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Sample records for adenovirus e1a oncoprotein

  1. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2

    PubMed Central

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S.; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  2. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2.

    PubMed

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J; King, Cason R; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  3. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  4. Adenovirus E1A Targets the DREF Nuclear Factor To Regulate Virus Gene Expression, DNA Replication, and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Radko, Sandi; Koleva, Maria; James, Kris M. D.; Jung, Richard; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adenovirus E1A gene is the first gene expressed upon viral infection. E1A remodels the cellular environment to maximize permissivity for viral replication. E1A is also the major transactivator of viral early gene expression and a coregulator of a large number of cellular genes. E1A carries out its functions predominantly by binding to cellular regulatory proteins and altering their activities. The unstructured nature of E1A enables it to bind to a large variety of cellular proteins and form new molecular complexes with novel functions. The C terminus of E1A is the least-characterized region of the protein, with few known binding partners. Here we report the identification of cellular factor DREF (ZBED1) as a novel and direct binding partner of E1A. Our studies identify a dual role for DREF in the viral life cycle. DREF contributes to activation of gene expression from all viral promoters early in infection. Unexpectedly, it also functions as a growth restriction factor for adenovirus as knockdown of DREF enhances virus growth and increases viral genome copy number late in the infection. We also identify DREF as a component of viral replication centers. E1A affects the subcellular distribution of DREF within PML bodies and enhances DREF SUMOylation. Our findings identify DREF as a novel E1A C terminus binding partner and provide evidence supporting a role for DREF in viral replication. IMPORTANCE This work identifies the putative transcription factor DREF as a new target of the E1A oncoproteins of human adenovirus. DREF was found to primarily localize with PML nuclear bodies in uninfected cells and to relocalize into virus replication centers during infection. DREF was also found to be SUMOylated, and this was enhanced in the presence of E1A. Knockdown of DREF reduced the levels of viral transcripts detected at 20 h, but not at 40 h, postinfection, increased overall virus yield, and enhanced viral DNA replication. DREF was also found to localize to

  5. Sequence-independent autoregulation of the adenovirus type 5 E1A transcription unit.

    PubMed Central

    Hearing, P; Shenk, T

    1985-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A gene is known to be autoregulated at the level of transcription. Autoregulation was found to be mediated by products of the E1A 13S mRNA, which induced a fivefold increase in E1A transcription rate. Deletion analysis suggested that the autoregulation did not require any specific sequence in the E1A transcriptional control region. This conclusion was reinforced by the demonstration that a cellular alpha-globin gene substituted for the E1A gene on the adenovirus chromosome was also positively regulated by E1A gene products. Images PMID:2943984

  6. Effects of Adenovirus Type 5 E1A Isoforms on Viral Replication in Arrested Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Radko, Sandi; Jung, Richard; Olanubi, Oladunni; Pelka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus has evolved to infect and replicate in terminally differentiated human epithelial cells, predominantly those within the airway, the gut, or the eye. To overcome the block to viral DNA replication present in these cells, the virus expresses the Early 1A proteins (E1A). These immediate early proteins drive cells into S-phase and induce expression of all other viral early genes. During infection, several E1A isoforms are expressed with proteins of 289, 243, 217, 171, and 55 residues being present for human adenovirus type 5. Here we examine the contribution that the two largest E1A isoforms make to the viral life cycle in growth-arrested normal human fibroblasts. Viruses that express E1A289R were found to replicate better than those that do not express this isoform. Importantly, induction of several viral genes was delayed in a virus expressing E1A243R, with several viral structural proteins undetectable by western blot. We also highlight the changes in E1A isoforms detected during the course of viral infection. Furthermore, we show that viral DNA replication occurs more efficiently, leading to higher number of viral genomes in cells infected with viruses that express E1A289R. Finally, induction of S-phase specific genes differs between viruses expressing different E1A isoforms, with those having E1A289R leading to, generally, earlier activation of these genes. Overall, we provide an overview of adenovirus replication using modern molecular biology approaches and further insights into the contribution that E1A isoforms make to the life cycle of human adenovirus in arrested human fibroblasts. PMID:26448631

  7. Identification and characterization of multiple conserved nuclear localization signals within adenovirus E1A

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Kris S.; Cohen, Michael J.; Fonseca, Greg J.; Todorovic, Biljana; King, Cason R.; Yousef, Ahmed F.; Zhang, Zhiying; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2014-04-15

    The human adenovirus 5 (HAdV-5) E1A protein has a well defined canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) located at its C-terminus. We used a genetic assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate that the canonical NLS is present and functional in the E1A proteins of each of the six HAdV species. This assay also detects a previously described non-canonical NLS within conserved region 3 and a novel active NLS within the N-terminal/conserved region 1 portion of HAdV-5 E1A. These activities were also present in the E1A proteins of each of the other five HAdV species. These results demonstrate that, despite substantial differences in primary sequence, HAdV E1A proteins are remarkably consistent in that they contain one canonical and two non-canonical NLSs. By utilizing independent mechanisms, these multiple NLSs ensure nuclear localization of E1A in the infected cell. - Highlights: • HAdV E1A uses multiple mechanisms for nuclear import. • We identified an additional non-canonical NLS in the N-terminal/CR1 portion of E1A. • The new NLS does not contact importin-alpha directly. • All NLSs are functionally conserved in the E1A proteins of all 6 HAdV species.

  8. Quantitative analysis of regions of adenovirus E1A products involved in interactions with cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, D; Marcellus, R C; Bacchetti, S; Bayley, S T; Branton, P E

    1992-01-01

    Human adenovirus E1A proteins and oncogene products of several other DNA tumour viruses derive much of their oncogenic potential from interactions with cellular polypeptides. E1A proteins form complexes with p105Rb and a related p107 polypeptide, and with at least three other proteins (p60cycA, p130, and p300); all may be required for cell transformation. Using a series of E1A deletion mutants, we have carried out a quantitative analysis of the binding patterns of cellular proteins to E1A products. Binding of most of the proteins was affected at least partially by mutations within the amino terminal 25 residues, amino acids 36-69 within conserved region 1 (CR1), and residues 121-138 in conserved region 2 (CR2). However, the specific binding characteristics of each protein varied considerably. p300 was the only species for which binding was totally eliminated by deletions at the amino terminus. Removal of regions within CR1 eliminated binding of all species except p107 and p60cycA. Deletion of portions of CR2 reduced or eliminated binding of all proteins except p300. Thus, whereas cellular polypeptides generally were found to interact with the same three regions of E1A proteins, specific interactions varied considerably. PMID:1297336

  9. TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hateboer, G; Timmers, H T; Rustgi, A K; Billaud, M; van 't Veer, L J; Bernards, R

    1993-01-01

    Using a protein binding assay, we show that the amino-terminal 204 amino acids of the c-Myc protein interact directly with a key component of the basal transcription factor TFIID, the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Essentially the same region of the c-Myc protein also binds the product of the retinoblastoma gene, the RB protein. c-Myc protein coimmunoprecipitates with TBP in lysates of mammalian cells, demonstrating that the proteins are also complexed in vivo. A short peptide that spans the RB binding site of the E7 protein of human papilloma virus type 16 interferes with the binding of c-Myc to TBP. The same peptide also blocks binding of adenovirus E1A protein to TBP, suggesting that c-Myc and E1A bind to RB and TBP through overlapping epitopes. Furthermore, we show that binding of RB to E1A prevents association of E1A with TBP. Our data suggest that one of the functions of RB and RB-like proteins is to prevent interaction of viral and cellular oncoproteins, such as c-Myc and E1A, with TBP. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7690963

  10. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Krömmelbein, Natascha; Wiebusch, Lüder; Schiedner, Gudrun; Büscher, Nicole; Sauer, Caroline; Florin, Luise; Sehn, Elisabeth; Wolfrum, Uwe; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP) is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production. PMID:26848680

  11. Partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural fractions of adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural framework fractions of human cells infected or transformed by subgroup C adenoviruses was investigated by using gentle cell fractionation conditions. A polyclonal antibody raised against a trpE-E1A fusion protein (K.R. Spindler, D.S.E. Rosser, and A. J. Berk, J. Virol. 132-141, 1984) synthesized in Escherichia coli was used to measure the steady-state levels of E1A proteins recovered in the various fractions by immunoblotting. The relative concentration of E1A proteins recovered in the soluble fraction of adenovirus type 2-infected cells was at least fivefold greater than the relative concentration in the corresponding fraction of transformed 293 cells. The observed distribution of E1A proteins was not altered by the sulfhydryl-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide. E1A proteins were recovered in nuclear matrix, chromatin, and cytoskeleton fractions after further fractionation of the structural framework fraction. However, the E1A protein species that could be identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis were not uniformly distributed among the subcellular fractions examined. The results obtained when fractionation was performed in the presence of the oxidation catalysts Cu2+ or (ortho-phenanthroline)2 Cu2+ indicate that E1A proteins can be efficiently cross-linked, via disulfide bonds, to the structural framework of both adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. Images PMID:3023654

  12. Subregions of the adenovirus E1A transactivation domain target multiple components of the TFIID complex.

    PubMed Central

    Geisberg, J V; Chen, J L; Ricciardi, R P

    1995-01-01

    Transcriptional activation by the adenovirus E1A 289R protein requires direct contacts with the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and also displays a critical requirement for TBP-associated factors (TAFs) (T.G. Boyer and A. J. Berk, Genes Dev. 7:1810-1823, 1993; J. V. Geisberg, W. S. Lee, A. J. Berk, and R. P. Ricciardi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:2488-2492, 1994; W. S. Lee, C. C. Kao, G. O. Bryant, X. Liu, and A. J. Berk, Cell 67:365-376, 1991; and Q. Zhou, P. M. Lieberman, T. G. Boyer, and A. J. Berk, Genes Dev. 6:1964-1974, 1992). In this report, we demonstrate that the activation domain of E1A (CR3) specifically binds to two TAFs, human TAFII250 (hTAFII250) and Drosophila TAFII110 (dTAFII110). These interactions can take place both in vivo and in vitro and require the carboxy-terminal region of CR3; the zinc finger region of CR3, which binds TBP, is not needed to bind these TAFs. We mapped the E1A-binding sites on hTAFII250 to an internal region that contains a number of structural motifs, including an HMG box, a bromodomain, and direct repeats. This represents the first demonstration that hTAFII250 may serve as a target of a transcriptional activator. We also mapped the E1A binding on dTAFII110 to its C-terminal region. This is of significance since, by contrast, Sp1-mediated activation requires binding to the N-terminal domain of dTAFII110. Thus, distinct surfaces of dTAFII110 can serve as target sites for different activators. Our results indicate that E1A may activate transcription, in part, through direct contacts of the CR3 subdomains with selected components of the TFIID complex. PMID:7565781

  13. Transcription of interferon-stimulated genes is induced by adenovirus particles but is suppressed by E1A gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, N; Pine, R; Levy, D; Darnell, J E

    1988-01-01

    Interferon treatment of cell cultures results in the rapid transcriptional induction of a specific set of genes. In this paper we explore the effect of cellular infection by several adenoviruses, both wild type and mutant, on the expression of these genes. Infection with adenovirus induces the transcription of the interferon-stimulated genes in the absence of any protein synthesis. In fact, the inhibition of protein synthesis during a wild-type infection produces enhanced stimulation of transcription of these genes. Experiments with viral mutants indicate the ability to specifically suppress this transcription maps to the E1A gene. In addition, the E1A gene products are capable of suppressing the specific transcriptional induction of interferon-stimulated promoters during cotransfection experiments and therefore presumably during viral infection. The dual effect of adenovirus on the expression of interferon-stimulated genes may represent an example of action and evolutionary reaction between virus and host. Images PMID:2446013

  14. Adenovirus type 5 early region 4 is responsible for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Marcellus, R C; Teodoro, J G; Wu, T; Brough, D E; Ketner, G; Shore, G C; Branton, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the absence of E1B, the 289- and 243-residue E1A products of human adenovirus type 5 induce p53-dependent apoptosis. However, our group has shown recently that the 289-residue E1A protein is also able to induce apoptosis by a p53-independent mechanism (J. G. Teodoro, G. C. Shore, and P. E. Branton, Oncogene 11:467-474, 1995). Preliminary results suggested that p53-independent cell death required expression of one or more additional adenovirus early gene products. Here we show that both the E1B 19-kDa protein and cellular Bcl-2 inhibit or significantly delay p53-independent apoptosis. Neither early region E2 or E3 appeared to be necessary for such cell death. Analysis of a series of E1A mutants indicated that mutations in the transactivation domain and other regions of E1A correlated with E1A-mediated transactivation of E4 gene expression. Furthermore, p53-deficient human SAOS-2 cells infected with a mutant which expresses E1B but none of the E4 gene products remained viable for considerably longer times than those infected with wild-type adenovirus type 5. In addition, an adenovirus vector lacking both E1 and E4 was unable to induce DNA degradation and cell killing in E1A-expressing cell lines. These data showed that an E4 product is essential for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis. PMID:8709247

  15. A simple method for the simultaneous detection of E1A and E1B in adenovirus stocks.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Erika; Murata, Takehide; Watanabe, Sanae; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Pan, Jianzhi; Yamazaki, Takahito; Ugai, Hideyo; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors have been developed for use as therapeutic agents and for the introduction of exogenous genes into living cells. However, the occurrence of replication-competent adenoviruses (RCA) in adenovirus stocks produced in 293 cells remains a major problem in terms of the safe use of such vectors. To overcome the problems associated with the occurrence of RCA, we have established a simple method for the simultaneous detection of amplified E1A and E1B from RCA that might contaminate adenoviral stocks. The products amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were fractionated by regular electrophoresis on agarose gels and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. This method is rapid and inexpensive for detection of RCA in the preparation of adenoviruses. PMID:14654922

  16. A simple method for the simultaneous detection of E1A and E1B in adenovirus stocks.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Erika; Murata, Takehide; Watanabe, Sanae; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Pan, Jianzhi; Yamazaki, Takahito; Ugai, Hideyo; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors have been developed for use as therapeutic agents and for the introduction of exogenous genes into living cells. However, the occurrence of replication-competent adenoviruses (RCA) in adenovirus stocks produced in 293 cells remains a major problem in terms of the safe use of such vectors. To overcome the problems associated with the occurrence of RCA, we have established a simple method for the simultaneous detection of amplified E1A and E1B from RCA that might contaminate adenoviral stocks. The products amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were fractionated by regular electrophoresis on agarose gels and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. This method is rapid and inexpensive for detection of RCA in the preparation of adenoviruses.

  17. De-repression of RaRF-mediated RAR repression by adenovirus E1A in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Um, Soo-Jong; Youn, Hye Sook; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2014-02-21

    Transcriptional activity of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is regulated by diverse binding partners, including classical corepressors and coactivators, in response to its ligand retinoic acid (RA). Recently, we identified a novel corepressor of RAR called the retinoic acid resistance factor (RaRF) (manuscript submitted). Here, we report how adenovirus E1A stimulates RAR activity by associating with RaRF. Based on immunoprecipitation (IP) assays, E1A interacts with RaRF through the conserved region 2 (CR2), which is also responsible for pRb binding. The first coiled-coil domain of RaRF was sufficient for this interaction. An in vitro glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay was used to confirm the direct interaction between E1A and RaRF. Further fluorescence microscopy indicated that E1A and RaRF were located in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, respectively. However, RaRF overexpression promoted nucleolar translocation of E1A from the nucleoplasm. Both the RA-dependent interaction of RAR with RaRF and RAR translocation to the nucleolus were disrupted by E1A. RaRF-mediated RAR repression was impaired by wild-type E1A, but not by the RaRF binding-defective E1A mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that E1A is sequestered to the nucleolus by RaRF through a specific interaction, thereby leaving RAR in the nucleoplasm for transcriptional activation.

  18. Transformation by E1A Oncoprotein Involves Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteolysis of the Neuronal and Tumor Repressor REST in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hancheng

    2012-01-01

    The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) protein promotes cell immortalization and transformation by mediating the activities of key cellular regulators. The repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which is a major neuronal and tumor suppressor, was previously found mainly in the cytoplasm rather than in the nuclei of adenovirus-transformed rodent cells (22). We now demonstrate that the loss of REST in the nucleus is due to its rapid degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Only nuclear REST, but not its cytoplasmic counterpart, was ubiquitinated and degraded. REST degradation was blocked by the ubiquitination inhibitor PYR-41 and the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 but not by the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. REST degradation required both of its two C-terminal degrons that are recognized by the ubiquitin ligase SCFβ-TrCP, since deletion or mutation of either degron eliminated degradation. Importantly, E1A was shown to mediate REST ubiquitination and degradation by upregulating β-TrCP. Knockdown of E1A in virus-transformed cells reduced both β-TrCP and ubiquitination of nuclear REST. In contrast, when expressed in HeLa cells, E1A enhanced the degradation of nuclear REST. Reconstitution of REST in virus-transformed cells negatively affected E1A-mediated cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These data strongly indicate that E1A stimulates ubiquitination and proteolysis of REST in the nucleus, thereby abolishing the tumor suppressor functions of REST. PMID:22419809

  19. Adenovirus E1A coding sequences that enable ras and pmt oncogenes to transform cultured primary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zerler, B; Moran, B; Maruyama, K; Moomaw, J; Grodzicker, T; Ruley, H E

    1986-01-01

    Plasmids expressing partial adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) coding sequences were tested for activities which facilitate in vitro establishment (immortalization) of primary baby rat kidney cells and which enable the T24 Harvey ras-related oncogene and the polyomavirus middle T antigen (pmt) gene to transform primary baby rat kidney cells. E1A cDNAs expressing the 289- and 243-amino acid proteins expressed both E1A transforming functions. Mutant hrA, which encodes a 140-amino acid protein derived from the amino-terminal domain shared by the 289- and 243-amino acid proteins, enabled ras (but not pmt) to transform and facilitated in vitro establishment to a low, but detectable, extent. These studies suggest that E1A functions which collaborate with ras oncogenes and those which facilitate establishment are linked. Furthermore, E1A transforming functions are not associated with activities of the 289-amino acid E1A proteins required for efficient transcriptional activation of viral early region promoters. Images PMID:3022137

  20. pRB-E2F1 complexes are resistant to adenovirus E1A-mediated disruption.

    PubMed

    Seifried, L A; Talluri, S; Cecchini, M; Julian, L M; Mymryk, J S; Dick, F A

    2008-05-01

    Disruption of pRB-E2F interactions by E1A is a key event in the adenoviral life cycle that drives expression of early viral transcription and induces cell cycle progression. This function of E1A is complicated by E2F1, an E2F family member that controls multiple processes besides proliferation, including apoptosis and DNA repair. Recently, a second interaction site in pRB that only contacts E2F1 has been discovered, allowing pRB to control proliferation separately from other E2F1-dependent activities. Based on this new insight into pRB-E2F1 regulation, we investigated how E1A affects control of E2F1 by pRB. Our data reveal that pRB-E2F1 interactions are resistant to E1A-mediated disruption. Using mutant forms of pRB that selectively force E2F1 to bind through only one of the two binding sites on pRB, we determined that E1A is unable to disrupt E2F1's unique interaction with pRB. Furthermore, analysis of pRB-E2F complexes during adenoviral infection reveals the selective maintenance of pRB-E2F1 interactions despite the presence of E1A. Our experiments also demonstrate that E2F1 functions to maintain cell viability in response to E1A expression. This suggests that adenovirus E1A's seemingly complex mechanism of disrupting pRB-E2F interactions provides selectivity in promoting viral transcription and cell cycle advancement, while maintaining cell viability.

  1. The adenovirus E1A protein targets the SAGA but not the ADA transcriptional regulatory complex through multiple independent domains.

    PubMed

    Shuen, Michael; Avvakumov, Nikita; Walfish, Paul G; Brandl, Chris J; Mymryk, Joe S

    2002-08-23

    Expression of the adenovirus E1A protein in the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibits growth. We tested four regions of E1A that alter growth and transcription in mammalian cells for their effects in yeast when expressed as fusions to the Gal4p DNA binding domain. Expression of the N-terminal/conserved region (CR) 1 or CR3, but not of the CR2 or the C-terminal portion of E1A, inhibited yeast growth. Growth inhibition was relieved by deletion of the genes encoding the yGcn5p, Ngg1p, or Spt7p components of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex, but not the Ahc1p component of the related ADA complex, indicating that the N-terminal/CR1 and CR3 regions of E1A target the SAGA complex independently. Expression of the pCAF acetyltransferase, a mammalian homologue of yGcn5p, also suppressed growth inhibition by either portion of E1A. Furthermore, the N-terminal 29 residues and the CR3 portion of E1A interacted independently with yGcn5p and pCAF in vitro. Thus, two separate regions of E1A target the yGcn5p component of the SAGA transcriptional activation complex. A subregion of the N-terminal/CR1 fragment spanning residues 30-69 within CR1 also inhibited yeast growth in a SAGA-dependent fashion. However, this region did not interact with yGcn5p or pCAF, suggesting that it makes a third contact with another SAGA component. Our results provide a new model system to elucidate mechanisms by which E1A and the SAGA complex regulate transcription and growth. PMID:12070146

  2. Functional similarity between E6 proteins of cutaneous human papillomaviruses and the adenovirus E1A tumor-restraining module.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, Mohan; Subramanian, T; Kostas-Polston, Elizabeth; Vijayalingam, S; Zhao, Ling-jun; Varvares, Mark; Chinnadurai, G

    2013-07-01

    The adenovirus E1A C-terminal region restrains oncogenic transformation through interaction with three distinct cellular protein complexes that include the DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 complex. The E6 proteins of beta-human papillomaviruses (beta-HPVs) also interact with the DYRK1/HAN11 complex. A variant of HPV5 E6 frequently found in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin lesions interacted less efficiently with DYRK1A/HAN11. The E6 variant and E7 of HPV5 efficiently coimmortalized primary epithelial cells, suggesting that naturally arising variants may contribute potential oncogenic activities of beta-HPV E6 proteins. PMID:23637414

  3. Interaction of the Dr1 inhibitory factor with the TATA binding protein is disrupted by adenovirus E1A.

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, V B; Inostroza, J A; Yeung, K; Reinberg, D; Nevins, J R

    1994-01-01

    Past experiments have shown that the adenovirus E1A12S product activates the hsp70 promoter, dependent on the TATA element and dependent on N-terminal E1A sequences. Other experiments have identified a factor termed Dr1 that interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional activity of the TATA-binding protein (TBP). We now find that the E1A12S protein can disrupt the interaction of the Dr1 factor with the TATA-specific TBP factor, allowing the productive interaction of TBP with TFIIA. This E1A-mediated disruption is dependent on N-terminal sequences that are also essential for the TATA-dependent trans-activation of the hsp70 promoter. Moreover, we also find that Dr1 expression in transfected cells can inhibit transcription from the hsp70 promoter and that this can be overcome by coexpression of the wild-type E1A protein, dependent on N-terminal sequences. We conclude that the activation of hsp70 through the TATA element may be mechanistically similar to the activation of the E2 promoter via E2F, in each case involving a release of a transcription factor from an inactive complex. Images PMID:8022773

  4. Adenovirus type 12 E1A protein expressed in Escherichia coli is functional upon transfer by microinjection or protoplast fusion into mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krippl, B; Andrisani, O; Jones, N; Westphal, H; Rosenberg, M; Ferguson, B

    1986-01-01

    We efficiently expressed, in Escherichia coli, and purified the protein product encoded by the human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) 13S mRNA. The functional properties of the E1A protein were analyzed by introducing the protein by microinjection or protoplast fusion into living mammalian cells. We showed that the E. coli-expressed E1A protein induces gene expression of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1A deletion mutant Ad5dl312. The purified E1A protein rapidly and quantitatively localized to the cell nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm. In addition, we raised high-titered monospecific antibodies to the purified Ad12 E1A protein. Using deleted forms of an adenovirus type 2 and Ad5 hybrid (Ad2/5) E1A protein, we showed that all of the epitopes conserved between Ad2/5 E1A and Ad12 E1A protein that are recognized by the Ad12 E1A-specific antiserum map to within the first exon-encoded amino-terminal half of the protein. Images PMID:2942704

  5. Heterogeneity of adenovirus type 5 E1A proteins: multiple serine phosphorylations induce slow-migrating electrophoretic variants but do not affect E1A-induced transcriptional activation or transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, J D; Slavicek, J M; Schneider, J F; Jones, N C

    1988-01-01

    The 289-amino-acid product encoded by the adenovirus E1A 13S mRNA has several pleiotropic activities, including transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression, and when acting in concert with certain oncogene products, cell transformation. In all cell types in which E1A has been introduced (except bacteria), E1A protein is extensively posttranslationally modified to yield several isoelectric and molecular weight variants. The most striking variant is one that has a retarded mobility, by about Mr = 2,000, in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. We have investigated the nature of this modification and have assessed its importance for E1A activity. Phosphorylation is responsible for the altered mobility of E1A, since acid phosphatase treatment eliminates the higher apparent molecular weight products. By using several E1A deletion mutants, we show that at least two seryl residues, residing between residues 86 and 120 and 224 and 289, are the sites of phosphorylation and that each phosphorylation can independently induce the mobility shift. However, E1A mutants lacking these seryl residues transcriptionally activate the adenovirus E3 and E2A promoters and transform baby rat kidney cells to near wild-type levels. Images PMID:2835499

  6. An enhancer element is located 340 base pairs upstream from the adenovirus-2 E1A capsite.

    PubMed Central

    Hen, R; Borrelli, E; Sassone-Corsi, P; Chambon, P

    1983-01-01

    A chimeric recombinant, containing the 270 bp left-terminal fragment of Adenovirus-2 (Ad2) inserted upstream from the -34 to +33 Ad2 major late promoter (Ad2MLP) element, has been used to characterize the transcription stimulatory element which is located at least 231 bp upstream from the E1A capsite in the left-end of Ad2 (Ref. 1). We demonstrate that this element, which acts in cis, possesses several properties characteristic of transcriptional enhancers. Firstly, it potentiates initiation of transcription from the capsite of the heterologous Ad2MLP and from "cryptic" sites often preceded by TATA box-like sequences. Secondly, although there is no critical distance requirement between the enhancer element and the Ad2MLP, the extent of stimulation decreases as the distance between the two element increases. However, in contrast to the other known viral or cellular enhancers which are bidirectional, the Ad2 enhancer is unidirectional, i.e. it potentiates the Ad2MLP element only when it is inserted in its "natural" orientation with respect to the direction of transcription. Using two convergent series of deletions, we have localized the Ad2 enhancer element within a 24 bp segment located at approximately 160 bp from the Ad2 left-end, i.e. 340 bp upstream from the E1A capsite. This 24 bp segment contains a sequence which exhibits a striking homology with the consensus sequence of several viral and cellular enhancers. Images PMID:6324099

  7. A first exon-encoded domain of E1A sufficient for posttranslational modification, nuclear-localization, and induction of adenovirus E3 promoter expression in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, J D; Young, P; Jones, N C; Krippl, B; Rosenberg, M; Ferguson, B

    1985-01-01

    The purified Escherichia coli-expressed human subgroup C adenovirus E1A 13S mRNA product induces expression from the adenovirus type 5 E3 promoter when injected into Xenopus oocytes. In the present communication, the E. coli-expressed E1A 13S and 12S mRNA products are shown to undergo a posttranslational modification in microinjected Xenopus oocytes, which causes a 2- to 4-kDa increase in apparent molecular size, identical to that occurring in HeLa cells expressing the E1A gene. The E. coli-expressed E1A proteins are similarly modified in vitro in a soluble rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The modified form of the E1A proteins preferentially localizes to the oocyte nucleus following cytoplasmic microinjection. The use of various deleted forms of E1A protein synthesized in E. coli shows that a first exon-encoded domain of E1A, residing between amino acid residues 23 and 120, is sufficient for the posttranslational modification and nuclear localization of E1A and also for the trans-activation of the E3 promoter by E1A in Xenopus oocytes. These results suggest that the posttranslational modification of E1A protein may be important for its function. Images PMID:2934733

  8. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for

  9. p202, an interferon-inducible negative regulator of cell growth, is a target of the adenovirus E1A protein.

    PubMed

    Xin, H; D'Souza, S; Fang, L; Lengyel, P; Choubey, D

    2001-10-18

    Studies have revealed that human adenovirus-encoded E1A protein promotes cell proliferation through the targeted interaction with cellular proteins that act as key negative regulators of cell growth. The targets of E1A protein include the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb). Because p202, an interferon (IFN)-inducible murine protein (52-kDa), negatively regulates cell growth in part through the pRb/E2F pathway, we tested whether the p202 is a target of the adenovirus-encoded E1A protein for functional inactivation. Here we report that the expression of E1A protein overcame p202-mediated inhibition of cell growth and this correlated with an alleviation of p202-mediated inhibition of the transcriptional activity of E2F. Furthermore, E1A protein relieved p202-mediated inhibition of the specific DNA-binding activity of E2F complexes, including those containing the pocket proteins. Additionally, the E1A protein bound to p202 both in vitro and in vivo and a deletion of four amino acids in the conserved region 2 (CR2) of E1A protein significantly reduced the binding of E1A to p202. Interestingly, ectopic expression of p202 under reduced serum conditions significantly reduced E1A-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our observations provide support to the idea that the p202 and adenovirus E1A protein functionally counteract each other and E1A protein targets p202 to promote cell proliferation. PMID:11687962

  10. Posttranslational modification at the N terminus of the human adenovirus type 12 E1A 235R tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Symington, J S; Green, M

    1986-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A transforming region, which encodes immortalization, partial cell transformation, and gene activation functions, expresses two early mRNAs, 13S and 12S. Multiple-T antigen species with different electrophoretic mobilities are formed from each mRNA, presumably by unknown posttranslational modifications. The adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) 13S and 12S mRNAs encode E1A T antigens of 266 and 235 amino acid residues (266R and 235R), respectively. To study possible posttranslational processing at the N and C termini and to distinguish between the Ad12 266R and 235R T antigens, we prepared antibodies targeted to synthetic peptides encoded at the common C (peptide 204) and N (peptide 202) termini of the 266R and 235R T antigens and at the unique internal domain of the 266R T antigen (peptide 206). The specificity of each anti-peptide antibody was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the 266R and 235R T antigens produced in Escherichia coli. Immunoprecipitation analysis of the E1A T antigens synthesized in Ad12-infected KB cells revealed the following. Antibody to the common C terminus recognized three T antigens with apparent Mrs of 43,000, 42,000, and 39,000 (43K, 42K, and 39K). All three forms were phosphorylated and were present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The 43K and 42K T antigens were rapidly synthesized during a 10-min pulse with [35S]methionine in Ad12-infected cells. The 43K T antigen had a half-life of 20 min, the 42K T antigen had a longer half-life of about 40 min, and the 39K T antigen became the predominant E1A T antigen. Antibodies to the unique region immunoprecipitated the 43K T antigen but not the 42K and 39K T antigens. Antibody to the N terminus immunoprecipitated the 43K and 42K T antigens but not the 39K T antigen, suggesting that the 39K T antigen possessed a modified N terminus. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that the 43K and 42K T antigens contain methionine at residues 1 and 5, as predicted from the

  11. The dual effect of adenovirus type 5 E1A 13S protein on NF-kappaB activation is antagonized by E1B 19K.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, M L; Indorf, A; Limbourg, F P; Städtler, H; Traenckner, E B; Baeuerle, P A

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of human adenoviruses encode several regulatory proteins, including the two differentially spliced gene products E1A and E1B. Here, we show that the 13S but not the 12S splice variant of E1A of adenovirus type 5 can activate the human transcription factor NF-kappaB in a bimodal fashion. One mode is the activation of NF-kappaB containing the p65 subunit from the cytoplasmic NF-kappaB-IkappaB complex. This activation required reactive oxygen intermediates and the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at serines 32 and 36, followed by IkappaBalpha degradation and the nuclear uptake of NF-kappaB. In addition, 13S E1A stimulated the transcriptional activity of the C-terminal 80 amino acids of p65 at a core promoter with either a TATA box or an initiator (INR) element. The C-terminal 80 amino acids of p65 were found to associate with E1A in vitro. The activation of NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription by E1A was potently suppressed upon coexpression of the E1B 19-kDa protein (19K). E1B 19K prevented both the activation of NF-kappaB and the E1A-mediated transcriptional enhancement of p65. These inhibitory effects were not found for the 55-kDa splice variant of the E1B protein. We suggest that the inductive effect of E1A 13S on the host factor NF-kappaB, whose activation is important for the transcription of various adenovirus genes, must be counteracted by the suppressive effect of E1B 19K so that the adenovirus-infected cell can escape the immune-stimulatory and apoptotic effects of NF-kappaB. PMID:8754803

  12. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, T.; Zhao, Ling-jun; Chinnadurai, G.

    2013-09-01

    Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP–E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP–E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. - Highlights: • Adenovirus E1A C-terminal region suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation. • This E1A region binds with FOXK, DYRK1/HAN11 and CtBP cellular protein complexes. • We found that E1A–CtBP interaction suppresses immortalization and transformation. • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells.

  13. Tumorigenicity and adenovirus-transformed cells: Collagen interaction and cell surface laminin are controlled by the serotype origin of the E1A and E1B genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bober, F.J.; Birk, D.E.; Raska, K. Jr. ); Shenk, T. )

    1988-02-01

    A library of cells transformed with recombinant adenoviruses was used to study tumorigenicity and interaction with extracellular matrix. Cells expressing the complete E1 region of highly oncogenic adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) are tumorigenic, adhere preferentially to type IV collagen, and express cell surface laminin. Weakly tumorigenic cells, which express the E1A oncogene of Ad12 and the E1B genes of Ad5, also attach preferentially to type IV collagen but do not contain laminin on their surface. Cells which express the E1A oncogene of Ad5 and the E1B genes of Ad12 are nontumorigenic and do not preferentially attach to type IV versus type I collagen but have laminin on their surface. There is no significant difference in the amounts of laminin secreted into the culture medium among cells expressing the E1B genes of Ad5 or Ad12. In vitro assays show that cells which express the E1B genes of Ad12, irrespective of the origin of the E1A genes, can bind three times more exogenously added {sup 125}I-laminin than cells expressing the E1B genes of nononcogenic Ad5. The interaction of adenovirus-transformed cells with collagen is controlled by the serotype origin of the E1A oncogene, whereas cell surface laminin is controlled by the serotype origin of the E1B genes.

  14. Adenovirus Small E1A Employs the Lysine Acetylases p300/CBP and Tumor Suppressor Rb to Repress Select Host Genes and Promote Productive Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Roberto; Gou, Dawei; Jawdekar, Gauri; Johnson, Sarah A.; Nava, Miguel; Su, Trent; Yousef, Ahmed F.; Zemke, Nathan R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oncogenic transformation by adenovirus small e1a depends on simultaneous interactions with the host lysine acetylases p300/CBP and the tumor suppressor RB. How these interactions influence cellular gene expression remains unclear. We find that e1a displaces RBs from E2F transcription factors and promotes p300 acetylation of RB1 K873/K874 to lock it into a repressing conformation that interacts with repressive chromatin-modifying enzymes. These repressing p300-e1a-RB1 complexes specifically interact with host genes that have unusually high p300 association within the gene body. The TGFβ-, TNF-, and interleukin-signaling pathway components are enriched among such p300-targeted genes. The p300-e1a-RB1 complex condenses chromatin in a manner dependent on HDAC activity, p300 lysine acetylase activity, the p300 bromodomain, and RB K873/K874 and e1a K239 acetylation to repress host genes that would otherwise inhibit productive virus infection. Thus, adenovirus employs e1a to repress host genes that interfere with viral replication. PMID:25525796

  15. Binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Narita, M; Fujinaga, K

    1989-01-01

    Twenty one binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins were identified on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene using DNase I footprint assay. The proximal promoter region contained five binding sites that overlapped the cap site, TATA box, TATA-like sequence, CCAAT box, and -100 region relative to the E1A cap site(+1). The -190 region was a potential site for octamer-motif binding proteins, such as NFIII and OBP100. An upstream copy of the E1A enhancer element 1 was the site for a factor (E1A-F) with the binding specificity of XGGAYGT (X = A, C; Y = A, T). E1A-F factor also bound to three other sites, one of which coincided with the distal E1A enhancer element. The distal element also contained a potential site for ATF factor. The adenovirus minimal origin of DNA replication competed for DNA-protein complex formation on the CCAAT and TATA box region and the -190 region, suggesting that these regions interacted with a common or related factor. Images PMID:2532319

  16. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, T; Zhao, Ling-Jun; Chinnadurai, G

    2013-09-01

    Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. PMID:23747199

  17. Adenovirus E1A-induced apoptosis elicits a steep decrease in the topoisomerase II alpha level during the latent phase.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Ohi, N; Arai, T; Nozaki, N; Kikuchi, A; Oda, K

    1995-02-16

    The human KB derivative cell line MA1, established by introduction of the adenovirus E1A 12S cDNA linked to the hormone-inducible promoter, elicits apoptosis upon treatment with dexamethasone. The cell lines partially refractory to apoptosis were established by introducing the expression plasmid for the adenovirus E1B 19k protein to MA1 cells. After induction of E1A in MA1 cells by dexamethasone, the level of p53 increased to about 10-fold within 24 h, and morphological changes characteristics of apoptosis began to be observed within 48 h. Most of cells were killed at 72 h releasing apoptotic bodies. The level of topoisomerase II alpha began to decrease steeply within 36 h, preceding the onset of DNA degradation while its mRNA level unchanged throughout the apoptotic process. E1B 19k protected the decrease in topoisomerase II alpha as well as DNA fragmentation depending on its expression levels. Topoisomerase II alpha is induced specifically at G2/M, and computer search revealed the presence of cyclin B type destruction box in topoisomerase II alpha. These results strongly suggest that E1A or E1A stabilized p53 induces apoptosis by targeting topoisomerase II alpha to the ubiquitination pathway and E1B 19k alleviates its action. PMID:7862442

  18. Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology study of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, a novel dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Yanxin; Guo, Huanhuan; Hu, Ningning; He, Dongyun; Zhang, Shi; Chu, Yunjie; Huang, Yubin; Li, Xiao; Sun, LiLi; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-10-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that conditionally replicating adenovirus is safe. We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, using a cancer-specific promoter (human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, hTERTp) and a cancer cell-selective apoptosis-inducing gene (Apoptin). Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo in our previous study. In this study, the preclinical safety profiles of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in animal models were investigated. At doses of 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} viral particles (VP)/kg, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin had no adverse effects on mouse behavior, muscle cooperation, sedative effect, digestive system, and nervous systems, or on beagle cardiovascular and respiratory systems at 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg doses. In acute toxicity tests in mice, the maximum tolerated dose > 5 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg. There was no inflammation or ulceration at the injection sites within two weeks. In repeat-dose toxicological studies, the no observable adverse effect levels of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in rats (1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg) and beagles (2.5 × 10{sup 9} VP/kg) were 62.5- and 12.5-fold of the proposed clinical dose, respectively. The anti-virus antibody was produced in animal sera. Bone marrow examination revealed no histopathological changes. Guinea pigs sensitized by three repeated intraperitoneal injections of 1.35 × 10{sup 10} VP/mL Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin each and challenged by one intravenous injection of 1.67 × 10{sup 8} VP/kg Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin did not exhibit any sign of systemic anaphylaxis. Our data from different animal models suggest that Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • We use the rodents and non-rodents animal models to evaluation Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin. • Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. • Demonstrate the safety and feasibility dose of injected Ad-hTERT-E

  19. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Roberta L.; Wilkinson, John C.; Ornelles, David A.

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: • E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. • Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. • Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. • E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.

  20. Induction of sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor alpha by adenovirus E1A is independent of transformation and transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Ames, R S; Holskin, B; Mitcho, M; Shalloway, D; Chen, M J

    1990-09-01

    We have previously shown that expression of the adenovirus E1A 12S or 13S products in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts induces susceptibility to the cytotoxic actions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). A large number of studies have mapped the multiple biological functions of the 12S and 13S products to three highly conserved regions (CR) within the E1A sequence. Here we used plasmids coding for E1A deletion and point mutants in these regions to generate target cell lines for TNF alpha cytotoxicity assays to determine which regions and functions are necessary for the induction of TNF alpha sensitivity. Expression of CR1 was required for the induction of TNF alpha sensitivity. This finding did not reflect a requirement for transforming or transcriptional repression activity, since some mutants that were defective in both of these properties were able to induce TNF alpha sensitivity. CR2 transformation-defective point mutants, but not a CR2/3 region deletion mutant, were also able to induce sensitivity. In addition, NIH 3T3 cells expressing the retroviral transcription activators tat from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and tax from human T-lymphotropic virus type I were not sensitive to TNF alpha. However, the possibility that E1A-mediated transcriptional activation can augment the induction of TNF alpha sensitivity is not excluded. Comparison of data from previous biological studies with the TNF alpha cytotoxicity assays presented here suggested that the mechanism by which E1A induces sensitivity to TNF alpha in NIH 3T3 cells is independent of many of the known E1A biological functions, including transformation in cooperation with ras, immortalization, induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, and transcriptional repression. A novel E1A-mediated effect may be involved, although our data do not exclude the possibility that sensitization to TNF alpha is mediated through E1A binding to cellular proteins. PMID:2143540

  1. Induction of sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor alpha by adenovirus E1A is independent of transformation and transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, R S; Holskin, B; Mitcho, M; Shalloway, D; Chen, M J

    1990-01-01

    We have previously shown that expression of the adenovirus E1A 12S or 13S products in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts induces susceptibility to the cytotoxic actions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). A large number of studies have mapped the multiple biological functions of the 12S and 13S products to three highly conserved regions (CR) within the E1A sequence. Here we used plasmids coding for E1A deletion and point mutants in these regions to generate target cell lines for TNF alpha cytotoxicity assays to determine which regions and functions are necessary for the induction of TNF alpha sensitivity. Expression of CR1 was required for the induction of TNF alpha sensitivity. This finding did not reflect a requirement for transforming or transcriptional repression activity, since some mutants that were defective in both of these properties were able to induce TNF alpha sensitivity. CR2 transformation-defective point mutants, but not a CR2/3 region deletion mutant, were also able to induce sensitivity. In addition, NIH 3T3 cells expressing the retroviral transcription activators tat from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and tax from human T-lymphotropic virus type I were not sensitive to TNF alpha. However, the possibility that E1A-mediated transcriptional activation can augment the induction of TNF alpha sensitivity is not excluded. Comparison of data from previous biological studies with the TNF alpha cytotoxicity assays presented here suggested that the mechanism by which E1A induces sensitivity to TNF alpha in NIH 3T3 cells is independent of many of the known E1A biological functions, including transformation in cooperation with ras, immortalization, induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, and transcriptional repression. A novel E1A-mediated effect may be involved, although our data do not exclude the possibility that sensitization to TNF alpha is mediated through E1A binding to cellular proteins. Images PMID:2143540

  2. Two domains within the adenovirus type 12 E1A unique spacer have disparate effects on the interaction of E1A with P105-Rb and the transformation of primary mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, H; Esche, H; Kirch, H C

    1999-04-25

    Transformation of primary rodent cells by functions of the adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) early region 1 (E1) is reduced severalfold compared with transformation by E1 of Ad2. We analyzed whether the unique spacer region of Ad12 E1A that borders the conserved region (CR) 2 and represents an oncogenic determinant of Ad12 E1A is involved in this impaired transformation property, putatively by modulating transformation-relevant biological E1A functions. We show that a mutant (E1ASpm1) that lacks 12 amino-terminal residues of the spacer binds p105-Rb and p130 as Ad12 E1A wild type (E1Awt), whereas a second spacer mutant (E1ASpm2) that lacks an adjacent stretch of six alanines exhibits highly reduced binding to p105-Rb. The binding of this mutant to the p130 pocket protein is, however, little impaired. E1ASpm1 diminishes the formation of the p105-Rb-E2F complex more efficiently than E1Awt or, least efficient, E1ASpm2. These properties of the spacer mutants to target and to disintegrate the p105-Rb-E2F complex correspond with their ability to transform primary mouse cells in combination with E1B: E1ASpm1 (plus Ad12 E1B)-transfected cells could be easily established as cell lines, comparable to Ad12 E1Awt- or Ad2 E1Awt-transfected cells. In contrast, cells transfected with E1ASpm2 or Ad12 E1AdelCR2 (lacking the entire CR2) died within 6-10 weeks after replating, although foci were formed in all cases. Of note, the E1ASpm1-transformed cells grow as fast as the Ad2 E1Awt-transformed cells, with a doubling rate of 15 h, whereas the doubling of the Ad12 E1Awt-transformed cells takes approximately 120 h. Moreover, in the established cell lines, the affinity of E1ASpm1 to p105-Rb was higher than with that of E1Awt. Our data suggest the presence of a transformation-suppressing domain within the carboxyl-terminal 12 residues of the Ad12 E1A-unique spacer, whereas the hydrophobic stretch of six alanines in the spacer is required for stable transformation. PMID:10208919

  3. PEA-15 is inhibited by adenovirus E1A and plays a role in ERK nuclear export and Ras-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Mukhopadhyay, Uptal Kumar; Goumard, Stéphane; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2004-11-01

    Oncogenic ras activates multiple signaling pathways to enforce cell proliferation in tumor cells. The ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is required for the transforming effects of ras, and its activation is often sufficient to convey mitogenic stimulation. However, in some settings oncogenic ras triggers a permanent cell cycle arrest with features of cellular senescence. How the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway activates different cellular programs is not well understood. Here we show that ERK1/2 localize predominantly in the cytoplasm during ras-induced senescence. This cytoplasmic localization seems to be dependent on an active nuclear export mechanism and can be rescued by the viral oncoprotein E1A. Consistent with this hypothesis, we showed that E1A dramatically down-regulated the expression of the ERK1/2 nuclear export factor PEA-15. Also, RNA interference against PEA-15 restored the nuclear localization of phospho-ERK1/2 in Ras-expressing primary murine embryo fibroblasts and stimulated their escape from senescence. Because senescence prevents the transforming effect of oncogenic ras, our results suggest a tumor suppressor function for PEA-15 that operates by means of controlling the localization of phospho-ERK1/2.

  4. Phosphorylation within the transactivation domain of adenovirus E1A protein by mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates expression of early region 4.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, S G; Marcellus, R C; Whalen, A; Ahn, N G; Ricciardi, R P; Branton, P E

    1997-01-01

    A critical role of the 289-residue (289R) E1A protein of human adenovirus type 5 during productive infection is to transactivate expression of all early viral transcription. Sequences within and proximal to conserved region 3 (CR3) promote expression of these viral genes through interactions with a variety of transcription factors requiring the zinc binding motif in CR3 and in some cases a region at the carboxy-terminal end of CR3, including residues 183 to 188. It is known that 3',5' cyclic AMP (cAMP) reduces the level of phosphorylation of the 289R E1A protein through the activation of protein phosphatase 2A by the E4orf4 protein. This study was designed to identify the E1A phosphorylation sites affected by E4orf4 expression and to determine their importance in regulation of E1A activity. We report here that two previously unidentified sites at Ser-185 and Ser-188 are the targets for decreased phosphorylation in response to cAMP. At least one of these sites, presumably Ser-185, is phosphorylated in vitro by purified mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and both are hyperphosphorylated in cells which express a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase. Analysis of E1A-mediated transactivation activity indicated that elevated phosphorylation at these sites increased expression of the E4 promoter but not that of E3. We have recently shown that one or more E4 products induce cell death due to p53-independent apoptosis, and thus it seems likely that one role of the E4orf4 protein is to limit production of toxic E4 products by limiting expression of the E4 promoter. PMID:9094626

  5. Identification of adenovirus 12-encoded E1A tumor antigens synthesized in infected and transformed mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lucher, L A; Kimelman, D; Symington, J S; Brackmann, K H; Cartas, M A; Thornton, H; Green, M

    1984-10-01

    A 16-amino acid peptide, H2N-Arg-Glu-Gln-Thr-Val-Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Ser-Val-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Cys-COOH (peptide 204), targeted to the common C-terminus of human adenovirus 12 (Ad12) tumor antigens encoded by the E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA, has been synthesized. Antibody prepared in rabbits against peptide 204 immunoprecipitated two proteins of apparent Mr 47,000 and 45,000 from extracts of [35S]methionine-labeled Ad12-early infected KB cells and a 47,000 protein from extracts of the Ad12-transformed hamster cell line, HE C19. Immunoprecipitation analysis of infected and transformed cells labeled with 32Pi showed that both major Ad12 E1A T antigens are phosphoproteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Ad12-early infected KB cells with antipeptide antibody showed the site of E1A protein concentration to be predominantly nuclear. E1A proteins were detected by immunofluorescence at 4 to 6 h postinfection and continued to increase until at least 18 h postinfection. Antipeptide 204 antibody was used to analyze the proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli cells transformed by plasmids containing cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA or 12S mRNA under the control of the tac promoter (D. Kimelman, L. A. Lucher, M. Green, K. H. Brackmann, J. S. Symington, and M. Ptashne, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., in press). A major protein of ca. 47,000 was immunoprecipitated from extracts of each transformed E. coli cell clone. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of immunoprecipitates revealed that the T antigens synthesized in infected KB cells, transformed hamster cells, and transformed E. coli cells possess very similar molecular weights and acidic isoelectric points of 5.2 to 5.4.

  6. Identification of adenovirus 12-encoded E1A tumor antigens synthesized in infected and transformed mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Kimelman, D; Symington, J S; Brackmann, K H; Cartas, M A; Thornton, H; Green, M

    1984-01-01

    A 16-amino acid peptide, H2N-Arg-Glu-Gln-Thr-Val-Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Ser-Val-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Cys-COOH (peptide 204), targeted to the common C-terminus of human adenovirus 12 (Ad12) tumor antigens encoded by the E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA, has been synthesized. Antibody prepared in rabbits against peptide 204 immunoprecipitated two proteins of apparent Mr 47,000 and 45,000 from extracts of [35S]methionine-labeled Ad12-early infected KB cells and a 47,000 protein from extracts of the Ad12-transformed hamster cell line, HE C19. Immunoprecipitation analysis of infected and transformed cells labeled with 32Pi showed that both major Ad12 E1A T antigens are phosphoproteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Ad12-early infected KB cells with antipeptide antibody showed the site of E1A protein concentration to be predominantly nuclear. E1A proteins were detected by immunofluorescence at 4 to 6 h postinfection and continued to increase until at least 18 h postinfection. Antipeptide 204 antibody was used to analyze the proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli cells transformed by plasmids containing cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA or 12S mRNA under the control of the tac promoter (D. Kimelman, L. A. Lucher, M. Green, K. H. Brackmann, J. S. Symington, and M. Ptashne, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., in press). A major protein of ca. 47,000 was immunoprecipitated from extracts of each transformed E. coli cell clone. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of immunoprecipitates revealed that the T antigens synthesized in infected KB cells, transformed hamster cells, and transformed E. coli cells possess very similar molecular weights and acidic isoelectric points of 5.2 to 5.4. Images PMID:6384554

  7. Recruitment of CBP/p300, TATA-binding protein, and S8 to distinct regions at the N terminus of adenovirus E1A.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Mozhgan; Grand, Roger J A; Mymryk, Joe S; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2005-05-01

    The N-terminal region of the adenovirus (Ad) 12S E1A gene product targets several cellular proteins that are essential for the induction of S phase, cellular immortalization, cellular transformation, transcriptional repression, and transcriptional activation. The precise binding sites for these proteins, however, remain to be resolved. We therefore undertook an extensive site-directed mutagenesis approach to generate specific point mutants and to precisely map the binding sites for CBP, p300, TATA-binding protein (TBP), S4, S8, hGcn5, P/CAF, and Ran within the first 30 amino acids of the Ad5 12S E1A protein. We determined that although common residues within the N-terminal region can form partial binding sites for these proteins, point mutants were also generated that could discriminate between binding sites. These data indicate that AdE1A can target each of these proteins individually through distinct binding sites. It was evident, however, that the mutation of specific hydrophobic residues typically had the greatest effect upon AdE1A's ability to bind individual partners. Indeed, the mutation of L at positions 19 and 20 eliminated the ability of AdE1A to interact with any of the N-terminal binding proteins studied here. Interestingly, although TBP and S8 or CBP/p300 can exist as functional complexes, RNA interference revealed that the recruitment of either TBP, S8, or CBP/p300 to AdE1A was not dependent upon the expression of the other proteins. These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. Finally, we took advantage of the fine-mapping data to ascertain which proteins were targeted during the transformation process. Consistent with previous studies, CBP/p300 was found to be targeted by AdE1A during this process, although our data suggest that binding to other N-terminal proteins is also important for

  8. Adenovirus 12 E1A gene detection by polymerase chain reaction in both the normal and coeliac duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, M; Humphries, P; O'Farrelly, C; Hoey, H; Sheils, O; Jeffers, M; O'Briain, D S; Kelleher, D

    1994-01-01

    A 12 amino acid sequence from the adenovirus 12 E1B protein is homologous at the protein level with a similar 12-mer derived from the wheat protein A-gliadin. It has been suggested that exposure to Ad 12 could sensitise individuals to gliadins with resultant gluten sensitive enteropathy. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse duodenal biopsy tissue from patients with coeliac disease for the presence of Ad 12. The sensitivity of the assay system was at least 1 in 10(5) cells and specificity was confirmed both by probing with an internal oligonucleotide and by direct sequencing. Ad 12 sequences were detected in three of 17 patients with adult coeliac disease and in five of 16 adult controls with normal duodenal biopsies. Since exposure to the virus would be predicted to occur in infancy we also studied patients with childhood coeliac disease diagnosed at less than 1 year of age. Ad 12 was positive in three of 10 childhood coeliac patients and one of seven controls. In addition, we studied a cohort of patients who presented with a diarrhoeal illness and associated anti alpha gliadin antibodies in 1983. These patients had duodenal biopsies performed at this time. One of three patients with abnormal histology had detectable Ad 12 while two of 14 with normal findings were positive for Ad 12. Finally, the potential oncogenic nature of Ad 12 prompted examination of a group of patients with intestinal tumours. Ad 12 DNA was, however, in only two of 19 tumour samples tested. These data indicate that Ad 12 can be successfully detected using PCR on paraffin embedded tissue. Furthermore, Ad 12 was detected at a relatively high level in normal duodenum. The results do not, however, support the hypothesis that prior exposure to Ad 12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7959228

  9. The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E. Muenger, Karl

    2009-02-20

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncoprotein shares functional similarities with such proteins as adenovirus E1A and SV40 large tumor antigen. As one of only two viral proteins always expressed in HPV-associated cancers, E7 plays a central role in both the viral life cycle and carcinogenic transformation. In the HPV viral life cycle, E7 disrupts the intimate association between cellular differentiation and proliferation in normal epithelium, allowing for viral replication in cells that would no longer be in the dividing population. This function is directly reflected in the transforming activities of E7, including tumor initiation and induction of genomic instability.

  10. The early region 1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein of adenovirus relieves growth restrictions imposed on viral replication by the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrum, F D; Ornelles, D A

    1997-01-01

    The E1B 55-kDa oncoprotein of adenovirus enables the virus to overcome restrictions imposed on viral replication by the cell cycle. Approximately 20% of HeLa cells infected with an E1B 55-kDa mutant adenovirus produced virus when evaluated by electron microscopy or by assays for infectious centers. By contrast, all HeLa cells infected with a wild-type adenovirus produced virus. The yield of E1B mutant virus from randomly cycling HeLa cells correlated with the fraction of cells in S phase at the time of infection. In synchronously growing HeLa cells, approximately 75% of the cells infected during S phase with the E1B mutant virus produced virus, whereas only 10% of the cells infected during G1 produced virus. The yield of E1B mutant virus from HeLa cells infected during S phase was sevenfold greater than that of cells infected during G1 and threefold greater than that of cells infected during asynchronous growth. Cells infected during S phase with the E1B mutant virus exhibited severe cytopathic effects, whereas cells infected with the E1B mutant virus during G1 exhibited a mild cytopathic effect. Viral DNA synthesis appeared independent of the cell cycle because equivalent amounts of viral DNA were synthesized in cells infected with either wild-type or E1B mutant virus. The inability of the E1B mutant virus to replicate was not mediated by the status of p53. These results define a novel property of the large tumor antigen of adenovirus in relieving growth restrictions imposed on viral replication by the cell cycle. PMID:8985383

  11. Melanoma cultures show different susceptibility towards E1A-, E1B-19 kDa- and fiber-modified replication-competent adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, M; Graf, C; Gut, T; Sirena, D; Peter, I; Dummer, R; Greber, U F; Hemmi, S

    2006-06-01

    Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a large panel of melanoma cell lines and patient-derived melanoma cells. (1) The antiapoptotic gene E1B-19 kDa (Delta19 mutant) was deleted increasing the cytolytic activity in 18 of 21 melanoma cells. (2) Introduction of the E1A 122-129 deletion (Delta24 mutant), suggested to attenuate viral replication in cell cycle-arrested cells, did not abrogate this activity and increased the cytolytic activity in two of 21 melanoma cells. (3) We inserted an RGD sequence into the fiber to extend viral tropism to alphav integrin-expressing cells, and (4) swapped the fiber with the Ad35 fiber (F35) enhancing the tropism to malignant melanoma cells expressing CD46. The RGD-fiber modification strongly increased cytolysis in all of the 11 CAR-low melanoma cells. The F35 fiber-chimeric vector boosted the cytotoxicity in nine of 11 cells. Our results show that rational engineering additively enhances the cytolytic potential of Ad vectors, a prerequisite for the development of patient-customized viral therapies. PMID:16482201

  12. Melanoma cultures show different susceptibility towards E1A-, E1B-19 kDa- and fiber-modified replication-competent adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, M; Graf, C; Gut, T; Sirena, D; Peter, I; Dummer, R; Greber, U F; Hemmi, S

    2006-06-01

    Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a large panel of melanoma cell lines and patient-derived melanoma cells. (1) The antiapoptotic gene E1B-19 kDa (Delta19 mutant) was deleted increasing the cytolytic activity in 18 of 21 melanoma cells. (2) Introduction of the E1A 122-129 deletion (Delta24 mutant), suggested to attenuate viral replication in cell cycle-arrested cells, did not abrogate this activity and increased the cytolytic activity in two of 21 melanoma cells. (3) We inserted an RGD sequence into the fiber to extend viral tropism to alphav integrin-expressing cells, and (4) swapped the fiber with the Ad35 fiber (F35) enhancing the tropism to malignant melanoma cells expressing CD46. The RGD-fiber modification strongly increased cytolysis in all of the 11 CAR-low melanoma cells. The F35 fiber-chimeric vector boosted the cytotoxicity in nine of 11 cells. Our results show that rational engineering additively enhances the cytolytic potential of Ad vectors, a prerequisite for the development of patient-customized viral therapies.

