the same frog, but oocytes from different frogs show a high degree of variability in their ability to synthesize the CAT enzyme. Microinjected X. laevis oocytes appear to be an extremely useful system to study the effects of protein elements on transcription.

  7. Functional characterization of a PEI-CyD-FA-coated adenovirus as delivery vector for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Chen, Shih-Chi; Shen, Zan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-mei; Jiang, Wenqi; Wang, Zi-Feng; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lin, Marie C

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant adenovirus is evolving as a promising gene delivery vector for gene therapy due to its efficiency in transducing different genes into most types of cells. However, the host-immune response elicited by primary inoculation of an adenovirus can cause rapid clearance of the vector, impairing the efficacy of the adenovirus and hence obstructing its clinical application. We have previously synthesized a biodegradable co-polymer consisting of a low molecular weight PEI (MW 600 Da), cross-linked with β-cyclodextrin, and conjugated with folic acid (PEI-CyD-FA, named H1). Here we report that coating the adenovirus vector (Adv) with H1 (H1/rAdv) could significantly improve both the efficacy and biosafety of Adv. Enhanced transfection efficiency as well as prolonged duration of gene expression were clearly demonstrated either by intratumoral or systemic injection of a single dose of H1/rAdv in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, repeated injections of H1/rAdv did not reduce the transfection efficiency in immunocompetent mice. Furthermore, H1 transformed the surface charge of the adenovirus capsomers from negative to positive in physiological solution, suggesting that H1 coated the capsid protein of the adenovirus. This could shelter the epitopes of capsid proteins of the adenovirus, resulting in a reduced host-immune response and enhanced transfection efficiency. Taken together, these findings suggest that H1/rAdv is an effective gene delivery system superior to the adenovirus alone and that it could be considered as a preferred vehicle for gene therapy. PMID:23531212

  8. The E1B19K-deleted oncolytic adenovirus mutant AdΔ19K sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to drug-induced DNA-damage by down-regulating Claspin and Mre11

    PubMed Central

    Pantelidou, Constantia; Cherubini, Gioia; Lemoine, Nick R.; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus-mediated sensitization of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs depends on simultaneous interactions of early viral genes with cell death and survival pathways. It is unclear what cellular factors mediate these interactions in the presence of DNA-damaging drugs. We found that adenovirus prevents Chk1-mediated checkpoint activation through inactivation of Mre11 and downregulation of the pChk1 adaptor-protein, Claspin, in cells with high levels of DNA-damage induced by the cytotoxic drugs gemcitabine and irinotecan. The mechanisms for Claspin downregulation involve decreased transcription and increased degradation, further attenuating pChk1-mediated signalling. Live cell imaging demonstrated that low doses of gemcitabine caused multiple mitotic aberrations including multipolar spindles, micro- and multi-nucleation and cytokinesis failure. A mutant virus with the anti-apoptotic E1B19K-gene deleted (AdΔ19K) further enhanced cell killing, Claspin downregulation, and potentiated drug-induced DNA damage and mitotic aberrations. Decreased Claspin expression and inactivation of Mre11 contributed to the enhanced cell killing in combination with DNA-damaging drugs. These results reveal novel mechanisms that are utilised by adenovirus to ensure completion of its life cycle in the presence of cellular DNA damage. Taken together, our findings reveal novel cellular targets that may be exploited when developing improved anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:26872382

  9. The E1B19K-deleted oncolytic adenovirus mutant AdΔ19K sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to drug-induced DNA-damage by down-regulating Claspin and Mre11.

    PubMed

    Pantelidou, Constantia; Cherubini, Gioia; Lemoine, Nick R; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-03-29

    Adenovirus-mediated sensitization of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs depends on simultaneous interactions of early viral genes with cell death and survival pathways. It is unclear what cellular factors mediate these interactions in the presence of DNA-damaging drugs. We found that adenovirus prevents Chk1-mediated checkpoint activation through inactivation of Mre11 and downregulation of the pChk1 adaptor-protein, Claspin, in cells with high levels of DNA-damage induced by the cytotoxic drugs gemcitabine and irinotecan. The mechanisms for Claspin downregulation involve decreased transcription and increased degradation, further attenuating pChk1-mediated signalling. Live cell imaging demonstrated that low doses of gemcitabine caused multiple mitotic aberrations including multipolar spindles, micro- and multi-nucleation and cytokinesis failure. A mutant virus with the anti-apoptotic E1B19K-gene deleted (AdΔ19K) further enhanced cell killing, Claspin downregulation, and potentiated drug-induced DNA damage and mitotic aberrations. Decreased Claspin expression and inactivation of Mre11 contributed to the enhanced cell killing in combination with DNA-damaging drugs. These results reveal novel mechanisms that are utilised by adenovirus to ensure completion of its life cycle in the presence of cellular DNA damage. Taken together, our findings reveal novel cellular targets that may be exploited when developing improved anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:26872382

  10. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Vitelli, Alessandra; Quirion, Mary R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Ammendola, Virginia; Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Cortese, Riccardo; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1). We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines. PMID:23536756

  11. Replication-deficient adenovirus vector transfer of gfp reporter gene into supraoptic nucleus and subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, E. C.; Johnson, R. F.; Beltz, T. G.; Haskell, R. E.; Davidson, B. L.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The present studies used defined cells of the subfornical organ (SFO) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as model systems to demonstrate the efficacy of replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) for gene transfer. The studies investigated the effects of both direct transfection of the SON and indirect transfection (i.e., via retrograde transport) of SFO neurons. The SON of rats were injected with Ad (2 x 10(6) pfu) and sacrificed 1-7 days later for cell culture of the SON and of the SFO. In the SON, GFP fluorescence was visualized in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells while only neurons in the SFO expressed GFP. Successful in vitro transfection of cultured cells from the SON and SFO was also achieved with Ad (2 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(8) pfu). The expression of GFP in in vitro transfected cells was higher in nonneuronal (approximately 28% in SON and SFO) than neuronal (approximately 4% in SON and 10% in SFO) cells. The expression of GFP was time and viral concentration related. No apparent alterations in cellular morphology of transfected cells were detected and electrophysiological characterization of transfected cells was similar between GFP-expressing and nonexpressing neurons. We conclude that (1) GFP is an effective marker for gene transfer in living SON and SFO cells, (2) Ad infects both neuronal and nonneuronal cells, (3) Ad is taken up by axonal projections from the SON and retrogradely transported to the SFO where it is expressed at detectable levels, and (4) Ad does not adversely affect neuronal viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using adenoviral vectors to deliver genes to the SFO-SON axis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. Differential immunogenicity between HAdV-5 and chimpanzee adenovirus vector ChAdOx1 is independent of fiber and penton RGD loop sequences in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Matthew D. J.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Coughlan, Lynda; Bauza, Karolis; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Cottingham, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Replication defective adenoviruses are promising vectors for the delivery of vaccine antigens. However, the potential of a vector to elicit transgene-specific adaptive immune responses is largely dependent on the viral serotype used. HAdV-5 (Human adenovirus C) vectors are more immunogenic than chimpanzee adenovirus vectors from species Human adenovirus E (ChAdOx1 and AdC68) in mice, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences in immunogenicity remain poorly understood. In this study, superior immunogenicity was associated with markedly higher levels of transgene expression in vivo, particularly within draining lymph nodes. To investigate the viral factors contributing to these phenotypes, we generated recombinant ChAdOx1 vectors by exchanging components of the viral capsid reported to be principally involved in cell entry with the corresponding sequences from HAdV-5. Remarkably, pseudotyping with the HAdV-5 fiber and/or penton RGD loop had little to no effect on in vivo transgene expression or transgene-specific adaptive immune responses despite considerable species-specific sequence heterogeneity in these components. Our results suggest that mechanisms governing vector transduction after intramuscular administration in mice may be different from those described in vitro. PMID:26576856

  13. Dystrophin expression in muscle following gene transfer with a fully deleted ("gutted") adenovirus is markedly improved by trans-acting adenoviral gene products.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R; Nalbantoglu, J; Howell, J M; Davies, L; Fletcher, S; Amalfitano, A; Petrof, B J; Kamen, A; Massie, B; Karpati, G

    2001-09-20

    Helper-dependent adenoviruses (HDAd) are Ad vectors lacking all or most viral genes. They hold great promise for gene therapy of diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), because they are less immunogenic than E1/E3-deleted Ad (first-generation Ad or FGAd) and can carry the full-length (Fl) dystrophin (dys) cDNA (12 kb). We have compared the transgene expression of a HDAd (HDAdCMVDysFl) and a FGAd (FGAdCMV-dys) in cell culture (HeLa, C2C12 myotubes) and in the muscle of mdx mice (the mouse model for DMD). Both vectors encoded dystrophin regulated by the same cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. We demonstrate that the amount of dystrophin expressed was significantly higher after gene transfer with FGAdCMV-dys compared to HDAdCMVDysFl both in vitro and in vivo. However, gene transfer with HDAdCMVDysFl in the presence of a FGAd resulted in a significant increase of dystrophin expression indicating that gene products synthesized by the FGAd increase, in trans, the amount of dystrophin produced. This enhancement occurred in cell culture and after gene transfer in the muscle of mdx mice and dystrophic golden retriever (GRMD) dogs, another animal model for DMD. The E4 region of Ad is required for the enhancement, because no increase of dystrophin expression from HDAdCMVDysFl was observed in the presence of an E1/E4-deleted Ad in vitro and in vivo. The characterization of these enhancing gene products followed by their inclusion into an HDAd may be required to produce sufficient dystrophin to mitigate the pathology of DMD by HDAd-mediated gene transfer. PMID:11560768

  14. Targeting lung cancer stem-like cells with TRAIL gene armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Xu, Haineng; Huang, Weidan; Ding, Miao; Xiao, Jing; Yang, Dongmei; Li, Huaguang; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Chu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer stem cell (LCSC) is critical in cancer initiation, progression, drug resistance and relapse. Disadvantages showed in conventional lung cancer therapy probably because of its existence. In this study, lung cancer cell line A549 cells propagated as spheroid bodies (named as A549 sphere cells) in growth factors-defined serum-free medium. A549 sphere cells displayed CSC properties, including chemo-resistance, increased proportion of G0/G1 cells, slower proliferation rate, ability of differentiation and enhanced tumour formation ability in vivo. Oncolytic adenovirus ZD55 carrying EGFP gene, ZD55-EGFP, infected A549 sphere cells and inhibited cell growth. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) armed oncolytic adenovirus, ZD55-TRAIL, exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and induced A549 sphere cells apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, small molecules embelin, LY294002 and resveratrol improved the cytotoxicity of ZD55-TRAIL. In the A549 sphere cells xenograft models, ZD55-TRAIL significantly inhibited tumour growth and improved survival status of mice. These results suggested that gene armed oncolytic adenovirus is a potential approach for lung cancer therapy through targeting LCSCs. PMID:25683371

  15. Efficient adenovirus-mediated transfer of a human minidystrophin gene to skeletal muscle of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Ragot, T; Vincent, N; Chafey, P; Vigne, E; Gilgenkrantz, H; Couton, D; Cartaud, J; Briand, P; Kaplan, J C; Perricaudet, M

    1993-02-18

    Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy is a lethal and common X-linked genetic disease caused by the absence of dystrophin, a 427K protein encoded by a 14 kilobase transcript. Two approaches have been proposed to correct the dystrophin deficiency in muscle. The first, myoblast transfer therapy, uses cells from normal donors, whereas the second involves direct intramuscular injection of recombinant plasmids expressing dystrophin. Adenovirus is an efficient vector for in vivo expression of various foreign genes. It has recently been demonstrated that a recombinant adenovirus expressing the lac-Z reporter gene can infect stably many mouse tissues, particularly muscle and heart. We have tested the ability of a recombinant adenovirus, containing a 6.3 kilobase pair Becker-like dystrophin complementary DNA driven by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter to direct the expression of a 'minidystrophin' in infected 293 cells and C2 myoblasts, and in the mdx mouse, after intramuscular injection. We report here that in vivo, we have obtained a sarcolemmal immunostaining in up to 50% of fibres of the injected muscle. PMID:8437625

  16. Adenovirus-mediated artificial MicroRNAs targeting matrix or nucleoprotein genes protect mice against lethal influenza virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Tang, X; Zhu, C; Song, Y; Yin, J; Xu, J; Ertl, H C J; Zhou, D

    2015-08-01

    Influenza virus (IV) infection is a major public health problem, causing millions of cases of severe illness and as many as 500 000 deaths each year worldwide. Given the limitations of current prevention or treatment of acute influenza, novel therapies are needed. RNA interference (RNAi) through microRNAs (miRNA) is an emerging technology that can suppress virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel strategy for the treatment of infuenza based on RNAi delivered by a replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vector, derived from chimpanzee serotype 68 (AdC68). Our results showed that artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) specifically targeting conserved regions of the IV genome could effectively inhibit virus replication in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that prophylactic treatment with AdC68 expressing amiRNAs directed against M1, M2 or nucleoprotein genes of IV completely protected mice from homologous A/PR8 virus challenge and partially protected the mice from heterologous influenza A virus strains such as H9N2 and H5N1. Collectively, our data demonstrate that amiRNAs targeting the conserved regions of influenza A virus delivered by Ad vectors should be pursued as a novel strategy for prophylaxis of IV infection in humans and animals. PMID:25835311

  17. An Adenovirus Vector Incorporating Carbohydrate Binding Domains Utilizes Glycans for Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Ak, Ferhat; Ugai, Hideyo; Curiel, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vectors based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) continue to show promise as delivery vehicles for cancer gene therapy. Nevertheless, it has become clear that therapeutic benefit is directly linked to tumor-specific vector localization, highlighting the need for tumor-targeted gene delivery. Aberrant glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids is a central feature of malignant transformation, and tumor-associated glycoforms are recognized as cancer biomarkers. On this basis, we hypothesized that cancer-specific cell-surface glycans could be the basis of a novel paradigm in HAdV-5-based vector targeting. Methodology/Principal Findings As a first step toward this goal, we constructed a novel HAdV-5 vector encoding a unique chimeric fiber protein that contains the tandem carbohydrate binding domains of the fiber protein of the NADC-1 strain of porcine adenovirus type 4 (PAdV-4). This glycan-targeted vector displays augmented CAR-independent gene transfer in cells with low CAR expression. Further, we show that gene transfer is markedly decreased in cells with genetic glycosylation defects and by inhibitors of glycosylation in normal cells. Conclusions/Significance These data provide the initial proof-of-concept for HAdV-5 vector-mediated gene delivery based on the presence of cell-surface carbohydrates. Further development of this new targeting paradigm could provide targeted gene delivery based on vector recognition of disease-specific glycan biomarkers. PMID:23383334

  18. The Arg279Glu Substitution in the Adenovirus Type 11p (Ad11p) Fiber Knob Abolishes EDTA-Resistant Binding to A549 and CHO-CD46 Cells, Converting the Phenotype to That of Ad7p

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Dan J.; Segerman, Anna; Lindman, Kristina; Mei, Ya-Fang; Wadell, Göran

    2006-01-01

    The major determinant of adenovirus (Ad) attachment to host cells is the C-terminal knob domain of the trimeric fiber protein. Ad type 11p (Ad11p; species B2) in contrast to Ad7p (species B1) utilizes at least two different cellular attachment receptors, designated sBAR (species B adenovirus receptor) and sB2AR (species B2 adenovirus receptor). CD46 has recently been identified as one of the Ad11p attachment receptors. However, CD46 did not seem to constitute a functional receptor for Ad7p. Although Ad7p shares high knob amino acid identity with Ad11p, Ad7p is deficient in binding to both sB2AR and CD46. To determine what regions of the Ad11p fiber knob are necessary for sB2AR-CD46 interaction, we constructed recombinant fiber knobs (rFK) with Ad11p/Ad7p chimeras and Ad11p sequences having a single amino acid substitution from Ad7p. Binding of the constructs to A549 and CHO-CD46 BC1 isoform-expressing cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that an Arg279Glu substitution is sufficient to convert the Ad11p receptor-interaction phenotype to that of Ad7p and abolish sB2AR and CD46 interaction. Also a Glu279Arg substitution in Ad7p rFKs increases CD46 binding. Thus, the lateral HI loop of the Ad11p fiber knob seems to be the key determinant for Ad11p sB2AR-CD46 interaction. This result is comparable to another non-coxsackie-adenovirus receptor binding Ad (Ad37p), where substitution of one amino acid abolishes virus-cell interaction. In conjunction with previous results, our findings also strongly suggest that sB2AR is equivalent to CD46. PMID:16439545

  19. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T. . E-mail: curiel@uab.edu

    2006-08-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology.

  20. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-based vector: a new and versatile gene delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Frank R.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balint, Joseph P.

    2015-05-01

    Based upon advances in gene sequencing and construction, it is now possible to identify specific genes or sequences thereof for gene delivery applications. Recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) viral vectors have been utilized in the settings of gene therapy, vaccination, and immunotherapy but have encountered clinical challenges because they are recognized as foreign entities to the host. This recognition leads to an immunologic clearance of the vector that contains the inserted gene of interest and prevents effective immunization(s). We have reported on a new Ad5-based viral vector technology that can be utilized as an immunization modality to induce immune responses even in the presence of Ad5 vector immunity. We have reported successful immunization and immunotherapy results to infectious diseases and cancers. This improved recombinant viral platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) can now be utilized in the development of multiple vaccines and immunotherapies.

  1. Toward gene therapy of premature ovarian failure: intraovarian injection of adenovirus expressing human FSH receptor restores folliculogenesis in FSHR(−/−) FORKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghadami, M.; El-Demerdash, E.; Salama, S.A.; Binhazim, A.A.; Archibong, A.E.; Chen, X.; Ballard, B.R.; Sairam, M.R.; Al-Hendy, A.

    2010-01-01

    A homozygous missense mutation, C566T, in the follicle stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR) gene has been linked to premature ovarian failure. The disease leads to infertility in a normal karyotype female with an elevated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and decreased serum estrogen level. Female mice carrying mutated FSHR gene, called follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO), display similar phenotype and are sterile because of a folliculogenesis block at a primary stage. We investigated the effects of bilateral intra-ovarian injection of an adenovirus expressing a normal copy of human FSHR on the reproductive system of 6–10 weeks female FORKO mice. Ad-LacZ was injected directly into each ovary of the control group. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection and tissues collected for evaluation. Treated mice showed estrogenic changes in daily vaginal smear whereas control animals remained fixated in the diestrus stage. Histological evaluation showed on average 26 ± 4 follicles/ovary in treated group with 8 ± 2 follicles at the antral stage compared with only 5 ± 2 with zero follicles at antral stage in Ad-LacZ control mice. There was no significant change in serum level of progesterone, however, estrogen level increased 2–3-fold (P < 0.02) and FSH decreased by up to 50% (P < 0.04) in treated animals. FSHR mRNA was detected in the ovaries of the treated group. In conclusion, intra-ovarian injection of an adenovirus expressing human FSHR gene is able to restore FSH responsiveness and reinitiate ovarian folliculogenesis as well as resume estrogen production in female FORKO mice. Ad-LacZ injections indicate the absence of systemic viral dissemination or germ line transmission of adenovirus DNA to offspring. PMID:20086006

  2. Evaluation of recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene delivery for expression of tracer genes in catecholaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-La; Han, Shengjun; Lee, Sat-Byol; Kim, Jung Hye; Ahn, Hee Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Selective labeling of small populations of neurons of a given phenotype for conventional neuronal tracing is difficult because tracers can be taken up by all neurons at the injection site, resulting in nonspecific labeling of unrelated pathways. To overcome these problems, genetic approaches have been developed that introduce tracer proteins as transgenes under the control of cell-type-specific promoter elements for visualization of specific neuronal pathways. The aim of this study was to explore the use of tracer gene expression for neuroanatomical tracing to chart the complex interconnections of the central nervous system. Genetic tracing methods allow for expression of tracer molecules using cell-type-specific promoters to facilitate neuronal tracing. In this study, the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter and an adenoviral delivery system were used to express tracers specifically in dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons. Region-specific expression of the transgenes was then analyzed. Initially, we characterized cell-type-specific expression of GFP or RFP in cultured cell lines. We then injected an adenovirus carrying the tracer transgene into several brain regions using a stereotaxic apparatus. Three days after injection, strong GFP expression was observed in the injected site of the brain. RFP and WGA were expressed in a cell-type-specific manner in the cerebellum, locus coeruleus, and ventral tegmental regions. Our results demonstrate that selective tracing of catecholaminergic neuronal circuits is possible in the rat brain using the TH promoter and adenoviral expression. PMID:21189997

  3. Effects of Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of the Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene in Experimental Radiation-Induced Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Shunying; Chen Yundai; Li Libing; Chen Jinlong; Wu Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Zhi Guang; Li Qingfang; Wang Rongliang; Duan Haifeng; Guo Zikuan; Yang Yuefeng; Xiao Fengjun; Wang Hua; Wang Lisheng

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Irradiation to the heart may lead to late cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adenovirus-mediated delivery of the human hepatocyte growth factor gene could reduce post-irradiation damage of the rat heart and improve heart function. Methods and Materials: Twenty rats received single-dose irradiation of 20 Gy gamma ray locally to the heart and were randomized into two groups. Two weeks after irradiation, these two groups of rats received Ad-HGF or mock adenovirus vector intramyocardial injection, respectively. Another 10 rats served as sham-irradiated controls. At post-irradiation Day 120, myocardial perfusion was tested by myocardial contrast echocardiography with contrast agent injected intravenously. At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was assessed using the Langendorff technique with an isolated working heart model, after which heart samples were collected for histological evaluation. Results: Myocardial blood flow was significantly improved in HGF-treated animals as measured by myocardial contrast echocardiography at post-irradiation Day 120 . At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was significantly improved in the HGF group compared with mock vector group, as measured by left ventricular peak systolic pressure (58.80 +- 9.01 vs. 41.94 +- 6.65 mm Hg, p < 0.05), the maximum dP/dt (5634 +- 1303 vs. 1667 +- 304 mm Hg/s, p < 0.01), and the minimum dP/dt (3477 +- 1084 vs. 1566 +- 499 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Picrosirius red staining analysis also revealed a significant reduction of fibrosis in the HGF group. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer can attenuate radiation-induced cardiac injury and can preserve cardiac function.

  4. Inhibition of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by systemic and subconjunctival adenovirus-mediated transfer of the viral IL-10 gene

    PubMed Central

    De Kozak, Y; Thillaye-Goldenberg, B; Naud, M -C; Viana Da Costa, A; Auriault, C; Verwaerde, C

    2002-01-01

    Pathological ocular manifestations result from a dysregulation in the balance between proinflammatory type 1 cytokines and regulatory type 2 cytokines. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with potent immunosuppressive effects. We have examined the efficiency of viral IL-10 adenovirus (Ad-vIL-10)-mediated gene transfer on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) induced in mice and rats by purified retinal autoantigens, respectively, interphotoreceptor binding protein (IRBP) and S-antigen (S-Ag). B10-A mice that received a single unilateral injection of Ad-vIL-10 in the retro-orbital sinus venosus performed 1 day before immunization with IRBP in the footpads showed high levels of circulating vIL-10 in their sera and a significant reduction in pathological ocular manifestations. Lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were found in cellular supernatants from IRBP-stimulated splenic cells in these treated mice. The local effect on ocular disease of vIL-10 was neutralized completely by injection of a monoclonal anti-vIL-10 antibody, demonstrating the specificity of the treatment. To determine whether the transfer of the vIL-10 gene within the periocular tissues of the eye could prevent acute EAU, a subconjunctival injection of Ad-vIL-10 was performed in Lewis rats simultaneously with S-antigen in the footpads. This injection determined in situ vIL-10 expression with very low circulating vIL-10 and led to a significant reduction of EAU without affecting the systemic immune response. The present results suggest that Ad-mediated gene transfer resulting in systemic and local expression of vIL-10 provide a promising approach for the treatment of uveitis. PMID:12390308

  5. Limited but durable changes to cellular gene expression in a model of latent adenovirus infection are reflected in childhood leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ornelles, D A; Gooding, L R; Dickherber, M L; Policard, M; Garnett-Benson, C

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal lymphocytes support latent infections of species C adenoviruses. Because infected lymphocytes resist re-infection with adenovirus, we sought to identify changes in cellular gene expression that could inhibit the infectious process. The expression of over 30,000 genes was evaluated by microarray in persistently infected B-and T-lymphocytic cells. BBS9, BNIP3, BTG3, CXADR, SLFN11 and SPARCL1 were the only genes differentially expressed between mock and infected B cells. Most of these genes are associated with oncogenesis or cancer progression. Histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors released the repression of some of these genes. Cellular and viral gene expression was compared among leukemic cell lines following adenovirus infection. Childhood leukemic B-cell lines resist adenovirus infection and also show reduced expression of CXADR and SPARCL. Thus adenovirus induces limited changes to infected B-cell lines that are similar to changes observed in childhood leukemic cell lines. PMID:27085068

  6. Limited but durable changes to cellular gene expression in a model of latent adenovirus infection are reflected in childhood leukemic cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ornelles, D.A.; Gooding, L.R.; Dickherber, M.L.; Policard, M.; Garnett-Benson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal lymphocytes support latent infections of species C adenoviruses. Because infected lymphocytes resist re-infection with adenovirus, we sought to identify changes in cellular gene expression that could inhibit the infectious process. The expression of over 30,000 genes was evaluated by microarray in persistently infected B-and T-lymphocytic cells. BBS9, BNIP3, BTG3, CXADR, SLFN11 and SPARCL1 were the only genes differentially expressed between mock and infected B cells. Most of these genes are associated with oncogenesis or cancer progression. Histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors released the repression of some of these genes. Cellular and viral gene expression was compared among leukemic cell lines following adenovirus infection. Childhood leukemic B-cell lines resist adenovirus infection and also show reduced expression of CXADR and SPARCL. Thus adenovirus induces limited changes to infected B-cell lines that are similar to changes observed in childhood leukemic cell lines. PMID:27085068

  7. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  8. Methylation of PLCD1 and adenovirus-mediated PLCD1 overexpression elicits a gene therapy effect on human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Haixi; Wang, Na; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Shuman; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Ling; Luo, Xinrong; Qiu, Zhu; Li, Lili; Ren, Guosheng; Xu, Yongzhu; Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Tingxiu

    2015-03-15

    Our previous study showed that PLCD1 significantly decreases cell proliferation and affects cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate its functional and molecular mechanisms, and whether or not can become a new target for gene therapies. We found reduced PLCD1 protein expression in breast tumor tissues compared with paired surgical margin tissues. PLCD1 promoter CpG methylation was detected in 55 of 96 (57%) primary breast tumors, but not in surgical-margin tissues and normal breast tissues. Ectopic expression of PLCD1 inhibited breast tumor cell proliferation in vivo by inducing apoptosis and suppressed tumor cell migration by regulating cytoskeletal reorganization proteins including RhoA and phospho-cofilin. Furthermore, we found that PLCD1 induced p53 accumulation, increased p27 and p21 protein levels, and cleaved PARP. Finally, we constructed an adenoviral vector expressing PLCD1 (AdH5-PLCD1), which exhibited strong cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. Our findings provide insights into the development of PLCD1 gene therapies for breast cancer and perhaps, other human cancers. - Highlights: • PLCD1 is downregulated via hypermethylation in breast cancer. • PLCD1 suppressed cell migration by regulating cytoskeletal reorganization proteins. • Adenovirus AdHu5-PLCD1 may be a novel therapeutic option for breast cancer.

  9. Enhanced Prostate Cancer Gene Transfer and Therapy Using a Novel Serotype Chimera Cancer Terminator Virus (Ad.5/3-CTV)

    PubMed Central

    AZAB, BELAL M.; DASH, RUPESH; DAS, SWADESH K.; BHUTIA, SUJIT K.; SARKAR, SIDDIK; SHEN, XUE-NING; QUINN, BRIDGET A.; DENT, PAUL; DMITRIEV, IGOR P.; WANG, XIANG-YANG; CURIEL, DAVID T.; PELLECCHIA, MAURIZIO; REED, JOHN C.; SARKAR, DEVANAND; FISHER, PAUL B.

    2015-01-01

    Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:23868767

  10. Enhanced prostate cancer gene transfer and therapy using a novel serotype chimera cancer terminator virus (Ad.5/3-CTV).

    PubMed

    Azab, Belal M; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K; Bhutia, Sujit K; Sarkar, Siddik; Shen, Xue-Ning; Quinn, Bridget A; Dent, Paul; Dmitriev, Igor P; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Curiel, David T; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:23868767

  11. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...

  12. Adenovirus with p16 gene exerts antitumor effect on laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengang; Hu, Jingxia; Li, Dajun; Pan, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer is an uncommon form of cancer. The tumor suppressor P16, known to be mutated or deleted in various types of human tumor, including laryngeal carcinoma, is involved in the formation and development of laryngeal carcinoma. It has been previously reported that the inactivation or loss of P16 is associated with the acquisition of malignant characteristics. The current study hypothesized that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16‑null malignant Hep2 cells may exert an antitumor effect. A recombinant adenovirus carrying the P16 gene (Ad‑P16) was used to infect and express high levels of P16 protein in P16‑null Hep2 cells. Cell proliferation and invasion assays and polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effects of the P16 gene on cell proliferation and the antitumor effect on Hep2 cells. The results demonstrated that the Hep2 cells infected with Ad‑P16 exhibited significantly reduced cell proliferation, invasion and tumor volume compared with untreated or control adenovirus cells. Furthermore, the expression of laryngeal carcinoma‑associated genes, EGFR, survivin and cyclin D1, were measured in Ad‑P16‑infected cells and were significantly reduced compared with control groups. The results of the current study demonstrate that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16-null Hep2 cells exerts an antitumor effect. PMID:27277704

  13. [Two recombinant adenovirus vaccine candidates containing neuraminidase Gene of H5N1 influenza virus (A/Anhui/1/2005) elicited effective cell-mediated immunity in mice].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Chen, Hong; Li, Kui-Biao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Ke; Yang, Liang; Xu, Hong; Shu, Yue-Long; Tan, Wen-Jie; Zeng, Yi

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the recombinant adenovirus vaccine (rAdV) candidates containing neuraminidase (NA) gene of H5N1 influenza virus and test in BALB/c mice the effect of cell-mediated immunity. In this study, two kind of NA gene (WtNA gene, the wild type; Mod. NA gene, the codon-modified type) derived from H5N1 influenza virus (A/Anhui/1/2005) were cloned and inserted respectively into plasmid of adenovirus vector, then the rAdV vaccines candidates (rAdV-WtNA and rAdV-Mod. NA) were developed and purified, followed by immunization intramuscularly (10(9) TCID50 per dose, double injection at 0 and 4th week) in BALB/c mice, the effect of cell-mediated immunity were analysed at 5th week. Results indicated that: (i) NA protein expression was detected in two rAdV vaccines candidates by Western blotting; (ii) the rAdV-Mod. NA vaccine could elicit more robust NA specific cell-mediated immunity in mice than that of rAdV-WtNA vaccine (P = 0. 016) by IFN-gamma ELIspot assay. These findings suggested rAdV-Mod. NA vaccine was a potential vaccine candidate against H5N1 influenza and worthy of further investigation. PMID:19954107

  14. Construction and characterization of a recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Guoxian; Li, Chen; Liu, Danping

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and characterize a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The BMP2 gene in the plasmid pcDNA3-BMP2 was sequenced and the restriction enzyme recognition sites were analyzed. Following mutagenesis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the gene sequence after the translation termination codon was removed and new restriction sites were added. The mutated BMP2 gene (BMP2(+) gene) was cloned into an adenovirus shuttle vector to obtain pShuttle cytomegalovirus (CMV)-BMP2(+)-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-hrGFP-1. The adenovirus plasmid pAd CMV-BMP2(+)-IRES-hrGFP-1 was constructed by homologous recombination and was transfected into HEK293A cells, followed by adenovirus packaging. pAd CMV-BMP2 was used as the control. The two types of adenovirus were transfected into marrow stromal cells (MSCs). The expression of BMP2 and GFP, as well as the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of expressed BMP2 were detected. Following mutagenesis, the BMP2 gene sequence and recombinant adenovirus vector were as predicted. The novel adenovirus vector expressed both BMP2 and GFP, indicating that a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing BMP2 had been successfully constructed. PMID:24137184

  15. Targeted DNA recombination in vivo using an adenovirus carrying the cre recombinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Krushel, L A; Edelman, G M

    1996-01-01

    Conditional gene expression and gene deletion are important experimental approaches for examining the functions of particular gene products in development and disease. The cre-loxP system from bacteriophage P1 has been used in transgenic animals to induce site-specific DNA recombination leading to gene activation or deletion. To regulate the recombination in a spatiotemporally controlled manner, we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector, Adv/cre, that contained the cre recombinase gene under regulation of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. The efficacy and target specificity of this vector in mediating loxP-dependent recombination were analyzed in mice that had been genetically engineered to contain loxP sites in their genome. After intravenous injection of the Adv/cre vector into adult animals, the liver and spleen showed the highest infectivity of the adenovirus as well as the highest levels of recombination, whereas other tissues such as kidney, lung, and heart had lower levels of infection and recombination. Only trace levels of recombination were detected in the brain. However, when the Adv/cre vector was injected directly into specific regions of the adult brain, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, recombination was detectable at the injection site. Furthermore, when the Adv/cre vector was injected into the forebrains of neonatal mice, the rearranged toxP locus from recombination could be detected in the injected regions for at least 8 weeks. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Adv/cre vector expressing a functional cre protein is capable of mediating loxP-dependent recombination in various tissues and the recombined gene locus may in some cases be maintained for an extended period. The use of the adenovirus vector expressing cre combined with localized delivery to specific tissues may provide an efficient means to achieve conditional gene expression or knockout with precise spatiotemporal control

  16. Mapping a new gene that encodes an 11,600-molecular-weight protein in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed Central

    Wold, W S; Cladaras, C; Magie, S C; Yacoub, N

    1984-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the early E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2 (Ad2) (J. Hérissé et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:2173-2192, 1980), indicates that an open reading frame exists between nucleotides 1860 and 2163 that could encode a protein of Mr 11,600 (11.6K). We have determined the DNA sequence of the corresponding region in Ad5 (closely related to Ad2) and have established that this putative gene is conserved in Ad5 (a 10.5K protein). To determine whether this protein is expressed, we prepared an antiserum in rabbits against a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 66 to 74 in the 11.6K protein of Ad2. The peptide antiserum immunoprecipitated a ca. 13K-14K protein doublet, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, from [35S]methionine-labeled Ad2- or Ad5-early-infected KB cells. The antiserum also immunoprecipitated a 13K-14K protein doublet translated in vitro from Ad2 or Ad5 early E3-specific mRNA purified by hybridization to Ad2 EcoRI-D (nucleotides -236 to 2437). The synthetic peptide successfully competed with the 13K-14K protein doublet in immunoprecipitation experiments, thereby confirming the specificity of the antiserum. As deduced from the DNA sequence, the 11.6K protein (and the corresponding 10.5K Ad5 protein) has a conserved 22-amino-acid hydrophobic domain, suggesting that the protein may be associated with membranes. We conclude that a gene located at nucleotides 1860 to 2143 in the Ad2 E3 transcription unit (nucleotides 1924 to 2203) in the Ad5 E3 transcription unit) encodes an 11.6K protein (10.5K in Ad5). Images PMID:6492252

  17. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein complements adenovirus type 5 E1A amino-terminus-dependent transactivation of adenovirus type 5 early genes and increases ATF and Oct-1 DNA binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H K; Ziff, E B

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that conserved region 1 (CR1) of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1A protein synergizes with CR3 in the transactivation of Ad5 early genes (H.K. Wong and E. B. Ziff, J. Virol. 68:4910-4920, 1994). CR1 lies within the E1A amino terminus and binds host regulatory proteins such as the RB protein, p107, p130, and p300. Since simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 protein also bind host regulatory factors, we investigated whether these viral proteins can complement E1A mutants which are defective in early gene activation. We show that the HPV16 E7 protein but not SV40 T antigen can complement mutations in the Ad5 E1A CR1 in the transactivation of viral early promoters. The inability of SV40 T antigen to complement suggests that RB binding on its own is not sufficient for early promoter transactivation by the E1A amino terminus. Nuclear runoff assays show that complementation by HPV16 E7 restores the ability of the E1A mutants to stimulate early gene expression at the level of transcription. Furthermore, nuclear extracts from the E7-transformed cells show increased binding activity of ATF and Oct-1, factors that can recognize the elements of Ad5 early genes, consistent with gene activation by E1A and E7 at the transcriptional level. PMID:8523545

  18. Structure and chromosomal localization of the murine coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Wen; Ghosh, Ruma; Finberg, Robert W; Bergelson, Jeffrey M

    2003-04-01

    We analyzed BAC genomic clones encoding the murine coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (mCAR). The mCAR gene is situated on the distal portion of murine chromosome 16, and is composed of at least eight exons, with intron-exon boundaries similar to those reported for the human CAR gene. We previously described two cDNAs encoding mCAR isoforms: the extracellular and transmembrane portions of both are encoded by exons 1-6; the cytoplasmic domain of mCAR 1 is encoded by exon 7, whereas mCAR 2 results from an RNA splice linking the proximal portion of exon 7 to an alternative exon 8. RT-PCR analysis of the mCAR RNA 5'-terminus suggests that transcription may begin 141-161 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translational start site. PMID:12823902

  19. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) concentration.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Martins, Duarte L; Peixoto, Cristina; Roederstein, Susanne; Schleuss, Tobias; Alves, Paula M; Mota, José P B; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2014-01-01

    The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF) is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES), regenerated cellulose (RC), and highly cross-linked RC (xRC), (ii) nominal cut-off, and (iii) UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed. PMID:25546428

  20. Novel Adenovirus type 5 vaccine platform induces cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Nef despite the presence of Ad5 immunity.

    PubMed

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Yoshida, Lois H; Balint, Joseph; Amalfitano, Andrea; Jones, Frank R

    2009-10-30

    Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We previously reported the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (CMI) against HIV-1 Gag in Ad5 hyper immune mice. Here, the effectiveness of the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] vaccine platform was evaluated using a triad mixture of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef as antigenic transgenes. Broad CMI was induced following vaccination with the HIV-1 expressing vectors in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immunized mice. A mixture of the three vaccines induced CMI against each transgene product even in the presence of hyper Ad5 immunity. These studies revealed that CMI responses to immunization with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-gag, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-pol or Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-nef vectors were transgene specific and did not induce CMI responses against irrelevant antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) or influenza virus antigens. We are evaluating this recombinant triad viral vector as an HIV-1 vaccine in a non-human primate model and the data indicate that the vaccine is worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:19559110

  1. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the human Coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Bowles, K R; Gibson, J; Wu, J; Shaffer, L G; Towbin, J A; Bowles, N E

    1999-10-01

    Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are common causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Many studies have implicated the enteroviruses and, particularly, the Coxsackievirus-B family as etiologic agents of the acquired forms of these diseases. However, we have shown the group-C adenoviruses to be as commonly detected as enteroviruses in the myocardium of children and adults with these diseases. It has remained something of a conundrum why two such divergent virus families cause these diseases. The recent description of the common human Coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor (CAR) offers at least a partial explanation. In order to characterize the CAR gene, we screened a bacterial artificial chromosomal (BAC) library (RPCI11) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product derived from the 3' end of the CAR cDNA sequence. This identified 13 BACs that were further characterized by PCR amplification of seven contiguous regions of the entire cDNA sequence. Eleven of the BACs were determined to encode pseudogenes while the other two BACs (131J5 and 246M1) encoded the presumed functional gene. PCR amplification of a monochromosomal hybrid panel indicated the presence of pseudogenes on chromosomes 15, 18, and 21 while the functional gene is encoded on chromosome 21. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the gene is located at 21q11.2. DNA sequencing of BACs 131J5 and 246M1 revealed the presence of seven exons. The DNA sequences have been determined for each exon-intron boundary, and putative promoter sequences and transcription initiation sites identified. No consensus polyadenylation signal was identified. PMID:10543405

  2. Hepatic gene therapy: efficient gene delivery and expression in primary hepatocytes utilizing a conjugated adenovirus-DNA complex.

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, R J; Smith, L C; Kay, M A; Brinkley, B R; Woo, S L

    1993-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is an effective method for gene delivery into target cells. We have previously shown that DNA molecules complexed with asialoglycoprotein can be efficiently endocytosed by primary hepatocytes and the internalized DNA can be released from endosomes by the use of a replication-defective adenovirus. Because the DNA and virus enter target cells independently, activity enhancement requires high concentrations of adenoviral particles. In this study, adenoviral particles were chemically conjugated to poly(L-lysine) and bound ionically to DNA molecules. Quantitative delivery to primary hepatocytes was achieved with significantly reduced viral titer when the asialoorosomucoid-poly(L-lysine) conjugate was included in the complex. The conjugated adenovirus was used to deliver a DNA vector containing canine factor IX to mouse hepatocytes, resulting in the expression of significant concentrations of canine factor IX in the culture medium. The results suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis coupled with an efficient endosomal lysis vector should permit the application of targeted and efficient gene delivery into the liver for gene therapy of hepatic deficiencies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8265587

  3. Uteroplacental Adenovirus Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Therapy Increases Fetal Growth Velocity in Growth-Restricted Sheep Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jacqueline M.; Aitken, Raymond P.; Milne, John S.; Mehta, Vedanta; Martin, John F.; Zachary, Ian C.; Peebles, Donald M.; David, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs in ∼8% of pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. There is no effective treatment. FGR is characterized by reduced uterine blood flow (UBF). In normal sheep pregnancies, local uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad)-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases UBF. Herein we evaluated Ad.VEGF therapy in the overnourished adolescent ewe, an experimental paradigm in which reduced UBF from midgestation correlates with reduced lamb birthweight near term. Singleton pregnancies were established using embryo transfer in adolescent ewes subsequently offered a high intake (n=45) or control intake (n=12) of a complete diet to generate FGR or normal fetoplacental growth, respectively. High-intake ewes were randomized midgestation to receive bilateral UtA injections of 5×1011 particles Ad.VEGF-A165 (n=18), control vector Ad.LacZ (n=14), or control saline (n=13). Fetal growth/well-being were evaluated using serial ultrasound. UBF was monitored using indwelling flowprobes until necropsy at 0.9 gestation. Vasorelaxation, neovascularization within the perivascular adventitia, and placental mRNA expression of angiogenic factors/receptors were examined using organ bath analysis, anti-vWF immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR, respectively. Ad.VEGF significantly increased ultrasonographic fetal growth velocity at 3–4 weeks postinjection (p=0.016–0.047). At 0.9 gestation fewer fetuses were markedly growth-restricted (birthweight >2SD below contemporaneous control-intake mean) after Ad.VEGF therapy. There was also evidence of mitigated fetal brain sparing (lower biparietal diameter-to-abdominal circumference and brain-to-liver weight ratios). No effects were observed on UBF or neovascularization; however, Ad.VEGF-transduced vessels demonstrated strikingly enhanced vasorelaxation. Placental efficiency (fetal-to-placental weight ratio) and FLT1/KDR mRNA expression were

  4. Factors Influencing Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Transfer to Human Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells: Comparison with Adenovirus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, S.; Bartlett, J. S.; McCarty, D.; Xiao, X.; Samulski, R. J.; Boucher, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors appear promising for use in gene therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet many features of AAV-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelial cells are not well understood. We compared the transduction efficiencies of AAV vectors and adenovirus (Ad) vectors in immortalized cell lines from CF patients and in nasal epithelial primary cultures from normal humans and CF patients. Similar dose-dependent relationships between the vector multiplicities of infection and the efficiencies of lacZ gene transfer were observed. However, levels of transduction for both Ad and recombinant AAV (rAAV) were significantly lower in the airway epithelial cell than in the control cell lines HeLa and HEK 293. Transduction efficiencies differed among cultured epithelial cell types, with poorly differentiated cells transducing more efficiently than well-differentiated cells. A time-dependent increase in gene expression was observed after infection for both vectors. For Ad, but not for AAV, this increase was dependent on prolonged incubation of cells with the vector. Furthermore, for rAAV (but not for rAd), the delay in maximal transduction could be abrogated by wild-type Ad helper infection. Thus, although helper virus is not required for maximal transduction, it increases the kinetics by which this is achieved. Expression of Ad E4 open reading frame 6 or addition of either hydroxyurea or camptothecin resulted in increased AAV transduction, as previously demonstrated for nonairway cells (albeit to lower final levels), suggesting that second-strand synthesis may not be the sole cause of inefficient transduction. Finally, the efficiency of AAV-mediated ex vivo gene transfer to lung cells was similar to that previously described for Ad vectors in that transduction was limited to regions of epithelial injury and preferentially targeted basal-like cells. These studies address the primary factors influencing rAAV infection of human airway cells and should

  5. Factors influencing adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to human cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells: comparison with adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, S; Bartlett, J S; McCarty, D; Xiao, X; Samulski, R J; Boucher, R C

    1998-11-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors appear promising for use in gene therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet many features of AAV-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelial cells are not well understood. We compared the transduction efficiencies of AAV vectors and adenovirus (Ad) vectors in immortalized cell lines from CF patients and in nasal epithelial primary cultures from normal humans and CF patients. Similar dose-dependent relationships between the vector multiplicities of infection and the efficiencies of lacZ gene transfer were observed. However, levels of transduction for both Ad and recombinant AAV (rAAV) were significantly lower in the airway epithelial cell than in the control cell lines HeLa and HEK 293. Transduction efficiencies differed among cultured epithelial cell types, with poorly differentiated cells transducing more efficiently than well-differentiated cells. A time-dependent increase in gene expression was observed after infection for both vectors. For Ad, but not for AAV, this increase was dependent on prolonged incubation of cells with the vector. Furthermore, for rAAV (but not for rAd), the delay in maximal transduction could be abrogated by wild-type Ad helper infection. Thus, although helper virus is not required for maximal transduction, it increases the kinetics by which this is achieved. Expression of Ad E4 open reading frame 6 or addition of either hydroxyurea or camptothecin resulted in increased AAV transduction, as previously demonstrated for nonairway cells (albeit to lower final levels), suggesting that second-strand synthesis may not be the sole cause of inefficient transduction. Finally, the efficiency of AAV-mediated ex vivo gene transfer to lung cells was similar to that previously described for Ad vectors in that transduction was limited to regions of epithelial injury and preferentially targeted basal-like cells. These studies address the primary factors influencing rAAV infection of human airway cells and should

  6. Physical organization of subgroup B human adenovirus genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, C

    1977-01-01

    Cleavage sites of nine bacterial restriction endonucleases were mapped in the DNA of adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) and Ad7, representative serotypes of the "weakly oncogenic" subgroup B human adenoviruses. Of 94 sites mapped, 82 were common to both serotypes, in accord with the high overall sequence homology of DNA among members of the same subgroups. Of the sites in Ad3 and Ad7 DNA, fewer than 20% corresponded to mapped restriction sites in the DNA of Ad2 or Ad5. The latter serotypes represent the "nononcogenic" subgroup C, having only 10 to 20% overall sequence homology with the DNA of subgroup B adenoviruses. Hybridization mapping of viral mRNA from Ad7-infected cells resulted in a complex physical map that was nearly identical to the map of early and late gene clusters in Ad2 DNA. Thus the DNA sequences of human adenoviruses of subgroups B and C have significantly diverged in the course of viral evolution, but the complex organization of the adenovirus genome has been rigidly conserved. Images PMID:916027

  7. Unique conditionally replication competent bipartite adenoviruses-cancer terminator viruses (CTV): efficacious reagents for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-Zhong; Fisher, Paul B

    2006-07-01

    The frequent resistance of aggressive cancers to currently available therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, mandates development of targeted, nontoxic and more efficacious treatment protocols. Conditionally replication competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) that induce oncolysis by cancer-specific replication are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, a single modality approach may not be sufficient to completely eradicate cancer in a patient, because most cancers arise from abnormalities in multiple genetic and signal transduction pathways. The promoter region of rodent progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), cloned and characterized in our laboratory, embodies the unique property of increased activity in a broad range of tumor cells, both rodent and human, when compared to normal counterparts. Bipartite adenoviruses were engineered to express the E1A gene, necessary for viral replication, under control of the PEG-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) and simultaneously express a second transgene in the E3 region that encodes an apoptosis-inducing and immunomodulatory cytokine, either immune interferon (IFN-gamma) or melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24). These conditionally replication competent bipartite adenoviruses, referred to as cancer terminator viruses (CTVs), facilitated cancer-selective adenovirus replication, robust transgene expression and apoptosis induction with complete eradication of both primary and distant (metastatic) human cancers xenotransplanted in athymic nude mice. These findings suggest that CTVs might prove efficacious for the therapy of primary and advanced neoplastic diseases. PMID:16861924

  8. Intensive Pharmacological Immunosuppression Allows for Repetitive Liver Gene Transfer With Recombinant Adenovirus in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Fontanellas, Antonio; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Mauleón, Itsaso; Dubrot, Juan; Mancheño, Uxua; Collantes, María; Sampedro, Ana; Unzu, Carmen; Alfaro, Carlos; Palazón, Asis; Smerdou, Cristian; Benito, Alberto; Prieto, Jesús; Peñuelas, Iván; Melero, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Repeated administration of gene therapies is hampered by host immunity toward vectors and transgenes. Attempts to circumvent antivector immunity include pharmacological immunosuppression or alternating different vectors and vector serotypes with the same transgene. Our studies show that B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and concomitant T-cell inhibition with clinically available drugs permits repeated liver gene transfer to a limited number of nonhuman primates with recombinant adenovirus. Adenoviral vector–mediated transfer of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene was visualized in vivo with a semiquantitative transgene-specific positron emission tomography (PET) technique, liver immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot for the reporter transgene in needle biopsies. Neutralizing antibody and T cell–mediated responses toward the viral capsids were sequentially monitored and found to be repressed by the drug combinations tested. Repeated liver transfer of the HSV1-tk reporter gene with the same recombinant adenoviral vector was achieved in macaques undergoing a clinically feasible immunosuppressive treatment that ablated humoral and cellular immune responses. This strategy allows measurable gene retransfer to the liver as late as 15 months following the first adenoviral exposure in a macaque, which has undergone a total of four treatments with the same adenoviral vector. PMID:20087317

  9. Phase I trial of recombinant adenovirus gene transfer in lung cancer. Longitudinal study of the immune responses to transgene and viral products.