  13. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  14. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  15. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-Modified E1A/E1B Double Mutant Adenovirus Enhances Antitumor Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue-Hong; Yang, Fei; Wang, Hua; Cai, Zhi-Jian; Xu, Yi-Peng; Zhao, An; Su, Ying; Zhang, Gu; Zhu, Shao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    CAR is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in various epithelial and endothelial cells. CAR mediates adenoviral infection, as well as adenovirus-mediated oncolysis of AxdAdB-3, an E1A/E1B double-restricted oncolytic adenovirus, in prostate cancer cells. This study further assessed the therapeutic efficacy of AxdAdB-3 with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-fiber modification (AxdAdB3-F/RGD), which enables integrin-dependent infection, in prostate cancer. Susceptibility of prostate cancer cells LNCaP, PC3, and DU145 to adenovirus infection was associated with CAR expression. All of the prostate cancer cell lines expressed integrin αvβ3 and αvβ5. AxdAdB-3 was more cytopathic in CAR-positive prostate cancer cells than in CAR-negative cells, whereas AxdAdB3-F/RGD caused potent oncolysis in both CAR-positive and CAR-negative prostate cancer cells. In contrast, AxdAdB3-F/RGD was not cytopathic against normal prostate epithelial cells, RWPE-1. Intratumoral injection of AxdAdB3-F/RGD into CAR-negative prostate cancer cell xenografts in nude mice inhibited tumor growth. The current study demonstrates that E1A/E1B double-restricted oncolytic adenovirus with an RGD-fiber modification enhances infection efficiency and anti-tumor activity in CAR-deficient prostate cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic potential of AxdAdB3-F/RGD in prostate cancer. PMID:26799485

  16. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4: A novel approach to marking circulating prostate tumor cells with a replication competent adenovirus controlled by PSA/PSMA transcription regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Eun; Joung, Jae Young; Shin, Seung-Phil; Choi, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Yon Hui; Park, Weon Seo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells serve as useful biomarkers with which to identify disease status associated with survival, metastasis and drug sensitivity. Here, we established a novel application for detecting PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells circulating in peripheral blood employing an adenovirus called Ad5/35E1aPSESE4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 utilized PSES, a chimeric enhancer derived from PSA/PSMA promoters that is highly active with and without androgen. A fluorescence signal mediated by GFP expression upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection was selectively amplified in PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, for the in vivo model, blood drawn from TRAMP was tested for CTCs with Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection and was positive for CTCs at week 16. Validation was performed on patient blood at various clinical stages and found out 1-100 CTCs expressing GFP upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection. Interestingly, CTC from one patient was confirmed to be sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapeutic reagent and to abundantly express metastasis-related genes like MMP9, Cofilin1, and FCER1G through RNA-seq. Our study established that the usage of Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 is effective in marking PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in patient blood to improve the efficacy of utilizing CTCs as a biomarker.

  17. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4: A novel approach to marking circulating prostate tumor cells with a replication competent adenovirus controlled by PSA/PSMA transcription regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Eun; Joung, Jae Young; Shin, Seung-Phil; Choi, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Yon Hui; Park, Weon Seo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells serve as useful biomarkers with which to identify disease status associated with survival, metastasis and drug sensitivity. Here, we established a novel application for detecting PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells circulating in peripheral blood employing an adenovirus called Ad5/35E1aPSESE4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 utilized PSES, a chimeric enhancer derived from PSA/PSMA promoters that is highly active with and without androgen. A fluorescence signal mediated by GFP expression upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection was selectively amplified in PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, for the in vivo model, blood drawn from TRAMP was tested for CTCs with Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection and was positive for CTCs at week 16. Validation was performed on patient blood at various clinical stages and found out 1-100 CTCs expressing GFP upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection. Interestingly, CTC from one patient was confirmed to be sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapeutic reagent and to abundantly express metastasis-related genes like MMP9, Cofilin1, and FCER1G through RNA-seq. Our study established that the usage of Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 is effective in marking PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in patient blood to improve the efficacy of utilizing CTCs as a biomarker. PMID:26723876

  18. Induction of E1A-responsive negative factors for transcription of the fibronectin gene in adenovirus E1-transformed rat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, T; Nakajima, T; Tsunoda, S; Nakada, S; Oda, K; Tsurui, H; Wada, A

    1992-01-01

    The level of fibronectin (FN) gene expression is very high in resting rat 3Y1 cells but greatly decreased in adenovirus E1-transformed cells. To study the mechanism of this down-regulation, nuclear factors binding to the 5'-flanking region of the FN gene were analyzed by gel retardation assay and DNase I footprinting. Nuclear factors that were present in the transformed cells but nearly absent in resting 3Y1 cells interacted with multiple sites of the promoter region. Oligonucleotide competition with the FN promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs (pFCAT) for these factors in the transformed cells indicated that all of them had a negative effect on FN gene expression. Of them, a factor(s) (G10BP) binding to the G10 stretch from positions -239 to -230 and to two GC boxes consisting of the G10 stretch with one internal C residue insertion from positions -105 to -95 and -54 to -44 had the strongest repressive activity. Introduction of substitutive mutations into these G-rich sequences resulted in the increase in CAT activity of pFCAT in the transformed cells. The recognition sequences of G10BP and Sp1 overlap in two GC boxes. G10BP has stronger affinity for heparin and GC boxes than does Sp1, suggesting that G10BP may repress FN gene transcription by displacing Sp1. Images PMID:1404598

  19. Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16INK4a or p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Alevizopoulos, K; Sanchez, B; Amati, B

    2000-04-13

    Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16INK4a and p27Kip1 in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also impairs the ability of E1A to overcome G1 arrest by p16 or p27. Strikingly, however, these mutations affect neither the association of E1A with pRb, p07 and p130, nor its ability to derepress E2F-1 transcriptional activity in transient transfection assays. One of the EIA mutants, however, is defective in derepressing several endogenous E2F target genes in the presence of p16 or p27. Thus, CR2 possesses an essential function besides pRb-binding. We speculate that this function might be required for the full derepression of E2F-regulated genes in their natural chromatin context. PMID:10803468

  20. Acetylation at a lysine residue adjacent to the CtBP binding motif within adenovirus 12 E1A causes structural disruption and limited reduction of CtBP binding

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, David; Mapp, Katie L.; Webster, Rachel; Gallimore, Phillip H.; Grand, Roger J.A. . E-mail: R.J.A.Grand@bham.ac.uk

    2006-11-25

    C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) has been shown to bind to a highly conserved five-amino-acid motif (PXDLS) located very close to the C-terminus of adenovirus early region 1A proteins. It has also been demonstrated that amino acids C-terminal and N-terminal to this original proposed binding site contribute to the interaction. However, conflicting evidence has been presented to show that acetylation of an adjacent lysine residue in Ad5E1A may or may not influence binding. It has now been demonstrated here that acetylation of a lysine, equivalent to position 261 in Ad12 E1A and position 285 in Ad5E1A, in a synthetic peptide disrupts the binding to CtBP1 and CtBP2 and alters the K {sub i} of the peptide, indicative of a reduction in the affinity of the peptide for CtBP1 and CtBP2, but only to a rather limited extent (less than 2-fold). The solution structures of synthetic peptides equivalent to wild-type and acetylated forms of the Ad12 E1A peptide have been determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. The wild-type form of the peptide adopts a series of {beta}-turns over the region Val{sup 254}-Arg{sup 262}. Within the acetylated isoform, the {beta}-turn conformation is less extensive, Val{sup 26}-Arg{sup 262} adopting a random confirmation. We conclude that secondary structure ({beta}-turns) and an appropriate series of amino acid side chains over an extended binding site (PXDLSXK) are necessary for recognition by CtBP, acetylation of lysine interfering with both of these features, but not to such an extent as to totally inhibit interaction. Moreover, it is possible that the {beta}-turn conformation at the C-terminus of AdE1A contributes to binding to {alpha} importin and nuclear import. Acetylation of lysine {sup 261} could disrupt interaction through structural destabilization as well as charge neutralization and subsequent nuclear localization.

  1. Functional and Structural Mimicry of Cellular Protein Kinase A Anchoring Proteins by a Viral Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    King, Cason R.; Cohen, Michael J.; Fonseca, Gregory J.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2016-01-01

    The oncoproteins of the small DNA tumor viruses interact with a plethora of cellular regulators to commandeer control of the infected cell. During infection, adenovirus E1A deregulates cAMP signalling and repurposes it for activation of viral gene expression. We show that E1A structurally and functionally mimics a cellular A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). E1A interacts with and relocalizes protein kinase A (PKA) to the nucleus, likely to virus replication centres, via an interaction with the regulatory subunits of PKA. Binding to PKA requires the N-terminus of E1A, which bears striking similarity to the amphipathic α-helical domain present in cellular AKAPs. E1A also targets the same docking-dimerization domain of PKA normally bound by cellular AKAPs. In addition, the AKAP like motif within E1A could restore PKA interaction to a cellular AKAP in which its normal interaction motif was deleted. During infection, E1A successfully competes with endogenous cellular AKAPs for PKA interaction. E1A’s role as a viral AKAP contributes to viral transcription, protein expression and progeny production. These data establish HAdV E1A as the first known viral AKAP. This represents a unique example of viral subversion of a crucial cellular regulatory pathway via structural mimicry of the PKA interaction domain of cellular AKAPs. PMID:27137912

  2. The Cellular Protein Complex Associated with a Transforming Region of E1A Contains c-MYC

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalingam, S.; Subramanian, T.; Zhao, Ling-jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cell-transforming activity of human adenovirus 5 (hAd5) E1A is mediated by the N-terminal half of E1A, which interacts with three different major cellular protein complexes, p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400, and pRb family members. Among these protein interactions, the interaction of pRb family proteins with conserved region 2 (CR2) of E1A is known to promote cell proliferation by deregulating the activities of E2F family transcription factors. The functional consequences of interaction with the other two protein complexes in regulating the transforming activity of E1A are not well defined. Here, we report that the E1A N-terminal region also interacted with the cellular proto-oncoprotein c-MYC and the homolog of enhancer of yellow 2 (ENY2). Our results suggested that these proteins interacted with an essential E1A transforming domain spanning amino acid residues 26 to 35 which also interacted with TRRAP and p400. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of TRRAP reduced c-MYC interaction with E1A, while p400 depletion did not. In contrast, depletion of TRRAP enhanced ENY2 interaction with E1A, suggesting that ENY2 and TRRAP may interact with E1A in a competitive manner. The same E1A region additionally interacted with the constituents of a deubiquitinase complex consisting of USP22, ATXN7, and ATXN7L3 via TRRAP. Acute short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion of c-MYC reduced the E1A transforming activity, while depletion of ENY2 and MAX did not. These results suggested that the association of c-MYC with E1A may, at least partially, play a role in the E1A transformation activity, independently of MAX. IMPORTANCE The transforming region of adenovirus E1A consists of three short modules which complex with different cellular protein complexes. The mechanism by which one of the transforming modules, CR2, promotes cell proliferation, through inactivating the activities of the pRb family proteins, is better understood than the activities of the other domains

  3. Oncogenicity of human papillomavirus- or adenovirus-transformed cells correlates with resistance to lysis by natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Routes, J M; Ryan, S

    1995-01-01

    The reasons for the dissimilar oncogenicities of human adenoviruses and human papillomaviruses (HPV) in humans are unknown but may relate to differences in the capacities of the E1A and E7 proteins to target cells for rejection by the host natural killer (NK) cell response. As one test of this hypothesis, we compared the abilities of E1A- and E7-expressing human fibroblastic or keratinocyte-derived human cells to be selectively killed by either unstimulated or interferon (IFN)-activated NK cells. Cells expressing the E1A oncoprotein were selectively killed by unstimulated NK cells, while the same parental cells but expressing the HPV type 16 (HPV-16) or HPV-18 E7 oncoprotein were resistant to NK cell lysis. The ability of IFN-activated NK cells to selectively kill virally transformed cells depends on IFN's ability to induce resistance to NK cell lysis in normal (i.e., non-viral oncogene-expressing) but not virally transformed cells. E1A blocked IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance, resulting in the selective lysis of adenovirus-transformed cells by IFN-activated NK cells. The extent of IFN-induced NK cell killing of E1A-expressing cells was proportional to the level of E1A expression and correlated with the ability of E1A to block IFN-stimulated gene expression in target cells. In contrast, E7 blocked neither IFN-stimulated gene expression nor IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance, thereby precluding the selective lysis of HPV-transformed cells by IFN-activated NK cells. In conclusion, E1A expression marks cells for destruction by the host NK cell response, whereas the E7 oncoprotein lacks this activity. PMID:7494272

  4. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  5. The Adenovirus Type 5 E1B-55K Oncoprotein Actively Shuttles in Virus-Infected Cells, Whereas Transport of E4orf6 Is Mediated by a CRM1-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dosch, Tanja; Horn, Florian; Schneider, Grit; Krätzer, Friedrich; Dobner, Thomas; Hauber, Joachim; Stauber, Roland H.

    2001-01-01

    The E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins of adenovirus type 5 are involved in viral mRNA export. Here we demonstrate that adenovirus infection does not inhibit the function of the E1B-55K nuclear export signal and that E1B-55K also shuttles in infected cells. Even during virus infection, E1B-55K was exported by the leptomycin B-sensitive CRM1 pathway, whereas E4orf6 transport appeared to be mediated by an alternative mechanism. Our results strengthen the potential role of E1B-55K as the “driving force” for adenoviral late mRNA export. PMID:11356976

  6. Transfection of fetal rat intestinal epithelial cells by viral oncogenes: establishment and characterization of the E1A-immortalized SLC-11 cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Emami, S; Mir, L; Gespach, C; Rosselin, G

    1989-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells from 19-day-old rat fetuses underwent electropermeabilization and were successfully transfected by three recombinant plasmids containing the cloned oncogenes from the human adenovirus type 2 early region E1A (SLC-11 cells) and polyoma virus and simian virus 40 large T tumor antigens (SLC-21 and SLC-41 cells). SLC-11 cells were propagated for 21 months in culture (current passage, 76; doubling time, 17 hr) and were immortalized by E1A, as shown by RNA transfer blot (Northern blot) analysis and indirect immunofluorescence of the nuclear oncoproteins. These cells were not tumorigenic in either athymic nude mice or syngeneic Wistar rats and showed a nearly normal karyotype with minimal chromosomal changes. The immortalized epithelial cell line SLC-11 retained several of the phenotypes observed in the parent cells of the intestinal mucosa, including cytoplasmic villin, cytokeratins, enkephalinase, and cell surface receptors sensitive to vasoactive intestinal peptide. It is concluded that immortal SLC-11 cells are a suitable model for studying the proliferation and differentiation of epithelial intestinal cells and analyzing cancer progression in the gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2470094

  7. E1a promotes c-Myc-dependent replicative stress

    PubMed Central

    Valero, María Llanos; Cimas, Francisco Jose; Arias, Laura; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; García, Elena; Callejas-Valera, Juan Luis; García-Cano, Jesús; Serrano-Oviedo, Leticia; Ángel de la Cruz-Morcillo, Miguel; Sánchez-Pérez, Isabel; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The E1a gene from adenovirus is known to be a potent inducer of chemo/radiosensitivity in a wide range of tumors. However, the molecular bases of its radiosensitizer properties are still poorly understood. In an attempt to study this effect, U87MG cells, derived from a radio-resistant tumor as glioblastoma, where infected with lentivirus carrying E1a gene developing an acute sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The induction of radiosensitivity correlated with a marked G2/M phase accumulation and a potent apoptotic response. Our findings demonstrate that c-Myc plays a pivotal role in E1a-associated radiosensitivity through the induction of a replicative stress situation, as our data support by genetic approaches, based in interference and overexpression in U87MG cells. In fact, we present evidence showing that Chk1 is a novel transcriptional target of E1a gene through the effect exerted by this adenoviral protein onto c-Myc. Moreover, c-Myc upregulation also explains the marked phosphorylation of H2AX associated to E1a expression in the absence of DNA damage. Indeed, all these observations were applicable to other experimental models, such as T98G, LN-405 and A172, rendering the same pattern in terms of radiosensitivity, cell cycle distribution, upregulation of Chk1, c-Myc, and phosphorylation pattern of H2AX. In summary, our data propose a novel mechanism to explain how E1a mediates radiosensitivity through the signaling axis E1a→c-Myc→ replicative stress situation. This novel mechanism of E1a-mediated radiosensitivity could be the key to open new possibilities in the current therapy of glioblastoma. PMID:24196438

  8. Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Vande Pol, Scott B.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce benign and malignant epithelial tumors, and the viral E6 oncoprotein is essential for full transformation. E6 contributes to transformation by associating with cellular proteins, docking on specific acidic LXXLL peptide motifs found on the associated cellular proteins. This review examines insights from recent studies of human and animal E6 proteins that determine the three-dimensional structure of E6 when bound to acidic LXXLL peptides. The structure of E6 is related to recent advances in the purification and identification of E6 associated protein complexes. These E6 protein-complexes, together with other proteins that bind to E6, alter a broad array of biological outcomes including modulation of cell survival, cellular transcription, host cell differentiation, growth factor dependence, DNA damage responses, and cell cycle progression. PMID:23711382

  9. Waterborne adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are associated with numerous disease outbreaks, particularly those involving d-cares, schools, children's camps, hospitals and other health care centers, and military settings. In addition, adenoviruses have been responsible for many recreational water outbreaks, including a great number of swimming pool outbreaks than any other waterborne virus (Gerba and Enriquez 1997). Two drinking water outbreaks have been documented for adenovirus (Divizia et al. 2004; Kukkula et al. 1997) but none for food. Of the 51 known adenovirus serotypes, one third are associated with human disease, while other infections are asymptomatic. Human disease associated with adenovirus infections include gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, eye infections, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, and meningoencephalitis (Table 2). Children and the immunocompromised are more severely impacted by adenovirus infections. Subsequently, adenovirus is included in the EPA's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), which is a list of unregulated contaminants found in public water systems that may pose a risk to public health (National Research Council 1999). Adenoviruses have been detected in various waters worldwide including wastewater, river water, oceans, and swimming pools (Hurst et al. 1988; Irving and Smith 1981; Pina et al. 1998). Adenoviruses typically outnumber the enteroviruses, when both are detected in surface waters. Chapron et al. (2000) found that 38% of 29 surface water samples were positive for infectious Ad40 and Ad41. Data are lacking regarding the occurrence of adenovirus in water in the US, particularly for groundwater and drinking water. Studies have shown, however, that adenoviruses survive longer in water than enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (Enriquez et al. 1995), which may be due to their double-stranded DNA. Risk assessments have been conducted on waterborne adenovirus (Crabtree et al. 1997; van Heerden et al. 2005c). Using dose-response data for inhalation

  10. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yueting; Stamminger, Thomas; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad) replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT). IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib), a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection. PMID:26809031

  11. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference.

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, N A; Speiseder, T; Lam, E; Rubtsov, P M; Tonaeva, Kh D; Borzenok, S A; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy.

  12. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Nikitenko, N. A.; Speiseder, T.; Lam, E.; Rubtsov, P. M.; Tonaeva, Kh. D.; Borzenok, S. A.; Dobner, T.; Prassolov, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy. PMID:26483965

  13. The C-terminal region of E1A: a molecular tool for cellular cartography.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ahmed F; Fonseca, Gregory J; Cohen, Michael J; Mymryk, Joe S

    2012-04-01

    The adenovirus E1A proteins function via protein-protein interactions. By making many connections with the cellular protein network, individual modules of this virally encoded hub reprogram numerous aspects of cell function and behavior. Although many of these interactions have been thoroughly studied, those mediated by the C-terminal region of E1A are less well understood. This review focuses on how this region of E1A affects cell cycle progression, apoptosis, senescence, transformation, and conversion of cells to an epithelial state through interactions with CTBP1/2, DYRK1A/B, FOXK1/2, and importin-α. Furthermore, novel potential pathways that the C-terminus of E1A influences through these connections with the cellular interaction network are discussed.

  14. Human papillomavirus oncoproteins and apoptosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, PEIYUE; YUE, YING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature and identify the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins and apoptosis. HPV-associated apoptosis may be primarily blocked by a number of oncoproteins, including E5, E6 and E7. E5 protein protects cells from tumor necrosis factor-associated apoptosis; the oncoprotein E6 predominantly inhibits apoptosis through the p53 pathway; and oncoprotein E7 is involved in apoptosis activation and inhibition. In addition, HPV oncoproteins are involved in activating or repressing the transcription of E6/E7. In conclusion, HPV oncoproteins, including E5, E6 and E7 protein, may interfere with apoptosis via certain regulatory principles. PMID:24348754

  15. A novel CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal in adenoviral E1A protein regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Olson, Melissa V; Medrano, Diana R; Lee, Ok-Hee; Xu, Jing; Piao, Yuji; Alonso, Marta M; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yung, W K Alfred; Fueyo, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Adenoviral E1A is a versatile protein that can reprogram host cells for efficient viral replication. The nuclear import of E1A is mediated by a nuclear localization signal; however, whether E1A can be actively exported from the nucleus is unknown. We first reported a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES) in E1A that is conserved in the group C adenoviruses. We showed that CRM1 and E1A coimmunoprecipitated and that blockage of CRM1 function by leptomycin B or small interfering RNA resulted in the nuclear localization of E1A. Through mutational analyses, we identified an active canonical NES element within the E1A protein spanning amino acids 70-80. We further demonstrated that phosphorylation of adjacent serine (S)89 resulted in the cytoplasmic accumulation of E1A. Interestingly, coincident with the accumulation of cells in the S/G2/M phase and histone H1 phosphorylation, E1A was relocated to the cytoplasm at the late stage of the viral cycle, which was blocked by the CDC2/CDK2 inhibitor roscovitine. Importantly, titration of the progenies of the viruses in infected cells showed that the replication efficiency of the NES mutant adenovirus was up to 500-fold lower than that of the wild-type adenovirus. Collectively, our data demonstrate the existence of a NES in E1A that is modulated by the phosphorylation of the S89 residue and the NES plays a role for an efficient viral replication in the host cells.

  16. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  17. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  18. Differential induction of cytolytic susceptibility by E1A, myc, and ras oncogenes in immortalized cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J L; May, D L; Wilson, B A; Walker, T A

    1989-01-01

    The E1A oncogene of adenovirus serotypes 2 and 5 induces susceptibility to the cytolytic effects of natural killer lymphocytes and activated macrophages when expressed in infected and transformed mammalian cells (cytolysis-susceptible phenotype). E1A and the oncogenes v-myc, long-terminal-repeat-promoted c-myc, and activated c-ras share the ability to immortalize transfected low-passage rodent cells. The cytolytic phenotypes of well-characterized rodent cell lines immortalized by these three oncogenes were defined. In contrast to target cells expressing the intact E1A gene, myc- and ras-expressing, immortalized primary transfectants were resistant to lysis by both types of killer cell populations. The same patterns of susceptibility (E1A) and resistance (myc and ras) to cytolysis were observed in oncogene-transfected continuous rat (REF52) and mouse (NIH 3T3) cell lines, indicating that differences in the cytolytic phenotypes associated with expression of these oncogenes are not due to cell selection during immortalization. The results suggest that the E1A oncogene may possess a functional domain that is different from those of other oncogenes, such as myc and ras, and that the activity linked to this postulated domain is dissociable from the process of immortalization. Images PMID:2526229

  19. The E1A transcriptional control region is efficiently activated in proliferating tissues of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, A; Krippl, B

    1994-08-01

    To study the in vivo regulation of the adenovirus E1A transcriptional regulatory region in transgenic mice, we have constructed two hybrid genes in which the viral control element regulates the expression of the CAT and the lacZ reporter gene. The fusion constructs were introduced into the mouse germline. The expression of the transgenes were monitored during embryogenesis and during postnatal development as well as in adult organs. We show that the E1A regulatory region is recognized and activated in undifferentiated cells during early embryonic cleavage, in the morula, in the inner cell mass and in the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. Transcription initiation at the E1A promoter leads to higher marker gene expression in proliferative centers in postimplantation embryos at the beginning of the neural tube closure. Analysing marker gene expression during postnatal development, a correlation of transcriptional activity of the E1A regulatory region and cell proliferation could be demonstrated. The expression profile of the transgene in different adult organs parallels with DNA synthesis. Marker gene expression was high in cells of organs known to have a high mitotic rate, such as the intestine, the stomach, the skin and the bone marrow, whereas little activity of the E1A control region was observed in the post-proliferative brain. These results are consistent with the finding that activation of the viral cis-regulating elements dramatically increased in the kidney after mitotic stimulation by folic acid. These observations strongly suggests a cell cycle regulated expression from the E1A enhancer/promoter in the absence of the E1A autoregulatory proteins in the living animal. PMID:8036008

  20. human adenoviruses role in ophthalmic pterygium formation

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Mishar; Kelishadi, Mandana; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Javid, Naeme; Bazouri, Masoud; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ophthalmic pterygium is a common benign lesion of unknown origin and the pathogenesis might be vision-threatening. This problem is often associated with exposure to solar light. Recent evidence suggests that potentially oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of pterygia. Expression of specific adenovirus genes such as E1A and E1B, which potentially have many functions, may contribute to their oncogenic activity as well as relevance to cellular immortalization. Objectives: For the first time, we aimed to investigate involvement of adenoviruses in pterygium formation. Patients and Methods: Fifty tissue specimens of pterygium from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (as cases), 50 conjunctival swab samples from the same patients and 10 conjunctival biopsy specimens from individuals without pterygium such as patients undergoing cataract surgery (as controls) were analyzed for evidence of adenovirus infection with polymerase chain reaction using specific primers chosen from the moderately conserved region of the hexon gene. Furthermore, β-globin primers were used to access the quality of extracted DNA. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 16) software. Results: Of 50 patients, 20 were men and 30 women with mean age of 61.1 ± 16.9 years ranged between 22 and 85 years. All samples of pterygia had positive results for adenoviruses DNA with polymerase chain reaction, but none of the negative control groups displayed adenoviruses. The pterygium group and the control groups were β-globin positive. Direct sequencing of PCR products confirmed Adenovirus infection. Conclusions: Adenoviruses might act as a possible cause of pterygium formation and other factors could play a synergistic role in the development. However, further larger studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26034543

  1. C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein binds directly to adenovirus early region 1A through its N-terminal region and conserved region 3.

    PubMed

    Bruton, R K; Rasti, M; Mapp, K L; Young, N; Carter, R Z; Abramowicz, I A; Sedgwick, G G; Onion, D F; Shuen, M; Mymryk, J S; Turnell, A S; Grand, R J A

    2007-11-22

    C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein (CtIP) was first isolated as a binding partner of C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP). It is considered to contribute to the transcriptional repression and cell cycle regulatory properties of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins and to have a role in the cellular response to DNA damage. Here, we have shown that CtIP is a novel target for the adenovirus oncoprotein early region 1A (AdE1A). AdE1A associates with CtIP in both Ad5E1-transformed cells and Ad5-infected cells and binds directly in glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. Two binding sites have been mapped on Ad5E1A - the N-terminal alpha-helical region (residues 1-30) and conserved region 3 (CR3) - the transcriptional activation domain. CtIP can bind AdE1A and CtBP independently, raising the possibility that ternary complexes exist in Ad-transformed and -infected cells. Significantly, reduction of CtIP expression with small interfering RNAs results in reduction of the ability of a Gal4 DNA-binding domain-CR3 construct to transactivate a Gal 4-responsive luciferase reporter and this effect is reversed by reduction of CtBP expression. Therefore, in this model, CtIP acts as a transcriptional co-activator of AdE1A when dissociated from CtBP, through the action of AdE1A. These data are consistent with observations that CtIP expression is induced by AdE1A during viral infection and that reduction of CtIP expression with RNA interference can retard virus replication. In addition, AdE1A causes disruption of the CtIP/Rb complex during viral infection by its interaction with CtIP, possibly contributing to transcriptional derepression. PMID:17546052

  2. DNA tumor virus oncoproteins and retinoblastoma gene mutations share the ability to relieve the cell's requirement for cyclin D1 function in G1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) participates in the regulation of the cell division cycle through complex formation with numerous cellular regulatory proteins including the potentially oncogenic cyclin D1. Extending the current view of the emerging functional interplay between pRB and D-type cyclins, we now report that cyclin D1 expression is positively regulated by pRB. Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein is specifically downregulated in cells expressing SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A, and papillomavirus E7/E6 oncogene products and this effect requires intact RB-binding, CR2 domain of E1A. Exceptionally low expression of cyclin D1 is also seen in genetically RB-deficient cell lines, in which ectopically expressed wild-type pRB results in specific induction of this G1 cyclin. At the functional level, antibody-mediated cyclin D1 knockout experiments demonstrate that the cyclin D1 protein, normally required for G1 progression, is dispensable for passage through the cell cycle in cell lines whose pRB is inactivated through complex formation with T antigen, E1A, or E7 oncoproteins as well as in cells which have suffered loss-of-function mutations of the RB gene. The requirement for cyclin D1 function is not regained upon experimental elevation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with mutant RB, while reintroduction of wild-type RB into RB-deficient cells leads to restoration of the cyclin D1 checkpoint. These results strongly suggest that pRB serves as a major target of cyclin D1 whose cell cycle regulatory function becomes dispensable in cells lacking functional RB. Based on available data including this study, we propose a model for an autoregulatory feedback loop mechanism that regulates both the expression of the cyclin D1 gene and the activity of pRB, thereby contributing to a G1 phase checkpoint control in cycling mammalian cells. PMID:8175885

  3. DNA tumor virus oncoproteins and retinoblastoma gene mutations share the ability to relieve the cell's requirement for cyclin D1 function in G1.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J; Müller, H; Bartkova, J; Spitkovsky, D; Kjerulff, A A; Jansen-Dürr, P; Strauss, M; Bartek, J

    1994-05-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) participates in the regulation of the cell division cycle through complex formation with numerous cellular regulatory proteins including the potentially oncogenic cyclin D1. Extending the current view of the emerging functional interplay between pRB and D-type cyclins, we now report that cyclin D1 expression is positively regulated by pRB. Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein is specifically downregulated in cells expressing SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A, and papillomavirus E7/E6 oncogene products and this effect requires intact RB-binding, CR2 domain of E1A. Exceptionally low expression of cyclin D1 is also seen in genetically RB-deficient cell lines, in which ectopically expressed wild-type pRB results in specific induction of this G1 cyclin. At the functional level, antibody-mediated cyclin D1 knockout experiments demonstrate that the cyclin D1 protein, normally required for G1 progression, is dispensable for passage through the cell cycle in cell lines whose pRB is inactivated through complex formation with T antigen, E1A, or E7 oncoproteins as well as in cells which have suffered loss-of-function mutations of the RB gene. The requirement for cyclin D1 function is not regained upon experimental elevation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with mutant RB, while reintroduction of wild-type RB into RB-deficient cells leads to restoration of the cyclin D1 checkpoint. These results strongly suggest that pRB serves as a major target of cyclin D1 whose cell cycle regulatory function becomes dispensable in cells lacking functional RB. Based on available data including this study, we propose a model for an autoregulatory feedback loop mechanism that regulates both the expression of the cyclin D1 gene and the activity of pRB, thereby contributing to a G1 phase checkpoint control in cycling mammalian cells. PMID:8175885

  4. Adenovirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hoeben, Rob C.; Uil, Taco G.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses have attracted much attention as probes to study biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and cellular transformation. More recently these viruses have been used as gene-transfer vectors and oncolytic agents. On the other hand, adenoviruses are notorious pathogens in people with compromised immune functions. This article will briefly summarize the basic replication strategy of adenoviruses and the key proteins involved and will deal with the new developments since 2006. In addition, we will cover the development of antivirals that interfere with human adenovirus (HAdV) replication and the impact of HAdV on human disease. PMID:23388625

  5. Inhibition of IFN-stimulated gene expression and IFN induction of cytolytic resistance to natural killer cell lysis correlate with E1A-p300 binding.

    PubMed

    Routes, J M; Li, H; Bayley, S T; Ryan, S; Klemm, D J

    1996-02-01

    Treatment of target cells with IFN induces resistance to NK cell lysis. This process is blocked by expression of E1A gene products in adenovirus (Ad)-infected and Ad-transformed cells. We compared the ability of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) E1A exon 1 mutants to inhibit the induction of cytolytic resistance by IFN and block IFN-stimulated gene expression with their capacity to bind the cellular proteins p105 (retinoblastoma gene product), p107, and p300. E1A mutants that did not express conserved region 3 (CR3; residues 138-184) or contained deletions in the nonconserved regions between residues 26-35 or 86-120, bound p105, p107, and p300 and were not impaired in their capacity to block IFN-stimulated gene expression or IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance. E1A mutants with deletions in CR2 (residues 121-138) could not bind p105 or p107, but blocked IFN-stimulated gene expression and IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance. In contrast, mutants in CR1 or the N-terminal nonconserved region (residues 2, 4-25, and 48-60), which define E1A's binding site for p300, were unable to block either IFN-stimulated gene expression or IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance. We conclude that E1A's capacity to block both IFN-stimulated gene expression and IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance appears to be transduced through a pathway that involves E1A-p300 binding. The capacity of E1A to block IFN's induction of cytolytic resistance is probably secondary to E1A's more general ability to inhibit IFN-stimulated gene expression. PMID:8557979

  6. A DNA element that regulates expression of an endogenous retrovirus during F9 cell differentiation is E1A dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, B T; Satyamoorthy, K; Solter, D; Basu, A; Xu, M Q; Weinmann, R; Howe, C C

    1992-01-01

    The retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells into parietal endoderm-like cells activates transcription of the endogenous mouse retrovirus, the intracisternal A-particle (IAP). To investigate the elements that control IAP gene differentiation-specific expression, we used methylation interference, Southwestern (DNA-protein), and transient-transfection assays and identified the IAP-proximal enhancer (IPE) element that directs differentiation-specific expression. We find that the IPE is inactive in undifferentiated F9 cells and active in differentiated parietal endoderm-like PYS-2 cells. Three proteins of 40, 60, and 68 kDa bind to the sequence GAGTAGAC located between nucleotides -53 and -47 within the IPE. The 40- and 68-kDa proteins from both the undifferentiated and differentiated cells exhibit similar DNA-binding activities. However, the 60-kDa protein from differentiated cells has greater binding activity than that from undifferentiated cells, suggesting a role for this protein in F9 differentiation-specific expression of the IAP gene. The IAP gene is negatively regulated by the adenovirus E1A proteins, and the E1A sequence responsible for repression is located at the N terminus, between amino acids 2 and 67. The DNA sequence that is the target of E1A repression also maps to the IPE element. Colocalization of the differentiation-specific and E1A-sensitive elements to the same protein-binding site within the IPE suggests that the E1A-like activity functions in F9 cells to repress IAP gene expression. Activation of the IAP gene may result when the E1A-like activity is lost or inactivated during F9 cell differentiation, followed by binding of the 60-kDa positive regulatory protein to the enhancer element. Images PMID:1406664

  7. Dissection of the C-terminal region of E1A redefines the roles of CtBP and other cellular targets in oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M J; Yousef, A F; Massimi, P; Fonseca, G J; Todorovic, B; Pelka, P; Turnell, A S; Banks, L; Mymryk, J S

    2013-09-01

    Human adenovirus E1A makes extensive connections with the cellular protein interaction network. By doing so, E1A can manipulate many cellular programs, including cell cycle progression. Through these reprogramming events, E1A functions as a growth-promoting oncogene and has been used extensively to investigate mechanisms contributing to oncogenesis. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the C-terminal region of E1A contributes to oncogenic transformation. Although this region is required for transformation in cooperation with E1B, it paradoxically suppresses transformation in cooperation with activated Ras. Previous analysis has suggested that the interaction of E1A with CtBP plays a pivotal role in both activities. However, some C-terminal mutants of E1A retain CtBP binding and yet exhibit defects in transformation, suggesting that other targets of this region are also necessary. To explore the roles of these additional factors, we performed an extensive mutational analysis of the C terminus of E1A. We identified key residues that are specifically required for binding all known targets of the C terminus of E1A. We further tested each mutant for the ability to both localize to the nucleus and transform primary rat cells in cooperation with E1B-55K or Ras. Interaction of E1A with importin α3/Qip1, dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), HAN11, and CtBP influenced transformation with E1B-55K. Interestingly, the interaction of E1A with DYRK1A and HAN11 appeared to play a role in suppression of transformation by activated Ras whereas interaction with CtBP was not necessary. This unexpected result suggests a need for revision of current models and provides new insight into transformation by the C terminus of E1A. PMID:23864635

  8. Cis and trans activation of adenovirus IVa2 gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, V; Salzman, N P

    1985-01-01

    The transcriptional control region of the adenovirus IVa2 promoter was analyzed by cloning this promoter in front of a gene coding for bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CATase) and estimating levels of CATase and IVa2 promoter specific RNA synthesized after transfection. To produce detectable amounts of CATase with the IVa2 promoter, an enhancer has to be present in cis. In the absence of enhancer sequences, the adenovirus E1A gene can not stimulate CATase synthesis. When cells were transfected with plasmids containing enhancer sequences and various IVa2 mutant promoters upstream of the CAT gene, we observed that CATase activity was not reduced significantly even after deletion of all sequences upstream of the RNA initiation site. Synthesis of IVa2 specific RNA was dependent on plasmids containing an enhancer (SV40 72 bp repeat) that was present in cis. In the absence of enhancer sequences, co-transfection to provide the adenovirus E1A gene in trans also stimulated IVa2 RNA synthesis. When HeLa cells were transfected with various deletion mutants with an enhancer in cis it was seen that sequences -38 to -64 base pairs upstream of the RNA initiation site are necessary for efficient transcription. The E1A gene in trans and an enhancer in cis have an additive effect on RNA synthesis from both IVa2 and major late promoters. The basis for the conflicting results between transcription and CATase synthesis is discussed. Images PMID:2989786

  9. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  10. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  11. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  12. [Antiapoptotic oncogene bcl-2 induces a program of senescence in E1A + c-Ha-ras-transformants treated with adriamycin].

    PubMed

    Neliudova, A M; Zubova, S G; Aksenov, N D; Pospelov, V A; Pospelova, T V

    2005-01-01

    Introduction of bcl-2 gene in EIA + c-Ha-ras-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, which are unable to be arrested after damaging influences and possess high proapoptotic sensitivity, results not only in suppression of cell death but also in re-establishment of cell cycle block following DNA damage and serum starvation. Flow cytometry showed that E1A + c-Ha-ras + bcl-2-transformants treated with DNA-intercalator adriamycin are capable of being arrested at G1/S boundary for a long time (for less than 5 days). According to the growth curve data, the number of Bcl-2-overexpressing cells remanins constant for a week of cultivation with adriamycin. Clonogenic efficacy of E1A + c-Ha-ras + bcl-2-cells is brought to no already in 16 h after adriamycin addition. Apoptotic death, revealed by oligonucleosomic fragmentation of DNA, as well as cell death, occurring due to mitotic catastrophe, after adriamycin treatment are almost absent in Bcl-2-overexpressing transformants, as compared with parental E1A + c-Ha-ras-transformants. Bcl-2 introduction in E1A + c-Ha-ras-transformants is accompanied by a rise of SA beta-Gal (Senescence Associated beta-Galactosidase) activity, which is commonly considered to be a marker of cell senescence. Adriamycin treatment of E1A + c-Ha-ras + bcl-2-transformants results in a much higher rise in SA beta-Gal activity, as compared with untreated cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated the introduction of Bcl-2 to result in formation of Bcl-2 complexes with early region E1A oncoproducts, which are thought to be responsible for proapoptotic susceptibility of E1A-expressing transformants. The data obtained lead to suggestion that bcl-2 transfer to E1A + c-Ha-ras-transformants may induce a switch from the cell death program on the program of senescence after DNA damage, due, presumably, to Bcl-2 interaction with the apoptosis activator the viral oncoprotein E1A. PMID:16711390

  13. A New Type of Adenovirus Vector That Utilizes Homologous Recombination To Achieve Tumor-Specific Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bernt, Kathrin; Liang, Min; Ye, Xun; Ni, Shaoheng; Li, Zong-Yi; Ye, Sheng Long; Hu, Fang; Lieber, André

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new class of adenovirus vectors that selectively replicate in tumor cells. The vector design is based on our recent observation that a variety of human tumor cell lines support DNA replication of adenovirus vectors with deletions of the E1A and E1B genes, whereas primary human cells or mouse liver cells in vivo do not. On the basis of this tumor-selective replication, we developed an adenovirus system that utilizes homologous recombination between inverted repeats to mediate precise rearrangements within the viral genome resulting in replication-dependent activation of transgene expression in tumors (Ad.IR vectors). Here, we used this system to achieve tumor-specific expression of adenoviral wild-type E1A in order to enhance viral DNA replication and spread within tumor metastases. In vitro DNA replication and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the mechanism of E1A-enhanced replication of Ad.IR-E1A vectors is efficiently and specifically activated in tumor cells, but not in nontransformed human cells. Systemic application of the Ad.IR-E1A vector into animals with liver metastases achieved transgene expression exclusively in tumors. The number of transgene-expressing tumor cells within metastases increased over time, indicating viral spread. Furthermore, the Ad.IR-E1A vector demonstrated antitumor efficacy in subcutaneous and metastatic models. These new Ad.IR-E1A vectors combine elements that allow for tumor-specific transgene expression, efficient viral replication, and spread in liver metastases after systemic vector application. PMID:12368342

  14. How do oncoprotein mutations rewire protein-protein interaction networks?

    PubMed

    Bowler, Emily H; Wang, Zhenghe; Ewing, Rob M

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of mutations that activate oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressors is a primary feature of most cancers. Mutations that directly alter protein sequence and structure drive the development of tumors through aberrant expression and modification of proteins, in many cases directly impacting components of signal transduction pathways and cellular architecture. Cancer-associated mutations may have direct or indirect effects on proteins and their interactions and while the effects of mutations on signaling pathways have been widely studied, how mutations alter underlying protein-protein interaction networks is much less well understood. Systematic mapping of oncoprotein protein interactions using proteomics techniques as well as computational network analyses is revealing how oncoprotein mutations perturb protein-protein interaction networks and drive the cancer phenotype. PMID:26325016

  15. Novel Functions of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Nicholas A; Galloway, Denise A

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect the epidermis as well as mucous membranes of humans. They are the causative agents of anogenital tract and some oropharyngeal cancers. Infections begin in the basal epithelia, where the viral genome replicates slowly along with its host cell. As infected cells begin to differentiate and progress toward the periphery, the virus drives proliferation in cells that would otherwise be quiescent. To uncouple differentiation from continued cellular propagation, HPVs express two oncoproteins, HPV E6 and E7. This review focuses on high-risk α-HPV E6, which in addition to supporting viral replication has transforming properties. HPV E6 promotes p53 degradation and activates telomerase, but the multifaceted oncoprotein has numerous other functions that are highlighted here. PMID:26958922

  16. The adenoviral E1A N-terminal domain represses MYC transcription in human cancer cells by targeting both p300 and TRRAP and inhibiting MYC promoter acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Jun; Loewenstein, Paul M.; Green, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers frequently arise from increased expression of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC and HER2. Understanding the cellular pathways regulating the transcription and expression of proto-oncogenes is important for targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Adenoviral (Ad) E1A 243R (243 aa residues) is a viral oncoprotein that interacts with key regulators of gene transcription and cell proliferation. We have shown previously that the 80 amino acid N-terminal transcriptional repression domain of E1A 243R (E1A 1-80) can target the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 and repress HER2 in the HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell line SKBR3. Expression of E1A 1-80 induces death of SKBR3 and other cancer cell lines. In this study, we performed total cell RNA sequence analysis and identified MYC as the regulatory gene for cellular proliferation most strongly repressed by E1A 1-80. By RT-quantitative PCR analysis we show that repression of MYC in SKBR3 cells occurs early after expression of E1A 1-80, suggesting that MYC may be an early responder of E1A 1-80-mediated transcriptional repression. Of interest, while E1A 1-80 repression of MYC occurs in all eight human cancer cell lines examined, repression of HER2 is cell-type dependent. We demonstrate by ChIP analysis that MYC transcriptional repression by E1A 1-80 is associated with inhibition of acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16 on the MYC promoter, as well as inhibition of RNA Pol II binding to the MYC promoter. Deletion mutant analysis of E1A 1-80 suggests that both p300/CBP and TRRAP are involved in E1A 1-80 repression of MYC transcription. Further, E1A 1-80 interaction with p300/CBP and TRRAP is correlated with inhibition of H3K18 and H4K16 acetylation on the MYC promoter, respectively. Our results indicate that E1A 1-80 may target two important pathways for histone modification to repress transcription in human cancer cells. PMID:27382434

  17. Construction of mouse adenovirus type 1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Cauthen, Angela N; Welton, Amanda R; Spindler, Katherine R

    2007-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus provides a model for studying adenovirus pathogenesis in the natural host. The ability to make viral mutants allows the investigation of specific mouse adenoviral gene contributions to virus-host interactions. Methods for propagation and titration of wild-type mouse adenovirus, production of viral DNA and viral DNA-protein complex, and transfection of mouse cells to obtain mouse adenovirus mutants are described in this chapter. Plaque purification, propagation, and titration of the mutant viruses are also presented.

  18. Etoposide enhances antitumor efficacy of MDR1-driven oncolytic adenovirus through autoupregulation of the MDR1 promoter activity

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yau-Lin; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or oncolytic adenoviruses, such as E1B55K-deleted adenovirus, are attractive anticancer agents. However, the therapeutic efficacy of E1B55K-deleted adenovirus for refractory solid tumors has been limited. Environmental stress conditions may induce nuclear accumulation of YB-1, which occurs in multidrug-resistant and adenovirus-infected cancer cells. Overexpression and nuclear localization of YB-1 are associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence in various cancers. Nuclear YB-1 transactivates the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the Y-box. Here, we developed a novel E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the MDR1 promoter, designed Ad5GS3. We tested the feasibility of using YB-1 to transcriptionally regulate Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells and thereby to enhance antitumor efficacy. We evaluated synergistic antitumor effects of oncolytic virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. Our results show that adenovirus E1A induced E2F-1 activity to augment YB-1 expression, which shut down host protein synthesis in cancer cells during adenovirus replication. In cancer cells infected with Ad5WS1, an E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the E1 promoter, E1A enhanced YB-1 expression, and then further phosphorylated Akt, which, in turn, triggered nuclear translocation of YB-1. Ad5GS3 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents facilitated nuclear localization of YB-1 and, in turn, upregulated the MDR1 promoter activity and enhanced Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells. Thus, E1A, YB-1, and the MDR1 promoter form a positive feedback loop to promote Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells, and this regulation can be further augmented when chemotherapeutic agents are added. In the in vivo study, Ad5GS3 in combination with etoposide synergistically suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice bearing human lung tumor xenografts. More importantly, Ad5GS3 exerted potent oncolytic activity against clinical

  19. CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) are required for the superstimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription by adenoviral E1a and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Routes, J M; Colton, L A; Ryan, S; Klemm, D J

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we observed superstimulated levels of cAMP-stimulated transcription from the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter in cells infected with wild-type adenovirus expressing 12 S and 13 S E1a proteins, or in cells expressing 13 S E1a alone. cAMP-stimulated transcription was inhibited in cells expressing only 12 S E1a, but slightly elevated in cells expressing E1a proteins with mutations in conserved regions 1 or 2, leading us to conclude that the superstimulation was mediated by conserved region 3 of 13 S E1a. E1a failed to enhance cAMP-stimulated transcription from promoters containing mutations that abolish binding by cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). This result was supported by experiments in which expression of dominant-negative CREB and/or C/EBP proteins repressed E1a- and cAMP-stimulated transcription from the PEPCK gene promoter. In reconstitution experiments using a Gal4-responsive promoter, E1a enhanced cAMP-stimulated transcription when chimaeric Gal4-CREB and Gal4-C/EBPalpha were co-expressed. Phosphorylation of CREB on serine-133 was stimulated in cells treated with dibutyryl cAMP, whereas phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha was increased by E1a expression. Our data support a model in which cAMP agonists increase CREB activity and stimulate PEPCK gene transcription, a process that is enhanced by E1a through the phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. PMID:11085926

  20. trans-dominant mutants of E1A provide genetic evidence that the zinc finger of the trans-activating domain binds a transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, L C; Ricciardi, R P

    1991-01-01

    The 289R E1A protein of adenovirus stimulates transcription of early viral and certain cellular genes. trans-Activation requires residues 140 to 188, which encompass a zinc finger. Several studies have indicated that trans-activation by E1A is mediated through cellular transcription factors. In particular, the ability of the trans-dominant E1A point mutant hr5 (Ser-185 to Asn) to inhibit wild-type E1A trans-activation was proposed to result from the sequestration of a cellular factor. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we individually replaced every residue within and flanking the trans-activating domain with a conservative amino acid, revealing 16 critical residues. Six of the individual substitutions lying in a contiguous stretch C terminal to the zinc finger (carboxyl region183-188) imparted a trans-dominant phenotype. trans-Dominance was even produced by deletion of the entire carboxyl region183-188. Conversely, an intact finger region147-177 was absolutely required for trans-dominance, since second-site substitution of every critical residue in this region abrogated the trans-dominant phenotype of the hr5 protein. These data indicate that the finger region147-177 bind a limiting cellular transcription factor and that the carboxyl region183-188 provides a separate and essential function. In addition, we show that four negatively charged residues within the trans-activating domain do not comprise a distinct acidic activating region. We present a model in which the trans-activating domain of E1A binds to two different cellular protein targets through the finger and carboxyl regions. Images PMID:1831535

  1. Human adenoviruses: propagation, purification, quantification, and storage.

    PubMed

    Green, Maurice; Loewenstein, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    Detailed protocols are described for the propagation of adenoviruses (Ads) and adenovirus (Ad) vectors and their purification by CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation. A discussion of monolayer and spinner cell culture techniques suitable, respectively, for small- and large-scale growth of adenoviruses is provided. Protocols for cloning into and growth of Ad replication-deficient vectors using a convenient commercially available system are described. Lastly, time-tested plaque titration protocols for the accurate and convenient measurement of the infectivity of adenoviruses and adenovirus vectors are provided in detail.

  2. Combination of oncolytic adenovirus and endostatin inhibits human retinoblastoma in an in vivo mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiping; Wei, Fang; Li, Huiming; Ji, Xunda; Li, Shuxia; Chen, Xiafang

    2013-02-01

    There is a critical need for new paradigms in retinoblastoma (RB) treatment that would more efficiently inhibit tumor growth while sparing the vision of patients. Oncolytic adenoviruses with the ability to selectively replicate and kill tumor cells are a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy. Exploration of a novel targeting strategy for RB utilizing combined oncolytic adenovirus and anti-angiogenesis therapy was applied over the course of the current study with positive results. The oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-E2F1 p-E1A and Ad-TERT p-E1 were constructed. The E1 region was regulated by the E2F-1 promoter or the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter, respectively. Effects on both replication and promotion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression were observed in the replication-defective adenovirus Ad-EGFP in diverse cancer cell lines, HXO-RB44, Y79, Hep3B, NCIH460, MCF-7 and HLF. The cancer cell death induced by these agents was also explored. The in situ RB model demonstrated that mice with tumors treated with the oncolytic adenovirus and replication-defective adenovirus Ad-endostatin exhibited notable cancer cell death. This anticancer effect was further examined by stereo microscope, and the survival rate of experimental mice was determined. Both Ad-E2F1 p-E1A and Ad-TERT p-E1 replicated specifically in cancer cells in vitro and promoted EGFP expression in Ad-EGFP, although Ad-E2F1 p-E1A demonstrated superior EGFP promotion activity than Ad-TERT p-E1. In Hep3B, NCIH460 and MCF-7 cells, the number of Ad-TERT p-E1 copies was observed to exceed of the number of Ad-E2F1 p-E1A copies by a minimum of 10-fold. Furthermore, Ad-TERT p-E1 demonstrated significantly superior oncolytic effects in the RB mouse model, and Ad-endostatin effectively suppressed tumor growth and extended the overall lifespan of subjects; however, the Ad-E2F1 p-E1A was clearly less effective in attaining these goals. Most notably, the antitumor effect and

  3. TAZ and YAP are frequently activated oncoproteins in sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Fullenkamp, Colleen A.; Hall, Sarah L.; Jaber, Omar I.; Pakalniskis, Brittany L.; Savage, Erica C.; Savage, Johanna M.; Ofori-Amanfo, Georgina K.; Lambertz, Allyn M.; Ivins, Stephanie D.; Stipp, Christopher S.; Miller, Benjamin J.; Milhem, Mohammed M.; Tanas, Munir R.

    2016-01-01

    TAZ (WWTR1) and YAP are transcriptional coactivators and oncoproteins inhibited by the Hippo pathway. Herein we evaluate 159 sarcomas representing the most prevalent sarcoma types by immunohistochemistry for expression and activation (nuclear localization) of TAZ and YAP. We show that 50% of sarcomas demonstrate activation of YAP while 66% of sarcomas demonstrate activated TAZ. Differential activation of TAZ and YAP are identified in various sarcoma types. At an RNA level, expression of WWTR1 or YAP1 predicts overall survival in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that TAZ and YAP expression and activation are positively correlated with grade in the well-differentiated liposarcoma to dedifferentiated liposarcoma tumor progression sequence as well as conventional chondrosarcomas. TAZ and YAP are constitutively activated oncoproteins in sarcoma cell lines. Knock-down of TAZ and YAP demonstrate differential activity for the two proteins. Verteporfin decreases colony formation in soft agar as well as CTGF expression in sarcoma cell lines harboring activated TAZ and YAP. PMID:27129148

  4. Cell Cycle Regulatory Functions of the KSHV Oncoprotein LANA

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Gan, Jin; Wang, Chong; Zhu, Caixia; Cai, Qiliang

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of cell cycle is a commonly employed strategy of viruses for achieving a favorable cellular environment during infection. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the primary etiological agent of several human malignancies including Kaposi’s sarcoma, and primary effusion lymphoma, encodes several oncoproteins that deregulate normal physiology of cell cycle machinery to persist with endothelial cells and B cells and subsequently establish a latent infection. During latency, only a small subset of viral proteins is expressed. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is one of the latent antigens shown to be essential for transformation of endothelial cells in vitro. It has been well demonstrated that LANA is critical for the maintenance of latency, episome DNA replication, segregation and gene transcription. In this review, we summarize recent studies and address how LANA functions as an oncoprotein to steer host cell cycle-related events including proliferation and apoptosis by interacting with various cellular and viral factors, and highlight the potential therapeutic strategy of disrupting LANA-dependent signaling as targets in KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:27065950

  5. Papillomavirus E5: the smallest oncoprotein with many functions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are established agents of human and animal cancers. They infect cutaneous and mucous epithelia. High Risk (HR) Human PVs (HPVs) are consistently associated with cancer of the uterine cervix, but are also involved in the etiopathogenesis of other cancer types. The early oncoproteins of PVs: E5, E6 and E7 are known to contribute to tumour progression. While the oncogenic activities of E6 and E7 are well characterised, the role of E5 is still rather nebulous. The widespread causal association of PVs with cancer makes their study worthwhile not only in humans but also in animal model systems. The Bovine PV (BPV) system has been the most useful animal model in understanding the oncogenic potential of PVs due to the pivotal role of its E5 oncoprotein in cell transformation. This review will highlight the differences between HPV-16 E5 (16E5) and E5 from other PVs, primarily from BPV. It will discuss the targeting of E5 as a possible therapeutic agent. PMID:22078316

  6. 26 CFR 1.665(e)-1A - Preceding taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1A Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1A Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition—(1)...

  7. 26 CFR 1.665(e)-1A - Preceding taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1A Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1A Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition—(1)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.665(e)-1A - Preceding taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preceding taxable year. 1.665(e)-1A Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(e)-1A Preceding taxable year. (a) Definition—(1)...

  9. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  10. Gene therapy for human colorectal cancer cell lines with recombinant adenovirus 5 based on loss of the insulin-like growth factor 2 imprinting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huiling; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Deng, Qiwen; Li, Rui; Xu, Yeqiong; Chen, Jie; Gao, Tianyi; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Liu, Xian; Wang, Shukui

    2015-04-01

    The recombinant oncolytic adenovirus is a novel anticancer agent to replicate selectively in colon cancer cell lines. Loss of imprinting (LOI) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is an epigenetic abnormality phenomenon. We utilized the IGF2 LOI in gene therapy for the malignant tumor cell lines. We investigated the tumoricidal effects of IGF2 LOI on four cell lines by oncolytic adenovirus, and constructed novel adenovirus vectors Ad312-E1A and Ad312-EGFP. The expression of E1A was monitored by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The viability and apoptosis of colorectal cells infected with Ad312-E1A were tested by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. In addition, we established a colorectal cancer model in nude mice. The results showed that HCT-8 and HT-29 with IGF2 LOI were infected with Ad312-EGFP and then produced the EGFP. Nevertheless, SW480 and GES-1, which were IGF2 MOI, did not produce the EGFP. The Ad312-E1A obviously reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in HCT-8 and HT-29 in vitro, and successfully suppressed tumor growth in HT-29 xenografts in nude mice. In summary, the conditionally replicative adenovirus with loss of IGF2 imprinting system has a positive effect on gene therapy.

  11. Adenovirus Early Proteins and Host Sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sook-Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus genome is transported into the nucleus, where viral gene transcription, viral DNA replication, and virion assembly take place. Posttranslational modifications by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, particularly nuclear events. It is not surprising, therefore, that adenovirus modulates and utilizes the host sumoylation system. Adenovirus early proteins play an important role in establishing optimal host environments for virus replication within infected cells by stimulating the cell cycle and counteracting host antiviral defenses. Here, we review findings on the mechanisms and functional consequences of the interplay between human adenovirus early proteins and the host sumoylation system. PMID:27651358

  12. Adenovirus Early Proteins and Host Sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sook-Young; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The human adenovirus genome is transported into the nucleus, where viral gene transcription, viral DNA replication, and virion assembly take place. Posttranslational modifications by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, particularly nuclear events. It is not surprising, therefore, that adenovirus modulates and utilizes the host sumoylation system. Adenovirus early proteins play an important role in establishing optimal host environments for virus replication within infected cells by stimulating the cell cycle and counteracting host antiviral defenses. Here, we review findings on the mechanisms and functional consequences of the interplay between human adenovirus early proteins and the host sumoylation system. PMID:27651358

  13. Cyclin E/Cdk2, P/CAF, and E1A regulate the transactivation of the c-myc promoter by FOXM1

    SciTech Connect

    Wierstra, Inken Alves, Juergen

    2008-03-28

    FOXM1c transactivates the c-myc promoter by binding directly to its TATA-boxes. The present study demonstrates that the transactivation of the c-myc promoter by FOXM1c is enhanced by the key proliferation signal cyclin E/Cdk2, but repressed by P/CAF and the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. Furthermore, FOXM1c interacts with the coactivator and histone acetyltransferase P/CAF. This study shows that, on the c-myc-P1 TATA-box, FOXM1c does not function simply as normal transcription factor just binding to an unusual site. Moreover, the inhibitory N-terminus of FOXM1c does not inhibit its transrepression domain or its EDA. Others reported that a cyclin/Cdk-binding LXL-motif of the splice variant FoxM1b is required for its interaction with Cdk2, Cdk1, and p27, its phosphorylation by Cdk1 and its activation by Cdc25B. In contrast, we now demonstrate that this LXL-motif is not required for the activation of FOXM1c by cyclin D1/Cdk4, cyclin E/Cdk and cyclin A/Cdk2 or for the repression of FOXM1c by p27.

  14. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  15. Novel complementation cell lines derived from human lung carcinoma A549 cells support the growth of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Imler, J L; Chartier, C; Dreyer, D; Dieterle, A; Sainte-Marie, M; Faure, T; Pavirani, A; Mehtali, M

    1996-01-01

    Replication-defective E1-deleted adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy or live vaccines. However, manufacturing methods required for their pharmaceutical development are not optimized. For example, the generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors relies on the complementation functions present in 293 cells. However, 293 cells are prone to the generation of replication competent particles as a result of recombination events between the viral DNA and the integrated adenovirus sequences present in the cell line. We report here that human lung A549 cells transformed with constitutive or inducible E1-expression vectors support the replication of E1-deficient adenoviruses. E1A transcription was elevated in most of the cell lines, and E1A proteins were expressed at levels similar to those of 293 cells. However, the levels of expression of E1A did not correlate with the efficiencies of complementation of E1-deleted viruses in A549 clones, since some clones complemented replication in the absence of induction of E1A expression. In addition, complementation of E1-deficient adenoviruses did not require expression of the E1B 55-kDa protein. Although these cell lines contain the coding and cis-acting regulatory sequences of the structural protein IX gene, they are not able to complement viruses in which this gene has been deleted. In contrast to 293 cells, such new complementation cell lines do not contain the left end of the adenoviral genome and thus represent a significant improvement over the currently used 293 cells, in which a single recombination event is sufficient to yield replication competent adenovirus. PMID:8929914

  16. Activation of RNA polymerase III transcription of human Alu repetitive elements by adenovirus type 5: requirement for the E1b 58-kilodalton protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6.

    PubMed Central

    Panning, B; Smiley, J R

    1993-01-01

    We found that transcription of endogenous human Alu elements by RNA polymerase III was strongly stimulated following infection of HeLa cells with adenovirus type 5, leading to the accumulation of high levels of Alu transcripts initiated from Alu polymerase III promoters. In contrast to previously reported cases of adenovirus-induced activation of polymerase III transcription, induction required the E1b 58-kDa protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6 in addition to the 289-residue E1a protein. In addition, E1a function was not required at high multiplicities of infection, suggesting that E1a plays an indirect role in Alu activation. These results suggest previously unsuspected regulatory properties of the adenovirus E1b and E4 gene products and provide a novel approach to the study of the biology of the most abundant class of dispersed repetitive DNA in the human genome. Images PMID:7684492

  17. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  18. TRRAP-Dependent and TRRAP-Independent Transcriptional Activation by Myc Family Oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Chandriani, Sanjay; Park, Jeonghyeon; Kotenko, Iulia; Matheos, Dina; Johnsson, Anna; McMahon, Steven B.; Cole, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate that transformation-transactivation domain-associated protein (TRRAP) binding and the recruitment of histone H3 and H4 acetyltransferase activities are required for the transactivation of a silent telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene in exponentially growing human fibroblasts by c-Myc or N-Myc protein. However, recruitment of TRRAP by c- or N-Myc is dispensable for the partial induction of several basally expressed genes in exponentially growing primary and immortalized fibroblasts. Furthermore, recruitment of TRRAP is required for c-Myc- or N-Myc-mediated oncogenic transformation but not for the partial restoration of the growth defect in myc-null fibroblasts. A segment of the adenovirus E1A protein fused to a transformation-defective N-Myc protein carrying a small deletion in the transactivation domain specifically restores interaction with TRRAP, activates the silent TERT gene, induces acetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the TERT promoter, and transforms primary cells. Accordingly, wild-type L-Myc is much less efficient in TRRAP binding, activation of the silent TERT gene, and transformation of primary fibroblasts. Nevertheless, L-Myc is a potent activator of several basally expressed genes and can fully restore the growth defect of myc-null cells. These results suggest a differential requirement for TRRAP for several Myc-mediated activities. PMID:12077335

  19. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Early Region 1A Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Pretto, Carla D.; Castro Jorge, Luiza A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infects endothelial cells and disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB), causing encephalitis in inbred and outbred mice. Using a virus mutant that does not produce the early region 1A protein E1A, we investigated whether the activity of this known viral transcriptional regulator is needed for BBB disruption and other phenotypes associated with encephalitis. The wild-type (wt) virus and E1A mutant virus caused similar levels of permeability of sodium fluorescein in brains of infected mice. In an in vitro assay of BBB integrity, wt and mutant virus caused similar decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance in primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayers. These results indicate that E1A protein does not contribute to disruption of BBB integrity in animals or cultured cells. Both wt and E1A mutant virus infection of mice led to similar increases in the activity of two matrix metalloproteinases known to correlate with BBB disruption, MMP2 and MMP9, while causing no increase in the steady-state expression of MMP2 or MMP9 mRNA. In contrast, the amount of MMP3 transcripts increased upon infection by both viruses and to a higher level in infections by the mutant virus lacking E1A protein production. There was no difference in the levels of steady-state expression of mRNA for tight junction proteins among mock virus, wt virus, and mutant virus infections. Thus, the MAV-1 E1A protein does not measurably affect BBB integrity in the parameters assayed, although it reduces the amount of MMP3 mRNA steady-state expression induced in brains upon infection. IMPORTANCE Encephalitis can be caused by viruses, and it is potentially life-threatening because of the vital nature of the brain and the lack of treatment options. MAV-1 produces viral encephalitis in its natural host, providing a model for investigating factors involved in development of encephalitis. MAV-1 infection disrupts the BBB and increases activity of matrix

  20. Acid-Soluble Material of Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, P. A.; Jaume, F.; Flamencourt, P.; Biserte, G.

    1970-01-01

    Two methods are described for adenovirus capsid disruption and extraction of acid-soluble proteins from the viral core. The acid-soluble material of adenovirus consisted of three major proteins, one of them being selectively extracted after mild disruption of the virus particle. Some chemical properties of these proteins are reported. Images PMID:4986288

  1. Bicalutamide Activated Oncolytic Adenovirus for the Adjuvant Therapy of High Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tamara Jane; Hoti, Naser Uddin; Liu, Chunyan; Chowdhury, Wasim H.; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yonggang; Lupold, Shawn E.; DeWeese, Theodore; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) utilize tissue specific promoters to control the expression of the early genes, E1A and E1B, to preferentially replicate and lyse tumor cells (oncolysis). Previous CRAds used in prostate cancer gene therapy require androgens to activate prostate specific promoters and induce viral replication. Unfortunately, these CRAds have reduced activity in patients on androgen suppressive therapy. We describe a novel prostate specific CRAd generated by fusing the E1A gene to the androgen receptor (AR) cDNA with a point mutation in codon 685 (C685Y). The E1A-AR fusion neutralizes the previously described mutual inhibition of E1A & AR, and the C685Y point mutation alters specificity of steroid ligand binding to the AR, such that both androgens and non-steroidal anti-androgens can activate viral replication. We demonstrate that the mutated E1A-AR retained the ability to function in regulating AR responsive genes and E1A responsive viral genes. In combination therapy of virus, bicalutamide (anti-androgen) and radiation, a profound impact on cell death by viral oncolysis was seen both in vitro and tumor xenografts. To our knowledge, this is the first gene therapy engineered to be enhanced by anti-androgens, and a particularly attractive adjuvant strategy for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of high-risk prostate cancers. PMID:23764901

  2. A Multi Targeting Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus Displays Enhanced Oncolysis while Maintaining Expression of Immunotherapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, G Clement; Ugai, Hideyo; Curiel, David T; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenoviruses based on a 24 base pair deletion in the viral E1A gene (D24) may be promising therapeutics for treating a number of cancer types. In order to increase the therapeutic potential of these oncolytic viruses, a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus targeting multiple receptors upregulated on tumors was generated by incorporating an Ad5/3 fiber with a carboxyl terminus RGD ligand. The virus displayed full cytopathic effect in all tumor lines assayed at low titers with improved cytotoxicity over Ad5-RGD D24, Ad5/3 D24 and an HSV oncolytic virus. The virus was then engineered to deliver immunotherapeutic agents such as GM-CSF while maintaining enhanced heterogenic oncolysis. PMID:26689910

  3. A Multi Targeting Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus Displays Enhanced Oncolysis while Maintaining Expression of Immunotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, G. Clement; Ugai, Hideyo; Curiel, David T.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenoviruses based on a 24 base pair deletion in the viral E1A gene (D24) may be promising therapeutics for treating a number of cancer types. In order to increase the therapeutic potential of these oncolytic viruses, a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus targeting multiple receptors upregulated on tumors was generated by incorporating an Ad5/3 fiber with a carboxyl terminus RGD ligand. The virus displayed full cytopathic effect in all tumor lines assayed at low titers with improved cytotoxicity over Ad5-RGD D24, Ad5/3 D24 and an HSV oncolytic virus. The virus was then engineered to deliver immunotherapeutic agents such as GM-CSF while maintaining enhanced heterogenic oncolysis. PMID:26689910

  4. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGES

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; et al

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  5. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  6. Clinical and Virologic Characteristics May Aid Distinction of Acute Adenovirus Disease from Kawasaki Disease with Incidental Adenovirus Detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Eunkyung; Kajon, Adriana E; Wang, Huanyu; Salamon, Doug; Texter, Karen; Ramilo, Octavio; Leber, Amy; Jaggi, Preeti

    2016-03-01

    Incidental adenovirus detection in Kawasaki disease (KD) is important to differentiate from acute adenovirus disease. Twenty-four of 25 children with adenovirus disease and mimicking features of KD had <4 KD-like features, predominance of species B or E, and higher viral burden compared with those with KD and incidental adenovirus detection. PMID:26707621

  7. c-erbB-2 oncoprotein assay in ovarian carcinoma and its clinical correlation with prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y T; Kim, J W; Lee, J W

    1998-10-23

    Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein has been detected in human adenocarcinoma of the breast, cervix and salivary gland, in all of which an association between the overexpression of the c-erbB-2 and a poor prognosis of the disease has been reported. However, the prognostic role of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in ovarian carcinoma remains controversial. We measured c-erbB-2 oncoprotein with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with invasive ovarian cancer were found to have significantly higher median c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression than patients with either benign ovarian cyst (P = 0.002) or control groups (P = 0.001). Overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was found in seven (21.9%) of 32 epithelial ovarian cancers. Our results suggest that quantitative analysis of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein may be used to define the prognostic significance of ovarian carcinoma.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided. PMID:17656792

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided.

  10. Rb function is required for E1A-induced S-phase checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Nemajerova, A; Talos, F; Moll, U M; Petrenko, O

    2008-09-01

    It is widely accepted that adenoviral E1A exerts its influence on recipient cells through binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) family proteins, followed by a global release of E2F factors from pocket-protein control. Our study challenges this simple paradigm by demonstrating previously unappreciated complexity. We show that E1A-expressing primary and transformed cells are characterized by the persistence of Rb-E2F1 complexes. We provide evidence that E1A causes Rb stabilization by interfering with its proteasomal degradation. Functional experiments supported by biochemical data reveal not only a dramatic increase in Rb and E2F1 protein levels in E1A-expressing cells but also demonstrate their activation throughout the cell cycle. We further show that E1A activates an Rb- and E2F1-dependent S-phase checkpoint that attenuates the growth of cells that became hyperploid through errors in mitosis and supports the fidelity DNA replication even in the absence of E2F complexes with other Rb family proteins, thereby functionally substituting for the loss of p53. Our results support the essential role of Rb and E2F1 in the regulation of genomic stability and DNA damage checkpoints.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies specific for adenovirus early region 1A proteins: extensive heterogeneity in early region 1A products.

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, E; Franza, B R; Schley, C

    1985-01-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies specific for the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) proteins were prepared from BALB/c mice immunized with a bacterial trpE-E1A fusion protein. This protein is encoded by a hybrid gene that joins a portion of the Escherichia coli trpE gene and a cDNA copy of the E1A 13S mRNA (Spindler et al., J. Virol. 49:132-141, 1984). Eighty-three hybridomas that secrete antibodies which recognize the immunogen were isolated and single cell cloned. Twenty-nine of these antibodies are specific for the E1A portion of the fusion protein. Only 12 of the monoclonal antibodies can efficiently immunoprecipitate E1A polypeptides from detergent lysates of infected cells. E1A polypeptides were analyzed on one-dimensional, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and two-dimensional, isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gels. The E1A proteins that are specifically immunoprecipitated by the monoclonal antibodies are heterogeneous in size and charge and can be resolved into approximately 60 polypeptide species. This heterogeneity is due not only to synthesis from multiple E1A mRNAs, but also at least in part to post-translational modification. Several of the monoclonal antibodies divide the E1A polypeptides into immunological subclasses based on the ability of the antibodies to bind to the antigen. In particular, two of the monoclonal antibodies bind to the polypeptides synthesized from the 13S E1A mRNA, but not to other E1A proteins. Images PMID:3894685

  12. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Myc Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Steven; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    The c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein is among the most attractive of cancer targets given that is deregulated in the majority of tumors and that its inhibition profoundly affects their growth and/or survival. However, its role as a seldom-mutated transcription factor, its lack of enzymatic activity for which suitable pharmaceutical inhibitors could be crafted and its expression by normal cells have largely been responsible for its being viewed as “undruggable”. Work over the past several years, however, has begun to reverse this idea by allowing us to view Myc within the larger context of global gene regulatory control. Thus, Myc and its obligate heterodimeric partner, Max, are integral to the coordinated recruitment and post-translational modification of components of the core transcriptional machinery. Moreover, Myc over-expression re-programs numerous critical cellular functions and alters the cell’s susceptibility to their inhibition. This new knowledge has therefore served as a framework upon which to develop new pharmaceutical approaches. These include the continuing development of small molecules which act directly to inhibit the critical Myc-Max interaction, those which act indirectly to prevent Myc-directed post-translational modifications necessary to initiate productive transcription and those which inhibit vital pathways upon which the Myc-transformed cell is particularly reliant. PMID:24657798

  13. [Inactivation of failsafe programs by Twist oncoproteins and tumor progression].

    PubMed

    Puisieux, A

    2008-01-01

    Multicellular organisms have developed innate defense mechanisms to prevent the expansion of abnormal cells with significant proliferative potential. The two major safeguard mechanisms are premature senescence, which is characterized by definitive cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, the most common form of programmed cell death. In normal and premalignant cells, the control of these processes is coupled to the regulation of cell proliferation, mainly through the p16 (Ink4A) -Rb and ARF-p53 intracellular signaling pathways. Hence, in benign tumors, aberrant mitogenic activity is counterbalanced by the induction of these oncosuppressive pathways, leading to either apoptosis or senescence which both limit tumor outgrowth. Progression towards malignant and potentially metastatic tumors requires the inhibition of these failsafe programs. Based on our work on Twist oncoproteins, we propose a presentation of recent data on cellular mechanisms by which cancer cells override the surveillance machinery and escape senescence and apoptosis, and we will describe the biological impact of this process on tumor metastasis. PMID:19061727

  14. Recruitment of the oncoprotein v-ErbA to aggresomes.

    PubMed

    Bondzi, Cornelius; Brunner, Abigail M; Munyikwa, Michelle R; Connor, Crystal D; Simmons, Alicia N; Stephens, Stephanie L; Belt, Patricia A; Roggero, Vincent R; Mavinakere, Manohara S; Hinton, Shantá D; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2011-01-30

    Aggresome formation, a cellular response to misfolded protein aggregates, is linked to cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Previously we showed that Gag-v-ErbA (v-ErbA), a retroviral variant of the thyroid hormone receptor (TRα1), accumulates in and sequesters TRα1 into cytoplasmic foci. Here, we show that foci represent v-ErbA targeting to aggresomes. v-ErbA colocalizes with aggresomal markers, proteasomes, hsp70, HDAC6, and mitochondria. Foci have hallmark characteristics of aggresomes: formation is microtubule-dependent, accelerated by proteasome inhibitors, and they disrupt intermediate filaments. Proteasome-mediated degradation is critical for clearance of v-ErbA and T(3)-dependent TRα1 clearance. Our studies highlight v-ErbA's complex mode of action: the oncoprotein is highly mobile and trafficks between the nucleus, cytoplasm, and aggresome, carrying out distinct activities within each compartment. Dynamic trafficking to aggresomes contributes to the dominant negative activity of v-ErbA and may be enhanced by the viral Gag sequence. These studies provide insight into novel modes of oncogenesis across multiple cellular compartments.

  15. Adenovirus Replaces Mitotic Checkpoint Controls

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Roberta L.; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with adenovirus triggers the cellular DNA damage response, elements of which include cell death and cell cycle arrest. Early adenoviral proteins, including the E1B-55K and E4orf3 proteins, inhibit signaling in response to DNA damage. A fraction of cells infected with an adenovirus mutant unable to express the E1B-55K and E4orf3 genes appeared to arrest in a mitotic-like state. Cells infected early in G1 of the cell cycle were predisposed to arrest in this state at late times of infection. This arrested state, which displays hallmarks of mitotic catastrophe, was prevented by expression of either the E1B-55K or the E4orf3 genes. However, E1B-55K mutant virus-infected cells became trapped in a mitotic-like state in the presence of the microtubule poison colcemid, suggesting that the two viral proteins restrict entry into mitosis or facilitate exit from mitosis in order to prevent infected cells from arresting in mitosis. The E1B-55K protein appeared to prevent inappropriate entry into mitosis through its interaction with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53. The E4orf3 protein facilitated exit from mitosis by possibly mislocalizing and functionally inactivating cyclin B1. When expressed in noninfected cells, E4orf3 overcame the mitotic arrest caused by the degradation-resistant R42A cyclin B1 variant. IMPORTANCE Cells that are infected with adenovirus type 5 early in G1 of the cell cycle are predisposed to arrest in a mitotic-like state in a p53-dependent manner. The adenoviral E1B-55K protein prevents entry into mitosis. This newly described activity for the E1B-55K protein appears to depend on the interaction between the E1B-55K protein and the tumor suppressor p53. The adenoviral E4orf3 protein facilitates exit from mitosis, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of cyclin B1. By preventing entry into mitosis and by promoting exit from mitosis, these adenoviral proteins act to prevent the infected cell from arresting in a

  16. Infectious entry pathway of adenovirus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, M J; Weibull, C; Everitt, E

    1991-01-01

    Internalization of the infectious fraction of human adenovirus type 2 into HeLa cells was followed by a quantitative internalization assay. Treatments known to selectively block receptor-mediated endocytosis reduced the internalization of infectious virus to an extent close to the reduction of endocytosis of transferrin. This suggests that one of the first steps in the infectious cycle of adenovirus type 2 is internalization by the coated-pit and -vesicle pathway. Images PMID:1920625

  17. Adenovirus-vectored Ebola vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has highlighted the need for the availability of effective vaccines against outbreak pathogens that are suitable for use in frontline workers who risk their own health in the course of caring for those with the disease, and also for members of the community in the affected area. Along with effective contact tracing and quarantine, use of a vaccine as soon as an outbreak is identified could greatly facilitate rapid control and prevent the outbreak from spreading. This review describes the progress that has been made in producing and testing adenovirus-based Ebola vaccines in both pre-clinical and clinical studies, and considers the likely future use of these vaccines.

  18. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T. . E-mail: curiel@uab.edu

    2006-08-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology.

  19. Analysis of adenovirus transforming proteins from early regions 1A and 1B with antisera to inducible fusion antigens produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, K R; Rosser, D S; Berk, A J

    1984-01-01

    Plasmid vectors were constructed which expressed three adenovirus tumor antigens fused to a portion of the trpE protein of Escherichia coli. Insertion of adenovirus type 2 DNA from early region 1A (E1A) into such a plasmid led to a fusion protein which contained the C-terminal 266 amino acids of the 289-amino acid protein encoded by the viral 13S mRNA. Similarly, insertion of adenovirus type 5 DNA corresponding to the E1B 55- and 21-kilodalton proteins led to production of fusion proteins containing amino acid sequences from these proteins. After induction with indoleacrylic acid, fusion proteins accumulated stably in the E. coli cells. By using a simple extraction of insoluble protein, 1 to 10 mg of fusion protein per liter of culture was obtained. The fusion proteins were purified on preparative polyacrylamide gels and used to immunize rabbits. Specific antisera for the E1A 289- and closely related 243-amino acid proteins and the E1B 55- and 21-kilodalton proteins were obtained. These sera were used to immunoprecipitate the tumor antigens in cells infected with wild-type and various mutants of adenovirus or to analyze them by an immunoblotting procedure. Mutant E1A proteins in which the C-terminal 70 amino acids are deleted were phosphorylated to much lower extents than the wild-type E1A proteins. This indicates that the deleted region is important for the process of phosphorylation. The E1A proteins were extracted, sedimented in glycerol gradients, analyzed by immunoprecipitation, and found to sediment primarily as monomers. Images PMID:6361277

  20. The Dual Nature of Nek9 in Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Richard; Radko, Sandi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To successfully replicate in an infected host cell, a virus must overcome sophisticated host defense mechanisms. Viruses, therefore, have evolved a multitude of devices designed to circumvent cellular defenses that would lead to abortive infection. Previous studies have identified Nek9, a cellular kinase, as a binding partner of adenovirus E1A, but the biology behind this association remains a mystery. Here we show that Nek9 is a transcriptional repressor that functions together with E1A to silence the expression of p53-inducible GADD45A gene in the infected cell. Depletion of Nek9 in infected cells reduces virus growth but unexpectedly enhances viral gene expression from the E2 transcription unit, whereas the opposite occurs when Nek9 is overexpressed. Nek9 localizes with viral replication centers, and its depletion reduces viral genome replication, while overexpression enhances viral genome numbers in infected cells. Additionally, Nek9 was found to colocalize with the viral E4 orf3 protein, a repressor of cellular stress response. Significantly, Nek9 was also shown to associate with viral and cellular promoters and appears to function as a transcriptional repressor, representing the first instance of Nek9 playing a role in gene regulation. Overall, these results highlight the complexity of virus-host interactions and identify a new role for the cellular protein Nek9 during infection, suggesting a role for Nek9 in regulating p53 target gene expression. IMPORTANCE In the arms race that exists between a pathogen and its host, each has continually evolved mechanisms to either promote or prevent infection. In order to successfully replicate and spread, a virus must overcome every mechanism that a cell can assemble to block infection. On the other hand, to counter viral spread, cells must have multiple mechanisms to stifle viral replication. In the present study, we add to our understanding of how the human adenovirus is able to circumvent cellular roadblocks

  1. Unique conditionally replication competent bipartite adenoviruses-cancer terminator viruses (CTV): efficacious reagents for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-Zhong; Fisher, Paul B

    2006-07-01

    The frequent resistance of aggressive cancers to currently available therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, mandates development of targeted, nontoxic and more efficacious treatment protocols. Conditionally replication competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) that induce oncolysis by cancer-specific replication are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, a single modality approach may not be sufficient to completely eradicate cancer in a patient, because most cancers arise from abnormalities in multiple genetic and signal transduction pathways. The promoter region of rodent progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), cloned and characterized in our laboratory, embodies the unique property of increased activity in a broad range of tumor cells, both rodent and human, when compared to normal counterparts. Bipartite adenoviruses were engineered to express the E1A gene, necessary for viral replication, under control of the PEG-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) and simultaneously express a second transgene in the E3 region that encodes an apoptosis-inducing and immunomodulatory cytokine, either immune interferon (IFN-gamma) or melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24). These conditionally replication competent bipartite adenoviruses, referred to as cancer terminator viruses (CTVs), facilitated cancer-selective adenovirus replication, robust transgene expression and apoptosis induction with complete eradication of both primary and distant (metastatic) human cancers xenotransplanted in athymic nude mice. These findings suggest that CTVs might prove efficacious for the therapy of primary and advanced neoplastic diseases. PMID:16861924

  2. Analysis of the viral replication cycle of adenovirus serotype 2 after inactivation by free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Gall, Aimee M; Shisler, Joanna L; Mariñas, Benito J

    2015-04-01

    Free chlorine is effective at inactivating a wide range of waterborne viral pathogens including human adenovirus (HAdV), but the mechanisms by which free chlorine inactivates HAdV and other human viruses remain to be elucidated. Such advances in fundamental knowledge are key for development of new disinfection technologies and novel sensors to detect infectious viruses in drinking water. We developed and tested a quantitative assay to analyze several steps in the HAdV replication cycle upon increasing free chlorine exposure. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect HAdV genomic DNA as a means to quantify attachment and genome replication of untreated and treated virions. Also, we used quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify the transcription of E1A (first early protein) and hexon mRNA. We compared these replication cycle events to virus inactivation kinetics to determine what stage of the virus replication cycle was inhibited as a function of free chlorine exposure. We observed that adenovirus inactivated at levels up to 99.99% by free chlorine still attached to host cells; however, viral DNA synthesis and early E1A and late hexon gene transcription were inhibited. We conclude that free chlorine exposure interferes with a replication cycle event occurring postbinding but prior to early viral protein synthesis.

  3. Upstream regulatory regions required to stabilize binding to the TATA sequence in an adenovirus early promoter.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J; Wu, F; Gaynor, R

    1987-10-26

    Of the five early adenovirus promoters, the early region 3 (E3) promoter is one of the most strongly induced by the E1A protein. To identify cellular proteins involved in both the basal and E1A-induced transcriptional regulation of the E3 promoter, DNase I footprinting using partially purified Hela cell extracts was performed. Four regions of the E3 promoter serve as binding domains for cellular proteins. These regions are found between -156 to -179 (site IV), -83 to -103 (site III), -47 to -67 (site II), and -16 to -37 (site I), relative to the start of transcription. Examination of the DNA sequences in each binding domain suggests that site III likely serves as a binding site for activator protein 1 (AP-1), site II for the cyclic AMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB), and site I for a TATA binding factor. The factors binding to either site II or III were sufficient to stabilize binding to the TATA sequence (site I). Mutagenesis studies indicated that both sites II and III, in addition to site I, are needed for complete basal and E1A-induced transcription. These results suggest that multiple cellular factors are involved in both the basal and E1A-induced transcriptional regulation of the E3 promoter, and that either of two upstream regions are capable of stabilizing factor binding to the TATA sequence.

  4. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  5. ERG oncoprotein expression in prostate carcinoma patients of different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, GREGORY M.; KONG, YINK HEAY; DOBI, ALBERT; SRIVASTAVA, SHIV; SESTERHENN, ISABELL A.; PATHMANATHAN, RAJADURAI; TAN, HUI MENG; TAN, SHYH-HAN; CHEONG, SOK CHING

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy specimens, collected from 120 patients treated at the Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed for ERG protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the anti-ERG monoclonal antibody 9FY as a surrogate for the detection of ERG fusion events. The overall frequency of ERG protein expression in the population evaluated in this study was 39.2%. Although seemingly similar to rates reported in other Asian communities, the expression of ERG was distinct amongst different ethnic groups (P=0.004). Malaysian Indian (MI) patients exhibited exceedingly high expression of ERG in their tumors, almost doubling that of Malaysian Chinese (MC) patients, whereas ERG expression was very low amongst Malay patients (12.5%). When collectively analyzing data, we observed a significant correlation between younger patients and higher ERG expression (P=0.04). The prevalence of ERG expression was significantly different amongst CaP patients of different ethnicities. The higher number of ERG-expressing tumors among MI patients suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CaP amongst this group of patients. Furthermore, the more frequent expression of ERG among the younger patients analyzed suggested an involvement of ERG in the early onset of CaP. The results of this study underline the value of using ERG status to better understand the differences in the etiology

  6. ERG oncoprotein expression in prostate carcinoma patients of different ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory M; Kong, Yink Heay; Dobi, Albert; Srivastava, Shiv; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Tan, Hui Meng; Tan, Shyh-Han; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy specimens, collected from 120 patients treated at the Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed for ERG protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the anti-ERG monoclonal antibody 9FY as a surrogate for the detection of ERG fusion events. The overall frequency of ERG protein expression in the population evaluated in this study was 39.2%. Although seemingly similar to rates reported in other Asian communities, the expression of ERG was distinct amongst different ethnic groups (P=0.004). Malaysian Indian (MI) patients exhibited exceedingly high expression of ERG in their tumors, almost doubling that of Malaysian Chinese (MC) patients, whereas ERG expression was very low amongst Malay patients (12.5%). When collectively analyzing data, we observed a significant correlation between younger patients and higher ERG expression (P=0.04). The prevalence of ERG expression was significantly different amongst CaP patients of different ethnicities. The higher number of ERG-expressing tumors among MI patients suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CaP amongst this group of patients. Furthermore, the more frequent expression of ERG among the younger patients analyzed suggested an involvement of ERG in the early onset of CaP. The results of this study underline the value of using ERG status to better understand the differences in the etiology

  7. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Action of a Human Papilloma Virus Oncoprotein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: human papilloma virus; cervical cancer; oncoproteins; malignant transformation; retinoblastoma protein; cell cycle; quiescent and cycling cells; cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes; E2F; S-phase genes; enhancer element; proto-oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes; radioactive…

  8. Peptide-DNA conjugates as tailored bivalent binders of the oncoprotein c-Jun.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Elena; Portela, Cecilia; Penas, Cristina; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2015-05-21

    We describe a ds-oligonucleotide-peptide conjugate that is able to efficiently dismount preformed DNA complexes of the bZIP regions of oncoproteins c-Fos and c-Jun (AP-1), and therefore might be useful as disrupters of AP-1-mediated gene expression pathways.

  9. Localization of the adenovirus E1Aa protein, a positive-acting transcriptional factor, in infected cells infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, L T; Nevins, J R

    1983-01-01

    The function of the adenovirus E1Aa protein (the product of the 13S E1A mRNA) during a productive viral infection is to activate transcription of the six early viral transcription units. To study the mechanism of action of this protein, a peptide which was 13 amino acids long and had a sequence unique to the protein product of the adenovirus 13S E1A mRNA (pE1Aa) was coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and used to raise an antibody in rabbits. The resulting antiserum was specific to this protein and did not react with the protein product of the 12S E1A mRNA, which shares considerable sequence with the E1Aa protein. This antiserum was used to probe for the E1Aa protein in situ by indirect immunofluorescence and in extracts of infected HeLa cells. We found that the protein was associated with large cellular structures both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. The nuclear form of the protein was analyzed further and was found to purify with the nuclear matrix. Images PMID:6346057

  10. The adenovirus that causes hemorrhagic disease of black-tailed deer is closely related to bovine adenovirus-3.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, J M; Hedges, J F; Woods, L W; Reubel, G H; MacLachlan, N J

    1999-01-01

    DNA sequence data was obtained from an adenovirus previously shown to be the cause of a distinctive, fatal hemorrhagic disease of black-tailed deer in California. A 256 base fragment of the viral hexon gene was amplified by PCR from purified adenovirus preparations. The amplicon then was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships with other mammalian adenoviruses were also determined. Although sequence analysis of this portion of the hexon gene indicates that the black-tailed deer adenovirus is closely related to bovine adenovirus-3, the biologic properties of the two viruses are clearly distinct.

  11. Identification of human adenovirus early region 1 products by using antisera against synthetic peptides corresponding to the predicted carboxy termini.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, S P; Rowe, D T; Tremblay, M L; McDermott, M; Branton, P E

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic peptides were prepared which corresponded to the carboxy termini of the human adenovirus type 5 early region 1B (E1B) 58,000-molecular-weight (58K) protein (Tyr-Ser-Asp-Glu-Asp-Thr-Asp) and of the E1A gene products (Tyr-Gly-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Pro). Antisera raised against these peptides precipitated polypeptides from adenovirus type 5-infected KB cells; serum raised against the 58K carboxy terminus was active against the E1B 58K phosphoprotein, whereas serum raised against the E1A peptide immunoprecipitated four major and at least two minor polypeptides. These latter proteins migrated with apparent molecular weights of 52K, 50K, 48.5K, 45K, 37.5K, and 35K, and all were phosphoproteins. By using tryptic phosphopeptide analysis, the four major species (52K, 50K, 48.5K, and 45K) were found to be related, as would be expected if all were products of the E1A region. The ability of the antipeptide sera to precipitate these viral proteins thus confirmed that the previously proposed sequence of E1 DNA and mRNA and the reading frame of the mRNA are correct. Immunofluorescent-antibody staining with the antipeptide sera indicated that the 58K E1B protein was localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, especially in the perinuclear region. The E1A-specific serum also stained both discrete patches in the nucleus and diffuse areas of the cytoplasm. These data suggest that both the 58K protein and the E1A proteins may function in or around the nucleus. These highly specific antipeptide sera should allow for a more complete identification and characterization of these important viral proteins. Images PMID:6343626

  12. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  13. Rapid generation of fowl adenovirus 9 vectors.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Griffin, Bryan; de Jong, Jondavid; Krell, Peter J; Nagy, Éva

    2015-10-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdV) have the largest genomes of any fully sequenced adenovirus genome, and are widely considered as excellent platforms for vaccine development and gene therapy. As such, there is a strong need for stream-lined protocols/strategies for the generation of recombinant adenovirus genomes. Current genome engineering strategies rely upon plasmid based homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ5183. This process is time-consuming, involves multiple cloning steps, and low efficiency recombination. This report describes a novel system for the more rapid generation of recombinant fowl adenovirus genomes using the lambda Red recombinase system in E. coli DH10B. In this strategy, PCR based amplicons with around 50 nt long homologous arms, a unique SwaI site and a chloramphenicol resistance gene fragment (CAT cassette), are introduced into the FAdV-9 genome in a highly efficient and site-specific manner. To demonstrate the efficacy of this system we generated FAdV-9 ORF2, and FAdV-9 ORF11 deleted, CAT marked and unmarked FAdV-9 infectious clones (FAdmids), and replaced either ORF2 or ORF11, with an EGFP expression cassette or replaced ORF2 with an EGFP coding sequence via the unique SwaI sites, in approximately one month. All recombinant FAdmids expressed EGFP and were fully infectious in CH-SAH cells. PMID:26238923

  14. Immune response is an important aspect of the antitumor effect produced by a CD40L-encoding oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hirvinen, Mari L M; Escutenaire, Sophie; Ugolini, Matteo; Pesonen, Saila K; Bramante, Simona; Parviainen, Suvi; Kanerva, Anna; Loskog, Angelica S I; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-05-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus is an attractive platform for immunotherapy because virus replication is highly immunogenic and not subject to tolerance. Although oncolysis releases tumor epitopes and provides costimulatory danger signals, arming the virus with immunostimulatory molecules can further improve efficacy. CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) induces apoptosis of tumor cells and triggers several immune mechanisms, including a T-helper type 1 (T(H)1) response, which leads to activation of cytotoxic T cells and reduction of immunosuppression. In this study, we constructed a novel oncolytic adenovirus, Ad5/3-hTERT-E1A-hCD40L, which features a chimeric Ad5/3 capsid for enhanced tumor transduction, a human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter for tumor selectivity, and human CD40L for increased efficacy. Ad5/3-hTERT-E1A-hCD40L significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo via oncolytic and apoptotic effects, and (Ad5/3-hTERT-E1A-hCD40L)-mediated oncolysis resulted in enhanced calreticulin exposure and HMGB1 and ATP release, which were suggestive of immunogenicity. In two syngeneic mouse models, murine CD40L induced recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells, leading to increased interleukin-12 production in splenocytes. This effect was associated with induction of the T(H)1 cytokines IFN-γ, RANTES, and TNF-α. Tumors treated with Ad5/3-CMV-mCD40L also displayed an enhanced presence of macrophages and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells but not B cells. Together, our findings show that adenoviruses coding for CD40L mediate multiple antitumor effects including oncolysis, apoptosis, induction of T-cell responses, and upregulation of T(H)1 cytokines.

  15. Targeting the replication of adenovirus to p53-defective thyroid carcinoma with a p53-regulated Cre/loxP system.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Y; Nishihara, E; Namba, H; Yokoi, H; Hasegawa, M; Mizuguchi, H; Hayakawa, T; Hamada, H; Yamashita, S; Niwa, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we evaluated the feasibility of the restricted replication-competent adenoviruses for treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs), which are very aggressive and difficult to treat. Because ATCs very often harbor p53 mutations, we used wt-p53 as a regulatory factor to restrict virus replication and cytopathic effect to p53-mutated cells. The recently reported "gene inactivation strategy" using p53-regulated Cre/loxP system was employed; this system consists of two recombinant adenoviruses. One has an expression unit of the synthetic p53 - responsive promoter and the Cre recombinase gene (Axyp53RECre), and another contains two expression units; the first consists of E1A gene flanked by a pair of loxP sites downstream of the constitutive CAG promoter and the second E1B19K gene under the control of the CMV promoter (AdCALE1AL). We expected that coinfection of these two adenoviruses into the cells with wt-p53 would lead to expression of the Cre, which excises E1A gene and switches off E1A expression resulting in no virus replication, whereas in the cells with mutant p53 E1A could be expressed that leads to virus replication and cell lysis. Our in vitro data demonstrate that although infection of AdCALE1AL alone led to E1A expression, viral replication and cytolysis in all the thyroid cells examined irrespective of their p53 status, the double infection did so in FRO cells (p53-null ATC) but not in FRO cells stably expressing wt-p53 and normal thyroid cells with wt-p53. These data indicate that our double infection method may have a potential for treatment of ATC and probably also other p53-defective cancer cells. PMID:11219492

  16. Human papillomavirus type 16/18 oncoproteins: potential therapeutic targets in non-smoking associated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Er-Ying; Tang, Xu-Dong

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) especially HPV-16 and HPV-18 types are speculated to be important risk factors in non-smoking associated lung cancer in Asia. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that HPV oncoproteins may contribute to lung tumorigenesis and cell transformation. Importantly, HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins can mediate expression of multiple target genes and proteins, such as p53/pRb, VEGF, HIF-1α, cIAP-2, and hTERT, and contribute to cell proliferation, angiogenesis and cell immortalization through different signaling pathways in lung cancer. This article provides an overview of experiment data on HPV-associated lung cancer, describes the main targets on which HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins act, and further discusses the potential signaling pathways in which HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins are involved. In addition, we also raise questions regarding existing problems with the study of HPV-associated lung cancer.

  17. Titration of serine/arginine (SR) splicing factors during adenoviral infection modulates E1A pre-mRNA alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Himmelspach, M; Cavaloc, Y; Chebli, K; Stévenin, J; Gattoni, R

    1995-10-01

    Alternative splicing of the adenovirus-2 E1A pre-mRNA involves the use of three 5' splice sites and is modulated during infection because the 13S mRNA and 9S mRNA reactions are predominant during the early and late periods, respectively. We had previously reproduced in vitro the 13S to 9S modulation with nuclear extracts isolated from infected HeLa cells and shown that high molecular weight viral RNAs are involved in this modulation, most likely by sequestering or titrating general splicing factors. To further test this hypothesis, we titrated splicing factors from an uninfected nuclear extract using competitor RNA or by progressive inactivation of splicing factors with monoclonal antibodies. We found that the 13S to 9S modulation occurs when titrating only with certain RNAs (essentially adenoviral RNAs), and also by progressively inactivating the 9G8 SR splicing factor. The demonstration that late nuclear extracts contain levels of active SR splicing factors limiting for the 13S reaction has been made by complementation experiments. We show that late nuclear extracts do not complement SR factor-deficient extracts, whereas late extracts treated with micrococcal nuclease complement them. Furthermore, complementation of late nuclear extracts with each of the three 30-35-kDa SR factors (9G8, SC35, and SF2/ASF) restores an efficient 13S mRNA reaction. Thus, our results provide evidence that the 13S to 9S modulation is triggered through a titration of SR factors required for the 13S mRNA reaction by major late transcripts that accumulate in nuclei late in infection.

  18. Adenovirus serotype 5 hexon mediates liver gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Simon N; McVey, John H; Bhella, David; Parker, Alan L; Barker, Kristeen; Atoda, Hideko; Pink, Rebecca; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Greig, Jenny A; Denby, Laura; Custers, Jerome; Morita, Takashi; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Monteiro, Robson Q; Barouch, Dan H; van Rooijen, Nico; Napoli, Claudio; Havenga, Menzo J E; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2008-02-01

    Adenoviruses are used extensively as gene transfer agents, both experimentally and clinically. However, targeting of liver cells by adenoviruses compromises their potential efficacy. In cell culture, the adenovirus serotype 5 fiber protein engages the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) to bind cells. Paradoxically, following intravascular delivery, CAR is not used for liver transduction, implicating alternate pathways. Recently, we demonstrated that coagulation factor (F)X directly binds adenovirus leading to liver infection. Here, we show that FX binds to the Ad5 hexon, not fiber, via an interaction between the FX Gla domain and hypervariable regions of the hexon surface. Binding occurs in multiple human adenovirus serotypes. Liver infection by the FX-Ad5 complex is mediated through a heparin-binding exosite in the FX serine protease domain. This study reveals an unanticipated function for hexon in mediating liver gene transfer in vivo. PMID:18267072

  19. The involvement of MCT-1 oncoprotein in inducing mitotic catastrophe and nuclear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hung-Ju; Chu, Kang-Lin; Wu, Meng-Hsun; Wu, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Wen; Chu, Jan-Show; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Takeuchi, Hideki; Ouchi, Toru; Hsu, Hsin-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Centrosome amplification and chromosome abnormality are frequently identified in neoplasia and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these defects remain unclear. We here identify that MCT-1 is a centrosomal oncoprotein involved in mitosis. Knockdown of MCT-1 protein results in intercellular bridging, chromosome mis-congregation, cytokinesis delay, and mitotic death. Introduction of MCT-1 oncogene into the p53 deficient cells (MCT-1-p53), the mitotic checkpoint kinases and proteins are deregulated synergistically. These biochemical alterations are accompanied with increased frequencies of cytokinesis failure, multi-nucleation, and centrosome amplification in subsequent cell cycle. As a result, the incidences of polyploidy and aneuploidy are progressively induced by prolonged cell cultivation or further promoted by sustained spindle damage on MCT-1-p53 background. These data show that the oncoprotein perturbs centrosome structure and mitotic progression, which provide the molecular aspect of chromsomal abnormality in vitro and the information for understanding the stepwise progression of tumors under oncogenic stress.

  20. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Lizano, Marcela

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  1. Identification of cytotoxic agents disrupting synovial sarcoma oncoprotein interactions by proximity ligation assay

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Aimée N.; Ji, Jennifer X.; Ma, Limin; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Brodin, Bertha A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional cytotoxic therapies for synovial sarcoma provide limited benefit. Drugs specifically targeting the product of its driver translocation are currently unavailable, in part because the SS18-SSX oncoprotein functions via aberrant interactions within multiprotein complexes. Proximity ligation assay is a recently-developed method that assesses protein-protein interactions in situ. Here we report use of the proximity ligation assay to confirm the oncogenic association of SS18-SSX with its co-factor TLE1 in multiple human synovial sarcoma cell lines and in surgically-excised human tumor tissue. SS18-SSX/TLE1 interactions are disrupted by class I HDAC inhibitors and novel small molecule inhibitors. This assay can be applied in a high-throughput format for drug discovery in fusion-oncoprotein associated cancers where key effector partners are known. PMID:27120803

  2. Problem-solving test: The mechanism of action of a human papilloma virus oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Szeberényi, József

    2009-03-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: human papilloma virus; cervical cancer; oncoproteins; malignant transformation; retinoblastoma protein; cell cycle; quiescent and cycling cells; cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes; E2F; S-phase genes; enhancer element; proto-oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes; radioactive labeling; immunoprecipitation; SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; autoradiography; protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation; gene induction; agarose beads; centrifugation; Western blot analysis; phases of cell cycle; generation time.

  3. "Stealth" adenoviruses blunt cell-mediated and humoral immune responses against the virus and allow for significant gene expression upon readministration in the lung.

    PubMed

    Croyle, M A; Chirmule, N; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J M

    2001-05-01

    Most of the early gene therapy trials for cystic fibrosis have been with adenovirus vectors. First-generation viruses with E1a and E1b deleted are limited by transient expression of the transgene and substantial inflammatory responses. Gene transfer is also significantly curtailed following a second dose of virus. In an effort to reduce adenovirus-associated inflammation, capsids of first-generation vectors were modified with various activated monomethoxypolyethylene glycols. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte production was significantly reduced in C57BL/6 mice after a single intratracheal administration of modified vectors, and length of gene expression was extended from 4 to 42 days. T-cell subsets from mice exposed to the conjugated vectors demonstrated a marked decrease in Th1 responses and slight enhancement of Th2 responses compared to animals dosed with native virus. Neutralizing antibodies (NAB) against adenovirus capsid proteins were reduced in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of animals after a single dose of modified virus, allowing significant levels of gene expression upon rechallenge with native adenovirus. Modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) also allowed substantial gene expression from the new vectors in animals previously immunized with unmodified virus. However, gene expression was significantly reduced after two doses of the same PEG-conjugated vector. Alternating the activation group of PEG between doses did produce significant gene expression upon readministration. This technology in combination with second-generation or helper-dependent adenovirus could produce dosing strategies which promote successful readministration of vector in clinical trials and marked expression in patients with significant anti-adenovirus NAB levels and reduce the possibility of immune reactions against viral vectors for gene therapy.

  4. Transductional targeting with recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Valerie; Leissner, Philippe; Winter, Arend; Mehtali, Majid; Lusky, Monika

    2002-09-01

    Replication-deficient adenoviruses are considered as gene delivery vectors for the genetic treatment of a variety of diseases. The ability of such vectors to mediate efficient expression of therapeutic genes in a broad spectrum of dividing and non-dividing cell types constitutes an advantage over alternative gene transfer vectors. However, this broad tissue tropism may also turn disadvantageous when genes encoding potentially harmful proteins (e.g. cytokines, toxic proteins) are expressed in surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, specific restrictions of the viral tropism would represent a significant technological advance towards safer and more efficient gene delivery vectors, in particular for cancer gene therapy applications. In this review, we summarize various strategies used to selectively modify the natural tropism of recombinant adenoviruses. The advantages, limitations and potential impact on gene therapy operations of such modified vectors are discussed. PMID:12189719

  5. Adenovirus type 5 exerts genome-wide control over cellular programs governing proliferation, quiescence, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel L; Myers, Chad L; Rickards, Brenden; Coller, Hilary A; Flint, S Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses, such as serotype 5 (Ad5), encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as those that mediate mRNA production and translation. However, a global view of the effects of Ad5 infection on such programs in normal human cells is not available, despite widespread efforts to develop adenoviruses for therapeutic applications. Results We used two-color hybridization and oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor changes in cellular RNA concentrations as a function of time after Ad5 infection of quiescent, normal human fibroblasts. We observed that the expression of some 2,000 genes, about 10% of those examined, increased or decreased by a factor of two or greater following Ad5 infection, but were not altered in mock-infected cells. Consensus k-means clustering established that the temporal patterns of these changes were unexpectedly complex. Gene Ontology terms associated with cell proliferation were significantly over-represented in several clusters. The results of comparative analyses demonstrate that Ad5 infection induces reversal of the quiescence program and recapitulation of the core serum response, and that only a small subset of the observed changes in cellular gene expression can be ascribed to well characterized functions of the viral E1A and E1B proteins. Conclusion These findings establish that the impact of adenovirus infection on host cell programs is far greater than appreciated hitherto. Furthermore, they provide a new framework for investigating the molecular functions of viral early proteins and information relevant to the design of conditionally replicating adenoviral vectors. PMID:17430596

  6. [Rescue and Amplification of Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 41 in 293 Cells].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Guo, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Min; Lu, Zhuozhuang; Hong, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Human adenovirus type 41 (HAdV-41) is considered to be a "fastidious adenovirus". E1-deleted HAdV-41 cannot be rescued or amplified in 293 cells. To propagate recombinant HAdV-41 in 293 cells, the backbone plasmid pAdbone41 was reconstructed. That is, the E3 coding sequence of HAdV-41 was deleted and replaced with the HAdV-5 E4orf6 gene; and the E1A enhancer of HAdV-5 was inserted upstream of the E4 promoter of HAdV-41. Novel adenoviral plasmid pAd41E4EE-GFP was generated by homologous recombination of the shuttle plasmid pSh41-GFP with the modified backbone plasmid in the Escherichia coli BJ5183 strain. Adenovirus HAdV-41-E4EE-GFP was rescued by transfecting 293 cells with linearized pAd41E4EE-GFP. After seven rounds of propagation, viruses were purified by the CsCl ultracentrifugation method. HAdV-41-E4EE-GFP in 1.0 ml with a particle titer of 8 x 10(10) vp/mL was obtained which had a particle-to-infectious ratio of 50 : 1. The genome of HAdV-41-E4EE-GFP was confirmed by restriction analyses and polymerase chain reaction. These results showed that a novel HAdV-41 vector system was established in which recombinant HAdV-41 could be constructed and packaged in 293 cells. PMID:26738289

  7. Isolation and Characterization of an Equine Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ardans, Alexander A.; Pritchett, Randall F.; Zee, Yuan Chung

    1973-01-01

    A viral agent was isolated from lung tissue obtained upon necropsy of an Arabian foal which had exhibited clinical signs of pneumonia. The virus is 75 nm in diameter, cubic in symmetry, and resistant to chloroform and low pH (3.0). It contains deoxyribonucleic acid and has a buoyant density of 1.31 g/cm3 in cesium chloride. These findings indicate that the virus is a member of the adenovirus group. Images PMID:16558078

  8. Coacervate microspheres as carriers of recombinant adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kalyanasundaram, S; Feinstein, S; Nicholson, J P; Leong, K W; Garver, R I

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic utility of recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) is limited in part by difficulties in directing the viruses to specific sites and by the requirement for bolus administration, both of which limit the efficiency of target tissue infection. As a first step toward overcoming these limitations, rAds were encapsulated in coacervate microspheres comprised of gelatin and alginate followed by stabilization with calcium ions. Ultrastructural evaluation showed that the microspheres formed in this manner were 0.8-10 microM in diameter, with viruses evenly distributed. The microspheres achieved a sustained release of adenovirus with a nominal loss of bioactivity. The pattern of release and the total amount of virus released was modified by changes in microsphere formulation. Administration of the adenovirus-containing microspheres to human tumor nodules engrafted in mice showed that the viral transgene was transferred to the tumor cells. It is concluded that coacervate microspheres can be used to encapsulate bioactive rAd and release it in a time-dependent manner.

  9. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  10. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  11. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    DOE PAGES

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  12. 11 CFR 300.61 - Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)). No person described in 11 CFR 300.60 shall solicit, receive, direct... any Federal election activity as defined in 11 CFR 100.24, unless the amounts consist of Federal funds... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A))....

  13. HPV16 Oncoproteins Promote Cervical Cancer Invasiveness by Upregulating Specific Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Kaewprag, Jittranan; Umnajvijit, Wareerat; Ngamkham, Jarunya; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose

    2013-01-01

    Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for degradation of extracellular matrix is a vital step in cancer metastasis. We investigated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins (16E6, 16E6*I and 16E7), either individually or combined, on the transcription of 7 MMPs implicated in cervical cancer invasiveness. The levels of 7 MMPs reported to be increased in cervical cancer were determined in C33A stably expressing different HPV16 oncoproteins using quantitative RT-PCR and compared with invasion ability of cell lines using in vitro invasion and wound healing assays. Overexpression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP was detected in HPV16E6E7 expressing cells which correlated with increased cell invasion. Combination of HPV oncoproteins always showed greater effects than its individual form. Inhibition of cell invasion using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor, OA-Hy, and anti-MT1-MMP antibody confirmed that invasion in these cells was dependent on both MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. Depletion of HPV16E6E7 by shRNA-mediated knock-down experiments resulted in decreased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression levels as well as reduced invasion ability which strongly suggested specific effects of HPV oncoproteins on both MMPs and on cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry study in invasive cervical cancers confirmed the enhanced in vivo expression of these two MMPs in HPV16-infected cells. In addition, possible sites required by HPV16E6E7 on the MMP-2 and MT1-MMP promoters were investigated and PEA3 (at −552/−540 for MMP-2, −303 for MT1-MMP) and Sp1 (at −91 for MMP-2, −102 for MT1-MMP) binding sites were shown to be essential for mediating their transactivation activity. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HPV16E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate in promoting cervical cancer invasiveness by specifically upregulating MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcription in a similar manner. PMID:23967226

  14. HPV16 oncoproteins promote cervical cancer invasiveness by upregulating specific matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Kaewprag, Jittranan; Umnajvijit, Wareerat; Ngamkham, Jarunya; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose

    2013-01-01

    Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for degradation of extracellular matrix is a vital step in cancer metastasis. We investigated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins (16E6, 16E6*I and 16E7), either individually or combined, on the transcription of 7 MMPs implicated in cervical cancer invasiveness. The levels of 7 MMPs reported to be increased in cervical cancer were determined in C33A stably expressing different HPV16 oncoproteins using quantitative RT-PCR and compared with invasion ability of cell lines using in vitro invasion and wound healing assays. Overexpression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP was detected in HPV16E6E7 expressing cells which correlated with increased cell invasion. Combination of HPV oncoproteins always showed greater effects than its individual form. Inhibition of cell invasion using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor, OA-Hy, and anti-MT1-MMP antibody confirmed that invasion in these cells was dependent on both MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. Depletion of HPV16E6E7 by shRNA-mediated knock-down experiments resulted in decreased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression levels as well as reduced invasion ability which strongly suggested specific effects of HPV oncoproteins on both MMPs and on cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry study in invasive cervical cancers confirmed the enhanced in vivo expression of these two MMPs in HPV16-infected cells. In addition, possible sites required by HPV16E6E7 on the MMP-2 and MT1-MMP promoters were investigated and PEA3 (at -552/-540 for MMP-2, -303 for MT1-MMP) and Sp1 (at -91 for MMP-2, -102 for MT1-MMP) binding sites were shown to be essential for mediating their transactivation activity. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HPV16E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate in promoting cervical cancer invasiveness by specifically upregulating MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcription in a similar manner.