    PubMed Central

    Gahéry-Ségard, H; Molinier-Frenkel, V; Le Boulaire, C; Saulnier, P; Opolon, P; Lengagne, R; Gautier, E; Le Cesne, A; Zitvogel, L; Venet, A; Schatz, C; Courtney, M; Le Chevalier, T; Tursz, T; Guillet, J G; Farace, F

    1997-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that the use of replication-deficient adenovirus for human gene therapy is limited by host antivector immune responses that result in transient recombinant protein expression and blocking of gene transfer when rechallenged. Therefore, we have examined immune responses to an adenoviral vector and to the beta-galactosidase protein in four patients with lung cancer given a single intratumor injection of 10(9) plaque-forming units of recombinant adenovirus. The beta-galactosidase protein was expressed in day-8 tumor biopsies from all patients at variable levels. Recombinant virus DNA was detected by PCR in day-30 and day-60 tumor biopsies from all patients except patient 1. A high level of neutralizing antiadenovirus antibodies was detected in patient 1 before Ad-beta-gal injection whereas it was low (patient 3) or undetectable in the other two patients. All patients developed potent CD4 type 1 helper T cell (Th1) responses to adenoviral particles which increased gradually over time after injection. Antiadenovirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were consistently boosted in the two patients examined (patients 3 and 4). Sustained production of anti-beta-galactosidase IgG was observed in all patients except patient 1. Consistent with anti-beta-gal antibody production, all patients except patient 1 developed intense, dose-dependent Th1 responses to soluble beta-galactosidase which increased over time. Strong beta-galactosidase-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were detected in patients 2, 3, and 4. Our results clearly show that despite the intensity of antiadenovirus responses, transgene protein expression was sufficient to induce strong and prolonged immunity in three patients. Recombinant adenovirus injected directly into the tumor is a highly efficient vector for immunizing patients against the transgene protein. PMID:9410899

  10. Time-dependent biodistribution and transgene expression of a recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5-luciferase vector as a surrogate agent for rAd5-FMDV vaccines in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5) vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) transgenes elicit a robust immune response to FMDV challenge in cattle; however vaccine function mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent efforts addressing critical interactions of rAd5 ...

  11. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin-12 gene therapy for metastatic colon carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, M; Pham-Nguyen, K; Kwong, Y L; Xu, B; Kosai, K I; Finegold, M; Woo, S L; Chen, S H

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral mediated delivery of suicide and cytokine genes has been investigated as a treatment for hepatic metastases of colon carcinoma in mice. Liver tumors were established by intrahepatic implantation of a poorly immunogenic colon carcinoma cell line (MCA-26), which is syngeneic in BALB/c mice. Intratumoral transfer of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and the murine interleukin (mIL)-2 genes resulted in substantial hepatic tumor regression, induced an effective systemic antitumoral immunity in the host and prolonged the median survival time of the treated animals from 22 to 35 days. The antitumoral immunity declined gradually, which led to tumor recurrence over time. A recombinant adenovirus expressing the mIL-12 gene was constructed and tested in the MCA-26 tumor model. Intratumoral administration of this cytokine vector alone increased significantly survival time of the animals with 25% of the treated animals still living over 70 days. These data indicate that local expression of IL-12 may also be an attractive treatment strategy for metastatic colon carcinoma. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8876130

  12. Interaction of Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf4 with the Nuclear Pore Subunit Nup205 Is Required for Proper Viral Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, YiQing; Kucharski, Thomas J.; Gamache, Isabelle; Blanchette, Paola; Branton, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus type 5 E4orf4 is a multifunctional protein that regulates viral gene expression. The activities of E4orf4 are mainly mediated through binding to protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). E4orf4 recruits target phosphoproteins into complexes with PP2A, resulting in dephosphorylation of host factors, such as SR splicing factors. In the current study, we utilized immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry to identify novel E4orf4-interacting proteins. In this manner we identified Nup205, a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as an E4orf4 interacting partner. The arginine-rich motif (ARM) of E4orf4 was required for interaction with Nup205 and for nuclear localization of E4orf4. ARMs are commonly found on viral nuclear proteins, and we observed that Nup205 interacts with three different nuclear viral proteins containing ARMs. E4orf4 formed a trimolecular complex containing both Nup205 and PP2A. Furthermore, Nup205 complexed with E4orf4 was hypophosphorylated, suggesting that the protein is specifically targeted for dephosphorylation. An adenovirus mutant that does not express E4orf4 (Orf4−) displayed elevated early and reduced late gene expression relative to that of the wild type. We observed that knockdown of Nup205 resulted in the same phenotype as that of the Orf4− virus, suggesting that the proteins function as a complex to regulate viral gene expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nup205 resulted in a more than a 4-fold reduction in the replication of wild-type adenovirus. Our data show for first time that Ad5 E4orf4 interacts with and modifies the NPC and that Nup205-E4orf4 binding is required for normal regulation of viral gene expression and viral replication. IMPORTANCE Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are highly regulated conduits in the nuclear membrane that control transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Viruses that replicate in the nucleus must negotiate the NPC during nuclear entry, and viral DNA, mRNA, and

  13. [The construction of recombinant adenovirus expressing bifunctional fusion protein sCAR-EGF and the detection of its activity].

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng-Kang; Wang, Feng; Li, Hui-Ming; Li, Zong-Hai; Huang, Qian

    2006-09-01

    To improve the targeting of adenovirus vector for gene therapy, a fusion gene sCAR-EGF, in which epidermal growth factor gene was fused to the 3' end of extracellular Coxsackie virus-adenovirus receptor gene, was constructed and cloned into shuttle plasmid pDC315 to obtain a recombinant plasmid pDC315-sCAR-EGF. With the AdMax system, AD-293 cells were co-transfected with pDC315-sCAR-EGF and adenovirus genomic plasmid pBHGloxdeltaE13cre. Through high efficiency site specific recombination, a replication-defective adenovirus Ad5-CMV-sCAR-EGF was constructed. The recombinant adenovirus was analyzed by PCR and Western blotting, the results indicated that Ad5-CMV-sCAR-EGF contained the fusion gene sCAR-EGF, and the adenovirus infected cells was induced to produce and secrete the fusion protein into the supernatant. We have demonstrated that the fusion protein sCAR-EGF is helpful for elevating the infection efficiency of Ad5-CMV-luc with the reporter gene in vitro, which providing a new approach to the gene therapy for tumors overexpressing EGFR. PMID:17037191

  14. A Novel Vaccine Approach for Chagas Disease Using Rare Adenovirus Serotype 48 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Anitra L.; Peng, Binghao J.; Gu, Linlin; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of people afflicted worldwide with Chagas disease and an increasing prevalence in the United States, there is a greater need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for this neglected disease. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most common adenovirus vector used for gene therapy and vaccine approaches, but its efficacy is limited by preexisting vector immunity in humans resulting from natural infections. Therefore, we have employed rare serotype adenovirus 48 (Ad48) as an alternative choice for adenovirus/Chagas vaccine therapy. In this study, we modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to contain T. cruzi’s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) in the adenoviral early gene. We also modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to utilize the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy by adding T. cruzi epitopes to protein IX (pIX). Mice that were immunized with the modified vectors were able to elicit T. cruzi-specific humoral and cellular responses. This study indicates that Ad48-modified vectors function comparable to or even premium to Ad5-modified vectors. This study provides novel data demonstrating that Ad48 can be used as a potential adenovirus vaccine vector against Chagas disease. PMID:26978385

  15. A Novel Vaccine Approach for Chagas Disease Using Rare Adenovirus Serotype 48 Vectors.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Anitra L; Peng, Binghao J; Gu, Linlin; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Matthews, Qiana L

    2016-03-01

    Due to the increasing amount of people afflicted worldwide with Chagas disease and an increasing prevalence in the United States, there is a greater need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for this neglected disease. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most common adenovirus vector used for gene therapy and vaccine approaches, but its efficacy is limited by preexisting vector immunity in humans resulting from natural infections. Therefore, we have employed rare serotype adenovirus 48 (Ad48) as an alternative choice for adenovirus/Chagas vaccine therapy. In this study, we modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to contain T. cruzi's amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) in the adenoviral early gene. We also modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to utilize the "Antigen Capsid-Incorporation" strategy by adding T. cruzi epitopes to protein IX (pIX). Mice that were immunized with the modified vectors were able to elicit T. cruzi-specific humoral and cellular responses. This study indicates that Ad48-modified vectors function comparable to or even premium to Ad5-modified vectors. This study provides novel data demonstrating that Ad48 can be used as a potential adenovirus vaccine vector against Chagas disease. PMID:26978385

  16. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...

  17. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  18. Nucleic acid hybridization for detection of cell culture-amplified adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C; Deibel, R

    1988-01-01

    A number of recombinant plasmids containing genomic segments of adenovirus were constructed. Seven cloned probes, as well as total adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad16 genomic DNA, were tested by a nucleic acid hybridization technique for sensitivity and specificity in detecting adenoviruses in infected cells. Adenovirus DNA was spotted onto a nitrocellulose filter and hybridized with 32P-labeled DNA probes. The probes, total Ad2 genomic DNA, and plasmid pAd2-H (containing the hexon gene from Ad2 DNA) all detected 10 reference serotypes of five genomic subgroups (A through E) with similar sensitivities. However, plasmid pAd2-H required less preparation time than did total Ad2 DNA. Probes pAd2-F (containing the fiber gene from Ad2) and pAd16-BD (containing the BamHI D fragment from Ad16) hybridized only with reference serotypes from the homologous subgroups (C and B, respectively). Of 101 patient isolates amplified in cells, pAd2-H detected 100% of all isolates from both the homologous and the heterologous subgroups. The detection rates for pAd2-F were 100% (subgroup C) and 3.6% (subgroups A, B, and D), and those for pAd16-BD were 100% (subgroup B) and 9.4% (subgroups A, C, and D). A commercial biotinylated product (Pathogene II) was also included in this study for comparison. Images PMID:3230138

  19. Vault nanoparticles containing an adenovirus-derived membrane lytic protein facilitate toxin and gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheng-Yu; Wiethoff, Chris M; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Nemerow, Glen R

    2009-03-24

    Nonviral methods of gene delivery possess several advantages over that of viral-based vectors, including having increased safety. However, the ability to achieve effective transport of therapeutic molecules across host cell membranes via nonviral methods remains a significant goal. Cell-derived nanoparticles known as vaults have been proposed as novel candidate transfer vehicles for various foreign molecules. Recombinant vault particles enter cells via macropinocytosis or phagocytosis but lack demonstrable membrane penetrating activity. To explore the feasibility of improving vault penetration into target cells, we incorporated the membrane lytic domain of adenovirus protein VI (pVI) into the interior of recombinant vault particles via fusion to the vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) interaction domain. The membrane lytic activity of the pVI domain was retained upon incorporation into vault particles. Moreover, internalization of vault-pVI complexes into murine macrophages promoted co-delivery of a soluble ribotoxin or a cDNA plasmid encoding GFP. These findings indicate that vault particles can be modified to enhance cell transfer of selected biomolecules. PMID:19226129

  20. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4: A novel approach to marking circulating prostate tumor cells with a replication competent adenovirus controlled by PSA/PSMA transcription regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Eun; Joung, Jae Young; Shin, Seung-Phil; Choi, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Yon Hui; Park, Weon Seo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells serve as useful biomarkers with which to identify disease status associated with survival, metastasis and drug sensitivity. Here, we established a novel application for detecting PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells circulating in peripheral blood employing an adenovirus called Ad5/35E1aPSESE4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 utilized PSES, a chimeric enhancer derived from PSA/PSMA promoters that is highly active with and without androgen. A fluorescence signal mediated by GFP expression upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection was selectively amplified in PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, for the in vivo model, blood drawn from TRAMP was tested for CTCs with Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection and was positive for CTCs at week 16. Validation was performed on patient blood at various clinical stages and found out 1-100 CTCs expressing GFP upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection. Interestingly, CTC from one patient was confirmed to be sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapeutic reagent and to abundantly express metastasis-related genes like MMP9, Cofilin1, and FCER1G through RNA-seq. Our study established that the usage of Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 is effective in marking PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in patient blood to improve the efficacy of utilizing CTCs as a biomarker. PMID:26723876

  1. [Transcatheter delivery of recombinant adenovirus vector containing exogenous aquaporin gene in treatment of Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hong, H E; Jieqiong, Zhang; Yan, Fan; Xiaoshuang, Sun; Yuhao, Zhu

    2016-05-25

    Sjögren's syndrome is a kind of autoimmune disease, whose main clinical symptoms are dry mouth, dry eye and chronic parotid glandular inflammation. The conservative treatments include artificial tears or saliva,oral administration of corticosteroids,and immunosuppressantsl with limited effectiveness. Along with the development of molecular biology, vast attentions are being paid to researches on gene therapy for Sjögren's syndrome, hopefully to bring gospel to patients with Sjögren's syndrome. This article reviews the recent research progresses on transcatheter delivery of recombinant adenovirus vector with aquaporin gene in experimental treatment of Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:27045247

  2. Apical localization of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol modification is sufficient for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer through the apical surface of human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Walters, R W; van't Hof, W; Yi, S M; Schroth, M K; Zabner, J; Crystal, R G; Welsh, M J

    2001-08-01

    In well-differentiated human airway epithelia, the coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR) resides primarily on the basolateral membrane. This location may explain the observation that gene transfer is inefficient when adenovirus vectors are applied to the apical surface. To further test this hypothesis and to investigate requirements and barriers to apical gene transfer to differentiated human airway epithelia, we expressed CAR in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail were replaced by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (GPI-CAR). As controls, we expressed wild-type CAR and CAR lacking the cytoplasmic domain (Tailless-CAR). All three constructs enhanced gene transfer with similar efficiencies in fibroblasts. In airway epithelia, GPI-CAR localized specifically to the apical membrane, where it bound adenovirus and enhanced gene transfer to levels obtained when vector was applied to the basolateral membrane. Moreover, GPI-CAR facilitated gene transfer of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to cystic fibrosis airway epithelia, correcting the Cl(-) transport defect. In contrast, when we expressed wild-type CAR it localized to the basolateral membrane and failed to increase apical gene transfer. Only a small amount of Tailless-CAR resided in the apical membrane, and the effects on apical virus binding and gene transfer were minimal. These data indicate that binding of adenovirus to an apical membrane receptor is sufficient to mediate effective gene transfer to human airway epithelia and that the cytoplasmic domain of CAR is not required for this process. The results suggest that targeting apical receptors in differentiated airway epithelia may be sufficient for gene transfer in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. PMID:11462042

  3. Apical Localization of the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor by Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol Modification Is Sufficient for Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer through the Apical Surface of Human Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert W.; van't Hof, Wouter; Yi, Su Min P.; Schroth, Mary K.; Zabner, Joseph; Crystal, Ronald G.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    In well-differentiated human airway epithelia, the coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR) resides primarily on the basolateral membrane. This location may explain the observation that gene transfer is inefficient when adenovirus vectors are applied to the apical surface. To further test this hypothesis and to investigate requirements and barriers to apical gene transfer to differentiated human airway epithelia, we expressed CAR in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail were replaced by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (GPI-CAR). As controls, we expressed wild-type CAR and CAR lacking the cytoplasmic domain (Tailless-CAR). All three constructs enhanced gene transfer with similar efficiencies in fibroblasts. In airway epithelia, GPI-CAR localized specifically to the apical membrane, where it bound adenovirus and enhanced gene transfer to levels obtained when vector was applied to the basolateral membrane. Moreover, GPI-CAR facilitated gene transfer of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to cystic fibrosis airway epithelia, correcting the Cl− transport defect. In contrast, when we expressed wild-type CAR it localized to the basolateral membrane and failed to increase apical gene transfer. Only a small amount of Tailless-CAR resided in the apical membrane, and the effects on apical virus binding and gene transfer were minimal. These data indicate that binding of adenovirus to an apical membrane receptor is sufficient to mediate effective gene transfer to human airway epithelia and that the cytoplasmic domain of CAR is not required for this process. The results suggest that targeting apical receptors in differentiated airway epithelia may be sufficient for gene transfer in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. PMID:11462042

  4. The role of immunosuppression in the efficacy of cancer gene therapy using adenovirus transfer of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Elshami, A A; Kucharczuk, J C; Sterman, D H; Smythe, W R; Hwang, H C; Amin, K M; Litzky, L A; Albelda, S M; Kaiser, L R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the immune system limits or improves the therapeutic efficacy of an adenovirus vector expressing the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene in a subcutaneous tumor model. BACKGROUND DATA: Enhanced immune reactions against tumors may be therapeutically useful. However, recent studies with adenoviral vectors show that immune responses limit the efficacy and persistence of gene expression. The effect of the immune response on cancer gene therapy with HSVtk gene delivery by an adenovirus vector followed by treatment with ganciclovir is unclear. METHODS: After adenoviral transduction of a Fischer rat syngeneic mesothelioma cell line with the HSVtk gene in vitro, subcutaneous flank tumors were established. The ability of the HSVtk/ganciclovir system to inhibit tumor growth was compared among normal Fischer rats, immunodeficient nude rats, and Fischer rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporin. RESULTS: HSVtk/ganciclovir therapy was more effective in nude rats and immunosuppressed Fischer rats than in immunocompetent Fischer rats. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the immune response against adenovirally transduced cells limits the efficacy of the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and that immunosuppression appears to be a useful adjunct. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using currently available adenovirus vectors as well as for future vector design. PMID:7677460

  5. Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene therapy using helper-dependent adenovirus produces long-term protection against atherosclerosis in a mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Nomura, S; Merched, A; Nour, E; Dieker, C; Oka, K; Chan, L

    2004-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) therapy using helper-dependent adenovirus (HD-Ad), comparing it with that of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), an LDLR homolog. We treated high cholesterol diet fed LDLR-/- mice with a single intravenous injection of HD-Ad expressing monkey LDLR (1.5 x 10(13) or 5 x 10(12) VP/kg) or VLDLR. Throughout the 24-week experiment, plasma cholesterol of LDLR-treated mice was lower than that of VLDLR-treated mice, which was in turn lower than that of PBS-treated mice. Anti-LDLR antibodies developed in 2/10 mice treated with high-dose HD-Ad-LDLR but in none (0/14) of the other treatment groups. HD-Ad-treated mice displayed significant retardation of atherosclerotic lesion progression. We next tested the long-term efficacy of low-dose HD-Ad-LDLR injected into 12-week-old LDLR-/- mice. After 60 weeks, atherosclerosis lesions covered approximately 50% of the surface of aortas of control mice, whereas aortas of treated mice were essentially lesion-free. The lipid lowering effect of HD-Ad-LDLR lasted at least 108 weeks (>2 years) when all control mice had died. In addition to retarding lesion progression, treatment caused lesion remodeling from a vulnerable-looking to a more stable-appearing phenotype. In conclusion, HD-Ad-mediated LDLR gene therapy is effective in conferring long-term protection against atherosclerosis in a mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:15269711

  6. Accumulation of infectious mutants in stocks during the propagation of fiber-modified recombinant adenoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Ugai, Hideyo; Inabe, Kumiko; Yamasaki, Takahito; Murata, Takehide; Obata, Yuichi; Hamada, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K. . E-mail: kazu@brc.riken.jp

    2005-11-25

    In infected cells, replication errors during viral proliferation generate mutations in adenoviruses (Ads), and the mutant Ads proliferate and evolve in the intracellular environment. Genetically fiber-modified recombinant Ads (rAd variants) were generated, by modification of the fiber gene, for therapeutic applications in host cells that lack or express reduced levels of the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. To assess the genetic modifications of rAd variants that might induce the instability of Ad virions, we examined the frequencies of mutants that accumulated in propagated stocks. Seven of 41 lines of Ad variants generated mutants in the stocks and all mutants were infectious. Moreover, all the mutations occurred in the modified region that had been added at the 3' end of the fiber gene. Our results show that some genetic modifications at the carboxyl terminus of Ad fiber protein lead to the instability of Ad virions.

  7. Cellular and humoral immune responses to viral antigens create barriers to lung-directed gene therapy with recombinant adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Li, Q; Ertl, H C; Wilson, J M

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses are an attractive vehicle for gene therapy to the lung in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). First-generation viruses deleted of E1a and E1b transduce genes into airway epithelial cells in vivo; however, expression of the transgene is transient and associated with substantial inflammatory responses, and gene transfer is significantly reduced following a second administration of the virus. In this study, we have used mice deficient in immunological effector functions in combination with adoptive and passive transfer techniques to define antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses that underlie these important limitations. Our studies indicate that major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes are activated in response to newly synthesized antigens, leading to destruction of virus infected cells and loss of transgene expression. Major histocompatibility complex class II-associated presentation of exogenous viral antigens activates CD4+ T-helper (TH) cells of the TH1 subset and, to a lesser extent, of the TH2 subset. CD4+ cell-mediated responses are insufficient in the absence of cytotoxic T cells to completely eliminate transgene containing cells; however, they contribute to the formation of neutralizing antibodies in the airway which block subsequent adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Definition of immunological barriers to gene therapy of cystic fibrosis should facilitate the design of rational strategies to overcome them. PMID:7884845

  8. The Effect of Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Expression of FHIT in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Roza; Xu, Kai; Poulsen, Hans S.; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The candidate tumor suppressor fragile histidine traid (FHIT) is frequently inactivated in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Mutations in the p53 gene also occur in the majority of SCLC leading to the accumulation of the mutant protein. Here we evaluated the effect of FHIT gene therapy alone or in combination with the mutant p53-reactivating molecule, PRIMA-1Met/APR-246, in SCLC. Overexpression of FHIT by recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-FHIT)-mediated gene transfer in SCLC cells inhibited their growth by inducing apoptosis and when combined with PRIMA-1Met/APR-246, a synergistic cell growth inhibition was achieved. PMID:22085272

  9. Reactivation of a methylation-silenced gene in adenovirus-transformed cells by 5-azacytidine or by E1A trans activation.

    PubMed Central

    Knust, B; Brüggemann, U; Doerfler, W

    1989-01-01

    In the adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-transformed hamster cell line HE3, the integrated late E2A promoter of Ad2 DNA is inactive, is methylated at all three 5'-CCGG-3' sequences, and can be reactivated by growing the cells in the presence of 50 microM 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The three 5'-CCGG-3' sequences then become demethylated. Demethylation and reactivation are stable over 30 passages even after the removal of 5-azaC. The dormant late E2A promoter in cell line HE3 can also be reactivated by transfecting the cells with recombinant plasmids that carry the left terminal E1A and part of the E1B region of Ad2 DNA or the E1A 13S cDNA, but not with plasmids containing the E1A 12S cDNA. The E1A 13S cDNA encodes the 289-amino-acid trans-activating protein of Ad2. The E1A-mediated reactivation of the late E2A promoter is not accompanied by its demethylation in both DNA complements. Cell line HE3 produces constitutively E1A-encoded mRNAs and reactivates the methylated late E2A promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene construct after transfection into HE3 cells. Constitutive levels of the endogenous E1A gene products in HE3 cells are detectable but, paradoxically, appear insufficient to reactivate the endogenous, chromosomally integrated E2A gene. Images PMID:2473219

  10. Possible role of the 72,000 dalton DNA-binding protein in regulation of adenovirus type 5 early gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, T H; Blanton, R A

    1978-01-01

    Relative abundances of early virus RNA species in the cytoplasm of cells infected with wild-type adenovirus type 5 (WT Ad5) and a temperature-sensitive "early" mutant, H5ts125 (ts125), were compared by hybridization kinetics using separated strands of HindIII restriction endonuclease fragments of Ad5 DNA. 1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) was used to limit transcription to early virus genes in cells infected by WT virus. At 40.5 degrees C, a restrictive temperature for ts125, three to seven times as much virus RNA from all four early regions of the genome accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells infected by the mutant as accumulated in cells infected by WT. At 32 degrees C, no such difference in the relative abundances of cytoplasmic virus RNA was observed. The capacity to synthesize a 72,000-dalton (72K) virus polypeptide, presumably the single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is defective in ts125 at restrictive temperatures, was compared in cells infected at 40.5 degrees C in the presence of ara-C with the mutant or WT Ad5. The rate of 72K polypeptide synthesis, measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptides and autoradiography, was greater at 15 h after infection in ts125-infected cells than in cells infected by WT. A time course experiment showed that the rate of synthesis of the 72K polypeptide increased continuously in ts125-infected cells during the first 15 h of infection, relative to the rate in WT-infected cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ad5 early gene expression is modulated by the product of an early gene, the 72K DNA-binding protein. Images PMID:203722

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of 100K gene of fowl adenovirus-4 for prevention and control of hydropericardium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, M S; Ashraf, A; Khan, M I; Rahman, M; Habib, M; Qureshi, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fowl adenovirus-4 is an infectious agent causing Hydropericardium syndrome in chickens. Adenovirus are non-enveloped virions having linear, double stranded DNA. Viral genome codes for few structural and non structural proteins. 100K is an important non-structural viral protein. Open reading frame for coding sequence of 100K protein was cloned with oligo histidine tag and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein. Nucleotide sequence of the gene revealed that 100K gene of FAdV-4 has high homology (98%) with the respective gene of FAdV-10. Recombinant 100K protein was expressed in E. coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Immunization of chickens with recombinant 100K protein elicited significant serum antibody titers. However challenge protection test revealed that 100K protein conferred little protection (40%) to the immunized chicken against pathogenic viral challenge. So it was concluded that 100K gene has 2397 bp length and recombinant 100K protein has molecular weight of 95 kDa. It was also found that the recombinant protein has little capacity to affect the immune response because in-spite of having an important role in intracellular transport & folding of viral capsid proteins during viral replication, it is not exposed on the surface of the virus at any stage. PMID:26558992

  12. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Human Adenoviruses and Identification of Serotypes 40 and 41

    PubMed Central

    Jothikumar, Narayanan; Cromeans, Theresa L.; Hill, Vincent R.; Lu, Xiaoyan; Sobsey, Mark D.; Erdman, Dean D.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative real-time TaqMan PCR assay for detection of human adenoviruses (HAdV) was developed using broadly reactive consensus primers and a TaqMan probe targeting a conserved region of the hexon gene. The TaqMan assay correctly identified 56 representative adenovirus prototype strains and field isolates from all six adenovirus species (A to F). Based on infectious units, the TaqMan assay was able to detect as few as 0.4 and 0.004 infectious units of adenovirus serotype 2 (AdV2) and AdV41, respectively, with results obtained in less than 90 min. Using genomic equivalents, the broadly reactive TaqMan assay was able to detect 5 copies of AdV40 (which had zero mismatches with the PCR primers and probe), 8 copies of AdV41, and 350 copies of AdV3 (which had the most mismatches [seven] of any adenovirus serotype tested). For specific detection and identification of F species serotypes AdV40 and AdV41, a second real-time PCR assay was developed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes that target the adenovirus fiber gene. The FRET-based assay had a detection limit of 3 to 5 copies of AdV40 and AdV41 standard DNA and was able to distinguish between AdV40 and AdV41 based on melting curve analysis. Both the TaqMan and FRET PCR assays were quantitative over a wide range of virus titers. Application of these assays for detection of adenoviruses and type-specific identification of AdV40 and AdV41 will be useful for identifying these viruses in environmental and clinical samples. PMID:15933012

  13. Autoregulation of Adenovirus Type 5 Early Gene Expression II. Effect of Temperature-Sensitive Early Mutations on Virus RNA Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, T. H.; Blanton, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation of early virus RNA in the cytoplasm of KB cells infected at 40.5°C by wild-type (WT) adenovirus type 5 and a temperature-sensitive “early” mutant, H5ts125 (ts125), were compared by hybridization of unlabeled RNA in solution to the 3H-labeled l strand of Ad5 DNA HindIII restriction endonuclease fragment A. In the presence of 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, Al RNA accumulated in WT-infected cells for 9 h and then decreased in concentration to 6% of the 9-h concentration by 18 h. In ts125-infected cells, Al RNA accumulated for 12 h and then remained at the same concentration for at least 6 h thereafter. The concentrations of virus RNA from the four early transcription regions of the genome were measured at 15 h in cells infected at 40.5°C in the presence of 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine by: (i) ts125 and WT; (ii) two other ts early mutants, ts107 and ts149; and (iii) a revertant of ts125. The revertant and ts149, a mutant from a different complementation group than ts125, both accumulated all early virus cytoplasmic RNA species in amounts similar to, or less than, WT. However, both ts125 and ts107, independently isolated mutations in the 72,000-molecular-weight (72K) DNA-binding protein gene, accumulated cytoplasmic early RNA in excess of that found in WT infection. This pattern of RNA accumulation with the mutants and WT virus was the same in the nuclei as in the cytoplasm at 40.5°C. At 32°C, however, the abundance of nuclear virus RNA from all four early regions was the same in cells infected by either ts125 or WT. Differences in the relative abundance of nuclear RNA from the four early regions were observed in cells infected at 40.5 and 32°C, but were not dependent upon the infecting virus genotype. These results are consistent with autoregulation of early gene expression by the 72K protein and support the hypothesis that the 72K protein either decreases the rate of early virus transcription or increases the rate of virus

  14. Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Robert A; Ackford, James G; Slaine, Patrick; Li, Aimin; Carman, Susy; Campbell, Doug; Welch, M Katherine; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nagy, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are a ubiquitous group of viruses that have been found in a wide range of hosts. A novel adenovirus from a skunk suffering from acute hepatitis was isolated and its DNA genome sequenced. The analysis revealed this virus to be a new member of the genus Mastadenovirus, with a genome of 31,848 bp in length containing 30 genes predicted to encode proteins, and with a G+C content of 49.0%. Global genomic organization indicated SkAdV-1 was similar in organization to bat and canine adenoviruses, and phylogenetic comparison suggested these viruses shared a common ancestor. SkAdV-1 demonstrated an ability to replicate in several mammalian liver cell lines suggesting a potential tropism for this virus. PMID:26189043

  15. [Adenovirus-delivered BMI-1 shRNA].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Li; Zhen, Jie

    2009-10-01

    Recently, some plasmid vectors that direct transcription of small hairpin RNAs have been developed, which are processed into functional siRNAs by cellular enzymes. Although these vectors possess certain advantages over synthesized siRNA, many disadvantages exist, including low and variable transfection efficiency. This study was aimed to establish an adenoviral siRNA delivery system without above-mentioned disadvantages on the basis of commercially available vectors. A vector was designed to target the human polycomb gene BMI-1. The pAd-BMI-1shRNA-CMV-GFP vector was produced by cloning a 300 bp U6-BMI-1 cassette from the pGE1BMI-1shRNA plasmid and a CMV-GFP cassette from pAdTrack CMV in pShutter vector. The adenovirus was produced from the 293A packaging cell line and then infected K562 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of Bmi-1 were detected by real time-PCR and Western blot respectively. The results showed that the adenovirus carrying the BMI-1shRNA was successfully produced. After being transfected with the adenovirus, the K562 cells dramatically down-regulated BMI-1 expression, whereas the adenoviruses carrying control shRNA had no effect on BMI-1 expression. It is concluded that the adenoviruses are efficient vectors for delivery of siRNA into mammalian cells and may become a candidate vector carrying siRNA drugs for gene therapy. PMID:19840467

  16. Genomic and Bioinformatics Analysis of HAdV-4, a Human Adenovirus Causing Acute Respiratory Disease: Implications for Gene Therapy and Vaccine Vector Development

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, Anjan; Ditty, Susan E.; Su, Jing; McGraw, John; Hadfield, Ted L.; Tibbetts, Clark; Seto, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Human adenovirus serotype 4 (HAdV-4) is a reemerging viral pathogenic agent implicated in epidemic outbreaks of acute respiratory disease (ARD). This report presents a genomic and bioinformatics analysis of the prototype 35,990-nucleotide genome (GenBank accession no. AY594253). Intriguingly, the genome analysis suggests a closer phylogenetic relationship with the chimpanzee adenoviruses (simian adenoviruses) rather than with other human adenoviruses, suggesting a recent origin of HAdV-4, and therefore species E, through a zoonotic event from chimpanzees to humans. Bioinformatics analysis also suggests a pre-zoonotic recombination event, as well, between species B-like and species C-like simian adenoviruses. These observations may have implications for the current interest in using chimpanzee adenoviruses in the development of vectors for human gene therapy and for DNA-based vaccines. Also, the reemergence, surveillance, and treatment of HAdV-4 as an ARD pathogen is an opportunity to demonstrate the use of genome determination as a tool for viral infectious disease characterization and epidemic outbreak surveillance: for example, rapid and accurate low-pass sequencing and analysis of the genome. In particular, this approach allows the rapid identification and development of unique probes for the differentiation of family, species, serotype, and strain (e.g., pathogen genome signatures) for monitoring epidemic outbreaks of ARD. PMID:15681456

  17. Genomic and bioinformatics analysis of HAdV-4, a human adenovirus causing acute respiratory disease: implications for gene therapy and vaccine vector development.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Anjan; Ditty, Susan E; Su, Jing; McGraw, John; Hadfield, Ted L; Tibbetts, Clark; Seto, Donald

    2005-02-01

    Human adenovirus serotype 4 (HAdV-4) is a reemerging viral pathogenic agent implicated in epidemic outbreaks of acute respiratory disease (ARD). This report presents a genomic and bioinformatics analysis of the prototype 35,990-nucleotide genome (GenBank accession no. AY594253). Intriguingly, the genome analysis suggests a closer phylogenetic relationship with the chimpanzee adenoviruses (simian adenoviruses) rather than with other human adenoviruses, suggesting a recent origin of HAdV-4, and therefore species E, through a zoonotic event from chimpanzees to humans. Bioinformatics analysis also suggests a pre-zoonotic recombination event, as well, between species B-like and species C-like simian adenoviruses. These observations may have implications for the current interest in using chimpanzee adenoviruses in the development of vectors for human gene therapy and for DNA-based vaccines. Also, the reemergence, surveillance, and treatment of HAdV-4 as an ARD pathogen is an opportunity to demonstrate the use of genome determination as a tool for viral infectious disease characterization and epidemic outbreak surveillance: for example, rapid and accurate low-pass sequencing and analysis of the genome. In particular, this approach allows the rapid identification and development of unique probes for the differentiation of family, species, serotype, and strain (e.g., pathogen genome signatures) for monitoring epidemic outbreaks of ARD. PMID:15681456

  18. Chemokine gene expression in lung CD8 T cells correlates with protective immunity in mice immunized intra-nasally with Adenovirus-85A

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Immunization of BALB/c mice with a recombinant adenovirus expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) antigen 85A (Ad85A) protects against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis only when it is administered intra-nasally (i.n.). Immunization with Ad85A induces a lung-resident population of activated CD8 T cells that is antigen dependent, highly activated and mediates protection by early inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth. In order to determine why the i.n. route is so effective compared to parenteral immunization, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression profiles of pulmonary and splenic CD8 T cells after i.n. or intra-dermal (i.d.) immunization. Method Total RNA from CD8 T cells was isolated from lungs or spleens of mice immunized with Ad85A by the i.n. or i.d. route. The gene profiles generated from each condition were compared. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) differentially expressed genes were analyzed to determine if they mapped to particular molecular functions, biological processes or pathways using Gene Ontology and Panther DB mapping tools. Results CD8 T cells from lungs of i.n. immunized mice expressed a large number of chemokines chemotactic for resting and activated T cells as well as activation and survival genes. Lung lymphocytes from i.n. immunized mice also express the chemokine receptor gene Cxcr6, which is thought to aid long-term retention of antigen-responding T cells in the lungs. Expression of CXCR6 on CD8 T cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. Conclusions Our microarray analysis represents the first ex vivo study comparing gene expression profiles of CD8 T cells isolated from distinct sites after immunization with an adenoviral vector by different routes. It confirms earlier phenotypic data indicating that lung i.n. cells are more activated than lung i.d. CD8 T cells. The sustained expression of chemokines and activation genes enables CD8 T cells to remain in the lungs for extended periods after

  19. HoxD10 gene delivery using adenovirus/adeno-associate hybrid virus inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Mi Ae; Yashar, Parham; Kim, Suk Kyoung; Noh, Taewoong; Gillam, Mary P.; Lee, Eun Jig Jameson, J. Larry

    2008-07-04

    Prolactinoma is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. It has been reported that a variety of growth factors and cytokines regulating cell growth and angiogenesis play an important role in the growth of prolactinoma. HoxD10 has been shown to impair endothelial cell migration, block angiogenesis, and maintain a differentiated phenotype of cells. We investigated whether HoxD10 gene delivery could inhibit the growth of prolactinoma. Rat GH4 lactotrope tumor cells were infected with adenovirus/adeno-associated virus (Ad/AAV) hybrid vectors carrying the mouse HoxD10 gene (Hyb-HoxD10) or the {beta}-galactosidase gene (Hyb-Gal). Hyb-HoxD10 expression inhibited GH4 cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of FGF-2 and cyclin D2 was inhibited in GH4 cells infected with Hyb-HoxD10. GH4 cells transduced with Hyb-HoxD10 did not form tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that the delivery of HoxD10 could potentially inhibit the growth of PRL-secreting tumors. This approach may be a useful tool for targeted therapy of prolactinoma and other neoplasms.

  20. Low seroprevalent species D adenovirus vectors as influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Barry, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza remains a constant threat. While standard influenza vaccines have great utility, the need for improved vaccine technologies have been brought to light by the 2009 swine flu pandemic, highly pathogenic avian influenza infections, and the most recent early and widespread influenza activity. Species C adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (AD5) are potent vehicles for gene-based vaccination. While potent, most humans are already immune to this virus. In this study, low seroprevalent species D adenoviruses Ad26, 28, and 48 were cloned and modified to express the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin gene for vaccine studies. When studied in vivo, these species D Ad vectors performed quite differently as compared to species C Ad vectors depending on the route of immunization. By intramuscular injection, species D vaccines were markedly weaker than species C vaccines. In contrast, the species D vaccines were equally efficient as species C when delivered mucosally by the intranasal route. Intranasal adenovirus vaccine doses as low as 10(8) virus particles per mouse induced complete protection against a stringent lethal challenge dose of influenza. These data support translation of species D adenoviruses as mucosal vaccines and highlight the fundamental effects of differences in virus tropism on vaccine applications. PMID:23991187

  1. A CD46-binding chimpanzee adenovirus vector as a vaccine carrier.

    PubMed

    Tatsis, Nia; Blejer, Ariella; Lasaro, Marcio O; Hensley, Scott E; Cun, Ann; Tesema, Lello; Li, Yan; Gao, Guang-Ping; Xiang, Zhi Q; Zhou, Dongming; Wilson, James M; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2007-03-01

    A replication-defective chimeric vector based on the chimpanzee adenovirus serotype C1 was developed and tested as a vaccine carrier in mice. The AdC1 virus is closely related to human adenoviruses of subgroup B2 and uses CD46 for cell attachment. To overcome poor growth of E1-deleted AdC1 vectors on cell lines that provide the E1 of adenovirus of the human serotype 5 (AdHu5) virus in trans, the inverted terminal repeats and some of the early genes of AdC1 were replaced with those from AdC5, a chimpanzee origin adenovirus of subfamily E. The chimeric AdC1/C5 vector efficiently transduces CD46-expressing mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and initiates their maturation. Transduction of DCs in vivo is inefficient in CD46 transgenic mice. The AdC1/C5 vector induces transgene product-specific B- and CD8(+) T-cell responses in mice. Responses are slightly higher in wild-type mice than in CD46 transgenic mice. Transgene product-specific T-cell responses elicited by the AdC1/C5 vector can be increased by priming or boosting with a heterologous adenovirus vector. Pre-existing immunity to adenovirus of the common human serotype 5 does not affect induction of cell-mediated immune responses by the AdC1/C5 vector. This vector provides an additional tool in a repertoire of adenovirus-based vaccine vectors. PMID:17228314

  2. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies. PMID:27076309

  3. A novel combination of promoter and enhancers increases transgene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and coronary arteries in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, CE; Kingston, PA; David, A; Gerdes, CA; Umaña, P; Castro, MG; Lowenstein, PR; Heagerty, AM

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses are employed widely for vascular gene transfer. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a relatively poor target for transgene expression after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery, however, even when expression is regulated by powerful, constitutive viral promoters. The major immediate-early murine cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter (MIEmCMV) elicits substantially greater transgene expression than the human cytomegalovirus promoter (MIEhCMV) in all cell types in which they have been compared. The Woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) increases transgene expression in numerous cell lines, and fragments of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) promoter increase expression within SMC from heterologous promoters. We therefore, compared the expression of β-galactosidase after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of lacZ under the transcriptional regulation of a variety of combinations of the promoters and enhancers described, in vitro and in porcine coronary arteries. We demonstrate that inclusion of WPRE and a fragment of the rabbit SMMHC promoter along with MIEmCMV increases β-galactosidase expression 90-fold in SMC in vitro and ≈40-fold in coronary arteries, compared with vectors in which expression is regulated by MIEhCMV alone. Expression cassette modification represents a simple method of improving adenovirus-mediated vascular gene transfer efficiency and has important implications for the development of efficient cardiovascular gene therapy strategies. PMID:12907954

  4. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Mercier, George T.; Barry, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  5. [Generation and preliminary immunological efficacy of a recombinant human adenovirus-rabies virus glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2011-09-01

    To construct a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing glycoprotein (GP) of attenuated rabies virus SRV9 and testing immunological efficacy on the immunized mice. Open reading frame of rabies virus GP gene of SRV9 strain was cloned into the shuttle vector of adenovirus expression system in multiple cloning sites to construct the recombinant shuttle plasmid pacAd5 CMV-Gs9, cotransfection was performed into 293AD cells mediated by FuGENE Transfection Reagent with linearized backbone plasmid and recombinant shuttle plasmid, cell cultures were collected after CPE appearance and were identified by PCR and electronmicroscopy, virus titer was measured in 293AD cells. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10(6) TCID50 adenovirus, blood for serum preparation was collected through caudal vein pre-immune and post-immune and tested for VNA appearance by fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVN) detection. Recombinant shuttle plasmid pacAd5 CMV-Gs9 was constructed correctly. A recombinant human adenovirus type 5 was obtained expressing GP protein of rabies virus SRV9. The virus titer reached 10(6) CFU/mL at the least. All mice developed a certain amount of the anti-rabies neutralizing antibody 14 days after intraperitoneal inoculation, while the effective protection rates were 90%. In conclusion, Recombinant adenovirus expressing the rabies virus GP was constructed successfully and a certain amount of neutralizing antibodies were induced in mice, which laid the material foundation for further development of new rabies vaccine. PMID:21998956

  6. Adenovirus-mediated WGA gene delivery for transsynaptic labeling of mouse olfactory pathways.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Nanako; Mizuno, Takeo; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro

    2002-03-01

    Detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity patterns is indispensable for studies of various aspects of brain functions. We previously established a genetic strategy for visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways by expressing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) transgene under the control of neuron type-specific promoter elements in transgenic mice and Drosophila. In this paper, we have developed a WGA-expressing recombinant adenoviral vector system and applied it for analysis of the olfactory system. When the WGA-expressing adenovirus was infused into a mouse nostril, various types of cells throughout the olfactory epithelium were infected and expressed WGA protein robustly. WGA transgene products in the olfactory sensory neurons were anterogradely transported along their axons to the olfactory bulb and transsynaptically transferred in glomeruli to dendrites of the second-order neurons, mitral and tufted cells. WGA protein was further conveyed via the lateral olfactory tract to the olfactory cortical areas including the anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex. In addition, transsynaptic retrograde labeling was observed in cholinergic neurons in the horizontal limb of diagonal band, serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus, and noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus, all of which project centrifugal fibers to the olfactory bulb. Thus, the WGA-expressing adenovirus is a useful and powerful tool for tracing neural pathways and could be used in animals that are not amenable to the transgenic technology. PMID:11923184

  7. Human adenovirus 5-vectored Plasmodium falciparum NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA vaccine encoding CSP and AMA1 is safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic but does not protect against controlled human malaria infection