  15. High-level eucaryotic in vivo expression of biologically active measles virus hemagglutinin by using an adenovirus type 5 helper-free vector system.

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, G; Briedis, D J

    1988-01-01

    The entire measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (HA)-coding region was reconstructed from cloned cDNAs and used as part of a hybrid transcription unit to replace a region of the adenovirus type 5 genome corresponding to the entire E1a transcription unit and most of the E1b transcription unit. The resulting recombinant virus was stable and able to replicate to high titers in 293 cells (which constitutively express the complementary E1a-E1b functions) in the absence of helper virus. During infection of 293 cells, the hybrid virus expressed MV HA protein which was indistinguishable from that expressed in MV-infected cells in terms of immunoreactivity, gel mobility, glycosylation, subcellular localization, and biologic activity. Infection of 293 cells with the hybrid virus led to high-level synthesis of the MV HA protein (equivalent to 65 to 130% of the level seen in MV-infected cells). At late times after high-multiplicity hybrid virus infection of HeLa and Vero cells (which do not express E1 functions), the level of HA protein synthesis was at least 35% of that seen in 293 cells. This MV-adenovirus recombinant will be useful in the study of the biologic properties of the MV HA protein and in assessment of the potential usefulness of hybrid adenoviruses as live-virus vaccine vectors. Images PMID:3292790

  16. Adenovirus transcriptional regulatory regions are conserved in mammalian cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kornuc, M; Altman, R; Harrich, D; Garcia, J; Chao, J; Kayne, P; Gaynor, R

    1988-01-01

    The adenovirus early region 3 (E3) promoter is an early viral promoter which is strongly induced by the adenovirus transactivator protein E1A. DNase I footprinting with HeLa cell extracts has identified four factor-binding domains which appear to be involved in basal and E1A-induced transcriptional regulation. These binding domains may bind TATA region-binding factors (site I), the CREB/ATF protein (site II), the AP-1 protein (site III), and nuclear factor I/CTF (site IV). Recently, it has been shown that the DNA-binding domain of transcription factor AP-1 has homology with the yeast transcription factor GCN4 and that the yeast transactivator protein GAL4 is able to stimulate transcription in HeLa cells from promoters containing GAL4-binding sites. These results suggest an evolutionary conservation of both transcription factors and the mechanisms responsible for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eucaryotic organisms. To determine whether similar patterns of transcriptional regulation were seen with the E3 promoter in HeLa and yeast cells, the E3 promoter fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid and stably introduced into yeast cells. S1 analysis revealed that similar E3 promoter mRNA start sites were found in yeast and HeLa cells. DNase I footprinting with partially purified yeast extracts revealed that four regions of the E3 promoter were protected. Several of these regions were similar to binding sites determined by using HeLa cell extracts. Oligonucleotide mutagenesis of these binding domains indicated their importance in the transcriptional regulation of the E3 promoter in yeast cells. These results suggest that similar cellular transcription factor-binding sites may be involved in the regulation of promoters in both yeast and mammalian cells. Images PMID:2975753

  17. Adenovirus transcriptional regulatory regions are conserved in mammalian cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kornuc, M; Altman, R; Harrich, D; Garcia, J; Chao, J; Kayne, P; Gaynor, R

    1988-09-01

    The adenovirus early region 3 (E3) promoter is an early viral promoter which is strongly induced by the adenovirus transactivator protein E1A. DNase I footprinting with HeLa cell extracts has identified four factor-binding domains which appear to be involved in basal and E1A-induced transcriptional regulation. These binding domains may bind TATA region-binding factors (site I), the CREB/ATF protein (site II), the AP-1 protein (site III), and nuclear factor I/CTF (site IV). Recently, it has been shown that the DNA-binding domain of transcription factor AP-1 has homology with the yeast transcription factor GCN4 and that the yeast transactivator protein GAL4 is able to stimulate transcription in HeLa cells from promoters containing GAL4-binding sites. These results suggest an evolutionary conservation of both transcription factors and the mechanisms responsible for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eucaryotic organisms. To determine whether similar patterns of transcriptional regulation were seen with the E3 promoter in HeLa and yeast cells, the E3 promoter fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid and stably introduced into yeast cells. S1 analysis revealed that similar E3 promoter mRNA start sites were found in yeast and HeLa cells. DNase I footprinting with partially purified yeast extracts revealed that four regions of the E3 promoter were protected. Several of these regions were similar to binding sites determined by using HeLa cell extracts. Oligonucleotide mutagenesis of these binding domains indicated their importance in the transcriptional regulation of the E3 promoter in yeast cells. These results suggest that similar cellular transcription factor-binding sites may be involved in the regulation of promoters in both yeast and mammalian cells.

  18. Growth factor(s) produced during infection with an adenovirus variant stimulates proliferation of nonestablished epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, M P; Sullivan, N; Grodzicker, T

    1987-05-01

    Infection of primary baby rat kidney cells with an adenovirus variant that encodes only the 12S gene of the E1A region, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) 12S, results in the production of a growth factor that stimulates primary epithelial cells to proliferate. Increased epithelial cell DNA synthesis and proliferation is detectable between 24 and 36 hr after the addition of conditioned medium from Ad5 12S infected cells and not from cells infected with an E1A deletion mutant virus, Ad5 dl312. This mitogenic factor(s) is effective in the absence of serum and can override the inhibitory effect of serum on primary epithelial cells. Furthermore, there is a requirement for the continued presence of the growth factor(s) in the Ad5 12S conditioned medium to maintain epithelial cell proliferation, and the conditioned medium can maintain these cells in a proliferative state for at least 6 wk. The stimulatory activity in Ad5 12S conditioned medium is associated with large molecular weight complexes, from which it can be released by 4 M NaCl. Several characteristics of the growth factor(s) indicate that it is a unique mitogen for epithelial cells. PMID:2953026

  19. Combination effect of oncolytic adenovirus therapy and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir in hepatic carcinoma animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei-qun; Xu, Yin; Yang, Ren-jie; Wu, Bin; Tan, Xiao-hua; Qin, Yi-de; Zhang, Qun-wei

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Oncolytic adenovirus, also called conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD), can selectively propagate in tumor cells and cause cell lysis. The released viral progeny can infect neighboring cancer cells, initiating a cascade that can lead to the ultimate destruction of the tumor. Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) offers a potential treatment strategy for cancer and is undergoing preclinical trials for a variety of tumors. We hypothesized that HSV-TK gene therapy combined with oncolytic adenoviral therapy would have an enhanced effect compared with the individual effects of the therapies and is a potential novel therapeutic strategy to treat liver cancer. Methods: To address our hypothesis, a novel CRAD was created, which consisted of a telomerase-dependent oncolytic adenovirus engineered to express E1A and HSV-TK genes (Ad-ETK). The combined effect of Ad-ETK and GCV was assessed both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice bearing HepG2 cell-derived tumors. Expression of the therapeutic genes by the transduced tumor cells was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: We confirmed that Ad-ETK had antitumorigenic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) both in vitro and in vivo, and the TK/GCV system enhanced oncolytic adenoviral therapy. We confirmed that both E1A and HSV-TK genes were expressed in vivo. Conclusion: The Ad-ETK construct should provide a relatively safe and selective approach to killing cancer cells and should be investigated as an adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:19363518

  20. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs.

  1. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    PubMed

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs. PMID:26026665

  2. Capturing and concentrating adenovirus using magnetic anionic nanobeads.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated how various enveloped viruses can be efficiently concentrated using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the virus particles and anionic beads remains unclear. To further investigate whether these magnetic anionic beads specifically bind to the viral envelope, we examined their potential interaction with a nonenveloped virus (adenovirus). The beads were incubated with either adenovirus-infected cell culture medium or nasal aspirates from adenovirus-infected individuals and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thoroughly washing the beads, adsorption of adenovirus was confirmed by a variety of techniques, including immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and cell culture infection assays. These detection methods positively identified the hexon and penton capsid proteins of adenovirus along with the viral genome on the magnetic beads. Furthermore, various types of adenovirus including Types 5, 6, 11, 19, and 41 were captured using the magnetic bead procedure. Our bead capture method was also found to increase the sensitivity of viral detection. Adenovirus below the detectable limit for immunochromatography was efficiently concentrated using the magnetic bead procedure, allowing the virus to be successfully detected using this methodology. Moreover, these findings clearly demonstrate that a viral envelope is not required for binding to the anionic magnetic beads. Taken together, our results show that this capture procedure increases the sensitivity of detection of adenovirus and would, therefore, be a valuable tool for analyzing both clinical and experimental samples.

  3. Capturing and concentrating adenovirus using magnetic anionic nanobeads

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated how various enveloped viruses can be efficiently concentrated using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the virus particles and anionic beads remains unclear. To further investigate whether these magnetic anionic beads specifically bind to the viral envelope, we examined their potential interaction with a nonenveloped virus (adenovirus). The beads were incubated with either adenovirus-infected cell culture medium or nasal aspirates from adenovirus-infected individuals and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thoroughly washing the beads, adsorption of adenovirus was confirmed by a variety of techniques, including immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and cell culture infection assays. These detection methods positively identified the hexon and penton capsid proteins of adenovirus along with the viral genome on the magnetic beads. Furthermore, various types of adenovirus including Types 5, 6, 11, 19, and 41 were captured using the magnetic bead procedure. Our bead capture method was also found to increase the sensitivity of viral detection. Adenovirus below the detectable limit for immunochromatography was efficiently concentrated using the magnetic bead procedure, allowing the virus to be successfully detected using this methodology. Moreover, these findings clearly demonstrate that a viral envelope is not required for binding to the anionic magnetic beads. Taken together, our results show that this capture procedure increases the sensitivity of detection of adenovirus and would, therefore, be a valuable tool for analyzing both clinical and experimental samples. PMID:27274228

  4. A Novel Adenovirus in Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins. PMID:24811321

  5. A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-05-07

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  6. Synthesis in Escherichia coli of human adenovirus type 12 transforming proteins encoded by early region 1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kimelman, D; Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Symington, J S; Ptashne, M; Green, M

    1984-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad)-encoded early region 1A (E1A) tumor (T) antigens have been implicated in the positive regulation of viral early genes, the positive and negative regulation of some cellular genes, and cell immortalization and transformation. To further study the Ad E1A T antigens and to facilitate their purification, we have cloned cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA downstream of a hybrid Escherichia coli trp-lac (tac) promoter. Up to 8% of the protein synthesized in E. coli cells transformed by each of the two different Ad12 E1A cDNA constructs were immunoprecipitated as a Mr 47,000 protein by antibody to a synthetic peptide encoded in the Ad12 E1A DNA sequence. Both proteins produced in E. coli appear to be authentic and complete Ad12 E1A T antigens because they possess (i) the Ad12 E1A NH2-terminal amino acid sequence predicted from the DNA sequence; (ii) the Ad12 E1A COOH-terminal sequence, as shown by immunoprecipitation with anti-peptide antibody; and (iii) a molecular weight and an acidic isoelectric point similar to that of the E1A T antigens synthesized in Ad12-infected and transformed mammalian cells. The T antigens were purified to near homogeneity in yields of 100-200 micrograms per g wet weight of transformed E. coli cells. Images PMID:6387701

  7. Inhibitory effect of Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying P53 gene against gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Sun, Bin; An, Ni; Tan, Weifeng; Cao, Lu; Luo, Xiangji; Yu, Yong; Feng, Feiling; Li, Bin; Wu, Mengchao; Su, Changqing; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2011-12-01

    Gene therapy has become an important strategy for treatment of malignancies, but problems remains concerning the low gene transferring efficiency, poor transgene expression and limited targeting specific tumors, which have greatly hampered the clinical application of tumor gene therapy. Gallbladder cancer is characterized by rapid progress, poor prognosis, and aberrantly high expression of Survivin. In the present study, we used a human tumor-specific Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus vector carrying P53 gene, whose anti-cancer effect has been widely confirmed, to construct a wide spectrum, specific, safe, effective gene-viral therapy system, AdSurp-P53. Examining expression of enhanced green fluorecent protein (EGFP), E1A and the target gene P53 in the oncolytic adenovirus system validated that Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus had high proliferation activity and high P53 expression in Survivin-positive gallbladder cancer cells. Our in vitro cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that AdSurp-P53 possessed a stronger cytotoxic effect against gallbladder cancer cells and hepatic cancer cells. The survival rate of EH-GB1 cells was lower than 40% after infection of AdSurp-P53 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) = 1 pfu/cell, while the rate was higher than 90% after infection of Ad-P53 at the same MOI, demonstrating that AdSurp-P53 has a potent cytotoxicity against EH-GB1 cells. The tumor growth was greatly inhibited in nude mice bearing EH-GB1 xenografts when the total dose of AdSurp-P53 was 1 × 10(9) pfu, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) revealed that the apoptotic rate of cancer cells was (33.4 ± 8.4)%. This oncolytic adenovirus system overcomes the long-standing shortcomings of gene therapy: poor transgene expression and targeting of only specific tumors, with its therapeutic effect better than the traditional Ad-P53 therapy regimen already on market; our system might be used for patients with advanced gallbladder cancer and

  8. Experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in yearling black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Burd, M; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

    1997-10-01

    An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. Six black-tailed yearling deer (O. hemionus columbianus) were inoculated with purified adenovirus isolated from a black-tailed fawn that died of acute adenovirus hemorrhagic disease during the epizootic. Three of six inoculated deer also received intramuscular injections of dexamethasone sodium phosphate every 3 days during the study. Eight days post-inoculation, one deer (without dexamethasone) developed bloody diarrhea and died. Necropsy and histopathologic findings were identical to lesions in free-ranging animals that died of the natural disease. Hemorrhagic enteropathy and pulmonary edema were the significant necropsy findings and there was microscopic vascular damage and endothelial intranuclear inclusion bodies in the vessels of the intestines and lungs. Adenovirus was identified in necrotic endothelial cells in the lungs by fluorescent antibody staining, immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. Adenovirus was reisolated from tissues of the animal that died of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. Similar gross and microscopic lesions were absent in four of six adenovirus-inoculated deer and in the negative control animal which were necropsied at variable intervals during the 14 wk study. One deer was inoculated with purified adenovirus a second time, 12 wk after the first inoculation. Fifteen days after the second inoculation, this deer developed severe ulceration of the tongue, pharynx and rumen and necrotizing osteomyelitis of the mandible which was associated with

  9. [RNA extraction, in vitro translation and two-dimensional analysis of oncoproteins in cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts].

    PubMed

    Bessède, J P; Najid, A; Coignoux, Y; Sauvage, J P; Rigaud, M

    1992-01-01

    After a review of the literature concerning oncogenes expression of in head and neck carcinomas, the authors studied RAN extraction, in vitro transduction and two dimensional analysis of oncoproteins in head and neck carcinomas. The results between the tumoral tissue and normal tissue were compared significantly more oncoproteins spots were found in the tumoral tissue analysis.

  10. Neutralization of adenoviruses: kinetics, stoichiometry, and mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfart, C

    1988-01-01

    Kinetic curves for neutralization of adenovirus type 2 with anti-hexon serum revealed no lag periods even when the serum was highly diluted or when the temperature was lowered to 4 degrees C, thus indicating a single-hit mechanism. Multiplicity curves determined with anti-hexon serum displayed a linear correlation between the degree of neutralization and dilution of antiserum. Neutralization values experimentally obtained under steady-state conditions fully fitted a single-hit model based on Poisson calculations. Quantitation of the amount of 125I-labeled type-specific anti-hexon antibodies needed for full neutralization of adenovirus showed that 1.4 antibodies were attached per virion under such conditions. Virions already attached to HeLa cells at 4 degrees C were, to a large extent, neutralizable by anti-hexon serum, whereas anti-fiber and anti-penton base antisera were negative. It is suggested that adenovirus may be neutralized by two pathways: aggregation of the virions (extracellular neutralization) as performed by anti-fiber antibodies and blocking of virion entrance from the acidic endosomes into the cytoplasm (intracellular neutralization). The latter effect could be obtained by (i) covering of the penton bases, as performed by anti-penton base antibodies, thereby preventing interaction between the penton bases and the endosomal membrane, which results in trapping of virions within endosomes, and (ii) inhibition of the low-pH-induced conformational change of the viral capsid, which seems to occur in the endosomes and is necessary for proper exposure of the penton bases, as performed by anti-hexon antibodies. Images PMID:3373570

  11. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-08-11

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  12. Expression and in Silico analysis of the recombinant bovine papillomavirus E6 protein as a model for viral oncoproteins studies.

    PubMed

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Carvalho, R F; Ruiz, R M; Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Carvalho, E; Thompson, C E; Sircili, M P; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins.

  13. Adenovirus-based genetic vaccines for biodefense.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Julie L; Kobinger, Gary; Wilson, James M; Crystal, Ronald G

    2005-02-01

    The robust host responses elicited against transgenes encoded by (E1-)(E3-) adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors can be used to develop Ad-based vectors as platform technologies for vaccines against potential bioterror pathogens. This review focuses on pathogens of major concern as bioterror agents and why Ad vectors are ideal as anti-bioterror vaccine platforms, providing examples from our laboratories of using Ad vectors as vaccines against potential bioterror pathogens and how Ad vectors can be developed to enhance vaccine efficacy in the bioterror war.

  14. PEGylated Adenoviruses: From Mice to Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wonganan, Piyanuch; Croyle, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Covalent modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a non-toxic polymer used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for over 60 years, can profoundly influence the pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and toxciologic profile of protein and peptide-based therapeutics. This review summarizes the history of PEGylation and PEG chemistry and highlights the value of this technology in the context of the design and development of recombinant viruses for gene transfer, vaccination and diagnostic purposes. Specific emphasis is placed on the application of this technology to the adenovirus, the most potent viral vector with the most highly characterized toxicity profile to date, in several animal models. PMID:21994645

  15. Plasma Asp13-Ki-ras oncoprotein expression in vinyl chloride monomer workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Luo, J C; Liu, H T; Cheng, T J; Du, C L; Wang, J D

    1998-12-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) workers are known to be at risk for development of liver angiosarcoma, a rare tumor. Previously, more than 80% of VC workers with liver angiosarcoma have been found to have an Asp-13 c-Ki-ras oncogene mutation, and more than 50% of VC-exposed workers without liver tumors were found to have Asp13-Ki-ras oncoprotein in their plasma. Some workers in Taiwan had also been exposed to VC, and some have contracted liver tumors. In this study, we used enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting to detect Asp13-p21-Ki-ras in the sera of VC-exposed workers in Taiwan. There were 14 of 113 (12.4%) VC workers positive for the Asp13-Ki-ras oncoprotein in plasma, but 0 of 18 controls were positive. There were 10 of 69 (14.5%) plasma-positives among the more highly exposed (> 1000 ppm-months) workers and 4 of 48 (9.1%) plasma-positives among the lesser exposed (< or = 1000 ppm-months). Compared with the unexposed controls, the odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) for plasma-positivity were 4.11 (95% CI = 0.21, 80.4) in the lower-exposed workers and 6.53 (95% CI = 0.37, 116.9) in the higher-exposed workers, and there was a linear trend between exposure and plasma-positivity (P = 0.073). After adjusting for age and drinking status, the odds ratios (and 95% CIs) were 1.64 (95% CI = 0.17, 15.8), and 2.65 (95% CI = 0.42, 16.8), respectively, and there was a significant linear trend between exposure and plasma-positivity (P = 0.048). In summary, Asp13-Ki-ras oncoprotein can be found in the plasma of VC workers in Taiwan, and a significant dose-response relationship exists between plasma oncoprotein expression and VC exposure.

  16. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2004-05-18

    Disclosed is a mutant adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have significantly weakened binding affinity for CARD1 relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type. In the method, residues of the adenovirus fiber protein knob domain which are predicted to alter D1 binding when mutated, are identified from the crystal structure coordinates of the AD12knob:CAR-D1 complex. A mutation which alters one or more of the identified residues is introduced into the genome of the adenovirus to generate a mutant adenovirus. Whether or not the mutant produced exhibits altered adenovirus-CAR binding properties is then determined.

  17. Isolation and Epidemiology of Falcon Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Schrenzel, Mark; Rideout, Bruce; Sandfort, Cal

    2005-01-01

    An adenovirus was detected by electron microscopy in tissues from falcons that died during an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis and enteritis that affected neonatal Northern aplomado (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) and peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum) falcons. Molecular characterization has identified the falcon virus as a new member of the aviadenovirus group (M. Schrenzel, J. L. Oaks, D. Rotstein, G. Maalouf, E. Snook, C. Sandfort, and B. Rideout, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:3402-3413, 2005). In this study, the virus was successfully isolated and propagated in peregrine falcon embryo fibroblasts, in which it caused visible and reproducible cytopathology. Testing for serum neutralizing antibodies found that infection with this virus was limited almost exclusively to falcons. Serology also found that wild and captive peregrine falcons had high seropositivity rates of 80% and 100%, respectively, although clinical disease was rarely reported in this species. These data implicate peregrine falcons as the natural host and primary reservoir for the virus. Other species of North American falcons, including aplomado falcons, had lower seropositivity rates of 43 to 57%. Falcon species of tropical and/or island origin were uniformly seronegative, although deaths among adults of these species have been described, suggesting they are highly susceptible. Chickens and quail were uniformly seronegative and not susceptible to infection, indicating that fowl were not the source of infection. Based on the information from this study, the primary control of falcon adenovirus infections should be based on segregation of carrier and susceptible falcon species. PMID:16000467

  18. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a mutant CAR-DI-binding adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have a significantly weakened binding affinity for CAR-DI relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type.

  19. Biosynthesis of adenovirus type 2 i-leader protein.

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J S; Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Virtanen, A; Pettersson, U; Green, M

    1986-01-01

    The i-leader is a 440-base-pair sequence located between 21.8 and 23.0 map units on the adenovirus type 2 genome and is spliced between the second and third segments of the major tripartite leader in certain viral mRNA molecules. The i-leader contains an open translational reading frame for a hypothetical protein of Mr about 16,600, and a 16,000-Mr polypeptide (16K protein) has been translated in vitro on mRNA selected with DNA containing the i-leader (A. Virtanen, P. Aleström, H. Persson, M. G. Katze, and U. Pettersson, Nucleic Acids Res. 10:2539-2548, 1982). To determine whether the i-leader protein is synthesized during productive infection and to provide an immunological reagent to study the properties and functions of the i-leader protein, we prepared antipeptide antibodies directed to a 16-amino acid synthetic peptide which is encoded near the N terminus of the hypothetical i-leader protein and contains a high acidic amino acid and proline content. Antipeptide antibodies immunoprecipitated from extracts of adenovirus type 2-infected cells a major 16K protein that comigrated with a 16K protein translated in vitro. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis by Edman degradation of radiolabeled 16K antigen showed that methionine is present at residue 1 and leucine is present at residues 8 and 10, as predicted from the DNA sequence, establishing that the 16K protein precipitated by this antibody is indeed the i-leader protein. Thus, the i-leader protein is a prominent species that is synthesized during productive infection. The i-leader protein is often seen as a doublet on polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that either two related forms of i-leader protein are synthesized in infected cells or that a posttranslational modification occurs. Time course studies using immunoprecipitation analysis with antipeptide antibodies revealed that the E1A 289R T antigen and the E1B-19K (175R) T antigen are synthesized beginning at 2 to 3 and 4 to 5 h postinfection

  20. Identification and characterization of small molecule antagonists of pRb inactivation by viral oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fera, Daniela; Schultz, David C; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Reichman, Melvin; Donover, Preston Scott; Melvin, Jason; Troutman, Scott; Kissil, Joseph L; Huryn, Donna M; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2012-04-20

    The retinoblastoma protein pRb is essential for regulating many cellular activities through its binding and inhibition of E2F transcription activators, and pRb inactivation leads to many cancers. pRb activity can be perturbed by viral oncoproteins including human papillomavirus (HPV) that share an LxCxE motif. Because there are no treatments for existing HPV infection leading to nearly all cervical cancers and other cancers to a lesser extent, we screened for compounds that inhibit the ability of HPV-E7 to disrupt pRb/E2F complexes. This lead to the identification of thiadiazolidinedione compounds that bind to pRb with mid-high nanomolar dissociation constants, are competitive with the binding of viral oncoproteins containing an LxCxE motif, and are selectively cytotoxic in HPV-positive cells alone and in mice. These inhibitors provide a promising scaffold for the development of therapies to treat HPV-mediated pathologies.

  1. Elucidating Molecular Interactions of Natural Inhibitors with HPV-16 E6 Oncoprotein through Docking Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Galande, Sneha; Daf, Sangeeta; Mohod, Kanchan; Varma, Ashok K

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The life-threatening infection caused by HPV demands the need for designing anticancerous drugs. In the recent years, different compounds from natural origins, such as carrageenan, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, indole-3-carbinol, jaceosidin, and withaferin, have been used as a hopeful source of anticancer therapy. These compounds have been shown to suppress HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural inhibitors against E6 oncoprotein of high-risk HPV-16, which is known to inactivate the p53 tumor suppressor protein. A robust homology model of HPV-16 E6 was built to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with natural inhibitory molecules using a structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural compounds with the p53-binding site of E6 protein residues 113-122 (CQKPLCPEEK) and helped the restoration of p53 functioning. Docking analysis, besides helping in silico validation of natural compounds, also helps understand molecular mechanisms of protein-ligand interactions.

  2. Elucidating Molecular Interactions of Natural Inhibitors with HPV-16 E6 Oncoprotein through Docking Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Lingaraja; Galande, Sneha; Daf, Sangeeta; Mohod, Kanchan; Varma, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The life-threatening infection caused by HPV demands the need for designing anticancerous drugs. In the recent years, different compounds from natural origins, such as carrageenan, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, indole-3-carbinol, jaceosidin, and withaferin, have been used as a hopeful source of anticancer therapy. These compounds have been shown to suppress HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural inhibitors against E6 oncoprotein of high-risk HPV-16, which is known to inactivate the p53 tumor suppressor protein. A robust homology model of HPV-16 E6 was built to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with natural inhibitory molecules using a structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural compounds with the p53-binding site of E6 protein residues 113-122 (CQKPLCPEEK) and helped the restoration of p53 functioning. Docking analysis, besides helping in silico validation of natural compounds, also helps understand molecular mechanisms of protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25031569

  3. Clinicopathological correlation of Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in oral precancer and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Vandana; Singh, Subash; Daniel, M. Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes such as Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 genes. It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of this oncoprotein can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Aims and objectives An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer. Materials and methods A selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination was correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein was performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin method. To visualize the reaction, 3,3-diaminobenzidine was used. Results Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66%, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00%), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33%), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33%)] oral cancer cases and 14 [87.50%, low expression 8 (50%), moderate expression 6 (37.50%)] precancer cases. Conclusion On the basis of the results of our study, we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. PMID:26937364

  4. Characterization of a transcriptional promoter of human papillomavirus 18 and modulation of its expression by simian virus 40 and adenovirus early antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Thierry, F.; Heard, J.M.; Dartmann, K.; Yaniv, M.

    1987-01-01

    RNA present in cells derived from cervical carcinoma that contained human papillomavirus 18 genomes was initiated in the 1.053-kilobase BamHI fragment that covered the complete noncoding region of this virus. When cloned upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, this viral fragment directed the expression of the bacterial enzyme only in the sense orientation. Initiation sites were mapped around the ATG of open reading frame E6. This promoter was active in some human and simian cell lines, and its expression was modulated positively by simian virus 40 large T antigen and negatively by adenovirus type 5 E1a antigen.

  5. Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor.

    PubMed

    Law, Lane K; Davidson, Beverly L

    2002-01-01

    Prior work by members of our laboratory and others demonstrated that adenovirus serotype 30 (Ad30), a group D adenovirus, exhibited novel transduction characteristics compared to those of serotype 5 (Ad5, belonging to group C). While some serotype D adenoviruses bind to the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), the ability of Ad30 fiber to bind CAR is unknown. We amplified and purified Ad30 and cloned the Ad30 fiber by overlap PCR. Alignment of Ad30 fiber with Ad3, Ad35, Ad5, Ad9, and Ad17 revealed that Ad30, like Ad9 and Ad17, has a shortened fiber sequence relative to that of Ad5. The knob region of fiber was 45% identical to that of the Ad5 knob regions. We made a chimeric recombinant virus (Ad5GFPf30) in which the Ad5 fiber (amino acids [aa]47 to 582) was replaced with Ad30 fiber sequences (aa 46 to 372), and CAR-mediated viral entry was determined on CAR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. While CAR expression significantly increased Ad5GFP-mediated transduction in CHO cells (from 1 to 36%), it did not enhance Ad5GFPf30 gene transfer. Binding of radiolabeled Ad5GFPf30 or Ad30 wild-type virus was also not improved by the expression of CAR. These results suggest that Ad30 fiber is distinct from Ad5, Ad9, and Ad17 fibers in its inability to direct transduction via CAR. PMID:11752156

  6. Switching a replication-defective adenoviral vector into a replication-competent, oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The adenovirus immediate early gene E1A initiates the program of viral gene transcription and reprograms multiple aspects of cell function and behavior. For adenoviral (Ad) vector-mediated gene transfer and therapy approaches, where replication-defective (RD) gene transfer is required, E1A has thus been the primary target for deletions. For oncolytic gene therapy for cancer, where replication-competent (RC) Ad viral gene expression is needed, E1A has been either mutated or placed under tumor-specific transcriptional control. A novel Ad vector that initially infected target tumor cells in an RD manner for transgene expression but that could be "switched" into an RC, oncolytic state when needed might represent an advance in vector technology. Here, we report that we designed such an Ad vector (proAdΔ24.GFP), where initial Ad replication is silenced by a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene that blocks cytomegalovirus (CMV)-mediated transcription of E1A. This vector functions as a bona fide E1A-deleted RD vector in infected tumor cells. However, because the silencing GFP transgene is flanked by FLP recombination target (FRT) sites, we show that it can be efficiently excised by Flp recombinase site-specific recombination, either when Flp is expressed constitutively in cells or when it is provided in trans by coinfection with a second RD herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon vector. This switches the RD Ad, proAdΔ24.GFP, into a fully RC, oncolytic Ad (rAdΔ24) that lyses tumor cells in culture and generates oncolytic progeny virions. In vivo, coinfection of established flank tumors with the RD proAdΔ24.GFP and the RD Flp-bearing HSV1 amplicon leads to generation of RC, oncolytic rAdΔ24. In an orthotopic human glioma xenograft tumor model, coinjection of the RD proAdΔ24.GFP and the RD Flp-bearing HSV1 amplicon also led to a significant increase in animal survival, compared to controls. Therefore, Flp-FRT site-specific recombination can be applied to switch RD Ad

  7. Switching a replication-defective adenoviral vector into a replication-competent, oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The adenovirus immediate early gene E1A initiates the program of viral gene transcription and reprograms multiple aspects of cell function and behavior. For adenoviral (Ad) vector-mediated gene transfer and therapy approaches, where replication-defective (RD) gene transfer is required, E1A has thus been the primary target for deletions. For oncolytic gene therapy for cancer, where replication-competent (RC) Ad viral gene expression is needed, E1A has been either mutated or placed under tumor-specific transcriptional control. A novel Ad vector that initially infected target tumor cells in an RD manner for transgene expression but that could be "switched" into an RC, oncolytic state when needed might represent an advance in vector technology. Here, we report that we designed such an Ad vector (proAdΔ24.GFP), where initial Ad replication is silenced by a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene that blocks cytomegalovirus (CMV)-mediated transcription of E1A. This vector functions as a bona fide E1A-deleted RD vector in infected tumor cells. However, because the silencing GFP transgene is flanked by FLP recombination target (FRT) sites, we show that it can be efficiently excised by Flp recombinase site-specific recombination, either when Flp is expressed constitutively in cells or when it is provided in trans by coinfection with a second RD herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon vector. This switches the RD Ad, proAdΔ24.GFP, into a fully RC, oncolytic Ad (rAdΔ24) that lyses tumor cells in culture and generates oncolytic progeny virions. In vivo, coinfection of established flank tumors with the RD proAdΔ24.GFP and the RD Flp-bearing HSV1 amplicon leads to generation of RC, oncolytic rAdΔ24. In an orthotopic human glioma xenograft tumor model, coinjection of the RD proAdΔ24.GFP and the RD Flp-bearing HSV1 amplicon also led to a significant increase in animal survival, compared to controls. Therefore, Flp-FRT site-specific recombination can be applied to switch RD Ad

  8. Construction and characterization of recombinant fowlpox viruses expressing human papilloma virus E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Eleana; Basavecchia, Valeria; Zanotto, Carlo; Pacchioni, Sole; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; Radaelli, Antonia

    2009-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 is the most prevalent high-risk mucosal genotype and the expression of the E6 and E7 proteins, which can bind to the p53 and p105Rb host cell-cycle regulatory proteins, is related to its tumorigenicity. Virus-like-particle (VLP)-based immunogens developed recently are successful as prophylactic HPV vaccines. However, given the high number of individuals infected already with HPV and the absence of expression of the L1 structural protein in HPV-infected or HPV-transformed cells, an efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting the non-structural E6 and E7 oncoproteins is required. In this study, two new fowlpox virus (FPV) recombinants encoding the HPV-16 E6 and E7 proteins were engineered and evaluated for their correct expression in vitro, with the final aim of developing a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-related cervical tumors. Although vaccinia viruses expressing the HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have already been studied, due to their natural host-range restriction to avian species and their ability to elicit a complete immune response, FPV recombinants may represent efficient and safer vectors also for immunocompromised hosts. The results indicate that FPV recombinants can express correctly the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and they should represent appropriate vectors for the expression of these oncoproteins in human cells.

  9. Regulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway by Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Bello, Jesus Omar; Olmedo Nieva, Leslie; Contreras Paredes, Adriana; Fuentes Gonzalez, Alma Mariana; Rocha Zavaleta, Leticia; Lizano, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways are the mechanisms by which cells transduce external stimuli, which control the transcription of genes, to regulate diverse biological effects. In cancer, distinct signaling pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, have been implicated in the deregulation of critical molecular processes that affect cell proliferation and differentiation. For example, changes in β-catenin localization have been identified in Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers as the lesion progresses. Specifically, β-catenin relocates from the membrane/cytoplasm to the nucleus, suggesting that this transcription regulator participates in cervical carcinogenesis. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are responsible for the transforming activity of HPV, and some studies have implicated these viral oncoproteins in the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Nevertheless, new interactions of HPV oncoproteins with cellular proteins are emerging, and the study of the biological effects of such interactions will help to understand HPV-related carcinogenesis. This review addresses the accumulated evidence of the involvement of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:26295406

  10. Predicting the Next Eye Pathogen: Analysis of a Novel Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Yousuf, Mohammad A.; Singh, Gurdeep; DeSerres, Joshua J.; Walsh, Michael P.; Wong, Sallene; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Jones, Morris S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT For DNA viruses, genetic recombination, addition, and deletion represent important evolutionary mechanisms. Since these genetic alterations can lead to new, possibly severe pathogens, we applied a systems biology approach to study the pathogenicity of a novel human adenovirus with a naturally occurring deletion of the canonical penton base Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop, thought to be critical to cellular entry by adenoviruses. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a new highly recombinant species D human adenovirus (HAdV-D60). A synthesis of in silico and laboratory approaches revealed a potential ocular tropism for the new virus. In vivo, inflammation induced by the virus was dramatically greater than that by adenovirus type 37, a major eye pathogen, possibly due to a novel alternate ligand, Tyr-Gly-Asp (YGD), on the penton base protein. The combination of bioinformatics and laboratory simulation may have important applications in the prediction of tissue tropism for newly discovered and emerging viruses. PMID:23572555

  11. Directed evolution of mutator adenoviruses resistant to antibody neutralization.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicolle D; Skorohodova, Ksenia V; Gounder, Anshu P; Smith, Jason G

    2013-05-01

    We incorporated a previously identified mutation that reduces the fidelity of the DNA polymerase into a human adenovirus vector. Using this mutator vector, we demonstrate rapid selection of resistance to a neutralizing anti-hexon monoclonal antibody due to a G434D mutation in hexon that precludes antibody binding. Since mutator adenoviruses can accumulate compound mutations that are unattainable using traditional random mutagenesis techniques, this approach will be valuable to the study of antivirals and host factor interactions.

  12. Acute Hepatitis and Pancytopenia in Healthy Infant with Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Matoq, Amr; Salahuddin, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infection, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis in infants and young children. They are known to cause hepatitis and liver failure in immunocompromised patients; they are a rare cause of hepatitis in immunocompetent patients and have been known to cause fulminant hepatic failure. We present a 23-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with acute noncholestatic hepatitis, hypoalbuminemia, generalized anasarca, and pancytopenia secondary to adenovirus infection. PMID:27340581

  13. Peptide maps and N-terminal sequences of polypeptides from early region 1A of human adenovirus 5.

    PubMed Central

    Downey, J F; Evelegh, C M; Branton, P E; Bayley, S T

    1984-01-01

    Experiments exploring the reasons for a multiplicity of products from early region 1A of adenovirus 5 are described. Labeled early region 1A products from wild-type virus were synthesized in infected cells and in a cell-free system programmed with mRNA from infected cells, immunoprecipitated specifically with an antipeptide serum, E1A-C1, directed against the C-terminal sequence of E1A products, and separated by gel electrophoresis. Two-dimensional maps of [35S]methionine-labeled peptides were consistent with antigens of 52,000 daltons (52K) and 48.5K being from the 13S mRNA and antigens of 50K, 45K, and 35K from the 12S mRNA. Partial N-terminal sequences of 52K, 50K, 48.5K, and 45K synthesized in vitro showed that each of these antigens was initiated at the predicted ATG at nucleotide 560 in the DNA sequence. These results eliminate multiple initiation sites and proteolytic cleavage at the N-terminal end as sources of antigen diversity. Peptide maps and N-terminal sequences were obtained in a similar way for E1A products from the Ad5 deletion mutant dl1504, which lacks the normal initiator codon. As predicted, these polypeptides are initiated at the next ATG, 15 codons downstream in the wild-type sequence. These results are discussed in relation to Kozak's ribosomal scanning model. Images PMID:6699947

  14. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  15. Adenovirus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are an important cause of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, and they continue to provide clinical challenges pertaining to diagnostics and treatment. The growing number of HAdV types identified by genomic analysis, as well as the improved understanding of the sites of viral persistence and reactivation, requires continuous adaptions of diagnostic approaches to facilitate timely detection and monitoring of HAdV infections. In view of the clinical relevance of life-threatening HAdV diseases in the immunocompromised setting, there is an urgent need for highly effective treatment modalities lacking major side effects. The present review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding and management of HAdV infections. PMID:24982316

  16. Polymeric oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Young Sook; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a promising modality to treat cancer. Many clinical trials have been done with either naked oncolytic Ad or combination with chemotherapies. However, the systemic injection of oncolytic Ad in clinical applications is restricted due to significant liver toxicity and immunogenicity. To overcome these issues, Ad has been engineered physically or chemically with numerous polymers for shielding the Ad surface, accomplishing extended blood circulation time and reduced immunogenicity as well as hepatotoxicity. In this review, we describe and classify the characteristics of polymer modified oncolytic Ad following each strategy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, this review concludes with the highlights of various polymer-coated Ads and their prospects, and directions for future research. PMID:26453806

  17. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. ADENO-ASSOCIATED SATELLITE VIRUS INTERFERENCE WITH THE REPLICATION OF ITS HELPER ADENOVIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Wade P.; Casazza, Anna M.; Alcott, Judith; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1968-01-01

    Adeno-associated satellite virus type 4 interferes with the replication of its helper adenovirus. No interferon-like soluble substance could be detected in satellite-infected cultures and other DNA- and RNA-containing viruses were not inhibited by coinfection with satellite virus under conditions which reduced adenovirus yields by more than 90% in monkey cells. Altering the concentration of adenovirus in the presence of constant amounts of satellite resulted in a constant degree of interference over a wide range of adenovirus inocula and suggested that adenovirus concentration was not a significant factor in the observed interference. The interference with adenovirus replication was abolished by pretreating satellite preparations with specific antiserum, ultraviolet light or heating at 80°C for 30 min. This suggested that infectious satellite virus mediated the interference. Satellite virus concentration was found to be a determinant of interference and studies indicated that the amount of interference with adenovirus was directly proportional to the concentration of satellite virus. 8 hr after adenovirus infection, the replication of adenovirus was no longer sensitive to satellite interference. This was true even though the satellite virus was enhanced as effectively as if the cells were infected simultaneously with both viruses. Interference with adenovirus infectivity was accompanied by reduced yields of complement-fixing antigen and of virus particles which suggested that satellite virus interfered with the formation and not the function of adenovirus products. When cells were infected either with adenovirus alone or with adenovirus plus satellite, the same proportion of cells plated as adenovirus infectious centers. However, the number of plaque-forming units of adenovirus formed per cell in the satellite-infected cultures was reduced by approximately 90%, the same magnitude of reduction noted in whole cultures coinfected with satellite and adenovirus. This

  19. Adenovirus tumor targeting and hepatic untargeting by a coxsackie/adenovirus receptor ectodomain anti-carcinoembryonic antigen bispecific adapter.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Jung; Everts, Maaike; Pereboeva, Larisa; Komarova, Svetlana; Idan, Anat; Curiel, David T; Herschman, Harvey R

    2007-06-01

    Adenovirus vectors have a number of advantages for gene therapy. However, because of their lack of tumor tropism and their preference for liver infection following systemic administration, they cannot be used for systemic attack on metastatic disease. Many epithelial tumors (e.g., colon, lung, and breast) express carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). To block the natural hepatic tropism of adenovirus and to "retarget" the virus to CEA-expressing tumors, we used a bispecific adapter protein (sCAR-MFE), which fuses the ectodomain of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (sCAR) with a single-chain anti-CEA antibody (MFE-23). sCAR-MFE untargets adenovirus-directed luciferase transgene expression in the liver by >90% following systemic vector administration. Moreover, sCAR-MFE can "retarget" adenovirus to CEA-positive epithelial tumor cells in cell culture, in s.c. tumor grafts, and in hepatic tumor grafts. The sCAR-MFE bispecific adapter should, therefore, be a powerful agent to retarget adenovirus vectors to epithelial tumor metastases.

  20. Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A. Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S.; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25674795

  1. IGF2 is critical for tumorigenesis by synovial sarcoma oncoprotein SYT-SSX1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Gao, D; Liu, Y; Huang, J; Lessnick, S; Tanaka, S

    2006-02-16

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue tumor characterized by a specific chromosomal translocation between chromosome 18 and X. This translocation can generate a fusion transcript encoding SYT-SSX1, a transforming oncoprotein. We present evidence that SYT-SSX1 induces insulin-like growth factor II expression in fibroblast cells. SYT-SSX2, a fusion also frequently found in synovial sarcoma, is necessary for maintaining Igf2 expression in the synovial sarcoma cell line, and the increased IGF2 synthesis protects cells from anoikis and is required for tumor formation in vivo. We also found a loss of imprinting (LOI) for Igf2 in a limited number of primary synovial sarcomas despite demethylation of CpG dinucleotides critical for maintaining imprinting. These findings suggest that inhibition of the IGF2/IGF1-R signaling pathway may represent a significant therapeutic modality for treating synovial sarcoma. PMID:16247461

  2. Truncated ERG Oncoproteins from TMPRSS2-ERG Fusions Are Resistant to SPOP-Mediated Proteasome Degradation.

    PubMed

    An, Jian; Ren, Shancheng; Murphy, Stephen J; Dalangood, Sumiya; Chang, Cunjie; Pang, Xiaodong; Cui, Yangyan; Wang, Liguo; Pan, Yunqian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Yasheng; Wang, Chenji; Halling, Geoffrey C; Cheng, Liang; Sukov, William R; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Vasmatzis, George; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Jun; Cheville, John C; Yan, Jun; Sun, Yinghao; Huang, Haojie

    2015-09-17

    SPOP mutations and TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements occur collectively in up to 65% of human prostate cancers. Although the two events are mutually exclusive, it is unclear whether they are functionally interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that SPOP, functioning as an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding protein, promotes ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of wild-type ERG by recognizing a degron motif at the N terminus of ERG. Prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutations abrogate the SPOP-mediated degradation function on the ERG oncoprotein. Conversely, the majority of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions encode N-terminal-truncated ERG proteins that are resistant to the SPOP-mediated degradation because of degron impairment. Our findings reveal degradation resistance as a previously uncharacterized mechanism that contributes to elevation of truncated ERG proteins in prostate cancer. They also suggest that overcoming ERG resistance to SPOP-mediated degradation represents a viable strategy for treatment of prostate cancers expressing either mutated SPOP or truncated ERG.

  3. NSD3-NUT Fusion Oncoprotein in NUT Midline Carcinoma: Implications for a Novel Oncogenic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    French, Christopher A.; Rahman, Shaila; Walsh, Erica M.; Kühnle, Simone; Grayson, Adlai R.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Grunfeld, Noam; Rubin, Brian P.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Zhang, Songlin; Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Cin, Paola Dal; Howley, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is an aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma that typically harbors BRD4/3-NUT fusion oncoproteins that block differentiation and maintain tumor growth. In 20% of cases NUT is fused to uncharacterized non-BRD gene(s). We established a new patient-derived NMC cell line (1221) and demonstrated that it harbors a novel NSD3-NUT fusion oncogene. We find that NSD3-NUT is both necessary and sufficient for the blockade of differentiation and maintenance of proliferation in NMC cells. NSD3-NUT binds to BRD4, and BRD bromodomain inhibitors induce differentiation and arrest proliferation of 1221 cells. We find further that NSD3 is required for the blockade of differentiation in BRD4-NUT-expressing NMCs. These findings identify NSD3 as a novel critical oncogenic component and potential therapeutic target in NMC. PMID:24875858

  4. Karyopherin {beta}3: A new cellular target for the HPV-16 E5 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Ewa; Hanover, John A.; Schlegel, Richard; Suprynowicz, Frank A.

    2008-07-11

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer worldwide, and that HPV-16 is associated with more than half of these cases. In addition to the well-characterized E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV-16, recent evidence increasingly has implicated the HPV-16 E5 protein (16E5) as an important mediator of oncogenic transformation. Since 16E5 has no known intrinsic enzymatic activity, its effects on infected cells are most likely mediated by interactions with various cellular proteins and/or its documented association with lipid rafts. In the present study, we describe a new cellular target that binds to 16E5 in COS cells and in stable human ectocervical cell lines. This target is karyopherin {beta}3, a member of the nuclear import receptor family with critical roles in the nuclear import of ribosomal proteins and in the secretory pathway.

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7–Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation. PMID:26250467

  6. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Alixandra A.; McManus, Patrick M.; Bockstall, Katy; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-05

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway. Virology 317(1), 13-23.). Here, analysis of the localization of specific E7 mutants revealed that the nuclear localization of E7 is independent of its interaction with pRB or of its phosphorylation by CKII. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and 2xEGFP fusions with E7 and E7 domains in HeLa cells revealed that E7 contains a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal domain (aa 1-37). Interestingly, treatment of transfected HeLa cells with two specific nuclear export inhibitors, Leptomycin B and ratjadone, changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear. These data suggest the presence of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a second NLS in the C-terminal domain of E7 (aa 38-98). Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the putative NES sequence ({sub 76}IRTLEDLLM{sub 84}) changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear suggesting that this is a functional NES. The presence of both NLSs and an NES suggests that HPV16 E7 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus which is consistent with E7 having functions in both of these cell compartments.

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7-Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation. PMID:26250467

  8. The nucleotide sequence and a first generation gene transfer vector of species B human adenovirus serotype 3.

    PubMed

    Sirena, Dominique; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Schaffner, Walter; Greber, Urs F; Hemmi, Silvio

    2005-12-20

    Human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 3 causes respiratory infections. It is considered highly virulent, accounting for about 13% of all Ad isolates. We report here the complete Ad3 DNA sequence of 35,343 base pairs (GenBank accession DQ086466). Ad3 shares 96.43% nucleotide identity with Ad7, another virulent subspecies B1 serotype, and 82.56 and 62.75% identity with the less virulent species B2 Ad11 and species C Ad5, respectively. The genomic organization of Ad3 is similar to the other human Ads comprising five early transcription units, E1A, E1B, E2, E3, and E4, two delayed early units IX and IVa2, and the major late unit, in total 39 putative and 7 hypothetical open reading frames. A recombinant E1-deleted Ad3 was generated on a bacterial artificial chromosome. This prototypic virus efficiently transduced CD46-positive rodent and human cells. Our results will help in clarifying the biology and pathology of adenoviruses and enhance therapeutic applications of viral vectors in clinical settings.

  9. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated transfer of the antisense chk2 selectively inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Zhou, J; Gao, Q; Huang, X; Li, K; Zhuang, L; Huang, M; Xu, G; Wang, S; Lu, Y; Ma, D

    2006-10-01

    Screening and identifying molecules target to checkpoint pathways has fostered the development of checkpoint-based anticancer strategies. Among these targets, inhibition of chk2 may induce cell death for tumors whose growth depends on enhanced chk2 activity. However, improvement of the potency and specificity of such therapeutics remains a major challenge. To resolve this problem, we constructed M3, a novel recombinant adenovirus with a 27-bp deletion in E1A CR2 region by which to realize tumor-specific replication, and an 829-bp of antisense chk2 fragment inserted into the E3 coding region. In this design, M3 exploited the native adenovirus E3 promoters to express antisense chk2 cDNA in a viral replication-dependent fashion, and preferentially silenced the chk2 gene in tumor cells. In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed that downregulated chk2 expression induced by M3 infection was tumor-specific and virus replication-dependent. Furthermore, systemic administration of M3 combined with a low dose of cisplatin cured 75% (9/12) of orthotopic hepatic carcinoma mouse models that were otherwise resistant to cisplatin. Our results indicated that the upcoming development in this field would improve the antitumor efficacy and maximize the synergistic effect of oncolytic viruses administered with traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. PMID:16741520

  10. The nucleotide sequence and a first generation gene transfer vector of species B human adenovirus serotype 3.

    PubMed

    Sirena, Dominique; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Schaffner, Walter; Greber, Urs F; Hemmi, Silvio

    2005-12-20

    Human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 3 causes respiratory infections. It is considered highly virulent, accounting for about 13% of all Ad isolates. We report here the complete Ad3 DNA sequence of 35,343 base pairs (GenBank accession DQ086466). Ad3 shares 96.43% nucleotide identity with Ad7, another virulent subspecies B1 serotype, and 82.56 and 62.75% identity with the less virulent species B2 Ad11 and species C Ad5, respectively. The genomic organization of Ad3 is similar to the other human Ads comprising five early transcription units, E1A, E1B, E2, E3, and E4, two delayed early units IX and IVa2, and the major late unit, in total 39 putative and 7 hypothetical open reading frames. A recombinant E1-deleted Ad3 was generated on a bacterial artificial chromosome. This prototypic virus efficiently transduced CD46-positive rodent and human cells. Our results will help in clarifying the biology and pathology of adenoviruses and enhance therapeutic applications of viral vectors in clinical settings. PMID:16169033

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(e)-1A - Contributions on behalf of a self-employed individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan. 1.404(e)-1A Section 1.404(e)-1A...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(e)-1A Contributions on behalf of a self-employed individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan....

  12. 26 CFR 1.404(e)-1A - Contributions on behalf of a self-employed individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan. 1.404(e)-1A Section 1.404(e)-1A...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(e)-1A Contributions on behalf of a self-employed individual to or under a qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan. (a)...

  13. Adenovirus-associated deaths in US military during postvaccination period, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Potter, Robert N; Cantrell, Joyce A; Mallak, Craig T; Gaydos, Joel C

    2012-03-01

    Adenoviruses are frequent causes of respiratory disease in the US military population. A successful immunization program against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was terminated in 1999. Review of records in the Mortality Surveillance Division, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, identified 8 deaths attributed to adenovirus infections in service members during 1999-2010.

  14. Characterization of a new adenovirus isolated from black-tailed deer in California.

    PubMed

    Lehmkuhl, H D; Hobbs, L A; Woods, L W

    2001-01-01

    An adenovirus associated with systemic and localized vascular damage was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in a newly recognized epizootic hemorrhagic disease in California black-tailed deer. In this study, we describe the cultural, physicochemical and serological characteristics of a virus isolated from lung using neonatal white-tail deer lung and turbinate cell cultures. The virus had the cultural, morphological and physicochemical characteristics of members of the Adenoviridae family. The virus would not replicate in low passage fetal bovine, caprine or ovine cells. Antiserum to the deer adenovirus, strain D94-2569, neutralized bovine adenovirus type-6 (BAdV-6), BAdV-7, and caprine adenovirus type-1 (GAdV-1). Antiserum to BAdV-6 did not neutralize the deer adenovirus but antiserum to BAdV-7 and GAdV-1 neutralized the deer adenovirus. Cross-neutralization with the other bovine, caprine and ovine adenovirus species was not observed. Restriction endonuclease patterns generated for the deer adenovirus were unique compared to those for the currently recognized bovine, caprine and ovine adenovirus types. Amino acid sequence alignments of the hexon gene from the deer adenovirus strain D94-2569 indicate that it is a member of the proposed new genus (Atadenovirus) of the Adenoviridae family. While closely related antigenically to BAdV-7 and GAdV-1, the deer adenovirus appears sufficiently distinct culturally and molecularly to justify consideration as a new adenovirus type.

  15. Enhanced UV inactivation of adenoviruses under polychromatic UV lamps.

    PubMed

    Linden, Karl G; Thurston, Jeanette; Schaefer, Raymond; Malley, James P

    2007-12-01

    Adenovirus is recognized as the most UV-resistant waterborne pathogen of concern to public health microbiologists. The U.S. EPA has stipulated that a UV fluence (dose) of 186 mJ cm(-2) is required for 4-log inactivation credit in water treatment. However, all adenovirus inactivation data to date published in the peer-reviewed literature have been based on UV disinfection experiments using UV irradiation at 253.7 nm produced from a conventional low-pressure UV source. The work reported here presents inactivation data for adenovirus based on polychromatic UV sources and details the significant enhancement in inactivation achieved using these polychromatic sources. When full-spectrum, medium-pressure UV lamps were used, 4-log inactivation of adenovirus type 40 is achieved at a UV fluence of less than 60 mJ cm(-2) and a surface discharge pulsed UV source required a UV fluence of less than 40 mJ cm(-2). The action spectrum for adenovirus type 2 was also developed and partially explains the improved inactivation based on enhancements at wavelengths below 230 nm. Implications for water treatment, public health, and the future of UV regulations for virus disinfection are discussed. PMID:17933932

  16. Bovine adenovirus-3 as a vaccine delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, Lisanework E; Kumar, Pankaj; Gaba, Amit; Makadiya, Niraj; Tikoo, Suresh K

    2015-01-15

    The use of vaccines is an effective and relatively inexpensive means of controlling infectious diseases, which cause heavy economic losses to the livestock industry through animal loss, decreased productivity, treatment expenses and decreased carcass quality. However, some vaccines produced by conventional means are imperfect in many respects including virulence, safety and efficacy. Moreover, there are no vaccines for some animal diseases. Although genetic engineering has provided new ways of producing effective vaccines, the cost of production for veterinary use is a critical criterion for selecting the method of production and delivery of vaccines. The cost effective production and intrinsic ability to enter cells has made adenovirus vectors a highly efficient tool for delivery of vaccine antigens. Moreover, adenoviruses induce both humoral and cellular immune responses to expressed vaccine antigens. Since nonhuman adenoviruses are species specific, the development of animal specific adenoviruses as vaccine delivery vectors is being evaluated. This review summarizes the work related to the development of bovine adenovirus-3 as a vaccine delivery vehicle in animals, particularly cattle.