    PubMed Central

    Tamminga, Cindy; Sedegah, Martha; Maiolatesi, Santina; Fedders, Charlotte; Reyes, Sharina; Reyes, Anatalio; Vasquez, Carlos; Alcorta, Yolanda; Chuang, Ilin; Spring, Michele; Kavanaugh, Michael; Ganeshan, Harini; Huang, Jun; Belmonte, Maria; Abot, Esteban; Belmonte, Arnel; Banania, JoGlenna; Farooq, Fouzia; Murphy, Jittawadee; Komisar, Jack; Richie, Nancy O; Bennett, Jason; Limbach, Keith; Patterson, Noelle B; Bruder, Joseph T; Shi, Meng; Miller, Edward; Dutta, Sheetij; Diggs, Carter; Soisson, Lorraine A; Hollingdale, Michael R; Epstein, Judith E; Richie, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    Background: In a prior study, a DNA prime / adenovirus boost vaccine (DNA/Ad) expressing P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) (NMRC-M3V-D/Ad-PfCA Vaccine) induced 27% protection against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). To investigate the contribution of DNA priming, we tested the efficacy of adenovirus vaccine alone (NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA ) in a Phase 1 clinical trial. Methodology/Principal Findings: The regimen was a single intramuscular injection with two non-replicating human serotype 5 adenovectors encoding CSP and AMA1, respectively. One x 1010 particle units of each construct were combined prior to administration. The regimen was safe and well-tolerated. Four weeks later, 18 study subjects received P. falciparum CHMI administered by mosquito bite. None were fully protected although one showed delayed onset of parasitemia. Antibody responses were low, with geometric mean CSP ELISA titer of 381 (range < 50–1626) and AMA1 ELISA of 4.95 µg/mL (range 0.2–38). Summed ex vivo IFN-γ ELISpot responses to overlapping peptides were robust, with geometric mean spot forming cells/million peripheral blood mononuclear cells [sfc/m] for CSP of 273 (range 38–2550) and for AMA1 of 1303 (range 435–4594). CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFN-γ responses to CSP were positive by flow cytometry in 25% and 56% of the research subjects, respectively, and to AMA1 in 94% and 100%, respectively. Significance: In contrast to DNA/Ad, Ad alone did not protect against CHMI despite inducing broad, cell-mediated immunity, indicating that DNA priming is required for protection by the adenovirus-vectored vaccine. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392015. PMID:23899517

  8. [Preparation of Recombinant Human Adenoviruses Labeled with miniSOG].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Xiao, Rong; Guo, Xiaojuan; Qu, Jianguo; Lu, Zhuozhuang; Hong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We wished to study the intracellular transport of adenoviruses. We constructed a novel recombinant adenovirus in which the structural protein IX was labeled with a mini-singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG). The miniSOG gene was synthesized by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned to the pcDNA3 vector, and expressed in 293 cells. Activation of miniSOG generated sufficient numbers of singlet oxygen molecules to catalyze polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To construct miniSOG-labelled recombinant adenoviruses, the miniSOG gene was subcloned downstream of the IX gene in a pShuttle plasmid. Adenoviral plasmid pAd5-IXSOG was generated by homologous recombination of the modified shuttle plasmid (pShuttle-IXSOG) with the backbone plasmid (pAdeasy-1) in the BJ5183 strain of Eschericia coli. Adenovirus HAdV-5-IXSOG was rescued by transfection of 293 cells with the linearized pAd5-IXSOG. After propagation, virions were purified using the CsC1 ultracentrifugation method. Finally, HAdV-5-IXSOG in 2.0 mL with a particle titer of 6 x 1011 vp/mL was obtained. Morphology of HAdV-5-IXSOG was verified by TEM. Fusion of IX with the miniSOG gene was confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, miniSOG-labeled recombinant adenoviruses were constructed, which could be valuable tools for virus tracking by TEM. PMID:27295881

  9. Large numbers of random point and cluster mutations within the adenovirus VA I gene allow characterization of sequences required for efficient transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Snouwaert, J; Bunick, D; Hutchison, C; Fowlkes, D M

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated clones with well over 100 randomly dispersed point mutations distributed throughout the 5' half of chemically synthesized adenovirus type 2 VA I genes. In addition, we have isolated clusters of mutations targeted to the regions corresponding to the A and B block consensus sequences of eukaryotic tRNA and adenovirus VA genes. In vitro analyses of these constructs have allowed us to survey in detail the importance of DNA sequence to transcriptional efficiency. Our analyses demonstrate that certain constructs with radically substituted A block regions can be transcribed efficiently. In contrast, there is little tolerance for variation in the sequence within the B block region. We propose that the B block sequence should be R-G-A/T-T-C-R-A-N-N-C for optimal transcriptional efficiency of the VA I gene in mammalian cells. PMID:3671085

  10. Breast cancer gene therapy using an adenovirus encoding human IL-2 under control of mammaglobin promoter/enhancer sequences.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, S; Hew, P; Crosley, P; Sharon, D; Potts, K; Agopsowicz, K; Long, M; Shi, C; Hitt, M M

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been used clinically for the treatment of some malignancies, but the toxicities associated with systemic IL-2 therapy are a major challenge. Here we have determined whether transcriptional targeting of IL-2 to breast cancer (BrCa) using an engineered human mammaglobin promoter/enhancer (MPE2) is a feasible option for reducing IL-2-associated toxicities while still achieving a meaningful antitumor effect. We have constructed nonreplicating adenovirus vectors encoding either a reporter gene (luciferase) or human IL-2 (hIL-2) complementary DNA under control of the MPE2 sequence, the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early (MCMV) promoter or the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. Luciferase and hIL-2 complementary DNAs under the control of the MPE2 sequence in adenovirus vectors were expressed at high levels in BrCa cells and at lower levels in normal cells of human and murine origin. Cancer specificity of the hTERT promoter was found to be similar to that of the MPE2 promoter in cells of human origin, but reduced specificity in murine cells. The MPE2 regulatory sequence demonstrated excellent tissue specificity in a mouse tumor model. Whereas the MCMV promoter-controlled IL-2 vector generated high liver toxicity in mice, the MPE2-controlled IL-2 vector generated little or no liver toxicity. Both IL-2 vectors exerted significant tumor growth delay; however, attempts to further enhance antitumor activity of the IL-2 vectors by combining with the proapoptotic drug procaspase activating compound 1 (PAC1) were unsuccessful. PMID:27151235

  11. Protective role of adenovirus vector-mediated interleukin-10 gene therapy on endogenous islet β-cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    LI, CHENG; ZHANG, LIJUAN; CHEN, YANYAN; LIN, XIAOJIE; LI, TANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide an animal experimental basis for the protective effect of the adenoviral vector-mediated interleukin-10 (Ad-mIL-10) gene on islet β-cells during the early stages of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. A total of 24 female NOD mice at the onset of diabetes were allocated at random into three groups (n=8 per group): Group 1, intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml Ad-mIL-10; group 2, intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml adenovirus vector; and group 3, was a diabetic control. In addition to groups 1, 2 and 3, 8 age- and gender-matched NOD mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml PBS and assigned to group 4 as a normal control. All mice were examined weekly for body weight, urine glucose and blood glucose values prior to onset of diabetes, and at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after that, and all mice were sacrificed 3 weeks after injection. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, insulin and C-peptide were evaluated, and in addition the degree of insulitis and the local expression of IL-10 gene in the pancreas were detected. The apoptosis rate of pancreatic β-cells was determined using a TUNEL assay. Compared with groups 2 and 3, IL-10 levels in the serum and pancreas were elevated in group 1. Serum IFN-γ levels were decreased while serum IL-4 levels and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio were significantly increased in group 1 (P<0.01). C-peptide and insulin levels were higher in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3, (P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with groups 2 and 3, the degree of insulitis, islet β-cell apoptosis rate and blood glucose values did not change significantly (P>0.05). The administration of the Ad-mIL-10 gene induced limited immune regulatory and protective effects on islet β-cell function in NOD mice with early T1D, while no significant reduction in insulitis, islet β-cell apoptosis rate and blood glucose was observed. PMID:27168782

  12. Construction of an adenovirus type 7a E1A- vector.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, K; Kong, H L; Mastrangeli, A; Brough, D; Lizonova, A; Crystal, R G; Falck-Pedersen, E

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for constructing replication-defective adenovirus vectors from non-subgroup C viruses has been successfully demonstrated with adenovirus type 7 strain a (Ad7a) as the prototype. An E1A-deleted Ad7a reporter virus expressing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene from the cytomegalovirus promoter enhancer was constructed with DNA fragments isolated from Ad7a, an Ad7a recombination reporter plasmid, and the 293 cell line. The Ad7a-CAT virus particle transduces A549 cells as efficiently as Ad5-based vectors. Intravenous infections in a murine model indicate that the Ad7a-CAT virus infects a variety of tissues, with maximal levels of CAT gene expression found in the liver. The duration of Ad7a-CAT transgene expression in the liver was maximally maintained 2 weeks postinfection, with a decline to baseline activity by the week 4 postinfection. Ad7a-CAT represents the first example of a non-subgroup C E1A- adenovirus gene transfer vector. PMID:9343264

  13. Etoposide enhances antitumor efficacy of MDR1-driven oncolytic adenovirus through autoupregulation of the MDR1 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Bing-Hua; Shieh, Gia-Shing; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2015-11-10

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or oncolytic adenoviruses, such as E1B55K-deleted adenovirus, are attractive anticancer agents. However, the therapeutic efficacy of E1B55K-deleted adenovirus for refractory solid tumors has been limited. Environmental stress conditions may induce nuclear accumulation of YB-1, which occurs in multidrug-resistant and adenovirus-infected cancer cells. Overexpression and nuclear localization of YB-1 are associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence in various cancers. Nuclear YB-1 transactivates the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the Y-box. Here, we developed a novel E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the MDR1 promoter, designed Ad5GS3. We tested the feasibility of using YB-1 to transcriptionally regulate Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells and thereby to enhance antitumor efficacy. We evaluated synergistic antitumor effects of oncolytic virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. Our results show that adenovirus E1A induced E2F-1 activity to augment YB-1 expression, which shut down host protein synthesis in cancer cells during adenovirus replication. In cancer cells infected with Ad5WS1, an E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the E1 promoter, E1A enhanced YB-1 expression, and then further phosphorylated Akt, which, in turn, triggered nuclear translocation of YB-1. Ad5GS3 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents facilitated nuclear localization of YB-1 and, in turn, upregulated the MDR1 promoter activity and enhanced Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells. Thus, E1A, YB-1, and the MDR1 promoter form a positive feedback loop to promote Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells, and this regulation can be further augmented when chemotherapeutic agents are added. In the in vivo study, Ad5GS3 in combination with etoposide synergistically suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice bearing human lung tumor xenografts. More importantly, Ad5GS3 exerted potent oncolytic activity against clinical

  14. [The complexes of adenovirus and anionic liposomes: preparation and in vitro characterization].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Rong; Wan, Yu; Shi, San-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This study is to report the preparation of complexes of Ad5 and anionic liposomes (AL-Ad5), the amplification of adenoviruses with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene performed by HEK 293 cells, the adenoviral vectors purified by cesium chloride gradient centrifugation, and the titer of adenovirus determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) method, hexon capsid immunoassay and quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR), separately. The prescription and experiment conditions were optimized by central composite design (CCD). The complexes of Ad5 and AL-Ad5 were formulated by the calcium-induced phase change method. The morpholopy, particle size and zeta potential were detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Additionally, the bicolourable fluoresce-labeled complexes (F(labeled)-AL-Ad5) were prepared and their intracellular location in MDCK cells was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicate that the complexes of AL-Ad5 exhibited a uniform distribution with a particle size of 211 +/- 10 nm and a zeta potential of -41.2 +/- 2.2 mV. The result of CLSM demonstrates that the intracellular location of red fluoresce-labeled adenovirus was consistent with that of green fluoresce-labeled liposomes suggesting that the naked adenovirus was well encapsulated by the anionic liposomes in complexes of AL-Ad5. PMID:22493816

  15. Organization of the noncontiguous promoter components of adenovirus VAI RNA gene is strikingly similar to that of eucaryotic tRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, R A; Metz, B; Thimmappaya, B

    1983-01-01

    The intragenic transcriptional control region (internal promoter) of the adenovirus type 2 VAI RNA gene was mutated by deletion, insertion, and substitution of DNA sequences at the plasmid level. The mutant plasmids were assayed for in vitro transcriptional activity by using HeLa cell extracts. The mutant clones with substitution or insertion of DNA sequences or both between nucleotides +18 and +53 of the VAI RNA gene were all transcriptionally active, although to various extents. Substitution of unrelated DNA sequences up to +26 or between +54 and +61 abolished the transcriptional activity completely. Based on these results, the intragenic promoter sequences of the VAI RNA gene can be subdivided into two components: element A, +10 to +18; and element B, +54 to +69. The distance between the A and B components could be enlarged from its normal 35 base pairs to 75 base pairs without destroying the transcriptional activity. However, a deletion of 4 or 6 base pairs in the DNA segment separating the A and B components (segment C) reduced the transcriptional activity of the genes to less than 2% of that of the wild type. When the VAI RNA gene with its element A or B was substituted for the corresponding element A or B of the Xenopus laevis tRNAMet gene, the hybrid genes transcribed close to the level of the wild-type VAI RNA gene and about 10- to 20-fold more efficiently than the tRNAMet gene. Thus, the organization of DNA sequences in the internal promoter of the VAI RNA gene appears to be very similar to that of eucaryotic tRNA genes. This similarity suggests an evolutionary relationship of the VAI RNA gene to tRNA genes. Images PMID:6656762

  16. Novel Adenoviruses in Wild Primates: a High Level of Genetic Diversity and Evidence of Zoonotic Transmissions ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, Diana; Metzger, Sonja; Babweteera, Fred; Bieberbach, Marc; Boesch, Christophe; Cameron, Kenneth; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Cranfield, Mike; Gray, Maryke; Harris, Laurie A.; Head, Josephine; Jeffery, Kathryn; Knauf, Sascha; Lankester, Felix; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Mugisha, Lawrence; Nitsche, Andreas; Reed, Patricia; Robbins, Martha; Travis, Dominic A.; Zommers, Zinta; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) broadly infect vertebrate hosts, including a variety of nonhuman primates (NHPs). In the present study, we identified AdVs in NHPs living in their natural habitats, and through the combination of phylogenetic analyses and information on the habitats and epidemiological settings, we detected possible horizontal transmission events between NHPs and humans. Wild NHPs were analyzed with a pan-primate AdV-specific PCR using a degenerate nested primer set that targets the highly conserved adenovirus DNA polymerase gene. A plethora of novel AdV sequences were identified, representing at least 45 distinct AdVs. From the AdV-positive individuals, 29 nearly complete hexon genes were amplified and, based on phylogenetic analysis, tentatively allocated to all known human AdV species (Human adenovirus A to Human adenovirus G [HAdV-A to -G]) as well as to the only simian AdV species (Simian adenovirus A [SAdV-A]). Interestingly, five of the AdVs detected in great apes grouped into the HAdV-A, HAdV-D, HAdV-F, or SAdV-A clade. Furthermore, we report the first detection of AdVs in New World monkeys, clustering at the base of the primate AdV evolutionary tree. Most notably, six chimpanzee AdVs of species HAdV-A to HAdV-F revealed a remarkably close relationship to human AdVs, possibly indicating recent interspecies transmission events. PMID:21835802

  17. Amplified and Persistent Immune Responses Generated by Single-Cycle Replicating Adenovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Catherine M.; Nehete, Pramod; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Replication-competent adenoviral (RC-Ad) vectors generate exceptionally strong gene-based vaccine responses by amplifying the antigen transgenes they carry. While they are potent, they also risk causing adenovirus infections. More common replication-defective Ad (RD-Ad) vectors with deletions of E1 avoid this risk but do not replicate their transgene and generate markedly weaker vaccine responses. To amplify vaccine transgenes while avoiding production of infectious progeny viruses, we engineered “single-cycle” adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors by deleting the gene for IIIa capsid cement protein of lower-seroprevalence adenovirus serotype 6. In mouse, human, hamster, and macaque cells, SC-Ad6 still replicated its genome but prevented genome packaging and virion maturation. When used for mucosal intranasal immunization of Syrian hamsters, both SC-Ad and RC-Ad expressed transgenes at levels hundreds of times higher than that of RD-Ad. Surprisingly, SC-Ad, but not RC-Ad, generated higher levels of transgene-specific antibody than RD-Ad, which notably climbed in serum and vaginal wash samples over 12 weeks after single mucosal immunization. When RD-Ad and SC-Ad were tested by single sublingual immunization in rhesus macaques, SC-Ad generated higher gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses and higher transgene-specific serum antibody levels. These data suggest that SC-Ad vectors may have utility as mucosal vaccines. IMPORTANCE This work illustrates the utility of our recently developed single-cycle adenovirus (SC-Ad6) vector as a new vaccine platform. Replication-defective (RD-Ad6) vectors produce low levels of transgene protein, which leads to minimal antibody responses in vivo. This study shows that replicating SC-Ad6 produces higher levels of luciferase and induces higher levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-specific antibodies than RD in a permissive Syrian hamster model. Surprisingly, although a replication-competent (RC-Ad6) vector produces more luciferase

  18. Use of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Rapid Detection and Serotyping of Acute Respiratory Disease-Associated Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Baochuan; Vora, Gary J.; Thach, Dzung; Walter, Elizabeth; Metzgar, David; Tibbetts, Clark; Stenger, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The cessation of the adenovirus vaccination program for military trainees has resulted in several recent acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. In the absence of vaccination, rapid detection methods are necessary for the timely implementation of measures to prevent adenovirus transmission within military training facilities. To this end, we have combined a fluorogenic real-time multiplex PCR assay with four sets of degenerate PCR primers that target the E1A, fiber, and hexon genes with a long oligonucleotide microarray capable of identifying the most common adenovirus serotypes associated with adult respiratory tract infections (serotypes 3, 4, 7, 16, and 21) and a representative member of adenovirus subgroup C (serotype 6) that is a common cause of childhood ARD and that often persists into adulthood. Analyses with prototype strains demonstrated unique hybridization patterns for representative members of adenovirus subgroups B1, B2, C, and E, thus allowing serotype determination. Microarray-based sensitivity assessments revealed lower detection limits (between 1 and 100 genomic copies) for adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) and Ad7 cell culture lysates, clinical nasal washes, and throat swabs and purified DNA from clinical samples. When adenovirus was detected from coded clinical samples, the results obtained by this approach demonstrated an excellent concordance with those obtained by the more established method of adenovirus identification as well as by cell culture with fluorescent-antibody staining. Finally, the utility of this method was further supported by its ability to detect adenoviral coinfections, contamination, and, potentially, recombination events. Taken together, the results demonstrate the usefulness of the simple and rapid diagnostic method developed for the unequivocal identification of ARD-associated adenoviral serotypes from laboratory or clinical samples that can be completed in 1.5 to 4.0 h. PMID:15243087

  19. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5–FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad–FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy. PMID:27014840

  20. Loss of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression in human colorectal cancer: A potential impact on the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Han, Yong; Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-Ju; Wang, Shi-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Fan-Long; He, Xiang-Lei; Tong, Xiang-Min; Mou, Xiao-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is considered a tumor suppressor and critical factor for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies that employ the adenovirus. However, data on CAR expression levels in colorectal cancer are conflicting and its clinical relevance remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays containing 251 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples from Chinese Han patients to assess the expression levels of CAR. Compared with healthy mucosa, decreased CAR expression (40.6% vs. 95.6%; P<0.001) was observed in colorectal cancer samples. The CAR immunopositivity in tumor tissues was not significantly associated with gender, age, tumor size, differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis in patients with colon cancer. However, expression of CAR is present in 83.3% of the tumor tissues from patient with colorectal liver metastasis, which was significantly higher than those without liver metastasis (39.6%; P=0.042). At the plasma membrane, CAR was observed in 29.5% normal mucosa samples, which was significantly higher than in colorectal cancer samples (4.0%; P<0.001). In addition, the survival analysis demonstrated that the expression level of CAR has no association with the prognosis of colorectal cancer. CAR expression was observed to be downregulated in colorectal cancer, and it exerts complex effects during colorectal carcinogenesis, potentially depending on the stage of the cancer development and progression. High CAR expression may promote liver metastasis. With regard to oncolytic therapy, CAR expression analysis should be performed prior to adenoviral oncolytic treatment to stratify Chinese Han patients for treatment. PMID:27485384

  1. Loss of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression in human colorectal cancer: A potential impact on the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Han, Yong; Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-Ju; Wang, Shi-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Fan-Long; He, Xiang-Lei; Tong, Xiang-Min; Mou, Xiao-Zhou

    2016-09-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is considered a tumor suppressor and critical factor for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies that employ the adenovirus. However, data on CAR expression levels in colorectal cancer are conflicting and its clinical relevance remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays containing 251 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples from Chinese Han patients to assess the expression levels of CAR. Compared with healthy mucosa, decreased CAR expression (40.6% vs. 95.6%; P<0.001) was observed in colorectal cancer samples. The CAR immunopositivity in tumor tissues was not significantly associated with gender, age, tumor size, differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis in patients with colon cancer. However, expression of CAR is present in 83.3% of the tumor tissues from patient with colorectal liver metastasis, which was significantly higher than those without liver metastasis (39.6%; P=0.042). At the plasma membrane, CAR was observed in 29.5% normal mucosa samples, which was significantly higher than in colorectal cancer samples (4.0%; P<0.001). In addition, the survival analysis demonstrated that the expression level of CAR has no association with the prognosis of colorectal cancer. CAR expression was observed to be downregulated in colorectal cancer, and it exerts complex effects during colorectal carcinogenesis, potentially depending on the stage of the cancer development and progression. High CAR expression may promote liver metastasis. With regard to oncolytic therapy, CAR expression analysis should be performed prior to adenoviral oncolytic treatment to stratify Chinese Han patients for treatment. PMID:27485384

  2. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  3. Adenovirus-mediated Cre deletion of floxed sequences in primary mouse cells is an efficient alternative for studies of gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Prost, Sandrine; Sheahan, Sharon; Rannie, Dominic; Harrison, David J.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of Cre-expressing adenovirus for deletion of floxed genes in primary cells using primary murine hepatocytes. Adenovirus infection was very efficient, even at very low MOI (>95% infection at a MOI of 6) and did not reduce viability. High level LacZ expression was cytotoxic to hepatocytes but Cre expression had no effect on viability. Cre-mediated recombination was completed within a timespan that permits experimentation during primary culture (>95% recombination after 24 h), independently of the number of floxed alleles per cell. Recombination did not induce p53 or produce cytological nuclear abnormalities (even in polyploid cells). Contrary to expectation, deletion of DNA ligase 1 did not alter cell cycle progression, although Cre expression hastens entry to S phase from G1, independently of the presence of floxed sequences. We conclude that adenovirus-mediated deletion of floxed alleles in primary cells is a straightforward and highly efficient tool for conducting preliminary studies of conditional gene targeting. Primary cells have advantages of differentiation, relative purity and ease of experimentation within controlled conditions, while avoiding confounding problems encountered in vivo (i.e. target cell specificity, kinetics and level of recombination, and elicitation of inflammatory and immune responses). This system could help identify important phenotypic effects and design and interpret in vivo studies. PMID:11504888

  4. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  5. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  6. Mutation of the fiber shaft heparan sulphate binding site of a 5/3 chimeric adenovirus reduces liver tropism.

    PubMed

    Koski, Anniina; Karli, Eerika; Kipar, Anja; Escutenaire, Sophie; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2013-01-01

    Natural tropism to the liver is a major obstacle in systemic delivery of adenoviruses in cancer gene therapy. Adenovirus binding to soluble coagulation factors and to cellular heparan sulphate proteoglycans via the fiber shaft KKTK domain are suggested to cause liver tropism. Serotype 5 adenovirus constructs with mutated KKTK regions exhibit liver detargeting, but they also transduce tumors less efficiently, possibly due to altered fiber conformation. We constructed Ad5/3lucS*, a 5/3 chimeric adenovirus with a mutated KKTK region. The fiber knob swap was hypothesized to facilitate tumor transduction. This construct was studied with or without additional coagulation factor ablation. Ad5/3lucS* exhibited significantly reduced transduction of human hepatic cells in vitro and mouse livers in vivo. Combination of coagulation factor ablation by warfarinization to Ad5/3lucS* seemed to further enhance liver detargeting. Cancer cell transduction by Ad5/3lucS* was retained in vitro. In vivo, viral particle accumulation in M4A4-LM3 xenograft tumors was comparable to controls, but Ad5/3lucS* transgene expression was nearly abolished. Coagulation factor ablation did not affect tumor transduction. These studies set the stage for further investigations into the effects of the KKTK mutation and coagulation factor ablation in the context of 5/3 serotype chimerism. Of note, the putative disconnect between tumor transduction and transgene expression could prove useful in further understanding of adenovirus biology. PMID:23585829

  7. Mutation of the Fiber Shaft Heparan Sulphate Binding Site of a 5/3 Chimeric Adenovirus Reduces Liver Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Koski, Anniina; Karli, Eerika; Kipar, Anja; Escutenaire, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Natural tropism to the liver is a major obstacle in systemic delivery of adenoviruses in cancer gene therapy. Adenovirus binding to soluble coagulation factors and to cellular heparan sulphate proteoglycans via the fiber shaft KKTK domain are suggested to cause liver tropism. Serotype 5 adenovirus constructs with mutated KKTK regions exhibit liver detargeting, but they also transduce tumors less efficiently, possibly due to altered fiber conformation. We constructed Ad5/3lucS*, a 5/3 chimeric adenovirus with a mutated KKTK region. The fiber knob swap was hypothesized to facilitate tumor transduction. This construct was studied with or without additional coagulation factor ablation. Ad5/3lucS* exhibited significantly reduced transduction of human hepatic cells in vitro and mouse livers in vivo. Combination of coagulation factor ablation by warfarinization to Ad5/3lucS* seemed to further enhance liver detargeting. Cancer cell transduction by Ad5/3lucS* was retained in vitro. In vivo, viral particle accumulation in M4A4-LM3 xenograft tumors was comparable to controls, but Ad5/3lucS* transgene expression was nearly abolished. Coagulation factor ablation did not affect tumor transduction. These studies set the stage for further investigations into the effects of the KKTK mutation and coagulation factor ablation in the context of 5/3 serotype chimerism. Of note, the putative disconnect between tumor transduction and transgene expression could prove useful in further understanding of adenovirus biology. PMID:23585829

  8. Combination of oncolytic adenovirus and endostatin inhibits human retinoblastoma in an in vivo mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiping; Wei, Fang; Li, Huiming; Ji, Xunda; Li, Shuxia; Chen, Xiafang

    2013-02-01

    There is a critical need for new paradigms in retinoblastoma (RB) treatment that would more efficiently inhibit tumor growth while sparing the vision of patients. Oncolytic adenoviruses with the ability to selectively replicate and kill tumor cells are a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy. Exploration of a novel targeting strategy for RB utilizing combined oncolytic adenovirus and anti-angiogenesis therapy was applied over the course of the current study with positive results. The oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-E2F1 p-E1A and Ad-TERT p-E1 were constructed. The E1 region was regulated by the E2F-1 promoter or the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter, respectively. Effects on both replication and promotion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression were observed in the replication-defective adenovirus Ad-EGFP in diverse cancer cell lines, HXO-RB44, Y79, Hep3B, NCIH460, MCF-7 and HLF. The cancer cell death induced by these agents was also explored. The in situ RB model demonstrated that mice with tumors treated with the oncolytic adenovirus and replication-defective adenovirus Ad-endostatin exhibited notable cancer cell death. This anticancer effect was further examined by stereo microscope, and the survival rate of experimental mice was determined. Both Ad-E2F1 p-E1A and Ad-TERT p-E1 replicated specifically in cancer cells in vitro and promoted EGFP expression in Ad-EGFP, although Ad-E2F1 p-E1A demonstrated superior EGFP promotion activity than Ad-TERT p-E1. In Hep3B, NCIH460 and MCF-7 cells, the number of Ad-TERT p-E1 copies was observed to exceed of the number of Ad-E2F1 p-E1A copies by a minimum of 10-fold. Furthermore, Ad-TERT p-E1 demonstrated significantly superior oncolytic effects in the RB mouse model, and Ad-endostatin effectively suppressed tumor growth and extended the overall lifespan of subjects; however, the Ad-E2F1 p-E1A was clearly less effective in attaining these goals. Most notably, the antitumor effect and

  9. Adenovirus vectors targeting distinct cell types in the retina.

    PubMed

    Sweigard, J Harry; Cashman, Siobhan M; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy for a number of retinal diseases necessitates efficient transduction of photoreceptor cells. Whereas adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 (Ad5) does not transduce photoreceptors efficiently, previous studies have demonstrated improved photoreceptor transduction by Ad5 pseudotyped with Ad35 (Ad5/F35) or Ad37 (Ad5/F37) fiber or by the deletion of the RGD domain in the Ad5 penton base (Ad5DeltaRGD). However, each of these constructs contained a different transgene cassette, preventing the evaluation of the relative performance of these vectors, an important consideration before the use of these vectors in the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate these vectors in the retina and to attempt photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Methods. Three Ad5-based vectors containing the same expression cassette were generated and injected into the subretinal space of adult mice. Eyes were analyzed for green fluorescence protein expression in flat-mounts, cross-sections, quantitative RT-PCR, and a modified stereological technique. A 257-bp fragment derived from the mouse opsin promoter was analyzed in the context of photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Results. Each virus tested efficiently transduced the retinal pigment epithelium. The authors found no evidence that Ad5/F35 or Ad5/F37 transduced photoreceptors. Instead, they found that Ad5/F37 transduced Müller cells. Robust photoreceptor transduction by Ad5DeltaRGD was detected. Photoreceptor-specific transgene expression from the 257-bp mouse opsin promoter in the context of Ad5DeltaRGD vectors was found. Conclusions. Adenovirus vectors may be designed with tropism to distinct cell populations. Robust photoreceptor-specific transgene expression can be achieved in the context of Ad5DeltaRGD vectors. PMID:19892875

  10. Adenovirus vaccine vectors expressing hepatitis B surface antigen: importance of regulatory elements in the adenovirus major late intron.

    PubMed

    Mason, B B; Davis, A R; Bhat, B M; Chengalvala, M; Lubeck, M D; Zandle, G; Kostek, B; Cholodofsky, S; Dheer, S; Molnar-Kimber, K

    1990-08-01

    Adenovirus types 4 and 7 are currently used as live oral vaccines for prevention of acute respiratory disease caused by these adenovirus serotypes. To investigate the concept of producing live recombinant vaccines using these serotypes, adenovirus types 4 (Ad4) and 7 (Ad7) were constructed that produce HBsAg upon infection of cell cultures. Ad4 recombinants were constructed that express HBsAg from a cassette inserted 135 bp from the right-hand terminus of the viral genome. The cassette contained the Ad4 major late promoter followed by leader 1 of the tripartite leader, the first intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2, leaders 2 and 3, the HBsAg gene, and tandem polyadenylation signals from the Ad4 E3B and hexon genes. Using this same cassette, a series of Ad4 recombinants expressing HBsAg were constructed with deletions in the intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2 to evaluate the contribution of the downstream control elements more precisely. Inclusion of regions located between +82 and +148 as well as +148 and +232 resulted in increases in expression levels of HBsAg in A549-infected cells by 22-fold and 44-fold, respectively, over the levels attained by an adenovirus recombinant retaining only sequences from +1 to +82, showing the importance of these elements in the activation of the major late promoter during the course of a natural Ad4 viral infection. Parallel increases were also observed in steady-state levels of cytoplasmic HBsAg-specific mRNA. When similar Ad7 recombinant viruses were constructed, these viruses also expressed 20-fold more HBsAg due to the presence of the intron. All Ad4 and Ad7 recombinants produced HBsAg particles containing gp27 and p24 which were secreted in the medium. When dogs were immunized intratracheally with one of these Ad7 recombinants, they seroconverted to both Ad7 and HBsAg to a high level. PMID:2371766

  11. Adenovirus Small E1A Employs the Lysine Acetylases p300/CBP and Tumor Suppressor Rb to Repress Select Host Genes and Promote Productive Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Roberto; Gou, Dawei; Jawdekar, Gauri; Johnson, Sarah A.; Nava, Miguel; Su, Trent; Yousef, Ahmed F.; Zemke, Nathan R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oncogenic transformation by adenovirus small e1a depends on simultaneous interactions with the host lysine acetylases p300/CBP and the tumor suppressor RB. How these interactions influence cellular gene expression remains unclear. We find that e1a displaces RBs from E2F transcription factors and promotes p300 acetylation of RB1 K873/K874 to lock it into a repressing conformation that interacts with repressive chromatin-modifying enzymes. These repressing p300-e1a-RB1 complexes specifically interact with host genes that have unusually high p300 association within the gene body. The TGFβ-, TNF-, and interleukin-signaling pathway components are enriched among such p300-targeted genes. The p300-e1a-RB1 complex condenses chromatin in a manner dependent on HDAC activity, p300 lysine acetylase activity, the p300 bromodomain, and RB K873/K874 and e1a K239 acetylation to repress host genes that would otherwise inhibit productive virus infection. Thus, adenovirus employs e1a to repress host genes that interfere with viral replication. PMID:25525796

  12. Systemic Delivery of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Decorin for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Bone Metastases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuefeng; Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Hu, Zebin; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Guise, Theresa; Yun, Chae-Ok; Brendler, Charles B; Iozzo, Renato V; Seth, Prem

    2015-12-01

    The development of novel therapies for breast cancer bone metastasis is a major unmet medical need. Toward that end, we have constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad.dcn, and a nonreplicating adenovirus, Ad(E1-).dcn, both containing the human decorin gene. Our in vitro studies showed that Ad.dcn produced high levels of viral replication and the decorin protein in the breast tumor cells. Ad(E1-).dcn-mediated decorin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells downregulated the expression of Met, β-catenin, and vascular endothelial growth factor A, all of which are recognized decorin targets and play pivotal roles in the progression of breast tumor growth and metastasis. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited cell migration and induced mitochondrial autophagy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mice bearing MDA-MB-231-luc skeletal metastases were systemically administered with the viral vectors, and skeletal tumor growth was monitored over time. The results of bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography indicated that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn significantly inhibited the progression of bone metastases. At the terminal time point, histomorphometric analysis, micro-computed tomography, and bone destruction biomarkers showed that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn reduced tumor burden and inhibited bone destruction. A nonreplicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).luc expressing the luciferase 2 gene had no significant effect on inhibiting bone metastases, and in several assays, Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn were better than Ad.luc, a replicating virus expressing the luciferase 2 gene. Our data suggest that adenoviral replication coupled with decorin expression could produce effective antitumor responses in a MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis model of breast cancer. Thus, Ad.dcn could potentially be developed as a candidate gene therapy vector for treating breast cancer bone metastases. PMID:26467629

  13. Modulation of Treg function improves adenovirus vector-mediated gene expression in the airway.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Y; Limberis, M P; Zhang, H

    2014-02-01

    Virus vector-mediated gene transfer has been developed as a treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease, a lethal inherited disorder caused by somatic mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The pathological proinflammatory environment of CF as well as the naïve and adaptive immunity induced by the virus vector itself limits the effectiveness of gene therapy for CF airway. Here, we report the use of an HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), to enhance the activity of the regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and to improve the expression of virus vector-mediated gene transfer to the respiratory epithelium. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of VPA, a drug used for over 50 years in humans as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizer, in controlling inflammation and improving the efficacy of gene transfer in CF airway. PMID:24385144

  14. [Characteristics of intranuclear inclusions formed during the reproduction of bovine adenoviruses].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Belousova, R V; Diachenko, N S; Kolenkova, L M

    1986-01-01

    A cytomorphological method was used to study the reproduction of bovine adenoviruses: Ad bos 1 - Ad bos 3, belonging to the serological subgroup I, and Ad bos 4, Ad bos 5, Ad bos 7, Ad bos 8, belonging to the serological subgroup II, and those isolated from animal adenoviruses N18 and N3056. Cytomorphological method is supposed to be used not only for revealing bovine adenoviruses but also for determining preliminarily their subgroup belonging. PMID:3754069

  15. In vitro efficacy of AdTRAIL gene therapy of bladder cancer is enhanced by trichostatin A-mediated restoration of CAR expression and downregulation of cFLIP and Bcl-XL.

    PubMed

    El-Zawahry, A; Lu, P; White, S J; Voelkel-Johnson, C

    2006-03-01

    Current therapies for bladder cancer are suboptimal and adenoviral gene therapy has been explored as an alternative treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of an adenovirus expressing TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (AdTRAIL). At low concentrations of virus, T24 cells were more resistant to AdTRAIL-induced apoptosis than 5637 bladder carcinoma cells. Resistance in T24 cells correlated with poor infectivity and lack of surface expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Pretreatment with low concentrations of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, restored CAR expression in T24 cells, which facilitated viral infection and resulted in apoptosis at low concentrations of AdTRAIL. In addition, trichostatin A reduced the expression of Bcl-X(L) and cFLIP resulting in increased sensitivity to recombinant TRAIL. Overexpression of cFLIP inhibited TRAIL-mediated killing in trichostatin A pretreated cells, indicating that downregulation of this antiapoptotic protein is required for sensitization. Therefore, trichostatin A can enhance the efficacy of AdTRAIL by restoring CAR expression and by generating a more pro-apoptotic phenotype that would facilitate bystander activity of TRAIL. Combination of histone deacetylase inhibitors with intravesical AdTRAIL gene therapy may be a novel treatment strategy for bladder cancer. PMID:16167063

  16. Identification and Application of Neutralizing Epitopes of Human Adenovirus Type 55 Hexon Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xingui; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Zaixue; Huang, Junfeng; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaomei; Luo, Qingming; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV55) is a newly identified re-emergent acute respiratory disease (ARD) pathogen with a proposed recombination of hexon gene between HAdV11 and HAdV14 strains. The identification of the neutralizing epitopes is important for the surveillance and vaccine development against HAdV55 infection. In this study, four type-specific epitope peptides of HAdV55 hexon protein, A55R1 (residues 138 to 152), A55R2 (residues 179 to 187), A55R4 (residues 247 to 259) and A55R7 (residues 429 to 443), were predicted by multiple sequence alignment and homology modeling methods, and then confirmed with synthetic peptides by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization tests (NT). Finally, the A55R2 was incorporated into human adenoviruses 3 (HAdV3) and a chimeric adenovirus rAd3A55R2 was successfully obtained. The chimeric rAd3A55R2 could induce neutralizing antibodies against both HAdV3 and HAdV55. This current study will contribute to the development of novel adenovirus vaccine candidate and adenovirus structural analysis. PMID:26516903

  17. Primary Bovine Intervertebral Disc Cells Transduced with Adenovirus Overexpressing 12 BMPs and Sox9 Maintain Appropriate Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Markova, Dessislava; Im, Hee-Jeong; Hu, Wenyang; Thonar, Eugene J.-M.A.; He, Tong-Chuan; An, Howard S.; Phillips, Frank M.; Anderson, D. Greg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To confirm that primary intervertebral disc cells cultured in monolayer transduced with adenovirus maintained their phenotype, hence is an appropriate system to test gene therapy agents. Design Adult bovine nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus cells cultured in monolayer were transduced with adenoviruses expressing human bone morphogenetic proteins (AdBMPs) or Sox9 (AdSox9), or green fluorescence protein (AdGFP, as control). Chondrocyte phenotypic markers (e.g., type II collagen and aggrecan) and the chondrocyte hypertrophy marker (type X collagen) were measured 6 days after viral transduction by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Primary nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus cells transduced with AdBMPs, AdSox9, or adenovirus-expressing green fluorescence protein only (AdGFP, as control) continue to express healthy chondrocyte phenotypic markers and showed no evidence of the expression of the chondrocyte hypertrophy marker (type X collagen gene). Thus, we have shown that bovine nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus cells transduced with adenovirus overexpressing 12 different bone morphogenetic proteins or Sox9 maintain their phenotype in short-term culture. Conclusions In this study, primary bovine intervertebral disc cells transduced with adenovirus overexpressing 12 bone morphogenetic proteins or Sox9 preserved their phenotype in short-term culture. These cells did not express the type X collagen gene, an undesirable chondrocyte hypertrophic gene that could lead to ossification. Therefore, low-passage intervertebral disc cells cultured in monolayer is an appropriate culture system to test therapeutic genes. We further suggest that these cells may also be appropriate for engineering tissues or for cell therapy for degenerative disc diseases. PMID:19454853

  18. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    PubMed

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo. PMID:24326926

  19. ANTIGEN DETECTION WITH MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADENOVIRUS GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for direct detection of enteric adenoviruses in stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis. Tests specific for each of the enteric adenoviruses, adenovirus type 40 (Ad40) and type 41 (Ad41) we...