  17. Retargeted adenoviruses for radiation-guided gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaliberov, S A; Kaliberova, L N; Yan, H; Kapoor, V; Hallahan, D E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of radiation with radiosensitizing gene delivery or oncolytic viruses promises to provide an advantage that could improve the therapeutic results for glioblastoma. X-rays can induce significant molecular changes in cancer cells. We isolated the GIRLRG peptide that binds to radiation-inducible 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which is overexpressed on the plasma membranes of irradiated cancer cells and tumor-associated microvascular endothelial cells. The goal of our study was to improve tumor-specific adenovirus-mediated gene delivery by selectively targeting the adenovirus binding to this radiation-inducible protein. We employed an adenoviral fiber replacement approach to conduct a study of the targeting utility of GRP78-binding peptide. We have developed fiber-modified adenoviruses encoding the GRP78-binding peptide inserted into the fiber-fibritin. We have evaluated the reporter gene expression of fiber-modified adenoviruses in vitro using a panel of glioma cells and a human D54MG tumor xenograft model. The obtained results demonstrated that employment of the GRP78-binding peptide resulted in increased gene expression in irradiated tumors following infection with fiber-modified adenoviruses, compared with untreated tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of adenoviral retargeting using the GRP78-binding peptide that selectively recognizes tumor cells responding to radiation treatment. PMID:27492853

  18. [Adenovirus-delivered BMI-1 shRNA].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Li; Zhen, Jie

    2009-10-01

    Recently, some plasmid vectors that direct transcription of small hairpin RNAs have been developed, which are processed into functional siRNAs by cellular enzymes. Although these vectors possess certain advantages over synthesized siRNA, many disadvantages exist, including low and variable transfection efficiency. This study was aimed to establish an adenoviral siRNA delivery system without above-mentioned disadvantages on the basis of commercially available vectors. A vector was designed to target the human polycomb gene BMI-1. The pAd-BMI-1shRNA-CMV-GFP vector was produced by cloning a 300 bp U6-BMI-1 cassette from the pGE1BMI-1shRNA plasmid and a CMV-GFP cassette from pAdTrack CMV in pShutter vector. The adenovirus was produced from the 293A packaging cell line and then infected K562 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of Bmi-1 were detected by real time-PCR and Western blot respectively. The results showed that the adenovirus carrying the BMI-1shRNA was successfully produced. After being transfected with the adenovirus, the K562 cells dramatically down-regulated BMI-1 expression, whereas the adenoviruses carrying control shRNA had no effect on BMI-1 expression. It is concluded that the adenoviruses are efficient vectors for delivery of siRNA into mammalian cells and may become a candidate vector carrying siRNA drugs for gene therapy. PMID:19840467

  19. Adenovirus Pneumonia Complicated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ka-Ho; Lin, Lung-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Severe adenovirus infection in children can manifest with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, leading to the need for prolonged mechanical support in the form of either mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal life support. Early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) intervention for children with ARDS should be considered if selection criteria fulfill. We report on a 9-month-old boy who had adenovirus pneumonia with rapid progression to ARDS. Real-time polymerase chain reaction tests of sputum and pleural effusion samples confirmed adenovirus serotype 7. Chest x-rays showed progressively increasing infiltrations and pleural effusions in both lung fields within 11 days. Because conventional ARDS therapies failed, we initiated ECMO with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for 9 days. Chest x-rays showed gradual improvements in lung expansion. This patient was subsequently discharged after a hospital stay of 38 days. Post-ECMO and adenovirus sequelae were followed in our outpatient department. Adenovirus pneumonia in children can manifest with severe pulmonary morbidity and respiratory failure. The unique lung recruitment by HFOV can be a useful therapeutic option for severe ARDS patients when combined with sufficient lung rest provided by ECMO. PMID:25997046

  20. MKP1 mediates chemosensitizer effects of E1a in response to cisplatin in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Serra, Raquel; García-Cano, Jesus; Garcia-Gil, Elena; De la Cruz-Morcillo, Miguel; Ortega-Muelas, Marta; Serrano-Oviedo, Leticia; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The adenoviral gene E1a is known to enhance the antitumor effect of cisplatin, one of the cornerstones of the current cancer chemotherapy. Here we study the molecular basis of E1a mediated sensitivity to cisplatin in an experimental model of Non-small cell lung cancer. Our data show how E1a blocks the induction of autophagy triggered by cisplatin and promotes the apoptotic response in resistant cells. Interestingly, at the molecular level, we present evidences showing how the phosphatase MKP1 is a major determinant of cisplatin sensitivity and its upregulation is strictly required for the induction of chemosensitivity mediated by E1a. Indeed, E1a is almost unable to promote sensitivity in H460, in which the high expression of MKP1 remains unaffected by E1a. However, in resistant cell as H1299, H23 or H661, which display low levels of MKP1, E1a expression promotes a dramatic increase in the amount of MKP1 correlating with cisplatin sensitivity. Furthermore, effective knock down of MKP1 in H1299 E1a expressing cells restores resistance to a similar extent than parental cells. In summary, the present work reinforce the critical role of MKP1 in the cellular response to cisplatin highlighting the importance of this phosphatase in future gene therapy approach based on E1a gene. PMID:26689986

  1. New Insights on Adenovirus as Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lasaro, Marcio O; Ertl, Hildegund CJ

    2009-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for treatment of genetic diseases. Their usefulness for permanent gene replacement was limited by their high immunogenicity, which resulted in rapid elimination of transduced cells through induction of T and B cells to antigens of Ad and the transgene product. The very trait that excluded their use for sustained treatment of genetic diseases made them highly attractive as vaccine carriers. Recently though results showed that Ad vectors based on common human serotypes, such as serotype 5, may not be ideal as vaccine carriers. A recently conducted phase 2b trial, termed STEP trial, with an AdHu5-based vaccine expressing antigens of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) not only showed lack of efficacy in spite of the vaccine's immunogenicity, but also suggested an increased trend for HIV acquisition in individuals that had circulating AdHu5 neutralizing antibodies prior to vaccination. Alternative serotypes from humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs), to which most humans lack pre-existing immunity, have been vectored and may circumvent the problems encountered with the use of AdHu5 vectors in humans. In summary, although Ad vectors have seen their share of setbacks in recent years, they remain viable tools for prevention or treatment of a multitude of diseases. PMID:19513019

  2. Viability of human adenovirus from hospital fomites.

    PubMed

    Ganime, Ana Carolina; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Santos, Marisa; Costa Filho, Rubens; Leite, José Paulo G; Miagostovich, Marize P

    2014-12-01

    The monitoring of environmental microbial contamination in healthcare facilities may be a valuable tool to determine pathogens transmission in those settings; however, such procedure is limited to bacterial indicators. Viruses are found commonly in those environments and are rarely used for these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess distribution and viability of a human DNA virus on fomites in an Adult Intensive Care Unit of a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) were investigated in 141 fomites by scraping the surface area and screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using TaqMan® System (Carlsbad, CA). Ten positive samples were selected for virus isolation in A549 and/or HEp2c cell lines. A total of 63 samples (44.7%) were positive and presented viral load ranging from 2.48 × 10(1) to 2.1 × 10(3) genomic copies per millilitre (gc/ml). The viability was demonstrated by integrated cell culture/nested-PCR in 5 out of 10 samples. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed all samples as HAdV and characterized one of them as specie B, serotype 3 (HAdV-3). The results indicate the risk of nosocomial transmission via contaminated fomites and point out the use of HAdV as biomarkers of environmental contamination.

  3. Enhanced expression of adenovirus transforming proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, R B; Tsukamoto, A; Montell, C; Berk, A J

    1982-01-01

    Proteins encoded in regions EIA and EIB of human adenoviruses cause transformation of rodent cells. One protein from EIA also stimulates transcription of other early regions at early times in a productive infection. In the past, direct analysis of these proteins synthesized in vivo has been difficult because of the low levels produced in both transformed cells and productively infected cells. We present a simple method which leads to expression of EIA and EIB mRNAs and proteins at 30-fold greater levels than those observed during the early phase of a standard productive infection. Under these conditions, these proteins are among the most prominent translation products of infected cells. This allowed direct visualization of EIA and EIB proteins on two-dimensional gels of pulse-labeled total cell protein. Experiments with EIA and EIB mutants confirm that the identified proteins are indeed encoded in these regions. Two EIA proteins are observed, one translated from each of the major early EIA mRNAs. Both of these EIA proteins are phosphorylated. Images PMID:7143568

  4. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed. PMID:26184280

  5. Selection of nonfastidious adenovirus species in 293 cells inoculated with stool specimens containing adenovirus 40.

    PubMed

    Brown, M

    1985-08-01

    Of 35 stool specimens isolated and examined in 293 cells, 15 isolates contained adenovirus species 40 (Ad40), and 4 of these 15 isolates also contained a nonfastidious adenovirus species (Ad1 in two cases, Ad18 or Ad31) which was selected over Ad40 during serial passage in the 293 cells. The selection of Ad1 over Ad40 was examined in detail. Restriction analysis of intracellular DNA and the relative infectivity titers of Ad40 and Ad1 at each passage level after the inoculation of 293 cells with a particular stool specimen demonstrated that although the amount of Ad40 DNA synthesized far exceeded that of Ad1, the relative infectivity titer of Ad40 was low. The growth characteristics of Ad40 were then compared with those of Ad1, Ad18, and Ad41 in singly infected 293 cell cultures. One-step growth curves showed the same growth rate in each case, with a latent period of 12 h and a maximum titer at 24 to 36 h postinfection. Yields of infectious Ad40 virus were consistently 100- to 1,000-fold lower than those of Ad1. This difference was reflected by a reduced yield of total AD40 virions (p1.34) as determined by 35S labeling experiments. However, the 3- to 10-fold reduction in total yield of Ad40 virions did not account for the 100- to 1,000-fold reduction in the yield of infectious virus. PMID:2993350

  6. Adenovirus hexon modifications influence in vitro properties of pseudotyped human adenovirus type 5 vectors.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Jing, Liu; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used human adenovirus (HAdV)-5-based vectors are restricted by their tropism and pre-existing immunity. Here, we characterized novel HAdV-5 vectors pseudotyped with hypervariable regions (HVRs) and surface domains (SDs) of other HAdV types. Hexon-modified HAdV-5 vectors (HV-HVR5, HV-HVR12, HV-SD12 and HV-SD4) could be reconstituted and amplified in human embryonic kidney cells. After infection of various cell lines, we measured transgene expression levels by performing luciferase reporter assays or coagulation factor IX (FIX) ELISA. Dose-dependent studies revealed that luciferase expression levels were comparable for HV-HVR5, HV-SD12 and HV-SD4, whereas HV-HVR12 expression levels were significantly lower. Vector genome copy numbers (VCNs) from genomic DNA and nuclear extracts were then determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Surprisingly, determination of cell- and nuclear fraction-associated VCNs revealed increased VCNs for HV-HVR12 compared with HV-SD12 and HV-HVR5. Increased nuclear fraction-associated HV-HVR12 DNA molecules and decreased transgene expression levels were independent of the cell line used, and we observed the same effect for a hexon-modified high-capacity adenoviral vector encoding canine FIX. In conclusion, studying hexon-modified adenoviruses in vitro demonstrated that HVRs but also flanking hexon regions influence uptake and transgene expression of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26519158

  7. NAC1, a POZ/BTB protein present in the adult mammalian brain, triggers apoptosis after adenovirus-mediated overexpression in PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Korutla, Laxminarayana; Neustadter, Jason H; Fournier, Keith M; Mackler, Scott A

    2003-05-01

    POZ/BTB proteins influence cellular development and in some examples act as oncoproteins. However, several POZ/BTB transcription factors have been found in terminally differentiated neurons, where their functions remain unknown. One example is NAC1, a constitutively-expressed protein that can regulate behaviors associated with cocaine use. The present study represents an initial attempt to understand the actions of NAC1 within neurons by using adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into differentiated PC-12 cells. Cell survival in PC-12 cells overexpressing NAC1 was greatly reduced compared with cells infected by a control Ad-GFP. The morphological appearance of the dying cells was consistent with programmed cell death. Fragmentation of genomic DNA occurred in PC-12 cells infected with adenoviruses encoding NAC1 but not control viruses. NAC1 over expression was followed by the down regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-2-xl. Concurrently, levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 increased following NAC1 overexpression. These observations suggest that NAC1expression in PC-12 cells induces apoptosis by altering the expression of these upstream mediators of the execution phase of programmed cell death. These findings raise the possibility that aberrantly regulated NAC1 expression in the mammalian brain may contribute to programmed cell death.

  8. MYB3Rs, plant homologs of Myb oncoproteins, control cell cycle-regulated transcription and form DREAM-like complexes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Plant MYB3R transcription factors, homologous to Myb oncoproteins, regulate the genes expressed at G2 and M phases in the cell cycle. Recent studies showed that MYB3Rs constitute multiprotein complexes that may correspond to animal complexes known as DREAM or dREAM. Discovery of the putative homologous complex in plants uncovered their significant varieties in structure, function, dynamics, and heterogeneity, providing insight into conserved and diversified aspects of cell cycle-regulated gene transcription.

  9. Complete genome sequences of pigeon adenovirus 1 and duck adenovirus 2 extend the number of species within the genus Aviadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ana; Kaján, Győző L; Kosiol, Carolin; Harrach, Balázs; Schlötterer, Christian; Hess, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Complete genomes of the first isolates of pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1) and Muscovy duck adenovirus (duck adenovirus 2, DAdV-2) were sequenced. The PiAdV-1 genome is 45,480bp long, and has a gene organization most similar to turkey adenovirus 1. Near the left end of the genome, it lacks ORF0, ORF1A, ORF1B and ORF1C, and possesses ORF52, whereas six novel genes were found near the right end. The DAdV-2 genome is 43,734bp long, and has a gene organization similar to that of goose adenovirus 4 (GoAdV-4). It lacks ORF51, ORF1C and ORF54, and possesses ORF55A and five other novel genes. PiAdV-1 and DAdV-2 genomes contain two and one fiber genes, respectively. Genome organization, G+C content, molecular phylogeny and host type confirm the need to establish two novel species (Pigeon aviadenovirus A and Duck aviadenovirus B) within the genus Aviadenovirus. Phylogenetic data show that DAdV-2 is most closely related to GoAdV-4.

  10. Crystal Structure of Enteric Adenovirus Serotype 41 Short Fiber Head

    PubMed Central

    Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Human enteric adenoviruses of species F contain two fibers in the same virion, a long fiber which binds to coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and a short fiber of unknown function. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the short fiber head of human adenovirus serotype 41 (Ad41). The short fiber head has the characteristic fold of other known fiber heads but has three unusual features. First, it has much shorter loops between the beta-strands. Second, one of the usually well-ordered beta-strands on the distal face of the fiber head is highly disordered and this same region is sensitive to digestion with pepsin, an enzyme occurring naturally in the intestinal tract, the physiological environment of Ad41. Third, the AB loop has a deletion giving it a distinct conformation incompatible with CAR binding. PMID:16254343

  11. Disseminated adenovirus infection in an immunocompromised host. Pitfalls in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Landry, M L; Fong, C K; Neddermann, K; Solomon, L; Hsiung, G D

    1987-09-01

    In this report, a bone marrow transplant recipient with rapidly fatal gastroenteritis is presented. The presence of intranuclear inclusions on postmortem light microscopic examination of liver, lung, and small bowel tissue was considered diagnostic of cytomegalovirus infection. However, electron microscopic examination of liver tissue demonstrated adenovirus infection. This was confirmed by isolation of an adenovirus type 2 with unusual laboratory features from liver, lung, colon contents, serum, esophageal swab, and oral ulcerations. Results of a complement fixation test for antibodies to adenovirus performed on postmortem serum samples were negative, and a titer of 1:4 was noted for antibody against cytomegalovirus. This case illustrates the diagnostic pitfalls that may be encountered in establishing a specific viral diagnosis in severely ill patients. PMID:2821806

  12. Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Robert A; Ackford, James G; Slaine, Patrick; Li, Aimin; Carman, Susy; Campbell, Doug; Welch, M Katherine; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nagy, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are a ubiquitous group of viruses that have been found in a wide range of hosts. A novel adenovirus from a skunk suffering from acute hepatitis was isolated and its DNA genome sequenced. The analysis revealed this virus to be a new member of the genus Mastadenovirus, with a genome of 31,848 bp in length containing 30 genes predicted to encode proteins, and with a G+C content of 49.0%. Global genomic organization indicated SkAdV-1 was similar in organization to bat and canine adenoviruses, and phylogenetic comparison suggested these viruses shared a common ancestor. SkAdV-1 demonstrated an ability to replicate in several mammalian liver cell lines suggesting a potential tropism for this virus. PMID:26189043

  13. Species-Specific Identification of Human Adenoviruses in Sewage.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Witek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) diversity in sewage was assessed by species-specific molecular methods. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December 2011, in Poland. HAdVs were detected in 92.1% of the analysed sewage samples and was significantly higher at cities of over 100 000 inhabitants. HAdV DNA was detected in sewage during all seasons. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-F (average 89.6%) and -A (average 19.6%), which are associated with intestine infections. Adenoviruses from B species were not detected. The result of the present study demonstrate that human adenoviruses are consistently present in sewage in Poland, demonstrating the importance of an adequate treatment before the disposal in the environment. Multiple HAdV species identified in raw sewage provide new information about HAdV circulation in the Polish population. PMID:26094312

  14. Capsid-like Arrays in Crystals of Chimpanzee Adenovirus Hexon

    SciTech Connect

    Xue,F.; Burnett, R.

    2006-01-01

    The major coat protein, hexon, from a chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC68) is of interest as a target for vaccine vector modification. AdC68 hexon has been crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222 with unit cell dimensions of a = 90.8 Angstroms, b = 433.0 Angstroms, c = 159.3 Angstroms, and one trimer (3 x 104,942 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Initial studies reveal that the molecular arrangement is quite unlike that in hexon crystals for human adenovirus. In the AdC68 crystals, hexon trimers are parallel and pack closely in two-dimensional continuous arrays similar to those formed on electron microscope grids. The AdC68 crystals are the first in which adenovirus hexon has molecular interactions that mimic those used in constructing the viral capsid.

  15. Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Robert A; Ackford, James G; Slaine, Patrick; Li, Aimin; Carman, Susy; Campbell, Doug; Welch, M Katherine; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nagy, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are a ubiquitous group of viruses that have been found in a wide range of hosts. A novel adenovirus from a skunk suffering from acute hepatitis was isolated and its DNA genome sequenced. The analysis revealed this virus to be a new member of the genus Mastadenovirus, with a genome of 31,848 bp in length containing 30 genes predicted to encode proteins, and with a G+C content of 49.0%. Global genomic organization indicated SkAdV-1 was similar in organization to bat and canine adenoviruses, and phylogenetic comparison suggested these viruses shared a common ancestor. SkAdV-1 demonstrated an ability to replicate in several mammalian liver cell lines suggesting a potential tropism for this virus.

  16. In Silico Profiling of the Potentiality of Curcumin and Conventional Drugs for CagA Oncoprotein Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akhileshwar K; Tewari, Mallika; Shukla, Hari S; Roy, Bijoy K

    2015-08-01

    The oncoprotein cytotoxic associated gene A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori plays a pivotal role in the development of gastric cancer, so it has been an important target for anti-H. pylori drugs. Conventional drugs are currently being implemented against H. pylori. The inhibitory role of plant metabolites like curcumin against H. pylori is still a major scientific challenge. Curcumin may represent a novel promising drug against H. pylori infection without producing side effects. In the present study, a comparative analysis between curcumin and conventional drugs (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole) was carried out using databases to investigate the potential of curcumin against H. pylori targeting the CagA oncoprotein. Curcumin was filtered using Lipinski's rule of five and the druglikeness property for evaluation of pharmacological properties. Subsequently, molecular docking was employed to determine the binding affinities of curcumin and conventional drugs to the CagA oncoprotein. According to the results obtained from FireDock, the binding energy of curcumin was higher than those of amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole, except for clarithromycin, which had the highest binding energy. Accordingly, curcumin may become a promising lead compound against CagA+ H. pylori infection. PMID:25996140

  17. Flat cells come full sphere: Are mutant cytoskeletal-related proteins oncoprotein-monsters or useful immunogens?

    PubMed

    Parry, Michele L; Blanck, George

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is inherited as a dominant disease because if one allele is mutated, it contributes a mutant, destructive subunit polypeptide to collagen, which requires many subunits to form normal, polymeric, collagenous structures. Recent cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data indicate that cytoskeletal-related proteins are among the most commonly mutated proteins in human cancers, in distinct mutation frequency groups, i.e., including low mutation frequency groups. Part of the explanation for this observation is likely to be the fact that many of the coding regions for these proteins are very large, and indeed, it is likely these coding regions are mutated in many cells that never become cancerous. However, it would not be surprising if mutations in cytoskeletal proteins, when combined with oncoprotein or tumor suppressor protein mutations, had significant impacts on cancer development, for a number of reasons, including results obtained almost 5 decades ago indicating that well-spread cells in tissue culture, with well-formed cytoskeletons, were less tumorigenic than spherical cells with disrupted cytoskeletons. This raises the question, are mutant cytoskeletal proteins, which would likely interfere with polymer formation, a new class of oncoproteins, in particular, dominant negative oncoproteins? If these proteins are so commonly mutant, could they be the bases for common cancer vaccines?

  18. Flat cells come full sphere: Are mutant cytoskeletal-related proteins oncoprotein-monsters or useful immunogens?

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Michele L; Blanck, George

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is inherited as a dominant disease because if one allele is mutated, it contributes a mutant, destructive subunit polypeptide to collagen, which requires many subunits to form normal, polymeric, collagenous structures. Recent cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data indicate that cytoskeletal-related proteins are among the most commonly mutated proteins in human cancers, in distinct mutation frequency groups, i.e., including low mutation frequency groups. Part of the explanation for this observation is likely to be the fact that many of the coding regions for these proteins are very large, and indeed, it is likely these coding regions are mutated in many cells that never become cancerous. However, it would not be surprising if mutations in cytoskeletal proteins, when combined with oncoprotein or tumor suppressor protein mutations, had significant impacts on cancer development, for a number of reasons, including results obtained almost 5 decades ago indicating that well-spread cells in tissue culture, with well-formed cytoskeletons, were less tumorigenic than spherical cells with disrupted cytoskeletons. This raises the question, are mutant cytoskeletal proteins, which would likely interfere with polymer formation, a new class of oncoproteins, in particular, dominant negative oncoproteins? If these proteins are so commonly mutant, could they be the bases for common cancer vaccines? PMID:26225584

  19. The Prevalence of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in the Childhood Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ozsari, Tamer; Bora, Gulhan; Kaya, Bulent; Yakut, Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis stemming from viral causes is very common during the childhood period. Rotavirus and enteric adenovirus are the most common factors of acute gastroenteritis encountered in infants and children. However, the epidemiology of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus gastroenteritis in the east Anatolia region is not well-known. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the distribution of antigen positivity in rotavirus and enteric adenovirus antigen tests required cases and demographic data retrospectively in pediatric patients admitted to our hospital. Patients and Methods The records of stool sample analyses for 1154 patients admitted to our hospital from June 2011 to December 2011 with complaints of diarrhea were retrospectively examined. The presence of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus antigens in stool specimens was investigated by means of an immunochromatographic test. Results Viral antigens were detected in 327 (28.3%) stool specimens out of 1154. Among the positive results, the frequency was 73.7% for rotavirus and 26.2% for adenovirus. While the detected rotavirus antigen rate was high for all age groups, it was highest for children under the age of 2, with a rate of 57.1%. Moreover, the rotavirus infections were observed at a rate of 44.3% in winter and of 24.6% in autumn. Conclusions The most important factor in childhood acute gastroenteritis in east Anatolia is the rotavirus. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens should be routinely investigated as a factor in fresh stool samples for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteritis in children in the winter and autumn months. PMID:27635215

  20. Phosphorylation in vitro of Escherichia coli-produced 235R and 266R tumor antigens encoded by human adenovirus type 12 early transformation region 1A.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Loewenstein, P M; Green, M

    1985-01-01

    The tumor (T) antigens encoded by the human adenovirus early transforming region 1A (E1A) are gene regulatory proteins whose functions can immortalize cells. We have recently described the synthesis in Escherichia coli and the purification of the complete T antigens encoded by the adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) E1A 12S mRNA (235-residue [235R] T antigen) and 13S mRNA (266R T antigen). In this study, we show that the Ad12 E1A T antigens are extensively phosphorylated in Ad12-infected mammalian cells but are not phosphorylated in E. coli. Inasmuch as posttranslational phosphorylation at specific amino acid sites may be important for biological activity, we have studied the phosphorylation of the E. coli-produced T antigens in vitro by using a kinase activity isolated from cultured human KB cells. The kinase was purified about 300-fold and appears to be a cyclic AMP-independent, Ca2+-independent protein kinase requiring only ATP and Mg2+ for activity. To determine which amino acids are phosphorylated and whether phosphorylation in vitro occurs at the same amino acid sites that are phosphorylated in vivo, the Ad12 E1A T-antigen species synthesized by infected cells were metabolically labeled with 32Pi and compared with the E. coli-produced E1A T antigens labeled in vitro with [gamma-32P]ATP by using the partially purified kinase. Partial V8 proteolysis analysis gave similar patterns for in vivo- and in vitro-phosphorylated T antigen. Two-dimensional maps of tryptic phosphopeptides and of chymotryptic phosphopeptides suggested that mainly the same amino acid sites are phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo and that phosphorylation occurred at multiple sites distributed throughout the T-antigen molecule. Serine was the only amino acid that was phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro, and, surprisingly, most serines appeared to be phosphorylated. The feasibility of faithfully phosphorylating T antigens in vitro suggests that the E. coli-produced Ad12 E1A 235R and 266R T antigens

  1. Functional prediction of hypothetical proteins in human adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Dorden, Shane; Mahadevan, Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    Assigning functional information to hypothetical proteins in virus genomes is crucial for gaining insight into their proteomes. Human adenoviruses are medium sized viruses that cause a range of diseases. Their genomes possess proteins with uncharacterized function known as hypothetical proteins. Using a wide range of protein function prediction servers, functional information was obtained about these hypothetical proteins. A comparison of functional information obtained from these servers revealed that some of them produced functional information, while others provided little functional information about these human adenovirus hypothetical proteins. The PFP, ESG, PSIPRED, 3d2GO, and ProtFun servers produced the most functional information regarding these hypothetical proteins. PMID:26664031

  2. Effects of cold atmospheric plasmas on adenoviruses in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. L.; Dumler, K.; Shimizu, T.; Morfill, G. E.; Wolf, A.; Boxhammer, V.; Schlegel, J.; Gansbacher, B.; Anton, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were performed with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) to inactivate adenovirus, a non-enveloped double stranded DNA virus, in solution. The plasma source used was a surface micro-discharge technology operating in air. Various plasma diagnostic measurements and tests were performed in order to determine the efficacy of CAPs and to understand the inactivation mechanism(s). Different stages of the adenovirus ‘life cycle’ were investigated—infectivity and gene expression as well as viral replication and spread. Within 240 s of CAP treatment, inactivation of up to 6 decimal log levels can be achieved.

  3. Subversion of CtBP1-controlled macropinocytosis by human adenovirus serotype 3

    PubMed Central

    Amstutz, Beat; Gastaldelli, Michele; Kälin, Stefan; Imelli, Nicola; Boucke, Karin; Wandeler, Eliane; Mercer, Jason; Hemmi, Silvio; Greber, Urs F

    2008-01-01

    Endocytosis supports cell communication, growth, and pathogen infection. The species B human adenovirus serotype 3 (Ad3) is associated with epidemic conjunctivitis, and fatal respiratory and systemic disease. Here we show that Ad3 uses dynamin-independent endocytosis for rapid infectious entry into epithelial and haematopoietic cells. Unlike Ad5, which uses dynamin-dependent endocytosis, Ad3 endocytosis spatially and temporally coincided with enhanced fluid-phase uptake. It was sensitive to macropinocytosis inhibitors targeting F-actin, protein kinase C, the sodium–proton exchanger, and Rac1 but not Cdc42. Infectious Ad3 macropinocytosis required viral activation of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and the C-terminal binding protein 1 of E1A (CtBP1), recruited to macropinosomes. These macropinosomes also contained the Ad3 receptors CD46 and αv integrins. CtBP1 is a phosphorylation target of PAK1, and is bifunctionally involved in membrane traffic and transcriptional repression of cell cycle, cancer, and innate immunity pathways. Phosphorylation-defective S147A-CtBP1 blocked Ad3 but not Ad5 infection, providing a direct link between PAK1 and CtBP1. The data show that viruses induce macropinocytosis for infectious entry, a pathway used in antigen presentation and cell migration. PMID:18323776

  4. Human Adenovirus Type 2 but Not Adenovirus Type 12 Is Mutagenic at the Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Locus of Cloned Rat Liver Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paraskeva, Christos; Roberts, Carl; Biggs, Paul; Gallimore, Phillip H.

    1983-01-01

    Using resistance to the base analog 8-azaguanine as a genetic marker, we showed that adenovirus type 2, but not adenovirus type 12, is mutagenic at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus of cloned diploid rat liver epithelial cells. Adenovirus type 2 increased the frequency of 8-azaguanine-resistant colonies by up to ninefold over the spontaneous frequency, depending on expression time and virus dose. PMID:6572280

  5. Bovine adenovirus type 10 identified in fatal cases of adenovirus-associated enteric disease in cattle by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, J A; Benkö, M; Moffett, D A; Harrach, B

    1996-01-01

    A severe, naturally occurring enteric disease of cattle in which adenovirus inclusions are present in the intestinal vascular endothelium has been recognized in several countries; three different adenovirus serotypes have been isolated from affected animals. An in situ hybridization technique for the detection of bovine adenoviral DNA was developed and applied to tissue from 13 cattle in Northern Ireland diagnosed to have the disease. Bovine adenovirus serotype 10 (BAV-10) was identified in the vascular inclusions of all cattle, providing strong evidence that adenoviral enteric vascular disease in cattle is associated with this serotype. The existence of BAV-10 has only recently been recognized. The first molecular biology-based technique for the diagnosis of BAV-10 infection is described. The animals in the present study are the first in which BAV-10 has had a confirmed role in a pathologic process. PMID:8727916

  6. CD46 Is a Cellular Receptor for All Species B Adenoviruses except Types 3 and 7

    PubMed Central

    Marttila, Marko; Persson, David; Gustafsson, Dan; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Atkinson, John P.; Wadell, Göran; Arnberg, Niklas

    2005-01-01

    The 51 human adenovirus serotypes are divided into six species (A to F). Adenovirus serotypes from all species except species B utilize the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor for attachment to host cells in vitro. Species B adenoviruses primarily cause ocular and respiratory tract infections, but certain serotypes are also associated with renal disease. We have previously demonstrated that adenovirus type 11 (species B) uses CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) as a cellular receptor instead of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (A. Segerman et al., J. Virol. 77:9183-9191, 2003). In the present study, we found that transfection with human CD46 cDNA rendered poorly permissive Chinese hamster ovary cells more permissive to infection by all species B adenovirus serotypes except adenovirus types 3 and 7. Moreover, rabbit antiserum against human CD46 blocked or efficiently inhibited all species B serotypes except adenovirus types 3 and 7 from infecting human A549 cells. We also sequenced the gene encoding the fiber protein of adenovirus type 50 (species B) and compared it with the corresponding amino acid sequences from selected serotypes, including all other serotypes of species B. From the results obtained, we conclude that CD46 is a major cellular receptor on A549 cells for all species B adenoviruses except types 3 and 7. PMID:16254377

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Boheemen, S. van; Jong, A.A.W. de; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L.; Kuiken, T.

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  8. Transport of human adenoviruses in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinos, Petros; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.; Tselepi, Maria A.; Bellou, Maria; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Vantarakis, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater may be contaminated with infective human enteric viruses from various wastewater discharges, sanitary landfills, septic tanks, agricultural practices, and artificial groundwater recharge. Coliphages have been widely used as surrogates of enteric viruses, because they share many fundamental properties and features. Although a large number of studies focusing on various factors (i.e. pore water solution chemistry, fluid velocity, moisture content, temperature, and grain size) that affect biocolloid (bacteria, viruses) transport have been published over the past two decades, little attention has been given toward human adenoviruses (hAdVs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pore water velocity on hAdV transport in water saturated laboratory-scale columns packed with glass beads. The effects of pore water velocity on virus transport and retention in porous media was examined at three pore water velocities (0.39, 0.75, and 1.22 cm/min). The results indicated that all estimated average mass recovery values for hAdV were lower than those of coliphages, which were previously reported in the literature by others for experiments conducted under similar experimental conditions. However, no obvious relationship between hAdV mass recovery and water velocity could be established from the experimental results. The collision efficiencies were quantified using the classical colloid filtration theory. Average collision efficiency, α, values decreased with decreasing flow rate, Q, and pore water velocity, U, but no significant effect of U on α was observed. Furthermore, the surface properties of viruses and glass beads were used to construct classical DLVO potential energy profiles. The results revealed that the experimental conditions of this study were unfavorable to deposition and that no aggregation between virus particles is expected to occur. A thorough understanding of the key processes governing virus transport is pivotal for public

  9. Delivery of avian cytokines by adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Pooley, C; Lowenthal, J W

    2000-01-01

    A fowl adenovirus serotype 8 (FAV-8) recombinant was constructed by inserting an expression cassette consisting of the FAV major late promoter/splice leader sequences (MLP/SL), the chicken interferon-gamma (ChIFN-gamma) gene and SV40 polyA into sites in the right hand end of the FAV-8 genome. One recombinant (A3-13) was constructed by an insertion of ChIFN-gamma into a 1.3 kilobase pair (kbp) deletion which removed a putative open reading frame (ORF) with identity to the CELO (FAV serotype 1) 36 kDa homologue. A second recombinant (S4) removed a further 0.9 kbp and a third recombinant (AA1) was constructed in a small 50 base pair (bp) SpeI deletion. The recombinants displayed differing growth characteristics in CK monolayers. A3-13 grew slowly and only attained a titre of 10(5) pfu/ml, S4 had intermediate growth and AA1 showed wild type growth kinetics. These differing growth properties indicated that removal of the 36 kDa homologue had an effect on growth in vitro. Supernatants from CK monolayers infected with the recombinant virus were assayed for the production of ChIFN-gamma. Detectable levels of ChIFN-gamma were observed in supernatants as early as 24 h post infection (p.i.), peaked at 48 h p.i. and this level was maintained for at least 10 days. The level of production of ChIFN-gamma correlated with each recombinant's growth characteristics in vitro. Chickens treated with rFAV-ChIFN-gamma showed increased weight gains compared to controls and suffered reduced weight loss when challenged with the coccidial parasite Eimeria acervulina. PMID:10717297

  10. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  11. Adenovirus Dodecahedron, as a Drug Delivery Vector

    PubMed Central

    Zochowska, Monika; Paca, Agnieszka; Schoehn, Guy; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Chroboczek, Jadwiga; Dublet, Bernard; Szolajska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Background Bleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer antibiotic used in many cancer regimens. Its utility is limited by systemic toxicity and dose-dependent pneumonitis able to progress to lung fibrosis. The latter can affect up to nearly 50% of the total patient population, out of which 3% will die. We propose to improve BLM delivery by tethering it to an efficient delivery vector. Adenovirus (Ad) dodecahedron base (DB) is a particulate vector composed of 12 copies of a pentameric viral protein responsible for virus penetration. The vector efficiently penetrates the plasma membrane, is liberated in the cytoplasm and has a propensity to concentrate around the nucleus; up to 300000 particles can be observed in one cell in vitro. Principal Findings Dodecahedron (Dd) structure is preserved at up to about 50°C at pH 7–8 and during dialysis, freezing and drying in the speed-vac in the presence of 150 mM ammonium sulfate, as well as during lyophilization in the presence of cryoprotectants. The vector is also stable in human serum for 2 h at 37°C. We prepared a Dd-BLM conjugate which upon penetration induced death of transformed cells. Similarly to free bleomycin, Dd-BLM caused dsDNA breaks. Significantly, effective cytotoxic concentration of BLM delivered with Dd was 100 times lower than that of free bleomycin. Conclusions/Significance Stability studies show that Dds can be conveniently stored and transported, and can potentially be used for therapeutic purposes under various climates. Successful BLM delivery by Ad Dds demonstrates that the use of virus like particle (VLP) results in significantly improved drug bioavailability. These experiments open new vistas for delivery of non-permeant labile drugs. PMID:19440379

  12. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses isolated from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Skerratt, Lee F; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-11-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; van de Bildt, M W G; Schapendonk, C M E; van Leeuwen, M; van Boheemen, S; de Jong, A A W; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species.

  14. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses isolated from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Skerratt, Lee F; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-11-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections. PMID:26342465

  15. LMO2 Oncoprotein Stability in T-Cell Leukemia Requires Direct LDB1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Layer, Justin H.; Alford, Catherine E.; McDonald, W. Hayes

    2015-01-01

    LMO2 is a component of multisubunit DNA-binding transcription factor complexes that regulate gene expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development. Enforced expression of LMO2 causes leukemia by inducing hematopoietic stem cell-like features in T-cell progenitor cells, but the biochemical mechanisms of LMO2 function have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we systematically dissected the LMO2/LDB1-binding interface to investigate the role of this interaction in T-cell leukemia. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the LIM interaction domain of LDB1 revealed a discrete motif, R320LITR, required for LMO2 binding. Most strikingly, coexpression of full-length, wild-type LDB1 increased LMO2 steady-state abundance, whereas coexpression of mutant proteins deficient in LMO2 binding compromised LMO2 stability. These mutant LDB1 proteins also exerted dominant negative effects on growth and transcription in diverse leukemic cell lines. Mass spectrometric analysis of LDB1 binding partners in leukemic lines supports the notion that LMO2/LDB1 function in leukemia occurs in the context of multisubunit complexes, which also protect the LMO2 oncoprotein from degradation. Collectively, these data suggest that the assembly of LMO2 into complexes, via direct LDB1 interaction, is a potential molecular target that could be exploited in LMO2-driven leukemias resistant to existing chemotherapy regimens. PMID:26598604

  16. Structural role of the conserved cysteines in the dimerization of the viral transmembrane oncoprotein E5.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Dirk; Hoffmann, Silke; Afonin, Sergii; Vollmer, Stefanie; Benamira, Soraya; Langer, Birgid; Bürck, Jochen; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Ulrich, Anne S

    2010-09-22

    The E5 oncoprotein is the major transforming protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1. This 44-residue transmembrane protein can interact with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, leading to ligand-independent activation and cell transformation. For productive interaction, E5 needs to dimerize via a C-terminal pair of cysteines, though a recent study suggested that its truncated transmembrane segment can dimerize on its own. To analyze the structure of the full protein in a membrane environment and elucidate the role of the Cys-Ser-Cys motif, we produced recombinantly the wild-type protein and four cysteine mutants. Comparison by circular dichroism in detergent micelles and lipid vesicular dispersion and by NMR in trifluoroethanol demonstrates that the absence of one or both cysteines does not influence the highly α-helical secondary structure, nor does it impair the ability of E5 to dimerize, observations that are further supported by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We also observed assemblies of higher order. Oriented circular dichroism in lipid bilayers shows that E5 is aligned as a transmembrane helix with a slight tilt angle, and that this membrane alignment is also independent of any cysteines. We conclude that the Cys-containing motif represents a disordered region of the protein that serves as an extra covalent connection for stabilization.

  17. Therapeutic bispecific T-cell engager antibody targeting the intracellular oncoprotein WT1.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tao; Pankov, Dmitry; Scott, Andrew; Korontsvit, Tatyana; Zakhaleva, Victoriya; Xu, Yiyang; Xiang, Jingyi; Yan, Su; de Morais Guerreiro, Manuel Direito; Veomett, Nicholas; Dubrovsky, Leonid; Curcio, Michael; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Liu, Cheng; O'Reilly, Richard J; Scheinberg, David A

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular tumor antigens presented on the cell surface in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules have been targeted by T cell-based therapies, but there has been little progress in developing small-molecule drugs or antibodies directed to these antigens. Here we describe a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody derived from a T-cell receptor (TCR)-mimic monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESK1, which binds a peptide derived from the intracellular oncoprotein WT1 presented on HLA-A*02:01. Despite the very low density of the complexes at the cell surface, ESK1-BiTE selectively activated and induced proliferation of cytolytic human T cells that killed cells from multiple leukemias and solid tumors in vitro and in mice. We also discovered that in an autologous in vitro setting, ESK1-BiTE induced a robust secondary CD8 T-cell response specific for tumor-associated antigens other than WT1. Our study provides an approach that targets tumor-specific intracellular antigens without using cell therapy and suggests that epitope spreading could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of this BiTE.

  18. MUC1 oncoprotein suppresses activation of the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak; Ahmad, Rehan; Chen, Dongshu; Kumar, Shailendra; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The MUC1 oncoprotein interacts with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase and blocks nuclear targeting of c-Abl in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Mutation of the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain at Tyr-60 disrupts the MUC1-c-Abl interaction. The present results demonstrate that the MUC1(Y60F) mutant is a potent inducer of the ARF tumor suppressor. MUC1(Y60F) induces transcription of the ARF locus by a c-Abl-dependent mechanism that promotes CUL-4A-mediated nuclear export of the replication protein Cdc6. The functional significance of these findings is that MUC1(Y60F)-induced ARF expression and thereby inhibition of MDM2 results in the upregulation of p53 and the homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) serine/threonine kinase. HIPK2-mediated phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-46 was further associated with a shift from expression of the cell cycle arrest-related p21 gene to the apoptosis-related PUMA gene. We also show that the MUC1(Y60F) mutant functions as dominant negative inhibitor of tumorigenicity. These findings indicate that the oncogenic function of MUC1 is conferred by suppressing activation of the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway. PMID:18981727

  19. MUC1-C oncoprotein promotes FLT3 receptor activation in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suiyang; Yin, Li; Stroopinsky, Dina; Rajabi, Hasan; Puissant, Alexandre; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Avigan, David; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Blasts from approximately one-third of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbor activating mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor tyrosine kinase that confer a poor prognosis. The Mucin 1-C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in AML blasts and stem cells; however, there is no known interaction between MUC1-C and FLT3. The present studies demonstrate that MUC1-C associates with wild-type and mutant FLT3 in AML cells. Targeting MUC1-C with the cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor GO-203 disrupts MUC1-C/FLT3 complexes and downregulates FLT3 activation. GO-203 treatment of AML cells was also associated with inhibition of the FLT3 downstream effectors AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and STAT5. The results further show that AML cells with FLT3-activating mutations and resistant to the FLT3 inhibitor midostaurin/PKC412 are sensitive to GO-203–induced growth arrest and death. Moreover, GO-203 increases sensitivity of mutant FLT3 AML cells to FLT3 inhibitor treatment. These results indicate that MUC1-C contributes to FLT3 activation in AML cells and that targeting MUC1-C inhibits the FLT3 signaling pathway. Our findings support the development of MUC1-C inhibitors alone and in combination with agents that target FLT3 for the treatment of wild-type and mutant FLT3 AML. PMID:24282218

  20. TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein inhibits autophagy, apoptosis, and necroptosis under nutrient/serum-deprived condition

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jingjing; Lee, Soonduck; Kim, Kyeri; Park, Yeonji; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2015-01-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncogenic protein has been shown to have multiple biological functions in cells. In this study, we demonstrate that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncoprotein by inhibiting autophagy, apoptosis, and necroptosis of cancer cells and eventually helping them to survive under the nutrient/serum starved condition. TRIP-Br1 expression level was significantly increased in conditions with low levels of nutrients. Nutrient depleted conditions were induced by culturing cancer cells until they were overcrowded with high cell density or in media deprived of glucose, amino acids, or serum. Among them, serum starvation significantly enhanced the expression of TRIP-Br1 only in all tested breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, MDA-MB-435, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but not in the three normal cell lines (MCF10A, HfCH8, and NIH3T3). As compared with the control cells, the introduction of TRIP-Br1 silencing siRNA into MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells accelerated cell death by inducing apoptosis and necroptosis. In this process, TRIP-Br1 confers resistance to serum starvation-induced cell deaths by stabilizing the XIAP protein and inhibiting cellular ROS production. Moreover, our data also show that the intracellular increase of TRIP-Br1 protein resulting from serum starvation seems to occur in part through the blockage of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26334958

  1. Therapeutic bispecific T-cell engager antibody targeting the intracellular oncoprotein WT1.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tao; Pankov, Dmitry; Scott, Andrew; Korontsvit, Tatyana; Zakhaleva, Victoriya; Xu, Yiyang; Xiang, Jingyi; Yan, Su; de Morais Guerreiro, Manuel Direito; Veomett, Nicholas; Dubrovsky, Leonid; Curcio, Michael; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Liu, Cheng; O'Reilly, Richard J; Scheinberg, David A

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular tumor antigens presented on the cell surface in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules have been targeted by T cell-based therapies, but there has been little progress in developing small-molecule drugs or antibodies directed to these antigens. Here we describe a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody derived from a T-cell receptor (TCR)-mimic monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESK1, which binds a peptide derived from the intracellular oncoprotein WT1 presented on HLA-A*02:01. Despite the very low density of the complexes at the cell surface, ESK1-BiTE selectively activated and induced proliferation of cytolytic human T cells that killed cells from multiple leukemias and solid tumors in vitro and in mice. We also discovered that in an autologous in vitro setting, ESK1-BiTE induced a robust secondary CD8 T-cell response specific for tumor-associated antigens other than WT1. Our study provides an approach that targets tumor-specific intracellular antigens without using cell therapy and suggests that epitope spreading could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of this BiTE. PMID:26389576

  2. TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein inhibits autophagy, apoptosis, and necroptosis under nutrient/serum-deprived condition.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samil; Li, Chengping; Duan, Jingjing; Lee, Soonduck; Kim, Kyeri; Park, Yeonji; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2015-10-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncogenic protein has been shown to have multiple biological functions in cells. In this study, we demonstrate that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncoprotein by inhibiting autophagy, apoptosis, and necroptosis of cancer cells and eventually helping them to survive under the nutrient/serum starved condition. TRIP-Br1 expression level was significantly increased in conditions with low levels of nutrients. Nutrient depleted conditions were induced by culturing cancer cells until they were overcrowded with high cell density or in media deprived of glucose, amino acids, or serum. Among them, serum starvation significantly enhanced the expression of TRIP-Br1 only in all tested breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, MDA-MB-435, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but not in the three normal cell lines (MCF10A, HfCH8, and NIH3T3). As compared with the control cells, the introduction of TRIP-Br1 silencing siRNA into MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells accelerated cell death by inducing apoptosis and necroptosis. In this process, TRIP-Br1 confers resistance to serum starvation-induced cell deaths by stabilizing the XIAP protein and inhibiting cellular ROS production. Moreover, our data also show that the intracellular increase of TRIP-Br1 protein resulting from serum starvation seems to occur in part through the blockage of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  3. Therapeutic bispecific T-cell engager antibody targeting the intracellular oncoprotein WT1

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Tao; Pankov, Dmitry; Scott, Andrew; Korontsvit, Tatyana; Zakhaleva, Victoriya; Xu, Yiyang; Xiang, Jingyi; Yan, Su; de Morais Guerreiro, Manuel Direito; Veomett, Nicholas; Dubrovsky, Leonid; Curcio, Michael; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Liu, Cheng; O’Reilly, Richard J; Scheinberg, David A

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular tumor antigens presented on the cell surface in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules have been targeted by T cell–based therapies, but there has been little progress in developing small-molecule drugs or antibodies directed to these antigens. Here we describe a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody derived from a T-cell receptor (TCR)-mimic monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESK1, which binds a peptide derived from the intracellular oncoprotein WT1 presented on HLA-A*02:01. Despite the very low density of the complexes at the cell surface, ESK1-BiTE selectively activated and induced proliferation of cytolytic human T cells that killed cells from multiple leukemias and solid tumors in vitro and in mice. We also discovered that in an autologous in vitro setting, ESK1-BiTE induced a robust secondary CD8 T-cell response specific for tumor-associated antigens other than WT1. Our study provides an approach that targets tumor-specific intracellular antigens without using cell therapy and suggests that epitope spreading could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of this BiTE. PMID:26389576

  4. The oncoprotein HBXIP promotes migration of breast cancer cells via GCN5-mediated microtubule acetylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Leilei; Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2015-03-13

    We have documented that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is able to promote migration of breast cancer cells. A subset of acetylated microtubules that accumulates in the cell leading edge is necessary for cell polarization and directional migration. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that HBXIP contributes to migration of breast cancer cells by supporting microtubule acetylation in breast cancer cells. We found that HBXIP could induce acetylated microtubules accumulating into the leading protrusion in wound-induced directional migration in breast cancer cells by immunofluorescence staining analysis. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase the acetylation of α-tubulin in the cells by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, we observed that acetyltransferase GCN5 was involved in the event that HBXIP induced increase of acetylated microtubules and their expansion in protrusions in breast cancer cells by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, GCN5 was required for the HBXIP-enhanced migration of breast cancer cells by wound healing assay. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP promotes the migration of breast cancer cells through modulating microtubule acetylation mediated by GCN5. Therapeutically, HBXIP may serve as a novel target in breast cancer.

  5. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 DNA and E5 oncoprotein expression in water buffalo fibropapillomas.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, O; Borzacchiello, G; Nava, D; Iovane, G; Russo, V; Vecchio, D; D'Ausilio, F; Gault, E A; Campo, M S; Paciello, O

    2009-07-01

    Papillomas and fibropapillomas may occur in the skin and in different organs in animals. Ten different genotypes of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been identified. BPV-1 through BPV-10 are all strictly species-specific, but BPV-1/2 may also infect other species such as equids, inducing fibroblastic tumors. BPV-1 and BPV-2 are associated with fibropapillomas in cattle; these tumors are formed by excessive proliferation of virus-infected dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. Nine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were examined for the presence of multiple cutaneous and perivulvar tumors. Cutaneous and perivulvar fibropapillomatosis were confirmed histologically. Negative-stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus-like particles in the fibropapillomas, and papillomaviral DNA was also detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The amplified long control region (LCR) DNA sequence was identical to that of BPV-1. The BPV-1 E5 oncoprotein was strongly expressed in the tumor cells thus confirming a causal role of the virus. This article represents the first report of cutaneous, perivulvar, and vulvar fibropapilloma associated with BPV-1 infection in the water buffalo and describes another example of cross-species infection by BPV-1.

  6. Establishment and characterization of hamster cell lines transformed by restriction endonuclease fragments of adenovirus 5.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D T; Branton, P E; Yee, S P; Bacchetti, S; Graham, F L

    1984-01-01

    We have established a library of hamster cells transformed by adenovirus 5 DNA fragments comprising all (XhoI-C, 0 to 16 map units) or only a part (HindIII-G, 0 to 7.8 map units) of early region 1 (E1: 0 to 11.2 map units). These lines have been analyzed in terms of content of viral DNA, expression of E1 antigens, and capacity to induce tumors in hamsters. All cells tested were found to express up to eight proteins encoded within E1A (0 to 4.5 map units) with apparent molecular weights between 52,000 (52K) and 25K. Both G and C fragment-transformed lines expressed a 19K antigen encoded within E1B (4.5 to 11.2 map units), whereas an E1B 58K protein was detected in C fragment-transformed, but not G-fragment-transformed, lines. No clear distinction could be drawn between cells transformed by HindIII-G and by XhoI-C in terms of morphology or tumorigenicity, suggesting that the E1B 58K antigen plays no major role in the maintenance of oncogenic transformation, although possible involvement of truncated forms of 58K cannot be ruled out. Sera were collected from tumor-bearing animals and examined for ability to immunoprecipitate proteins from infected cells. The relative avidity of sera for different proteins was characteristic of the cell line used for tumor induction, and the specificity generally reflected the array of viral proteins expressed by the corresponding transformed cells. However, one notable observation was that even though all transformed lines examined expressed antigens encoded by both the 1.1- and 0.9-kilobase mRNAs transcribed from E1A, tumor sera made against these lines only precipitated products of the 1.1-kilobase message. Thus, two families of E1A proteins, highly related in terms of primary amino acid sequence, appear to be immunologically quite distinct. Images PMID:6690708

  7. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  8. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  14. Targeting species D adenoviruses replication to counteract the epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, Natalia A; Speiseder, Thomas; Groitl, Peter; Spirin, Pavel V; Prokofjeva, Maria M; Lebedev, Timofey D; Rubtsov, Petr M; Lam, Elena; Riecken, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Dobner, Thomas; Prassolov, Vladimir S

    2015-06-01

    Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses causing various infections; their pathogenicity varies dependent on virus species and type. Although acute infections can sometimes take severe courses, they are rarely fatal in immune-competent individuals. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are hyperacute and highly contagious infections of the eye caused by human adenovirus types within species D. Currently there is no causal treatment available to counteract these diseases effectively. The E2B region of the adenovirus genome encodes for the viral DNA polymerase, which is required for adenoviral DNA replication. Here we propose novel model systems to test this viral key factor, DNA polymerase, as a putative target for the development of efficient antiviral therapy based on RNA interference. Using our model cell lines we found that different small interfering RNAs mediate significant suppression (up to 90%) of expression levels of viral DNA polymerase upon transfection. Moreover, permanent expression of short hairpin RNA based on the most effective small interfering RNA led to a highly significant, more than tenfold reduction in replication for different human group D adenoviruses involved in ocular infections.

  15. Serologic and hexon phylogenetic analysis of ruminant adenoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the antigenic relationship among ruminant adenoviruses and determine their phylogenetic relationship based on the deduced hexon gene amino acid sequence. Results of reciprocal cross-neutralization tests demonstrated antigenic relationships in either on...

  16. Adenovirus infection reverses the antiviral state induced by human interferon.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1987-04-01

    HeLa cells treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon do not synthesize poliovirus proteins. The antiviral state against poliovirus is reversed if cells are previously infected with adenovirus type 5. A late gene product seems to be involved in this reversion, since no effect is observed at early stages of infection or in the presence of aphidicolin.

  17. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  18. Isolation of adenovirus from lambs with upper respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pommer, J; Schamber, G

    1991-07-01

    The role of viruses in the etiology of recurrent upper respiratory disease in newly weaned lambs was studied during 1984-1985 at the North Dakota Sheep Experiment Station. Serum samples collected from lambs at weaning, from lambs with signs of respiratory disease, and 3 weeks following the onset of clinical signs were tested for antibodies to ovine adenovirus (OAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza type-3 virus (PI-3). Virus isolation studies were performed on nasal secretions samples taken at the same time. Parainfluenza type-3 was isolated from 1 of 275 lambs tested, and there was 2.5% overall 4-fold increase in antibody titer to PI-3 during the 2-year study. An adenovirus with a different restriction endonuclease digestion pattern from that previously reported adenovirus strains in the United States was isolated from 13 of 275 nasal secretions collected from lambs at the time of weaning. There was a 17.6% overall 4-fold increase in seroconversion to the adenovirus isolated from the lambs with clinical disease.

  19. Molecular biology of adenovirus type 2 semipermissive infections. I. Viral growth and expression of viral replicative functions during restricted adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Eggerding, F A; Pierce, W C

    1986-01-15

    As an initial step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying host cell restriction of adenovirus 2 (Ad2) replication, we have studied various cell lines derived from hamster (CHO-K1), rat (CREF, NRK-49F, C-3, C-9), and mouse (3T3-Swiss) tissues to determine their degree of permissivity to Ad2 replication. For each cell line tested, the time course of Ad2 growth was determined; the yield of infectious virus, as measured by titration on HeLa cell monolayers, was reduced 3 to 5 logs. This result is independent of the multiplicity of infection at multiplicities between 4 and 100 plaque-forming units (PFU) per cell. The Western immunoblotting technique was used to quantitate the amounts of early proteins (E1A 45-54K proteins, E1B 21 and 58K proteins, E2A 72K DNA binding protein) and late structural proteins (hexon, fiber) produced during restricted infections. All cell lines expressed 72K DNA binding protein and variable levels of other early proteins. C-3, C-9, and NRK-49F cells expressed hexon as well as low, but detectable levels of fiber protein. Mouse 3T3-Swiss cells failed to synthesize any detectable levels of late structural proteins. DNA synthesis analysis indicated all rodent cell lines were capable of replicating viral DNA. A decreased rate of viral DNA synthesis was observed in CREF cells. Evidence is presented which suggests newly synthesized viral DNA is unstable in 3T3-Swiss cells.

  20. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of > 95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. PMID:25173815

  1. Immunoexpression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Speck, N M de Gois; Focchi, G R de Azevedo; Schimidt, M A; Marques, R M; Ribalta, J C Lascasas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18 (E6 and E7) oncoproteins in cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. These results were also compared to the persistence and/or recurrence of lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Cervical samples from 158 patients were divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of HSIL in women who were or were not HIV-positive. By using the tissue microarray technique, immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Cervical samples from 95 HIV-positive women and 63 HIV-negative women were studied. A statistically significant difference was found in the immunoexpression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins in samples from HIV-positive women with HSIL and that of women with non-neoplastic tissue (P < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant correlation between the immunoexpression of E6 (P = 0.012) and E7 (P < 0.001) oncoproteins in lesion persistence among HIV-positive women. Within the limitations of this study, the immunoexpression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins may have prognostic value regarding lesion persistence in HIV-positive women. PMID:26909984

  2. Immunoexpression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Speck, N M de Gois; Focchi, G R de Azevedo; Schimidt, M A; Marques, R M; Ribalta, J C Lascasas

    2016-02-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18 (E6 and E7) oncoproteins in cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. These results were also compared to the persistence and/or recurrence of lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Cervical samples from 158 patients were divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of HSIL in women who were or were not HIV-positive. By using the tissue microarray technique, immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Cervical samples from 95 HIV-positive women and 63 HIV-negative women were studied. A statistically significant difference was found in the immunoexpression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins in samples from HIV-positive women with HSIL and that of women with non-neoplastic tissue (P < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant correlation between the immunoexpression of E6 (P = 0.012) and E7 (P < 0.001) oncoproteins in lesion persistence among HIV-positive women. Within the limitations of this study, the immunoexpression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins may have prognostic value regarding lesion persistence in HIV-positive women.

  3. [Preparation of Recombinant Human Adenoviruses Labeled with miniSOG].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Xiao, Rong; Guo, Xiaojuan; Qu, Jianguo; Lu, Zhuozhuang; Hong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We wished to study the intracellular transport of adenoviruses. We constructed a novel recombinant adenovirus in which the structural protein IX was labeled with a mini-singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG). The miniSOG gene was synthesized by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned to the pcDNA3 vector, and expressed in 293 cells. Activation of miniSOG generated sufficient numbers of singlet oxygen molecules to catalyze polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To construct miniSOG-labelled recombinant adenoviruses, the miniSOG gene was subcloned downstream of the IX gene in a pShuttle plasmid. Adenoviral plasmid pAd5-IXSOG was generated by homologous recombination of the modified shuttle plasmid (pShuttle-IXSOG) with the backbone plasmid (pAdeasy-1) in the BJ5183 strain of Eschericia coli. Adenovirus HAdV-5-IXSOG was rescued by transfection of 293 cells with the linearized pAd5-IXSOG. After propagation, virions were purified using the CsC1 ultracentrifugation method. Finally, HAdV-5-IXSOG in 2.0 mL with a particle titer of 6 x 1011 vp/mL was obtained. Morphology of HAdV-5-IXSOG was verified by TEM. Fusion of IX with the miniSOG gene was confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, miniSOG-labeled recombinant adenoviruses were constructed, which could be valuable tools for virus tracking by TEM. PMID:27295881

  4. Immunohistochemical determination of ETS-1 oncoprotein expression in urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sari, Aysegul; Calli, Aylin; Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy; Kara, Cengiz; Dincel, Cetin; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya

    2012-03-01

    ETS-1 protooncogene is an important transcription factor that plays a role in the regulation of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. ETS-1 is thought to be related to the growth of carcinoma cells by its regulation of the transcription of matrix metalloproteinases and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression pattern of ETS-1 oncoprotein in urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder and determine its relationship with histopathologic parameters, including tumor grade and stage. One hundred six specimens of urothelial carcinoma and a total of 14 normal urothelium were analyzed immunohistochemically with anti-ETS-1 monoclonal antibody. The normal urothelium showed positive ETS-1 immunostaining. ETS-1 expression remained high in low-grade and noninvasive tumors, whereas it frequently decreased in high-grade or invasive carcinomas. Interestingly, ETS-1 was highly expressed in the basal cell layer of the noninvasive urothelial carcinomas. ETS-1 expression showed a strong negative correlation with the tumor grade (P<0.001; r, -0.67) and stage (P<0.001; r, -0.75). The nonmuscle-invasive tumors (pTa+pT1) and noninvasive tumors (pTa) had significantly higher ETS-1 expression than the muscle-invasive tumors (pT2; P<0.001) and invasive tumors (pT1+pT2; P<0.001), respectively. Results of our study show that decreased ETS-1 expression is significantly associated with high grade and advanced stage in urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder, and that the downregulation of ETS-1 expression may be a marker of the aggressiveness of such malignancies.

  5. Targeting the MUC1-C oncoprotein inhibits self-renewal capacity of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alam, Maroof; Rajabi, Hasan; Ahmad, Rehan; Jin, Caining; Kufe, Donald

    2014-05-15

    The capacity of breast cancer cells to form mammospheres in non-adherent serum-free culture is used as a functional characteristic of the self-renewing stem-like cell population. The present studies demonstrate that silencing expression of the MUC1-C oncoprotein inhibits growth of luminal MCF-7 and HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 breast cancer cells as mammospheres. We also show that triple-negative MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells are dependent on MUC1-C for growth as mammospheres and tumor xenografts. Similar results were obtained when MUC1-C function was inhibited by expression of a MUC1-C(CQCAQA) mutant. Moreover, treatment with the MUC1-C inhibitor GO-203, a cell penetrating peptide that binds to the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain and blocks MUC1-C function, confirmed the importance of this target for self-renewal. The mechanistic basis for these findings is supported by the demonstration that MUC1-C activates NF-κB, occupies the IL-8 promoter with NF-κB, and induces IL-8 transcription. MUC1-C also induces NF-κB-dependent expression of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR1. In concert with these results, targeting MUC1-C with GO-203 suppresses IL-8/CXCR1 expression and disrupts the formation of established mammospheres. Our findings indicate that MUC1-C contributes to the self-renewal of breast cancer cells by activating the NF-κBIL-8/CXCR1 pathway and that targeting MUC1-C represents a potential approach for the treatment of this population.

  6. Mutual reinforcement of inflammation and carcinogenesis by the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobumi; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Yanagiya, Kohei; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Kanda, Hiroaki; Bingo, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Yumiko; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strain delivers the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells and at the same time elicits stomach inflammation. To experimentally investigate the pathophysiological interplay between CagA and inflammation, transgenic mice systemically expressing the bacterial cagA gene were treated with a colitis inducer, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Compared with control mice, DSS-induced colitis was markedly deteriorated in cagA-transgenic mice. In the colonic epithelia of cagA-transgenic mice, there was a substantial decrease in the level of IκB, which binds and sequesters NF-κB in the cytoplasm. This IκB reduction was due to CagA-mediated inhibition of PAR1, which may stimulate IκB degradation by perturbing microtubule stability. Whereas the CagA-mediated IκB reduction did not automatically activate NF-κB, it lowered the threshold of NF-κB activation by inflammogenic insults, thereby contributing to colitis exacerbation in cagA-transgenic mice. CagA also activates inflammasomes independently of NF-κB signaling, which further potentiates inflammation. The incidence of colonic dysplasia was elevated in DSS-treated cagA-transgenic mice due to a robust increase in the number of pre-cancerous flat-type dysplasias. Thus, CagA deteriorated inflammation, whereas inflammation strengthened the oncogenic potential of CagA. This work revealed that H. pylori CagA and inflammation reinforce each other in creating a downward spiral that instigates neoplastic transformation. PMID:25944120

  7. Melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide vs melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide (ECOG E1A06) in untreated multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A Keith; Jacobus, Susanna; Fonseca, Rafael; Weiss, Matthias; Callander, Natalie S; Chanan-Khan, Asher A; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2015-09-10

    This phase 3 trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] E1A06) compared melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT-T) with melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide (mPR-R) in patients with untreated multiple myeloma (MM). A noninferiority design was used, and inferiority was defined as a progression-free survival (PFS) hazard ratio (HR) of MPT-T/mPR-R ≤0.82. A total of 306 patients enrolled, with a median age of 75.7 years. Median follow-up was 40.7 months. Median time on therapy was 12.1 months and 23.1 months for the 46.6% of treated patients who received maintenance, with no differences by arm. Median PFS was 21 months on MPT-T and 18.7 months on mPR-R (HR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.09). Overall survival was 52.6 months (MPT-T) vs 47.7 months (mPR-R) (P = .476). Per-protocol response rates were 63.6% (MPT-T) and 59.9% (mPR-R) (P = .557). Grade ≥3 nonhematologic toxicity was 59.5% for MPT-T vs 40.0% for mPR-R (P = .001). Second malignancies were observed in 18 MPT-T patients vs 14 mPR-R patients. Quality-of-life analysis favored mPR-R by induction end (P = .007). Use of MPT-T or mPR-R in elderly patients with untreated MM demonstrates no statistical or clinically relevant differences in response rates, PFS, and OS; however, quality of life at end of induction was improved and lower toxicity reported with mPR-R. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00602641.

  8. miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, Declan J.; Patel, Daksha; McCance, Dennis J.

    2014-01-05

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. - Highlights: • miR-24 and miR-205 are induced during keratinocyte differentiation. • This induction is lost in keratinocytes expressing HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7. • miR-205 is dependent upon pRb expression. • miR-24 targets p27 in cycling keratinocytes.

  9. HPV16 Oncoproteins Induce MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 Imbalance in Primary Keratinocytes: Possible Implications in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardeal, Laura Beatriz da Silva; Boccardo, Enrique; Termini, Lara; Rabachini, Tatiana; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; di Loreto, Celso; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Villa, Luisa Lina; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome. PMID:22438955

  10. HPV16 oncoproteins induce MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance in primary keratinocytes: possible implications in cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cardeal, Laura Beatriz da Silva; Boccardo, Enrique; Termini, Lara; Rabachini, Tatiana; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; di Loreto, Celso; Longatto Filho, Adhemar; Villa, Luisa Lina; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome.

  11. Adenovirus urethritis and concurrent conjunctivitis: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Olivia Louise; Samuel, Mannampallil Itty; Sudhanva, Malur; Ellis, Joanna; Taylor, Chris

    2015-03-01

    We present eight cases and review the literature of concurrent urethritis and conjunctivitis where adenovirus was identified as the causative pathogen. The focus of this review concerns the identification of specific sexual practices, symptoms, signs and any serotypes that seem more commonly associated with such adenovirus infections. We discuss the seasonality of adenovirus infection and provide practical advice for clinicians to give to the patient.

  12. The E1B 19,000-molecular-weight protein of group C adenoviruses prevents tumor necrosis factor cytolysis of human cells but not of mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, L R; Aquino, L; Duerksen-Hughes, P J; Day, D; Horton, T M; Yei, S P; Wold, W S

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional immunoregulatory protein that is secreted by activated macrophages and is believed to have antiviral activities. We reported earlier that when mouse C3HA fibroblasts are infected with human adenoviruses, the 289R and 243R proteins encoded by region E1A render the cells susceptible to lysis by TNF, and a 14,700-molecular-weight protein (14.7K protein) encoded by region E3 protects the cells against lysis by TNF. We now report that the 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) (176R) protein encoded by the E1B transcription unit can protect human HEL-299 fibroblasts and human ME-180 cervical carcinoma cells against lysis by TNF. This was determined by infecting cells with adenovirus double mutants that lack region E3 and do or do not express the E1B-19K protein and by measuring cytolysis by using a short-term (18-h) 51Cr-release assay. Under these assay conditions, the 51Cr release was specific to TNF and was not a consequence of the cyt phenotype associated with E1B-19K protein-negative mutants. Also, by using virus double mutants that lack E3 in combination with other early regions, we found that E1A, the E1B-55K protein-encoding gene, E3, and E4 are not required to protect HEL-299 cells against TNF cytolysis. Three additional human cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT8, and RC29) and a simian virus 40-transformed WI38 cell line (VA-13) also required E1B for protection against TNF cytolysis, indicating that the E1B-19K protein is required to protect many if not all human cell types against lysis by TNF when infected by adenovirus. The E1B-19K protein was not able to protect six different adenovirus-infected mouse cell lines against TNF lysis, even though the protein was shown to be efficiently expressed in one of the cell lines. HEL-299 or ME-180 cells infected by a mutant that lacks the E1B-19K protein but retains region E3 were not lysed by TNF, indicating that one or more of the E3 proteins can protect these cells against TNF lysis

  13. First detection of adenovirus in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Elesbao, Felipe; Carnieli Junior, Pedro; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses.

  14. First detection of adenovirus in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Elesbao, Felipe; Carnieli Junior, Pedro; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses. PMID:23828618

  15. Phylogenetic Analyses of Novel Squamate Adenovirus Sequences in Wild-Caught Anolis Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, Jill M.; Geneva, Anthony J.; Ng, Julienne; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Glor, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus infection has emerged as a serious threat to the health of captive snakes and lizards (i.e., squamates), but we know relatively little about this virus' range of possible hosts, pathogenicity, modes of transmission, and sources from nature. We report the first case of adenovirus infection in the Iguanidae, a diverse family of lizards that is widely-studied and popular in captivity. We report adenovirus infections from two closely-related species of Anolis lizards (anoles) that were recently imported from wild populations in the Dominican Republic to a laboratory colony in the United States. We investigate the evolution of adenoviruses in anoles and other squamates using phylogenetic analyses of adenovirus polymerase gene sequences sampled from Anolis and a range of other vertebrate taxa. These phylogenetic analyses reveal that (1) the sequences detected from each species of Anolis are novel, and (2) adenoviruses are not necessarily host-specific and do not always follow a co-speciation model under which host and virus phylogenies are perfectly concordant. Together with the fact that the Anolis adenovirus sequences reported in our study were detected in animals that became ill and subsequently died shortly after importation while exhibiting clinical signs consistent with acute adenovirus infection, our discoveries suggest the need for renewed attention to biosecurity measures intended to prevent the spread of adenovirus both within and among species of snakes and lizards housed in captivity. PMID:23593364

  16. Critical Role for Arginine Methylation in Adenovirus-Infected Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Iacovides, Demetris C.; O'Shea, Clodagh C.; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma; McCormick, Frank

    2007-01-01

    During the late stages of adenovirus infection, the 100K protein (100K) inhibits the translation of cellular messages in the cytoplasm and regulates hexon trimerization and assembly in the nucleus. However, it is not known how it switches between these two functions. Here we show that 100K is methylated on arginine residues at its C terminus during infection and that this region is necessary for binding PRMT1 methylase. Methylated 100K is exclusively nuclear. Mutation of the third RGG motif (amino acids 741 to 743) prevents localization to the nucleus during infection, suggesting that methylation of that sequence is important for 100K shuttling. Treatment of infected cells with methylation inhibitors inhibits expression of late structural proteins. These data suggest that arginine methylation of 100K is necessary for its localization to the nucleus and is a critical cellular function necessary for productive adenovirus infection. PMID:17686851

  17. Dielectrophoresis and dielectrophoretic impedance detection of adenovirus and rotavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Michihiko; Ding, Zhenhao; Suehiro, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the electrical detection of pathogenic viruses, namely, adenovirus and rotavirus, using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM). DEPIM consists of two simultaneous processes: dielectrophoretic trapping of the target and measurement of the impedance change and increase in conductance with the number of trapped targets. This is the first study of applying DEPIM, which was originally developed to detect bacteria suspended in aqueous solutions, to virus detection. The dielectric properties of the viruses were also investigated in terms of their dielectrophoretic behavior. Although their estimated dielectric properties were different from those of bacteria, the trapped viruses increased the conductance of the microelectrode in a manner similar to that in bacteria detection. We demonstrated the electrical detection of viruses within 60 s at concentrations as low as 70 ng/ml for adenovirus and 50 ng/ml for rotavirus.

  18. Novel bat adenoviruses with an extremely large E3 gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Yang, Xing-Lou; Ge, Xing-Yi; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Bats carry diverse RNA viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. Compared to bat-borne RNA viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne DNA viruses. In this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (BtAdV WIV9-11) from Rhinolophus sinicus. Their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (AdVs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. An unusually large E3 gene was identified in their genomes. Phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses suggested that these isolates represent a distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. Cell susceptibility assays revealed a broad cell tropism for these isolates, indicating that they have a potentially wide host range. Our results expand the understanding of genetic diversity of bat AdVs. PMID:27032099

  19. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Katrina; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy. In spite of the recent development of more effective inhibitors of androgen-androgen receptor signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, patient survival benefits are still limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have proven efficacy in prostate cancer cells and cause regression of tumors in preclinical models of numerous drug-resistant cancers. Data from clinical trials demonstrate that adenoviral mutants have limited toxicity to normal tissues and are safe when administered to patients with various solid cancers, including prostate cancer. While efficacy in response to adenovirus administration alone is marginal, findings from early-phase trials targeting local-ized and metastatic prostate cancer suggest improved efficacy in combination with cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy. Here, we review recent progress in the development of multimodal oncolytic adenoviruses as biological therapeutics to improve on tumor elimination in prostate cancer patients. These optimized mutants target cancer cells by several mechanisms including viral lysis and by expression of cytotoxic transgenes and immune-stimulatory factors that activate the host immune system to destroy both infected and noninfected prostate cancer cells. Additional modifications of the viral capsid proteins may support future systemic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:27579296

  20. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Katrina; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy. In spite of the recent development of more effective inhibitors of androgen–androgen receptor signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, patient survival benefits are still limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have proven efficacy in prostate cancer cells and cause regression of tumors in preclinical models of numerous drug-resistant cancers. Data from clinical trials demonstrate that adenoviral mutants have limited toxicity to normal tissues and are safe when administered to patients with various solid cancers, including prostate cancer. While efficacy in response to adenovirus administration alone is marginal, findings from early-phase trials targeting local-ized and metastatic prostate cancer suggest improved efficacy in combination with cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy. Here, we review recent progress in the development of multimodal oncolytic adenoviruses as biological therapeutics to improve on tumor elimination in prostate cancer patients. These optimized mutants target cancer cells by several mechanisms including viral lysis and by expression of cytotoxic transgenes and immune-stimulatory factors that activate the host immune system to destroy both infected and noninfected prostate cancer cells. Additional modifications of the viral capsid proteins may support future systemic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:27579296

  1. Reassessing culture media and critical metabolites that affect adenovirus production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun Fang; Voyer, Robert; Tom, Roseanne; Kamen, Amine

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus production is currently operated at low cell density because infection at high cell densities still results in reduced cell-specific productivity. To better understand nutrient limitation and inhibitory metabolites causing the reduction of specific yields at high cell densities, adenovirus production in HEK 293 cultures using NSFM 13 and CD 293 media were evaluated. For cultures using NSFM 13 medium, the cell-specific productivity decreased from 3,400 to 150 vp/cell (or 96% reduction) when the cell density at infection was increased from 1 to 3 x 10(6) cells/mL. In comparison, only 50% of reduction in the cell-specific productivity was observed under the same conditions for cultures using CD 293 medium. The effect of medium osmolality was found critical on viral production. Media were adjusted to an optimal osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg to facilitate comparison. Amino acids were not critical limiting factors. Potential limiting nutrients including vitamins, energy metabolites, bases and nucleotides, or inhibitory metabolites (lactate and ammonia) were supplemented to infected cultures to further investigate their effect on the adenovirus production. Accumulation of lactate and ammonia in a culture infected at 3 x 10(6) cells/mL contributed to about 20% reduction of the adenovirus production yield, whereas nutrient limitation appeared primarily responsible for the decline in the viral production when NSFM 13 medium was used. Overall, the results indicate that multiple factors contribute to limiting the specific production yield at cell densities beyond 1 x 10(6) cells/mL and underline the need to further investigate and develop media for better adenoviral vector productions.

  2. Chaperonin TRiC/CCT Modulates the Folding and Activity of Leukemogenic Fusion Oncoprotein AML1-ETO.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soung-Hun; Kasembeli, Moses; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Trnka, Mike; Lau, Wilson Chun-Yu; Burlingame, Alma; Chiu, Wah; Tweardy, David J

    2016-02-26

    AML1-ETO is the most common fusion oncoprotein causing acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a disease with a 5-year survival rate of only 24%. AML1-ETO functions as a rogue transcription factor, altering the expression of genes critical for myeloid cell development and differentiation. Currently, there are no specific therapies for AML1-ETO-positive AML. While known for decades to be the translational product of a chimeric gene created by the stable chromosome translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22), it is not known how AML1-ETO achieves its native and functional conformation or whether this process can be targeted for therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that the biosynthesis and folding of the AML1-ETO protein is facilitated by interaction with the essential eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC (or CCT). We demonstrate that a folding intermediate of AML1-ETO binds to TRiC directly, mainly through its β-strand rich, DNA-binding domain (AML-(1-175)), with the assistance of HSP70. Our results suggest that TRiC contributes to AML1-ETO proteostasis through specific interactions between the oncoprotein's DNA-binding domain, which may be targeted for therapeutic benefit.

  3. Simian virus 40 sequences and expression of the viral large T antigen oncoprotein in human pleomorphic adenomas of parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Marcella; Martini, Fernanda; Rinaldi, Eliana; Caramanico, Laura; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Carinci, Francesco; Pastore, Antonio; Tognon, Mauro

    2002-10-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences of the early region coding for the large T antigen (Tag) oncoprotein were investigated in DNA samples from human pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of parotid glands. Specific SV40 sequences were detected, by PCR and filter hybridization with an internal oligoprobe, in 28 of 45 (62%) human PA specimens. None of the DNA samples from 11 normal salivary gland tissues was SV40-positive. DNA sequence analysis, carried out in all PCR amplified products from SV40-positive PA specimens, confirmed the SV40 specificity and indicated that PCR products had a sequence not distinguishable from SV40 DNA wild-type strain 776. SV40 Tag expression was revealed by immunohistochemistry with the specific monoclonal antibody Pab 101 in PA thin sections with a highly sensitive technical approach which retrieved the nuclear viral oncoprotein in 26 out of 28 (93%) samples previously found SV40-positive by PCR. Detection of SV40 sequences and Tag expression in human PA suggests that this oncogenic virus may play a role as a cofactor in the onset and/or progression of this benign neoplasm, or that SV40 DNA could replicate and express the Tag in PA cells.

  4. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides ‘self-adjuvanting’ activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  5. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches.

  6. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species. PMID:23643878

  7. A novel and simple method for construction of recombinant adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rong; Li, Chunhua; Jiang, Sijing; Ma, Lixin

    2006-07-19

    Recombinant adenoviruses have been widely used for various applications, including protein expression and gene therapy. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach to an efficient and robust construction of recombinant adenoviral genomes based on the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy. The production of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5-based vectors was greatly facilitated by the use of the MAGIC procedure and the development of the Adeasy adenoviral vector system. The recombinant adenoviral plasmid can be generated by a direct and seamless substitution, which replaces the stuff fragment in a full-length adenoviral genome with the gene of interest in a small plasmid in Escherichia coli. Recombinant adenoviral plasmids can be rapidly constructed in vivo by using the new method, without manipulations of the large adenoviral genome. In contrast to other traditional systems, it reduces the need for multiple in vitro manipulations, such as endonuclease cleavage, ligation and transformation, thus achieving a higher efficiency with negligible background. This strategy has been proven to be suitable for constructing an adenoviral cDNA expression library. In summary, the new method is highly efficient, technically less demanding and less labor-intensive for constructing recombinant adenoviruses, which will be beneficial for functional genomic and proteomic researches in mammalian cells.

  8. History of the restoration of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live oral (Adenovirus Vaccine) in the context of the Department of Defense acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Charles H; Snyder, Clifford E

    2013-03-15

    Respiratory pathogens cause morbidity and mortality in US military basic trainees. Following the influenza pandemic of 1918, and stimulated by WWII, the need to protect military personnel against epidemic respiratory disease was evident. Over several decades, the US military elucidated etiologies of acute respiratory diseases and invented and deployed vaccines to prevent disease caused by influenza, meningococcus, and adenoviruses. In 1994, the Adenovirus Vaccine manufacturer stopped its production. By 1999, supplies were exhausted and adenovirus-associated disease, especially serotype 4-associated febrile respiratory illness, returned to basic training installations. Advisory bodies persuaded Department of Defense leaders to initiate restoration of Adenovirus Vaccine. In 2011, after 10 years of effort by government and contractor personnel and at a cost of about $100 million, the Adenovirus Vaccine was restored to use at all military basic training installations. Disease and adenovirus serotype 4 isolation rates have fallen dramatically since vaccinations resumed in October 2011 and remain very low. Mindful of the adage that "The more successful a vaccine is, the more quickly the need for it will be forgotten.", sustainment of the supply of the Adenovirus Vaccine may be a challenge, and careful management will be required for such sustainment. PMID:23291475

  9. The adenovirus E1B-55K transforming polypeptide modulates transport or cytoplasmic stabilization of viral and host cell mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Pilder, S; Moore, M; Logan, J; Shenk, T

    1986-01-01

    The adenovirus type 5 mutant H5dl338 lacks 524 base pairs within early region 1B. The mutation removed a portion of the region encoding the related E1B-55K and -17K polypeptides but did not disturb the E1B-21K coding region. The virus can be propagated in 293 cells which contain and express the adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B regions, but it is defective for growth in HeLa cells, in which its final yield is reduced about 100-fold compared with the wild-type virus. The mutant also fails to transform rat cells at normal efficiency. The site of the dl338 defect was studied in HeLa cells. Early gene expression and DNA replication appeared normal. Late after infection, mRNAs coded by the major late transcription unit accumulated to reduced levels. At a time when transcription rates and steady-state nuclear RNA species were normal, the rate at which late mRNA accumulated in the cytoplasm was markedly reduced. Furthermore, in contrast to the case with the wild type, transport and accumulation of cellular mRNAs continued late after infection with dl338. Thus, the E1B product appears to facilitate transport and accumulation of viral mRNAs late after infection while blocking the same processes for cellular mRNAs. Images PMID:2946932

  10. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) imply a common origin with members of the proposed new genus Atadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Szilvia L; Benko, Mária; Elo, Péter; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Adám; Ahne, Winfried; Harrach, Balázs

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 60% of the genome of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) was cloned and sequenced. The results of homology searches showed that the genes of the corn snake adenovirus (SnAdV-1) were closest to their counterparts in members of the recently proposed new genus ATADENOVIRUS: In phylogenetic analyses of the complete hexon and protease genes, SnAdV-1 indeed clustered together with the atadenoviruses. The characteristic features in the genome organization of SnAdV-1 included the presence of a gene homologous to that for protein p32K, the lack of structural proteins V and IX and the absence of homologues of the E1A and E3 regions. These characteristics are in accordance with the genus-defining markers of atadenoviruses. Comparison of the cleavage sites of the viral protease in core protein pVII also confirmed SnAdV-1 as a candidate member of the genus ATADENOVIRUS: Thus, the hypothesis on the possible reptilian origin of atadenoviruses (Harrach, Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 48, 484-490, 2000) seems to be supported. However, the base composition of DNA sequence (>18 kb) determined from the SnAdV-1 genome showed an equilibrated GC content of 51%, which is unusual for an atadenovirus.

  11. Novel DNA binding specificities of a putative herpesvirus bZIP oncoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Z; Brunovskis, P; Lee, L; Vogt, P K; Kung, H J

    1996-01-01

    Marek's disease virus is a highly oncogenic herpesvirus that can cause T lymphomas and peripheral nerve demyelination in chickens. meq, a candidate oncogene of Marek's disease virus, encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor which contains a large proline-rich domain in its C terminus. On the basis of its bZIP structural homology, meq is perhaps the only member of the jun-fos gene family completely viral in origin. We previously showed that Meq's C-terminal domain has potent transactivation activity and that its bZIP domain can dimerize with itself and with c-Jun also. In an effort to identify viral and cellular targets of Meq, we have determined the optimal binding sites for Meq-Jun heterodimers and Meq-Meq homodimers. By a PCR-based approach using cyclic amplification of selected targets, Meq-Jun heterodimers were found to optimally bind tetradecanoylphorbol acetate response element (TRE) and cyclic AMP response element (CRE) consensus sequences. This result was consistent with the results of our previous functional analysis implicating Meq-Jun heterodimers in the transactivation of the Meq promoter through a TRE- or CRE-like sequence. Interestingly, Meq-Meq homodimers were found to bind two distinct motif elements. The first [GAGTGATG AC(G)TCATC] has a consensus which includes a TRE or CRE core flanked by additional nucleotides critical for tight binding. Methylation interference and mutational analyses confirmed the importance of the flanking residues. The sequences of a subset of TRE and CRE sites selected by Meq-Meq are closely related to the binding motif of Maf, another bZIP oncoprotein. The second putative Meq binding site (RACACACAY) bears a completely different consensus not shared by other bZIP proteins. Binding to this consensus sequence also requires secondary structure characteristics associated with DNA bending. CACA motifs are known to promote DNA curvature and function in a number of special biological processes. Our results lend

  12. Triple-controlled oncolytic adenovirus expressing melittin to exert inhibitory efficacy on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chun-Yu; Wang, Kai-Li; Fang, Fan-Fu; Gu, Wei; Huang, Feng; Wang, Fu-Zhe; Li, Bai; Wang, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant disease, and its outcome of routine therapies is poor. Comprehensive treatment including gene therapy is an important way to improve patients’ prognosis and survival. In this study, we successfully constructed a triple-controlled cancer-selective oncolytic adenovirus, QG511-HA-Melittin, carrying melittin gene, in which the hybrid promoter, hypoxia-response element (HRE)-AFP promoter, was used to control viral E1a expression targeting AFP-positive cancer cells in hypoxia microenviroment, and the E1b-55 kDa gene was deleted in cancer cells with p53-deficiency. The cytological experiments found that the viral replication of QG511-HA-Melittin was increased to 12800-folds in Hep3B cells within 48 h, and 130-folds in SMMC-7721, but the virus did not replicate in L-02 cells. QG511-HA-Melittin had a strong inhibition effect on AFP-positive HCC cell proliferation, such as Hep3B and HepG2, whereas, there was low or no inhibition effect of QG511-HA-Melittin on AFP-negative cancer cells SMMC-7721 and normal cells L-02. In the in vivo experiment, compared with the blank control group, QG511-HA-Melittin can significantly inhibit the growth of HCC xenografts (P<0.05). The survival of mice in QG511-HA-Melittin group was much longer than that of the blank control group. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments manifested that QG511-HA-Melittin exerts an inhibitory effect on HCC cells, which may provide a new strategy for HCC biotherapy. PMID:26617748

  13. Eliminating established tumor in nu/nu nude mice by a TRAIL-armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fengqin; Wang, Li; Davis, John J.; Hu, Wenxian; Zhang, Lidong; Guo, Wei; Teraishi, Fuminori; Ji, Lin; Fang, Bingliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and oncolytic viruses have recently been investigated extensively for cancer therapy. However, preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that their clinical application is hampered by either weak anticancer activity or systemic toxicity. We examined whether the weaknesses of the two strategies can be overcome by integrating the TRAIL gene into an oncolytic vector. Experimental Design We constructed a TRAIL-expressing oncolytic adenovector designated Ad/TRAIL-E1. The expression of both the TRAIL and viral E1A genes is under the control of a synthetic promoter consisting of sequences from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and a minimal cytomegalovirus early promoter. The transgene expression, apoptosis induction, viral replication, antitumor activity and toxicity of Ad/TRAIL-E1 were determined in vitro and in vivo in comparison with control vectors. Results Ad/TRAIL-E1 elicited enhanced viral replication and/or stronger oncolytic effect in vitro in various human cancer cell lines than a TRAIL-expressing replication-defective adenovector or an oncolytic adenovector expressing green fluorescent protein. Intralesional administration of Ad/TRAIL-E1 eliminated all subcutaneous xenograft tumors established from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299, on nu/nu nude mice, resulting in long-term tumor-free survival. Furthermore, we found no treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions Viral replication and antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus can be enhanced by the TRAIL gene and Ad/TRAIL-E1 could become a potent therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:16951242

  14. Characterization of transgenic mice containing adenovirus early region 3 genomic DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fejer, G; Gyory, I; Tufariello, J; Horwitz, M S

    1994-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (Ad) contain a complex transcription region (E3) which codes for proteins that interact with several arms of the immune system. However, E3 genes are not essential for replication in tissue culture. An E3-encoded 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) glycoprotein (gp19K) binds to the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the endoplasmic reticulum and prevents MHC transport to the cell surface. Three other E3 proteins are involved in the inhibition of apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor alpha. The entire E3 genomic DNA was utilized to produce transgenic mice to study the effect of the E3 proteins on pathogenesis of various infectious agents and to investigate the in vivo synthesis and processing of the multiple E3 mRNAs and proteins. There was basal expression of the E3 promoter in the thymus, kidneys, uterus, and testes and at all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the E3 promoter of the transgene could be activated in some other organs, including the liver, by infection of these animals with an E3-deficient Ad (Ad7001) which contains a functional E1A region. Transactivation in vivo could also be demonstrated by infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. There appeared to be differential ratios of expression between several of the E3 mRNAs in transgenic lung fibroblasts and primary kidney cells cultured from the transgenic animals. This observation suggested that there was differential mRNA splicing that was organ specific. These transgenic animals should provide a useful model for studying the effects of the E3 proteins on the immune system and on diseases affected either by control of MHC or by selected functions of tumor necrosis factor that are inhibitable by Ad E3 proteins. Images PMID:8057467

  15. The Evaluation of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) as a Disinfectant for Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; O’Connor, Katherine E.; Mah, Francis S.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Kowalski, Regis P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs. The current study determined whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs. Methods The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating nine human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with 50 and 0 PPM (µg/ml) of PHMB for 24 hours at room temperature, to simulate swimming pool temperatures, or 40°C, to simulate hot tub temperatures. Plaque assays determined adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were Log10 converted and mean ± standard deviation Log10 reductions from controls were calculated. Virucidal (greater than 99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. Results At room temperature, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for two adenovirus types and greater than 1 Log10, but less than 3 Log10, for seven of nine adenovirus types. Conclusions 50 PPM of PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Clinical Relevance Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB has the potential to serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections. PMID:23450376

  16. Adenovirus Type 37 Uses Sialic Acid as a Cellular Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, Niklas; Edlund, Karin; Kidd, Alistair H.; Wadell, Göran

    2000-01-01

    Two cellular receptors for adenovirus, coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) α2, have recently been identified. In the absence of CAR, MHC-I α2 has been suggested to serve as a cellular attachment protein for subgenus C adenoviruses, while members from all subgenera except subgenus B have been shown to interact with CAR. We have found that adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) attachment to CAR-expressing CHO cells was no better than that to CHO cells lacking CAR expression, suggesting that CAR is not used by Ad37 during attachment. Instead, we have identified sialic acid as a third adenovirus receptor moiety. First, Ad37 attachment to both CAR-expresing CHO cells and MHC-I α2-expressing Daudi cells was sensitive to neuraminidase treatment, which eliminates sialic acid on the cell surface. Second, Ad37 attachment to sialic acid-expressing Pro-5 cells was more than 10-fold stronger than that to the Pro-5 subline Lec2, which is deficient in sialic acid expression. Third, neuraminidase treatment of A549 cells caused a 60% decrease in Ad37 replication in a fluorescent-focus assay. Moreover, the receptor sialoconjugate is most probably a glycoprotein rather than a ganglioside, since Ad37 attachment to sialic acid-expressing Pro-5 cells was sensitive to protease treatment. Ad37 attachment to Pro-5 cells occurs via α(2→3)-linked sialic acid saccharides rather than α(2→6)-linked ones, since (i) α(2→3)-specific but not α(2→6)-specific lectins blocked Ad37 attachment to Pro-5 cells and (ii) pretreatment of Pro-5 cells with α(2→3)-specific neuraminidase resulted in decreased Ad37 binding. Taken together, these results suggest that, unlike Ad5, Ad37 makes use of α(2→3)-linked sialic acid saccharides on glycoproteins for entry instead of using CAR or MHC-I α2. PMID:10590089

  17. Adenovirus type 2 terminal protein: purification and comparison of tryptic peptides with known adenovirus-coded proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Harter, M L; Lewis, J B; Anderson, C W

    1979-01-01

    The protein covalently bound to the 5' termini of adenovirus type 2 DNA has been purified from virus labeled with [35S]methionine, using exclusion chromatography of disrupted virions to isolate the DNA-protein complex, which is then digested with DNase. The terminal protein isolated from mature virus is most effectively labeled if the cells are exposed to [35S]methionine during the "intermediate" period of 13 to 21 h postinfection, suggesting that the protein is synthesized during this interval. The tryptic peptides of the terminal protein were compared with those of several known adenovirus-coded proteins and found to be unrelated. In particular, the terminal protein is not related to the 38-50K early proteins encoded by the leftmost 4.4% of the adenovirus genome, one region essential for the transforming activity of the virus. Neither is it related to the 72K single-strand-specific DNA binding protein, the minor virion component IVa2, or the major capsid component hexon. Images PMID:513195

  18. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Sean D; Berk, Arnold J

    2013-09-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called "infectious genome titration" in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity.

  19. Targeting of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Pseudotyped with Short Fiber from Serotype 41 to c-erbB2-Positive Cells Using Bispecific Single-Chain Diabody

    PubMed Central

    Kashentseva, Elena A.; Douglas, Joanne T.; Zinn, Kurt R.; Curiel, David T.; Dmitriev, Igor P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the current study was to alter the broad native tropism of human adenovirus for virus targeting to c-erbB2-positive cancer cells. First, we engineered a single-chain antibody (scFv) against the c-erbB2 oncoprotein into minor capsid protein IX (pIX) of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) in a manner commensurate with virion integrity and binding to the soluble extracellular c-erbB2 domain. To ablate native viral tropism and facilitate binding of the pIX-incorporated scFv to cellular c-erbB2 we replaced the Ad5 fiber with the Ad41 short (41s) fiber devoid of all known cell-binding determinants. The resultant Ad5F41sIX6.5 vector demonstrated increased cell binding and gene transfer as compared to the Ad5F41s control, however, this augmentation of virus infectivity was not c-erbB2-specific. Incorporation of a six histidine (His6) peptide into the C-terminus of the 41s fiber protein resulted in markedly increased Ad5F41s6H infectivity in 293AR cells, which express a membrane-anchored scFv against the C-terminal oligo-histidine tag, as compared to the Ad5F41s vector and the parental 293 cells. These data suggested that a 41s fiber-incorporated His6 tag could serve for attachment of an adapter protein designed to guide Ad5F41s6H infection in a c-erbB2-specific manner. We therefore engineered a bispecific scFv diabody (scDb) combining affinities for both c-erbB2 and the His6 tag and showed its ability to provide up to 25-fold increase of Ad5F41s6H infectivity in c-erbB2-positive cells. Thus, Ad5 fiber replacement by a His6–tagged 41s fiber coupled with virus targeting mediated by an scDb adapter represents a promising strategy to confer Ad5 vector tropism for c-erbB2-positive cancer cells. PMID:19285990

  20. The Transactivation Domain of Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) Meq Oncoprotein Does Not Affect Tumor Incidence But Plays a Role in Tumor Phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, is responsible for the tumorigenic phenotype of the virus. We have previously shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens results in virus attenuation in chickens. To determine the...

  1. Alteration of a single amino acid in the basic domain of Marek's disease virus Meq oncoprotein plays an important role in T-cell transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, has been shown to play a major role in transformation of T-lymphocytes. We have earlier shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens resulted in virus attenuation in chickens. To dete...

  2. Crystal Structure of the Fibre Head Domain of the Atadenovirus Snake Adenovirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses are non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with trimeric fibre proteins protruding from their vertices. There are five known genera, from which only Mastadenoviruses have been widely studied. Apart from studying adenovirus as a biological model system and with a view to prevent or combat viral infection, there is a major interest in using adenovirus for vaccination, cancer therapy and gene therapy purposes. Adenoviruses from the Atadenovirus genus have been isolated from squamate reptile hosts, ruminants and birds and have a characteristic gene organization and capsid morphology. The carboxy-terminal virus-distal fibre head domains are likely responsible for primary receptor recognition. We determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the Snake Adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1) fibre head using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Despite the absence of significant sequence homology, this Atadenovirus fibre head has the same beta-sandwich propeller topology as other adenovirus fibre heads. However, it is about half the size, mainly due to much shorter loops connecting the beta-strands. The detailed structure of the SnAdV-1 fibre head and other animal adenovirus fibre heads, together with the future identification of their natural receptors, may lead to the development of new strategies to target adenovirus vectors to cells of interest. PMID:25486282

  3. Hemorrhagic enteritis by adenovirus-like particles in turkeys: a possible pathogenic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Carranza, J; Sierra, M A; Carrasco, L; Hervás, J; Blanco, A; Fernández, A

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of hemorrhagic enteritis due to adenovirus in turkeys in Spain. Diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by histopathological examination and the observation of adenovirus in spleen mononuclear cells and intestinal infiltrate. Evidence was also found of intravascular coagulation, which may give rise to the bleeding considered characteristic of this disease.

  4. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Wildner, Oliver; Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C.; Ramanan, Vijay; Prince, Gregory A.; Morris, John C.

    2007-12-05

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

  5. Adenovirus-based vaccines against avian-origin H5N1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Biao; Zheng, Bo-jian; Wang, Qian; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2015-02-01

    Since 1997, human infection with avian H5N1, having about 60% mortality, has posed a threat to public health. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of H5N1 transmission, advantages and disadvantages of different influenza vaccine types, and characteristics of adenovirus, finally summarizing advances in adenovirus-based H5N1 systemic and mucosal vaccines.

  6. Adenovirus Type 7 Pneumonia in Children Who Died from Measles-Associated Pneumonia, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hai, Le Thanh; Thach, Hoang Ngoc; Tuan, Ta Anh; Nam, Dao Huu; Dien, Tran Minh; Sato, Yuko; Kumasaka, Toshio; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Katano, Harutaka; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kawachi, Shoji; Nakajima, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    During a 2014 measles outbreak in Vietnam, postmortem pathologic examination of hospitalized children who died showed that adenovirus type 7 pneumonia was a contributory cause of death in children with measles-associated immune suppression. Adenovirus type 7 pneumonia should be recognized as a major cause of secondary infection after measles. PMID:26926035

  7. Comparison of throat swab and nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens for rapid detection of adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michimaru; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie

    2015-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and throat swab (TS) specimens from individual patients were compared with regard to usefulness for adenovirus detection. In 153 adenovirus-infected patients, rapid test sensitivities with NPAs (90.8%) were nearly equivalent to those with TSs (91.5%) based on real-time polymerase chain reaction standards, indicating that NPAs are equally useful.

  8. The DEK Oncoprotein Is a Critical Component of the EKLF/KLF1 Enhancer in Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Felix; Dangeti, Mohan; Soni, Shefali; Chen, Xiaoyong; Planutis, Antanas; Baron, Margaret H.; Choi, Kyunghee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how transcriptional regulators are themselves controlled is important in attaining a complete picture of the intracellular effects that follow signaling cascades during early development and cell-restricted differentiation. We have addressed this issue by focusing on the regulation of EKLF/KLF1, a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a necessary role in the global regulation of erythroid gene expression. Using biochemical affinity purification, we have identified the DEK oncoprotein as a critical factor that interacts with an essential upstream enhancer element of the EKLF promoter and exerts a positive effect on EKLF levels. This element also binds a core set of erythroid transcription factors, suggesting that DEK is part of a tissue-restricted enhanceosome that contains BMP4-dependent and -independent components. Together with local enrichment of properly coded histones and an open chromatin domain, optimal transcriptional activation of the EKLF locus can be established. PMID:26303528

  9. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein engages but does not abrogate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yueyang; Munger, Karl

    2012-10-10

    The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as well as sequences previously implicated in binding the nuclear and mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.

  10. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A; Gooding, Linda R

    2010-09-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  11. Characterization of a New Species of Adenovirus in Falcons

    PubMed Central

    Schrenzel, Mark; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Rotstein, Dave; Maalouf, Gabriel; Snook, Eric; Sandfort, Cal; Rideout, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, a disease outbreak occurred at a captive breeding facility in Idaho, causing anorexia, dehydration, and diarrhea or sudden death in 72 of 110 Northern aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) from 9 to 35 days of age and in 6 of 102 peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from 14 to 25 days of age. Sixty-two Northern aplomado and six peregrine falcons died. Epidemiologic analyses indicated a point source epizootic, horizontal transmission, and increased relative risk associated with cross-species brooding of eggs. Primary lesions in affected birds were inclusion body hepatitis, splenomegaly, and enteritis. The etiology in all mortalities was determined by molecular analyses to be a new species of adenovirus distantly related to the group I avian viruses, serotypes 1 and 4, Aviadenovirus. In situ hybridization and PCR demonstrated that the virus was epitheliotropic and lymphotropic and that infection was systemic in the majority of animals. Adeno-associated virus was also detected by PCR in most affected falcons, but no other infectious agents or predisposing factors were found in any birds. Subsequent to the 1996 epizootic, a similar disease caused by the same adenovirus was found over a 5-year period in orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus), teita falcons (Falco fasciinucha), a merlin (Falco columbarius), a Vanuatu peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nesiotes), and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcon hybrids (Falco rusticolus/peregrinus) that died in Wyoming, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and California. These findings indicate that this newly recognized adenovirus is widespread in western and midwestern North America and can be a primary pathogen in different falcon species. PMID:16000466

  12. Interactions of human lacrimal and salivary cystatins with adenovirus endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Ruzindana-Umunyana, A; Weber, J M

    2001-09-01

    Over 100 serotypes of adenoviruses have been implicated in a variety of human and domesticated animal pathologies and some serotypes are widely used as gene transfer vectors. Aside from the limited use of vaccines for specific serotypes, little effort has been expended in the development of antivirals. The objective here was to study the effect of cystatins from human saliva (CS) and tears (CT), two points of viral entry, on adenain, the adenovirus type 2 encoded proteinase, which is absolutely required for infectivity. Two molecular weight species (13 and 14.5 kDa) were purified from both fluids at a yield of 5 mg/l. In vitro adenain activity was inhibited to 50% at a molar ratio of 5 CS:1 adenain and 3 CT:1 adenain. By comparison, papain was inhibited to 50% at a molar ratio of 2 CS:1 papain and 1.5 CT:1 papain. Adenain differed from papain in response to CS and chicken egg white (CEW) cystatin in being stimulated at low concentrations, and in being inhibited only at very high concentrations of cystatins. The presence of cleavage consensus sites specific to adenain in the human cystatins could drive the adenain-cystatin interaction predominantly in the substrate pathway direction. However, we found that the cystatins could only be digested after denaturation and by highly active fresh enzyme preparations. Our experiments designed to test the nature of the interaction between adenain and cystatins suggest a docking model for the adenain-human cystatin interaction, similar to that proposed for papain and CEW. At equilibrium the dissociation constant, K(d), between adenain and CT was 1.2 nM. The kinetic parameters determined here suggest a simple reversible mechanism for the inhibition of adenain by human cystatins. We conclude that the cystatins present in tears and saliva are unlikely to play a significant role in inhibiting adenovirus infections.

  13. Characterization of a new species of adenovirus in falcons.

    PubMed

    Schrenzel, Mark; Oaks, J Lindsay; Rotstein, Dave; Maalouf, Gabriel; Snook, Eric; Sandfort, Cal; Rideout, Bruce

    2005-07-01

    In 1996, a disease outbreak occurred at a captive breeding facility in Idaho, causing anorexia, dehydration, and diarrhea or sudden death in 72 of 110 Northern aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) from 9 to 35 days of age and in 6 of 102 peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from 14 to 25 days of age. Sixty-two Northern aplomado and six peregrine falcons died. Epidemiologic analyses indicated a point source epizootic, horizontal transmission, and increased relative risk associated with cross-species brooding of eggs. Primary lesions in affected birds were inclusion body hepatitis, splenomegaly, and enteritis. The etiology in all mortalities was determined by molecular analyses to be a new species of adenovirus distantly related to the group I avian viruses, serotypes 1 and 4, Aviadenovirus. In situ hybridization and PCR demonstrated that the virus was epitheliotropic and lymphotropic and that infection was systemic in the majority of animals. Adeno-associated virus was also detected by PCR in most affected falcons, but no other infectious agents or predisposing factors were found in any birds. Subsequent to the 1996 epizootic, a similar disease caused by the same adenovirus was found over a 5-year period in orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus), teita falcons (Falco fasciinucha), a merlin (Falco columbarius), a Vanuatu peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nesiotes), and gyrfalcon x peregrine falcon hybrids (Falco rusticolus/peregrinus) that died in Wyoming, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and California. These findings indicate that this newly recognized adenovirus is widespread in western and midwestern North America and can be a primary pathogen in different falcon species.

  14. Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein with Sorting Nexin 27 Modulates Endocytic Cargo Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Ketaki; Massimi, Paola; Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Tomaić, Vjekoslav; Pim, David; Playford, Martin P; Lizano, Marcela; Roberts, Sally; Kranjec, Christian; Doorbar, John; Banks, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    A subset of high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of a large number of human cancers, of which cervical is the most common. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, contribute directly towards the development and maintenance of malignancy. A characteristic feature of the E6 oncoproteins from cancer-causing HPV types is the presence of a PDZ binding motif (PBM) at its C-terminus, which confers interaction with cellular proteins harbouring PDZ domains. Here we show that this motif allows E6 interaction with Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27), an essential component of endosomal recycling pathways. This interaction is highly conserved across E6 proteins from multiple high-risk HPV types and is mediated by a classical PBM-PDZ interaction but unlike many E6 targets, SNX27 is not targeted for degradation by E6. Rather, in HPV-18 positive cell lines the association of SNX27 with components of the retromer complex and the endocytic transport machinery is altered in an E6 PBM-dependent manner. Analysis of a SNX27 cargo, the glucose transporter GLUT1, reveals an E6-dependent maintenance of GLUT1 expression and alteration in its association with components of the endocytic transport machinery. Furthermore, knockdown of E6 in HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells phenocopies the loss of SNX27, both in terms of GLUT1 expression levels and its vesicular localization, with a concomitant marked reduction in glucose uptake, whilst loss of SNX27 results in slower cell proliferation in low nutrient conditions. These results demonstrate that E6 interaction with SNX27 can alter the recycling of cargo molecules, one consequence of which is modulation of nutrient availability in HPV transformed tumour cells. PMID:27649450

  15. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of sequence variation of human papillomavirus type 31 E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Annamária; Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Szalmás, Anita; László, Brigitta; Kónya, József; Veress, György

    2016-09-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical and other anogenital cancers as well as a subset of head and neck cancers. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV contribute to oncogenesis by associating with the tumour suppressor protein p53 and pRb, respectively. For HPV types 16 and 18, intratypic sequence variation was shown to have biological and clinical significance. The functional significance of sequence variation among HPV 31 variants was studied less intensively. HPV 31 variants belonging to different variant lineages were found to have differences in persistence and in the ability to cause high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In the present study, we started to explore the functional effects of natural sequence variation of HPV 31 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. The E6 variants were tested for their effects on p53 protein stability and transcriptional activity, while the E7 variants were tested for their effects on pRb protein level and also on the transcriptional activity of E2F transcription factors. HPV 31 E7 variants displayed uniform effects on pRb stability and also on the activity of E2F transcription factors. HPV 31 E6 variants had remarkable differences in the ability to inhibit the trans-activation function of p53 but not in the ability to induce the in vivo degradation of p53. Our results indicate that natural sequence variation of the HPV 31 E6 protein may be involved in the observed differences in the oncogenic potential between HPV 31 variants. PMID:27197052

  16. Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein with Sorting Nexin 27 Modulates Endocytic Cargo Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Ketaki; Massimi, Paola; Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Tomaić, Vjekoslav; Pim, David; Playford, Martin P; Lizano, Marcela; Roberts, Sally; Kranjec, Christian; Doorbar, John; Banks, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    A subset of high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of a large number of human cancers, of which cervical is the most common. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, contribute directly towards the development and maintenance of malignancy. A characteristic feature of the E6 oncoproteins from cancer-causing HPV types is the presence of a PDZ binding motif (PBM) at its C-terminus, which confers interaction with cellular proteins harbouring PDZ domains. Here we show that this motif allows E6 interaction with Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27), an essential component of endosomal recycling pathways. This interaction is highly conserved across E6 proteins from multiple high-risk HPV types and is mediated by a classical PBM-PDZ interaction but unlike many E6 targets, SNX27 is not targeted for degradation by E6. Rather, in HPV-18 positive cell lines the association of SNX27 with components of the retromer complex and the endocytic transport machinery is altered in an E6 PBM-dependent manner. Analysis of a SNX27 cargo, the glucose transporter GLUT1, reveals an E6-dependent maintenance of GLUT1 expression and alteration in its association with components of the endocytic transport machinery. Furthermore, knockdown of E6 in HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells phenocopies the loss of SNX27, both in terms of GLUT1 expression levels and its vesicular localization, with a concomitant marked reduction in glucose uptake, whilst loss of SNX27 results in slower cell proliferation in low nutrient conditions. These results demonstrate that E6 interaction with SNX27 can alter the recycling of cargo molecules, one consequence of which is modulation of nutrient availability in HPV transformed tumour cells.

  17. Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein with Sorting Nexin 27 Modulates Endocytic Cargo Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Ketaki; Massimi, Paola; Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Tomaić, Vjekoslav; Pim, David; Playford, Martin P.; Lizano, Marcela; Roberts, Sally; Kranjec, Christian; Doorbar, John; Banks, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    A subset of high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of a large number of human cancers, of which cervical is the most common. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, contribute directly towards the development and maintenance of malignancy. A characteristic feature of the E6 oncoproteins from cancer-causing HPV types is the presence of a PDZ binding motif (PBM) at its C-terminus, which confers interaction with cellular proteins harbouring PDZ domains. Here we show that this motif allows E6 interaction with Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27), an essential component of endosomal recycling pathways. This interaction is highly conserved across E6 proteins from multiple high-risk HPV types and is mediated by a classical PBM-PDZ interaction but unlike many E6 targets, SNX27 is not targeted for degradation by E6. Rather, in HPV-18 positive cell lines the association of SNX27 with components of the retromer complex and the endocytic transport machinery is altered in an E6 PBM-dependent manner. Analysis of a SNX27 cargo, the glucose transporter GLUT1, reveals an E6-dependent maintenance of GLUT1 expression and alteration in its association with components of the endocytic transport machinery. Furthermore, knockdown of E6 in HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells phenocopies the loss of SNX27, both in terms of GLUT1 expression levels and its vesicular localization, with a concomitant marked reduction in glucose uptake, whilst loss of SNX27 results in slower cell proliferation in low nutrient conditions. These results demonstrate that E6 interaction with SNX27 can alter the recycling of cargo molecules, one consequence of which is modulation of nutrient availability in HPV transformed tumour cells. PMID:27649450

  18. The effect of CtBP1 binding on the structure of the C-terminal region of adenovirus 12 early region 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, David P.; Barral, Paola M.; Gallimore, Phillip H.; Grand, Roger J.A. . E-mail: R.J.A.Grand@bham.ac.uk

    2007-07-05

    Adenovirus early region 1A (AdE1A) binds to the C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) primarily through a highly conserved PXDLS motif located close to its C-terminus. Purified synthetic peptides equivalent to this region of AdE1A have been shown to form a series of {beta}-turns. In this present study the effect of CtBP1 binding on the conformation of C-terminal region of Ad12E1A has been investigated. Using one- and two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, the conformation of 20-residue peptides equivalent to amino acids I{sup 241}-V{sup 260} and E{sup 247}-N{sup 266} of Ad12E1A were examined in the absence of CtBP1. Whilst the latter peptide forms a series of {beta}-turns in its C-terminal half as reported previously, the former peptide is {alpha}-helical over the region D{sup 243}-Q{sup 253}. Upon interaction with CtBP1 the conformation of the backbone in the region {sup 255}PVDLCVK{sup 261} of the Ad12E1A E{sup 247}-N{sup 266} peptide reorganises from a predominately {beta}-turn to an {alpha}-helical conformation. This structural isomerisation is characterised by a shift upfield of 0.318 ppm for the {delta}-CH{sub 3} proton resonance of V{sup 256}. 2-D NOESY experiments showed new signals in the amide-{alpha} region which correlate to transferred NOEs from the protein to the peptide residues E{sup 251}, V{sup 256} and K{sup 261}. In further analyses the contribution of individual amino acids within the sequence {sup 254}VPVDLS{sup 259} was assessed for their importance in determining structure and consequently affinity of the peptide for CtBP. It has been concluded that Ad12E1A residues {sup 255}P-V{sup 260} serve initially as a recognition site for CtBP and then as an anchor through a {beta}-turns {sup {yields}} {alpha}-helix conformational rearrangement. In addition it has been predicted that regions N-terminal to the PXDLS motif in AdE1As from different virus serotypes and from mammalian proteins form {alpha}-helices.