  20. Partial characterization of new adenoviruses found in lizards.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Behncke, Helge; Schmidt, Volker; Geflügel, F T A; Papp, Tibor; Stöhr, Anke C; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-06-01

    In the years 2011-2012, a consensus nested polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of adenovirus (AdV) infection in reptiles. During this screening, three new AdVs were detected. One of these viruses was detected in three lizards from a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida). Another was detected in a green anole (Anolis carolinensis). A third virus was detected in a Jackson's chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii). Analysis of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes of each of these viruses revealed that they all were different from one another and from all previously described reptilian AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial DNA polymerase gene sequence showed that all newly detected viruses clustered within the genus Atadenovirus. This is the first description of AdVs in these lizard species. PMID:25000689

  1. Direct exposure of mouse ovaries and oocytes to high doses of an adenovirus gene therapy vector fails to lead to germ cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J W

    2001-04-01

    The risk of insertion of adenovirus gene therapy DNA into female germ cells during the course of somatic gene therapy was stringently tested in the mouse by injecting up to 10(10) infectious particles directly into the ovary and by incubating naked oocytes in a solution of 2 x 10(8) particles/ml for 1 h prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The vector used was a recombinant adenovirus carrying the bacterial lacZ gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Adbeta-gal). Ovaries were stained for LacZ activity, or immunochemically for LacZ, 5-7 days after injection. Although very large amounts of LacZ activity and protein were detected, all positive staining was in the thecal portion of the ovary, with no staining seen in oocytes. In another series of experiments, mice with injected ovaries were mated, and preimplantation embryos or fetuses were analyzed either for LacZ expression or by PCR for lacZ DNA. None of 202 preimplantation embryos stained positively for LacZ and none of 58 fetuses were positive for DNA by PCR analysis. Finally, more than 1400 eggs were fertilized after exposure to the vector prior to IVF and stained as morulae for LacZ activity. Fewer than 2% of the embryos stained positively for LacZ, and experiments indicated that the staining was due to incomplete washing of the eggs prior to IVF. These data provide strong evidence that adenoviruses cannot infect oocytes and that the risk of female germ-line transduction with such vectors is very low. PMID:11319918

  2. Replication-competent human adenovirus 11p vectors can propagate in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gokumakulapalle, Madhuri; Mei, Ya-Fang

    2016-08-01

    The use of continuous cell lines derived from the African green monkey kidney (AGMK) has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. However, to date, these cells have not been used to facilitate the creation of human adenoviruses because most human adenoviruses undergo abortive infections in them. Here, we report the susceptibility of AGMK-derived cells to adenovirus 11p (Ad11p) infection. First, we showed that CD46 molecules, which act as receptors for Ad11p, are expressed in AGMK cells. We then monitored Ad11p replication by measuring GFP expression as an indicator of viral transcription. We found that AGMK-derived cells were as capable as carcinoma cells at propagating full-length replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) DNA. Of the AGMK cell lines tested, Vero cells had the greatest capacity for adenovirus production. Thus, AGMK cells can be used to evaluate RCAd11p-mediated gene delivery, and Vero cells can be used for the production of RCAd11pGFP vectors at relatively high yields. PMID:27176913

  3. Enhanced Transduction and Replication of RGD-Fiber Modified Adenovirus in Primary T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sadhak; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Thaci, Bart; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are often used as vehicles to mediate gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, but their research scope in hematological cells remains limited due to a narrow choice of host cells that express the adenoviral receptor (CAR). T cells, which are attractive targets for gene therapy of numerous diseases, remain resistant to adenoviral infection because of the absence of CAR expression. Here, we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome when murine or human T cells are transduced with an adenovirus incorporating the RGD-fiber modification (Ad-RGD). Methodology/Principal Finding A luciferase-expressing replication-deficient Ad-RGD infected 3-fold higher number of activated primary T cells than an adenovirus lacking the RGD-fiber modification in vitro. Infection with replication-competent Ad-RGD virus also caused increased cell cycling, higher E1A copy number and enriched hexon antigen expression in both human and murine T cells. Transduction with oncolytic Ad-RGD also resulted in higher titers of progeny virus and enhanced the killing of T cells. In vivo, 35–45% of splenic T cells were transduced by Ad-RGD. Conclusions Collectively, our results prove that a fiber modified Ad-RGD successfully transduces and replicates in primary T cells of both murine and human origin. PMID:21464908

  4. A fiber-modified adenovirus co-expressing HSV-TK and Coli.NTR enhances antitumor activities in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wu, Hao; Feng, Xiao; Geng, Ran-Shen; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers especially in late and metastatic stages remain refractory to treatment despite advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based on adenoviral technology will be promising strategies for such advanced diseases. We previously showed that co-expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Coli.NTR) by an hTERT-driven adenovirus vector resulted in additive anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. As many tumor tissue and cancer cells express low level of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is the functional receptor for the fiber protein of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), novel Ad5 vectors containing genetically modifi ed fiber are attractive vehicles for achieving targeted gene transfer and improving suicide gene expression in these cancer cells. In the present study, we first built a simplified Ad5 vector platform for fiber modification and quick detection for gene transfer. Then a fiber-modified adenovirus vector containing an RGD motif in the HI loop of the fiber knob was constructed. After recombined with HSV-TK and Coli.NTR gene, this fiber-modified Ad5 vector (Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR) was compared with that of our previously constructed Ad5 vector (Ad-hT-TK/NTR) for its therapeutic effects in human breast cancer cell lines. The anti-tumor activity of Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR was significantly enhanced compared with Ad-hT-TK/NTR both in vitro and in vivo. This new vector platform provided a robust and simplified approach for capsid modification, and the fiber-modified Ad5 with double suicide genes under the control of hTERT promoter would be a useful gene therapy strategy for breast cancer. PMID:25031704

  5. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    PubMed Central

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  6. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Vanessa; Urien, Céline; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+) -type and CD103(+) -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+) -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+) -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+) -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+) DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+) DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  7. Identification and gene mapping of a 14,700-molecular-weight protein encoded by region E3 of group C adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tollefson, A E; Wold, W S

    1988-01-01

    Early region E3 of adenovirus type 5 should encode at least nine proteins as judged by the DNA sequence and the spliced structures of the known mRNAs. Only two E3 proteins have been proved to exist, a glycoprotein (gp19K) and an 11,600-molecular-weight protein (11.6K protein). Here we describe an abundant 14.7K protein coded by a gene in the extreme 3' portion of E3. To identify this 14.7K protein, we constructed a bacterial vector which synthesized a TrpE-14.7K fusion protein, then we prepared antiserum against the fusion protein. This antiserum immunoprecipitated the 14.7K protein from cells infected with adenovirus types 5 and 2, as well as with a variety of E3 deletion mutants. Synthesis of the 14.7K protein correlated precisely with the presence or absence of the 14.7K gene and with the synthesis of the mRNA (mRNA h) which encodes the 14.7K protein. The 14.7K protein appeared as a triplet on immunoprecipitation gels and Western blots (immunoblots). Images PMID:3275435

  8. Adenovirus-mediated suppression of HMGI(Y) protein synthesis as potential therapy of human malignant neoplasias

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Stefania; Portella, Giuseppe; Fedele, Monica; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Fusco, Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    High mobility group I (HMGI) proteins are overexpressed in several human malignant tumors. We previously demonstrated that inhibition of HMGI synthesis prevents thyroid cell transformation. Here, we report that an adenovirus carrying the HMGI(Y) gene in an antisense orientation (Ad-Yas) induced programmed cell death of two human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell lines (ARO and FB-1), but not normal thyroid cells. The Ad-Yas virus led to death of lung, colon, and breast carcinoma cells. A control adenovirus carrying the lacZ gene did not inhibit the growth of either normal or neoplastic cells. Ad-Yas treatment of tumors induced in athymic mice by ARO cells caused a drastic reduction in tumor size. Therefore, suppression of HMGI(Y) protein synthesis by an HMGI(Y) antisense adenoviral vector may be a useful treatment strategy in a variety of human malignant neoplasias, in which HMGI(Y) gene overexpression is a general event. PMID:10759549

  9. An Adenovirus Vector with Genetically Modified Fibers Demonstrates Expanded Tropism via Utilization of a Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor-Independent Cell Entry Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Igor; Krasnykh, Victor; Miller, C. Ryan; Wang, Minghui; Kashentseva, Elena; Mikheeva, Galina; Belousova, Natalya; Curiel, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad) have become the vector system of choice for a variety of gene therapy applications. However, the utility of Ad vectors is limited due to the low efficiency of Ad-mediated gene transfer to cells expressing marginal levels of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In order to achieve CAR-independent gene transfer by Ad vectors in clinically important contexts, we proposed modification of viral tropism via genetic alterations to the viral fiber protein. We have shown that incorporation of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptide in the HI loop of the fiber knob domain results in the ability of the virus to utilize an alternative receptor during the cell entry process. We have also demonstrated that due to its expanded tissue tropism, this novel vector is capable of efficient transduction of primary tumor cells. An increase in gene transfer to ovarian cancer cells of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude was demonstrated by the vector, suggesting that recombinant Ad containing fibers with an incorporated RGD peptide may be of great utility for treatment of neoplasms characterized by deficiency of the primary Ad type 5 receptor. PMID:9811704

  10. Gene-based aggregate SNP associations between candidate AD genes and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Tranah, Gregory; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and near ABCA7, BIN1, CASS4, CD2AP, CD33, CELF1, CLU, complement receptor 1 (CR1), EPHA1, EXOC3L2, FERMT2, HLA cluster (DRB5-DQA), INPP5D, MEF2C, MS4A cluster (MS4A3-MS4A6E), NME8, PICALM, PTK2B, SLC24A4, SORL1, and ZCWPW1 have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in large meta-analyses. We aimed to determine whether established AD-associated genes are associated with longitudinal cognitive decline by examining aggregate variation across these gene regions. In two single-sex cohorts of older, community-dwelling adults, we examined the association between SNPs in previously implicated gene regions and cognitive decline (age-adjusted person-specific cognitive slopes) using a Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT). In regions which showed aggregate significance, we examined the univariate association between individual SNPs in the region and cognitive decline. Only two of the original AD-associated SNPs were significantly associated with cognitive decline in our cohorts. We identified significant aggregate-level associations between cognitive decline and the gene regions BIN1, CD33, CELF1, CR1, HLA cluster, and MEF2C in the all-female cohort and significant associations with ABCA7, HLA cluster, MS4A6E, PICALM, PTK2B, SLC24A4, and SORL1 in the all-male cohort. We also identified a block of eight correlated SNPs in CD33 and several blocks of correlated SNPs in CELF1 that were significantly associated with cognitive decline in univariate analysis in the all-female cohort. PMID:27005436

  11. Treatment of Cancer Patients With a Serotype 5/3 Chimeric Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing GMCSF

    PubMed Central

    Koski, Anniina; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Escutenaire, Sophie; Pesonen, Sari; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Nokisalmi, Petri; Raki, Mari; Rajecki, Maria; Guse, Kilian; Ranki, Tuuli; Oksanen, Minna; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Haavisto, Elina; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Ugolini, Matteo; Helminen, Andreas; Karli, Eerika; Hannuksela, Päivi; Pesonen, Saila; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2010-01-01

    Augmenting antitumor immunity is a promising way to enhance the potency of oncolytic adenoviral therapy. Granulocyte–macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Serotype 5 adenoviruses (Ad5) are commonly used in cancer gene therapy. However, expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor is variable in many advanced tumors and preclinical data have demonstrated an advantage for replacing the Ad5 knob with the Ad3 knob. Here, a 5/3 capsid chimeric and p16-Rb pathway selective oncolytic adenovirus coding for GMCSF was engineered and tested preclinically. A total of 21 patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapies were then treated intratumorally and intravenously with Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF, which was combined with low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide to reduce regulatory T cells. No severe adverse events occurred. Analysis of pretreatment samples of malignant pleural effusion and ascites confirmed the efficacy of Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF in transduction and cell killing. Evidence of biological activity of the virus was seen in 13/21 patients and 8/12 showed objective clinical benefit as evaluated by radiology with Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Antiadenoviral and antitumoral immune responses were elicited after treatment. Thus, Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF seems safe in treating cancer patients and promising signs of efficacy were seen. PMID:20664527

  12. Binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Narita, M; Fujinaga, K

    1989-01-01

    Twenty one binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins were identified on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene using DNase I footprint assay. The proximal promoter region contained five binding sites that overlapped the cap site, TATA box, TATA-like sequence, CCAAT box, and -100 region relative to the E1A cap site(+1). The -190 region was a potential site for octamer-motif binding proteins, such as NFIII and OBP100. An upstream copy of the E1A enhancer element 1 was the site for a factor (E1A-F) with the binding specificity of XGGAYGT (X = A, C; Y = A, T). E1A-F factor also bound to three other sites, one of which coincided with the distal E1A enhancer element. The distal element also contained a potential site for ATF factor. The adenovirus minimal origin of DNA replication competed for DNA-protein complex formation on the CCAAT and TATA box region and the -190 region, suggesting that these regions interacted with a common or related factor. Images PMID:2532319

  13. Neogenesis and proliferation of {beta}-cells induced by human betacellulin gene transduction via retrograde pancreatic duct injection of an adenovirus vector

    SciTech Connect

    Tokui, Yae . E-mail: ytokui@imed2.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kozawa, Junji; Yamagata, Kazuya; Zhang, Jun; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Okita, Kohei; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Shimomura, Iichiro; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro |

    2006-12-01

    Betacellulin (BTC) has been shown to have a role in the differentiation and proliferation of {beta}-cells both in vitro and in vivo. We administered a human betacellulin (hBTC) adenovirus vector to male ICR mice via retrograde pancreatic duct injection. As a control, we administered a {beta}-galactosidase adenovirus vector. In the mice, hBTC protein was mainly overexpressed by pancreatic duct cells. On immunohistochemical analysis, we observed features of {beta}-cell neogenesis as newly formed insulin-positive cells in the duct cell lining or islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) closely associated with the ducts. The BrdU labeling index of {beta}-cells was also increased by the betacellulin vector compared with that of control mice. These results indicate that hBTC gene transduction into adult pancreatic duct cells promoted {beta}-cell differentiation (mainly from duct cells) and proliferation of pre-existing {beta}-cells, resulting in an increase of the {beta}-cell mass that improved glucose tolerance in diabetic mice.

  14. Adenovirus type 7 penton purification of soluble pentamers from Escherichia coli and development of an integrin-dependent gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Bal, H P; Chroboczek, J; Schoehn, G; Ruigrok, R W; Dewhurst, S

    2000-10-01

    Adenoviral gene therapy vectors suffer from the disadvantages of toxicity and immunogenicity associated with the expression of adenoviral genes from the vector backbone. We report here an alternative strategy for gene delivery that utilizes a single component of the adenoviral type 7 capsid, the penton base (Ad7PB). The Ad7PB gene was sequenced and its amino-acid composition was deduced from its nucleotide sequence. The penton was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble C-terminal fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST-Ad7PB) and was purified by single-step affinity chromatography. Both GST-Ad7PB and cleaved (GST-free) Ad7PB retained the ability to fold into pentamers as observed by electron microscopy. GST-Ad7PB was able to bind a synthetic peptide (FK20) derived from the Ad type 7 fiber and retard DNA through a polylysine chain present at the C-terminus of this linker peptide. GST-Ad7PB was an effective cell transfecting agent when assayed on 293 cells. Transfection was not dependent upon the presence of lysosomotropic agents indicating efficient endosome escape capability. Excess of an RGD-containing peptide derived from Ad7PB was able to inhibit transfection indicating specific integrin-mediated uptake of the GST-Ad7PB-FK20-DNA complexes. We propose that Ad7 pentons can be developed into integrin-specific gene delivery agents. PMID:10998069

  15. High expression of functional adenovirus DNA polymerase and precursor terminal protein using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Stunnenberg, H G; Lange, H; Philipson, L; van Miltenburg, R T; van der Vliet, P C

    1988-01-01

    Initiation of Adenovirus (Ad) DNA replication occurs by a protein-priming mechanism in which the viral precursor terminal protein (pTP) and DNA polymerase (pol) as well as two nuclear DNA-binding proteins from uninfected HeLa cells are required. Biochemical studies on the pTP and DNA polymerase proteins separately have been hampered due to their low abundance and their presence as a pTP-pol complex in Ad infected cells. We have constructed a genomic sequence containing the large open reading frame from the Ad5 pol gene to which 9 basepairs from a putative exon were ligated. When inserted behind a modified late promoter of vaccinia virus the resulting recombinant virus produced enzymatically active 140 kDa Ad DNA polymerase. The same strategy was applied to express the 80 kDa pTP gene in a functional form. Both proteins were overexpressed at least 30-fold compared to extracts from Adenovirus infected cells and, when combined, were fully active for initiation in an in vitro Adenovirus DNA replication system. Images PMID:3362670

  16. Pre-Existing Adenovirus Immunity Modifies a Complex Mixed Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Response to an Ad5/HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Samuel O.; Kublin, James G.; Hammer, Scott M.; Borgerding, Joleen; Huang, Yunda; Casimiro, Danilo R.; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2011-01-01

    The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732). Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36) or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34). Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes). At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008), and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009), IL-2 (p = 0.006) and IL-10 (p = 0.05) in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these results suggest

  17. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits human colorectal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Swanson, X; Mhashilkar, A M; Oida, Y; Schrock, R; Branch, C D; Chada, S; Zumstein, L; Ramesh, R

    2003-11-01

    The tumor-suppressor gene PTEN encodes a multifunctional phosphatase that is mutated in a variety of human cancers. PTEN inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and downstream functions, including activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), cell survival, and cell proliferation in tumor cells carrying mutant- or deletion-type PTEN. In such tumor cells, enforced expression of PTEN decreases cell proliferation through cell-cycle arrest at G1 phase accompanied, in some cases, by induction of apoptosis. More recently, the tumor-suppressive effect of PTEN has been reported in ovarian and thyroid tumors that are wild type for PTEN. In the present study, we examined the tumor-suppressive effect of PTEN in human colorectal cancer cells that are wild type for PTEN. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of PTEN (Ad-PTEN) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis significantly in colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1, HT29, and SW480) carrying wtPTEN than in normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) carrying wtPTEN. This suppression was induced through downregulation of the Akt/PKB pathway, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, but not the G1 phase. Furthermore, treatment of human colorectal tumor xenografts (HT-29, and SW480) with Ad-PTEN resulted in significant (P=0.01) suppression of tumor growth. These results indicate that Ad-PTEN exerts its tumor-suppressive effect on colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of cell-cycle progression and induction of cell death. Thus Ad-PTEN may be a potential therapeutic for treatment of colorectal cancers. PMID:14528320

  18. [Inhibition of adenovirus reproduction in cell culture by specific antibodies].

    PubMed

    Povnytsia, O Iu; Nosach, L M; Zhovnovata, V L; Zahorodnia, S D; Vantsak, N P; Tokarchuk, L V; Polishchuk, O M; Diachenko, N S

    2009-01-01

    The capacity of specific antibodies to inhibit the reproduction of homo- and heterologous adenoviruses in Hela cell added to culture medium after virus adsorption was studied. The inhibiting effect of polyclonal antivirus and monospecific antihexone antibodies to homo- and heterologous adenoviruses was shown. The effect was more expressed when using antibodies to homologous antibodies. The intensity of inhibition depended on antibodies concentration in the medium and infecting dose of the virus. Essential reduction of the quantity of infected cells and a decrease of the titer of adenovirus synthesized in the presence of homo- and heterologous antibodies was shown but adenovirus reproduction was not inhibited completely. PMID:19663330

  19. Synergistic anti-tumor efficacy of immunogenic adenovirus ONCOS-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GM-CSF) and standard of care chemotherapy in preclinical mesothelioma model.

    PubMed

    Kuryk, Lukasz; Haavisto, Elina; Garofalo, Mariangela; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Pesonen, Sari; Ranki, Tuuli; Vassilev, Lotta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-15

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare cancer type caused mainly by asbestos exposure. The median overall survival time of a mesothelioma cancer patient is less than 1-year from diagnosis. Currently there are no curative treatment modalities for malignant mesothelioma, however treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can help to improve patient prognosis and increase life expectancy. Pemetrexed-Cisplatin is the only standard of care (SoC) chemotherapy for malignant mesothelioma, but the median PFS/OS (progression-free survival/overall survival) from the initiation of treatment is only up to 12 months. Therefore, new treatment strategies against malignant mesothelioma are in high demand. ONCOS-102 is a dual targeting, chimeric oncolytic adenovirus, coding for human GM-CSF. The safety and immune activating properties of ONCOS-102 have already been assessed in phase 1 study (NCT01598129). In this preclinical study, we evaluated the antineoplastic activity of combination treatment with SoC chemotherapy (Pemetrexed, Cisplatin, Carboplatin) and ONCOS-102 in xenograft BALB/c model of human malignant mesothelioma. We demonstrated that ONCOS-102 is able to induce immunogenic cell death of human mesothelioma cell lines in vitro and showed anti-tumor activity in the treatment of refractory H226 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) xenograft model. While chemotherapy alone showed no anti-tumor activity in the mesothelioma mouse model, ONCOS-102 was able to slow down tumor growth. Interestingly, a synergistic anti-tumor effect was seen when ONCOS-102 was combined with chemotherapy regimens. These findings give a rationale for the clinical testing of ONCOS-102 in combination with first-line chemotherapy in patients suffering from malignant mesothelioma. PMID:27287512

  20. Inhibitory effect of recombinant adenovirus carrying immunocaspase-3 on hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohua; Fan, Rui; Zou, Xue; Gao, Lin; Jin, Haifeng; Du, Rui; Xia, Lin; Fan, Daiming . E-mail: fandaim@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-06-29

    Previously, Srinivasula devised a contiguous molecule (C-cp-3 or immunocaspase-3) containing the small and large subunits similar to that in the active form of caspas-3 and found C-cp-3 had similar cleavage activity to the active form of caspase-3. To search for a new clinical application of C-cp-3 to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, recombinant adenoviruses carrying the C-cp-3 and a-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter (Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3) were constructed through a bacterial homologous recombinant system. The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and the inhibitory effect of Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 on the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells were determined by X-gal stain and MTT assay, respectively. The tumorigenicity of hepatocarcinoma cells transfected by Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 and the antitumor effect of Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 on transplanted tumor in nude mice were detected in vivo. The results suggested that Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 can inhibit specifically proliferation of AFP-producing human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo and adenovirus-mediated C-cp-3 transfer could be used as a new method to treat human hepatocarcinoma.

  1. Human Adenovirus Serotype 3 Vector Packaged by a Rare Serotype 14 Hexon

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiang; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus serotype 3 (rAd3), which infects cells through the receptor desmoglein 2 (DSG2), has been investigated as a vector for gene therapy or vaccination. However, pre-existing anti-vector immunity may limit the practical application of rAd3. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence and neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers to Ad3 and alternate serotypes in normal healthy adults in southern China. Sera samples had a high seroprevalence (80.00%) against Ad3 and Ad7 (85.83%), compared with Ad14 (22.50%). Furthermore, 19.17% and 25.83% of samples had high-titer neutralizing antibodies to Ad3 and Ad7, respectively, compared with 3.33% against Ad14. We constructed a chimeric adenovirus, rAd3H14, designed to evade anti-vector immunity by replacing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing hexon of the rAd3EGFP vector with a hexon from Ad14. The chimeric vector rAd3H14 was not neutralized in vitro efficiently by Ad3 NAbs using sera from mice and normal healthy human volunteers. Furthermore, in contrast to the unmodified vector rAd3EGFP, rAd3H14 induced robust antibody responses against EGFP in mice with high levels of pre-existing anti-Ad3 immunity. In conclusion, the chimeric vector rAd3H14 may be a useful alternative vector in adult populations with a high prevalence of Ad3 NAbs. PMID:27328032

  2. RGD-modifided oncolytic adenovirus exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on CAR-negative bladder cancer-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Xu, H; Shen, J; Yang, Y; Wu, S; Xiao, J; Xu, Y; Liu, X-Y; Chu, L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cell (CIC) is critical in cancer development, maintenance and recurrence. The reverse expression pattern of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and αν integrin in bladder cancer decreases the infection efficiency of adenovirus. We constructed Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified oncolytic adenovirus, carrying EGFP or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene (OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-EGFP/TRAIL), and applied them to CAR-negative bladder cancer T24 cells and cancer-initiating T24 sphere cells. OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-EGFP had enhanced infection ability and cytotoxic effect on T24 cells and T24 sphere cells, but little cytoxicity on normal urothelial SV-HUC-1 cells compared with the unmodified virus OncoAd.hTERT-EGFP. Notably, OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-TRAIL induced apoptosis in T24 cells and T24 sphere cells. Furthermore, it completely inhibited xenograft initiation established by the oncolytic adenovirus-pretreated T24 sphere cells, and significantly suppressed tumor growth by intratumoral injection. These results provided a promising therapeutic strategy for CAR-negative bladder cancer through targeting CICs. PMID:25973680

  3. Strategies to overcome host immunity to adenovirus vectors in vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Erin E; Timares, Laura; Matthews, Qiana L

    2013-01-01

    The first clinical evaluations of adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors for gene therapy were initiated in the mid-1990s and led to great anticipation for future utility. However, excitement surrounding gene therapy, particularly Ad-based therapy, was diminished upon the death of Jesse Gelsinger, and recent discouraging results from the HIV vaccine STEP trial have brought efficacy and safety issues to the forefront again. Even so, Ad vectors are still considered among the safest and most effective vaccine vectors. Innate and pre-existing immunity to Ad mediate much of the acute toxicities and reduced therapeutic efficacies observed following vaccination with this vector. Thus, innovative strategies must continue to be developed to reduce Ad-specific antigenicity and immune recognition. This review provides an overview and critique of the most promising strategies, including results from preclinical trials in mice and nonhuman primates, which aim to revive the future of Ad-based vaccines. PMID:19485756

  4. Adenovirus type 5 early region 1b gene product is required for efficient shutoff of host protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Babiss, L E; Ginsberg, H S

    1984-01-01

    To determine the role adenovirus 5 early region 1b-encoded 21- and 55-kilodalton proteins play in adenovirus productive infection, mutants have been isolated which were engineered to contain small deletions or insertions at 5.8, 7.9, or 9.6 map units. By using an overlap recombination procedure involving H5dl314 (delta 3.7 to 4.6 map units) DNA cleaved at 2.6 map units with ClaI and the adenovirus 5 XhoI-C (0 to 15.5 map units) fragment containing the desired mutation, viral mutants were isolated by their ability to produce plaques on KB cell line 18, which constitutively expresses only viral early region 1b functions (Babiss et al., J. Virol. 46:454-465, 1983). DNA sequence analysis of the viral mutants isolated (H5dl118, H5dl110, H5in127, and H5dl163) indicates that all of the viruses contain mutations which affect the 55-kilodalton protein, whereas dl118 should also produce a truncated form of the 21-kilodalton protein. When analyzed for their replication characteristics in HeLa cells, all of the mutant viruses exhibited extended eclipse periods and effected yields that were reduced to 10% or less of that produced by H5sub309 (parent virus of the mutants which is phenotypically identical to wild-type adenovirus 5). When compared with characteristics of sub309, the early and late transcription and DNA replication of the mutants were similar, but synthesis of late polypeptides and late cytoplasmic mRNAs was greatly reduced. Quantitation of mutant virus-specific late mRNAs associated with polysomes revealed a threefold reduction when compared with that of sub309. Analysis of infected cell extracts further revealed that these mutants were incapable of efficiently shutting off host cell protein synthesis, suggesting that the 55-kilodalton protein plays a role in this process. These data suggest that early region 1b products may function by interacting with additional viral or host cell macromolecules to modulate host cell shutoff or that some late viral mRNA or

  5. Adenovirus Type 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Population: Evidence for a Hybrid Deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecule and the Absence of Adenovirus-Encapsidated Circular Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Levin, Myron J.; Wiese, William H.; Lewis, Andrew M.; Rowe, Wallace P.

    1970-01-01

    The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the adenovirus-encapsidated particles of the adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid population plaque variant (Ad2++ HEY), known to yield SV40 virus with high efficiency, was studied by equilibrium density centrifugation followed by ribonucleic acid-DNA hybridization employing virus-specific complementary ribonucleic acids synthesized in vitro. These techniques establish linkage between the Ad2 and SV40 components in the adenovirus-encapsidated particles of this population. The linkage is alkali-resistant and presumably covalent; thus, the Ad2 DNA and SV40 DNA are present in a hybrid molecule. Velocity centrifugation studies in alkaline sucrose gradients eliminated the possibility that supercoiled circular SV40 DNA is present in the adenovirus capsids. The DNA obtained from the adenovirus-encapsidated particles of the Ad2++ HEY population appears to consist of nonhybrid Ad2 DNA and Ad2-SV40 hybrid DNA molecules. PMID:4322081

  6. Induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell response by dendritic cells generated from ecto-mesenchymal stem cells infected with an adenovirus containing the MAGE-D4a gene

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHIJIE; LI, BING; SHEN, XUEFENG; ZHANG, RUI; GAO, DAKUAN; GUO, QINGDONG; JIN, YAN; FEI, ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using ecto-mesenchymal stem cell (EMSC)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) for glioma immunotherapy following infection by a recombinant adenovirus containing the melanoma-associated antigen D4a (MAGE-D4a) gene. The ex vivo cultured EMSCs were infected by the adenoviral plasmid containing MAGE-D4a (pAd/MAGE-D4a). Efficiency of transfection was evaluated through the detection of green fluorescent protein-marked MAGE-D4a. The MAGE-EMSCs were induced to differentiate into DCs, termed as MAGE-EMSCs-DCs. The morphology was subsequently analyzed under a microscope, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) assays were performed to analyze the cytotoxicity of the MAGE-EMSC-DCs on the human glioma U251 cell line. Following purification by magnetic-activated cell sorting, the EMSCs grew into swirls, with a long spindle shape and were fibroblast-like. The gene transfected with recombinant adenovirus vectors maintained high and stable expression levels of MAGE-D4a, and its efficiency was increased in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner. The results of the MTT assay indicated that the T cells, primed by the recombinant MAGE-D4a-infected EMSC-DCs in vitro, recognized MAGE-D4a-expressing tumor cell lines in a human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted manner, and evoked a higher cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response. The CTL response induced by the MAGE-EMSC-DCs, co-cultured with the U251 cells for 24 h, produced 765.0 pg/ml IFN-γ, which was significantly greater when compared to the control wells. T lymphocytes stimulated by MAGE-EMSC-DCs evoke a higher CTL response to human glioma cell lines, and may serve as a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of MAGE-D4a-expressing glioma. PMID:27073570

  7. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  8. Unabated Adenovirus Replication following Activation of the cGAS/STING-Dependent Antiviral Response in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cGAS/STING DNA sensing complex has recently been established as a predominant pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for DNA-directed type I interferon (IFN) innate immune activation. Using replication-defective adenovirus vectors and replication-competent wild-type adenovirus, we have modeled the influence of the cGAS/STING cascade in permissive human cell lines (A549, HeLa, ARPE19, and THP1). Wild-type adenovirus induced efficient early activation of the cGAS/STING cascade in a cell-specific manner. In all responsive cell lines, cGAS/STING short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown resulted in a loss of TBK1 and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) activation, a lack of beta interferon transcript induction, loss of interferon-dependent STAT1 activation, and diminished induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Adenoviruses that infect through the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad2 and Ad5) and the CD46 (Ad35) and desmoglein-2 (Ad7) viral receptors all induce the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. The magnitude of the IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response was strongly influenced by serotype, with Ad35>Ad7>Ad2. For each serotype, no enhancement of viral DNA replication or virus production occurred in cGAS or STING shRNA-targeted cell line pools. We found no replication advantage in permissive cell lines that do not trigger the cGAS/STING cascade following infection. The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and we found no evidence that Ad stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency. IMPORTANCE This study shows for the first time that the cGAS DNA sensor directs a dominant IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response to adenovirus in human cell lines. Activation of cGAS occurs with viruses that infect through different high-affinity receptors (CAR, CD46, and desmoglein-2), and the magnitude of the cGAS/STING DNA response cascade is influenced by serotype-specific functions

  9. Short-fiber protein of ad40 confers enteric tropism and protection against acidic gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ester; Romero, Carolina; Río, Adolfo; Miralles, Marta; Raventós, Aida; Planells, Laura; Burgueño, Joan F; Hamada, Hirofumi; Perales, Jose Carlos; Bosch, Assumpció; Gassull, Miguel Angel; Fernández, Ester; Chillon, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    The lack of vectors for selective gene delivery to the intestine has hampered the development of gene therapy strategies for intestinal diseases. We hypothesized that chimeric adenoviruses of Ad5 (species C) displaying proteins of the naturally enteric Ad40 (species F) might hold the intestinal tropism of the species F and thus be useful for gene delivery to the intestine. As oral-fecal dissemination of enteric adenovirus must withstand the conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, we studied the resistance of chimeric Ad5 carrying the short-fiber protein of Ad40 to acid milieu and proteases and found that the Ad40 short fiber confers resistance to inactivation in acidic conditions and that AdF/40S was further activated upon exposure to low pH. In contrast, the chimeric AdF/40S exhibited only a slightly higher protease resistance compared with Ad5 to proteases present in simulated gastric juice. Then, the biodistribution of different chimeric adenoviruses by oral, rectal, and intravenous routes was tested. Expression of reporter β-galactosidase was measured in extracts of 15 different organs 3 days after administration. Our results indicate that among the chimeric viruses, only intrarectally given AdF/40S infected the colon (preferentially enteroendocrine cells and macrophages) and to a lesser extent, the small intestine, whereas Ad5 infectivity was very poor in all tissues. Additional in vitro experiments showed improved infectivity of AdF/40S also in different human epithelial cell lines. Therefore, our results point at the chimeric adenovirus AdF/40S as an interesting vector for selective gene delivery to treat intestinal diseases. PMID:23746215

  10. Impact of Adenovirus infection in host cell metabolism evaluated by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Carina; P Teixeira, Ana; M Alves, Paula

    2016-08-10

    Adenovirus-based vectors are powerful vehicles for gene transfer applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Although highly exploited in the clinical setting, key aspects of the adenovirus biology are still not well understood, in particular the subversion of host cell metabolism during viral infection and replication. The aim of this work was to gain insights on the metabolism of two human cell lines (HEK293 and an amniocyte-derived cell line, 1G3) after infection with an adenovirus serotype 5 vector (AdV5). In order to profile metabolic alterations, we used (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, which allowed the quantification of 35 metabolites in cell culture supernatants with low sample preparation and in a relatively short time. Significant differences between both cell lines in non-infected cultures were identified, namely in glutamine and acetate metabolism, as well as by-product secretion. The main response to AdV5 infection was an increase in glucose consumption and lactate production rates. Moreover, cultures performed with or without glutamine supplementation confirmed the exhaustion of this amino acid as one of the main causes of lower AdV5 production at high cell densities (10- and 1.5-fold less specific yields in HEK293 and 1G3 cells, respectively), and highlighted different degrees of glutamine dependency of adenovirus replication in each cell line. The observed metabolic alterations associated with AdV5 infection and specificity of the host cell line can be useful for targeted bioprocess optimization. PMID:27215342

  11. Efficacy of gene-therapy based on adenovirus encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Cruz, Alejandro; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; Ramos-Espinosa, Octavio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Xing, Zhou; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio

    2016-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), although a curable disease, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is necessary to develop a short-term therapy with reduced drug toxicity in order to improve adherence rate and control disease burden. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be a key cytokine in the treatment of pulmonary TB since it primes the activation and differentiation of myeloid and non-myeloid precursor cells, inducing the release of protective Th1 cytokines. In this work, we administrated by intratracheal route recombinant adenoviruses encoding GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF). This treatment produced significant bacterial elimination when administered in a single dose at 60 days of infection with drug sensitive or drug resistant Mtb strains in a murine model of progressive disease. Moreover, AdGM-CSF combined with primary antibiotics produced more rapid elimination of pulmonary bacterial burdens than conventional chemotherapy suggesting that this form of treatment could shorten the conventional treatment. PMID:27553405

  12. Properties of the adenovirus IVa2 gene product, an effector of late-phase-dependent activation of the major late promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, P; Kedinger, C

    1996-01-01

    The adenovirus major late promoter is strongly activated after the onset of viral DNA replication. Sequence elements located downstream of the major later promoter start site have previously been shown to be essential for this activation. Two proteins (DEF-A and DEF-B) bind to these elements in a late-phase-dependent manner. DEF-B has been identified as the product of adenovirus intermediate gene IVa2 (pIVa2) (C. Tribouley, P. Lutz, A. Staub, and C. Kedinger, J. Virol. 68:4450-4457, 1994). Here we show that pIVa2, while monomeric in solution, binds to its recognition sequence as a dimer and that two 20-residue amphipathic alpha helices play an essential role in this DNA-binding activity. Attempts to purify DEF-A have failed, but its chromatographic behavior, together with its immunological properties, established that pIVa2 is also a component of this heteromeric protein. In addition, the time course of pIVa2 synthesis during infection correlated with simultaneous detection of the binding of both DEF-A and DEF-B complexes to the downstream elements. Finally, as revealed by immunomicroscopy, pIVa2 is targeted to the nucleus, where it distributes to restricted locations in the nucleoplasm, as well as to the nucleoli. Altogether, these results demonstrate that pIVa2 plays a critical role in the transition from the early to the late phase of the lytic cycle. Furthermore, pIVa2 may serve additional functions yet to be uncovered, as suggested by its presence within the cell nucleolus. PMID:8627656

  13. Delay of vaccinia virus-induced apoptosis in nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells by the cowpox virus CHOhr and adenovirus E1B 19K genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ink, B S; Gilbert, C S; Evan, G I

    1995-01-01

    The infection of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells produces a rapid shutdown in protein synthesis, and the infection is abortive (R.R. Drillien, D. Spehner, and A. Kirn, Virology 111:488-499, 1978; D.E. Hruby, D.L. Lynn, R. Condit, and J.R. Kates, J. Gen. Virol. 47:485-488, 1980). Cowpox virus, which can productively infect CHO cells, had previously been shown to contain a host range gene, CHOhr, which confers on vaccinia virus the ability to replicate in CHO cells (D. Spehner, S. Gillard, R. Drillien, and A. Kirn, J. Virol. 62:1297-1304, 1988). We found that CHO cells underwent apoptosis when infected with vaccinia virus. The expression of the CHOhr gene in vaccinia virus allowed for the expression of late virus genes. CHOhr also delayed or prevented vaccinia virus-induced apoptosis in CHO cells such that there was sufficient time for replication of the virus before the cell died. The E1B 19K gene from adenovirus also delayed vaccinia virus-induced apoptosis; however, there was no detectable expression of late virus genes. Furthermore, E1B 19K also delayed cell death in CHO cells which had been productively infected with vaccinia virus. This study identifies a new antiapoptotic gene from cowpox virus, CHOhr, for which the protein contains an ankyrin-like repeat and shows no significant homology to other proteins. This work also indicates that an antiapoptotic gene from one virus family can delay cell death in an infection of a virus from a different family. PMID:7815529

  14. Transforming Potential of the Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nevels, Michael; Täuber, Birgitt; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Spruss, Thilo; Wolf, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Previous observations that the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E4orf6 and E4orf3 gene products have redundant effects in viral lytic infection together with the recent findings that E4orf6 possesses transforming potential prompted us to investigate the effect of E4orf3 expression on the transformation of primary rat cells in combination with adenovirus E1 oncogene products. Our results demonstrate for the first time that E4orf3 can cooperate with adenovirus E1A and E1A plus E1B proteins to transform primary baby rat kidney cells, acting synergistically with E4orf6 in the presence of E1B gene products. Transformed rat cells expressing E4orf3 exhibit morphological alterations, higher growth rates and saturation densities, and increased tumorigenicity compared with transformants expressing E1 proteins only. Consistent with previous results for adenovirus-infected cells, the E4orf3 protein is immunologically restricted to discrete nuclear structures known as PML oncogenic domains (PODs) in transformed rat cells. As opposed to E4orf6, the ability of E4orf3 to promote oncogenic cell growth is probably not linked to a modulation of p53 functions and stability. Instead, our results indicate that the transforming activities of E4orf3 are due to combinatorial effects that involve the binding to the adenovirus 55-kDa E1B protein and the colocalization with PODs independent from interactions with the PML gene product. These data fit well with a model in which the reorganization of PODs may trigger a cascade of processes that cause uncontrolled cell proliferation and neoplastic growth. In sum, our results provide strong evidence for the idea that interactions with PODs by viral proteins are linked to oncogenic transformation. PMID:9882365

  15. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. PMID:26226218

  16. ENHANCEMENT OF ADENOVIRUS DELIVERY AFTER ULTRASOUND-STIMULATED THERAPY IN A CANCER MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Sorace, Anna G.; Warram, Jason M.; Mahoney, Marshall; Zinn, Kurt R.; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of adenovirus (Ad) delivery to target tissues has the potential to advance the translation of cancer gene therapy. Ultrasound (US)-stimulated therapy uses microbubbles (MBs) exposed to low-intensity US energy to improve localized delivery. We hypothesize that US-stimulated gene therapy can improve Ad infection in a primary prostate tumor through enhanced tumor uptake and retention of the Ad vector. In vitro studies were performed to analyze the degree of Ad infectivity after application of US-stimulated gene therapy. A luciferase-based Ad on a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Ad5/3-CMV-Luc) was used in an animal model of prostate cancer (bilateral tumor growth) to evaluate Ad transduction efficiency after US-stimulated therapy. Bioluminescence imaging was employed for In vivo analysis to quantify Ad infection within the tumor. In vitro studies revealed no difference in Ad transduction between groups receiving US-stimulated therapy using high, low or sham US intensity exposures at various multiplicities of infection (MOIs) (p = 0.80). In vivo results indicated that tumors receiving US-stimulated therapy after intra-tumoral injection of Ad5/3-CMV-Luc (1 × 106 plaque-forming units) exhibited a 95.1% enhancement in tumor delivery compared with control tumors receiving sham US (p = 0.03). US-stimulated therapy has significant potential to immediately affect Ad-based cancer gene therapy by improving virus bioavailability in target tissues. PMID:24063960

  17. Organization of multiple regulatory elements in the control region of the adenovirus type 2-specific VARNA1 gene: fine mapping with linker-scanning mutants.

    PubMed

    Railey, J F; Wu, G J

    1988-03-01

    The adenovirus type 2-specific virus-associated RNA 1 (VARNA1) gene is transcribed by eucaryotic RNA polymerase III. Previous studies using deletion mutants for transcription have shown that the VARNA1 gene has a large control region which is composed of several regulatory elements. Twenty-five exact linker-scanning mutations in the control region, from -33 to +77, of this gene were used for definition of the number and boundaries of these elements. The effects of these mutations on transcription and competition for transcription factors in human KB cell extracts revealed five positive regulatory elements. The essential element, which coincided with the B block, was absolutely required for both transcription and formation of stable complexes. A second element, which included the A block, was also required for both transcription and formation of stable complexes. Although this element is not as essential as the B-block element, together with the B-block element it may be necessary for formation of the most basal form of transcription machinery. Therefore, these two elements are the promoter elements in this gene. In addition, one possible element in the interblock region and two elements in the 5' flanking region were also required for efficient transcription, but they were moderately required for formation of stable complexes. Transcription of these mutants and the wild-type gene using an extract of 293 cells was stimulated at least threefold over that with the KB cell extract, as expected. Similar regulatory elements of this gene were revealed, however, when the 293 cell extract was used for transcription of these mutants, suggesting that the E1A-mediated specific transcription factors act on the transcription machinery in a sequence-nonspecific manner. PMID:3367906

  18. Organization of multiple regulatory elements in the control region of the adenovirus type 2-specific VARNA1 gene: fine mapping with linker-scanning mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Railey, J F; Wu, G J

    1988-01-01

    The adenovirus type 2-specific virus-associated RNA 1 (VARNA1) gene is transcribed by eucaryotic RNA polymerase III. Previous studies using deletion mutants for transcription have shown that the VARNA1 gene has a large control region which is composed of several regulatory elements. Twenty-five exact linker-scanning mutations in the control region, from -33 to +77, of this gene were used for definition of the number and boundaries of these elements. The effects of these mutations on transcription and competition for transcription factors in human KB cell extracts revealed five positive regulatory elements. The essential element, which coincided with the B block, was absolutely required for both transcription and formation of stable complexes. A second element, which included the A block, was also required for both transcription and formation of stable complexes. Although this element is not as essential as the B-block element, together with the B-block element it may be necessary for formation of the most basal form of transcription machinery. Therefore, these two elements are the promoter elements in this gene. In addition, one possible element in the interblock region and two elements in the 5' flanking region were also required for efficient transcription, but they were moderately required for formation of stable complexes. Transcription of these mutants and the wild-type gene using an extract of 293 cells was stimulated at least threefold over that with the KB cell extract, as expected. Similar regulatory elements of this gene were revealed, however, when the 293 cell extract was used for transcription of these mutants, suggesting that the E1A-mediated specific transcription factors act on the transcription machinery in a sequence-nonspecific manner. Images PMID:3367906

  19. Organization of multiple regulatory elements in the control region of the adenovirus type 2-specific VARNA1 gene: Fine mapping with linker-scanning mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Railey, J.F.; Wu, G.J.

    1988-03-01

    The adenovirus type 2-specific virus-associated RNA 1 (VARNA1) gene is transcribed by eucaryotic RNA polymerase III. Previous studies using deletion mutants for transcription have shown that the VARNA1 gene has a large control region which is composed of several regulatory elements. Twenty-five exact linker-scanning mutations in the control region, from -33 to +77, of this gene were used for definition of the number and boundaries of these elements. The effects of these mutations on transcription and competition for transcription factors in human KB cell extracts revealed five positive regulatory elements. The essential element, which coincided with the B block, was absolutely required for both transcription and formation of stable complexes. A second element, which included the A block, was also required for both transcription and formation of stable complexes. Although this element is not as essential as the B-block element, together with the B-block element it may be necessary for formation of the most basal form of transcription machinery. Therefore, these two elements are the promoter elements in this gene. In addition, one possible element in the interblock region and two elements in the 5' flanking region were also required for efficient transcription, but they were moderately required for formation of stable complexes. Transcription of these mutants and the wild-type genes using an extract of 293 cells was stimulated at least threefold over that with the KB cell extract, as expected. Similar regulatory elements of this gene were revealed, however, when the 292 cell extract was used for transcription of these mutants, suggesting that the E1A-mediated specific transcription factors act on the transcription machinery in a sequence-nonspecific manner.

  20. Adenovirus type 2 encoded early 11 kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.V.K.N.; Kapoor, Q.S.

    1986-05-01

    Several adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) encoded early proteins have been identified in viral infected human KB cells. These proteins are of great interest as they play key roles in cell transformation, viral DNA synthesis and gene expression. They have partially purified an AD2 encoded early polypeptide of an apparent molecular weight of 11 kilodaltons from the nuclei of viral infected cells labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine. After DNA removal from the nuclear extracts, the polypeptide was isolated using DEAE-Sephacel anion exchange and Biogel P-10 gel filtration columns. This simple two step procedure yielded several fold purification of the polypeptide. Antisera raised in mice against an Ad2 transformed rat cell line 8617 was found to immunoprecipitate the 11 kDa polypeptide from the nuclear extract of Ad2 infected KB cells. After relating this protein to an open reading frame of an Ad2 early gene block by matching the amino acid sequences to the nucleotide sequences of early genes, they plan to functionally characterize this protein by using monoclonal antibodies in in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  1. Adenovirus type 12 E1A protein expressed in Escherichia coli is functional upon transfer by microinjection or protoplast fusion into mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krippl, B; Andrisani, O; Jones, N; Westphal, H; Rosenberg, M; Ferguson, B

    1986-01-01

    We efficiently expressed, in Escherichia coli, and purified the protein product encoded by the human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) 13S mRNA. The functional properties of the E1A protein were analyzed by introducing the protein by microinjection or protoplast fusion into living mammalian cells. We showed that the E. coli-expressed E1A protein induces gene expression of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1A deletion mutant Ad5dl312. The purified E1A protein rapidly and quantitatively localized to the cell nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm. In addition, we raised high-titered monospecific antibodies to the purified Ad12 E1A protein. Using deleted forms of an adenovirus type 2 and Ad5 hybrid (Ad2/5) E1A protein, we showed that all of the epitopes conserved between Ad2/5 E1A and Ad12 E1A protein that are recognized by the Ad12 E1A-specific antiserum map to within the first exon-encoded amino-terminal half of the protein. Images PMID:2942704

  2. Novel HDAd/EBV Reprogramming Vector and Highly Efficient Ad/CRISPR-Cas Sickle Cell Disease Gene Correction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Ding, Lei; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Wu, Li-Chen; Zhou, Dewang; Pawlik, Kevin M.; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Westin, Erik; Goldman, Frederick D.; Townes, Tim M.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas enhanced correction of the sickle cell disease (SCD) genetic defect in patient-specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) provides a potential gene therapy for this debilitating disease. An advantage of this approach is that corrected iPSCs that are free of off-target modifications can be identified before differentiating the cells into hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation. In order for this approach to be practical, iPSC generation must be rapid and efficient. Therefore, we developed a novel helper-dependent adenovirus/Epstein-Barr virus (HDAd/EBV) hybrid reprogramming vector, rCLAE-R6, that delivers six reprogramming factors episomally. HDAd/EBV transduction of keratinocytes from SCD patients resulted in footprint-free iPSCs with high efficiency. Subsequently, the sickle mutation was corrected by delivering CRISPR/Cas9 with adenovirus followed by nucleoporation with a 70 nt single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) correction template. Correction efficiencies of up to 67.9% (βA/[βS+βA]) were obtained. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of corrected iPSC lines demonstrated no CRISPR/Cas modifications in 1467 potential off-target sites and no modifications in tumor suppressor genes or other genes associated with pathologies. These results demonstrate that adenoviral delivery of reprogramming factors and CRISPR/Cas provides a rapid and efficient method of deriving gene-corrected, patient-specific iPSCs for therapeutic applications. PMID:27460639

  3. Novel HDAd/EBV Reprogramming Vector and Highly Efficient Ad/CRISPR-Cas Sickle Cell Disease Gene Correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ding, Lei; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Wu, Li-Chen; Zhou, Dewang; Pawlik, Kevin M; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Westin, Erik; Goldman, Frederick D; Townes, Tim M

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas enhanced correction of the sickle cell disease (SCD) genetic defect in patient-specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) provides a potential gene therapy for this debilitating disease. An advantage of this approach is that corrected iPSCs that are free of off-target modifications can be identified before differentiating the cells into hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation. In order for this approach to be practical, iPSC generation must be rapid and efficient. Therefore, we developed a novel helper-dependent adenovirus/Epstein-Barr virus (HDAd/EBV) hybrid reprogramming vector, rCLAE-R6, that delivers six reprogramming factors episomally. HDAd/EBV transduction of keratinocytes from SCD patients resulted in footprint-free iPSCs with high efficiency. Subsequently, the sickle mutation was corrected by delivering CRISPR/Cas9 with adenovirus followed by nucleoporation with a 70 nt single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) correction template. Correction efficiencies of up to 67.9% (β(A)/[β(S)+β(A)]) were obtained. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of corrected iPSC lines demonstrated no CRISPR/Cas modifications in 1467 potential off-target sites and no modifications in tumor suppressor genes or other genes associated with pathologies. These results demonstrate that adenoviral delivery of reprogramming factors and CRISPR/Cas provides a rapid and efficient method of deriving gene-corrected, patient-specific iPSCs for therapeutic applications. PMID:27460639

  4. Prevention of autoimmune recurrence and rejection by adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene transfer to the pancreatic graft in BB rat.

    PubMed

    Uchikoshi, F; Yang, Z D; Rostami, S; Yokoi, Y; Capocci, P; Barker, C F; Naji, A

    1999-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is the result of a selective destruction of pancreatic islets by autoreactive T-cells. Therefore, in the context of islet or pancreas transplantation, newly transplanted beta-cells are threatened by both recurrent autoimmune and alloimmune responses in recipients with type 1 diabetes. In the present study, using spontaneously diabetic BB rats, we demonstrate that whereas isolated islets are susceptible to autoimmune recurrence and rejection, pancreaticoduodenal grafts are resistant to these biological processes. This resistance is mediated by lymphohematopoietic cells transplanted with the graft, since inactivation of these passenger cells by irradiation uniformly rendered the pancreaticoduodenal grafts susceptible to recurrent autoimmunity. We further studied the impact of local immunomodulation on autoimmune recurrence and rejection by ex vivo adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene transfer to pancreaticoduodenal grafts. Syngeneic DR-BB pancreaticoduodenal grafts transduced with AdmCTLA4Ig were rescued from recurrent autoimmunity. In fully histoincompatible LEW-->BB transplants, in which rejection and recurrence should be able to act synergistically, AdmCTLA4Ig transduced LEW-pancreaticoduodenal allografts enjoyed markedly prolonged survival in diabetic BB recipients. In situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that transferred CTLA4Ig gene was strongly expressed in both endocrine and exocrine tissues on day 3. These results indicate the potential utility of local CD28-B7 costimulatory blockade for prevention of alloimmune and autoimmune destruction of pancreatic grafts in type 1 diabetic hosts. PMID:10078573

  5. [Construction and experimental immunity of recombinant replication-competent canine adenovirus type 2 expressing hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 subtype tiger influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Wei; Xia, Xian-Zhu; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Dan; Huang, Geng

    2006-04-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was highly pathogenic and sometimes even fatal for tigers and cats. To develop a new type of vaccine for Felidae influenza prevention, recombinant replication-competent canine adenovirus Type 2 expressing hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 subtype tiger influenza virus was constructed. A/tiger/Harbin/01/2003 (HSN1) HA gene was cloned into PVAX1. The HA expression cassette which included CMV and HA and PolyA was ligated into the E3 deletion region of pVAXdeltaE. The recombinant plasmid was named pdeltaEHA. The pdelta EHA and the pPoly2-CAV2 were digested with Nru I /Sal I, respectively. The purified Nru I/Sal I DNA fragment containing the HA expression cassette was cloned into pPoly2-CAV2 to generate the recombinant plasmid pCAV-2/HA. The recombinant genome was released from pCAV-2/HA, and was transfected into MDCK cells by Lipofectamine. The recombinant virus named CAV2/HA was gained. Anti-H5N1 influenza virus HI antibody (1:8 - 1:16) was detected in the cat immunized with CAV-2/HA. PMID:16736595

  6. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of endostatin in vivo results in high level of transgene expression and inhibition of tumor growth and metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Bernhard V.; Martinet, Olivier; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Mandeli, John; Woo, Savio L. C.

    2000-04-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in the large-scale production of the antiangiogenic proteins. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the antiangiogenic genes. We have constructed a recombinant adenovirus that expresses murine endostatin that is biologically active both in vitro, as determined in endothelial cell proliferation assays, and in vivo, by suppression of angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Persistent high serum levels of endostatin (605-1740 ng/ml; mean, 936 ng/ml) were achieved after systemic administration of the vector to nude mice, which resulted in significant reduction of the growth rates and the volumes of JC breast carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the endostatin vector treatment completely prevented the formation of pulmonary micrometastases in Lewis lung carcinoma (P = 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining of the tumors demonstrated a decreased number of blood vessels in the treatment group versus the controls. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the potential of vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy as a component in cancer therapy.

  7. human adenoviruses role in ophthalmic pterygium formation

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Mishar; Kelishadi, Mandana; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Javid, Naeme; Bazouri, Masoud; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ophthalmic pterygium is a common benign lesion of unknown origin and the pathogenesis might be vision-threatening. This problem is often associated with exposure to solar light. Recent evidence suggests that potentially oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of pterygia. Expression of specific adenovirus genes such as E1A and E1B, which potentially have many functions, may contribute to their oncogenic activity as well as relevance to cellular immortalization. Objectives: For the first time, we aimed to investigate involvement of adenoviruses in pterygium formation. Patients and Methods: Fifty tissue specimens of pterygium from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (as cases), 50 conjunctival swab samples from the same patients and 10 conjunctival biopsy specimens from individuals without pterygium such as patients undergoing cataract surgery (as controls) were analyzed for evidence of adenovirus infection with polymerase chain reaction using specific primers chosen from the moderately conserved region of the hexon gene. Furthermore, β-globin primers were used to access the quality of extracted DNA. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 16) software. Results: Of 50 patients, 20 were men and 30 women with mean age of 61.1 ± 16.9 years ranged between 22 and 85 years. All samples of pterygia had positive results for adenoviruses DNA with polymerase chain reaction, but none of the negative control groups displayed adenoviruses. The pterygium group and the control groups were β-globin positive. Direct sequencing of PCR products confirmed Adenovirus infection. Conclusions: Adenoviruses might act as a possible cause of pterygium formation and other factors could play a synergistic role in the development. However, further larger studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26034543

  8. Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 gene transfer in combination with bronchial arterial infusion for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, one year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-song; Liu, Yuan; Zou, Qing; He, Qing; La, Zi; Yang, Lin; Hu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we have examined the safety and efficacy of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) injection in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the combination with the therapy of bronchial arterial infusion (BAI). Methods: A total of 58 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in a non-randomized, two-armed clinical trial. Of which, 19 received a combination treatment of BAI and rAd-p53 (the combo group), while the remaining 39 were treated with only BAI (the control group). Patients were followed up for 12 months, with safety and local response evaluated by the National Cancer Institute’s Common Toxicity Criteria and response evaluation criteria in solid tumor (RECIST), respectively. Time to progression (TTP) and survival rates were also analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In the combo group, 19 patients received a total of 49 injections of rAd-p53 and 46 times of BAI, respectively, while 39 patients in the control group received a total of 113 times of BAI. The combination treatment was found to have less adverse events such as anorexia, nausea and emesis, pain, and leucopenia (P<0.05) but more arthralgia, fever, influenza-like symptom, and myalgia (P<0.05), compared with the control group. The overall response rates (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) were 47.3% and 38.4% for the combo group and the control group, respectively (P>0.05). Patients in the combo group had a longer TTP than those in the control group (a median 7.75 vs 5.5 months, P=0.018). However, the combination treatment did not lead to better survival, with survival rates at 3, 6, and 12 months in the combo group being 94.74%, 89.47%, and 52.63%, respectively, compared with 92.31%, 69.23%, and 38.83% in the control group (P=0.224). Conclusion: Our results show that the combination of rAd-p53 and BAI was well tolerated in patients with NSCLC and may have improved the quality of life and delayed

  9. PCR Analysis of Egyptian Respiratory Adenovirus Isolates, Including Identification of Species, Serotypes, and Coinfections

    PubMed Central

    Metzgar, David; Osuna, Miguel; Yingst, Samuel; Rakha, Magda; Earhart, Kenneth; Elyan, Diaa; Esmat, Hala; Saad, Magdi D.; Kajon, Adriana; Wu, Jianguo; Gray, Gregory C.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-eight adenovirus (Ad) isolates and associated clinical data were collected from walk-in patients with influenza-like illness in Egypt during routine influenza surveillance from 1999 through 2002. Respiratory Ad distributions are geographically variable, and serotype prevalence has not been previously characterized in this region. Serotype identity is clinically relevant because it predicts vaccine efficacy and correlates strongly with both clinical presentation and epidemiological pattern. Species and serotype identities were determined using several well-validated multiplex PCR protocols culled from the literature and supplemented with a few novel primer sets designed to identify rare types. The isolates included common species B1 serotypes (Ad3 and Ad7), common species C serotypes (Ad1, Ad2, and Ad5), the less common species B2 serotype Ad11, and three isolates of the rare species B1 serotype Ad16. Two isolates that appear to be variant Ad16 were also identified. Fifteen coinfections of multiple adenoviral types, primarily AdB/AdC and Ad3/Ad7 dual infections, were detected. The majority of these were verified using redundant PCR tests targeted at multiple genes. PCR is able to resolve coinfections, in contrast to traditional serum neutralization tests. PCR is also comparatively rapid and requires very little equipment. Application of the method allowed an inclusive determination of the serotypes found in the Egyptian respiratory sample set and demonstrated that coinfections are common and may play a previously unrecognized role in adenovirus pathogenesis, evolution, and epidemiology. In particular, coinfections may influence adenoviral evolution, as interserotypic recombination has been identified as a source of emerging strains. PMID:16272512

  10. Comparative Proteomics Study of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats Kidneys Transfected with Adenovirus-mediated Fibromodulin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Akram; Ramazani, Ali; Foroutan, Maryam; Biglari, Alireza; Ranjzad, Parisa; Mellati, Ali Awsat

    2014-01-01

    Background Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) activation appears to be crucial for tissue injury in Diabetic Nephropathy (DN). Fibromodulin, the small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been proposed to be the potent TGF-β modulator. In this study, the therapeutic effects of fibromodulin in the kidneys of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Methods Diabetic rats received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of recombinant adenovirus expression vectors (RAd5) containing fibromodulin (RAd-FMOD) and were killed after 10 weeks. Proteins were isolated from the rat kidney and separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results Ten spots were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. The identified proteins were primarily responsible for cell metabolism, cytoskeleton formation, and oxidative stress. RAd-FMOD treatment markedly attenuated the albuminuria in diabetic rats. Conclusion Taken together, these results provide a valuable clue in exploring the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of fibromodulin in diabetic nephropathy suggesting that it can be a potential agent in the treatment of this disease. PMID:24834312

  11. Human herpesvirus 7 infection of lymphoid and myeloid cell lines transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the CD4 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, M; Inoue, Y; Ohminami, H; Sada, E; Miyake, K; Tohyama, T; Shimada, T; Fujita, S

    1997-01-01

    It has been reported recently that CD4 is a major component of the receptor for human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), which has been newly identified as a T-lymphotropic virus. To investigate further the role of CD4 in HHV-7 infection, we examined the susceptibility to HHV-7 infection of various CD4-negative or weakly positive cell lines into which the cDNA for CD4 was transferred using an adenovirus vector (Adex1CACD4). Of 13 cell lines transduced with Adex1CACD4, including T-lymphoid, B-lymphoid, monocytoid, and myeloid cell lines, one T-lymphoid cell line, one monocytoid cell line, and two cell lines established from the blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia showed high susceptibility to HHV-7 infection. Taken together with the results of previous studies, these data suggest strongly that CD4 is a major component of the binding receptor for HHV-7. This study also shows that HHV-7 may be able to infect CD4-positive hematopoietic precursor cells as well as T lymphocytes. PMID:8995705

  12. Enhanced antitumor effect and reduced vector dissemination with fiber-modified adenovirus vectors expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao

    2002-03-01

    There are at least two hurdles confronting the use of the adenovirus (Ad)-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk)/ganciclovir (GCV) system for the treatment of cancer. One is inefficient Ad vector-mediated gene transfer into tumor cells lacking the primary receptor, i.e., the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The other is hepatotoxicity due to unwanted vector spread into the liver, even when Ad vectors are injected intratumorally. Herein, we present an attractive strategy for overcoming such limitations based on use of a fiber-modified Ad vector containing an RGD peptide motif in the fiber knob. HSVtk-expressing Ad vectors containing mutant fiber (AdRGD-tk) or wild-type fiber (Ad-tk) were injected intratumorally into CAR-negative B16 melanoma cells inoculated into mice, after which GCV was injected intraperitoneally for 10 days. AdRGD-tk showed approximately 25 times more antitumor activity than Ad-tk. Histopathological studies suggested that liver damage in mice injected with AdRGD-tk was significantly lower than that in mice injected with Ad-tk. Intratumoral administration of luciferase-expressing Ad vectors containing the mutant fiber (AdRGD-L2) resulted in nearly 40 times more luciferase production in the tumor, but 8 times less production in the liver than the conventional Ad vectors (Ad-L2). These results indicate that combination of fiber-modified vectors and a HSVtk/GCV system is a potentially useful and safe approach for the treatment of tumors lacking CAR expression, and that fiber-modified vectors could be of great utility for gene therapy and gene transfer experiments. PMID:11896439

  13. Characterisation of the Equine adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Giles, Carla; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Barton, Mary; Mahony, Timothy J

    2015-09-30

    Equine adenovirus 2 (EAdV-2) is one of two serotypes of adenoviruses known to infect equines. Initial studies did not associate EAdV-2 infections with any specific clinical syndromes, although more recent evidence suggests that EAdV-2 may be associated with clinical and subclinical gastrointestinal infections of foals and adults respectively. In contrast, Equine adenovirus 1 is well recognised as a pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections of horses. In this study the complete genome sequence of EAdV-2 is reported. As expected, genes common to the adenoviruses were identified. Phylogenetic reconstructions using selected EAdV-2 genes confirmed the classification of this virus within the Mastadenovirus genus, and supported the hypothesis that EAdV-2 and EAdV-1 have evolved from separate lineages within the adenoviruses. One spliced open reading frame was identified that encoded for a polypeptide with high similarity to the pIX and E1b_55K adenovirus homologues and was designated pIX_E1b_55K. In addition to this fused version of E1b_55K, a separate E1b_55K encoding gene was also identified. These polypeptides do not appear to have evolved from a gene duplication event as the fused and unfused E1b_55K were most similar to E1b_55K homologues from the Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus genera respectively. The results of this study suggest that EAdV-2 has an unusual evolutionary history that warrants further investigation. PMID:26220513

  14. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  15. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO ENTERIC ADENOVIRUS TYPES 40 AND 41

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have prepared monoclonal antibodies to each of the enteric adenoviruses types 40 and 41. Three different hybridoma cell lines were selected which produced antibody found to react by radioimmunoprecipitation with adenovirus (Ad) hexon antigens. One was specific for Ad4...

  16. Dual tumor targeting with pH-sensitive and bioreducible polymer-complexed oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Choi, Joung-Woo; Kasala, Dayananda; Jung, Soo-Jung; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-02-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have shown great promise in cancer gene therapy but their efficacy has been compromised by potent immunological, biochemical, and specific tumor-targeting limitations. To take full advantage of the innate cancer-specific killing potency of oncolytic Ads but also exploit the subtleties of the tumor microenvironment, we have generated a pH-sensitive and bio-reducible polymer (PPCBA)-coated oncolytic Ad. Ad-PPCBA complexes showed higher cellular uptake at pH 6.0 than pH 7.4 in both high and low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor-(CAR)-expressing cells, thereby demonstrating Ad-PPCBA's ability to target the low pH hypoxic tumor microenvironment and overcome CAR dependence for target cell uptake. Endocytic mechanism studies indicated that Ad-PPCBA internalization is mediated by macropinocytosis instead of the CAR-dependent endocytic pathway that internalizes naked Ad. VEGF-specific shRNA-expressing oncolytic Ad complexed with PPCBA (RdB/shVEGF-PPCBA) elicited much more potent suppression of U87 human brain cancer cell VEGF gene expression in vitro, and human breast cancer MCF7 cell/Matrigel plug vascularization in a mouse model, when cancer cells had been previously infected at pH 6.0 versus pH 7.4. Moreover, intratumorally and intravenously injected RdB/shVEGF-PPCBA nanocomplexes elicited significantly higher therapeutic efficacy than naked virus in U87-tumor mouse xenograft models, reducing IL-6, ALT, and AST serum levels. These data demonstrated PPCBA's biocompatibility and capability to shield the Ad surface to prevent innate immune response against Ad after both intratumoral and systemic administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that smart, tumor-specific, oncolytic Ad-PPCBA complexes can be exploited to treat both primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25522965

  17. Activation of the E2F transcription factor in adenovirus-infected cells involves E1A-dependent stimulation of DNA-binding activity and induction of cooperative binding mediated by an E4 gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, P; Bagchi, S; Neill, S D; Nevins, J R

    1990-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the DNA-binding activity of the E2F transcription factor is increased upon adenovirus infection and that both the E1A and E4 genes are required for activation. In this study, we demonstrated that this enhanced binding of E2F to the E2 promoter is the result of two events. (i) There is stimulation of the DNA-binding activity of the E2F factor; this stimulation is E1A dependent but independent of E4. (ii) There is also induction of a stabilized interaction between E2F molecules bound to adjacent promoter sites; induction of stable E2F binding requires E4 gene function. This two-step activation process was also demonstrated in vitro. A heat-stable fraction from extracts of adenovirus-infected cells, which contains the 19-kilodalton E4 protein, was capable of stimulating stable E2F binding in an ATP-independent manner and appeared to involve direct interaction of the E4 protein with E2F. An extract from virus-infected cells devoid of the E4 19-kilodalton protein stimulated E2F DNA binding without forming the stable complex. This reaction required ATP. We conclude that activation of E2F during adenovirus infection is a two-step process involving a change in both the DNA-binding activity of the factor and the capacity to stabilize the interaction through protein-protein contacts. Images PMID:2139893

  18. Genomic and bioinformatics analysis of HAdV-7, a human adenovirus of species B1 that causes acute respiratory disease: implications for vector development in human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Anjan; Su, Jing; Carlisle, Steve; Tibbetts, Clark; Seto, Donald

    2005-02-01

    Human adenovirus serotype 7 (HAdV-7) is a reemerging pathogen identified in acute respiratory disease (ARD), particularly in epidemics affecting basic military trainee populations of otherwise healthy young adults. The genome has been sequenced and annotated (GenBank accession no. ). Comparative genomics and bioinformatics analyses of the HAdV-7 genome sequence provide insight into its natural history and phylogenetic relationships. A putative origin of HAdV-7 from a chimpanzee host is observed. This has implications within the current biotechnological interest of using chimpanzee adenoviruses as vectors for human gene therapy and DNA vaccine delivery. Rapid genome sequencing and analyses of this species B1 member provide an example of exploiting accurate low-pass DNA sequencing technology in pathogen characterization and epidemic outbreak surveillance through the identification, validation, and application of unique pathogen genome signatures. PMID:15661145

  19. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses isolated from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Skerratt, Lee F; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-11-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections. PMID:26342465

  20. Efficacy of helper-dependent adenovirus vector-mediated gene therapy in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Sun, B; Bird, A; Chen, Y T; Oka, K; Chan, L

    2007-07-01

    Genetic deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) underlies glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia, also known as von Gierke disease; MIM 232200), an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism associated with life-threatening hypoglycemia and growth retardation. We tested whether helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd)-mediated hepatic delivery of G6Pase would lead to prolonged survival and sustained correction of the metabolic abnormalities in G6Pase knockout (KO) mice, a model for a severe form of GSD-Ia. An HDAd vector encoding G6Pase was administered intravenously (2 or 5 x 10(12)vector particles/kg) to 2-week-old (w.o.) G6Pase-KO mice. Following HDAd vector administration survival was prolonged to a median of 7 months, in contrast to untreated affected mice that did not survive past 3 weeks of age. G6Pase levels increased more than tenfold between 3 days and 28 weeks after HDAd injection (P < 0.03). The weights of untreated 2 w.o. G6Pase-KO mice were approximately half those of their unaffected littermates, and treatment stimulated their growth to the size of wild-type mice. Severe hypoglycemia and hypercholesterolemia, which are hallmarks of GSD-Ia both in humans and in mice, were also restored to normalcy by the treatment. Glycogen accumulation in the liver was markedly reduced. The efficacy of HDAd-G6Pase treatment in reversing the physiological and biochemical abnormalities associated with GSD-Ia in affected G6Pase-KO mice justifies further preclinical evaluation in murine and canine models of GSD-Ia. PMID:17505475

  1. Macropinocytotic Uptake and Infection of Human Epithelial Cells with Species B2 Adenovirus Type 35▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kälin, Stefan; Amstutz, Beat; Gastaldelli, Michele; Wolfrum, Nina; Boucke, Karin; Havenga, Menzo; DiGennaro, Fabienne; Liska, Nicole; Hemmi, Silvio; Greber, Urs F.

    2010-01-01

    Human adenovirus serotype 35 (HAdV-35; here referred to as Ad35) causes kidney and urinary tract infections and infects respiratory organs of immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other adenoviruses, Ad35 has a low seroprevalence, which makes Ad35-based vectors promising candidates for gene therapy. Ad35 utilizes CD46 and integrins as receptors for infection of epithelial and hematopoietic cells. Here we show that infectious entry of Ad35 into HeLa cells, human kidney HK-2 cells, and normal human lung fibroblasts strongly depended on CD46 and integrins but not heparan sulfate and variably required the large GTPase dynamin. Ad35 infections were independent of expression of the carboxy-terminal domain of AP180, which effectively blocks clathrin-mediated uptake. Ad35 infections were inhibited by small chemicals against serine/threonine kinase Pak1 (p21-activated kinase), protein kinase C (PKC), sodium-proton exchangers, actin, and acidic organelles. Remarkably, the F-actin inhibitor jasplakinolide, the Pak1 inhibitor IPA-3, or the sodium-proton exchange inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) blocked endocytic uptake of Ad35. Dominant-negative proteins or small interfering RNAs against factors driving macropinocytosis, including the small GTPase Rac1, Pak1, or the Pak1 effector C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), potently inhibited Ad35 infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and live cell imaging showed that Ad35 colocalized with fluid-phase markers in large endocytic structures that were positive for CD46, αν integrins, and also CtBP1. Our results extend earlier observations with HAdV-3 (Ad3) and establish macropinocytosis as an infectious pathway for species B human adenoviruses in epithelial and hematopoietic cells. PMID:20237079

  2. Artificial envelopment of nonenveloped viruses: enhancing adenovirus tumor targeting in vivo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravi; Tian, Bowen; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2008-09-01

    Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) is a powerful tool in gene therapy. However, the ability to deliver Ad by systemic administration is limited due to rapid clearance from blood circulation, transfection of nontarget tissues, toxicity, and immunogenicity. To address these limitations, we developed an artificially enveloped Ad vector prepared by self-assembly of lipid bilayers around the Ad capsid. The physicochemical and structural features of the enveloped Ad vector can be altered according to the type of lipid used without the need for genetic modification or conjugation chemistry. Here we engineered 4 different types of artificially enveloped Ad using cationic, neutral, fusogenic, and PEGylated lipids to form the envelopes and obtained extended blood circulation times following i.v. administration and reduced vector immunogenicity. Moreover, the PEGylated lipid-enveloped Ad was capable of specifically delivering genes via the systemic circulation to solid tumors subcutaneously implanted in the absence of high levels of gene transfer to the liver and spleen. This provides the basis for the development of a novel vector platform for systemic delivery of Ad to disseminated targets. Furthermore, the artificial envelopment of Ad presented herein is an illustration of a general strategy to modulate the biological function of nonenveloped viruses and may have implications broader than gene therapy. PMID:18556649

  3. Retrograde Ductal Administration of the Adenovirus-mediated NDRG2 Gene Leads to Improved Sialaden Hypofunction in Estrogen-deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Liu, Changhao; Hou, Wugang; Li, Yang; Ma, Ji; Lin, Kaifeng; Situ, Zhenqiang; Xiong, Lize; Li, Shaoqing; Yao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common oral manifestations of menopause is xerostomia. Oral dryness can profoundly affect quality of life and interfere with basic daily functions, such as chewing, deglutition, and speaking. Although the feeling of oral dryness can be ameliorated after estrogen supplementation, the side effects of estrogen greatly restrict its application. We previously found that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is involved in estrogen-mediated ion and fluid transport in a cell-based model. In the present study, we used an ovariectomized rat model to mimic xerostomia in menopausal women and constructed two adenovirus vectors bearing NDRG2 to validate their therapeutic potential. Ovariectomized rats exhibited severe sialaden hypofunction, including decreased saliva secretion and ion reabsorption as well as increased water intake. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of NDRG2 and Na+ reabsorption-related Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channels (EnaC) decreased in ovariectomized rat salivary glands. We further showed that the localized delivery of NDRG2 improved the dysfunction of Na+ and Cl− reabsorption. In addition, the saliva flow rate and water drinking recovered to normal. This study elucidates the mechanism of estrogen deficiency-mediated xerostomia or sialaden hypofunction and provides a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24343104

  4. Computational analysis of four human adenovirus type 4 genomes reveals molecular evolution through two interspecies recombination events

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Shoaleh; Seto, Jason; Liu, Elizabeth B.; Walsh, Michael P.; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Seto, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Computational analysis of human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-E4), a pathogen that is the only HAdV member of species E, provides insights into its zoonotic origin and molecular adaptation. Its genome encodes a domain of the major capsid protein, hexon, from HAdV-B16 recombined into the genome chassis of a simian adenovirus. Genomes of two recent field strains provide a clue to its adaptation to the new host: recombination of a NF-I binding site motif, which is required for efficient viral replication, from another HAdV genome. This motif is absent in the chimpanzee adenoviruses and the HAdV-E4 prototype, but is conserved amongst other HAdVs. This is the first report of an interspecies recombination event for HAdVs, and the first documentation of a lateral partial gene transfer from a chimpanzee AdV. The potential for such recombination events are important when considering chimpanzee adenoviruses as candidate gene delivery vectors for human patients. PMID:23763770

  5. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  6. Inhibition of breast cancer growth in vivo by antiangiogenesis gene therapy with adenovirus-mediated antisense-VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Im, S-A; Kim, J-S; Gomez-Manzano, C; Fueyo, J; Liu, T-J; Cho, M-S; Seong, C-M; Lee, S N; Hong, Y-K; Yung, W K A

    2001-01-01

    Increased expression of VEGF in several types of tumours has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis. We used a replication-deficient adenoviral vector containing antisense VEGF cDNA (Ad5CMV-αVEGF) to down-regulate VEGF expression and increase the efficiency of delivery of the antisense sequence in the human breast cancer cell line MDA231-MB. Transfection of these cells with Ad5CMV-αVEGF in vitro reduced secreted levels of VEGF protein without affecting cell growth. Moreover, injection of the Ad5CMV-αVEGF vector into intramammary xenografts of these cells established in nude mice inhibited tumour growth and reduced the amount of VEGF protein and the density of microvessels in those tumours relative to tumours treated with the control vector Ad5(dl312). Our results showed that antisense VEGF 165 cDNA was efficiently delivered in vivo via an adenoviral vector and that this treatment significantly inhibited the growth of established experimental breast tumours. The Ad5CMV-αVEGF vector may be useful in targeting the tumour vasculature in the treatment of breast cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11336478

  7. Effect of adenovirus-mediated RNA interference on endogenous microRNAs in a mouse model of multidrug resistance protein 2 gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Narvaiza, Iñigo; Aparicio, Oscar; Vera, María; Razquin, Nerea; Bortolanza, Sergia; Prieto, Jesús; Fortes, Puri

    2006-12-01

    RNA interference with viral vectors that express short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomics and therapeutic purposes. However, little is known about shRNA in vivo processing, accumulation, functional kinetics, and side effects related to shRNA saturation of the cellular gene silencing machinery. Therefore, we constructed first-generation recombinant adenoviruses encoding different shRNAs against murine ATP-binding cassette multidrug resistance protein 2 (Abcc2), which is involved in liver transport of bilirubin to bile, and analyzed Abcc2 silencing kinetics. C57/BL6 mice injected with these viruses showed significant impairment of Abcc2 function for up to 3 weeks, as reflected by increased serum bilirubin levels. The lack of Abcc2 function correlated with a specific reduction of Abcc2 mRNA and with high levels of processed shRNAs targeting Abcc2. Inhibition was lost at longer times postinfection, correlating with a decrease in the accumulation of processed shRNAs. This finding suggests that a minimal amount of processed shRNAs is required for efficient silencing in vivo. This system was also used to evaluate the effect of shRNA expression on the saturation of silencing factors. Saturation of the cellular silencing processing machinery alters the accumulation and functionality of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and pre-miRNAs. However, expression of functional exogenous shRNAs did not change the levels of endogenous miRNAs or their precursors. In summary, this work shows that adenoviral vectors can deliver sufficient shRNAs to mediate inhibition of gene expression without saturating the silencing machinery. PMID:17020948

  8. Labeling of Adenovirus Particles with PARACEST Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vasalatiy, Olga; Gerard, Robert D; Zhao, Piyu; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus type 5 particles (AdCMVLuc) were labeled with two different bifunctional ligands capable of forming stable complexes with paramagnetic lanthanide ions. The number of covalently attached ligands varied between 630 and 1960 per adenovirus particle depending upon the chemical reactivity of the bifunctional ligand (NHS ester versus isothiocyanide), the amount of excess ligand added, and the reaction time. The bioactivity of each labeled adenovirus derivative, as measured by the ability of the virus to infect cells and express luciferase, was shown to be highly dependent upon the number of covalently attached ligands. This indicates that certain amino groups, likely on the surface of the adenovirus fiber protein where cell binding is known to occur, are critical for viral attachment and infection. Addition of 177Lu3+ to chemically modified versus control viruses demonstrated a significant amount of nonspecific binding of 177Lu3+ to the virus particles that could not be sequestered by addition of excess DTPA. Thus, it became necessary to implement a prelabeling strategy for conjugation of preformed lanthanide ligand chelates to adenovirus particles. Using preformed Tm3+-L2, a large number of chelates having chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties were attached to the surface residues of AdCMVLuc without nonspecific binding of metal ions elsewhere on the virus particle. The potential of such conjugates to act as PARACEST imaging agents was tested using an on-resonance WALTZ sequence for CEST activation. A 12% decrease in bulk water signal intensity was observed relative to controls. This demonstrates that viral particles labeled with PARACEST-type imaging agents can potentially serve as targeted agents for molecular imaging. PMID:18254605

  9. The complete DNA sequence and genomic organization of the avian adenovirus CELO.

    PubMed Central

    Chiocca, S; Kurzbauer, R; Schaffner, G; Baker, A; Mautner, V; Cotten, M

    1996-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the avian adenovirus chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus (FAV-1) is reported here. The genome was found to be 43,804 bp in length, approximately 8 kb longer than those of the human subgenus C adenoviruses (Ad2 and Ad5). This length is supported by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of genomes isolated from several related FAV-1 isolates (Indiana C and OTE). The genes for major viral structural proteins (Illa, penton base, hexon, pVI, and pVIII), as well as the 52,000-molecular-weight (52K) and 100K proteins and the early-region 2 genes and IVa2, are present in the expected locations in the genome. CELO virus encodes two fiber proteins and a different set of the DNA-packaging core proteins, which may be important in condensing the longer CELO virus genome. No pV or pIX genes are present. Most surprisingly, CELO virus possesses no identifiable E1, E3, and E4 regions. There is 5 kb at the left end of the CELO virus genome and 15 kb at the right end with no homology to Ad2. The sequences are rich in open reading frames, and it is likely that these encode functions that replace the missing El, E3, and E4 functions. PMID:8627769

  10. Protection against Mucosal SHIV Challenge by Peptide and Helper-Dependent Adenovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Eric A.; Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Buchl, Stephanie J.; Palmer, Donna; Montefiori, David C.; Ng, Philip; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Barry, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Groups of rhesus macaques that had previously been immunized with HIV-1 envelope (env) peptides and first generation adenovirus serotype 5 (FG-Ad5) vaccines expressing the same peptides were immunized intramuscularly three times with helper-dependent adenovirus (HD-Ad) vaccines expressing only the HIV-1 envelope from JRFL. No gag, pol, or other SHIV genes were used for vaccination. One group of the FG-Ad5-immune animals was immunized three times with HD-Ad5 expressing env. One group was immunized by serotype-switching with HD-Ad6, HD-Ad1, and HD-Ad2 expressing env. Previous work demonstrated that serum antibody levels against env were significantly higher in the serotype-switched group than in the HD-Ad5 group. In this study, neutralizing antibody and T cell responses were compared between the groups before and after rectal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIV-SF162P3. When serum samples were assayed for neutralizing antibodies, only weak activity was observed. T cell responses against env epitopes were higher in the serotype-switched group. When these animals were challenged rectally with SHIV-SF162P3, both the Ad5 and serotype-switch groups significantly reduced peak viral loads 2 to 10-fold 2 weeks after infection. Peak viral loads were significantly lower for the serotype-switched group as compared to the HD-Ad5-immunized group. Viral loads declined over 18 weeks after infection with some animals viremia reducing nearly 4 logs from the peak. These data demonstrate significant mucosal vaccine effects after immunization with only env antigens. These data also demonstrate HD-Ad vectors are a robust platform for vaccination. PMID:20107521

  11. Stimulation of innate immunity by in vivo cyclic di-GMP synthesis using adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Seregin, Sergey S; Rastall, David P W; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) stimulates inflammation by initiating innate immune cell recruitment and triggering the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These properties make c-di-GMP a promising candidate for use as a vaccine adjuvant, and numerous studies have demonstrated that administration of purified c-di-GMP with different antigens increases protection against infection in animal models. Here, we have developed a novel approach to produce c-di-GMP inside host cells as an adjuvant to exploit a host-pathogen interaction and initiate an innate immune response. We have demonstrated that c-di-GMP can be synthesized in vivo by transducing a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene into mammalian cells using an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector. Expression of DGC led to the production of c-di-GMP in vitro and in vivo, and this was able to alter proinflammatory gene expression in murine tissues and increase the secretion of numerous cytokines and chemokines when administered to animals. Furthermore, coexpression of DGC modestly increased T-cell responses to a Clostridium difficile antigen expressed from an adenovirus vaccine, although no significant differences in antibody titers were observed. This adenovirus c-di-GMP delivery system offers a novel method to administer c-di-GMP as an adjuvant to stimulate innate immunity during vaccination. PMID:25230938

  12. Host range, prevalence, and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ge, Xingyi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhou, Peng; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhi; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zhengli

    2010-04-01

    Bats are the second largest group of mammals on earth and act as reservoirs of many emerging viruses. In this study, a novel bat adenovirus (AdV) (BtAdV-TJM) was isolated from bat fecal samples by using a bat primary kidney cell line. Infection studies indicated that most animal and human cell lines are susceptible to BtAdV-TJM, suggesting a possible wide host range. Genome analysis revealed 30 putative genes encoding proteins homologous to their counterparts in most known AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis placed BtAdV-TJM within the genus Mastadenovirus, most closely related to tree shrew and canine AdVs. PCR analysis of 350 bat fecal samples, collected from 19 species in five Chinese provinces during 2007 and 2008, indicated that 28 (or 8%) samples were positive for AdVs. The samples were from five bat species, Hipposideros armiger, Myotis horsfieldii, M. ricketti, Myotis spp., and Scotophilus kuhlii. The prevalence ranged from 6.25% (H. armiger in 2007) to 40% (M. ricketti in 2007). Comparison studies based on available partial sequences of the pol gene demonstrated a great genetic diversity among bat AdVs infecting different bat species as well as those infecting the same bat species. This is the first report of a genetically diverse group of DNA viruses in bats. Our results support the notion, derived from previous studies based on RNA viruses (especially coronaviruses and astroviruses), that bats seem to have the unusual ability to harbor a large number of genetically diverse viruses within a geographic location and/or within a taxonomic group. PMID:20089640

  13. Capsid-like Arrays in Crystals of Chimpanzee Adenovirus Hexon

    SciTech Connect

    Xue,F.; Burnett, R.

    2006-01-01

    The major coat protein, hexon, from a chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC68) is of interest as a target for vaccine vector modification. AdC68 hexon has been crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222 with unit cell dimensions of a = 90.8 Angstroms, b = 433.0 Angstroms, c = 159.3 Angstroms, and one trimer (3 x 104,942 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Initial studies reveal that the molecular arrangement is quite unlike that in hexon crystals for human adenovirus. In the AdC68 crystals, hexon trimers are parallel and pack closely in two-dimensional continuous arrays similar to those formed on electron microscope grids. The AdC68 crystals are the first in which adenovirus hexon has molecular interactions that mimic those used in constructing the viral capsid.

  14. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Cleveland, Elyse; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Shevrin, Daniel; et al

    2014-12-11

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β- catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle tomore » establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Finally, based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis.« less

  15. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Cleveland, Elyse; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Shevrin, Daniel; Kaul, Karen; Brendler, Charles; Iozzo, Renato V.; Seth, Prem

    2014-12-11

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β- catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Finally, based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis.

  16. Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bat and Human Adenoviruses in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Chen, Hui-Fang; Chen, Shao-Wei; Xiao, Jian-Peng; Jiang, Li-Na; Huo, Shu-Ting; Shi, Ting-Li; Ma, Li-Zhen; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Qiong-Hua; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Yi; Li, Jin-Ming; Guan, Wei-Jie; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Ge, Jing; Cen, Shu-Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Several novel adenoviruses (AdVs) have recently been identified in humans and other animal species. In this study, we report the molecular detection of and phylogenetically characterize bat and human AdVs detected in fecal or rectal swab samples collected in southern China. To detect AdVs, a 252-261 bp fragment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene was amplified using nested PCR. A total of 520 rectal swab samples were collected from eight bat species in four geographic regions of southern China (Guangzhou, Yunfu, Huizhou, and Haikou city). Thirty-six (6.9%) samples from the following species tested positive for AdVs: Myotis ricketti, Miniopterus schreibersii, Scotophilus kuhlii, Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus blythi, and Cynopterus sphinx. Eight novel AdVs were detected in 13.3% of the samples from C. sphinx. Of 328 fecal samples from patients with diarrhea, 16 (4.9%) were positive for classical human AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that human AdVs shared low similarity (57.1-69.3%) with bat AdVs in deduced amino acid sequences of the AdV DPOL region. Thus, our study indicated that bat AdVs and human AdVs are species specific. As such, there is no evidence of cross-species transmission of AdV between bats and humans based on current data. PMID:27057618

  17. Chimeric smooth muscle-specific enhancer/promoters: valuable tools for adenovirus-mediated cardiovascular gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ribault, S; Neuville, P; Méchine-Neuville, A; Augé, F; Parlakian, A; Gabbiani, G; Paulin, D; Calenda, V

    2001-03-16

    Gene transfer with adenoviral vectors is an attractive approach for the treatment of atherosclerosis and restenosis. However, because expression of a therapeutic gene in nontarget tissues may have deleterious effects, artery-specific expression is desirable. Although expression vectors containing transcriptional regulatory elements of genes expressed solely in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have proved efficient to restrict expression of the transgene, their use in the clinical setting can be limited by their reduced strength. In the present study, we show that low levels of transgene expression are obtained with the smooth muscle (SM)-specific SM22alpha promoter compared with the viral cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter. We have generated chimeric transcriptional cassettes containing either a SM (SM-myosin heavy chain) or a skeletal muscle (creatine kinase) enhancer combined with the SM22alpha promoter. With both constructs we observed significantly stronger expression that remains SM-specific. In vivo, reporter gene expression was restricted to arterial SMCs with no detectable signal at remote sites. Moreover, when interferon-gamma expression was driven by one of these two chimeras, SMC growth was inhibited as efficiently as with the CMV promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that neointima formation in the rat carotid balloon injury model was reduced to the same extent by adenoviral gene transfer of interferon-gamma driven either by the SM-myosin heavy chain enhancer/SM22alpha promoter or the CMV promoter. These results indicate that such vectors can be useful for the treatment of hyperproliferative vascular disorders. PMID:11249869

  18. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2004-05-18

    Disclosed is a mutant adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have significantly weakened binding affinity for CARD1 relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type. In the method, residues of the adenovirus fiber protein knob domain which are predicted to alter D1 binding when mutated, are identified from the crystal structure coordinates of the AD12knob:CAR-D1 complex. A mutation which alters one or more of the identified residues is introduced into the genome of the adenovirus to generate a mutant adenovirus. Whether or not the mutant produced exhibits altered adenovirus-CAR binding properties is then determined.

  19. Prospective Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Cytotoxic Gene Therapy in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, Svend O.; Stricker, Hans; Lu, Mei; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Aref, Ibrahim; Pradhan, Deepak; Levin, Kenneth; Kim, Jae Ho; Peabody, James; Siddiqui, Farzan; Barton, Kenneth; Pegg, Jan; Zhang, Yingshu; Cheng, Jingfang; Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Bourgeois, Renee; Gupta, Nilesh; Lane, Zhaoli; Rodriguez, Ron; DeWeese, Theodore; and others

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-four men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either OAMCGT plus IMRT (arm 1; n=21) or IMRT only (arm 2; n=23). The primary phase 2 endpoint was acute (≤90 days) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL), prostate biopsy (12-core) positivity at 2 years, freedom from biochemical/clinical failure (FFF), freedom from metastases, and survival. Results: Men in arm 1 exhibited a greater incidence of low-grade influenza-like symptoms, transaminitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than men in arm 2. There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal or genitourinary events or QOL between the 2 arms. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from 37 men (84%). Thirty-three percent of men in arm 1 were biopsy-positive versus 58% in arm 2, representing a 42% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm (P=.13). There was a 60% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm in men with <50% positive biopsy cores at baseline (P=.07). To date, 1 patient in each arm exhibited biochemical failure (arm 1, 4.8%; arm 2, 4.3%). No patient developed hormone-refractory or metastatic disease, and none has died from prostate cancer. Conclusions: Combining OAMCGT with IMRT does not exacerbate the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy and suggests a clinically meaningful reduction in positive biopsy results at 2 years in men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

  20. Organ distribution of transgene expression following intranasal mucosal delivery of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus gene transfer vector

    PubMed Central

    Damjanovic, Daniela; Zhang, Xizhong; Mu, Jingyu; Fe Medina, Maria; Xing, Zhou

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that respiratory mucosal immunization triggers more effective immune protection than parenteral immunization against respiratory infection caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria. Such understanding has led to the successful implementation of intranasal immunization in humans with a live cold-adapted flu virus vaccine. Furthermore there has been an interest in developing effective mucosal-deliverable genetic vaccines against other infectious diseases. However, there is a concern that intranasally delivered recombinant viral-based vaccines may disseminate to the CNS via the olfactory tissue. Initial experimental evidence suggests that intranasally delivered recombinant adenoviral gene transfer vector may transport to the olfactory bulb. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies to compare the relative amounts of transgene products in the respiratory tract, lung, olfactory bulb and brain after intranasal mucosal delivery of viral gene transfer vector. To address this issue, we have used fluorescence macroscopic imaging, luciferase quantification and PCR approaches to compare the relative distribution of transgene products or adenoviral gene sequences in the respiratory tract, lung, draining lymph nodes, olfactory bulb, brain and spleen. Intranasal mucosal delivery of replication-defective recombinant adenoviral vector results in gene transfer predominantly in the respiratory system including the lung while it does lead to a moderate level of gene transfer in the olfactory bulb. However, intranasal inoculation of adenoviral vector leads to little or no viral dissemination to the major region of the CNS, the brain. These experimental findings support the efficaciousness of intranasal adenoviral-mediated gene transfer for the purpose of mucosal immunization and suggest that it may not be of significant safety concern. PMID:18261231

  1. Combination effect of oncolytic adenovirus therapy and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir in hepatic carcinoma animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei-qun; Xu, Yin; Yang, Ren-jie; Wu, Bin; Tan, Xiao-hua; Qin, Yi-de; Zhang, Qun-wei

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Oncolytic adenovirus, also called conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD), can selectively propagate in tumor cells and cause cell lysis. The released viral progeny can infect neighboring cancer cells, initiating a cascade that can lead to the ultimate destruction of the tumor. Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) offers a potential treatment strategy for cancer and is undergoing preclinical trials for a variety of tumors. We hypothesized that HSV-TK gene therapy combined with oncolytic adenoviral therapy would have an enhanced effect compared with the individual effects of the therapies and is a potential novel therapeutic strategy to treat liver cancer. Methods: To address our hypothesis, a novel CRAD was created, which consisted of a telomerase-dependent oncolytic adenovirus engineered to express E1A and HSV-TK genes (Ad-ETK). The combined effect of Ad-ETK and GCV was assessed both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice bearing HepG2 cell-derived tumors. Expression of the therapeutic genes by the transduced tumor cells was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: We confirmed that Ad-ETK had antitumorigenic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) both in vitro and in vivo, and the TK/GCV system enhanced oncolytic adenoviral therapy. We confirmed that both E1A and HSV-TK genes were expressed in vivo. Conclusion: The Ad-ETK construct should provide a relatively safe and selective approach to killing cancer cells and should be investigated as an adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:19363518

  2. Conserved Sequences at the Origin of Adenovirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Bruce W.; Topp, William C.; Engler, Jeffrey A.

    1982-01-01

    The origin of adenovirus DNA replication lies within an inverted sequence repetition at either end of the linear, double-stranded viral DNA. Initiation of DNA replication is primed by a deoxynucleoside that is covalently linked to a protein, which remains bound to the newly synthesized DNA. We demonstrate that virion-derived DNA-protein complexes from five human adenovirus serological subgroups (A to E) can act as a template for both the initiation and the elongation of DNA replication in vitro, using nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected HeLa cells. The heterologous template DNA-protein complexes were not as active as the homologous Ad2 DNA, most probably due to inefficient initiation by Ad2 replication factors. In an attempt to identify common features which may permit this replication, we have also sequenced the inverted terminal repeated DNA from human adenovirus serotypes Ad4 (group E), Ad9 and Ad10 (group D), and Ad31 (group A), and we have compared these to previously determined sequences from Ad2 and Ad5 (group C), Ad7 (group B), and Ad12 and Ad18 (group A) DNA. In all cases, the sequence around the origin of DNA replication can be divided into two structural domains: a proximal A · T-rich region which is partially conserved among these serotypes, and a distal G · C-rich region which is less well conserved. The G · C-rich region contains sequences similar to sequences present in papovavirus replication origins. The two domains may reflect a dual mechanism for initiation of DNA replication: adenovirus-specific protein priming of replication, and subsequent utilization of this primer by host replication factors for completion of DNA synthesis. Images PMID:7143575

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Boheemen, S. van; Jong, A.A.W. de; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L.; Kuiken, T.

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  4. Rapid generation of fowl adenovirus 9 vectors.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Griffin, Bryan; de Jong, Jondavid; Krell, Peter J; Nagy, Éva

    2015-10-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdV) have the largest genomes of any fully sequenced adenovirus genome, and are widely considered as excellent platforms for vaccine development and gene therapy. As such, there is a strong need for stream-lined protocols/strategies for the generation of recombinant adenovirus genomes. Current genome engineering strategies rely upon plasmid based homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ5183. This process is time-consuming, involves multiple cloning steps, and low efficiency recombination. This report describes a novel system for the more rapid generation of recombinant fowl adenovirus genomes using the lambda Red recombinase system in E. coli DH10B. In this strategy, PCR based amplicons with around 50 nt long homologous arms, a unique SwaI site and a chloramphenicol resistance gene fragment (CAT cassette), are introduced into the FAdV-9 genome in a highly efficient and site-specific manner. To demonstrate the efficacy of this system we generated FAdV-9 ORF2, and FAdV-9 ORF11 deleted, CAT marked and unmarked FAdV-9 infectious clones (FAdmids), and replaced either ORF2 or ORF11, with an EGFP expression cassette or replaced ORF2 with an EGFP coding sequence via the unique SwaI sites, in approximately one month. All recombinant FAdmids expressed EGFP and were fully infectious in CH-SAH cells. PMID:26238923

  5. Functions of and interactions between the A and B blocks in adenovirus type 2-specific VARNA1 gene.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R E; Wu, G J; Railey, J F

    1986-03-01

    The internal transcriptional control region (ITCR) of VARNA1 gene consists of a 33-base-pair (bp) interblock sequence and two 12-bp sequence blocks that are highly conserved in most of the genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III. To define the functions of and study the interactions between the two blocks, we have constructed mutants with altered interblock sequence or spacing for transcription. The results of transcription efficiencies and competing strengths indicated that the interblock sequence was dispensable and the A and B blocks were essential for transcription control. One of the major functions of the interblock sequence was to maintain an optimal spacing for an intimate interaction between the two essential blocks. Shortening or elongating the interblock spacing in the mutants beyond this range drastically decreased the transcription efficiencies and competing strengths of these mutated genes. To further study how the interaction between the two blocks leads to initiation, the start sites and sizes of RNA products of the mutants were determined. When the interblock spacing was less than 105 bp, the wild-type start site was dictated by the A block after an interaction with the B block through proteins. However, when the interblock spacing was longer than 105 bp, several new start sites located closer to the B block were preferentially used. This suggests that new start sites may be dictated by the B block when its interaction with the A block is weakened by longer spacing. The mechanisms of interaction between the bipartite domain in this gene leading to initiation are different from those in tRNAs and Alu-family RNA genes. PMID:3456587

  6. Functions of and interactions between the A and B blocks in adenovirus type 2-specific VARNA1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, R E; Wu, G J; Railey, J F

    1986-01-01

    The internal transcriptional control region (ITCR) of VARNA1 gene consists of a 33-base-pair (bp) interblock sequence and two 12-bp sequence blocks that are highly conserved in most of the genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III. To define the functions of and study the interactions between the two blocks, we have constructed mutants with altered interblock sequence or spacing for transcription. The results of transcription efficiencies and competing strengths indicated that the interblock sequence was dispensable and the A and B blocks were essential for transcription control. One of the major functions of the interblock sequence was to maintain an optimal spacing for an intimate interaction between the two essential blocks. Shortening or elongating the interblock spacing in the mutants beyond this range drastically decreased the transcription efficiencies and competing strengths of these mutated genes. To further study how the interaction between the two blocks leads to initiation, the start sites and sizes of RNA products of the mutants were determined. When the interblock spacing was less than 105 bp, the wild-type start site was dictated by the A block after an interaction with the B block through proteins. However, when the interblock spacing was longer than 105 bp, several new start sites located closer to the B block were preferentially used. This suggests that new start sites may be dictated by the B block when its interaction with the A block is weakened by longer spacing. The mechanisms of interaction between the bipartite domain in this gene leading to initiation are different from those in tRNAs and Alu-family RNA genes. Images PMID:3456587

  7. Defining the functional domains in the control region of the adenovirus type 2 specific VARNA1 gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, G J; Railey, J F; Cannon, R E

    1987-04-01

    The outer boundaries of the internal transcriptional control region in the VARNA1 gene have been located from positions +10 to +69. To further define the detailed organization of the functional domains in this region and the function(s) of the 5' flanking sequence, and to obtain a more detailed insight into other transcriptionally important sequences, we have constructed 77 mutants with deletion endpoints at almost every one to five base-pairs in the entire region from -30 to +160 for transcriptional studies. Using our highly active crude extract under our assay conditions, and quantitatively measuring the transcriptional efficiency and competing strength of each mutant, we have revealed new features of important transcriptional control sequences and defined the transcriptional functions of several functional domains in this gene. The essential domain is from +59/+63 to +66/+68, which corresponds to the B block sequence. This is smaller than that defined previously. The second most important domain is the region from +12/14 to +40, which includes the A block sequence that dictates the wild-type major start site and amplifies the events started by the B block region, mediated through factors and RNA polymerase III. Furthermore, the domain from -5 to +11 affects the use of certain start site(s). Moreover, the 5' flanking region from -30 to +1 contributes 80 to 90% of the overall transcriptional efficiency of the gene. Finally, our transcriptional studies of mutants deleted of the A block sequence and all of the upstream sequence indicated that an intimate interaction between the two blocks is essential for initiation of transcription. Furthermore, the B block sequence is more important than the A block sequence in the transcription reaction. The mechanism and control of transcriptional initiation in the VARNA1 gene is similar to that in some tRNA genes, but differs from that in others. PMID:3625769

  8. Intranasal vaccination with Ad5-encoding influenza HA elicits sterilizing immunity to homologous challenge and partial protection to heterologous challenge in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine availability during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the lengthy production time of traditional vaccine. Replication defective adenovirus (Ad5) constructs with influenza genes have been investigated as candidate vaccines with rapid production potential. However, the primary model used for ...