  19. Synergistic antitumor activity of triple-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with VSTM1 and daunorubicin in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Yao, Qiu-Mei; Li, Jin-Lan; Chang, Yan; Li, Ting; Han, Wen-Ling; Wu, Hong-Ping; Li, Lin-Fang; Qian, Qi-Jun; Ruan, Guo-Rui

    2016-10-01

    V-set and transmembrane domain-containing 1 (VSTM1), which is downregulated in bone marrow cells from leukemia patients, may provide a diagnostic and treatment target. Here, a triple-regulated oncolytic adenovirus was constructed to carry a VSTM1 gene expression cassette, SG611-VSTM1, and contained the E1a gene with a 24-nucleotide deletion within the CR2 region under control of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, E1b gene directed by the hypoxia response element, and VSTM1 gene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses showed that SG611-VSTM1 expressed VSTM1 highly efficiently in the human leukemic cell line K562 compared with SG611. In Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometric assays, SG611-VSTM1 exhibited more potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in leukemic cells compared with SG611 and exerted synergistic cytotoxicity with low-dose daunorubicin (DNR) in vitro. In xenograft models, SG611-VSTM1 intratumorally injected at a dose of 1 × 10(9) plaque forming units combined with intraperitoneally injected low-dose DNR displayed significantly stronger antitumor effects than either treatment alone. Histopathologic examination revealed that SG611-VSTM1 induced apoptosis of leukemic cells. These results implicate an important role for VSTM1 in the pathogenesis of leukemia, and SG611-VSTM1 may be a promising agent for enhancing chemosensitivity in leukemia therapy. PMID:27472927

  20. Transductional targeting of adenovirus vectors for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, JN; Everts, M; Curiel, DT

    2007-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy approaches will derive considerable benefit from adenovirus (Ad) vectors capable of self-directed localization to neoplastic disease or immunomodulatory targets in vivo. The ablation of native Ad tropism coupled with active targeting modalities has demonstrated that innate gene delivery efficiency may be retained while circumventing Ad dependence on its primary cellular receptor, the coxsackie and Ad receptor. Herein, we describe advances in Ad targeting that are predicated on a fundamental understanding of vector/cell interplay. Further, we propose strategies by which existing paradigms, such as nanotechnology, may be combined with Ad vectors to form advanced delivery vehicles with multiple functions. PMID:16439993

  1. Biology of E1-Deleted Adenovirus Vectors in Nonhuman Primate Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zoltick, Philip W.; Chirmule, Narendra; Schnell, Michael A.; Gao, Guang-ping; Hughes, Joseph V.; Wilson, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors have been studied as vehicles for gene transfer to skeletal muscle, an attractive target for gene therapies for inherited and acquired diseases. In this setting, immune responses to viral proteins and/or transgene products cause inflammation and lead to loss of transgene expression. A few studies in murine models have suggested that the destructive cell-mediated immune response to virally encoded proteins of E1-deleted adenovirus may not contribute to the elimination of transgene-expressing cells. However, the impact of immune responses following intramuscular administration of adenovirus vectors on transgene stability has not been elucidated in larger animal models such as nonhuman primates. Here we demonstrate that intramuscular administration of E1-deleted adenovirus vector expressing rhesus monkey erythropoietin or growth hormone to rhesus monkeys results in generation of a Th1-dependent cytotoxic T-cell response to adenovirus proteins. Transgene expression dropped significantly over time but was still detectable in some animals after 6 months. Systemic levels of adenovirus-specific neutralizing antibodies were generated, which blocked vector readministration. These studies indicate that the cellular and humoral immune response generated to adenovirus proteins, in the context of transgenes encoding self-proteins, hinders long-term transgene expression and readministration with first-generation vectors. PMID:11333904

  2. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  3. Cryo-EM visualization of an exposed RGD epitope on adenovirus that escapes antibody neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P L; Chiu, C Y; Huang, S; Muir, T; Zhao, Y; Chait, B; Mathias, P; Nemerow, G R

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of the adenovirus penton base protein with alpha v integrins promotes virus entry into host cells. The location of the integrin binding sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) on human type 2 adenovirus (Ad2) was visualized by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image reconstruction using a mAb (DAV-1) which recognizes a linear epitope, IRGDTFATR. The sites for DAV-1 binding corresponded to the weak density above each of the five 22 A protrusions on the adenovirus penton base protein. Modeling of a Fab fragment crystal structure into the adenovirus-Fab cryo-EM density indicated a large amplitude of motion for the Fab and the RGD epitope. An unexpected finding was that Fab fragments, but not IgG antibody molecules, inhibited adenovirus infection. Steric hindrance from the adenovirus fiber and a few bound IgG molecules, as well as epitope mobility, most likely prevent binding of IgG antibodies to all five RGD sites on the penton base protein within the intact virus. These studies indicate that the structure of the adenovirus particle facilitates interaction with cell integrins, whilst restricting binding of potentially neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9135136

  4. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Wevers, Diana; Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Boesch, Christophe; Robbins, Martha M; Head, Josephine; Ludwig, Carsten; Kühn, Joachim; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2010-11-05

    Adenoviruses (AdV) broadly infect vertebrate hosts including a variety of primates. We identified a novel AdV in the feces of captive gorillas by isolation in cell culture, electron microscopy and PCR. From the supernatants of infected cultures we amplified DNA polymerase (DPOL), preterminal protein (pTP) and hexon gene sequences with generic pan primate AdV PCR assays. The sequences in-between were amplified by long-distance PCRs of 2-10 kb length, resulting in a final sequence of 15.6 kb. Phylogenetic analysis placed the novel gorilla AdV into a cluster of primate AdVs belonging to the species Human adenovirus B (HAdV-B). Depending on the analyzed gene, its position within the cluster was variable. To further elucidate its origin, feces samples of wild gorillas were analyzed. AdV hexon sequences were detected which are indicative for three distinct and novel gorilla HAdV-B viruses, among them a virus nearly identical to the novel AdV isolated from captive gorillas. This shows that the discovered virus is a member of a group of HAdV-B viruses that naturally infect gorillas. The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses.

  5. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Mercier, George T.; Barry, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  6. Purification of a native membrane-associated adenovirus tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, H; Katze, M G; Philipson, L

    1982-01-01

    A 15,000-dalton protein was purified from HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 2. Proteins solubilized from a membrane fraction of lytically infected cells was used as the starting material for purification. Subsequent purification steps involved lentil-lectin, phosphocellulose, hydroxyapatite, DEAE-cellulose, and aminohexyl-Sepharose chromatographies. A monospecific antiserum, raised against the purified protein, immunoprecipitated a 15,000-dalton protein encoded in early-region E1B (E1B/15K protein) of the adenovirus type 2 DNA. Tryptic finger print analysis revealed that the purified protein was identical to the E1B/15K protein encoded in the transforming part of the viral genome. The antiserum immunoprecipitated the E1B/15K protein from a variety of viral transformed cell lines isolated from humans, rats, or hamsters. The E1B/15K protein was associated with the membrane fraction of both lytically and virus-transformed cell lines and could only be released by detergent treatment. Furthermore, a 11,000- to 12,000-dalton protein that could be precipitated with the anti-E1B/15K serum was recovered from membranes treated with trypsin or proteinase K, suggesting that a major part of the E1B/15K protein is protected in membrane vesicles. Translation of early viral mRNA in a cell-free system, supplemented with rough microsomes, showed that this protein was associated with the membrane fraction also in vitro. Images PMID:7097863

  7. Detection of adenovirus using PCR and molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S K

    1999-09-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a molecular beacon probe were used for the detection of Adenovirus. A 307 bp DNA fragment from a conserved region of the hexon gene was amplified. The specific molecular beacon was characterized with respect to its efficiency of quenching, and signal to noise ratio by spectrofluorometric analysis of its hybridization with virus specific complementary single stranded oligonucleotide target. Amplification was carried out in the presence of the molecular beacon probe, and the amplified target was detected by measurement of fluorescence signal in the post PCR sample. Separately, a 32P-labeled linear probe (having the same sequence as that of molecular beacon probe) was liquid-phase hybridized with the product of PCR performed in the absence of the molecular beacon. The virus specific target was then detected by electrophoresis of the hybridized product in a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and subsequent autoradiographic analysis. The detection limit of adenovirus by PCR in the presence of the molecular beacon probe was found to be similar to that obtained by labeled linear probe hybridization following PCR.

  8. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B. Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K.; Al-dubaib, Musaad A.; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A ‘One Health’ vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  9. Construction and characterization of recombinant adenovirus carrying a mouse TIGIT-GFP gene.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J M; Cui, J L; He, W T; Yu, D W; Gao, Y; Wang, L; Chen, Z K; Zhou, H M

    2015-12-29

    Recombinant adenovirus vector systems have been used extensively in protein research and gene therapy. However, the construction and characterization of recombinant adenovirus is a tedious and time-consuming process. TIGIT is a recently discovered immunosuppressive molecule that plays an important role in maintaining immunological balance. The construction of recombinant adenovirus mediating TIGIT expression must be simplified to facilitate its use in the study of TIGIT. In this study, the TIGIT gene was combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP); the TIGIT-GFP gene was inserted into a gateway plasmid to construct a TIGIT-GFP adenovirus. HEK 293A cells were infected with the adenovirus, which was then purified and subjected to virus titering. TIGIT-GFP adenovirus was characterized by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, and its expression in mouse liver was detected by infection through caudal vein injection. The results showed the successful construction of the TIGIT-GFP adenovirus (5 x 10(10) PFU/mL). Co-expression of TIGIT and GFP was identified in 293A and liver cells; synthesis and positioning of TIGIT-GFP was viewed under a fluorescence microscope. TIGIT-GFP was highly expressed on liver cells 1 day (25.53%) after infection and faded 3 days (11.36%) after injection. In conclusion, the fusion of TIGIT with GFP allows easy, rapid, and uncomplicated detection of TIGIT translation. The construction of a TIGIT-GFP adenovirus, mediating TIGIT expression in vitro and in vivo, lays the foundation for further research into TIGIT function and gene therapy. Moreover, the TIGIT-GFP adenovirus is a helpful tool for studying other proteins (which could replace the TIGIT gene).

  10. First and second line imatinib treatment in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients expressing rare e1a2 or e19a2 BCR-ABL transcripts.

    PubMed

    Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Nahajevszky, Sarolta; Szilvási, Anikó; Bors, András; Adám, Emma; Kozma, András; Kajtár, Béla; Barta, Anikó; Poros, Anna; Tordai, Attila

    2007-09-01

    During the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, in the majority of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients, the chromosome 22 breakpoint is located in the major breakpoint cluster region of the BCR gene (M-bcr). Minor and micro breakpoint cluster regions (m-bcr with e1a2 transcript and micro-bcr with e19a2 transcript) are rarely affected and have been suggested to be associated with peculiar CML phenotypes. Despite the different clinical characteristics, it is currently not established, whether different therapeutic options are preferably recommended for the treatment of e1a2 or e19a2 CML. Here we report two patients with e1a2 and one patient with e19a2 translocations, treated with different approaches including imatinib. First and second line imatinib treatments induced haematologic response in all of the three patients, and major cytogenetic response in one patient with e1a2, as well as in the patient with e19a2 CML. However, relapse occurred in the patient with e19a2 CML, possibly caused by the presence of additional chromosomal abnormalities such as an extra Ph chromosome, and loss of chromosome Y. Stem cell transplantation (SCT) therapy caused complete haematologic response with molecular remission; however, the patient died of infectious complication. We conclude that in patients with rare BCR-ABL variants, the effectiveness of imatininb treatment may be influenced by the CML stage besides the actual molecular type of the rare transcript. However, this conclusion cannot be generalized to larger patient groups with rare BCR-ABL variants for which further studies may be needed.

  11. Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006–2008 period

    PubMed Central

    García, Josefina; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, Victor Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; De Rivera, Ivette L.; Agudo, Roberto; Arango, Ana E.; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Human Adenoviruses are recognized pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America. Methods  In this study, we have molecularly characterized 213 adenoviruses collected from ILI presenting patients, during 2006‐08, in Central and South America. Results  Our results indicate that 161(76%) adenoviruses belong to subgroup C, 45 (21%) to subgroup B and 7 (3%) to subtype E4. PMID:19903214

  12. Aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate efficiently delivers miRNA-29b to non-small-cell lung cancer cells and inhibits growth by downregulating essential oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Perepelyuk, Maryna; Maher, Christina; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Shoyele, Sunday A

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially attractive candidates for cancer therapy. However, their therapeutic application is limited by lack of availability of an efficient delivery system to stably deliver these potent molecules intracellularly to cancer cells while avoiding healthy cells. We developed a novel aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate delivery system to selectively deliver miRNA-29b to MUC1-expressing cancer cells. Significant downregulation of oncoproteins DNMT3b and MCL1 was demonstrated by these MUC1 aptamer-functionalized hybrid nanoparticles in A549 cells. Furthermore, downregulation of these oncoproteins led to antiproliferative effect and induction of apoptosis in a superior version when compared with Lipofectamine 2000. This novel aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate delivery system could potentially serve as a platform for intracellular delivery of miRNAs to cancer cells, hence improving the therapeutic outcome of lung cancer. PMID:27555773

  13. Aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate efficiently delivers miRNA-29b to non-small-cell lung cancer cells and inhibits growth by downregulating essential oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Perepelyuk, Maryna; Maher, Christina; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Shoyele, Sunday A

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially attractive candidates for cancer therapy. However, their therapeutic application is limited by lack of availability of an efficient delivery system to stably deliver these potent molecules intracellularly to cancer cells while avoiding healthy cells. We developed a novel aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate delivery system to selectively deliver miRNA-29b to MUC1-expressing cancer cells. Significant downregulation of oncoproteins DNMT3b and MCL1 was demonstrated by these MUC1 aptamer-functionalized hybrid nanoparticles in A549 cells. Furthermore, downregulation of these oncoproteins led to antiproliferative effect and induction of apoptosis in a superior version when compared with Lipofectamine 2000. This novel aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate delivery system could potentially serve as a platform for intracellular delivery of miRNAs to cancer cells, hence improving the therapeutic outcome of lung cancer. PMID:27555773

  14. Modified recombinant adenoviruses increase porcine circovirus 2 capsid protein expression and induce enhanced immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, D L; Huang, Y; Chang, L L; DU, Q; Chen, Y; Wang, T T; Luo, X M; Zhao, X M; Tong, D W

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary viral pathogen of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) and vaccination is an important method to prevent and control the disease. The expression of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) in adenovirus vector system has been investigated, but the poor immune responses limit its application. In this study, transcriptional enhancer element largest intron of the human cytomegalovirus (Intron A) and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) were applied to increase the immunogenicity of PCV2 Cap adenovirus-based vaccine. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) analysis showed that modified adenoviruses with Intron A and WPRE alone or both could significantly increase the expression of Cap compared to the unmodified adenoviruses. Furthermore, the humoral and cellular immune responses of the constructed recombinant adenoviruses were evaluated in mice. Indirect ELISA, virus neutralizing test and western blot showed that modified adenoviruses elicited higher humoral immune responses than unmodified adenovirus, and Intron A-WPRE-modified virus immunized group had better immune response than the others. Besides, the results of lymphocyte proliferation response and cytokines release assay showed that enhanced cellular immune responses were induced by modified adenoviruses. These results demonstrated that Intron A and WPRE significantly improved the expression of the Cap protein in adenovirus vector system and enhanced the immune responses in mice, making the adenovirus vector system more applicable against PCV2. PMID:27640437

  15. The expression of miR-21 and miR-143 is deregulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Yazmín; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; García-Villa, Enrique; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Lambert, Paul F; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Gariglio, Patricio

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate their target mRNAs at a posttranscriptional level, thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. However, little is known about the molecular events that control expression of miRNAs in cervical cancer (CC). HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in conjunction with estrogen are sufficient to produce high grade cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical malignancies in a mouse model. In the present study, we determined the potential role that the E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol (E2) play in the deregulation of miR-21 and miR-143 expression levels by these two risk factors. We found that, while the expression of miR-21 was upregulated and the expression of miR-143 was downregulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in vivo, and in vitro and that E2 treatment is also implicated in the deregulation of these important miRNAs in vivo. Sustained upregulation of miR-21 resulted in suppression of PTEN expression, and repression of miR-143 increased the mRNA and protein levels from Bcl-2. These results suggested that HPV type 16 E7 oncoprotein and E2 play an important role in regulating miR-21 and miR-143 expression. We have observed similar results in CC patients containing HPV16 sequences, suggesting that these miRNAs could serve as diagnostic biomarkers in CC. The present study highlights the roles of miRNAs in cervical tissue and implicates these important molecules in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27278606

  16. E6/E7 oncoproteins of high risk HPV-16 upregulate MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and promote the migration of cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dingjun; Ye, Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: E6 and E7 of high risk human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) were reported to correlate with the cervical cancer (CC). And the presence of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has also been indicated to be associated with CC. Methods: The present study investigated the expression of MMPs (MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9) in CC cells with HPV16-E6/E7 oncoprotein(s) negative or positive, and then determined the regulation of HPV16-E6/E7 oncoproteins on the expression of MMPs (MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and the migration of cervical cancer Caski and SiHa cells with RNAi technology. Results: It was demonstrated that the overexpression or the knockdown of HPV16-E6/E7 promoted or reduced MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in CC cells. And the HPV16-E6, -E7 or -E6E7 influenced the migration of CC cells. The overexpression or the knockdown of them promoted or inhibited the migration of C33A or Caski/SiHa cells. Moreover, the chemical inhibition of MMP-2 or MMP-9 significantly reduced the migration of CC Caski or SiHa cells. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the E6-HPV16 or E7-HPV16 promoted the activity of MMP-2/9, and contributed to the migration of cervical cells. PMID:26191191

  17. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein upregulates the retinoic acid receptor-beta expression in cervical cancer cell lines and K14E7 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge; García-Villa, Enrique; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M; Vázquez, Juan; Roman-Rosales, Alejandra; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Celik, Haydar; Romano, Marta C; Üren, Aykut; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2015-10-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is the main etiological factor in cervical cancer (CC). The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein alters several cellular processes, regulating the expression of many genes in order to avoid cell cycle control. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) blocks cell growth, inducing differentiation and apoptosis. This tumor suppressor gene is gradually silenced in late passages of foreskin keratinocytes immortalized with HPV16 and in various tumors, including CC, mainly by epigenetic modifications. We investigated the effect of E7 oncoprotein on RARB gene expression. We found that HPV16 E7 increases RARB mRNA and RAR-beta protein expression both in vitro and in the cervix of young K14E7 transgenic mice. In E7-expressing cells, RARB overexpression is further increased in the presence of the tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) R273C mutant. This effect does not change when either C33-A or E7-expressing C33-A cell line is treated with Trichostatin A, suggesting that E7 enhances RARB expression independently of histone deacetylases inhibition. These findings indicate that RARB overexpression is part of the early molecular events induced by the E7 oncoprotein.

  18. Nuclear export of cutaneous HPV8 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by a leucine-rich nuclear export signal via a CRM1 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Onder, Zeynep; Chang, Vivian; Moroianu, Junona

    2015-01-01

    We recently determined that the nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 oncoprotein it is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via direct hydrophobic interactions with the FG nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153 (Onder and Moroianu, 2014). Here we investigated the nuclear export of HPV8 E7 oncoprotein using confocal microscopy after transfections of HeLa cells with EGFP–8cE7 and mutant plasmids and treatment with Ratjadone A nuclear export inhibitor. We determined that HPV8 E7 contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), {sub 76}IRTFQELLF{sub 84}, within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear export via a CRM1 pathway. We found that HPV8 E7 interacts with CRM1 and that the hydrophobic amino acid residues I76, F79 and L82 of the NES are essential for this interaction and for nuclear export of HPV8 E7 oncoprotein. - Highlights: • HPV8 E7 has a leucine-rich NES within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear export. • CRM1 nuclear export receptor interacts with HPV8 E7 and mediates its export. • Identification of the critical hydrophobic amino acids of the NES of HPV8 E7.

  19. Modulation of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Haddad, I Y; Sorscher, E J; Garver, R I; Hong, J; Tzeng, E; Matalon, S

    1997-05-01

    We assessed the role of .NO in recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer both in vitro and in vivo. NIH3T3 fibroblasts, stably transfected with the human inducible nitric oxide synthase, but lacking tetrahydrobiopterin (NIH3T3/iNOS [inducibile nitric oxide synthase]), were infected with replication-deficient adenovirus (E1-deleted), containing either the luciferase or the Lac Z reporter genes (AdCMV-Luc and AdCMV-Lac Z; 1-10 plaque forming units [pfu]/cell). Incubation of infected cells with sepiapterin (50 microM), a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin, progressively increased nitrate/nitrite levels in the medium and decreased both luciferase and beta-galactosidase protein expression to approximately 60% of their corresponding control values, 24 h later. NIH3T3/iNOS cells had normal ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) levels and did not release LDH(lactic dehydrogenase) into the medium. Pretreatment of these cells with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 1 mM), an inhibitor of iNOS, prevented the sepiapterin-mediated induction of .NO and restored gene transfer to baseline values. Incubation of NIH3T3/iNOS with 8-bromo-cGMP (400 microM) in the absence of sepiapterin, or exposure of AdCMV-Luc to large concentrations of .NO, did not alter the efficacy of gene transfer. .NO produced by NIH3T3/iNOS cells also suppressed beta-galactosidase expression in NIH3T3 cocultured cells stably transfected with beta-galactosidase gene, suggesting .NO inhibited gene expression at either the transriptional or posttranscriptional levels. To investigate the effects of inhaled .NO on gene transfer in vivo, CD1 mice received an intratracheal instillation of AdCMV-Luc (4 x 10(9) pfu in 80 microl of saline) and exposed to .NO (25 ppm in room air) for 72 h. At that time, no significant degree of lung inflammation was detected by histological examination. However, lung luciferase activity decreased by 53% as compared with air breathing controls (P < 0.05; n > or = 8). We concluded that

  20. Titration of adenovirus by counting cells containing virus-induced inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Weber, J

    1972-05-01

    A new method for the titration of adenovirus types 2 and 12 based on the enumeration of viral inclusions in infected cells was devised and evaluated. The technique gave virus titers comparable to those obtained by the plaque assay procedure.

  1. Adenovirus fiber disrupts CAR-mediated intercellular adhesion allowing virus escape.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert W; Freimuth, Paul; Moninger, Thomas O; Ganske, Ingrid; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J

    2002-09-20

    Adenovirus binds its receptor (CAR), enters cells, and replicates. It must then escape to the environment to infect a new host. We found that following infection, human airway epithelia first released adenovirus to the basolateral surface. Virus then traveled between epithelial cells to emerge on the apical surface. Adenovirus fiber protein, which is produced during viral replication, facilitated apical escape. Fiber binds CAR, which sits on the basolateral membrane where it maintains tight junction integrity. When fiber bound CAR, it disrupted junctional integrity, allowing virus to filter between the cells and emerge apically. Thus, adenovirus exploits its receptor for two important but distinct steps in its life cycle: entry into host cells and escape across epithelial barriers to the environment.

  2. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  3. [Downregulation of Human Adenovirus DNA Polymerase Gene by Modified siRNAs].

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, N A; Speiseder, T; Chernolovskaya, E L; Zenkova, M A; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V S

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses, in particular D8, D19, and D37, cause ocular infections. Currently, there is no available causally directed treatment, which efficiently counteracts adenoviral infectious diseases. In our previous work, we showed that gene silencing by means of RNA interference is an effective approach for downregulation of human species D adenoviruses replication. In this study, we compared the biological activity of siRNAs and their modified analogs targeting human species D adenoviruses DNA polymerase. We found that one of selectively 2'-O-methyl modified siRNAs mediates stable and long-lasting suppression of the target gene (12 days post transfection). We suppose that this siRNA can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against human species D adenoviruses.

  4. Molecular Detection of Adenoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, and Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Conrardy, Christina; Tao, Ying; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Anderson, Larry J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tong, Suxiang

    2014-01-01

    We screened 217 bats of at least 20 species from 17 locations in Kenya during July and August of 2006 for the presence of adenovirus, rhabdovirus, and paramyxovirus nucleic acids using generic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR assays. Of 217 bat fecal swabs examined, 4 bats were adenovirus DNA-positive, 11 bats were paramyxovirus RNA-positive, and 2 bats were rhabdovirus RNA-positive. Three bats were coinfected by two different viruses. By sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, the Kenya bat paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses from this study may represent novel viral lineages within their respective families; the Kenya bat adenoviruses could not be confirmed as novel, because the same region sequences from other known bat adenovirus genomes for comparison were lacking. Our study adds to previous evidence that bats carry diverse, potentially zoonotic viruses and may be coinfected with more than one virus. PMID:24865685

  5. Fatal pulmonary edema in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) associated with adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sorden, S D; Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-07-01

    Sporadic sudden deaths in adult white-tailed deer occurred from November 1997 through August 1998 on an Iowa game farm. Three of the 4 deer necropsied had severe pulmonary edema, widespread mild lymphocytic vasculitis, and amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in scattered endothelial cells in blood vessels in the lung and abdominal viscera. Immunohistochemistry with bovine adenovirus 5 antisera and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral antigen and nucleocapsids, respectively, within endothelial cells. Adenovirus was isolated in cell culture from 1 of the affected deer. The isolate was neutralized by California black-tailed deer adenovirus antiserum. These findings indicate that adenovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both black-tailed and white-tailed deer with pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy.

  6. Identification and purification of a protein encoded by the human adenovirus type 2 transforming region.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Cartas, M A; Matsuo, T

    1982-01-01

    The human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) transforming genes are located in early regions E1a (map position 1.3 to 4.5) and E1b (map position 4.6 to 11.2). We have identified and purified to near homogeneity a major 20,000-molecular-weight (20K) protein and have shown that it is coded by E1b. Using an Ad2-transformed cell antiserum which contained antibody to E1b-coded proteins, we immunoprecipitated 53K and 19K proteins from the nucleoplasm and 53K, 19K, and 20K proteins from the cytoplasmic S-100 fraction of Ad2 productively infected and Ad2-transformed cells. The 19K protein was present in both the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, whereas the 20K protein was found only in the cytoplasm. The 53K and 19K proteins are known Ad2 E1b-coded proteins. The 20K protein was purified to near homogeneity in 20 to 50% yields by sequential DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Purified 20K protein shares most of its methionine-labeled tryptic peptides with E1b-53K, as shown by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and therefore is closely related to the 53K protein. The 19K protein does not appear to share tryptic peptides with either 20K or 53K protein. To provide more direct evidence that 20K protein is virus-coded, we translated E1b-specific mRNA in vitro. Both immunoprecipitation analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography purification of the translated product identified a 20K protein that has the same tryptic peptides as the 20K protein isolated from infected and from transformed cells. These findings suggest that the Ad2 20K protein is a primary translation product of an Ad2 E1b mRNA. Images PMID:7045392

  7. Identification and purification of a protein encoded by the human adenovirus type 2 transforming region.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Cartas, M A; Matsuo, T

    1982-04-01

    The human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) transforming genes are located in early regions E1a (map position 1.3 to 4.5) and E1b (map position 4.6 to 11.2). We have identified and purified to near homogeneity a major 20,000-molecular-weight (20K) protein and have shown that it is coded by E1b. Using an Ad2-transformed cell antiserum which contained antibody to E1b-coded proteins, we immunoprecipitated 53K and 19K proteins from the nucleoplasm and 53K, 19K, and 20K proteins from the cytoplasmic S-100 fraction of Ad2 productively infected and Ad2-transformed cells. The 19K protein was present in both the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, whereas the 20K protein was found only in the cytoplasm. The 53K and 19K proteins are known Ad2 E1b-coded proteins. The 20K protein was purified to near homogeneity in 20 to 50% yields by sequential DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Purified 20K protein shares most of its methionine-labeled tryptic peptides with E1b-53K, as shown by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and therefore is closely related to the 53K protein. The 19K protein does not appear to share tryptic peptides with either 20K or 53K protein. To provide more direct evidence that 20K protein is virus-coded, we translated E1b-specific mRNA in vitro. Both immunoprecipitation analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography purification of the translated product identified a 20K protein that has the same tryptic peptides as the 20K protein isolated from infected and from transformed cells. These findings suggest that the Ad2 20K protein is a primary translation product of an Ad2 E1b mRNA.

  8. Structural Insights into a Wildtype Domain of the Oncoprotein E6 and Its Interaction with a PDZ Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mischo, André; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Hortschansky, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramadurai; Görlach, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7 interact with key cellular regulators and are etiological agents for tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance in cervical cancer and other malignant conditions. E6 induces degradation of the tumor suppressor p53, activates telomerase and deregulates cell polarity. Analysis of E6 derived from a number of high risk HPV finally yielded the first structure of a wild-type HPV E6 domain (PDB 2M3L) representing the second zinc-binding domain of HPV 51 E6 (termed 51Z2) determined by NMR spectroscopy. The 51Z2 structure provides clues about HPV-type specific structural differences between E6 proteins. The observed temperature sensitivity of the well-folded wild-type E6 domain implies a significant malleability of the oncoprotein in vivo. Hence, the structural differences between individual E6 and their malleability appear, together with HPV type-specific surface exposed side-chains, to provide the structural basis for the different interaction networks reported for individual E6 proteins. Furthermore, the interaction of 51Z2 with a PDZ domain of hDlg was analyzed. Human Dlg constitutes a prototypic representative of the large family of PDZ proteins regulating cell polarity, which are common targets of high-risk HPV E6. Nine C-terminal residues of 51Z2 interact with the second PDZ domain of hDlg2. Surface plasmon resonance in conjunction with the NMR spectroscopy derived complex structure (PDB 2M3M) indicate that E6 residues N-terminal to the canonical PDZ-BM of E6 significantly contribute to this interaction and increase affinity. The structure of the complex reveals how residues outside of the classical PDZ-BM enhance the affinity of E6 towards PDZ domains. Such mechanism facilitates successful competition of E6 with cellular PDZ-binding proteins and may apply to PDZ-binding proteins of other viruses as well. PMID:23638119

  9. Quantitative detection of human adenoviruses in wastewater and combined sewer overflows influencing a Michigan river.

    PubMed

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Xagoraraki, Irene; Rose, Joan B

    2010-02-01

    Enteric viruses are important pathogens found in contaminated surface waters and have previously been detected in waters of the Great Lakes. Human adenoviruses were monitored because of their high prevalence and persistence in aquatic environments. In this study, we quantified adenoviruses in wastewater, surface water, and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by real-time PCR. Between August 2005 and August 2006, adenovirus concentrations in raw sewage, primary-treated effluent, secondary-treated effluent, and chlorinated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in Michigan were examined. CSO samples (n = 6) were collected from a CSO retention basin in Grand Rapids, MI. Adenoviruses were detected in 100% of wastewater and CSO discharge samples. Average adenovirus DNA concentrations in sewage and CSOs were 1.15 x 10(6) viruses/liter and 5.35 x 10(5) viruses/liter, respectively. Adenovirus removal was <2 log(10) (99%) at the wastewater treatment plant. Adenovirus type 41 (60% of clones), type 12 (29%), type 40 (3%), type 2 (3%), and type 3 (3%) were isolated from raw sewage and primary effluents (n = 28). Six of 20 surface water samples from recreational parks at the lower Grand River showed virus concentrations above the real-time PCR detection limit (average, 7.8 x 10(3) viruses/liter). This research demonstrates that wastewater effluents and wastewater-impacted surface waters in the lower Grand River in Michigan contain high levels of viruses and may not be suitable for full-body recreational activities. High concentrations of adenovirus in these waters may be due to inefficient removal during wastewater treatment and to the high persistence of these viruses in the environment.

  10. Transgene delivery to cultured keratinocytes via replication-deficient adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Vincent P; Aneskievich, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Transient transgene expression can facilitate investigation of that gene-product function or effect on keratinocyte biology. Several chemical and biologic delivery systems are available, and among them adenoviruses offer particular advantages in efficiency and transgene capacity. Here we describe the advantages of bicistronic adenovirus and inclusion of the polycation hexadimethrine bromide to aid in the detection of positively transduced cells and enhance transduction efficiency. PMID:24281865

  11. Mesangial Localization of Immune Complexes in Experimental Canine Adenovirus Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, N. G.; Morrison, W. I.; Thompson, H.; Cornwell, H. J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Each of a group of 14 dogs was infected experimentally by an intravenous dose of canine adenovirus calculated to allow survival until the initial stages of antibody production; the kidneys of infected dogs were examined during the period of 4-14 days after administration of virus. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with localization of IgG, C3 and viral antigen in mesangial regions was demonstrated. With the electron microscope, electron dense deposits were found scattered throughout the mesangium. There was proliferation of mesangial cells, infiltration into the glomerular tuft of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and, in some cases, focal glomerular necrosis with intracapsular and tubular haemorrhage. By means of an indirect immunofluorescence test, anti-viral antibody was detected in kidney eluates; anti-kidney antibody was not present. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 9-10Figs. 1-4 PMID:4375485

  12. Going viral: a review of replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Fanger, Gary R.; Stirn, Meaghan; Oronsky, Arnold; Reid, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses have had a tumultuous course, from the initial anecdotal reports of patients having antineoplastic effects after natural viral infections a century ago to the development of current cutting-edge therapies in clinical trials. Adenoviruses have long been the workhorse of virotherapy, and we review both the scientific and the not-so-scientific forces that have shaped the development of these therapeutics from wild-type viral pathogens, turning an old foe into a new friend. After a brief review of the mechanics of viral replication and how it has been modified to engineer tumor selectivity, we give particular attention to ONYX-015, the forerunner of virotherapy with extensive clinical testing that pioneered the field. The findings from those as well as other oncolytic trials have shaped how we now view these viruses, which our immune system has evolved to vigorously attack, as promising immunotherapy agents. PMID:26280277

  13. Current issues and future directions of oncolytic adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T

    2010-02-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) constitute a promising new class of anticancer agent. They are based on the well-studied adenoviral vector system, which lends itself to concept-driven design to generate oncolytic variants. The first oncolytic Ad was approved as a drug in China in 2005, although clinical efficacy observed in human trials has failed to reach the high expectations that were based on studies in animal models. Current obstacles to the full realization of efficacy of this class of anticancer agent include (i) limited efficiency of infection and specific replication in tumor cells, (ii) limited vector spread within the tumor, (iii) imperfect animal models and methods of in vivo imaging, and (iv) an incomplete understanding of the interaction of these agents with the host. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of oncolytic Ads and potential ways to overcome current obstacles to their clinical application and efficacy.

  14. Adenovirus type 2 nuclear RNA accumulating during productive infection.

    PubMed Central

    Bachenheimer, S L

    1977-01-01

    The viral-specific nuclear RNA which accumulates early and late during productive infection of HeLa cells by adenovirus-type 2 (Ad2) has been characterized with respect to its size and stability after denaturation by Me2SO. Early nuclear transcripts, under nondenaturing conditions, sediment in the range 28 to 45S, but treatment with Me2SO prior to sedimentation results in a shift to about 20S. Later nuclear RNA accumulates as a composite of two populations of molecules: one with a broad size distribution centering on 45S under nondenaturing conditions and less than 32S after denaturation and a second having a narrow size distribution around 35S which is quite stable to Me2SO. Analysis of late RNA by hybridization to Sma fragments of Ad2 DNA suggests that the 35S RNA species is derived from a limited portion of the left half of the viral genome. PMID:864839

  15. Current Issues and Future Directions of Oncolytic Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T

    2009-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) constitute a promising new class of anticancer agent. They are based on the well-studied adenoviral vector system, which lends itself to concept-driven design to generate oncolytic variants. The first oncolytic Ad was approved as a drug in China in 2005, although clinical efficacy observed in human trials has failed to reach the high expectations that were based on studies in animal models. Current obstacles to the full realization of efficacy of this class of anticancer agent include (i) limited efficiency of infection and specific replication in tumor cells, (ii) limited vector spread within the tumor, (iii) imperfect animal models and methods of in vivo imaging, and (iv) an incomplete understanding of the interaction of these agents with the host. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of oncolytic Ads and potential ways to overcome current obstacles to their clinical application and efficacy. PMID:19935777

  16. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  17. Adenovirus Membrane Penetration: Tickling the Tail of a Sleeping Dragon

    PubMed Central

    Wiethoff, Christopher M.; Nemerow, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    As is the case for nearly every viral pathogen, non-enveloped viruses (NEV) must maintain their integrity under potentially harsh environmental conditions while retaining the ability to undergo rapid disassembly at the right time and right place inside host cells. NEVs generally exist in this metastable state until they encounter key cellular stimuli such as membrane receptors, decreased intracellular pH, digestion by cellular proteases, or a combination of these factors. These stimuli trigger conformational changes in the viral capsid that exposes a sequestered membrane-perturbing protein. This protein subsequently modifies the cell membrane in such a way as to allow passage of the virion and accompanying nucleic acid payload into the cell cytoplasm. Different NEVs employ variations of this general pathway for cell entry (1), however this review will focus on significant new knowledge obtained on cell entry by human adenovirus(HAdV). PMID:25798531

  18. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cascalló, Manel; Alemany, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Cell transduction in vitro is only the first step toward proving that a genetherapy vector can be useful to treat tumors. However, tumor targeting in vivo is now the milestone for gene therapy to succeed against disseminated cancer. Therefore, most valuable information is obtained from studies of vector biodistribution. Owing to the hepatotropism of adenoviral vectors, a particularly important parameter is the tumor/liver ratio. This ratio can be given at the level of gene expression if the amount of transgene expression is measured. To optimize the targeting, however, the levels of viral particles that reach the tumor compared to other organs must be studied. Most of this chapter deals with methods to quantify the virus fate in tumor-bearing animals. We present a radioactive labeling method that can be used to study biodistribution. After a small section dealing with tumor models, we describe methods to quantify different parameters related to adenovirus-mediated tumor targeting. PMID:14970588

  19. [Is there a risk of zoonotic disease due to adenoviruses?].

    PubMed

    Loustalot, Fabien; Creyssels, Sophie; Salinas, Sara; Benkõ, Mária; Harrach, Balázs; Mennechet, Franck J D; Kremer, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Every year brings another round of zoonotic viral infections. Usually they fall under the radar, but the occasional lethal epidemic brings another scare to the public and new urgency to the medical community. The types of these viruses (DNA vs. RNA genomes, enveloped vs. proteinaceous) as well as the preceding host(s) vary. Over the last 20 years, bats have been identified as an enigmatic carrier for several pathogens that have jumped the species barrier and infected humans. Factors that favour the emergence of zoonotic pathogens include the increasing overlap of the human and animal habitats, cultural activities, and the host reservoir. In this context, we asked whether bat and/or nonhuman primate adenoviruses are a risk for human health. PMID:26672663

  20. Adenovirus membrane penetration: Tickling the tail of a sleeping dragon.

    PubMed

    Wiethoff, Christopher M; Nemerow, Glen R

    2015-05-01

    As is the case for nearly every viral pathogen, non-enveloped viruses (NEV) must maintain their integrity under potentially harsh environmental conditions while retaining the ability to undergo rapid disassembly at the right time and right place inside host cells. NEVs generally exist in this metastable state until they encounter key cellular stimuli such as membrane receptors, decreased intracellular pH, digestion by cellular proteases, or a combination of these factors. These stimuli trigger conformational changes in the viral capsid that exposes a sequestered membrane-perturbing protein. This protein subsequently modifies the cell membrane in such a way as to allow passage of the virion and accompanying nucleic acid payload into the cell cytoplasm. Different NEVs employ variations of this general pathway for cell entry (Moyer and Nemerow, 2011, Curr. Opin. Virol., 1, 44-49), however this review will focus on significant new knowledge obtained on cell entry by human adenovirus (HAdV).

  1. Adenovirus vectors targeting distinct cell types in the retina.

    PubMed

    Sweigard, J Harry; Cashman, Siobhan M; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy for a number of retinal diseases necessitates efficient transduction of photoreceptor cells. Whereas adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 (Ad5) does not transduce photoreceptors efficiently, previous studies have demonstrated improved photoreceptor transduction by Ad5 pseudotyped with Ad35 (Ad5/F35) or Ad37 (Ad5/F37) fiber or by the deletion of the RGD domain in the Ad5 penton base (Ad5DeltaRGD). However, each of these constructs contained a different transgene cassette, preventing the evaluation of the relative performance of these vectors, an important consideration before the use of these vectors in the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate these vectors in the retina and to attempt photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Methods. Three Ad5-based vectors containing the same expression cassette were generated and injected into the subretinal space of adult mice. Eyes were analyzed for green fluorescence protein expression in flat-mounts, cross-sections, quantitative RT-PCR, and a modified stereological technique. A 257-bp fragment derived from the mouse opsin promoter was analyzed in the context of photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Results. Each virus tested efficiently transduced the retinal pigment epithelium. The authors found no evidence that Ad5/F35 or Ad5/F37 transduced photoreceptors. Instead, they found that Ad5/F37 transduced Müller cells. Robust photoreceptor transduction by Ad5DeltaRGD was detected. Photoreceptor-specific transgene expression from the 257-bp mouse opsin promoter in the context of Ad5DeltaRGD vectors was found. Conclusions. Adenovirus vectors may be designed with tropism to distinct cell populations. Robust photoreceptor-specific transgene expression can be achieved in the context of Ad5DeltaRGD vectors.

  2. Comparison of the Life Cycles of Genetically Distant Species C and Species D Human Adenoviruses Ad6 and Ad26 in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Mallory A.; Middha, Sumit; Hofherr, Sean E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our understanding of adenovirus (Ad) biology is largely extrapolated from human species C Ad5. Most humans are immune to Ad5, so lower-seroprevalence viruses like human Ad6 and Ad26 are being tested as therapeutic vectors. Ad6 and Ad26 differ at the DNA level by 34%. To better understand how this might impact their biology, we examined the life cycle of the two viruses in human lung cells in vitro. Both viruses infected A549 cells with similar efficiencies, executed DNA replication with identical kinetics within 12 h, and began killing cells within 72 h. While Ad6-infected cells remained adherent until death, Ad26-infected cells detached within 12 h of infection but remained viable. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mRNA from infected cells demonstrated that viral transcripts constituted 1% of cellular mRNAs within 6 h and 8 to 16% within 12 h. Quantitative PCR and NGS revealed the activation of key early genes at 6 h and transition to late gene activation by 12 h by both viruses. There were marked differences in the balance of E1A and E1B activation by the two viruses and in the expression of E3 immune evasion mRNAs. Ad6 was markedly more effective at suppressing major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) display on the cell surface and in evading TRAIL-mediated apoptosis than was Ad26. These data demonstrate shared as well as divergent life cycles in these genetically distant human adenoviruses. An understanding of these differences expands the knowledge of alternative Ad species and may inform the selection of related Ads for therapeutic development. IMPORTANCE A burgeoning number of adenoviruses (Ads) are being harnessed as therapeutics, yet the biology of these viruses is generally extrapolated from Ad2 and Ad5. Here, we are the first to compare the transcriptional programs of two genetically distant Ads by mRNA next-generation sequencing (NGS). Species C Ad6 and Ad26 are being pursued as lower-seroprevalence Ad vectors but differ at the DNA

  3. CEACAM6 attenuates adenovirus infection by antagonizing viral trafficking in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaohe; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Zhao, Xingbo; Wang, Pengju; Tysome, James; Bhakta, Vipul; Yuan, Ming; Chikkanna-Gowda, C.P.; Jiang, Guozhong; Gao, Dongling; Cao, Fengyu; Francis, Jennelle; Yu, Jinxia; Liu, Kangdong; Yang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yunhan; Zang, Weidong; Chelala, Claude; Dong, Ziming; Lemoine, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The changes in cancer cell surface molecules and intracellular signaling pathways during tumorigenesis make delivery of adenovirus-based cancer therapies inefficient. Here we have identified carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a cellular protein that restricts the ability of adenoviral vectors to infect cancer cells. We have demonstrated that CEACAM6 can antagonize the Src signaling pathway, downregulate cancer cell cytoskeleton proteins, and block adenovirus trafficking to the nucleus of human pancreatic cancer cells. Similar to CEACAM6 overexpression, treatment with a Src-selective inhibitor significantly reduced adenovirus replication in these cancer cells and normal human epithelial cells. In a mouse xenograft tumor model, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CEACAM6 also significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of an oncolytic adenovirus. We propose that CEACAM6-associated signaling pathways could be potential targets for the development of biomarkers to predict the response of patients to adenovirus-based therapies, as well as for the development of more potent adenovirus-based therapeutics. PMID:19411761

  4. Structure of the C-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 short fibre

    SciTech Connect

    El Bakkouri, Majida; Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen; Ruigrok, Rob W.H. Schoehn, Guy

    2008-08-15

    There are more than 100 known adenovirus serotypes, including 50 human serotypes. They can infect all 5 major vertebrate classes but only Aviadenovirus infecting birds and Mastadenovirus infecting mammals have been well studied. CELO (chicken embryo lethal orphan) adenovirus is responsible for mild respiratory pathologies in birds. Most studies on CELO virus have focussed on its genome sequence and organisation whereas the structural work on CELO proteins has only recently started. Contrary to most adenoviruses, the vertices of CELO virus reveal pentons with two fibres of different lengths. The distal parts (or head) of those fibres are involved in cellular receptor binding. Here we have determined the atomic structure of the short-fibre head of CELO (amino acids 201-410) at 2.0 A resolution. Despite low sequence identity, this structure is conserved compared to the other adenovirus fibre heads. We have used the existing CELO long-fibre head structure and the one we show here for a structure-based alignment of 11 known adenovirus fibre heads which was subsequently used for the construction of an evolutionary tree. Both the fibre head sequence and structural alignments suggest that enteric human group F adenovirus 41 (short fibre) is closer to the CELO fibre heads than the canine CAdV-2 fibre head, that lies closer to the human virus fibre heads.

  5. Comparative investigations for adenovirus recognition and quantification: Plastic or natural antibodies?

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Pocock, Jack; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2015-12-15

    Comparative and comprehensive investigations for adenovirus recognition and detection were conducted using plastic and natural antibodies to compare three different strategies. The implementation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology for specific and sensitive recognition of viruses with the combination of biosensors was reported. Plastic antibodies (MIPs nanoparticles) were produced for adenovirus by employing a novel solid phase synthesis method. MIP receptors were then characterised using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques prior to immobilisation on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor as affinity receptor for adenovirus detection. Two different templates were also imprinted as control MIPs (vancomycin-MIP and MS2-MIP). The specific recognition of adenovirus was investigated in the concentration range of 0.01-20 pM and the limit of detection was achieved as 0.02 pM. As an alternative to MIP receptors, direct and sandwich assays were developed for adenovirus quantification using natural antibodies. The detection limit of direct and sandwich assays were found as 0.3 pM and 0.008 pM, respectively. The kinetic data analyses were performed for three different adenovirus recognition methods and cross-reactivity studies were also conducted using MS2 phage as control virus and an excellent specificity was achieved with all assays types. This work confirmed the suitability of the MIPs SPR sensor for the detection of viruses. PMID:26264266

  6. Particle Tracking of Intracellular Trafficking of Octaarginine-modified Liposomes: A Comparative Study With Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Hidetaka; Enoto, Kaoru; Masuda, Tomoya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Tomomi; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It is previously reported that octaarginine (R8)-modified liposome (R8-Lip) was taken up via macropinocytosis, and subsequently delivered to the nuclear periphery. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for the cytoplasmic transport of R8-Lips, comparing with that for adenovirus. Treatment with microtubule-disruption reagent (nocodazole) inhibited the transfection activity of plasmid DNA (pDNA)-encapsulating R8-Lip more extensively than that of adenovirus. The directional transport of R8-Lips along green fluorescent protein (GFP)–tagged microtubules was observed; however, the velocity was slower than those for adenovirus or endosomes that were devoid of R8-Lips. These directional motions were abrogated in R8-Lips by nocodazole treatment, whereas adenovirus continued to undergo random motion. This finding suggests that the nuclear access of R8-Lip predominantly involves microtubule-dependent transport, whereas an apparent diffusive motion is also operative in nuclear access of adenovirus. Furthermore, quantum dot-labeled pDNA underwent directional motion concomitantly with rhodamine-labeled lipid envelopes, indicating that the R8-Lips were subject to microtubule-dependent transport in the intact form. Dual particle tracking of carriers and endosomes revealed that R8-Lip was directionally transported, associated with endosomes, whereas this occurs after endosomal escape in adenovirus. Collectively, the findings reported herein indicate that vesicular transport is a key factor in the cytoplasmic transport of R8-Lips. PMID:20216528

  7. Adenovirus type 5 interactions with human blood cells may compromise systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Mark; Onion, David; Green, Nicky K; Aslan, Kriss; Rajaratnam, Ratna; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; Phipps, Sue; Hale, Sarah; Mautner, Vivien; Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2006-07-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenovirus vectors requires that the virus is not inactivated in the bloodstream. Serum neutralizing activity is well documented, but we show here that type 5 adenovirus also interacts with human blood cells. Over 90% of a typical virus dose binds to human (but not murine) erythrocytes ex vivo, and samples from a patient administered adenovirus in a clinical trial showed that over 98% of viral DNA in the blood was cell associated. In contrast, nearly all viral genomes in the murine bloodstream are free in the plasma. Adenovirus bound to human blood cells fails to infect A549 lung carcinoma cells, although dilution to below 1.7 x 10(7) blood cells/ml relieves this inhibition. Addition of blood cells can prevent infection by adenovirus that has been prebound to A549 cells. Adenovirus also associates with human neutrophils and monocytes ex vivo, particularly in the presence of autologous plasma, giving dose-dependent transgene expression in CD14-positive monocytes. Finally, although plasma with a high neutralizing titer (defined on A549 cells) inhibits monocyte infection, weakly neutralizing plasma can actually enhance monocyte transduction. This may increase antigen presentation following intravenous injection, while blood cell binding may both decrease access of the virus to extravascular targets and inhibit infection of cells to which the virus does gain access. PMID:16580883

  8. Construction of adenovirus vectors encoding the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Fang; Qi, Bing; Tu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Lian; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To construct adenovirus vectors of lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology to further understand the role of lumican gene in myopia. METHODS Gateway recombinant cloning technology was used to construct adenovirus vectors. The wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) forms of the lumican gene were synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lumican cDNA fragments were purified and ligated into the adenovirus shuttle vector pDown-multiple cloning site (MCS)-/internal ribozyme entry site (IRES)/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Then the desired DNA fragments were integrated into the destination vector pAV.Des1d yielding the final expression constructs pAV.Ex1d-cytomegalovirus (CMV)>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES /EGFP, respectively. RESULTS The adenovirus plasmids pAV.Ex1d-CMV>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES/EGFP were successfully constructed by gateway recombinant cloning technology. Positive clones identified by PCR and sequencing were selected and packaged into recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells. CONCLUSION We construct adenovirus vectors containing the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology, which provides a basis for investigating the role of lumican gene in the pathogenesis of high myopia. PMID:27672590

  9. Translation of adenovirus 2 late mRNAs microinjected into cultured African green monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.D.; Anderson, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    Adenovirus 2-infected monkey cells fail to synthesize fiber, a 62,000 M/sub r/ virion polypeptide expressed at late times in productively infected cells. Yet these cells contain fiber mRNA that, after isolation, can be translated in vitro. The reason for the failure of monkey cells to translate fiber mRNA has been approached by microinjecting adenovirus mRNA into the cytoplasm of cultured monkey cells. Late adenovirus 2 mRNA, isolated from infected HeLa cells, was efficiently expressed when microinjected into the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-C. Expressed viral proteins identified by immunoprecipitation included the adenovirus fiber polypeptide. This result demonstrates that the monkey cell translational apparatus is capable of recognizing and expressing functional adenovirus mRNA. Microinjection of late virus mRNA into cells previously infected with wild-type adenovirus 2 failed to increase significantly the yield of infectious virus. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Adenovirus-Mediated Efficient Gene Transfer into Cultured Three-Dimensional Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Zhang, Hongmei; Deng, Fang; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Yin, Liangjun; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Liang, Houjie; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional organoids have been recently established from various tissue-specific progenitors (such as intestinal stem cells), induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. These cultured self-sustaining stem cell–based organoids may become valuable systems to study the roles of tissue-specific stem cells in tissue genesis and disease development. It is thus conceivable that effective genetic manipulations in such organoids may allow us to reconstruct disease processes and/or develop novel therapeutics. Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most commonly used viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene deliveries. In this study, we investigate if adenoviruses can be used to effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured “mini-gut” organoids derived from intestinal stem cells. Using adenoviral vectors that express fluorescent proteins, we demonstrate that adenoviruses can effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured 3-D “mini-gut” organoids. The transgene expression can last at least 10 days in the cultured organoids. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated noggin expression effectively support the survival and self-renewal of mini-gut organoids, while adenovirus-mediated expression of BMP4 inhibits the self-sustainability and proliferation of the organoids. Thus, our results strongly suggest that adenovirus vectors can be explored as effective gene delivery vehicles to introduce genetic manipulations in 3-D organoids. PMID:24695466

  11. [Anti-adenovirus activity of a substance and medical form of ribamydil in cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ribamydil on adenovirus reproduction was studied under the determination of the number of cells with virus- induced DNA-containing intranucleus inclusion bodies and hexone antigen, the synthesis of adenovirus proteins and the infection virus by t he investigation. EC50 of ribamydil substance is 4-8 microg/ml, but complete suppression of adenovirus genome expression was found when adding ribamydil after the virus adsorption, in concentrations of 125-500 microg/ml. The original effect of ribamydil on the expression of adenovirus genome was found under its effect in concentration of 31 microg/ml. Intranucleus virus-induced inclusion bodies of the early type only were found under these conditions. Synthesis of the structural virus polypeptides, including hexone polypeptide (II) and non-structural polypeptide 100K, taking part in hexone trimerization, proceed intensively but without formation of immunologically active hexone. The inhibiting effect of officinal form of ribamydil was less expressed as compared with the substance (EC50: 62 microg/ml). The work results prove that the therapeutic effect of ribamydil (ribavirin) under treatment of adenovirus infections may be achieved in case when it is used in a dose excluding the expression of the adenovirus genome.

  12. A novel Golgi protein (GOLPH2)-regulated oncolytic adenovirus exhibits potent antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yigang; Zhao, Hongfang; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Buyun; Chen, Kan; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Xiumei; Cui, Caixia; Liu, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Golgi apparatus is the organelle mainly functioning as protein processing and secretion. GOLPH2 is a resident Golgi glycoprotein, usually called GP73. Recent data displayed that GOLPH2 is a superb hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) marker candidate, and even its specificity is better than liver cancer marker AFP. Oncolytic adenoviruses are broadly used for targeting cancer therapy due to their selective tumor-killing effect. However, it was reported that traditionally oncolytic adenovirus lack the HCC specificity. In this study, a novel dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 targeting HCC was first constructed based on our cancer targeted gene-viral therapeutic strategy. To verify the targeting and effectiveness of GOLPH2-regulated oncolytic adenovirus GD55 in HCC, the anticancer capacity was investigated in HCC cell lines and animal model. The results proved that the novel GOLPH2-regulated GD55 conferred higher adenovirus replication and infectivity for liver cancer cells than oncolytic adenovirus ZD55. The GOLPH2-regulated GD55 exerted a significant grow-suppressing effect on HCC cells in vitro but little damage to normal liver cells. In animal experiment, antitumor effect of GD55 was more effective in HCC xenograft of nude mice than that of ZD55. Thus GOLPH2-regulated GD55 may be a promising oncolytic virus agent for future liver cancer treatment. PMID:25980438

  13. Construction of adenovirus vectors encoding the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Fang; Qi, Bing; Tu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Lian; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To construct adenovirus vectors of lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology to further understand the role of lumican gene in myopia. METHODS Gateway recombinant cloning technology was used to construct adenovirus vectors. The wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) forms of the lumican gene were synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lumican cDNA fragments were purified and ligated into the adenovirus shuttle vector pDown-multiple cloning site (MCS)-/internal ribozyme entry site (IRES)/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Then the desired DNA fragments were integrated into the destination vector pAV.Des1d yielding the final expression constructs pAV.Ex1d-cytomegalovirus (CMV)>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES /EGFP, respectively. RESULTS The adenovirus plasmids pAV.Ex1d-CMV>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES/EGFP were successfully constructed by gateway recombinant cloning technology. Positive clones identified by PCR and sequencing were selected and packaged into recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells. CONCLUSION We construct adenovirus vectors containing the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology, which provides a basis for investigating the role of lumican gene in the pathogenesis of high myopia.