  9. Identification and expression analysis of a potential familial Alzheimer disease gene on chromosome 1 related to AD3.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Ma, J; Potter, H

    1995-01-01

    The inheritance of much early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) has been linked to a dominant-acting locus on chromosome 14. Recently, the gene likely responsible for this genetic linkage has been identified and termed AD3. Five mutations have been found in AD3 that segregate with the disease phenotype in seven AD families and are not present in unaffected individuals. Here we report the existence of a gene encoding a seven transmembrane domain protein very similar to that encoded by AD3 in structure and sequence. This gene is located on chromosome 1, is expressed in a variety of tissues, including brain, and is predicted to harbor mutations causing nonchromosome 14 familial AD. The presence of several S/TPXX DNA binding motifs in both the AD3 protein and the AD3-like protein /AD4 protein suggests a possible role in intracellular signaling and gene expression or in linking chromatin to the nuclear membrane. Ways in which mutations in either gene could lead to AD are discussed. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8618867

  10. Selective induction of toxicity to human cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by a conditionally cytotoxic adenovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, L K; Arens, M Q; Subramanian, T; Chinnadurai, G

    1990-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) primarily infect CD4+ T lymphocytes, leading eventually to the development of a systemic immune dysfunction termed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An attractive strategy to combat HIV-mediated pathogenesis would be to eliminate the initial pool of infected cells and thus prevent disease progression. We have engineered a replication-defective, conditionally cytotoxic adenovirus vector, Ad-tk, whose action is dependent on the targeted expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (tk), cloned downstream of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, in human cells expressing the HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat. Infection of Tat-expressing human HeLa or Jurkat cells with Ad-tk resulted in high-level tk expression, which was not deleterious to the viability of these cells. However, in the presence of the antiherpetic nucleoside analog ganciclovir, Ad-tk infection resulted in a massive reduction in the viability of these Tat-expressing cell lines. As adenoviruses are natural passengers of the human lymphoid system, our results suggest adenovirus vector-based strategies for the targeted expression, under the control of cis-responsive HIV regulatory elements, of cytotoxic agents in HIV-infected cells for the therapy of HIV-mediated pathogenesis. Images PMID:2247444

  11. Attenuation of Replication-Competent Adenovirus Serotype 26 Vaccines by Vectorization

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Lori F.; Abbink, Peter; Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela M.; Paulino, Noelix; Boyd, Michael; Shabram, Paul; Ruan, Qian; Patel, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Replication-competent adenovirus (rcAd)-based vaccine vectors may theoretically provide immunological advantages over replication-incompetent Ad vectors, but they also raise additional potential clinical and regulatory issues. We produced replication-competent Ad serotype 26 (rcAd26) vectors by adding the E1 region back into a replication-incompetent Ad26 vector backbone with the E3 or E3/E4 regions deleted. We assessed the effect of vectorization on the replicative capacity of the rcAd26 vaccines. Attenuation occurred in a stepwise fashion, with E3 deletion, E4 deletion, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) gene insertion all contributing to reduced replicative capacity compared to that with the wild-type Ad26 vector. The rcAd26 vector with E3 and E4 deleted and containing the Env transgene exhibited 2.7- to 4.4-log-lower replicative capacity than that of the wild-type Ad26 in vitro. This rcAd26 vector is currently being evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial. Attenuation as a result of vectorization and transgene insertion has implications for the clinical development of replication-competent vaccine vectors. PMID:26376928

  12. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single dose in ovo vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus vector (Ad5) encoding an avian AI virus H5 hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5...

  13. Repair of segmental bone defects with bone marrow and BMP-2 adenovirus in the rabbit radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Lu, Xiaofeng; Shi, Yujun; Li, Li; Xue, Jing; Zhang, Li; Xia, Jie; Wang, Yujia; Zhang, Xingdong; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is approached via implantation of autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), marrow cells, or platelet-rich plasma, etc. To the contrary, gene therapy combining with the bone marrow (BM) has not been often reported. This study was performed to investigate whether a modified BTE method, that is, the BM and a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 adenovirus (Ad.hBMP-2) gene administering in hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramics could accelerate the healing of segmental defects in the rabbit radius. In our study, ceramics were immersed in the adenovirus overnight, and half an hour before surgery, autologous BM aspirates were thoroughly mixed with the ceramics; at the same time, a 15-mm radius defect was introduced in the bilateral forelimbs of all animals, after that, this defect was filled with the following: (1) Ad.hBMP-2 + HA/β-TCP + autologous BM (group 1); (2) HA/β-TCP + Ad.hBMP-2 (group 2); (3) HA/β-TCP alone (group 3); (4) an empty defect as a control (group 4). Histological observation and μ-CT analyses were performed on the specimens at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, respectively. In group 1, new bone was observed at week 4 and BM appeared at week 12, in groups 2 and 3, new bone was observed at week 8 and it was more mature at week 12, in contrast, the defect was not bridged in group 4 at week 12. The new bone area percentage in group 1 was significantly higher than that in groups 2 and 3. Our study indicated that BM combined with hBMP-2 adenovirus and porous ceramics could significantly increase the amount of newly formed bone. And this modified BTE method thus might have potentials in future clinical application.

  14. Structure of human adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S.

    2012-07-11

    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  15. Combination of E2F-1 promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus and cytokine-induced killer cells enhances the antitumor effects in an orthotopic rectal cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yang; Xu, Yingxin; Zhao, Yunshan; Li, Li; Sun, Peiming; Liu, Hailiang; Fan, Qinghao; Liang, Kai; Liang, Wentao; Sun, Huiwei; Du, Xiaohui; Li, Rong

    2014-02-01

    Due to the anatomical structure of the rectum, the treatment of rectal cancer remains challenging. Ad-E2F, an oncolytic adenovirus containing the E2F-1 promoter, can selectively replicate within and kill cancer cells derived from solid tumors. Thus, this virus provides a novel approach for the treatment of rectal cancer. Given the poor efficacy and possible adverse reactions that arise from the use of oncolytic virus alone and the results of our analysis of the efficacy of Ad-E2F in the treatment of rectal cancer, we investigated the use of oncolytic adenovirus in combination with adoptive immunotherapy using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as a therapeutic treatment for rectal cancer. Our results illustrated that E2F-1 gene expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Furthermore, the designed oncolytic adenovirus Ad-E2F is capable of selectively killing colorectal cell lines but has no significant effect on CIK cells. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that combined therapy with Ad-E2F and CIK cells produce stronger antitumor effects than the administration of Ad-E2F or CIK cells alone. For low rectal cancers that are suitable for intratumoral injection, local injections of oncolytic viruses in combination with CIK cell-based adoptive immunotherapy may be suitable as a novel comprehensive therapeutic approach. PMID:24037896

  16. Early and sustained altered expression of aging-related genes in young 3xTg-AD mice

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, V; D'Aurora, M; Granzotto, A; Stuppia, L; Sensi, S L

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological condition associated with a genetic profile that is still not completely understood. In this study, using a whole gene microarray approach, we investigated age-dependent gene expression profile changes occurring in the hippocampus of young and old transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) and wild-type (WT) mice. The aim of the study was to assess similarities between aging- and AD-related modifications of gene expression and investigate possible interactions between the two processes. Global gene expression profiles of hippocampal tissue obtained from 3xTg-AD and WT mice at 3 and 12 months of age (m.o.a.) were analyzed by hierarchical clustering. Interaction among transcripts was then studied with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software, a tool that discloses functional networks and/or pathways associated with sets of specific genes of interest. Cluster analysis revealed the selective presence of hundreds of upregulated and downregulated transcripts. Functional analysis showed transcript involvement mainly in neuronal death and autophagy, mitochondrial functioning, intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammatory response, dendritic spine formation, modulation of synaptic functioning, and cognitive decline. Thus, overexpression of AD-related genes (such as mutant APP, PS1, and hyperphosphorylated tau, the three genes that characterize our model) appears to favor modifications of additional genes that are involved in AD development and progression. The study also showed overlapping changes in 3xTg-AD at 3 m.o.a. and WT mice at 12 m.o.a., thereby suggesting altered expression of aging-related genes that occurs earlier in 3xTg-AD mice. PMID:24525730

  17. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. PMID:26989945

  18. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  19. Fiber-modified adenovirus vectors decrease liver toxicity through reduced IL-6 production.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kawabata, Kenji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Sasaki, Tomomi; Watanabe, Yoshiteru; Hayakawa, Takao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are one of the most commonly used viral vectors in gene therapy clinical trials. However, they elicit a robust innate immune response and inflammatory responses. Improvement of the therapeutic index of Ad vector gene therapy requires elucidation of the mechanism of Ad vector-induced inflammation and cytokine/chemokine production as well as development of the safer vector. In the present study, we found that the fiber-modified Ad vector containing poly-lysine peptides in the fiber knob showed much lower serum IL-6 and aspartate aminotransferase levels (as a maker of liver toxicity) than the conventional Ad vector after i.v. administration, although the modified Ad vector showed higher transgene production in the liver than the conventional Ad vector. RT-PCR analysis showed that spleen, not liver, is the major site of cytokine, chemokine, and IFN expression. Splenic CD11c(+) cells were found to secret cytokines. The tissue distribution of Ad vector DNA showed that spleen distribution was much reduced in this modified Ad vector, reflecting reduced IL-6 levels in serum. Liver toxicity by the conventional Ad vector was reduced by anti-IL-6R Ab, suggesting that IL-6 signaling is involved in liver toxicity and that decreased liver toxicity of the modified Ad vector was due in part to the reduced IL-6 production. This study contributes to an understanding of the biological mechanism in innate immune host responses and liver toxicity toward systemically administered Ad vectors and will help in designing safer gene therapy methods that can reduce robust innate immunity and inflammatory responses. PMID:17237426

  20. Synthesis and inflammatory response of a novel silk fibroin scaffold containing BMP7 adenovirus for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wu, Chengtie; Luo, Tao; Li, Shue; Cheng, Xiangrong; Miron, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Gene therapy has garnished tremendous awareness for the repair of osseous defects. It exhibits high efficiency gene transfer and osteogenic differentiation potential making it well suitable for the sustained delivery of growth factors to local tissues. In the present study a simplified solution-based in situ biomimetic synthesis method is demonstrated for bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) adenovirus combined with silk fibroin scaffolds. This scaffold not only provides the three dimensional space for bone ingrowth, but also releases the BMP7 adenovirus which targets its secretion by host cells in vivo. Scaffolds were tested both in vitro for their osteogenic potential as well as in vivo in a critical-size calvarial defect in mice. Scaffolds loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 7 adenovirus (adBMP7) were able to sustain release of adBMP7 for up to 21 days and support cell proliferation and differentiation to bone forming osteoblasts. Calvarial defects treated with scaffolds containing adBMP7 significantly induced new bone formation in vivo. To demonstrate immuno-compatibility with host tissues, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured up to 4 weeks post-implantation. Although these scaffolds demonstrated an initial pro-inflammatory response, levels of IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α returned to baseline control values at either 2 or 4 weeks post-implantation demonstrating long term compatibility for growth factor delivery via gene therapy. The results from the present study indicate the promise of gene delivery scaffold systems for robust, low cost, and high quality bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22796416

  1. First detection of adenovirus in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Elesbao, Felipe; Carnieli Junior, Pedro; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses. PMID:23828618

  2. Epitopes expressed in different adenovirus capsid proteins induce different levels of epitope-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Krause, Anja; Joh, Ju H; Hackett, Neil R; Roelvink, Peter W; Bruder, Joseph T; Wickham, Thomas J; Kovesdi, Imre; Crystal, Ronald G; Worgall, Stefan

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of the concept that the capsid proteins of adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors can be genetically manipulated to enhance the immunogenicity of Ad-based vaccines, the present study compared the antiantigen immunogenicity of Ad vectors with a common epitope of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza A virus incorporated into the outer Ad capsid protein hexon, penton base, fiber knob, or protein IX. Incorporation of the same epitope into the different capsid proteins provided insights into the correlation between epitope position and antiepitope immunity. Following immunization of three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CBA) with either an equal number of Ad particles (resulting in a different total HA copy number) or different Ad particle numbers (to achieve the same HA copy number), the highest primary (immunoglobulin M [IgM]) and secondary (IgG) anti-HA humoral and cellular CD4 gamma interferon and interleukin-4 responses against HA were always achieved with the Ad vector carrying the HA epitope in fiber knob. These observations suggest that the immune response against an epitope inserted into Ad capsid proteins is not necessarily dependent on the capsid protein number and imply that the choice of incorporation site in Ad capsid proteins in their use as vaccines needs to be compared in vivo. PMID:16699033

  3. Vaccines within vaccines: the use of adenovirus types 4 and 7 as influenza vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus Types 4 and 7 (Ad4 and Ad7) are associated with acute respiratory distress (ARD). In order to prevent widespread Ad-associated ARD (Ad-ARD) the United States military immunizes new recruits using a safe and effective lyophilized wildtype Ad4 and Ad7 delivered orally in an enteric-coated capsule. We cloned Ad4 and Ad7 and modified them to express either a GFP-Luciferase (GFPLuc) fusion gene or a centralized influenza H1 hemagglutinin (HA1-con). BALB/c mice were injected with GFPLuc expressing viruses intramuscularly (i.m.) and intranasally (i.n.). Ad4 induced significantly higher luciferase expression levels as compared with Ad7 by both routes. Ad7 transduction was restored using a human CD46+ transgenic mouse model. Mice immunized with serial dilutions of viruses expressing the HA1-con influenza vaccine gene were challenged with 100 MLD 50 of influenza virus. Ad4 protected BALB/c mice at a lower dose by i.m. immunization as compared with Ad7. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in protection by i.n. immunization. Although Ad7 i.m. transduction was restored in CD46+ transgenic mice, protection against influenza challenge required even higher doses as compared with the BALB/c mice. However, Ad7 i.n. immunized CD46+ transgenic mice were better protected as compared with Ad4. Interestingly, the restoration of Ad7 transduction in CD46+ mice did not increase vaccine efficacy and indicates that Ad7 may transduce a different subset of cells through alternative receptors in the absence of CD46. These data indicate that both Ad4 and Ad7 can effectively induce anti-H1N1 immunity against a heterologous challenge using a centralized H1 gene. Future studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials will determine the overall effectiveness of Ad4 and Ad7 as vaccines for influenza. PMID:24280656

  4. Implications of the innate immune response to adenovirus and adenoviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Seth M; Nazir, Shoab A; Metcalf, Jordan P

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in both children and adults. Respiratory symptoms can range from those of the common cold to severe pneumonia. Infection can also cause significant disease in the immunocompromised and among immunocompetent subjects in close quarters. Fortunately, infection with AdV in the normal host is generally mild. This is one reason why its initial use as a gene-therapy vector appeared to be so promising. Unfortunately, both innate and adaptive responses to the virus have limited the development of AdV vectors as a tool of gene therapy by increasing toxicity and limiting duration of transgene expression. This article will focus on the innate immune response to infection with wild-type AdV and exposure to AdV gene-therapy vectors. As much of the known information relates to the pulmonary inflammatory response, this organ system will be emphasized. This article will also discuss how that understanding has led to the creation of new vectors for use in gene therapy. PMID:21738557

  5. Crystal Structure of Enteric Adenovirus Serotype 41 Short Fiber Head

    PubMed Central

    Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Human enteric adenoviruses of species F contain two fibers in the same virion, a long fiber which binds to coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and a short fiber of unknown function. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the short fiber head of human adenovirus serotype 41 (Ad41). The short fiber head has the characteristic fold of other known fiber heads but has three unusual features. First, it has much shorter loops between the beta-strands. Second, one of the usually well-ordered beta-strands on the distal face of the fiber head is highly disordered and this same region is sensitive to digestion with pepsin, an enzyme occurring naturally in the intestinal tract, the physiological environment of Ad41. Third, the AB loop has a deletion giving it a distinct conformation incompatible with CAR binding. PMID:16254343

  6. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  7. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  8. Phylogenomic evidence for recombination of adenoviruses in wild gorillas.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Eileen; Pauly, Maude; Robbins, Martha; Gray, Maryke; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Nishuli, Radar; Boji Mungu-Akonkwa, Dieu-Donné; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) of species Human mastadenovirus B (HAdV-B) are genetically highly diverse and comprise several pathogenic types. AdVs closely related to members of HAdV-B infect African great apes and the evolutionary origin of HAdV-B has recently been determined in ancient gorillas. Genetic evidence for intra- and inter-species recombination has been obtained for AdVs of humans and captive great apes, but evidence from wild great apes is lacking. In this study, potential HAdV-B members of wild Eastern gorillas were analysed for evidence of recombination. One near-complete genome was amplified from primary sample material and sequenced, and from another six individuals genome fragments were obtained. In phylogenomic analysis, their penton base, pVII-pVI, hexon and fiber genes were compared with those of all publicly available HAdV-B full-genome sequences of humans and captive great apes. Evidence for intra-species recombination between different HAdV-B members of wild gorillas as well as between HAdV-B members of chimpanzees and gorillas was obtained. Since zoonotic AdVs have been reported to cause respiratory outbreaks in both humans and monkeys, and humans in West and Central Africa frequently hunt and butcher primates thereby increasing the chance of zoonotic transmission, such HAdV-B recombinants might widen the pool of potential human pathogens. PMID:26219820

  9. Antitumor efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus encoding endostatin combined with an E1B55KD-deficient adenovirus in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene therapy using a recombinant adenovirus (Ad) encoding secretory human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to be a promising antiangiogenesis and antitumor strategy of in animal models and clinical trials. The E1B55KD-deficient Ad dl1520 was also found to replicate selectively in and destroy cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of antiangiogenic agent Ad-Endo combined with the oncolytic Ad dl1520 on gastric cancer (GC) in vitro and in vivo and determine the mechanisms of these effects. Methods The Ad DNA copy number was determined by real-time PCR, and gene expression was assessed by ELISA, Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. The anti-proliferation effect (cytotoxicity) of Ad was assessed using the colorimetry-based MTT cell viability assay. The antitumor effects were evaluated in BALB/c nude mice carrying SGC-7901 GC xenografts. The microvessel density and Ad replication in tumor tissue were evaluated by checking the expression of CD34 and hexon proteins, respectively. Results dl1520 replicated selectively in GC cells harboring an abnormal p53 pathway, including p53 mutation and the loss of p14ARF expression, but did not in normal epithelial cells. In cultured GC cells, dl1520 rescued Ad-Endo replication, and dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In turn, the addition of Ad-Endo enhanced the inhibitory effect of dl1520 on the proliferation of GC cells. The transgenic expression of Ad5 E1A and E1B19K simulated the rescue effect of dl1520 supporting Ad-Endo replication in GC cells. In the nude mouse xenograft model, the combined treatment with dl1520 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis and the growth of GC xenografts through the increased endostatin expression and oncolytic effects. Conclusions Ad-Endo combined with dl1520 has more antitumor efficacy against GC than Ad-Endo or dl1520 alone. These findings indicate that the

  10. The Intracellular Domain of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Differentially Influences Adenovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Loustalot, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule used as a docking molecule by some adenoviruses (AdVs) and group B coxsackieviruses. We previously proposed that the preferential transduction of neurons by canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) is due to CAR-mediated internalization. Our proposed pathway of CAV-2 entry is in contrast to that of human AdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) in nonneuronal cells, where internalization is mediated by auxiliary receptors such as integrins. We therefore asked if in fibroblast-like cells the intracellular domain (ICD) of CAR plays a role in the internalization of the CAV-2 fiber knob (FKCAV), CAV-2, or HAdV-C5 when the capsid cannot engage integrins. Here, we show that in fibroblast-like cells, the CAR ICD is needed for FKCAV entry and efficient CAV-2 transduction but dispensable for HAdV-C5 and an HAdV-C5 capsid lacking the RGD sequence (an integrin-interacting motif) in the penton. Moreover, the deletion of the CAR ICD further impacts CAV-2 intracellular trafficking, highlighting the crucial role of CAR in CAV-2 intracellular dynamics. These data demonstrate that the CAR ICD contains sequences important for the recruitment of the endocytic machinery that differentially influences AdV cell entry. IMPORTANCE Understanding how viruses interact with the host cell surface and reach the intracellular space is of crucial importance for applied and fundamental virology. Here, we compare the role of a cell adhesion molecule (CAR) in the internalization of adenoviruses that naturally infect humans and Canidae. We show that the intracellular domain of CAR differentially regulates AdV entry and trafficking. Our study highlights the mechanistic differences that a receptor can have for two viruses from the same family. PMID:26136571

  11. Safety profiles and antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus coated with bioreducible polymer in the treatment of a CAR negative tumor model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-Jung; Kasala, Dayananda; Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Hwan; Hwang, June Kyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-01-12

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors show promise as cancer gene therapy delivery vehicles, but immunogenic safety concerns and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-dependency have limited their use. Alternately, biocompatible and bioreducible nonviral vectors, including arginine-grafted cationic polymers, have been shown to deliver nucleic acids through a cell penetration peptide (CPP) and protein transduction domain (PTD) effect. We utilized the advantages of both viral and nonviral vectors to develop a hybrid gene delivery vehicle by coating Ad with mPEG-PEI-g-Arg-S-S-Arg-g-PEI-mPEG (Ad/PPSA). Characterization of Ad/PPSA particle size and zeta potential showed an overall size and cationic charge increase in a polymer concentration-dependent manner. Ad/PPSA also showed a marked transduction efficiency increase in both CAR-negative and -positive cells compared to naked Ad. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/PPSA produced higher transgene expression levels than naked Ad and achieved CAR-independent transduction. Oncolytic Ad (DWP418)/PPSA was able to overcome the nonspecificity of polymer-only therapies by demonstrating cancer-specific killing effects. Furthermore, the DWP418/PPSA nanocomplex elicited a 2.24-fold greater antitumor efficacy than naked Ad in vivo. This was supported by immunohistochemical confirmation of Ad E1As accumulation in MCF7 xenografted tumors. Lastly, intravenous injection of DWP418/PPSA elicited less innate immune response compared to naked Ad, evaluated by interleukin-6 cytokine release into the serum. The increased antitumor effect and improved vector targeting to both CAR-negative and -positive cells make DWP418/PPSA a promising tool for cancer gene therapy. PMID:25400213

  12. Antitumor effect and safety profile of systemically delivered oncolytic adenovirus complexed with EGFR-targeted PAMAM-based dendrimer in orthotopic lung tumor model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, A-Rum; Kasala, Dayananda; Li, Yan; Hong, Jinwoo; Lee, Wonsig; Jung, Soo-Jung; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-06-10

    Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated cancer gene therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to conventional therapy for cancer. However, success of systemically administered naked Ad has been limited due to the immunogenicity of Ad and the induction of hepatotoxicity caused by Ad's native tropism. In this study, we synthesized an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific therapeutic antibody (ErbB)-conjugated and PEGylated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (PPE) for complexation with Ad. Transduction of Ad was inhibited by complexation with PEGylated PAMAM (PP) dendrimer due to steric hindrance. However, PPE-complexed Ad selectively internalized into EGFR-positive cells with greater efficacy than either naked Ad or Ad complexed with PP. Systemically administered PPE-complexed oncolytic Ad elicited significantly reduced immunogenicity, nonspecific liver sequestration, and hepatotoxicity than naked Ad. Furthermore, PPE-complexed oncolytic Ad demonstrated prolonged blood retention time, enhanced intratumoral accumulation of Ad, and potent therapeutic efficacy in EGFR-positive orthotopic lung tumors in comparison with naked Ad. We conclude that ErbB-conjugated and PEGylated PAMAM dendrimer can efficiently mask Ad's capsid and retarget oncolytic Ad to be efficiently internalized into EGFR-positive tumor while attenuating toxicity induced by systemic administration of naked oncolytic Ad. PMID:26951927

  13. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  14. Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, Calvin M; Garner, Michael M; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-12-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses. PMID:15542689

  15. Detection and Analysis of Six Lizard Adenoviruses by Consensus Primer PCR Provides Further Evidence of a Reptilian Origin for the Atadenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wellehan, James F. X.; Johnson, April J.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Garner, Michael M.; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R.

    2004-01-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses. PMID:15542689

  16. Rejection of adenovirus infection is independent of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression in cisplatin-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nian-Hua; Peng, Rui-Qing; Ding, Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Shi

    2016-08-01

    The adenovirus vector-based cancer gene therapy is controversial. Low transduction efficacy is believed to be one of the main barriers for the decreased expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on tumor cells. However, the expression of CAR on primary tumor tissue and tumor tissue survived from treatment has still been not extensively studied. The present study analyzed the adenovirus infection rates and CAR expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and its cisplatin-resistant subline A549/DDP. The results showed that although the CAR expression in A549 and A549/DDP was not different, compared with the A549, A549/DDP appeared obviously to reject adenovirus infection. Moreover, we modified CAR expression in the two cell lines with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), and analyzed the adenovirus infection rates after modifying agent treatments. Both TSA and MG-132 pretreatments could increase the CAR expression in the two cell lines, but the drug pretreatments could only make A549 cells more susceptible to adenovirus infectivity. PMID:27373420

  17. Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A. Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S.; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25674795

  18. Differential Specificity and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by Natural Infection or Immunization▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Gall, Jason G. D.; Nason, Martha; King, C. Richter; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario; McElrath, M. Juliana; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Churchyard, Gavin; Baden, Lindsey R.; Duerr, Ann C.; Keefer, Michael C.; Graham, Barney S.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A recent clinical trial of a T-cell-based AIDS vaccine delivered with recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) vectors showed no efficacy in lowering viral load and was associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Preexisting immunity to Ad5 in humans could therefore affect both immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. We hypothesized that vaccine-induced immunity is differentially affected, depending on whether subjects were exposed to Ad5 by natural infection or by vaccination. Serum samples from vaccine trial subjects receiving a DNA/rAd5 AIDS vaccine with or without prior immunity to Ad5 were examined for the specificity of their Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and their effect on HIV-1 immune responses. Here, we report that rAd5 neutralizing antibodies were directed to different components of the virion, depending on whether they were elicited by natural infection or vaccination in HIV vaccine trial subjects. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection were directed largely to the Ad5 fiber, while exposure to rAd5 through vaccination elicited antibodies primarily to capsid proteins other than fiber. Notably, preexisting immunity to Ad5 fiber from natural infection significantly reduced the CD4 and CD8 cell responses to HIV Gag after DNA/rAd5 vaccination. The specificity of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies therefore differs depending on the route of exposure, and natural Ad5 infection compromises Ad5 vaccine-induced immunity to weak immunogens, such as HIV-1 Gag. These results have implications for future AIDS vaccine trials and the design of next-generation gene-based vaccine vectors. PMID:19846512

  19. Biodistribution and Safety Assessment of Bladder Cancer Specific Recombinant Oncolytic Adenovirus in Subcutaneous Xenografts Tumor Model in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Zhiping; Tian, Hongwei; Qi, Meijiao; Zhai, Zhenxing; Li, Shuwen; Li, Renju; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Wenyun; Fu, Shenjun; Lu, Jianzhong; Rodriguez, Ronald; Guo, Yinglu; Zhou, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    Background The previous works about safety evaluation for constructed bladder tissue specific adenovirus are poorly documented. Thus, we investigated the biodistribution and body toxicity of bladder specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A (APU-E1A) and Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A-AR (APU-E1A-AR), providing meaningful information prior to embarking on human clinical trials. Materials and Method Conditionally replicate recombinant adenovirus (CRADs) APU-E1A, APU-EIA-AR were constructed with bladder tissue specific Uroplakin II (UP II) promoter to induce the expression of Ad5E1A gene and E1A-AR fusing gene, and PSCAE was inserted at upstream of promoter to enhance the function of promoter. Based on the cytopathic and anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer, these CRADs were intratumorally injected into subcutaneous xenografts tumor in nude mice. We then determined the toxicity through general health and behavioral assessment, hepatic and hematological toxicity evaluation, macroscopic and microscopic postmortem analyses. The spread of the transgene E1A of adenovirus was detected with RT-PCR and Western blot. Virus replication and distribution were examined with APU-LUC administration and Luciferase Assay. Results General assessment and body weight of the animals did not reveal any alteration in general behavior. The hematological alterations of groups which were injected with 5×108 pfu or higher dose (5×109 pfu) of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR showed no difference in comparison with PBS group, and only slight increased transaminases in contrast to PBS group at 5×109 pfu of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR were observed. E1A transgene did not disseminate to organs outside of xenograft tumor. Virus replication was not detected in other organs beside tumor according to Luciferase Assay. Conclusions Our study showed that recombinant adenovirus APU-E1A-AR and APU-E1A appear safe with 5×107 pfu and 5×108 pfu intratumorally injection in mice, without any discernable effects on general health

  20. Phylogenetic Analyses of Novel Squamate Adenovirus Sequences in Wild-Caught Anolis Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, Jill M.; Geneva, Anthony J.; Ng, Julienne; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Glor, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus infection has emerged as a serious threat to the health of captive snakes and lizards (i.e., squamates), but we know relatively little about this virus' range of possible hosts, pathogenicity, modes of transmission, and sources from nature. We report the first case of adenovirus infection in the Iguanidae, a diverse family of lizards that is widely-studied and popular in captivity. We report adenovirus infections from two closely-related species of Anolis lizards (anoles) that were recently imported from wild populations in the Dominican Republic to a laboratory colony in the United States. We investigate the evolution of adenoviruses in anoles and other squamates using phylogenetic analyses of adenovirus polymerase gene sequences sampled from Anolis and a range of other vertebrate taxa. These phylogenetic analyses reveal that (1) the sequences detected from each species of Anolis are novel, and (2) adenoviruses are not necessarily host-specific and do not always follow a co-speciation model under which host and virus phylogenies are perfectly concordant. Together with the fact that the Anolis adenovirus sequences reported in our study were detected in animals that became ill and subsequently died shortly after importation while exhibiting clinical signs consistent with acute adenovirus infection, our discoveries suggest the need for renewed attention to biosecurity measures intended to prevent the spread of adenovirus both within and among species of snakes and lizards housed in captivity. PMID:23593364

  1. Avian influenza vaccination in chickens and pigs with replication-competent adenovirus-free human recombinant adenovirus 5.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W; Tang, De-Chu C; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland-derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a "mixing vessel" for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals. PMID:20521636

  2. Human adenovirus-host cell interactions: comparative study with members of subgroups B and C.

    PubMed Central

    Defer, C; Belin, M T; Caillet-Boudin, M L; Boulanger, P

    1990-01-01

    Host cell interactions of human adenovirus serotypes belonging to subgroups B (adenovirus type 3 [Ad3] and Ad7) and C (Ad2 and Ad5) were comparatively analyzed at three levels: (i) binding of virus particles with host cell receptors; (ii) cointernalization of macromolecules with adenovirions; and (iii) adenovirus-induced cytoskeletal alterations. The association constants with human cell receptors were found to be similar for Ad2 and Ad3 (8 x 10(9) to 9 x 10(9) M-1), and the number of receptor sites per cell ranged from 5,000 (Ad2) to 7,000 (Ad3). Affinity blottings, competition experiments, and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that the receptor sites for adenovirus were distinct for members of subgroups B and C. Adenovirions increased the permeability of cells to macromolecules. We showed that this global effect could be divided into two distinct events: (i) cointernalization of macromolecules and virions into endocytotic vesicles, a phenomenon that occurred in a serotype-independent way, and (ii) release of macromolecules into the cytoplasm upon adenovirus-induced lysis of endosomal membranes. The latter process was found to be type specific and to require unaltered and infectious virus particles of serotype 2 or 5. Perinuclear condensation of the vimentin filament network was observed at early stages of infection with Ad2 or Ad5 but not with Ad3, Ad7, and noninfectious particles of Ad2 or Ad5, obtained by heat inactivation of wild-type virions or with the H2 ts1 mutant. This phenomenon appeared to be a cytological marker for cytoplasmic transit of infectious virions within adenovirus-infected cells. It could be experimentally dissociated from vimentin proteolysis, which was found to be serotype dependent, occurring only with members of subgroup C, regardless of the infectivity of the input virus. Images PMID:2196380

  3. Adenoviruses Using the Cancer Marker EphA2 as a Receptor In Vitro and In Vivo by Genetic Ligand Insertion into Different Capsid Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Michael; Kaufmann, Johanna K.; Ketzer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Sarah; Mück-Häusl, Martin; Okun, Pamela M.; Petersen, Gabriele; Neipel, Frank; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ehrhardt, Anja; Enk, Alexander H.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral gene therapy and oncolysis would critically benefit from targeted cell entry by genetically modified capsids. This requires both the ablation of native adenovirus tropism and the identification of ligands that remain functional in virus context. Here, we establish cell type-specific entry of HAdV-5-based vectors by genetic ligand insertion into a chimeric fiber with shaft and knob domains of the short HAdV-41 fiber (Ad5T/41sSK). This fiber format was reported to ablate transduction in vitro and biodistribution to the liver in vivo. We show that the YSA peptide, binding to the pan-cancer marker EphA2, can be inserted into three positions of the chimeric fiber, resulting in strong transduction of EphA2-positive but not EphA2-negative cells of human melanoma biopsies and of tumor xenografts after intratumoral injection. Transduction was blocked by soluble YSA peptide and restored for EphA2-negative cells after recombinant EphA2 expression. The YSA peptide could also be inserted into three positions of a CAR binding-ablated HAdV-5 fiber enabling specific transduction; however, the Ad5T/41sSK format was superior in vivo. In conclusion, we establish an adenovirus capsid facilitating functional insertion of targeting peptides and a novel adenovirus using the tumor marker EphA2 as receptor with high potential for cancer gene therapy and viral oncolysis. PMID:24760010

  4. Immunotherapeutic effects of cytokine-induced killer cells combined with CCL21/IL15 armed oncolytic adenovirus in TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun-Feng; Lin, Yuan-Qiang; Yu, Xiu-Hua; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Li, Yang

    2016-09-01

    The effective antitumor immune responses are dependent on coordinate interaction of various effector cells. Thus, the combination of adoptive immunotherapy and target gene therapy is capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. We investigated whether combination of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells adoptive immunotherapy and CCL21/IL15 armed oncolytic adenovirus could induce the enhanced antitumor activity. The CCL21/IL15 co-expression oncolytic adenoviruses were constructed by using the AdEasy system, which uses homologous recombination with shuttle plasmids and full length Ad backbones. This conditionally replicating adenoviruses CRAd-CCL21-IL15 could induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells for viral propagation, but do not replicate efficiently in normal cells, because the E1A promoter was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Our results showed that the combination of CIK cells and CRAd-CCL21-IL15 could induce higher antitumor activity than either CIK cells or CRAd-CCL21-IL15 alone. This combined treatment could induce the tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) in vitro. Moreover, the treatment of established tumors with the combined therapy of CIK cells and CRAd-CCL21-IL15 resulted in tumor regression. This study suggests that the combined treatment by adoptive immunotherapy and gene therapy is a promising strategy for the therapy of tumor. PMID:27380620

  5. Development of Dual-Activity Vectors by Co-Envelopment of Adenovirus and SiRNA in Artificial Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Yilmazer, Açelya; Tian, Bowen; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy with human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) has been extensively explored for the treatment of diseases resistant to traditional therapies. Intravenous administration leads to rapid clearance from blood circulation and high liver accumulation, which restrict the use of Ad-based vectors in clinical gene therapy protocols that involve systemic administration. We have previously proposed that such limitations can be improved by engineering artificial lipid envelopes around Ad and designed a variety of artificial lipid bilayer envelopes around the viral capsid. In this study, we sought to explore further opportunities that the artificially enveloped virus constructs could offer, by designing a previously unreported gene therapy vector by simultaneous envelopment of Ad and siRNA within the same lipid bilayer. Such a dual-activity vector can offer efficacious therapy for different genetic disorders where both turning on and switching off genes would be needed. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize these vectors. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Ribo green and dot blot assays showed that siRNA and Ad virions can be enveloped together within lipid bilayers at high envelopment efficiency. Cellular uptake and in vitro transfection experiments were carried out to show the feasibility of combining siRNA-mediated gene silencing with viral gene transfer using these newly designed dual-activity vectors. PMID:25501573

  6. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  7. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  8. Deletion of the gene encoding the adenovirus 5 early region 1b 21,000-molecular-weight polypeptide leads to degradation of viral and host cell DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Pilder, S; Logan, J; Shenk, T

    1984-01-01

    The adenovirus 5 mutant H5dl337 lacks 146 base pairs within early region 1B. The deletion removes a portion of the region encoding the E1B 21,000-molecular-weight (21K) polypeptide, but does not disturb the E1B-55K/17K coding region. The virus is slightly defective for growth in cultured HeLa cells, in which its final yield is reduced ca. 10-fold compared with wild-type virus. The mutant displays a striking phenotype in HeLa cells. The onset of cytopathic effect is dramatically accelerated, and both host cell and viral DNAs are extensively degraded late after infection. This defect has been described previously for a variety of adenovirus mutants and has been termed a cytocidal (cyt) phenotype. H5dl337 serves to map this defect to the loss of E1B-21K polypeptide function. In addition to its defect in the productive growth cycle, H5dl337 is unable to transform rat cells at normal efficiency. Images PMID:6492257

  9. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  10. Detection of novel adenoviruses in fecal specimens from rodents and shrews in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Ke, Xue-Mei; Guan, Wei-Jie; Li, Jin-Ming; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Shao-Wei; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Zhou, Wen; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of AdVs in rodents and shrews in China are still unknown. To explore the epidemiological characteristics of rodent and shrew AdVs in southern China, 255 fecal samples derived from four rodent species and 90 from shrews were collected in Xiamen and Guangzhou city of southern China. Amplification of a 314-324-bp fragment from the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs was attempted by using a nested PCR. Twenty-nine (11.4 %) specimens from rodents and one (1.1 %) specimen from shrews were tested positive for AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine samples from Rattus norvegicus in Guangzhou city between 2012 and 2013 might be the genuine AdV of R. norvegicus. The same putative AdV sequences were derived from samples of different host species from different/same places. A novel adenovirus was detected in Suncus murinus Linnaeus (SML/14GDGZ72) for the first time. Our findings provide new data on the prevalence and diversity of AdVs in rodents and shrews. PMID:26980673

  11. The hTERT Promoter Enhances the Antitumor Activity of an Oncolytic Adenovirus under a Hypoxic Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yuuri; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Teraishi, Fuminori; Kojima, Toru; Watanabe, Yuichi; Uno, Futoshi; Yano, Shuya; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor that contributes to the invasion, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. Hypoxic tumor cells often show more resistance to conventional chemoradiotherapy than normoxic tumor cells, suggesting the requirement of novel antitumor therapies to efficiently eliminate the hypoxic tumor cells. We previously generated a tumor-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-301: Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter drives viral E1 expression. Since the promoter activity of the hTERT gene has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia, we hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, the antitumor effect of OBP-301 with the hTERT promoter would be more efficient than that of the wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5). In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of OBP-301 and Ad5 against human cancer cells under a normoxic (20% oxygen) or a hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition. Hypoxic condition induced nuclear accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and upregulation of hTERT promoter activity in human cancer cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under hypoxic condition. Consistent with their cytopathic activity, the replication of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under the hypoxic condition. OBP-301-mediated E1A was expressed within hypoxic areas of human xenograft tumors in mice. These results suggest that the cytopathic activity of OBP-301 against hypoxic tumor cells is mediated through hypoxia-mediated activation of the hTERT promoter. Regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses by the hTERT promoter is a promising antitumor strategy, not only for induction of tumor-specific oncolysis, but also for efficient elimination of hypoxic tumor cells. PMID:22720091

  12. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with nonreplicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; Tang, D C

    2009-04-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus has been elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo or i.m. vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad)-free human Ad vector encoding the AI virus A/Turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5 (AdTW68. H5) or the A/Chicken/New York/94 H7 (AdChNY94. H7) hemagglutinin (HA). The AdTW68.H5-vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic AI virus challenges. The AdChNY94. H7-vaccinated chickens were protected against an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge. Chickens vaccinated in ovo with AdTW68.H5 followed by posthatch i.m. vaccination with AdChNY94.H7 responded to both vaccinations, with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. The use of a synthetic AI H5 HA gene codon optimized to match the tRNA pool found in chicken cells is more potent than the cognate H5 HA gene. Mass administration of this AI vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of the nonreplicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination will not interfere with epidemiological surveys of natural AI infections. Finally, the demonstration that Ad-vectored vaccines can be administered repeatedly without appreciably losing potency highlights the commercial potential of this new class of vaccine in poultry. PMID:19276437

  13. Adenovirus 3 penton dodecahedron exhibits structural changes of the base on fibre binding.

    PubMed Central

    Schoehn, G; Fender, P; Chroboczek, J; Hewat, E A

    1996-01-01

    It was recently shown that co-expression of adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) penton base and fibre in the baculovirus system produces dodecahedral particles, as does the expression of the penton base alone. The structure of both of these dodecahedral particles, with and without fibre, has been determined by cryoelectron microscopy and 3-dimensional reconstruction techniques to a resolution of 25 and 20 A, respectively. The general form of the penton base resembles that of the base protein in the recent reconstruction of adenovirus type 2. There is a remarkable difference in the penton base structure with and without the fibre. The five small protuberances on the outer surface of each base move away from the 5-fold axis by approximately 15 A when the fibre is present. These protuberances are of relatively low density and most probably represent a flexible loop possibly containing the RGD site involved in integrin binding. The fibre is apparently bound to the outer surface of the penton base, rather than inserted into it. The fibre is flexible and the shaft contains two distinct globular regions 26 A in diameter. The volume of the inner cavity of the dodecahedron is 350 +/- 100 nm3. This small volume precludes the use of the inner cavity to house genetic information for gene therapy; however, the possibility remains of linking the gene to the dodecahedron surface in the hope that it will be internalized with the dodecahedron. Images PMID:9003759

  14. INGN 201: Ad-p53, Ad5CMV-p53, Adenoviral p53, INGN 101, p53 gene therapy--Introgen, RPR/INGN 201.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    undergoing phase I trials for the potential treatment of lung, breast, ovarian, bladder, liver and brain cancers. Introgen and Aventis Pharma had signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the National Cancer Institute (NCI). NCI will sponsor clinical trials to evaluate and develop RPR/INGN 201 as a potential anticancer agent for these cancer indications. The trials conducted under a NCI-sponsored IND will evaluate RPR/INGN 201 alone and in combination with other anticancer agents. This agreement was originally signed by Rhône-Poulenc Rorer's Gencell. Introgen has completed three phase I clinical trials with INGN 201 in patients with bronchioalveolar cell lung carcinoma, ovarian cancer and recurrent glioblastomas, respectively. Intratumoural injection of RPR/INGN 201 in patients with recurrent glioblastomas was well tolerated and resulted in expression of the p53 protein. Direct administration of RPR/INGN 201 to the lower airways of patients with bronchioalveolar cell lung carcinoma resulted in symptomatic improvement and improved lung function in some patients. In February 2003, Introgen announced that the US Patent and Trademark Office has issued to The Board of Regents of The University of Texas System, patent No. 6,511,847 entitled "Recombinant p53 Adenovirus Methods and Compositions". Introgen Therapeutics is the exclusive licensee of this patent. The patent covers any adenoviral DNA molecules that encode the p53 gene positioned under the control of a promoter. Such a DNA molecule forms the genetic core of Introgen's ADVEXIN cancer therapy. Introgen's ADVEXIN therapy is now covered by up to ten separate US patents relevant to the product including compositions, therapeutic methods of administering the product in virtually any form, alone and in conjunction with the most widely used chemotherapeutic and radiation treatments, as well as its production. Introgen has a number of US patents that relate to the clinical use of ADVEXIN in cancer as

  15. Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zheng; Shi, Guoli; Kondo, Saki; Ito, Masahiko; Maekawa, Aya; Suzuki, Mariko; Saito, Izumu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanegae, Yumi

    2013-12-01

    First-generation adenovirus vectors (FG AdVs) expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively downregulate the expressions of target genes. However, this vector, in fact, expresses not only the transgene product, but also virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs) that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. We have established a production method for VA-deleted AdVs lacking expression of VA RNAs. Here, we showed that the highest shRNA activity was obtained when the shRNA was inserted not at the popularly used E1 site, but at the E4 site. We then compared the activities of shRNAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) expressed from VA-deleted AdVs or conventional AdVs. The VA-deleted AdVs inhibited HCV production much more efficiently. Therefore, VA-deleted AdVs were more effective than the currently used AdVs for shRNA downregulation, probably because of the lack of competition between VA RNAs and the shRNAs. These VA-deleted AdVs might enable more effective gene therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  16. An investigation of adverse effects caused by the injection of high-dose TNFalpha-expressing adenovirus vector into established murine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Okada, N; Mizuguchi, H; Hayakawa, T; Mayumi, T; Mizuno, N

    2003-04-01

    We previously reported that RGD fiber-mutant adenovirus vector carrying human TNFalpha cDNA (AdRGD-TNFalpha) could more effectively induce mouse B16 BL6 melanoma regression than conventional Ad-TNFalpha on intratumoral injection at less than 10(9) vector particles (VP). Although mice treated with either Ad type at 10(10) VP showed remarkable tumor regression due to hemolytic necrosis, severe adverse effects including extreme reduction in body weight were also induced by Ad treatment. Here, we attempted to elucidate the cause of the adverse effects to optimize the application of AdRGD-TNFalpha. More than 99% of systemically administered Ad accumulated in the liver, and the rate of Ad leakage into systemic circulation from the B16 BL6 tumors injected with AdRGD or conventional Ad at 10(10) VP was about 1% of the administered VP. Although the leaked Ad did not directly induce hepatotoxicity or body weight reduction, excessive TNFalpha produced in the tumors leaked into the blood at high concentrations and caused systemic inflammation, tissue denaturation, and body weight reduction in mice injected intratumorally with AdRGD-TNFalpha or Ad-TNFalpha at 10(10) VP. Our results demonstrated that an exact AdRGD-TNFalpha dosage must be determined to prevent TNFalpha leakage from tumors into systemic circulation, thereby enabling safe application of AdRGD-TNFalpha to clinical melanoma gene therapy in the future. PMID:12692598

  17. Characterization of a Pathogen Induced Thaumatin-Like Protein Gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a Wild Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P. B.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants. PMID:24367621

  18. Characterization of a pathogen induced thaumatin-like protein gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a wild peanut.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; Kirti, P B

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants. PMID:24367621

  19. Dendritic cells serve as a “Trojan horse” for oncolytic adenovirus delivery in the treatment of mouse prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao-lun; Liang, Xuan; Li, He-cheng; Wang, Zi-ming; Chong, Tie

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer, in which replication of the virus itself is the anticancer method. However, the success of this novel therapy is limited due to inefficient delivery of the virus to the target sites. In this study, we used dendritic cells (DCs) as carriers for conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) in targeting prostate carcinoma (PCa). Methods: Four types of CRAds, including Ad-PC (without PCa-specific promoter and a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor, rmhTNF, sequence), Ad-PC-rmhTNF (without PCa-specific promoter), Ad-PPC-NCS (without an rmhTNF sequence) and Ad-PPC-rmhTNF, were constructed. The androgen-insensitive mouse PCa RM-1 cells were co-cultured with CRAd-loading DCs, and the viability of RM-1 cells was examined using MTT assay. The in vivo effects of CRAd-loading DCs on PCa were evaluated in RM-1 xenograft mouse model. Results: Two PCa-specific CRAds (Ad-PPC-NCS, Ad-PPC-rmhTNF) exhibited more potent suppression on the viability of RM-1 cells in vitro than the PCa-non-specific CRAds (Ad-PC, Ad-PC-rmhTNF). In PCa-bearing mice, intravenous injection of the PCa-specific CRAd-loading DCs significantly inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors, extended the survival time, and induced T-cell activation. Additionally, the rmhTNF-containing CRAds exhibited greater tumor killing ability than CRAds without rmhTNF. Conclusion: DCs may be an effective vector for the delivery of CRAds in the treatment of PCa. PMID:27345628

  20. Serologic and hexon phylogenetic analysis of ruminant adenoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the antigenic relationship among ruminant adenoviruses and determine their phylogenetic relationship based on the deduced hexon gene amino acid sequence. Results of reciprocal cross-neutralization tests demonstrated antigenic relationships in either on...

  1. Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wan, Wen-Yan; Li, Hong-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Yang, Xia; Li, Yong-Tao; Chang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry. PMID:26850542

  2. Adenovirus Induction of an Interferon-Regulatory Factor during Entry into the Late Phase of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Feigenblum, David; Walker, Robert; Schneider, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Virus infection of animal cells can induce intracellular antiviral responses mediated by the induction of interferon-regulatory transcription factors (IRFs), which bind to and control genes directed by the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). The purpose of this study was to determine whether adenovirus (Ad) induces IRFs during infection, because they might play a role in promoting viral pathogenesis. Here we show that after the late phase of infection, Ad induces a transcription factor related to the IRF family of factors. The IRF is induced shortly after Ad entry into late phase and is shown to stimulate ISRE-directed transcription, to require activation by protein tyrosine kinase signalling, and to be induced several hours prior to the inhibition of cell protein synthesis. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity blocks Ad induction and activation of the IRF. Attempts to identify the Ad-induced factor immunologically and by photo-UV cross-linking indicate that it is likely a novel member of the IRF family. Finally, several independent lines of evidence also suggest that Ad induction of the IRF might correlate with the ability of the virus to block host cell protein synthesis later during infection. PMID:9765473

  3. Efficient detection of human circulating tumor cells without significant production of false-positive cells by a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Narii, Nobuhiro; Tomita, Kyoko; Togo, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Masashi; Ouchi, Masaaki; Katagiri, Nobuyoshi; Urata, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising biomarkers in several cancers, and thus methods and apparatuses for their detection and quantification in the blood have been actively pursued. A novel CTC detection system using a green fluorescence protein (GFP)–expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus (Ad) (rAd-GFP) was recently developed; however, there is concern about the production of false-positive cells (GFP-positive normal blood cells) when using rAd-GFP, particularly at high titers. In addition, CTCs lacking or expressing low levels of coxsackievirus–adenovirus receptor (CAR) cannot be detected by rAd-GFP, because rAd-GFP is constructed based on Ad serotype 5, which recognizes CAR. In order to suppress the production of false-positive cells, sequences perfectly complementary to blood cell–specific microRNA, miR-142-3p, were incorporated into the 3′-untranslated region of the E1B and GFP genes. In addition, the fiber protein was replaced with that of Ad serotype 35, which recognizes human CD46, creating rAdF35-142T-GFP. rAdF35-142T-GFP efficiently labeled not only CAR-positive tumor cells but also CAR-negative tumor cells with GFP. The numbers of false-positive cells were dramatically lower for rAdF35-142T-GFP than for rAd-GFP. CTCs in the blood of cancer patients were detected by rAdF35-142T-GFP with a large reduction in false-positive cells. PMID:26966699

  4. Efficient detection of human circulating tumor cells without significant production of false-positive cells by a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Narii, Nobuhiro; Tomita, Kyoko; Togo, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Masashi; Ouchi, Masaaki; Katagiri, Nobuyoshi; Urata, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising biomarkers in several cancers, and thus methods and apparatuses for their detection and quantification in the blood have been actively pursued. A novel CTC detection system using a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus (Ad) (rAd-GFP) was recently developed; however, there is concern about the production of false-positive cells (GFP-positive normal blood cells) when using rAd-GFP, particularly at high titers. In addition, CTCs lacking or expressing low levels of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) cannot be detected by rAd-GFP, because rAd-GFP is constructed based on Ad serotype 5, which recognizes CAR. In order to suppress the production of false-positive cells, sequences perfectly complementary to blood cell-specific microRNA, miR-142-3p, were incorporated into the 3'-untranslated region of the E1B and GFP genes. In addition, the fiber protein was replaced with that of Ad serotype 35, which recognizes human CD46, creating rAdF35-142T-GFP. rAdF35-142T-GFP efficiently labeled not only CAR-positive tumor cells but also CAR-negative tumor cells with GFP. The numbers of false-positive cells were dramatically lower for rAdF35-142T-GFP than for rAd-GFP. CTCs in the blood of cancer patients were detected by rAdF35-142T-GFP with a large reduction in false-positive cells. PMID:26966699

  5. PEGylated Adenoviruses: From Mice to Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wonganan, Piyanuch; Croyle, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Covalent modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a non-toxic polymer used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for over 60 years, can profoundly influence the pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and toxciologic profile of protein and peptide-based therapeutics. This review summarizes the history of PEGylation and PEG chemistry and highlights the value of this technology in the context of the design and development of recombinant viruses for gene transfer, vaccination and diagnostic purposes. Specific emphasis is placed on the application of this technology to the adenovirus, the most potent viral vector with the most highly characterized toxicity profile to date, in several animal models. PMID:21994645

  6. Characterization of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Vector Constructed to Target the cMet Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Hany I; Coleman, David T; Cardelli, James A; Mathis, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    The cMet receptor is a homodimer with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon stimulation with its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the receptor mediates wide physiologic actions. The HGF-cMet signaling pathway is dysregulated in many cancers, which makes cMet an important target for novel therapeutic interventions. Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have been used for the past three decades as a promising therapeutic approach for a wide array of neoplastic diseases. To date, achieving cancer-specific replication of oncolytic Ads has been accomplished by either viral genome deletions or by incorporating tumor selective promoters. To achieve novel specificity of oncolytic Ad infection of cancer cells that overexpress cMet, we inserted the HGF NK2 sequence, corresponding to a competitive antagonist of HGF binding to the cMet receptor, into the Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) fiber gene. The resulting vector, Ad5-pIX-RFP-FF/NK2, was rescued, amplified in HEK293 cells, and characterized. Binding specificity and viral infectivity were tested in various cancer cell lines that express varying levels of cMet and hCAR (the Ad5 receptor). We found that Ad5-pIX-RFP-FF/NK2 demonstrated binding specificity to the cMet receptor. In addition, there was enhanced viral infectivity and virus replication compared with a non-targeted Ad vector. Although NK2 weakly induces cMet receptor activation, our results showed no receptor phosphorylation in the context of an oncolytic Ad virus. In summary, these results suggest that an oncolytic Ad retargeted to the cMet receptor is a promising vector for developing a novel cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:26866014

  7. Potent anti-tumor effects of a dual specific oncolytic adenovirus expressing apoptin in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oncolytic virotherapy is an attractive drug platform of cancer gene therapy, but efficacy and specificity are important prerequisites for success of such strategies. Previous studies determined that Apoptin is a p53 independent, bcl-2 insensitive apoptotic protein with the ability to specifically induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we generated a conditional replication-competent adenovirus (CRCA), designated Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, and investigated the effectiveness of the CRCA a gene therapy agent for further clinical trials. Results The observation that infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin significantly inhibited growth of the melanoma cells, protecting normal human epidermal melanocytes from growth inhibition confirmed cancer cell selective adenoviral replication, growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction of this therapeutic approach. The in vivo assays performed by using C57BL/6 mice containing established primary or metastatic tumors expanded the in vitro studies. When treated with Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, the subcutaneous primary tumor volume reduction was not only observed in intratumoral injection group but in systemic delivery mice. In the lung metastasis model, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin effectively suppressed pulmonary metastatic lesions. Furthermore, treatment of primary and metastatic models with Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin increased mice survival. Conclusions These data further reinforce the previously research showing that an adenovirus expressing Apoptin is more effective and advocate the potential applications of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in the treatment of neoplastic diseases in future clinical trials. PMID:20085660

  8. Mechanism of Ad5 Vaccine Immunity and Toxicity: Fiber Shaft Targeting of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wing-pui; Sheets, Rebecca L; Gomez, Phillip L; King, C. Richter; Nabel, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral (rAd) vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs) was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines. PMID:17319743

  9. 78 FR 3906 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Adenovirus-Based Controls and Calibrators for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Transfer of Genes to the Lung'', and US patent 6,136,594 (HHS Reference E-129-1991/1- US-03), issued... adenovirus vectors containing foreign DNA. Such vectors can be used for gene transfer, therapeutics,...

  10. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new

  11. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for

  12. Potent antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus expressing Beclin-1 via induction of autophagic cell death in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Li, Lu; Meng, Haitao; Qian, Qijun

    2013-01-01

    An attractive strategy among adenovirus-based oncolytic systems is to design adenoviral vectors to express pro-apoptotic genes, in which this gene-virotherapy approach significantly enhances tumor cell death by activating apoptotic pathways. However, the existence of cancer cells with apoptotic defects is one of the major obstacles in gene-virotherapy. Here, we investigated whether a strategy that combines the oncolytic effects of an adenoviral vector with simultaneous expression of Beclin-1, an autophagy gene, offers a therapeutic advantage for leukemia. A Beclin-1 cDNA was cloned in an oncolytic adenovirus with chimeric Ad5/11 fiber (SG511-BECN). SG511-BECN treatment induced significant autophagic cell death, and resulted in enhanced cell killing in a variety of leukemic cell lines and primary leukemic blasts. SG511-BECN effects were seen in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with resistance to imatinib or chemotherapy, but exhibited much less cytotoxicity on normal cells. The SG511-BECN-induced autophagic cell death could be partially reversed by RNA interference knockdown of UVRAG, ATG5, and ATG7. We also showed that SG511-BECN strongly inhibited the growth of leukemic progenitors in vitro. In murine leukemia models, SG511-BECN prolonged the survival and decreased the xenograft tumor size by inducing autophagic cell death. Our results suggest that infection of leukemia cells with an oncolytic adenovirus overexpressing Beclin-1 can induce significant autophagic cell death and provide a new strategy for the elimination of leukemic cells via a unique mechanism of action distinct from apoptosis. PMID:23765161

  13. The Cell Adhesion Molecule “CAR” and Sialic Acid on Human Erythrocytes Influence Adenovirus In Vivo Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Wodrich, Harald; Billet, Olivier; Perreau, Matthieu; Hippert, Claire; Mennechet, Franck; Schoehn, Guy; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Dreja, Hanna; Ibanes, Sandy; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Wang, Jennifer P.; Finberg, Robert W.; Cusack, Stephen; Kremer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it has been known for 50 years that adenoviruses (Ads) interact with erythrocytes ex vivo, the molecular and structural basis for this interaction, which has been serendipitously exploited for diagnostic tests, is unknown. In this study, we characterized the interaction between erythrocytes and unrelated Ad serotypes, human 5 (HAd5) and 37 (HAd37), and canine 2 (CAV-2). While these serotypes agglutinate human erythrocytes, they use different receptors, have different tropisms and/or infect different species. Using molecular, biochemical, structural and transgenic animal-based analyses, we found that the primary erythrocyte interaction domain for HAd37 is its sialic acid binding site, while CAV-2 binding depends on at least three factors: electrostatic interactions, sialic acid binding and, unexpectedly, binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human erythrocytes. We show that the presence of CAR on erythrocytes leads to prolonged in vivo blood half-life and significantly reduced liver infection when a CAR-tropic Ad is injected intravenously. This study provides i) a molecular and structural rationale for Ad–erythrocyte interactions, ii) a basis to improve vector-mediated gene transfer and iii) a mechanism that may explain the biodistribution and pathogenic inconsistencies found between human and animal models. PMID:19119424

  14. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers. PMID:26792800

  15. A Combinatory Strategy for Detection of Live CTCs Using Microfiltration and a New Telomerase-Selective Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanchun; Hao, Sijie; Wang, Shuwen; Zhao, Yuanjun; Lim, Bora; Lei, Ming; Spector, David J; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Zheng, Si-Yang; Zhu, Jiyue

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have become an important biomarker for early cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. Recently, a replication-competent recombinant adenovirus driven by a human telomerase gene (hTERT) promoter was shown to detect live CTCs in blood samples of patients with cancer. Here, we report a new class of adenoviruses containing regulatory elements that repress the hTERT gene in normal cells. Compared with the virus with only the hTERT core promoter, the new viruses showed better selectivity for replication in cancer cells than in normal cells. In particular, Ad5GTSe, containing three extra copies of a repressor element, displayed a superior tropism for cancer cells among leukocytes and was thus selected for CTC detection in blood samples. To further improve the efficiency and specificity of CTC identification, we tested a combinatory strategy of microfiltration enrichment using flexible micro spring arrays and Ad5GTSe imaging. Our experiments showed that this method efficiently detected both cancer cells spiked into healthy blood and potential CTCs in blood samples of patients with breast and pancreatic cancer, demonstrating its potential as a highly sensitive and reliable system for detection and capture of CTCs of different tumor types. PMID:25589497

  16. Biosafety studies of carrier cells infected with a replication-competent adenovirus introduced by IAI.3B promoter

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Terao, Shuji; Gotoh, Akinobu; Tani, Kenzaburo; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    The use of carrier cells infected with oncolytic viruses in cancer gene therapy is an attractive method because it can overcome viral immunogenicity and induce tumor immunity and significant antitumor activity. To enable human clinical trials of this treatment, acute and chronic toxicity tests must first be performed to ensure safety. IAI.3B promoter, oncolytic adenovirus AdE3-IAI.3B introduced by IAI.3B promoter, and A549 carrier cells infected with AdE3-IAI.3B were highly active in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Freeze-thawing increased the antitumor effect of A549 carrier cells by promoting the translocation of oncolytic adenovirus particles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm following the rupture of the nuclear membranes. No deaths or abnormal blood test data resulted from acute toxicity tests conducted in nude mice after a single dose. In chronic toxicity tests in rabbits, there were no serious side effects after eight doses of 1.25 × 107 cells/kg or less for 4 weeks; a significant immune response is known to elicit increased numbers of antiadenovirus antibodies and enlarge the spleen. From these results, it could be concluded that cancer gene therapy of recurrent solid tumors using carrier cells can be safely trialed in humans. PMID:26015963

  17. Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Puntel, Mariana; Ghulam, Muhammad A.K.M.; Farrokhi, Catherine; VanderVeen, Nathan; Paran, Christopher; Appelhans, Ashley; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Salem, Alireza; Lacayo, Liliana; Pechnick, Robert N.; Kelson, Kyle R.; Kaur, Sukhpreet; Kennedy, Sean; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; and others

    2013-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are promising gene delivery vehicles due to their high transduction efficiency; however, their clinical usefulness has been hampered by their immunogenicity and the presence of anti-Ad immunity in humans. We reported the efficacy of a gene therapy approach for glioma consisting of intratumoral injection of Ads encoding conditionally cytotoxic herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) and the immunostimulatory cytokine fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Ad-Flt3L). Herein, we report the biodistribution, efficacy, and neurological and systemic effects of a bicistronic high-capacity Ad, i.e., HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L. HC-Ads elicit sustained transgene expression, even in the presence of anti-Ad immunity, and can encode large therapeutic cassettes, including regulatory elements to enable turning gene expression “on” or “off” according to clinical need. The inclusion of two therapeutic transgenes within a single vector enables a reduction of the total vector load without adversely impacting efficacy. Because clinically the vectors will be delivered into the surgical cavity, normal regions of the brain parenchyma are likely to be transduced. Thus, we assessed any potential toxicities elicited by escalating doses of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L (1 × 10{sup 8}, 1 × 10{sup 9}, or 1 × 10{sup 10} viral particles [vp]) delivered into the rat brain parenchyma. We assessed neuropathology, biodistribution, transgene expression, systemic toxicity, and behavioral impact at acute and chronic time points. The results indicate that doses up to 1 × 10{sup 9} vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered into the normal rat brain and underpin further developments for its implementation in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. - Highlights: ► High capacity Ad vectors elicit sustained therapeutic gene expression in the brain. ► HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L encodes two therapeutic genes and a transcriptional switch. ► We performed a dose escalation study at

  18. Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy with Epilepsy: The BRAT1 Gene Should Be Added to the List of Causes.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Laura A; Wolf, Nicole I; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Stam, Cornelie J; Weiss, Janneke M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Kevelam, Sietske H; Bugiani, Mariana; van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2015-12-01

    A variety of pathologies can underlie early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy. To aid the diagnostic process in such patients we present an overview of causes, including the rapidly expanding list of genes involved. When no explanation is found, whole-exome sequencing (WES) can be used in an attempt to identify gene defects in patients suspected to suffer from a genetic form. We describe three siblings, born to consanguineous parents, with a lethal severe epileptic encephalopathy with early-infantile onset, including their magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and, in one case, neuropathological findings. Using WES a homozygous frameshift mutation in the BRAT1 gene, c.638dup p.(Val214Glyfs*189), was identified. We present our cases in the context of all published cases with mutations in the BRAT1 gene and conclude that BRAT1 should be added to the growing list of genes related to early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy. PMID:26535877

  19. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  20. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  1. Pseudotyping Serotype 5 Adenovirus with the Fiber from Other Serotypes Uncovers a Key Role of the Fiber Protein in Adenovirus 5-Induced Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Raddi, Najat; Vigant, Frédéric; Wagner-Ballon, Oriane; Giraudier, Stéphane; Custers, Jerome; Hemmi, Silvio; Benihoud, Karim

    2016-02-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) infection in humans is associated with inflammatory responses and thrombocytopenia. Although several studies were conducted in mice models to understand molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ad-induced inflammatory responses, only few of them turned their interest toward the mechanisms of Ad-induced thrombocytopenia. Using different depletion methods, the present study ruled out any significant role of spleen, macrophages, and vitamin K-dependent factor in Ad-induced thrombocytopenia. Interestingly, mice displaying thrombocytopenia expressed high levels of cytokines/chemokines after Ad administration. Most importantly, pseudotyping adenovirus with the fiber protein from other serotypes was associated with reduction of both cytokine/chemokine production and thrombocytopenia. Altogether, our results suggest that capsid fiber protein (and more precisely its shaft) of Ad serotype 5 triggers the cytokine production that leads to Ad-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:26757054

  2. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  3. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yueting; Stamminger, Thomas; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad) replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT). IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib), a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection. PMID:26809031

  4. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yueting; Stamminger, Thomas; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad) replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT). IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib), a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection. PMID:26809031

  5. Replication-competent adenoviruses with the type 35-derived fiber-knob region achieve reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity and produce greater toxicity than those with the type 5-derived region in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Suguru; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Okamoto, Shinya; Morinaga, Takao; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Shingyoji, Masato; Sekine, Ikuo; Kubo, Shuji; Tada, Yuji; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Shimada, Hideaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is relatively resistant to chemotherapy and cell death induced by replication of adenoviruses (Ad) can be one of the therapeutic options. Transduction efficacy of conventional type 5 Ad (Ad5) is however low and the cytotoxic mechanism by replication-competent Ad was not well understood. We constructed replication-competent Ad5 of which the E1A promoter region was replaced with a transcriptional regulatory region of the midkine, the survivin or the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, all of which were expressed at a high level in human tumors. We also prepared replication-competent Ad5 that were activated with the same region but had the type 35 Ad-derived fiber-knob region (AdF35) to convert the major cellular receptor for Ad infection from the coxsackie adenovirus receptor to CD46 molecules. Replication-competent AdF35 that were activated with the exogenous region produced cytotoxic effects on human pancreatic carcinoma cells greater than the corresponding Ad5 bearing with the same regulatory region. Cells infected with the AdF35 showed cytopathic effects and increased sub-G1 fractions. Caspase-9, less significantly caspase-8 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, but not caspase-3 was cleaved and expression of molecules involved in autophagy and caspase-independent cell death pathways remained unchanged. Nevertheless, H2A histone family member X molecules were phosphorylated, and N-acetyl-L-cystein, an inhibitor for reactive oxygen species, suppressed the AdF35-mediated cytotoxicity. These data indicated a novel mechanism of Ad-mediated cell death and suggest a possible clinical application of the fiber-knob modified Ad. PMID:26373551

  6. Anti-tumor immunity elicited by direct intratumoral administration of a recombinant adenovirus expressing either IL-28A/IFN-λ2 or IL-29/IFN-λ1.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Tagawa, M; Takagi, K; Tsukamoto, H; Tomioka, Y; Suzuki, T; Nishioka, Y; Ohrui, T; Numasaki, M

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-28A/interferon (IFN)-λ2 and IL-29/IFN-λ1 have been demonstrated to elicit direct and indirect anti-tumor actions. In this study, we constructed an adenovirus vector expressing either IL-28A/IFN-λ2 (AdIL-28A) or IL-29/IFN-λ1 (AdIL-29) to evaluate the therapeutic properties of intratumoral injection of recombinant adenovirus to apply for the clinical implementation of cancer gene therapy. Despite the lack of an anti-proliferative effect on MCA205 and B16-F10 cells, a retarded growth of established subcutaneous tumors was observed following multiple injections of either AdIL-28A or AdIL-29 when compared with AdNull. In vivo cell depletion experiments displayed that both NK cells and CD8(+) T cells have a major role in AdIL-28A-mediated tumor growth suppression. A significant increase in the number of infiltrating CD8(+) T cells into the tumors treated with either AdIL-28A or AdIL-29 was observed. Moreover, specific anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte reactivity was detected in spleen cells from animals treated with either AdIL-28A or AdIL-29. In IFN-γ-deficient mice, anti-tumor activities of AdIL-28A were completely impaired, indicating that IFN-γ is critically involved in the tumor growth inhibition triggered by AdIL-28A. IL-12 provided a synergistic anti-tumor effect when combined with AdIL-28A. These results indicate that AdIL-28A and AdIL-29 could be successfully utilized as an alternative cancer immunogene therapy. PMID:27561689

  7. In situ gene transfer and suicide gene therapy of gastric cancer induced by N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, N; Hoshino, A; Igarashi, T; Hasegawa, H; Okino, T; Onda, M; Iijima, O; Akiyama, K; Goto, T; Takubo, K; Suzuki, S; Shimada, T

    1999-09-01

    Gene therapy could potentially revolutionize the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. The aim of this study was to establish a practical method of gene transfer which would be applicable to human gastric cancer. Retrovirus or/and adenovirus vectors carrying the lacZ marker gene were transferred in situ by needle through an endoscopic biopsy channel into primary gastric cancer in six male beagle dogs that had been treated with N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG). In addition, an adenovirus vector carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Ad.CAGHSV-TK) gene was introduced in situ into cancer tissues in the stomach of three dogs, and the animals were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV). Retrovirus-producing cells which expressed the lacZ gene were specifically localized to the injection site in the stomach. The lacZ gene was more widely transferred into the tumor by the adenovirus vector than by retrovirus-producing cells. Improvement of the needle used for gene transfer and the use of multiple injections per tumor led to more diffuse transfer of the vector into the tumor. The Ad.CAGlacZ gene was also transferred into regional lymph nodes of the stomach. Moderate to diffuse degeneration of the primary cancer tissues of the stomach was found after Ad.CAGHSV-TK/GCV gene therapy. Moreover, almost complete tissue degeneration was observed in the regional lymph nodes of the stomach. An adverse effect of HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy was acute hepatotoxicity, which was not found after Ad.CAGlacZ gene transfer, but was found after high-titer Ad.CAGHSV-TK gene transfer followed by GCV. These findings suggest that in situ gene transfer of a suicide gene followed by prodrug treatment may be applicable not only to primary tumors, but also to lymph node metastases of gastric cancer, though further study of both beneficial and adverse effects is required before clinical usage. PMID:10551335

  8. Adenovirus detection in Guthrie cards from paediatric leukaemia cases and controls

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, G M; Kang, M; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Schiffman, J D; Lorey, F; Buffler, P; Wiemels, J L

    2008-01-01

    Archived neonatal blood cards (Guthrie cards) from children who later contracted leukaemia and matched normal controls were assayed for adenovirus (AdV) C DNA content using two highly sensitive methods. In contrast to a previous report, AdV DNA was not detected at a higher frequency among neonates who later developed leukaemia, when compared with controls. PMID:19002185

  9. Beyond Oncolytics: E1B55K-Deleted Adenovirus as a Vaccine Delivery Vector.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael A; Nyanhete, Tinashe; Tuero, Iskra; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Type 5 human adenoviruses (Ad5) deleted of genes encoding the early region 1B 55-kDa (E1B55K) protein including Onyx-015 (dl1520) and H101 are best known for their oncolytic potential. As a vaccine vector the E1B55K deletion may allow for the insertion of a transgene nearly 1,000 base pairs larger than now possible. This has the potential of extending the application for which the vectors are clinically known. However, the immune priming ability of E1B55K-deleted vectors is unknown, undermining our ability to gauge their usefulness in vaccine applications. For this reason, we created an E1B55K-deleted Ad5 vector expressing full-length single chain HIVBaLgp120 attached to a flexible linker and the first two domains of rhesus CD4 (rhFLSC) in exchange for the E3 region. In cell-based experiments the E1B55K-deleted vector promoted higher levels of innate immune signals including chemokines, cytokines, and the NKG2D ligands MIC A/B compared to an E1B55K wild-type vector expressing the same immunogen. Based on these results we evaluated the immune priming ability of the E1B55K-deleted vector in mice. The E1B55K-deleted vector promoted similar levels of Ad5-, HIVgp120, and rhFLSC-specific cellular and humoral immune responses as the E1B55K wild-type vector. In pre-clinical HIV-vaccine studies the wild-type vector has been employed as part of a very effective prime-boost strategy. This study demonstrates that E1B55K-deleted adenoviruses may serve as effective vaccine delivery vectors. PMID:27391605

  10. Impact of adenovirus life cycle progression on the generation of canine helper-dependent vectors.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Simão, D; Guerreiro, M R; Kremer, E J; Coroadinha, A S; Alves, P M

    2015-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HDVs) are safe and efficient tools for gene transfer with high cloning capacity. However, the multiple amplification steps needed to produce HDVs hamper a robust production process and in turn the availability of high-quality vectors. To understand the factors behind the low productivity, we analyzed the progression of HDV life cycle. Canine adenovirus (Ad) type 2 vectors, holding attractive features to overcome immunogenic concerns and treat neurobiological disorders, were the focus of this work. When compared with E1-deleted (ΔE1) vectors, we found a faster helper genome replication during HDV production. This was consistent with an upregulation of the Ad polymerase and pre-terminal protein and led to higher and earlier expression of structural proteins. Although genome packaging occurred similarly to ΔE1 vectors, more immature capsids were obtained during HDV production, which led to a ~4-fold increase in physical-to-infectious particles ratio. The higher viral protein content in HDV-producing cells was also consistent with an increased activation of autophagy and cell death, in which earlier cell death compromised volumetric productivity. The increased empty capsids and earlier cell death found in HDV production may partially contribute to the lower vector infectivity. However, an HDV-specific factor responsible for a defective maturation process should be also involved to fully explain the low infectious titers. This study showed how a deregulated Ad cycle progression affected cell line homeostasis and HDV propagation, highlighting the impact of vector genome design on virus-cell interaction. PMID:25338917

  11. Beyond Oncolytics: E1B55K-Deleted Adenovirus as a Vaccine Delivery Vector

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Nyanhete, Tinashe; Tuero, Iskra; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Type 5 human adenoviruses (Ad5) deleted of genes encoding the early region 1B 55-kDa (E1B55K) protein including Onyx-015 (dl1520) and H101 are best known for their oncolytic potential. As a vaccine vector the E1B55K deletion may allow for the insertion of a transgene nearly 1,000 base pairs larger than now possible. This has the potential of extending the application for which the vectors are clinically known. However, the immune priming ability of E1B55K-deleted vectors is unknown, undermining our ability to gauge their usefulness in vaccine applications. For this reason, we created an E1B55K-deleted Ad5 vector expressing full-length single chain HIVBaLgp120 attached to a flexible linker and the first two domains of rhesus CD4 (rhFLSC) in exchange for the E3 region. In cell-based experiments the E1B55K-deleted vector promoted higher levels of innate immune signals including chemokines, cytokines, and the NKG2D ligands MIC A/B compared to an E1B55K wild-type vector expressing the same immunogen. Based on these results we evaluated the immune priming ability of the E1B55K-deleted vector in mice. The E1B55K-deleted vector promoted similar levels of Ad5-, HIVgp120, and rhFLSC-specific cellular and humoral immune responses as the E1B55K wild-type vector. In pre-clinical HIV-vaccine studies the wild-type vector has been employed as part of a very effective prime-boost strategy. This study demonstrates that E1B55K-deleted adenoviruses may serve as effective vaccine delivery vectors. PMID:27391605

  12. Vaccination with Adenovirus Serotypes 35, 26, and 48 Elicits Higher Levels of Innate Cytokine Responses than Adenovirus Serotype 5 in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Iampietro, M. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vaccine vectors have proven highly immunogenic in multiple experimental models, but the innate immune responses induced by these vectors remain poorly characterized. Here we report innate cytokine responses to 5 different Ad vectors in 26 rhesus monkeys. Vaccination with adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35), Ad26, and Ad48 induced substantially higher levels of antiviral (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], 10-kDa gamma interferon-induced protein [IP-10]) and proinflammatory (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist [IL-1RA], IL-6) cytokines than vaccination with Ad5 on day 1 following immunization. In vitro studies with capsid chimeric vectors and receptor-blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested that fiber-receptor interactions, as well as other capsid components, were critical for triggering these innate responses. Moreover, multiple cell populations, including dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and T lymphocytes, contributed to these innate cytokine profiles. These data demonstrate that Ad35, Ad26, and Ad48, which utilize CD46 as their primary cellular receptor, induce significantly greater innate cytokine responses than Ad5, which uses the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). These differences in innate triggering result in markedly different immunologic milieus for the subsequent generation of adaptive immune responses by these vaccine vectors. PMID:22787208

  13. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  14. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-Keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  15. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630–24,662 bp and 35.5–35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9–39.3% (amino acid, 32.1–47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008–2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  16. A Replicating Adenovirus Capsid Display Recombinant Elicits Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Aotus nancymaae Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Karen, Kasey A.; Deal, Cailin; Adams, Robert J.; Nielsen, Carolyn; Ward, Cameron; Espinosa, Diego A.; Xie, Jane; Zavala, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Decades of success with live adenovirus vaccines suggest that replication-competent recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) could serve as effective vectors for immunization against other pathogens. To explore the potential of a live rAd vaccine against malaria, we prepared a viable adenovirus 5 (Ad5) recombinant that displays a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum on the virion surface. The recombinant induced P. falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Human adenoviruses do not replicate in mice. Therefore, to examine immunogenicity in a system in which, as in humans, the recombinant replicates, we constructed a similar recombinant in an adenovirus mutant that replicates in monkey cells and immunized four Aotus nancymaae monkeys. The recombinant replicated in the monkeys after intratracheal instillation, the first demonstration of replication of human adenoviruses in New World monkeys. Immunization elicited antibodies both to the Plasmodium epitope and the Ad5 vector. Antibodies from all four monkeys recognized CSP on intact parasites, and plasma from one monkey neutralized sporozoites in vitro and conferred partial protection against P. falciparum sporozoite infection after passive transfer to mice. Prior enteric inoculation of two animals with antigenically wild-type adenovirus primed a response to the subsequent intratracheal inoculation, suggesting a route to optimizing performance. A vaccine is not yet available against P. falciparum, which induces the deadliest form of malaria and kills approximately one million children each year. The live capsid display recombinant described here may constitute an early step in a critically needed novel approach to malaria immunization. PMID:25368113

  17. Molecular characterization of replication-competent variants of adenovirus vectors and genome modifications to prevent their occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    Hehir, K M; Armentano, D; Cardoza, L M; Choquette, T L; Berthelette, P B; White, G A; Couture, L A; Everton, M B; Keegan, J; Martin, J M; Pratt, D A; Smith, M P; Smith, A E; Wadsworth, S C

    1996-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors for gene therapy are made replication defective by deletion of E1 region genes. For isolation, propagation, and large-scale production of such vectors, E1 functions are supplied in trans from a stable cell line. Virtually all Ad vectors used for clinical studies are produced in the 293 cell, a human embryonic kidney cell line expressing E1 functions from an integrated segment of the left end of the Ad type 5 (Ad5) genome. Replication-competent vector variants that have regained E1 sequences have been observed within populations of Ad vectors grown on 293 cells. These replication-competent variants presumably result from recombination between vector and 293 cell Ad5 sequences. We have developed Ad2-based vectors and have characterized at the molecular level examples of replication-competent variants. All such variants analyzed are Ad2-Ad5 chimeras in which the 293 cell Ad5 E1 sequences have become incorporated into the viral genome by legitimate recombination events. A map of Ad5 sequences within the 293 cell genome developed in parallel is consistent with the proposed recombination events. To provide a convenient vector production system that circumvents the generation of replication-competent variants, we have modified the Ad2 vector backbone by deleting or rearranging the protein IX coding region normally present downstream from the E1 region such that the frequency of recombination between vector and 293 cell Ad5 sequences is greatly reduced. Twelve serial passages of an Ad2 vector lacking the protein IX gene were carried out without generating replication-competent variants. In the course of producing and testing more than 30 large-scale preparations of vectors lacking the protein IX gene or having a rearranged protein IX gene, only three examples of replication-competent variants were observed. Use of these genome modifications allows use of conventional 293 cells for production of large-scale preparations of Ad-based vectors lacking

  18. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  19. Progress in gene targeting and gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, M.M.; Erven, A.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we localized disease genes involved in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited retinal degeneration, close to the rhodopsin and peripherin genes on 3q and 6p. Subsequently, we and others identified mutations in these genes in RP patients. Currently animal models for human retinopathies are being generated using gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Genomic clones for retinal genes including rhodopsin and peripherin have been obtained from a phage library carrying mouse DNA isogenic with the ES cell line (CC1.2). The peripherin clone has been sequenced to establish the genomic structure of the mouse gene. Targeting vectors for rhodopsin and peripherin including a neomycin cassette for positive selection and thymidine kinase genes enabling selection against random intergrants are under construction. Progress in vector construction will be presented. Simultaneously we are developing systems for delivery of gene therapies to retinal tissues utilizing replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5). Efficacy of infection subsequent to various methods of intraocular injection and with varying viral titers is being assayed using an adenovirus construct containing a CMV promoter LacZ fusion as reporter and the range of tissues infected and the level of duration of LacZ expression monitored. Viral constructs with the LacZ reporter gene under the control of retinal specific promoters such as rhodopsin and IRBP cloned into pXCJL.1 are under construction. An update on developments in photoreceptor cell-directed expression of virally delivered genes will be presented.

  20. The generation and analyses of a novel combination of recombinant adenovirus vaccines targeting three tumor antigens as an immunotherapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Tsang, Kwong Yok; Palena, Claudia; David, Justin M.; Fantini, Massimo; Kwilas, Anna; Rice, Adrian E.; Latchman, Yvette; Hodge, James W.; Gulley, James L.; Madan, Ravi A.; Heery, Christopher R.; Balint, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity of human carcinoma lesions, including heterogeneity in expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), is a well-established phenomenon. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC1, and brachyury are diverse TAAs, each of which is expressed on a wide range of human tumors. We have previously reported on a novel adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector gene delivery platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) in which regions of the early 1 (E1), early 2 (E2b), and early 3 (E3) genes have been deleted. The unique deletions in this platform result in a dramatic decrease in late gene expression, leading to a marked reduction in host immune response to the vector. Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA vaccine (ETBX-011) has been employed in clinical studies as an active vaccine to induce immune responses to CEA in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We report here the development of novel recombinant Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-brachyury and-MUC1 vaccine constructs, each capable of activating antigen-specific human T cells in vitro and inducing antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccinated mice. We also describe the use of a combination of the three vaccines (designated Tri-Ad5) of Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-brachyury and Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-MUC1, and demonstrate that there is minimal to no “antigenic competition” in in vitro studies of human dendritic cells, or in murine vaccination studies. The studies reported herein support the rationale for the application of Tri-Ad5 as a therapeutic modality to induce immune responses to a diverse range of human TAAs for potential clinical studies. PMID:26374823

  1. Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Walters, R W; Grunst, T; Bergelson, J M; Finberg, R W; Welsh, M J; Zabner, J

    1999-04-01

    Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency. PMID:10187807

  2. Preferable sites and orientations of transgene inserted in the adenovirus vector genome: The E3 site may be unfavorable for transgene position

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M; Kondo, S; Pei, Z; Maekawa, A; Saito, I; Kanegae, Y

    2015-01-01

    The adenovirus vector (AdV) can carry two transgenes in its genome, the therapeutic gene and a reporter gene, for example. The E3 insertion site has often been used for the expression of the second transgene. A transgene can be inserted at six different sites/orientations: E1, E3 and E4 sites, and right and left orientations. However, the best combination of the insertion sites and orientations as for the titers and the expression levels has not sufficiently been studied. We attempted to construct 18 AdVs producing GFP or LacZ gene driven by the EF1α promoter and Cre gene driven by the α-fetoprotein promoter. The AdV containing GFP gene at E3 in the rightward orientation (GFP-E3R) was not available. The LacZ-E3R AdV showed 20-fold lower titer and 50-fold lower level of fiber mRNA than the control E1L AdV. Notably, we found four aberrantly spliced mRNAs in the LacZ-E3L/R AdVs, probably explaining their very low titers. Although the transgene expression levels in the E4R AdVs were about threefold lower than those in the E1L AdVs, their titers are comparable with that of E1L AdVs. We concluded that E1L and E4R sites/orientations are preferable for expressing the main target gene and a second gene, respectively. PMID:25588742

  3. Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C

    1992-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the many pathogens and opportunistic agents that cause serious infection in the congenitally immunocompromised, in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for organ and tissue transplants and for cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Adenovirus infections in these patients tend to become disseminated and severe, and the serotypes involved are clustered according to the age of the patient and the nature of the immunosuppression. Over 300 adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients, with an overall case fatality rate of 48%, are reviewed in this paper. Children with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and other primary immunodeficiencies are exposed to the serotypes of subgroups B and C that commonly infect young children, and thus their infections are due to types 1 to 7 and 31 of subgenus A. Children with bone marrow and liver transplants often have lung and liver adenovirus infections that are due to an expanded set of subgenus A, B, C, and E serotypes. Adults with kidney transplants have viruses of subgenus B, mostly types 11, 34, and 35, which cause cystitis. This review indicates that 11% of transplant recipients become infected with adenoviruses, with case fatality rates from 60% for bone marrow transplant patients to 18% for renal transplant patients. Patients with AIDS become infected with a diversity of serotypes of all subgenera because their adult age and life-style expose them to many adenoviruses, possibly resulting in antigenically intermediate strains that are not found elsewhere. Interestingly, isolates from the urine of AIDS patients are generally of subgenus B and comprise types 11, 21, 34, 35, and intermediate strains of these types, whereas isolates from stool are of subgenus D and comprise many rare, new, and intermediate strains that are untypeable for practical purposes. It has been estimated that adenoviruses cause active infection in 12% of AIDS patients and that 45% of

  4. Identification of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Hexon Regions That Interact with Scavenger Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Reeti; Reddy, Vijay S.; Nemerow, Glen R.; Barry, Michael A.

    2012-05-04

    Most of an intravenous dose of species C adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is destroyed by liver Kupffer cells. In contrast, another species C virus, Ad6, evades these cells to mediate more efficient liver gene delivery. Given that this difference in Kupffer cell interaction is mediated by the hypervariable (HVR) loops of the virus hexon protein, we genetically modified each of the seven HVRs of Ad5 with a cysteine residue to enable conditional blocking of these sites with polyethylene glycol (PEG). We show that these modifications do not affect in vitro virus transduction. In contrast, after intravenous injection, targeted PEGylation at HVRs 1, 2, 5, and 7 increased viral liver transduction up to 20-fold. Elimination or saturation of liver Kupffer cells did not significantly affect this increase in the liver transduction. In vitro, PEGylation blocked uptake of viruses via the Kupffer cell scavenger receptor SRA-II. These data suggest that HVRs 1, 2, 5, and 7 of Ad5 may be involved in Kupffer cell recognition and subsequent destruction. These data also demonstrate that this conditional genetic-chemical mutation strategy is a useful tool for investigating the interactions of viruses with host tissues.

  5. Sequence-independent autoregulation of the adenovirus type 5 E1A transcription unit.

    PubMed Central

    Hearing, P; Shenk, T

    1985-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A gene is known to be autoregulated at the level of transcription. Autoregulation was found to be mediated by products of the E1A 13S mRNA, which induced a fivefold increase in E1A transcription rate. Deletion analysis suggested that the autoregulation did not require any specific sequence in the E1A transcriptional control region. This conclusion was reinforced by the demonstration that a cellular alpha-globin gene substituted for the E1A gene on the adenovirus chromosome was also positively regulated by E1A gene products. Images PMID:2943984

  6. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against immunorecessive epitopes after multiple immunizations with adenovirus vectors is dependent on haplotype.

    PubMed

    Sparer, T E; Wynn, S G; Clark, D J; Kaplan, J M; Cardoza, L M; Wadsworth, S C; Smith, A E; Gooding, L R

    1997-03-01

    Currently, adenovirus (Ad) is being considered as a vector for the treatment of cystic fibrosis as well as other diseases. However, the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to Ad could limit the effectiveness of such approaches. Since the CTL response to virus infection is often focused on one or a few immunodominant epitopes, one approach to circumvent this response is to create vectors that lack these immunodominant epitopes. The effectiveness of this approach was tested by immunizing mice with human group C adenoviruses. Three mouse strains (C57BL/10SnJ [H-2b], C3HeB/FeJ [H-2k], and BALB/cByJ [H-2d]) were immunized with wild-type Ad or Ad vectors lacking the immunodominant antigen(s), and the CTL responses were measured. In C57BL/10 (B10) mice, a single inoculation intraperitoneally (i.p.) led to the recognition of an immunodominant antigen in E1A. When B10 mice were inoculated multiple times either i.p. or intranasally with wild-type Ad or an Ad vector lacking most of the E1 region, subdominant epitopes outside this region were recognized. In contrast, C3H mice inoculated with wild-type Ad recognized an epitope mapping within E1B. When inoculated twice with Ad vectors lacking both E1A and E1B, no immunorecessive epitopes were recognized. The immune response to Ad in BALB/c mice was more complex. CTLs from BALB/c mice inoculated i.p. with wild-type Ad recognized E1B in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I Dd allele and a region outside E1 associated with the Kd allele. When BALB/c mice were inoculated with E1-deleted Ad vectors, only the immunodominant Kd-restricted epitope was recognized, and Dd-restricted CTLs did not develop. This report indicates that the emergence of CTLs against immunorecessive epitopes following multiple administrations of Ad vectors lacking immunodominant antigens is dependent on haplotype and could present an obstacle to gene therapy in an MHC-diverse human population. PMID:9032363

  7. [Disparity of apoptotic response in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 after infection with recombinant adenovirus encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursail disease virus].

    PubMed

    Shin, Tan Seok; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Lila, Mohd-Azmi Mohd; Rahman, Sheikh-Omar Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (ADV-VP2) has shown potent anti-tumour effects due to its capability of apoptotic induction in cancer cells. In the present study, human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were infected with ADV-VP2. The expression of VP2 protein was registered 4 h post-infection, particularly in MCF-7 cells. Multiple time-point DNA ladder assay demonstrated that ADV-VP2 infected MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells endured apoptosis as early as 8 and 12 h post-infection, respectively. Apoptosis induction in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, albeit different start points, lasted til 36 h post-infection. The induction of apoptosis by ADV-VP2 was further shown by the TUNEL assay, with dark brown discoloration of apoptotic cells. The present study also explored the different stages of apoptosis by Annexin V/PI double staining flow cytometry quantification. Treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively detected 25.58 +/- 9.02 and 14.51 +/- 3.12% of early apoptotic cells, 6.09 +/- 4.06 and 77.12 +/- 5.09% of late apoptotic cells. Results revealed that there were significant differences in the number of cells of both types which underwent early and late apoptosis. Significant differences were also observed among viable and apoptotic cells which have been post treated with ADV-VP2. The apoptotic effects of ADV-VP2 on human breast cancer cell lines were consistently demonstrated by three apoptosis detection methods. Therefore, a cancer vaccine basing on gene therapy could be developed in the near future using the present construct. PMID:25842834

  8. Eliminating established tumor in nu/nu nude mice by a TRAIL-armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fengqin; Wang, Li; Davis, John J.; Hu, Wenxian; Zhang, Lidong; Guo, Wei; Teraishi, Fuminori; Ji, Lin; Fang, Bingliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and oncolytic viruses have recently been investigated extensively for cancer therapy. However, preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that their clinical application is hampered by either weak anticancer activity or systemic toxicity. We examined whether the weaknesses of the two strategies can be overcome by integrating the TRAIL gene into an oncolytic vector. Experimental Design We constructed a TRAIL-expressing oncolytic adenovector designated Ad/TRAIL-E1. The expression of both the TRAIL and viral E1A genes is under the control of a synthetic promoter consisting of sequences from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and a minimal cytomegalovirus early promoter. The transgene expression, apoptosis induction, viral replication, antitumor activity and toxicity of Ad/TRAIL-E1 were determined in vitro and in vivo in comparison with control vectors. Results Ad/TRAIL-E1 elicited enhanced viral replication and/or stronger oncolytic effect in vitro in various human cancer cell lines than a TRAIL-expressing replication-defective adenovector or an oncolytic adenovector expressing green fluorescent protein. Intralesional administration of Ad/TRAIL-E1 eliminated all subcutaneous xenograft tumors established from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299, on nu/nu nude mice, resulting in long-term tumor-free survival. Furthermore, we found no treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions Viral replication and antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus can be enhanced by the TRAIL gene and Ad/TRAIL-E1 could become a potent therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:16951242

  9. Random sampling of the Central European bat fauna reveals the existence of numerous hitherto unknown adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats. PMID:26599097

  10. Construction of a pIX-modified Adenovirus Vector Able to Effectively Bind to Nanoantibodies for Targeting.

    PubMed

    Garas, M N; Tillib, S V; Zubkova, O V; Rogozhin, V N; Ivanova, T I; Vasilev, L A; Logunov, D Yu; Shmarov, M M; Tutykhina, I L; Esmagambetov, I B; Gribova, I Yu; Bandelyuk, A S; Naroditsky, B S; Gintsburg, A L

    2014-04-01

    Current targeting strategies for genetic vectors imply the creation of a specific vector for every targeted receptor, which is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, the development of a universal vector system whose surface can specifically bind molecules to provide efficient targeting is of particular interest. In this study, we propose a new approach in creating targeted vectors based on the genome of human adenovirus serotype 5 carrying the modified gene of the capsid protein pIX (Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER): recombinant pseudoadenoviral nanoparticles (RPANs). The surfaces of such RPANs are able to bind properly modified chimeric nanoantibodies that specifically recognize a particular target antigen (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)) with high affinity. The efficient binding of nanoantibodies (aCEA-RE) to the RPAN capsid surfaces has been demonstrated by ELISA. The ability of the constructed vector to deliver target genes has been confirmed by experiments with the tumor cell lines A549 and Lim1215 expressing CEA. It has been shown that Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER carrying aCEA-RE on its surface penetrates into the tumor cell lines A549 and Lim1215 via the CAR-independent pathway three times more efficiently than unmodified RPAN and Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER without nanoantibodies on the capsid surface. Thus, RPAN Ad5-EGFP-pIX-ER is a universal platform that may be useful for targeted gene delivery in specific cells due to "nanoantibody-modified RPAN" binding. PMID:25093116

  11. In vitro transcription of adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Fire, A; Baker, C C; Manley, J L; Ziff, E B; Sharp, P A

    1981-01-01

    A series of recombinants of adenovirus DNA fragments and pBR322 was used to test the transcriptional activity of the nine known adenovirus promoters in a cell-free extract. Specific initiation was seen at all five early promoters as well as at the major late promotor and at the intermediate promoter for polypeptide IX. The system failed to recognize the two other adenovirus promoters, which were prominent in vivo only at intermediate and late stages in infection. Microheterogeneity of 5' termini at several adenovirus promoters, previously shown in vivo, was reproduced in the in vitro reaction and indeed appeared to result from heterogeneous initiation rather than 5' processing. To test for the presence of soluble factors involved in regulation of nRNA synthesis, the activity of extracts prepared from early and late stages of infection was compared on an assortment of viral promoter sites. Although mock and early extracts showed identical transcription patterns, extracts prepared from late stages gave 5- to 10-fold relative enhancement of the late and polypeptide IX promoters as compared with early promoters. Images PMID:7321101

  12. Inactivation of human adenovirus by sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology and free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Keun; Shin, Gwy-Am

    2011-03-01

    There has been growing concern over human exposure to adenoviruses through drinking water due to the extreme resistance of human adenoviruses to the traditional UV technology (low-pressure (LP) UV). As an effort to develop an effective treatment strategy against human adenoviruses in drinking water, we determined the effectiveness of sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology (medium-pressure (MP) UV) and free chlorine. Human adenovirus 2 (Ad2) was irradiated with a low dose of MP UV irradiation (10 mJ/cm(2)) through UV collimated apparatus and then exposed to a low dose of free chlorine (0.17 mg/L) at pH 8 and 5°C using a bench-scale chemical disinfection system. A significant inactivation (e.g. 4 log(10)) of Ad2 was achieved with the low doses of MP UV and free chlorine within a very short contact time (∼1.5 min) although there was no apparent synergistic effect on Ad2 between MP UV and free chlorine. Overall, it is likely that the sequential disinfection with UV irradiation and free chlorine should control the contamination of drinking water by human adenoviruses within practical doses of UV and free chlorine typically used in drinking water treatment processes. PMID:21301114

  13. Identification of a Novel Gene on 10q22.1 Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Blanton, Susan H.; Wheaton, Dianna K.; Avery, Cheryl E.; Cadena, Elizabeth D.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Fulton, Robert S.; Wilson, Richard K.; Weinstock, George M.; Lewis, Richard A.; Birch, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome linkage mapping identified a region on chromosome 10q21.3–q22.1 with a maximum LOD score of 3.0 at 0 % recombination in a six-generation family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). All known adRP genes and X-linked RP genes were excluded in the family by a combination of methods. Whole-exome next-generation sequencing revealed a missense mutation in hexokinase 1, HK1 c.2539G > A, p.Glu847Lys, tracking with disease in all affected family members. One severely-affected male is homozygous for this region by linkage analysis and has two copies of the mutation. No other potential mutations were detected in the linkage region nor were any candidates identified elsewhere in the genome. Subsequent testing detected the same mutation in four additional, unrelated adRP families, for a total of five mutations in 404 probands tested (1.2 %). Of the five families, three are from the Acadian population in Louisiana, one is French Canadian and one is Sicilian. Haplotype analysis of the affected chromosome in each family and the homozygous individual revealed a rare, shared haplotype of 450 kb, suggesting an ancient founder mutation. HK1 is a widely-expressed gene, with multiple, abundant retinal transcripts, coding for hexokinase 1. Hexokinase catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose to glusose-6-phospate, the first step in glycolysis. The Glu847Lys mutation is in a highly-conserved site, outside of the active site or known functional sites. PMID:26427411

  14. Identification of a Novel Gene on 10q22.1 Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP).

    PubMed

    Daiger, Stephen P; Sullivan, Lori S; Bowne, Sara J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Blanton, Susan H; Wheaton, Dianna K; Avery, Cheryl E; Cadena, Elizabeth D; Koenekoop, Robert K; Fulton, Robert S; Wilson, Richard K; Weinstock, George M; Lewis, Richard A; Birch, David G

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome linkage mapping identified a region on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 with a maximum LOD score of 3.0 at 0 % recombination in a six-generation family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). All known adRP genes and X-linked RP genes were excluded in the family by a combination of methods. Whole-exome next-generation sequencing revealed a missense mutation in hexokinase 1, HK1 c.2539G > A, p.Glu847Lys, tracking with disease in all affected family members. One severely-affected male is homozygous for this region by linkage analysis and has two copies of the mutation. No other potential mutations were detected in the linkage region nor were any candidates identified elsewhere in the genome. Subsequent testing detected the same mutation in four additional, unrelated adRP families, for a total of five mutations in 404 probands tested (1.2 %). Of the five families, three are from the Acadian population in Louisiana, one is French Canadian and one is Sicilian. Haplotype analysis of the affected chromosome in each family and the homozygous individual revealed a rare, shared haplotype of 450 kb, suggesting an ancient founder mutation. HK1 is a widely-expressed gene, with multiple, abundant retinal transcripts, coding for hexokinase 1. Hexokinase catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose to glusose-6-phospate, the first step in glycolysis. The Glu847Lys mutation is in a highly-conserved site, outside of the active site or known functional sites. PMID:26427411

  15. Mechanism of adenovirus-mediated endosome lysis: role of the intact adenovirus capsid structure.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1994-12-15

    Adenoviruses have been previously shown to enhance the delivery of many ligands including proteins and plasmid DNAs to the cells. The key biochemical step during this process is the ability of adenovirus to disrupt (lyse) the endosome membrane releasing the co-internalized virus and the other ligands into the cytosol (Seth et al, 1986, In: Adenovirus attachment and entry into cells, pp 191-195, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.). To understand the role of the adenovirus proteins involved in the endosome lysis, it is further shown here that empty capsids of adenovirus also possess this membrane vesicle lytic activity; though the activity is about 5-times lower than the adenovirus. Incubation of adenovirus with low concentration of ionic detergent or brief exposure to 45 degrees C destroyed this lytic activity without affecting the adenovirus binding to cell surface receptor, suggesting the lytic activity of adenovirus to be of enzymatic nature. However, exposing adenovirus to conditions that can disrupt adenovirus capsid structure such as heating at 65 degrees C, treating with 0.5% SDS, treating with different proteases, dialyzing against no glycerol buffer, treating with 6 M urea or with 10% pyridine, and sonication destroyed the adenovirus-associated lytic activity. Results suggest the requirement of an intact capsid structure for adenovirus-mediated lysis of the endosome. PMID:7802664

  16. [Anti-adenovirus activity of a substance and medical form of ribamydil in cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ribamydil on adenovirus reproduction was studied under the determination of the number of cells with virus- induced DNA-containing intranucleus inclusion bodies and hexone antigen, the synthesis of adenovirus proteins and the infection virus by t he investigation. EC50 of ribamydil substance is 4-8 microg/ml, but complete suppression of adenovirus genome expression was found when adding ribamydil after the virus adsorption, in concentrations of 125-500 microg/ml. The original effect of ribamydil on the expression of adenovirus genome was found under its effect in concentration of 31 microg/ml. Intranucleus virus-induced inclusion bodies of the early type only were found under these conditions. Synthesis of the structural virus polypeptides, including hexone polypeptide (II) and non-structural polypeptide 100K, taking part in hexone trimerization, proceed intensively but without formation of immunologically active hexone. The inhibiting effect of officinal form of ribamydil was less expressed as compared with the substance (EC50: 62 microg/ml). The work results prove that the therapeutic effect of ribamydil (ribavirin) under treatment of adenovirus infections may be achieved in case when it is used in a dose excluding the expression of the adenovirus genome. PMID:20458939

  17. [Identification and typing of adenovirus from acute respiratory infections in pediatric patients in Beijing from 2003 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Qian, Yuan; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-11-01

    Adenovirus (ADV) is one of the most common causes of acute respiratory infections for infants and children. The objective of this study was to understand the prevalence of ADV in acute respiratory infections in infants and children in Beijing and the types of the circulating ADVs. Clinical specimens were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections in a consecutive period of 10 years from Jan 2003 to Dec 2012. ADVs were detected from the collected clinical specimens by tissue culture and/or immunofluorescence assay and typed by nested-PCR based on the sequence of hexon gene for ADV types 3 and 7. For those strains which could not be typed by the nest-PCR, the gene fragment was amplified by a universal primer pair for all ADV types from group A to F and the PCR products were sequenced directly and analyzed with sequence comparison. Out of 39214 clinical specimens collected, including 7198 throat swabs from outpatients and 32016 nasopharyngeal aspirates from hospitalized patients, 884 were ADV positive by tissue culture and/or immunofluorescence assay, the overall positive rate was 2.25% (884/39214). The positive rate of ADV from the hospitalized was 2.08% (665/32016), while from the outpatients was 3.04% (219/7198). The ADV positive rate for year 2010 was 3.69%, which was the highest among the 10 years. The types of the ADVs were tested for 848 out of the 884 patients by using the nest-PCR and sequence analysis. It was showed that AD3 was the most prevalent with the rate of 53.18% (451/848), followed by AD7 36.79% (312/848), AD2 3.78% (32/848), AD55 2.24% (19/848), AD1 2.0% (17/848), AD5 0.94% (8/848), AD14 0.47% (4/848), AD6 0.35% (3/848) and AD4 0.24% (2/848). AD3 was the most predominant in most of the years among these 10 years, except 2012, 2003 and 2007. AD7 was the most predominant in 2012, and AD3 and AD7 were co-circulated in 2003 and 2007. Among 26 ADV infected severe pneumonia cases with pulmonary failure, 23 (88.5%) were AD7 positive, while

  18. The structure of adenovirus type 12 DNA integration sites in the hamster cell genome.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, M; Schröer, J; Schmitz, B; Doerfler, W

    1996-01-01

    Foreign DNA can integrate into the genomes of mammalian cells, and this process plays major roles in viral oncogenesis and in the generation of transgenic organisms and will be important in evolving regimens for human somatic gene therapy. In the present study, the insertion sites of adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) DNA genomes have been analyzed in detail in the Ad12-transformed hamster cell line T637, its revertants, which have lost most of the >20 Ad12 genome equivalents integrated chromosomally in cell line T637, and in the Ad12-induced tumor T191. Some of these junction sites have been molecularly cloned, and the nucleotide sequences at the sites of transition between viral and cellular DNAs have been determined. The sites of linkage between the hamster cellular and the foreign (viral) DNA are characterized by the frequent occurrence of patch homologies between the recombination partners. The cellular junction sites investigated here are not transcriptionally active. One of the cellular DNA sequences abutting the right Ad12 DNA terminus in cell line T637 (os2) is represented only once in the hamster genome and has a strikingly low abundance of 5'-CG-3' dinucleotide sequences. One 5'-GCGC-3' sequence close to the Ad12 DNA integration site is heavily methylated in normal cells, Ad12-transformed cells, and Ad12-induced tumor cells. The second such sequence is more remote from the junction site, is partly methylated in BHK21 hamster cells, and shows differences in methylation in different Ad12-transformed cell lines. This site is unmethylated in liver DNA. The cellular DNA sequence at the site of Ad12 linkage in the tumor T191 exhibits homologies to highly repetitive sequences of the Alu family and to an origin of hamster DNA replication containing an Alu element. A number of junction sites between Ad12 DNA and hamster or mouse DNA in Ad12-transformed cell lines or Ad12-induced tumor cell lines, investigated here and previously, are characterized by stem-loop structures

  19. [Immunological evaluation of vector-expressed M2 and HA genes of H5N1 influenza virus in mice].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianqiang; Yao, Lihong; Chen, Aijun; Xu, Yi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Shu, Yuelong; Zhang, Zhiqing

    2010-05-01

    We developed vectors expressing two antigen of H5N1 influenza virus. Based on the human H5N1 avian influenza virus strain A/Anhui/1/2005 isolated in China, we amplified the matrix protein 2 (M2) and Hemagglutinin (HA) genes by PCR and subcloned them into pStar vector to construct two genes co-expressing recombinant DNA vaccine pStar-M2/HA. After transfection of 293 cells with the plasmid, we confirmed with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) that M2 and HA genes cloned on plasmid pStar co-expressed successfully. Using Ad-Easy adenovirus vector system, by homologous recombination in bacteria and packaging in 293 cells, we constructed two recombinant adenoviruses, namely Ad-M2 and Ad-HA. After infection of 293 cells with the recombinant adenoviruses, we confirmed with IFA that M2 and HA genes cloned into adenoviruses expressed successfully. We then combined the recombinant DNA vaccine and adenoviral vector vaccines in immunization of BALB/c mice with a prime-boost regime. On day 0 and day 28, we immunized the mice with DNA vaccine and on day 14 and day 42, with recombinant adenovirus vaccines. We took blood samples before each injection and 14 days after the final injection. On day 56, we collected splenocytes from the mice. ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay showed that the vaccines successfully induced specific IgG antibodies against HA protein in serum of the immunized mice. ELISPOT confirmed that the vaccines successfully induced the special cellular immune response to M2 and HA protein of H5N1 influenza virus. The study on combined immunization with M2 and HA genes provided basis for development of novel influenza vaccine. PMID:20684310

  20. Subcutaneous immunization with recombinant adenovirus expressing influenza A nucleoprotein protects mice against lethal viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Anwar; Jaentschke, Bozena; Gravel, Caroline; Tocchi, Monika; Doyle, Tracey; Rosu-Myles, Michael; He, Runtao; Li, Xuguang

    2012-04-01

    Current influenza vaccines mainly induce strain-specific neutralizing antibodies and need to be updated each year, resulting in significant burdens on vaccine manufacturers and regulatory agencies. Genetic immunization strategies based on the highly conserved nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza have attracted great attention as NP could induce heterosubtypic immunity. It is unclear, however, whether different forms of vectors and/or vaccination regimens could have contributed to the previously reported discrepancies in the magnitude of protection of NP-based genetic vaccinations. Here, we evaluated a plasmid DNA vector (pNP) and a recombinant adenovirus vector (rAd-NP) containing the NP gene through various combinations of immunization regimens in mice. We found that pNP afforded only partial protection even after 4 injections, with full protection against lethal challenge achieved only with the fourth boost using rAd-NP. Alternatively, only two doses of rAd-NP delivered subcutaneously were needed to induce an enhanced immune response and completely protect the animals, a finding which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. PMID:22370512

  1. Adenovirus type 7 associated with severe and fatal acute lower respiratory infections in Argentine children

    PubMed Central

    Carballal, Guadalupe; Videla, Cristina; Misirlian, Alicia; Requeijo, Paula V; Aguilar, María del Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are the second most prevalent cause of acute lower respiratory infection of viral origin in children under four years of age in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcome of acute lower respiratory infection associated with different adenovirus genotypes in children. Methods Twenty-four cases of acute lower respiratory infection and adenovirus diagnosis reported in a pediatric unit during a two-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Adenovirus was detected by antigen detection and isolation in HEp-2 cells. Adenovirus DNA from 17 isolates was studied by restriction enzyme analysis with Bam HI and Sma I. Results Subgenus b was found in 82.3% of the cases, and subgenus c in 17.7%. Within subgenus b, only genotype 7 was detected, with genomic variant 7h in 85.7% (12/14) and genomic variant 7i in 14.3% (2/14). Mean age was 8.8 ±; 6 months, and male to female ratio was 3.8: 1. At admission, pneumonia was observed in 71% of the cases and bronchiolitis in 29%. Malnutrition occurred in 37% of the cases; tachypnea in 79%; chest indrawing in 66%; wheezing in 58%; apneas in 16%; and conjunctivitis in 29%. Blood cultures for bacteria and antigen detection of other respiratory viruses were negative. During hospitalization, fatality rate was 16.7% (4 /24). Of the patients who died, three had Ad 7h and one Ad 7i. Thus, fatality rate for adenovirus type 7 reached 28.6% (4/14). Conclusions These results show the predominance of adenovirus 7 and high lethality associated with the genomic variants 7h and 7i in children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection. PMID:12184818

  2. Suppression effect of recombinant adenovirus vector containing hIL-24 on Hep-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XUEMEI; LIU, DI; WANG, JUNFU; SU, QINGHONG; ZHOU, PENG; LIU, JINSHENG; LUAN, MENG; XU, XIAOQUN

    2014-01-01

    The melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 [MDA-7; renamed interleukin (IL)-24] was isolated from human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate by treatment with interferon and mezerein. MDA-7/IL-24 functions as a multimodality anticancer agent, possessing proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and immunostimulatory properties. All these attributes make MDA-7/IL-24 an ideal candidate for cancer gene therapy. In the present study, the human MDA-7/IL-24 gene was transfected into the human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with a replication-incompetent adenovirus vector. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis confirmed that the Ad-hIL-24 was expressed in the two cells. The expression of the antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, was significantly decreased and the IL-24 receptor was markedly expressed in Hep-2 cells following infection with Ad-hIL-24, but not in HUVECs. In addition, the expression of the proapoptotic gene, Bax, was induced and the expression of caspase-3 was increased in the Hep-2 cells and HUVECs. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay indicated that Ad-hIL-24 may induce growth suppression in Hep-2 cells but not in HUVECs. In conclusion, Ad-hIL-24 selectively inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Hep-2 cells. No visible damage was found in HUVECs. Therefore, the results of the current study indicated that Ad-hIL-24 may have a potent suppressive effect on human laryngeal carcinoma cell lines, but is safe for healthy cells. PMID:24527085

  3. Manipulating Adenovirus Hexon Hypervariable Loops Dictates Immune Neutralisation and Coagulation Factor X-dependent Cell Interaction In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiangtao; Duffy, Margaret R.; Deng, Lin; Dakin, Rachel S.; Uil, Taco; Custers, Jerome; Kelly, Sharon M.; McVey, John H.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are common pathogens, mostly targeting ocular, gastrointestinal and respiratory cells, but in some cases infection disseminates, presenting in severe clinical outcomes. Upon dissemination and contact with blood, coagulation factor X (FX) interacts directly with the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) hexon. FX can act as a bridge to bind heparan sulphate proteoglycans, leading to substantial Ad5 hepatocyte uptake. FX “coating” also protects the virus from host IgM and complement-mediated neutralisation. However, the contribution of FX in determining Ad liver transduction whilst simultaneously shielding the virus from immune attack remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the FX protection mechanism is not conserved amongst Ad types, and identify the hexon hypervariable regions (HVR) of Ad5 as the capsid proteins targeted by this host defense pathway. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we manipulate Ad5 HVR interactions to interrogate the interplay between viral cell transduction and immune neutralisation. We show that FX and inhibitory serum components can co-compete and virus neutralisation is influenced by both the location and extent of modifications to the Ad5 HVRs. We engineered Ad5-derived HVRs into the rare, native non FX-binding Ad26 to create Ad26.HVR5C. This enabled the virus to interact with FX at high affinity, as quantified by surface plasmon resonance, FX-mediated cell binding and transduction assays. Concomitantly, Ad26.HVR5C was also sensitised to immune attack in the absence of FX, a direct consequence of the engineered HVRs from Ad5. In both immune competent and deficient animals, Ad26.HVR5C hepatic gene transfer was mediated by FX following intravenous delivery. This study gives mechanistic insight into the pivotal role of the Ad5 HVRs in conferring sensitivity to virus neutralisation by IgM and classical complement-mediated attack. Furthermore, through this gain-of-function approach we demonstrate the dual

  4. AN AD5-SIV VACCINE FOR PROTECTION AGAINST SWINE FLU (H3N2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant human adenovirus (rAd) vectored vaccines for pseudorabies (PRV) have been shown to prime immunity in neonatal piglets and to overcome interference by maternal-derived anti-PRV antibodies (J. Gen. Virol. 78:3303-10, 1997). Similarly, replication-incompetent adenoviruses containing either...

  5. A novel Golgi protein (GOLPH2)-regulated oncolytic adenovirus exhibits potent antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yigang; Zhao, Hongfang; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Buyun; Chen, Kan; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Xiumei; Cui, Caixia; Liu, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Golgi apparatus is the organelle mainly functioning as protein processing and secretion. GOLPH2 is a resident Golgi glycoprotein, usually called GP73. Recent data displayed that GOLPH2 is a superb hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) marker candidate, and even its specificity is better than liver cancer marker AFP. Oncolytic adenoviruses are broadly used for targeting cancer therapy due to their selective tumor-killing effect. However, it was reported that traditionally oncolytic adenovirus lack the HCC specificity. In this study, a novel dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 targeting HCC was first constructed based on our cancer targeted gene-viral therapeutic strategy. To verify the targeting and effectiveness of GOLPH2-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 in HCC, the anticancer capacity was investigated in HCC cell lines and animal model. The results proved that the novel GOLPH2-regulated GD55 conferred higher adenovirus replication and infectivity for liver cancer cells than oncolytic adenovirus ZD55. The GOLPH2-regulated GD55 exerted a significant grow-suppressing effect on HCC cells in vitro but little damage to normal liver cells. In animal experiment, antitumor effect of GD55 was more effective in HCC xenograft of nude mice than that of ZD55. Thus GOLPH2-regulated GD55 may be a promising oncolytic virus agent for future liver cancer treatment. PMID:25980438

  6. Chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine generates acute and durable protective immunity against ebolavirus challenge.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Daphne A; Honko, Anna N; Asiedu, Clement; Trefry, John C; Lau-Kilby, Annie W; Johnson, Joshua C; Hensley, Lisa; Ammendola, Virginia; Abbate, Adele; Grazioli, Fabiana; Foulds, Kathryn E; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lingshu; Donaldson, Mitzi M; Colloca, Stefano; Folgori, Antonella; Roederer, Mario; Nabel, Gary J; Mascola, John; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Ebolavirus disease causes high mortality, and the current outbreak has spread unabated through West Africa. Human adenovirus type 5 vectors (rAd5) encoding ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) generate protective immunity against acute lethal Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) challenge in macaques, but fail to protect animals immune to Ad5, suggesting natural Ad5 exposure may limit vaccine efficacy in humans. Here we show that a chimpanzee-derived replication-defective adenovirus (ChAd) vaccine also rapidly induced uniform protection against acute lethal EBOV challenge in macaques. Because protection waned over several months, we boosted ChAd3 with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and generated, for the first time, durable protection against lethal EBOV challenge. PMID:25194571

  7. Infection by retroviral vectors outside of their host range in the presence of replication-defective adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R M; Wang, M; Steffen, D; Ledley, F D

    1995-01-01

    Retrovirus infection is normally limited to cells within a specific host range which express a cognate receptor that is recognized by the product of the env gene. We describe retrovirus infection of cells outside of their normal host range when the infection is performed in the presence of a replication-defective adenovirus (dl312). In the presence of adenovirus, several different ecotropic vectors are shown to infect human cell lines (HeLa and PLC/PRF), and a xenotropic vector is shown to infect murine cells (NIH 3T3). Infectivity is demonstrated by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) staining, selection with G418 for neomycin resistance, and PCR identification of the provirus in infected cells. Infectivity is quantitatively dependent upon both the concentration of adenovirus (10(6) to 10(8) PFU/ml) and the concentration of retrovirus. Infection requires the simultaneous presence of adenovirus in the retrovirus infection medium and is not stimulated by preincubation and removal of adenovirus from the cells before retrovirus infection. The presence of adenovirus is shown to enhance the uptake of fluorescently labeled retrovirus particles into cells outside of their normal host range, demonstrating that the adenovirus enhances viral entry into cells in the absence of the recognized cognate receptor. This observation suggests new opportunities for developing safe retroviral vectors for gene therapy and new mechanisms for the pathogenesis of retroviral disease. PMID:7853530

  8. An Infection-enhanced Oncolytic Adenovirus Secreting H. pylori Neutrophil-activating Protein with Therapeutic Effects on Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Yu, Di; Wanders, Alkwin; Essand, Magnus; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a major virulence factor involved in H. pylori infection. HP-NAP can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting neutrophils and inducing Th1-type differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. It therefore holds strong potential as a therapeutic gene. Here, we armed a replication-selective, infection-enhanced adenovirus with secretory HP-NAP, Ad5PTDf35-[Δ24-sNAP], and evaluated its therapeutic efficacy against neuroendocrine tumors. We observed that it could specifically infect and eradicate a wide range of tumor cells lines from different origin in vitro. Insertion of secretory HP-NAP did not affect the stability or replicative capacity of the virus and infected tumor cells could efficiently secrete HP-NAP. Intratumoral administration of the virus in nude mice xenografted with neuroendocrine tumors improved median survival. Evidence of biological HP-NAP activity was observed 24 hours after treatment with neutrophil infiltration in tumors and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and MIP2-α in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, evidence of Th1-type immune polarization was observed as a result of increase in IL-12/23 p40 cytokine concentrations 72 hours postvirus administration. Our observations suggest that HP-NAP can serve as a potent immunomodulator in promoting antitumor immune response in the tumor microenvironment and enhance the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:23817216

  9. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B. Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K.; Al-dubaib, Musaad A.; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A ‘One Health’ vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  10. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs. PMID:26026665

  11. Key Role of Splenic Myeloid DCs in the IFN-αβ Response to Adenoviruses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fejer, György; Drechsel, Lisa; Liese, Jan; Schleicher, Ulrike; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Imelli, Nicola; Greber, Urs F.; Keck, Simone; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Krug, Anne; Bogdan, Christian; Freudenberg, Marina A.

    2008-01-01

    The early systemic production of interferon (IFN)-αβ is an essential component of the antiviral host defense mechanisms, but is also thought to contribute to the toxic side effects accompanying gene therapy with adenoviral vectors. Here we investigated the IFN-αβ response to human adenoviruses (Ads) in mice. By comparing the responses of normal, myeloid (m)DC- and plasmacytoid (p)DC-depleted mice and by measuring IFN-αβ mRNA expression in different organs and cells types, we show that in vivo, Ads elicit strong and rapid IFN-αβ production, almost exclusively in splenic mDCs. Using knockout mice, various strains of Ads (wild type, mutant and UV-inactivated) and MAP kinase inhibitors, we demonstrate that the Ad-induced IFN-αβ response does not require Toll-like receptors (TLR), known cytosolic sensors of RNA (RIG-I/MDA-5) and DNA (DAI) recognition and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, but is dependent on viral endosomal escape, signaling via the MAP kinase SAPK/JNK and IRF-7. Furthermore, we show that Ads induce IFN-αβ and IL-6 in vivo by distinct pathways and confirm that IFN-αβ positively regulates the IL-6 response. Finally, by measuring TNF-α responses to LPS in Ad-infected wild type and IFN-αβR−/− mice, we show that IFN-αβ is the key mediator of Ad-induced hypersensitivity to LPS. These findings indicate that, like endosomal TLR signaling in pDCs, TLR-independent virus recognition in splenic mDCs can also produce a robust early IFN-αβ response, which is responsible for the bulk of IFN-αβ production induced by adenovirus in vivo. The signaling requirements are different from known TLR-dependent or cytosolic IFN-αβ induction mechanisms and suggest a novel cytosolic viral induction pathway. The hypersensitivity to components of the microbial flora and invading pathogens may in part explain the toxic side effects of adenoviral gene therapy and contribute to the pathogenesis of adenoviral disease. PMID:19008951

  12. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides ‘self-adjuvanting’ activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  13. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  14. Transport of human adenoviruses in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinos, Petros; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.; Tselepi, Maria A.; Bellou, Maria; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Vantarakis, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater may be contaminated with infective human enteric viruses from various wastewater discharges, sanitary landfills, septic tanks, agricultural practices, and artificial groundwater recharge. Coliphages have been widely used as surrogates of enteric viruses, because they share many fundamental properties and features. Although a large number of studies focusing on various factors (i.e. pore water solution chemistry, fluid velocity, moisture content, temperature, and grain size) that affect biocolloid (bacteria, viruses) transport have been published over the past two decades, little attention has been given toward human adenoviruses (hAdVs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pore water velocity on hAdV transport in water saturated laboratory-scale columns packed with glass beads. The effects of pore water velocity on virus transport and retention in porous media was examined at three pore water velocities (0.39, 0.75, and 1.22 cm/min). The results indicated that all estimated average mass recovery values for hAdV were lower than those of coliphages, which were previously reported in the literature by others for experiments conducted under similar experimental conditions. However, no obvious relationship between hAdV mass recovery and water velocity could be established from the experimental results. The collision efficiencies were quantified using the classical colloid filtration theory. Average collision efficiency, α, values decreased with decreasing flow rate, Q, and pore water velocity, U, but no significant effect of U on α was observed. Furthermore, the surface properties of viruses and glass beads were used to construct classical DLVO potential energy profiles. The results revealed that the experimental conditions of this study were unfavorable to deposition and that no aggregation between virus particles is expected to occur. A thorough understanding of the key processes governing virus transport is pivotal for public

  15. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease subunit vaccines: the first decade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present the results of the first decade of development of a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) containing the capsid and 3C protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as a vaccine candidate. In proof-of concept studies we demonstrated that a single inoculation w...

  16. Two-step regulation of Ad4BP/SF-1 gene transcription during fetal adrenal development: initiation by a Hox-Pbx1-Prep1 complex and maintenance via autoregulation by Ad4BP/SF-1.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohamad; Ishihara, Satoru; Oka, Sanae; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2006-06-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 (adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1) is essential for the proper development and function of reproductive and steroidogenic tissues. Although the expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 is specific for those tissues, the mechanisms underlying this tissue-specific expression remain unknown. In this study, we used transgenic mouse assays to examine the regulation of the tissue-specific expression of Ad4BP/SF-1. An investigation of the entire Ad4BP/SF-1 gene locus revealed a fetal adrenal enhancer (FAdE) in intron 4 containing highly conserved binding sites for Pbx-Prep, Pbx-Hox, and Ad4BP/SF-1. Transgenic assays revealed that the Ad4 sites, together with Ad4BP/SF-1, develop an autoregulatory loop and thereby maintain transcription, while the Pbx/Prep and Pbx/Hox sites initiate transcription prior to the establishment of the autoregulatory loop. Indeed, a limited number of Hox family members were found to be expressed in the adrenal primordia. Whether a true fetal-type adrenal cortex is present in mice remained controversial, and this argument was complicated by the postnatal development of the so-called X zone. Using transgenic mice with lacZ driven by the FAdE, we clearly identified a fetal adrenal cortex in mice, and the X zone is the fetal adrenal cells accumulated at the juxtamedullary region after birth. PMID:16705164

  17. Effects of Added Zinc on Skeletal Muscle Morphometrics and Gene Expression of Finishing Pigs Fed Ractopamine-HCL.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Vaughn, M A; Phelps, K J; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-01-01

    Finishing pigs (n = 320) were used in a 35-day study to determine the effects of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) and supplemental Zinc (Zn) level on loin eye area (LEA) and gene expression. Pens were randomly allotted to the following treatments for the final 35 days on feed: a corn-soybean meal diet (CON), a diet with 10 ppm RAC (RAC+), and RAC diet plus added Zn at 75, 150, or 225 ppm. Sixteen pigs per treatment were randomly selected for collection of serial muscle biopsies and carcass data on day 0, 8, 18, and 32 of the treatment phase. Compared to CON carcasses, RAC+ carcasses had 12.6% larger (P = 0.03) LEA. Carcasses from RAC diets with added Zn had a tendency for increased (quadratic, P < 0.10) LEA compared to the RAC+ carcasses. Compared to RAC+ pigs, relative expression of IGF1 decreased with increasing levels of Zn on day 8 and 18 of treatment, but expression levels were similar on day 32 due to Zn treatments increasing in expression while the RAC+ treatment decreased (Zn quadratic × day quadratic, P = 0.04). A similar trend was detected for the expression of β1-receptor where expression levels in the RAC+ pigs were greater than Zn supplemented pigs on day 8 and 18 of the experiment, but the magnitude of difference between the treatments was reduced on day 32 due to a decrease in expression by RAC+ pigs and an increase in expression by the Zn pigs (Zn quadratic × day quadratic, P = 0.01). The ability of Zn to prolong the expression of these two genes may be responsible for the tendency of Zn to increase LEA in RAC supplemented pigs. PMID:26634949

  18. A Replication-Defective Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trivalent Vaccine Confers Complete Protection against Plague in Mice and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Klages, Curtis; Erova, Tatiana E; Telepnev, Maxim; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Baze, Wallace B; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K; Lawrence, William S; Patrikeev, Igor; Peel, Jennifer E; Andersson, Jourdan A; Kozlova, Elena V; Tiner, Bethany L; Peterson, Johnny W; McWilliams, David; Patel, Snehal; Rothe, Eric; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Currently, no plague vaccine exists in the United States for human use. The capsular antigen (Caf1 or F1) and two type 3 secretion system (T3SS) components, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) and the needle protein YscF, represent protective antigens of Yersinia pestis We used a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) vector and constructed recombinant monovalent and trivalent vaccines (rAd5-LcrV and rAd5-YFV) that expressed either the codon-optimized lcrV or the fusion gene designated YFV (consisting of ycsF, caf1, and lcrV). Immunization of mice with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by either the intramuscular (i.m.) or the intranasal (i.n.) route provided protection superior to that with the monovalent rAd5-LcrV vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague when animals were challenged with Y. pestis CO92. Preexisting adenoviral immunity did not diminish the protective response, and the protection was always higher when mice were administered one i.n. dose of the trivalent vaccine (priming) followed by a single i.m. booster dose of the purified YFV antigen. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the trivalent rAd5-YFV vaccine by the prime-boost strategy provided 100% protection against a stringent aerosol challenge dose of CO92 to animals that had preexisting adenoviral immunity. The vaccinated and challenged macaques had no signs of disease, and the invading pathogen rapidly cleared with no histopathological lesions. This is the first report showing the efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored trivalent vaccine against pneumonic plague in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. PMID:27170642

  19. Adenovirus 36 Attenuates Weight Loss from Exercise but Improves Glycemic Control by Increasing Mitochondrial Activity in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Michael B.; Park, Sooho; Kim, In-Beom; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 36 (Ad36) as an obesity agent induces adiposity by increasing glucose uptake and promoting chronic inflammation in fat tissues; in contrast, exercise reduces total body fat and inflammation. Our objective was to determine the association between Ad36 and the effects of exercise on inflammation and glycemic control. In the human trials (n = 54), Korean children (aged 12–14 years) exercised for 60 min on three occasions each week for 2 months. We compared the body mass index (BMI) Z-scores before and after exercise. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Ad36 and Ad2 as a control, and these mice exercised for 12 weeks postinfection. After the exercise period, we determined the serum parameters and assessed the presence of inflammation and the mitochondrial function in the organs. Ad36-seropositive children who were subjected to a supervised exercise regimen had high BMI Z-scores whereas Ad36-seronegative children had lower scores. Similarly, Ad36-infected mice were resistant to weight loss and exhibited chronic inflammation of their adipose tissues despite frequent exercise. However, Ad36 combined with exercise reduced the levels of serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, and insulin in virus-infected mice. Interestingly, virus infection increased the mitochondrial function in the liver, as demonstrated by the numbers of mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and transcription of key mitochondrial genes. Therefore Ad36 counteracts the weight-loss effect of exercise and maintains the chronic inflammatory state, but glycemic control is improved by exercise synergistically because of increased mitochondrial activity in the liver. PMID:25479564

  20. Potent antitumor efficacy of ST13 for colorectal cancer mediated by oncolytic adenovirus via mitochondrial apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Cao, Xin; Yu, Ming Can; Gu, Jin Fa; Shen, Zong Hou; Ding, Miao; Yu, De Bing; Zheng, Shu; Liu, Xin yuan

    2008-04-01

    ST13 is a cofactor of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). To date, all data since the discovery of ST13 in 1993 until more recent studies in 2007 have proved that ST13 is downregulated in tumors and it was proposed to be a tumor suppressor gene, but no work reported its antitumor effect and apoptotic mechanism. In the work described in this paper, ST13 was inserted into ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the E1B 55-kDa gene deleted, to form ZD55-ST13, which exerts an excellent antitumor effect in vitro and in an animal model of colorectal carcinoma SW620 xenograft. ZD55-ST13 inhibited tumor cells 100-fold more than Ad-ST13 and ZD55-EGFP in vitro. However, ZD55-ST13 showed no damage of normal fibroblast MRC5 cells. In exploring the mechanism of ZD55-ST13 in tumor cell killing, we found that ZD55-ST13-infected SW620 cells formed apoptotic bodies and presented obvious apoptosis phenomena. ZD55-ST13 induced the upregulation of Hsp70, the downregulation of antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2, and the release of cytochrome c. Cytochrome c triggered apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3, which cleave the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in ZD55-ST13-infected SW620 cells. In summary, overexpressed ST13 as mediated by oncolytic adenovirus could exert potent antitumor activity via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic for colorectal cancer gene therapy. PMID:18355116

  1. Glycoprotein from street rabies virus BD06 induces early and robust immune responses when expressed from a non-replicative adenovirus recombinant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuchao; Sun, Chenglong; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Xiaozhuo; Liu, Ye; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Xianfu; Hu, Rongliang

    2015-09-01

    The rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G) is responsible for inducing neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus. Development of recombinant vaccines using the G genes from attenuated strains rather than street viruses is a regular practice. In contrast to this scenario, we generated three human adenovirus type 5 recombinants using the G genes from the vaccine strains SRV9 and Flury-LEP, and the street RABV strain BD06 (nrAd5-SRV9-G, nrAd5-Flury-LEP-G, and nrAd5-BD06-G). These recombinants were non-replicative, but could grow up to ~10(8) TCID50/ml in helper HEK293AD cells. Expression of the G protein was verified by immunostaining, quantitative PCR and cytometry. Animal experiments revealed that immunization with nrAd5-BD06-G can induce a higher seroconversion rate, a higher neutralizing antibody level, and a longer survival time after rabies virus challenge in mice when compared with the other two recombinants. Moreover, the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was significantly higher in mice immunized with nrAd5-BD06-G, which might also contribute to the increased protection. These results show that the use of street RABV G for non-replicative systems may be an alternative for developing effective recombinant rabies vaccines. PMID:26143474

  2. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  3. Evaluation of fiber-modified adenovirus vector-vaccine against foot-and-mouth diseaes in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) include the use of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (Ad5) that contains the capsid encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). An Ad5.A24 has proven effective as a vaccine against FMD in swine and cattle. However, ther...

  4. Characterization of human adenovirus serotypes 5, 6, 11, and 35 as anticancer agents

    SciTech Connect

    Shashkova, Elena V.; May, Shannon M.; Barry, Michael A.

    2009-11-25

    Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) has been the most popular platform for the development of oncolytic Ads. Alternative Ad serotypes with low seroprevalence might allow for improved anticancer efficacy in Ad5-immune patients. We studied the safety and efficacy of rare serotypes Ad6, Ad11 and Ad35. In vitro cytotoxicity of the Ads correlated with expression of CAR and CD46 in most but not all cell lines. Among CAR-binding viruses, Ad5 was often more active than Ad6, among CD46-binding viruses Ad35 was generally more cytotoxic than Ad11 in cell culture studies. Ad5, Ad6, and Ad11 demonstrated similar anticancer activity in vivo, whereas Ad35 was not efficacious. Hepatotoxicity developed only in Ad5-injected mice. Predosing with Ad11 and Ad35 did not increase infection of hepatocytes with Ad5-based vector demonstrating different interaction of these Ads with Kupffer cells. Data obtained in this study suggest developing Ad6 and Ad11 as alternative Ads for anticancer treatment.

  5. Expression of an engineered soluble coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor by a dimeric AAV9 vector inhibits adenovirus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Röger, C; Pozzuto, T; Klopfleisch, R; Kurreck, J; Pinkert, S; Fechner, H

    2015-06-01

    Immunosuppressed (IS) patients, such as recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, occasionally develop severe and fatal adenovirus (Ad) infections. Here, we analyzed the potential of a virus receptor trap based on a soluble coxsackievirus and Ad receptor (sCAR) for inhibition of Ad infection. In vitro, a dimeric fusion protein, sCAR-Fc, consisting of the extracellular domain of CAR and the Fc portion of human IgG1 and a monomeric sCAR lacking the Fc domain, were expressed in cell culture. More sCAR was secreted into the cell culture supernatant than sCAR-Fc, but it had lower Ad neutralization activity than sCAR-Fc. Further investigations showed that sCAR-Fc reduced the Ad infection by a 100-fold and Ad-induced cytotoxicity by ~20-fold. Not only was Ad infection inhibited by sCAR-Fc applied prior to infection, it also inhibited infection when used to treat ongoing Ad infection. In vivo, sCAR-Fc was delivered to IS mice by an AAV9 vector, resulting in persistent and high (>40 μg ml(-1)) sCAR-Fc serum levels. The sCAR-Fc serum concentration was sufficient to significantly inhibit hepatic and cardiac wild-type Ad5 infection. Treatment with sCAR-Fc did not induce side effects. Thus, sCAR-Fc virus receptor trap may be a promising novel therapeutic for treatment of Ad infections. PMID:25786873

  6. Analysis of T cell responses to chimpanzee adenovirus vectors encoding HIV gag–pol–nef antigen

    PubMed Central

    Herath, S.; Le Heron, A.; Colloca, S.; Bergin, P.; Patterson, S.; Weber, J.; Tatoud, R.; Dickson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses have been shown to be both immunogenic and efficient at presenting HIV proteins but recent trials have suggested that they may play a role in increasing the risk of HIV acquisition. This risk may be associated with the presence of pre-existing immunity to the viral vectors. Chimpanzee adenoviruses (chAd) have low seroprevalence in human populations and so reduce this risk. ChAd3 and chAd63 were used to deliver an HIV gag, pol and nef transgene. ELISpot analysis of T cell responses in mice showed that both chAd vectors were able to induce an immune response to Gag and Pol peptides but that only the chAd3 vector induced responses to Nef peptides. Although the route of injection did not influence the magnitude of immune responses to either chAd vector, the dose of vector did. Taken together these results demonstrate that chimpanzee adenoviruses are suitable vector candidates for the delivery of HIV proteins and could be used for an HIV vaccine and furthermore the chAd3 vector produces a broader response to the HIV transgene. PMID:26546736

  7. Analysis of T cell responses to chimpanzee adenovirus vectors encoding HIV gag-pol-nef antigen.

    PubMed

    Herath, S; Le Heron, A; Colloca, S; Bergin, P; Patterson, S; Weber, J; Tatoud, R; Dickson, G

    2015-12-16

    Adenoviruses have been shown to be both immunogenic and efficient at presenting HIV proteins but recent trials have suggested that they may play a role in increasing the risk of HIV acquisition. This risk may be associated with the presence of pre-existing immunity to the viral vectors. Chimpanzee adenoviruses (chAd) have low seroprevalence in human populations and so reduce this risk. ChAd3 and chAd63 were used to deliver an HIV gag, pol and nef transgene. ELISpot analysis of T cell responses in mice showed that both chAd vectors were able to induce an immune response to Gag and Pol peptides but that only the chAd3 vector induced responses to Nef peptides. Although the route of injection did not influence the magnitude of immune responses to either chAd vector, the dose of vector did. Taken together these results demonstrate that chimpanzee adenoviruses are suitable vector candidates for the delivery of HIV proteins and could be used for an HIV vaccine and furthermore the chAd3 vector produces a broader response to the HIV transgene. PMID:26546736

  8. Replication of origin containing adenovirus DNA fragments that do not carry the terminal protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, B G; van der Ley, P A; van Driel, W; van Mansfeld, A D; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infected HeLa cells were used to study the template requirements for adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. When XbaI digested Ad5 DNA, containing the parental terminal protein (TP), was used as a template preferential synthesis of the terminal fragments was observed. The newly synthesized DNA was covalently bound to the 82 kD preterminal protein (pTP). Plasmid DNAs containing the Ad2 origin sequence or the Ad12 origin sequence with small deletions were analyzed for their capacity to support pTP-primed DNA replication. Circular plasmid DNAs were inactive. When plasmids were linearized to expose the adenovirus origin, both Ad2 and Ad12 TP-free fragments could support initiation and elongation similarly as Ad5 DNA-TP, although with lower efficiency. These observations indicate that the parental terminal protein is dispensable for initiation in vitro. The presence of 29 nucleotides ahead of the molecular end or a deletion of 14 base pairs extending into the conserved sequence (9-22) destroyed the template activity. DNA with a large deletion within the first 8 base pairs could still support replication while a small deletion could not. The results suggest that only G residues at a distance of 4-8 nucleotides from the start of the conserved sequence can be used as template during initiation of DNA replication. Images PMID:6300787

  9. The use of field emission scanning electron microscopy to assess recombinant adenovirus stability.

    PubMed

    Obenauer-Kutner, Linda J; Ihnat, Peter M; Yang, Tong-Yuan; Dovey-Hartman, Barbara J; Balu, Arthi; Cullen, Constance; Bordens, Ronald W; Grace, Michael J

    2002-09-20

    A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) method was developed to assess the stability of a recombinant adenovirus (rAd). This method was designed to simultaneously sort, count, and size the total number of rAd<