  14. Expression of the primary coxsackie and adenovirus receptor is downregulated during skeletal muscle maturation and limits the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated gene delivery to muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nalbantoglu, J; Pari, G; Karpati, G; Holland, P C

    1999-04-10

    Skeletal muscle fibers are infected efficiently by adenoviral vectors only in neonatal animals. This lack of tropism for mature skeletal muscle may be partly due to inefficient binding of adenoviral particles to the cell surface. We evaluated in developing mouse muscle the expression levels of two high-affinity receptors for adenovirus, MHC class I and the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The moderate levels of MHC class I transcripts that were detected in quadriceps, gastrocnemius, and heart muscle did not vary between postnatal day 3 and day 60 adult tissue. A low level of CAR expression was detected on postnatal day 3 in quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles, but CAR expression was barely detectable in adult skeletal muscle even by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, CAR transcripts were moderately abundant at all stages of heart muscle development. Ectopic expression of CAR in C2C12 mouse myoblast cells increased their transducibility by adenovirus at all multiplicities of infection (MOIs) tested as measured by lacZ reporter gene activity following AVCMVlacZ infection, with an 80-fold difference between CAR-expressing cells and control C2C12 cells at an MOI of 50. Primary myoblasts ectopically expressing CAR were injected into muscles of syngeneic hosts; following incorporation of the exogenous myoblasts into host myofibers, an increased transducibility of adult muscle fibers by AVCMVlacZ was observed in the host. Expression of the lacZ reporter gene in host myofibers coincided with CAR immunoreactivity. Furthermore, sarcolemmal CAR expression was markedly increased in regenerating muscle fibers of the dystrophic mdx mouse, fibers that are susceptible to adenovirus transduction. These analyses show that CAR expression by skeletal muscle correlates with its susceptibility to adenovirus transduction, and that forced CAR expression in mature myofibers dramatically increases their susceptibility to adenovirus transduction.

  15. In vivo retargeting of adenovirus type 5 to alphavbeta6 integrin results in reduced hepatotoxicity and improved tumor uptake following systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Lynda; Vallath, Sabari; Saha, Antonio; Flak, Magdalena; McNeish, Iain A; Vassaux, Georges; Marshall, John F; Hart, Ian R; Thomas, Gareth J

    2009-07-01

    A key impediment to successful cancer therapy with adenoviral vectors is the inefficient transduction of malignant tissue in vivo. Compounding this problem is the lack of cancer-specific targets, coupled with a shortage of corresponding high-efficiency ligands, permitting selective retargeting. The epithelial cell-specific integrin alphavbeta6 represents an attractive target for directed therapy since it is generally not expressed on normal epithelium but is upregulated in numerous carcinomas, where it plays a role in tumor progression. We previously have characterized a high-affinity, alphavbeta6-selective peptide (A20FMDV2) derived from VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus. We generated recombinant adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) fiber knob, incorporating A20FMDV2 in the HI loop, for which we validated the selectivity of binding and functional inhibition of alphavbeta6. The corresponding alphavbeta6-retargeted virus Ad5-EGFP(A20) exhibited up to 50-fold increases in coxsackievirus- and-adenovirus-receptor-independent transduction and up to 480-fold-increased cytotoxicity on a panel of alphavbeta6-positive human carcinoma lines compared with Ad5-EGFP(WT). Using an alphavbeta6-positive (DX3-beta6) xenograft model, we observed a approximately 2-fold enhancement in tumor uptake over Ad5-EGFP(WT) following systemic delivery. Furthermore, approximately 5-fold-fewer Ad5-EGFP(A20) genomes were detected in the liver (P = 0.0002), correlating with reduced serum transaminase levels and E1A expression. Warfarin pretreatment, to deplete coagulation factors, did not improve tumor uptake significantly with either virus but did significantly reduce liver sequestration and hepatic toxicity. The ability of Ad5-EGFP(A20) to improve delivery to alphavbeta6, combined with its reduced hepatic tropism and toxicity, highlights its potential as a prototype virus for future clinical investigation.

  16. Eradication of B-ALL using chimeric antigen receptor–expressing T cells targeting the TSLPR oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Haiying; Cho, Monica; Haso, Waleed; Zhang, Ling; Tasian, Sarah K.; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Negri, Gian Luca; Lin, Yongshun; Zou, Jizhong; Mallon, Barbara S.; Maude, Shannon; Teachey, David T.; Barrett, David M.; Orentas, Rimas J.; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H. B.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the CD19 B cell–associated protein have demonstrated potent activity against relapsed/refractory B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Not all patients respond, and CD19-negative relapses have been observed. Overexpression of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR; encoded by CRLF2) occurs in a subset of adults and children with B-ALL and confers a high risk of relapse. Recent data suggest the TSLPR signaling axis is functionally important, suggesting that TSLPR would be an ideal immunotherapeutic target. We constructed short and long CARs targeting TSLPR and tested efficacy against CRLF2-overexpressing B-ALL. Both CARs demonstrated activity in vitro, but only short TSLPR CAR T cells mediated leukemia regression. In vivo activity of the short CAR was also associated with long-term persistence of CAR-expressing T cells. Short TSLPR CAR treatment of mice engrafted with a TSLPR-expressing ALL cell line induced leukemia cytotoxicity with efficacy comparable with that of CD19 CAR T cells. Short TSLPR CAR T cells also eradicated leukemia in 4 xenograft models of human CRLF2-overexpressing ALL. Finally, TSLPR has limited surface expression on normal tissues. TSLPR-targeted CAR T cells thus represent a potent oncoprotein-targeted immunotherapy for high-risk ALL. PMID:26041741

  17. Discovery of a small-molecule binder of the oncoprotein gankyrin that modulates gankyrin activity in the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; O’Connor, Cornelius J.; Zhang, Fengzhi; Galvagnion, Celine; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Tan, Yaw Sing; Stokes, Jamie E.; Rahman, Taufiq; Verma, Chandra; Spring, David R.; Itzhaki, Laura S.

    2016-04-01

    Gankyrin is an ankyrin-repeat oncoprotein whose overexpression has been implicated in the development of many cancer types. Elevated gankyrin levels are linked to aberrant cellular events including enhanced degradation of tumour suppressor protein p53, and inhibition of gankyrin activity has therefore been identified as an attractive anticancer strategy. Gankyrin interacts with several partner proteins, and a number of these protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are of relevance to cancer. Thus, molecules that bind the PPI interface of gankyrin and interrupt these interactions are of considerable interest. Herein, we report the discovery of a small molecule termed cjoc42 that is capable of binding to gankyrin. Cell-based experiments demonstrate that cjoc42 can inhibit gankyrin activity in a dose-dependent manner: cjoc42 prevents the decrease in p53 protein levels normally associated with high amounts of gankyrin, and it restores p53-dependent transcription and sensitivity to DNA damage. The results represent the first evidence that gankyrin is a “druggable” target with small molecules.

  18. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

  19. The BRAF oncoprotein functions through the transcriptional repressor MAFG to mediate the CpG Island Methylator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fang, Minggang; Ou, Jianhong; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Green, Michael R

    2014-09-18

    Most colorectal cancers (CRCs) containing activated BRAF (BRAF[V600E]) have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) characterized by aberrant hypermethylation of many genes, including the mismatch repair gene MLH1. MLH1 silencing results in microsatellite instability and a hypermutable phenotype. Through an RNAi screen, here we identify the transcriptional repressor MAFG as the pivotal factor required for MLH1 silencing and CIMP in CRCs containing BRAF(V600E). In BRAF-positive human CRC cell lines and tumors, MAFG is bound at the promoters of MLH1 and other CIMP genes, and recruits a corepressor complex that includes its heterodimeric partner BACH1, the chromatin remodeling factor CHD8, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, resulting in hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. BRAF(V600E) increases BRAF/MEK/ERK signaling resulting in phosphorylation and elevated levels of MAFG, which drives DNA binding. Analysis of transcriptionally silenced CIMP genes in KRAS-positive CRCs indicates that different oncoproteins direct the assembly of distinct repressor complexes on common promoters.

  20. Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): An oncoprotein with many hands

    PubMed Central

    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an “oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers. PMID:25015035

  1. Functional Roles of E6 and E7 Oncoproteins in HPV-Induced Malignancies at Diverse Anatomical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tomaić, Vjekoslav

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers. HPVs encode two oncoproteins, E6 and E7, which are directly responsible for the development of HPV-induced carcinogenesis. They do this cooperatively by targeting diverse cellular pathways involved in the regulation of cell cycle control, of apoptosis and of cell polarity control networks. In this review, the biological consequences of papillomavirus targeting of various cellular substrates at diverse anatomical sites in the development of HPV-induced malignancies are highlighted. PMID:27775564

  2. Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth control

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Wei, Xiaomu; Li, Weiquan; Udan, Ryan S.; Yang, Qian; Kim, Joungmok; Xie, Joe; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Yu, Jindan; Li, Li; Zheng, Pan; Ye, Keqiang; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Halder, Georg; Lai, Zhi-Chun; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2007-01-01

    The Hippo pathway plays a key role in organ size control by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in Drosophila. Although recent genetic studies have shown that the Hippo pathway is regulated by the NF2 and Fat tumor suppressors, the physiological regulations of this pathway are unknown. Here we show that in mammalian cells, the transcription coactivator YAP (Yes-associated protein), is inhibited by cell density via the Hippo pathway. Phosphorylation by the Lats tumor suppressor kinase leads to cytoplasmic translocation and inactivation of the YAP oncoprotein. Furthermore, attenuation of this phosphorylation of YAP or Yorkie (Yki), the Drosophila homolog of YAP, potentiates their growth-promoting function in vivo. Moreover, YAP overexpression regulates gene expression in a manner opposite to cell density, and is able to overcome cell contact inhibition. Inhibition of YAP function restores contact inhibition in a human cancer cell line bearing deletion of Salvador (Sav), a Hippo pathway component. Interestingly, we observed that YAP protein is elevated and nuclear localized in some human liver and prostate cancers. Our observations demonstrate that YAP plays a key role in the Hippo pathway to control cell proliferation in response to cell contact. PMID:17974916

  3. The high-risk HPV E6 oncoprotein preferentially targets phosphorylated nuclear forms of hDlg

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Nisha; Subbaiah, Vanitha Krishna; Banks, Lawrence

    2009-04-25

    High-risk mucosal HPV E6 oncoproteins target a number of PDZ domain-containing substrates for proteasome mediated degradation. One of these, Discs Large (Dlg), is involved in the regulation of cell polarity and proliferation control. Previous studies had suggested that Dlg when hyperphosphorylated by osmotic shock, or when present in the nucleus could be preferentially targeted by E6. In this study we use phospho-specific antibodies directed against Dlg phosphorylated at residues S158 and S442 to show that these two observations are, in fact, linked. Dlg, when phosphorylated on S158 and S442 by CDK1 or CDK2, shows a preferential nuclear accumulation. However, these forms of Dlg are absent in cells derived from HPV-induced cervical cancers. Upon either proteasome inhibition or siRNA ablation of E6 expression, we see specific rescue of these phosphorylated forms of Dlg. These results demonstrate that nuclear forms of Dlg phosphorylated on its CDK phospho-acceptor sites has enhanced susceptibility to E6-induced degradation and place previous studies on the stress-induced phosphorylation of Dlg into a relevant biological context.

  4. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri; Su, Xiong; Liu, Jialiu; Sundaresan, Sinju; Stahl, Philip D.

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  5. HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein stimulates ROS production and apoptosis in T cells by interacting with USP10.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Masaya; Makokha, Grace Naswa; Matsuki, Hideaki; Yoshita, Manami; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fujii, Masahiro

    2013-08-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and the viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in the immortalization of human T cells, lifelong persistent infection, and leukemogenesis. We herein identify the ubiquitin-specific protease 10 (USP10) as a Tax-interactor in HTLV-1-infected T cells. USP10 is an antistress factor against various environmental stresses, including viral infections and oxidative stress. On exposure to arsenic, an oxidative stress inducer, USP10 is recruited into stress granules (SGs), and USP10-containing SGs reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibit ROS-dependent apoptosis. We found that interaction of Tax with USP10 inhibits arsenic-induced SG formation, stimulates ROS production, and augments ROS-dependent apoptosis in HTLV-1-infected T cells. These findings suggest that USP10 is a host factor that inhibits stress-induced ROS production and apoptosis in HTLV-1-infected T cells; however, its activities are attenuated by Tax. A clinical study showed that combination therapy containing arsenic is effective against some forms of ATL. Therefore, these findings may be relevant to chemotherapy against ATL.

  6. Discovery of a small-molecule binder of the oncoprotein gankyrin that modulates gankyrin activity in the cell

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; O’Connor, Cornelius J.; Zhang, Fengzhi; Galvagnion, Celine; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Tan, Yaw Sing; Stokes, Jamie E.; Rahman, Taufiq; Verma, Chandra; Spring, David R.; Itzhaki, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    Gankyrin is an ankyrin-repeat oncoprotein whose overexpression has been implicated in the development of many cancer types. Elevated gankyrin levels are linked to aberrant cellular events including enhanced degradation of tumour suppressor protein p53, and inhibition of gankyrin activity has therefore been identified as an attractive anticancer strategy. Gankyrin interacts with several partner proteins, and a number of these protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are of relevance to cancer. Thus, molecules that bind the PPI interface of gankyrin and interrupt these interactions are of considerable interest. Herein, we report the discovery of a small molecule termed cjoc42 that is capable of binding to gankyrin. Cell-based experiments demonstrate that cjoc42 can inhibit gankyrin activity in a dose-dependent manner: cjoc42 prevents the decrease in p53 protein levels normally associated with high amounts of gankyrin, and it restores p53-dependent transcription and sensitivity to DNA damage. The results represent the first evidence that gankyrin is a “druggable” target with small molecules. PMID:27046077

  7. A plant alkaloid, veratridine, potentiates cancer chemosensitivity by UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of an oncoprotein, mortalin-2

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ammara; Sane, Sanam; Branick, Kate A.; Freeling, Jessica L.; Wang, Hongmin; Zhang, Dong; Rezvani, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Veratridine (VTD), an alkaloid derived from the Liliaceae plant shows anti-tumor effects; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Using a high-throughput drug screen, we found that VTD enhances transactivation of UBXN2A, resulting in upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm, where UBXN2A binds and inhibits the oncoprotein mortalin-2 (mot-2). VTD-treated cancer cells undergo cell death in UBXN2A- and mot-2-dependent manners. The cytotoxic function of VTD is grade-dependent, and the combined treatment with a sub-optimal dose of the standard chemotherapy, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and etoposide, demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy. VTD influences the CD44+ stem cells, possibly through UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of mot-2. The VTD-dependent expression of UBXN2A is a potential candidate for designing novel strategies for colon cancer treatment because: 1) In 50% of colon cancer patients, UBXN2A protein levels in tumor tissues are significantly lower than those in the adjacent normal tissues. 2) Cytoplasmic expression of the mot-2 protein is very low in non-cancerous cells; thus, VTD can produce tumor-specific toxicity while normal cells remain intact. 3) Finally, VTD or its modified analogs offer a valuable adjuvant chemotherapy strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colon cancer patients harboring WT-p53. PMID:26188124

  8. The role of oncoprotein NM23 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda is response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jian; Ge, Qianqian; Liu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Oncoprotein NM23, as a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, plays important roles in bioenergetics, DNA replication, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a full-length cDNA of NM23 (designated EcNM23) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcNM23 was 755 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 518 bp, encoding a 175 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 19.60 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 7.67. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcNM23 shared high identity (86%-93%) with that of other crustaceans. a NDP kinase super family signature was identified in E. carinicauda EcNM23. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcNM23 was expressed in all the examined tissues with the high expression level in hemocytes and ovary. The EcNM23 expression in immune-related tissues changed rapidly and reached peak at different time after pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress treatment. The results suggested that EcNM23 might be associated with the immune defenses to pathogens infection and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda. PMID:26314522

  9. Control of microtubule dynamics by oncoprotein 18: dissection of the regulatory role of multisite phosphorylation during mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, N; Marklund, U; Gradin, H M; Brattsand, G; Gullberg, M

    1997-01-01

    Oncoprotein 18 (Op18; also termed p19, 19K, metablastin, stathmin, and prosolin) is a conserved protein that regulates microtubule (MT) dynamics. Op18 is multisite phosphorylated on four Ser residues during mitosis; two of these Ser residues, Ser-25 and Ser-38, are targets for cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), and the other two Ser residues, Ser-16 and Ser-63, are targets for an unidentified protein kinase. Mutations of the two CDK sites have recently been shown to result in a mitotic block caused by destabilization of MTs. To understand the role of Op18 in regulation of MT dynamics during mitosis, in this study we dissected the functions of all four phosphorylation sites of Op18 by combining genetic, morphological, and biochemical analyses. The data show that all four phosphorylation sites are involved in switching off Op18 activity during mitosis, an event that appears to be essential for formation of the spindle during metaphase. However, the mechanisms by which specific sites down-regulate Op18 activity differ. Hence, dual phosphorylation on the CDK sites Ser-25 and Ser-38 appears to be required for phosphorylation of Ser-16 and Ser-63; however, by themselves, the CDK sites are of only minor importance in direct regulation of Op18 activity. Subsequent phosphorylation of either Ser-16, Ser-63, or both efficiently switches off Op18 activity. PMID:9271428

  10. Dysregulating IRES-dependent translation contributes to over-expression of the Aurora A kinase onco-protein

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Tara; Chen, Juan; Krushel, Les A.

    2014-01-01

    Over-expression of the oncoprotein, Aurora A kinase occurs in multiple types of carcinomas, often early during cell transformation. To identify mechanism(s) contributing to enhanced Aurora A protein expression, we examined normal human lung fibroblast and breast epithelial cells and compared them to non-tumorigenic breast (MCF10A and MCF12A) and tumorigenic breast and cervical epithelial cell lines (MCF-7 and HeLa S3, respectively). A subset of these immortalized lines (MCF10, MCF12A, and HeLa S3) exhibited increased levels of Aurora A protein, independent of tumorigenicity. The increase in Aurora A protein expression in these immortalized cells was not due to increased transcription/RNA stability, protein half-life or cap-dependent translation. Assays utilizing monocistronic and dicistronic RNA constructs revealed that the Aurora A 5′ leader contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), which is regulated through the cell cycle, peaking in G2/M phase. Moreover, IRES activity was increased in the immortalized cell lines in which Aurora A protein expression was also enhanced. Additional assays indicated that the increased internal initiation is specific to the Aurora A IRES and may be an early event during cancer progression. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism contributing to Aurora A kinase over-expression and possibly to immortalization leading to carcinogenesis. PMID:23661421

  11. Altered nuclear co-factor switching in retinoic resistant variants of the PML-RARα oncoprotein of acute promyelocytic leukemia†

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Mindy; Lague, Astrid; Manuelyan, Zara; Statnekov, Jacob; Francklyn, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) results from a reciprocal translocation that fuses the gene for the PML tumor suppressor to that encoding the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα). The resulting PML-RARα oncogene product interferes with multiple regulatory pathways associated with myeloid differentiation, including normal PML and RARα functions. The standard treatment for APL includes anthracycline-based chemotherapeutic agents plus the RARα agonist all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Relapse, which is often accompanied by ATRA resistance, occurs in an appreciable frequency of treated patients. One potential mechanism suggested by model experiments featuring the selection of ATRA resistant APL cell lines involves ATRA resistant versions of the PML-RARα oncogene, where the relevant mutations localize to the RARα ligand-binding domain (LBD). Such mutations may act by compromising agonist binding, but other mechanisms are possible. Here, we studied the molecular consequence of ATRA resistance by use of circular dichroism, protease resistance, and fluorescence anisotropy assays employing peptides derived from the NCOR nuclear co-repressor and the ACTR nuclear co-activator. The consequences of the mutations on global structure and co-factor interaction functions were assessed quantitatively, providing insights into the basis of agonist resistance. Attenuated co-factor switching and increased protease resistance represent features of the LBDs of ATRA-resistant PML-RARα, and these properties may be recapitulated in the full-length oncoproteins. PMID:22228505

  12. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. •HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-κB through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  13. The role of oncoprotein NM23 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda is response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jian; Ge, Qianqian; Liu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Oncoprotein NM23, as a family of genes encoding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, plays important roles in bioenergetics, DNA replication, differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this study, a full-length cDNA of NM23 (designated EcNM23) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcNM23 was 755 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 518 bp, encoding a 175 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 19.60 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 7.67. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcNM23 shared high identity (86%-93%) with that of other crustaceans. a NDP kinase super family signature was identified in E. carinicauda EcNM23. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcNM23 was expressed in all the examined tissues with the high expression level in hemocytes and ovary. The EcNM23 expression in immune-related tissues changed rapidly and reached peak at different time after pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress treatment. The results suggested that EcNM23 might be associated with the immune defenses to pathogens infection and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis and Structural Predictions of Human Adenovirus Penton Proteins as a Basis for Tissue-Specific Adenovirus Vector Design▿

    PubMed Central

    Madisch, Ijad; Hofmayer, Soeren; Moritz, Christian; Grintzalis, Alexander; Hainmueller, Jens; Pring-Akerblom, Patricia; Heim, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The penton base is a major capsid protein of human adenoviruses (HAdV) which forms the vertices of the capsid and interacts with hexon and fiber protein. Two hypervariable loops of the penton are exposed on the capsid surface. Sequences of these and 300 adjacent amino acid residues of all 51 HAdV and closely related simian adenoviruses were studied. Adjacent sequences and predicted overall secondary structure were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering corresponding to the HAdV species and recombination events in the origin of HAdV prototypes. All HAdV except serotypes 40 and 41 of species F exhibited an integrin binding RGD motif in the second loop. The lengths of the loops (HVR1 and RGD loops) varied significantly between HAdV species with the longest RGD loop observed in species C and the longest HVR1 in species B. Long loops may permit the insertion of motifs that modify tissue tropism. Genetic analysis of HAdV prime strain p17′H30, a neutralization variant of HAdV-D17, indicated the significance of nonhexon neutralization epitopes for HAdV immune escape. Fourteen highly conserved motifs of the penton base were analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of HAdV-D8 and tested for sustained induction of early cytopathic effects. Thus, three new motifs essential for penton base function were identified additionally to the RGD site, which interacts with a secondary cellular receptor responsible for internalization. Therefore, our penton primary structure data and secondary structure modeling in combination with the recently published fiber knob sequences may permit the rational design of tissue-specific adenoviral vectors. PMID:17522221

  15. Role of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression and viral load of adenovirus and enterovirus in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mirnalini; Mishra, Baijayantimala; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Bahl, Ajay; Ratho, Radha Kanta; Talwar, Kewal Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) and adenoviruses (AdVs) are two important etiological agents of viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Both these viruses share a common receptor, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), for their infection. However, the role of viral load and CAR expression in disease severity has not yet been completely elucidated. The present study aimed to determine viral load of EV and AdV in DCM patients and correlate them with the level of CAR expression in these patients. Sixty-three DCM cases and 30 controls, each of whom died of heart disease other than DCM and non-cardiac disease respectively, were included. Viral load was determined by TaqMan real-time PCR using primers and probes specific for the AdV hexon gene and the 5'UTR region of EV. The CAR mRNA level was semi-quantitated by RT-PCR, and antigen expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. A significantly high AdV load (p < 0.05) and CAR expression (p < 0.05) were observed in DCM cases versus controls, whereas the EV load showed no significant difference. The data suggests a clinical threshold of 128 AdV copies/500 ng of DNA for DCM, with 66.7 % sensitivity and 65 % specificity. A positive correlation between AdV load and CAR expression (p < 0.001) was also observed in DCM cases. The high adenoviral load and increased CAR expression in DCM and their association with adverse disease outcome indicates role of both virus and receptor in disease pathogenesis. Thus, the need for targeting both the virus and the receptor for treatment of viral myocarditis and early DCM requires further confirmation with larger studies.

  16. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity in rats bearing human adenovirus type 12-induced primary retinoblastoma-like tumor in the eye.

    PubMed

    Nishida, T; Mukai, N; Solish, S P

    1981-01-01

    Using an animal model of retinoblastoma in inbred rats and cultured human adenovirus type 12-induced retinoblastoma-like tumor cells (RAO 188), complement-dependent cytotoxicity was determined by measuring release of 3H-uridine labelled RNA. Sera from rats in which tumors did not grow after adenovirus type 12 inoculation had higher cytotoxicity against RAO 188 cells than sera from rats bearing primary adenovirus type 12-induced retinoblastoma-like tumor. These results showed that the rat which could raise antibodies against adenovirus type 12-induced retinoblastoma-like tumor cells did not allow the tumor growth in the eye after virus inoculation.

  17. Early diagnosis of adenovirus infection and treatment with cidofovir after bone marrow transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Legrand, F; Berrebi, D; Houhou, N; Freymuth, F; Faye, A; Duval, M; Mougenot, J F; Peuchmaur, M; Vilmer, E

    2001-03-01

    Adenovirus infection remains an important cause of mortality after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Currently no efficient antiviral treatment is known. Thus, testing new modalities of early diagnosis and treatment is a crucial objective. Adenovirus infection is defined by the combination of symptoms and the isolation of virus from the source of clinical symptoms. The involvement of two or more organs and the presence of virus in blood cultures define disseminated disease. Seven children with a median age of 7 years received bone marrow transplantation for leukemia. All received an unrelated graft without T cell depletion. Adenovirus was sought in blood, urine and biopsy specimens using PCR and culture. Analysis of biopsy specimens included systematic immunohistochemistry. Cidofovir treatment was initiated as soon as biopsy revealed the histopathological signs of adenovirus. Cidofovir was given at 5 mg/kg once weekly for 3 weeks then every 2 weeks. Six patients had diarrhoea and one patient had cystitis. Adenovirus infection and disseminated disease were diagnosed in four cases and three cases, respectively. In six cases, serotype A31 was isolated from gastrointestinal biopsy and in two cases serotypes B2 and C6 were detected in blood and urine. Cidofovir treatment was associated with clinical improvement of diarrhoea, cystitis and fever in five patients, in whom the virus became undetectable in cultures and PCR analyses despite the persistence of immunodeficiency. The median follow-up was 360 days after BMT (240-570). One child died of invasive aspergillosis and another of disseminated adenovirus after interruption of cidofovir therapy. Further studies in immunocompromised patients will be needed to extend these promising results concerning the role of cidofovir in adenovirus infection.

  18. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  19. Molecular epidemiology and surveillance of circulating rotavirus and adenovirus in Congolese children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Mayindou, Gontran; Ngokana, Berge; Sidibé, Anissa; Moundélé, Victoire; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Christevy Vouvoungui, Jeannhey; Kwedi Nolna, Sylvie; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Ntoumi, Francine

    2016-04-01

    Infectious Diarrhea caused by rotavirus and adenovirus, is a leading cause of death in children in sub-Sahara Africa but there is limited published data on the diverse rotavirus genotypes and adenovirus serotypes circulating in the Republic of Congo. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus A (RVA) and Adenovirus serotype 40 and 41 in Congolese children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis. Stool samples were collected from 655 Congolese children less than 60 months of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between June 2012 and June 2013. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens were tested using commercially available ELISA kits and the RVA G- and P- genotypes were identified by seminested multiplex RT-PCR. Three hundred and four (46.4%) children were tested positive for RVA. Adenovirus infection was found in 5.5% of the 564 tested children. Rotavirus infection was frequently observed in children between 6-12 months (55.9%). The dry season months recorded increased RVA infection while no seasonality of adenovirus infection was demonstrated. The most common RVA genotypes were G1 (57.5%), G2 (6.4%), G1G2 mixture (15.5%), P[8] (58%), P[6] (13.2%), and P[8]P[6] mixture (26%). Additionally, the genotype G12P[6] was significantly associated with increased vomiting. This first study on Congolese children demonstrates a high prevalence and clinical significance of existing rotavirus genotypes. Adenovirus prevalence is similar to that of other Central African countries. This baseline epidemiology and molecular characterization study will contribute significantly to the RVA surveillance after vaccine implementation in the country.

  20. Adenovirus type 7 associated with severe and fatal acute lower respiratory infections in Argentine children

    PubMed Central

    Carballal, Guadalupe; Videla, Cristina; Misirlian, Alicia; Requeijo, Paula V; Aguilar, María del Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are the second most prevalent cause of acute lower respiratory infection of viral origin in children under four years of age in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcome of acute lower respiratory infection associated with different adenovirus genotypes in children. Methods Twenty-four cases of acute lower respiratory infection and adenovirus diagnosis reported in a pediatric unit during a two-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Adenovirus was detected by antigen detection and isolation in HEp-2 cells. Adenovirus DNA from 17 isolates was studied by restriction enzyme analysis with Bam HI and Sma I. Results Subgenus b was found in 82.3% of the cases, and subgenus c in 17.7%. Within subgenus b, only genotype 7 was detected, with genomic variant 7h in 85.7% (12/14) and genomic variant 7i in 14.3% (2/14). Mean age was 8.8 ±; 6 months, and male to female ratio was 3.8: 1. At admission, pneumonia was observed in 71% of the cases and bronchiolitis in 29%. Malnutrition occurred in 37% of the cases; tachypnea in 79%; chest indrawing in 66%; wheezing in 58%; apneas in 16%; and conjunctivitis in 29%. Blood cultures for bacteria and antigen detection of other respiratory viruses were negative. During hospitalization, fatality rate was 16.7% (4 /24). Of the patients who died, three had Ad 7h and one Ad 7i. Thus, fatality rate for adenovirus type 7 reached 28.6% (4/14). Conclusions These results show the predominance of adenovirus 7 and high lethality associated with the genomic variants 7h and 7i in children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection. PMID:12184818

  1. Structure of the C-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 long fiber.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L; Fox, Gavin C; Langlois, Patrick; van Raaij, Mark J

    2007-09-01

    Avian adenovirus CELO (chicken embryo lethal orphan virus, fowl adenovirus type 1) incorporates two different homotrimeric fiber proteins extending from the same penton base: a long fiber (designated fiber 1) and a short fiber (designated fiber 2). The short fibers extend straight outwards from the viral vertices, whilst the long fibers emerge at an angle. In contrast to the short fiber, which binds an unknown avian receptor and has been shown to be essential to the invasiveness of this virus, the long fiber appears to be unnecessary for infection in birds. Both fibers contain a short N-terminal virus-binding peptide, a slender shaft domain and a globular C-terminal head domain; the head domain, by analogy with human adenoviruses, is likely to be involved mainly in receptor binding. This study reports the high-resolution crystal structure of the head domain of the long fiber, solved using single isomorphous replacement (using anomalous signal) and refined against data at 1.6 A (0.16 nm) resolution. The C-terminal globular head domain had an anti-parallel beta-sandwich fold formed by two four-stranded beta-sheets with the same overall topology as human adenovirus fiber heads. The presence in the sequence of characteristic repeats N-terminal to the head domain suggests that the shaft domain contains a triple beta-spiral structure. Implications of the structure for the function and stability of the avian adenovirus long fiber protein are discussed; notably, the structure suggests a different mode of binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor from that proposed for the human adenovirus fiber heads.

  2. Impact of preexisting adenovirus vector immunity on immunogenicity and protection conferred with an adenovirus-based H5N1 influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aseem; Singh, Neetu; Vemula, Sai V; Couëtil, Laurent; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenoviruses in the majority of the human population might adversely impact the development of adaptive immune responses against adenovirus vector-based vaccines. To address this issue, we primed BALB/c mice either intranasally (i.n.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with varying doses of wild type (WT) human adenovirus subtype 5 (HAd5). Following the development of immunity against HAd5, we immunized animals via the i.n. or i.m. route of inoculation with a HAd vector (HAd-HA-NP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus. The immunogenicity and protection results suggest that low levels of vector immunity (<520 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with up to 10(7) plaque forming units (p.f.u.) of HAd-WT did not adversely impact the protective efficacy of the vaccine. Furthermore, high levels of vector immunity (approximately 1500 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with 10(8) p.f.u. of HAd-WT were overcome by either increasing the vaccine dose or using alternate routes of vaccination. A further increase in the priming dose to 10(9) p.f.u. allowed only partial protection. These results suggest possible strategies to overcome the variable levels of human immunity against adenoviruses, leading to better utilization of HAd vector-based vaccines.

  3. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630–24,662 bp and 35.5–35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9–39.3% (amino acid, 32.1–47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008–2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  4. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-Keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  5. Regulation of p53-dependent apoptosis, transcriptional repression, and cell transformation by phosphorylation of the 55-kilodalton E1B protein of human adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, J G; Branton, P E

    1997-01-01

    The adenovirus type 5 55-kDa E1B protein (E1B-55kDa) cooperates with E1A gene products to induce cell transformation. E1A proteins stimulate DNA synthesis and cell proliferation; however, they also cause rapid cell death by p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. It is believed that the role of the E1B-55kDa protein in transformation is to protect against p53-dependent apoptosis by binding to and inactivating p53. It has been shown previously that the 55-kDa polypeptide abrogates p53-mediated transactivation and that mutants defective in p53 binding are unable to cooperate with E1A in transformation. We have previously mapped phosphorylation sites near the carboxy terminus of the E1B-55kDa protein at Ser-490 and Ser-491, which lie within casein kinase II consensus sequences. Conversion of these sites to alanine residues greatly reduced transforming activity, and although the mutant 55-kDa protein was found to interact with p53 at normal levels, it was somewhat defective for suppression of p53 transactivation activity. We now report that a nearby residue, Thr-495, also appears to be phosphorylated. We demonstrate directly that the wild-type 55-kDa protein is able to block E1A-induced p53-dependent apoptosis, whereas cells infected by mutant pm490/1/5A, which contains alanine residues at all three phosphorylation sites, exhibited extensive DNA fragmentation and classic apoptotic cell death. The E1B-55kDa product has been shown to exhibit intrinsic transcriptional repression activity when localized to promoters, such as by fusion with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, even in the absence of p53. Such repression activity was totally absent with mutant pm490/1/5A. These data suggested that inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis may depend on the transcriptional repression function of the 55-kDa protein, which appears to be regulated be phosphorylation at the carboxy terminus. PMID:9094635

  6. Adenovirus disease in six small bowel, kidney and heart transplant recipients; pathology and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vikas; Chou, Pauline C; Picken, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are emerging as important viral pathogens in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, impacting morbidity, graft survival, and even mortality. The risk seems to be highest in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as well as heart, lung, and small bowel transplant recipients. Most of the adenovirus diseases develop in the first 6 months after transplantation, particularly in pediatric patients. Among abdominal organ recipients, small bowel grafts are most frequently affected, presumably due to the presence of a virus reservoir in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Management of these infections may be difficult and includes the reduction of immunosuppression, whenever possible, combined with antiviral therapy, if necessary. Therefore, an awareness of the pathology associated with such infections is important in order to allow early detection and specific treatment. We reviewed six transplant recipients (small bowel, kidney, and heart) with adenovirus graft involvement from two institutions. We sought to compare the diagnostic morphology and the clinical and laboratory findings. The histopathologic features of an adenovirus infection of the renal graft and one native kidney in a heart transplant recipient included a vaguely granulomatous mixed inflammatory infiltrate associated with rare cells showing a cytopathic effect (smudgy nuclei). A lymphocytic infiltrate, simulating T cell rejection, with admixture of eosinophils was also seen. In the small bowel grafts, there was a focal mixed inflammatory infiltrate with associated necrosis in addition to cytopathic effects. In the heart, allograft adenovirus infection was silent with no evidence of inflammatory changes. Immunohistochemical stain for adenovirus was positive in all grafts and in one native kidney. All patients were subsequently cleared of adenovirus infection, as evidenced by follow-up biopsies, with no loss of the grafts. Adenovirus infection can

  7. Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Lehmkuhl, H D; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

    1999-03-01

    Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and

  8. Identification of multiple SNT-binding sites on NPM-ALK oncoprotein and their involvement in cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Chikamori, M; Fujimoto, J; Tokai-Nishizumi, N; Yamamoto, T

    2007-05-01

    The t(2;5) chromosomal translocation occurs in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma arising from activated T lymphocytes. This genomic rearrangement generates the nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) oncoprotein that is a chimeric protein consisting of parts of the nuclear protein NPM and ALK receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. We used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify an adaptor protein Suc1-associated neurotrophic factor-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated target (SNT)-2 as a new partner that interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of ALK. Immunoprecipitation assay revealed that SNT-1 and SNT-2 interacted with NPM-ALK and kinase-negative NPM-ALK mutant. Y156, Y567 and a 19-amino-acid sequence (aa 631-649) of NPM-ALK were essential for this interaction. The interaction through Y156 and Y567 was dependent on phosphorylation of these tyrosines, whereas the interaction through the 19-amino-acid sequence was independent of phosphorylation. NPM-ALK mutant protein mutated at these three binding sites showed significantly reduced transforming activity. This transformation-defective NPM-ALK mutant still interacted with signal transducing proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, which were previously reported to be relevant to NPM-ALK-dependent tumorigenesis. These observations indicate that the three SNT-binding sites of NPM-ALK are important for its transforming activity. This raises a possibility that SNT family proteins play significant roles in cellular transformation triggered by NPM-ALK, which though remains to be verified.

  9. Regulation of the Abundance of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF50 Protein by Oncoprotein MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Chen, Lee-Wen; Shih, Ying-Ju; Chang, Li-Kwan; Liu, Shih-Tung; Chang, Pey-Jium

    2016-01-01

    The switch between latency and the lytic cycle of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is controlled by the expression of virally encoded ORF50 protein. Thus far, the regulatory mechanism underlying the protein stability of ORF50 is unknown. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that a protein abundance regulatory signal (PARS) at the ORF50 C-terminal region modulates its protein abundance. The PARS region consists of PARS-I (aa 490–535) and PARS-II (aa 590–650), and mutations in either component result in abundant expression of ORF50. Here, we show that ORF50 protein is polyubiquitinated and its abundance is controlled through the proteasomal degradation pathway. The PARS-I motif mainly functions as a nuclear localization signal in the control of ORF50 abundance, whereas the PARS-II motif is required for the binding of ubiquitin enzymes in the nucleus. We find that human oncoprotein MDM2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, is capable of interacting with ORF50 and promoting ORF50 degradation in cells. The interaction domains between both proteins are mapped to the PARS region of ORF50 and the N-terminal 220-aa region of MDM2. Additionally, we identify lysine residues at positions 152 and 154 in the N-terminal domain of ORF50 critically involved in MDM2-mediated downregulation of ORF50 levels. Within KSHV-infected cells, the levels of MDM2 were greatly reduced during viral lytic cycle and genetic knockdown of MDM2 in these cells favored the enhancement of ORF50 expression, supporting that MDM2 is a negative regulator of ORF50 expression. Collectively, the study elucidates the regulatory mechanism of ORF50 stability and implicates that MDM2 may have a significant role in the maintenance of viral latency by lowering basal level of ORF50. PMID:27698494

  10. Expression of the stress response oncoprotein LEDGF/p75 in human cancer: a study of 21 tumor types.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anamika; Rojas, Heather; Banerjee, Hiya; Cabrera, Irena B; Perez, Kayla Y; De León, Marino; Casiano, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress-modulated signaling pathways have been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapy resistance. The lens epithelium derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcription co-activator that promotes resistance to stress-induced cell death. This protein has been implicated in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, HIV-AIDS, and cancer. Although LEDGF/p75 is emerging as a stress survival oncoprotein, there is scarce information on its expression in human tumors. The present study was performed to evaluate its expression in a comprehensive panel of human cancers. Transcript expression was examined in the Oncomine cancer gene microarray database and in a TissueScan Cancer Survey Panel quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) array. Protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 1735 tissues representing single or replicate cores from 1220 individual cases (985 tumor and 235 normal tissues). A total of 21 major cancer types were analyzed. Analysis of LEDGF/p75 transcript expression in Oncomine datasets revealed significant upregulation (tumor vs. normal) in 15 out of 17 tumor types. The TissueScan Cancer Q-PCR array revealed significantly elevated LEDGF/p75 transcript expression in prostate, colon, thyroid, and breast cancers. IHC analysis of TMAs revealed significant increased levels of LEDGF/p75 protein in prostate, colon, thyroid, liver and uterine tumors, relative to corresponding normal tissues. Elevated transcript or protein expression of LEDGF/p75 was observed in several tumor types. These results further establish LEDGF/p75 as a cancer-related protein, and provide a rationale for ongoing studies aimed at understanding the clinical significance of its expression in specific human cancers.

  11. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase Activity Contributes to Local Immune Suppression in the Skin Expressing Human Papillomavirus Oncoprotein E7

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, D; Kassianos, AJ; Tran, LS; Bergot, AS; Gosmann, C; Hofmann, J; Blumenthal, A; Leggatt, GR; Frazer, IH

    2013-01-01

    Chronic infection of anogenital epithelium with human papillomavirus (HPV) promotes development of cancer. Many pathogens evoke immunosuppressive mechanisms to enable persistent infection. We have previously shown that grafted skin expressing HPV16 E7 oncoprotein from a keratin-14 promoter (K14E7) is not rejected by a syngeneic, immunocompetent host. In this study we show that indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, an IFN-γ inducible immunoregulatory molecule, is more highly expressed by langerin−ve dermal dendritic cells from K14E7 skin than nontransgenic control skin. Furthermore, inhibiting IDO activity using 1-D/L-methyl tryptophan promotes K14E7 skin graft rejection. Increased IDO1 expression and activity in K14E7 skin requires IFN-γ and iNKT cells, both of which have been shown to negatively regulate T-cell effector function and suppress K14E7 graft rejection. Further, dendritic cells from K14E7 skin express higher level of IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) than dendritic cells from control skin. K14E7 transgenic skin recruits significantly higher number of dendritic cells, independent of IFN-γ and IFN-γR expression. Consistent with these observations in a murine model, we found higher expression of IDO1 and IFN-γ but not IDO2 in the cervical epithelium of patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3. Our data support a hypothesis that induction of IDO1 in HPV infected skin contributes to evasion of host immunity. PMID:23652797

  12. The proto-oncoprotein KR-POK represses transcriptional activation of CDKN1A by MIZ-1 through competitive binding.

    PubMed

    Lee, K M; Choi, W I; Koh, D I; Kim, Y J; Jeon, B N; Yoon, J H; Lee, C E; Kim, S H; Oh, J; Hur, M W

    2012-03-15

    The BTB/POZ family of proteins has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including tumourigenesis, DNA damage responses and cell cycle progression and development. MIZ-1 (Myc-interacting zinc-finger protein 1) is known to activate transcription of CDKN1A. We recently found that a kidney cancer-related POK transcription factor, KR-POK, is highly expressed in kidney, brain and bone marrow cancer tissues and is a potential proto-oncoprotein. Mouse Kr-pok represses transcription of the CDKN1A by acting on the proximal promoter. The BiFC/FRET assay, co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase-fusion protein pull-down assay indicate that MIZ-1 and Kr-pok interact via their POZ domains. Oligoucleotide pull-down assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MIZ-1 binds to the proximal GC-box#3 (bp, -55 to -63) and the MIZ-1-binding elements, MRE-A (bp, -90 to -64) and MRE-B (bp, -27 to -17). Interestingly, MIZ-1 also binds to the distal p53-binding elements. Kr-pok binds to the proximal GC-box#1 (bp, -95 to -100) and #3 (bp, -55 to -63) relatively strongly. It also shows weak binding to the MREs and the distal p53-binding elements. Kr-pok competes with MIZ-1 in binding to these elements and represses transcription by inhibiting MIZ-1/p300 recruitment, which decreases the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Our data indicate that Kr-pok stimulates cell proliferation by interfering with the function of MIZ-1 in CDKN1A gene transcription using a mechanism that is radically different from other MIZ-1-interacting proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 6, c-Myc and Gfi-1.

  13. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C.

    2016-01-01

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell’s sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6. PMID:27678330

  14. Intracellular Analysis of the Interaction between the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein and Inhibitory Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, Christina; Reinz, Eileen; Honegger, Anja; Bulkescher, Julia; Schweizer, Johannes; Zanier, Katia; Travé, Gilles; Lohrey, Claudia; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and other malignancies in humans. The HPV E6 oncoprotein is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target since its inhibition can lead to the apoptotic cell death of HPV-positive cancer cells. The HPV type 16 (HPV16) E6-binding peptide pep11, and variants thereof, induce cell death specifically in HPV16-positive cancer cells. Although they do not encompass the LxxLL binding motif found in cellular HPV16 E6 interaction partners, such as E6AP, the pep11 variants strongly bind to HPV16 E6 by contacting the recently identified E6AP binding pocket. Thus, these peptides can serve as prototype E6-inhibitory molecules which target the E6AP pocket. We here analyzed their intracellular interaction with HPV16 E6. By comprehensive intracellular binding studies and GST pull-down assays, we show that E6-binding competent pep11 variants induce the formation of a trimeric complex, consisting of pep11, HPV16 E6 and p53. These findings indicate that peptides, which do not contain the LxxLL motif, can reshape E6 to enable its interaction with p53. The formation of the trimeric HPV16 E6 / peptide / p53 complex was associated with an increase of endogenous HPV16 E6 protein amounts. Yet, total cellular p53 amounts were also increased, indicating that the E6 / E6AP-mediated degradation of p53 is blocked. These findings suggest that inhibition of oncogenic activities by targeting the E6AP pocket on HPV16 E6 could be a strategy for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26151636

  15. Hyaluronidase expression by an oncolytic adenovirus enhances its intratumoral spread and suppresses tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Guedan, Sonia; Rojas, Juan José; Gros, Alena; Mercade, Elena; Cascallo, Manel; Alemany, Ramon

    2010-07-01

    Successful virotherapy requires efficient virus spread within tumors. We tested whether the expression of hyaluronidase, an enzyme which dissociates the extracellular matrix (ECM), could enhance the intratumoral distribution of an oncolytic adenovirus and improve its therapeutic activity. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that intratumoral coadministration of hyaluronidase in mice-bearing tumor xenografts improves the antitumor activity of an oncolytic adenovirus. Next, we constructed a replication-competent adenovirus expressing a soluble form of the human sperm hyaluronidase (PH20) under the control of the major late promoter (MLP) (AdwtRGD-PH20). Intratumoral treatment of human melanoma xenografts with AdwtRGD-PH20 resulted in degradation of hyaluronan (HA), enhanced viral distribution, and induced tumor regression in all treated tumors. Finally, the PH20 cDNA was inserted in an oncolytic adenovirus that selectively kills pRb pathway-defective tumor cells. The antitumoral activity of the novel oncolytic adenovirus expressing PH20 (ICOVIR17) was compared to that of the parental virus ICOVIR15. ICOVIR17 showed more antitumor efficacy following intratumoral and systemic administration in mice with prestablished tumors, along with an improved spread of the virus within the tumor. Importantly, a single intravenous dose of ICOVIR17 induced tumor regression in 60% of treated tumors. These results indicate that ICOVIR17 is a promising candidate for clinical testing.

  16. Hyperplastic stomatitis and esophagitis in a tortoise (Testudo graeca) associated with an adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Pénzes, Judit J; Costa, Taiana; Martorell, Jaime; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    A 2-year-old female, spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with poor body condition (1/5) and weakness. Fecal analysis revealed large numbers of oxyurid-like eggs, and radiographs were compatible with gastrointestinal obstruction. Despite supportive medical treatment, the animal died. At gross examination, an intestinal obstruction was confirmed. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplastic esophagitis and stomatitis with marked epithelial cytomegaly and enormous basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy examination revealed a large number of 60-80 nm, nonenveloped, icosahedral virions arranged in crystalline arrays within nuclear inclusions of esophageal epithelial cells, morphologically compatible with adenovirus-like particles. PCR for virus identification was performed with DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. A nested, consensus pan-adenovirus PCR and sequencing analysis showed a novel adenovirus. According to phylogenetic calculations, it clustered to genus Atadenovirus in contrast with all other chelonian adenoviruses described to date. The present report details the pathologic findings associated with an adenovirus infection restricted to the upper digestive tract.

  17. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters.

  18. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  19. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  20. Screening for adenoviruses in haematological neoplasia: High prevalence in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, Karin; Rauch, Margit; Ambros, Peter F; Pötschger, Ulrike; Chott, Andreas; Jäger, Ulrich; Drach, Johannes; Nader, Alexander; Lion, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Human adenoviruses possess oncogenic capacity which is well documented in mammalian animal models, but their possible implication in human malignancy has remained enigmatic. Following primary infection, adenoviruses can persist in a latent state in lymphocytes where the virus is apparently able to evade immune surveillance. In the present study, we have employed a broad-spectrum adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to systematically screen more than 200 diagnostic specimens of different lymphoid malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), various types of malignant lymphoma (n=100) and multiple myeloma (n=11) for the presence of adenoviral sequences. While most entities analysed revealed negative findings in virtually all specimens tested, adenoviral DNA was detected in 15/36 (42%) mantle cell lymphomas investigated. The most prevalent adenoviral species detected was C, and less commonly B. Adenovirus-positive findings in patients with mantle cell lymphoma were made at different sites including bone marrow (n=7), intestine (n=5), lymph nodes (n=2) and tonsillar tissue (n=1). The presence of adenoviral sequences identified by PCR was confirmed in individual cells by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). The frequent observation of adenoviruses in mantle cell lymphoma is intriguings, and raises questions about their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this lymphoid malignancy. PMID:24246703

  1. Characterizing clearance of helper adenovirus by a clinical rAAV1 manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Barbara A; Quigley, Paulene; Nichols, Gina; Moore, Christine; Pastor, Eric; Price, David; Ament, Jon W; Takeya, Ryan K; Peluso, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) are being developed as gene therapy delivery vehicles and as genetic vaccines, and some of the most scaleable manufacturing methods for rAAV use live adenovirus to induce production. One aspect of establishing safety of rAAV products is therefore demonstrating adequate and reliable clearance of this helper virus by the vector purification process. The ICH Q5A regulatory guidance on viral safety provides recommendations for process design and characterization of viral clearance for recombinant proteins, and these principles were adapted to a rAAV serotype 1 purification process for clinical vectors. Specific objectives were to achieve overall adenovirus clearance factors significantly greater than input levels by using orthogonal separation and inactivation methods, and to segregate adenovirus from downstream operations by positioning a robust clearance step early in the process. Analytical tools for process development and characterization addressed problematic in-process samples, and a viral clearance validation study was performed using adenovirus and two non-specific model viruses. Overall clearance factors determined were >23 LRV for adenovirus, 11 LRV for BVDV, and >23 LRV for AMuLV.

  2. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV.

  3. Technical aspects of using human adenovirus as a viral water quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Rames, Emily; Roiko, Anne; Stratton, Helen; Macdonald, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Despite dramatic improvements in water treatment technologies in developed countries, waterborne viruses are still associated with many of cases of illness each year. These illnesses include gastroenteritis, meningitis, encephalitis, and respiratory infections. Importantly, outbreaks of viral disease from waters deemed compliant from bacterial indicator testing still occur, which highlights the need to monitor the virological quality of water. Human adenoviruses are often used as a viral indicator of water quality (faecal contamination), as this pathogen has high UV-resistance and is prevalent in untreated domestic wastewater all year round, unlike enteroviruses and noroviruses that are often only detected in certain seasons. Standard methods for recovering and measuring adenovirus numbers in water are lacking, and there are many variations in published methods. Since viral numbers are likely under-estimated when optimal methods are not used, a comprehensive review of these methods is both timely and important. This review critically evaluates how estimates of adenovirus numbers in water are impacted by technical manipulations, such as during adenovirus concentration and detection (including culturing and polymerase-chain reaction). An understanding of the implications of these issues is fundamental to obtaining reliable estimation of adenovirus numbers in water. Reliable estimation of HAdV numbers is critical to enable improved monitoring of the efficacy of water treatment processes, accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, and to ensure microbiological safety of water.

  4. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  5. A Novel Vaccine Approach for Chagas Disease Using Rare Adenovirus Serotype 48 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Anitra L.; Peng, Binghao J.; Gu, Linlin; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of people afflicted worldwide with Chagas disease and an increasing prevalence in the United States, there is a greater need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for this neglected disease. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most common adenovirus vector used for gene therapy and vaccine approaches, but its efficacy is limited by preexisting vector immunity in humans resulting from natural infections. Therefore, we have employed rare serotype adenovirus 48 (Ad48) as an alternative choice for adenovirus/Chagas vaccine therapy. In this study, we modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to contain T. cruzi’s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) in the adenoviral early gene. We also modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to utilize the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy by adding T. cruzi epitopes to protein IX (pIX). Mice that were immunized with the modified vectors were able to elicit T. cruzi-specific humoral and cellular responses. This study indicates that Ad48-modified vectors function comparable to or even premium to Ad5-modified vectors. This study provides novel data demonstrating that Ad48 can be used as a potential adenovirus vaccine vector against Chagas disease. PMID:26978385

  6. Characterization of the knob domain of the adenovirus type 5 fiber protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, L J; Xia, D; Wilke, M E; Deisenhofer, J; Gerard, R D

    1994-01-01

    The adenovirus fiber protein is used for attachment of the virus to a specific receptor on the cell surface. Structurally, the protein consists of a long, thin shaft that protrudes from the vertex of the virus capsid and terminates in a globular domain termed the knob. To verify that the knob is the domain which interacts with the cellular receptor, we have cloned and expressed the knob from adenovirus type 5 together with a single repeat of the shaft in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by conventional chromatography and functionally characterized for its interaction with the adenovirus receptor. The recombinant knob domain bound about 4,700 sites per HeLa cell with an affinity of 3 x 10(9) M-1 and blocked adenovirus infection of human cells. Antibodies raised against the knob also blocked virus infection. By gel filtration and X-ray diffraction analysis of protein crystals, the knob was shown to consist of a homotrimer of 21-kDa subunits. The results confirm that the trimeric knob is the ligand for attachment to the adenovirus receptor. Images PMID:8035520

  7. A genetic fiber modification to achieve matrix-metalloprotease-activated infectivity of oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Rovira-Rigau, Maria; Luna, Jeroni; Giménez-Alejandre, Marta; Vaquero, Eva; García de la Torre, Beatriz; Andreu, David; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2014-10-28

    Selective tumor targeting of oncolytic adenovirus at the level of cell entry remains a major challenge to improve efficacy and safety. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are overexpressed in a variety of tumors and in particular in pancreatic cancer. In the current work, we have exploited the expression of MMPs together with the penetration capabilities of a TAT-like peptide to engineer tumor selective adenoviruses. We have generated adenoviruses containing CAR-binding ablated fibers further modified with a C-terminus TAT-like peptide linked to a blocking domain by an MMP-cleavable sequence. This linker resulted in a MMP-dependent cell transduction of the reporter MMP-activatable virus AdTATMMP and in efficient transduction of neoplastic cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Intravenous and intraductal administration of AdTATMMP into mice showed very low AdTATMMP activity in the normal pancreas, whereas increased transduction was observed in pancreatic tumors of transgenic Ela-myc mice. Intraductal administration of AdTATMMP into mice bearing orthotopic tumors led to a 25-fold increase in tumor targeting compared to the wild type fiber control. A replication competent adenovirus, Ad(RC)MMP, with the MMP-activatable fiber showed oncolytic efficacy and increased antitumor activity compared to Adwt in a pancreatic orthotopic model. Reduced local and distant metastases were observed in Ad(RC)MMP treated-mice. Moreover, no signs of pancreatic toxicity were detected. We conclude that MMP-activatable adenovirus may be beneficial for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  8. Systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Swift, P K; Barr, B C; Horzinek, M C; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Patton, J F; Oliver, M N; Jones, K R; MacLachlan, N J

    1996-03-01

    Seventeen counties in northern California experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. Thirteen deer submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System as part of this natural die-off had systemic adenovirus infection. Pulmonary edema was present in all 13 deer. Erosions, ulceration, and abscessation of the upper alimentary tract occurred in 7/13 deer. Four of 13 deer had hemorrhagic enteritis. All 13 deer had widespread systemic vasculitis with endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody directed against bovine adenovirus type 5 bound to antigen in endothelial cells. Adenovirus was identified by transmission electron microscopy within the nuclei of endothelial cells in 6/6 deer examined. An adenovirus was isolated from lung homogenates of one deer that were cultured on black-tailed deer pulmonary artery endothelial cells. With the exception of the intranuclear inclusions evident on histologic evaluation, gross and histologic changes were similar to those described for bluetongue virus infection and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in white-tailed deer. Nine additional deer were emaciated and had pharyngeal abscesses with focal vasculitis, which may represent the chronic affects of previous nonfatal adenovirus infection.

  9. Hyperplastic stomatitis and esophagitis in a tortoise (Testudo graeca) associated with an adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Pénzes, Judit J; Costa, Taiana; Martorell, Jaime; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    A 2-year-old female, spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with poor body condition (1/5) and weakness. Fecal analysis revealed large numbers of oxyurid-like eggs, and radiographs were compatible with gastrointestinal obstruction. Despite supportive medical treatment, the animal died. At gross examination, an intestinal obstruction was confirmed. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplastic esophagitis and stomatitis with marked epithelial cytomegaly and enormous basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy examination revealed a large number of 60-80 nm, nonenveloped, icosahedral virions arranged in crystalline arrays within nuclear inclusions of esophageal epithelial cells, morphologically compatible with adenovirus-like particles. PCR for virus identification was performed with DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. A nested, consensus pan-adenovirus PCR and sequencing analysis showed a novel adenovirus. According to phylogenetic calculations, it clustered to genus Atadenovirus in contrast with all other chelonian adenoviruses described to date. The present report details the pathologic findings associated with an adenovirus infection restricted to the upper digestive tract. PMID:27486139

  10. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  11. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitr