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Sample records for adenovirus-2 major late

  1. Translation of adenovirus 2 late mRNAs microinjected into cultured African green monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.D.; Anderson, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    Adenovirus 2-infected monkey cells fail to synthesize fiber, a 62,000 M/sub r/ virion polypeptide expressed at late times in productively infected cells. Yet these cells contain fiber mRNA that, after isolation, can be translated in vitro. The reason for the failure of monkey cells to translate fiber mRNA has been approached by microinjecting adenovirus mRNA into the cytoplasm of cultured monkey cells. Late adenovirus 2 mRNA, isolated from infected HeLa cells, was efficiently expressed when microinjected into the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-C. Expressed viral proteins identified by immunoprecipitation included the adenovirus fiber polypeptide. This result demonstrates that the monkey cell translational apparatus is capable of recognizing and expressing functional adenovirus mRNA. Microinjection of late virus mRNA into cells previously infected with wild-type adenovirus 2 failed to increase significantly the yield of infectious virus. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Characterisation of the Equine adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Giles, Carla; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Barton, Mary; Mahony, Timothy J

    2015-09-30

    Equine adenovirus 2 (EAdV-2) is one of two serotypes of adenoviruses known to infect equines. Initial studies did not associate EAdV-2 infections with any specific clinical syndromes, although more recent evidence suggests that EAdV-2 may be associated with clinical and subclinical gastrointestinal infections of foals and adults respectively. In contrast, Equine adenovirus 1 is well recognised as a pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections of horses. In this study the complete genome sequence of EAdV-2 is reported. As expected, genes common to the adenoviruses were identified. Phylogenetic reconstructions using selected EAdV-2 genes confirmed the classification of this virus within the Mastadenovirus genus, and supported the hypothesis that EAdV-2 and EAdV-1 have evolved from separate lineages within the adenoviruses. One spliced open reading frame was identified that encoded for a polypeptide with high similarity to the pIX and E1b_55K adenovirus homologues and was designated pIX_E1b_55K. In addition to this fused version of E1b_55K, a separate E1b_55K encoding gene was also identified. These polypeptides do not appear to have evolved from a gene duplication event as the fused and unfused E1b_55K were most similar to E1b_55K homologues from the Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus genera respectively. The results of this study suggest that EAdV-2 has an unusual evolutionary history that warrants further investigation. PMID:26220513

  3. Coordinate regulation of two cytoplasmic RNA species transcribed from early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, C J; Rosenthal, R; Bhaduri, S; Raskas, H

    1981-06-01

    Early region 2 (E2) of the adenovirus 2 genome specifies a 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein that is required for viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy studies have detected two major forms of 20S E2 mRNA, one species with a 5' leader from map position 75 and a second form having a leader from position 72 (Chow et al., J. Mol. Biol. 134:265-303, 1979). Only the species with a leader from position 75 was detected at early times; however, both forms were found at late times. We have analyzed the temporal regulation of E2 expression by documenting mRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Kinetic studies of pulse-labeled RNAs demonstrated a peak of E2 cytoplasmic RNa synthesis at 10 to 12 h, coinciding with the time of maximal synthesis of the 72,000-dalton DNA binding protein and viral DNA. To estimate the relative abundances of the two major E2 RNA species at various times during infection, total E2 cytoplasmic and polysomal 20S RNAs were isolated by hybridization-selection with specific DNA probes. The leader sequences in the selected RNAs were then quantitated by further RNA-DNA hybridization. We found that the elevated accumulation rate for E2 cytoplasmic RNA at late times reflected an increase in formation of both major species. Moreover, for all time points examined 66% of the mRNA species had a 5' end from map position 75, and 33% had a 5' terminus from position 72. Continuous labeling experiments provided evidence that both RNA forms have comparable half-lives. The results suggest that the two major species encoded by E2 are regulated in a coordinate fashion late in infection. PMID:6894621

  4. mRNAs from human adenovirus 2 early region 4.

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, A; Gilardi, P; Näslund, A; LeMoullec, J M; Pettersson, U; Perricaudet, M

    1984-01-01

    The molecular structure of the mRNAs from early region 4 of human adenovirus 2 has been studied by Northern blot analysis, S1 nuclease analysis, and sequence analysis of cDNA clones. The results make it possible to identify four different splice donor sites and six different splice acceptor sites. The structure of 12 different mRNAs can be deduced from the analysis. The mRNAs have identical 5' and 3' ends and are thus likely to be processed from a common mRNA precursor by differential splicing. The different mRNA species are formed by the removal of one to three introns, and they all carry a short 5' leader segment. The introns appear to serve two functions; they either place a 5' leader segment in juxtaposition with an open reading frame or fuse two open translational reading frames. The early region 4 mRNAs can encode at least seven unique polypeptides. Images PMID:6088804

  5. Random sequential adsorption of human adenovirus 2 onto polyvinylidene fluoride surface influenced by extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruiqing; Li, Qi; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2016-03-15

    Virus removal by membrane bioreactors depends on virus-membrane and virus-foulant interactions. The adsorption of human adenovirus 2 (HAdV-2) on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and a major membrane foulant, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were measured in a quartz crystal microbalance. In 3-100mM CaCl2 solutions, irreversible adsorption of HAdV-2 was observed on both pristine and EPS-fouled PVDF surfaces. The HAdV-2 adsorption kinetics was successfully fitted with the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. The applicability of the RSA model for HAdV-2 adsorption is confirmed by comparing the two fitting parameters, adsorption rate constant k(a) and area occupied by each adsorbed HAdV-2 particle a, with experimentally measured parameters. A linear correlation between the fitting parameter k(a) and the measured attachment efficiency was found, suggesting that the RSA model correctly describes the interaction forces dominating the HAdV-2 adsorption. By comparing the fitting parameter d(ads) with the hydrodynamic diameter of HAdV-2, we conclude that virus-virus and virus-surface interactions determine the area occupied by each adsorbed HAdV-2 particle, and thus influence the adsorption capacity. These results provide insights into virus retention and will benefit improving virus removal in membrane filtration. PMID:26720514

  6. Proteins encoded near the adenovirus late messenger RNA leader segments

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.B.; Anderson, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Small fragments of adenovirus 2 DNA cloned into the single-strand phage M13 were used to select adenoviral messenger RNAs transcribed from the R-strand between map positions 16 and 30. Cell-free translation of these mRNAs produced proteins of 13.5K, 13.6K, and 11.5K, respectively encoded between the first and second segments of the tripartite major late leader, within the ''i''-leader segment, and immediately preceding the third leader segment. Partial sequence analysis of the 13.6K protein is consistent with the hypothesis that it is encoded within the i-leader segment.

  7. Major element compositional variation within and between different late Eocene microtektite strewnfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, S. L.; Keller, G.; Stallard, R. F.

    1987-03-01

    The major element composition of microspherules from all three late Eocene stratigraphic layers was analyzed using an electron microprobe. The results indicate a major element compositional overlap beween individual microspherules of different microtektite layers or strewn fields. However, multivariate factor analysis shows that the microtektites of the three late Eocene layers follow recognizably different compositional trends. The microtektite population of the North American strewn field is characterized by high concentrations of SiO2, Al2O3, and TiO2; the microspherules of an older layer, the Gl. cerroazulensis Zone, are relatively enriched in FeO and MgO and impoverished in SiO2 and TiO2; while those of the oldest layer in the uppermost G. semiinvoluta Zone are relatively enriched in CaO and impoverished in Al2O3 and Na2O.

  8. Antarctic Bottom Water: Major Change in Velocity during the Late Cenozoic between Australia and Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Watkins, N D; Kennett, J P

    1971-08-27

    Paleomagnetic and micropaleontological studies of deep-sea sedimentary cores between Australia and Antarctica define an extensive area centered in the south Tasman Basin, where sediment as old as Early Pliocene has been systematically eroded by bottom currents. This major sedimentary disconformity has been produced by a substantial increase in velocity of Antarctic bottom water, possibly associated with late Cenozoic climatic cooling and corresponding increased glaciation of Antarctica. PMID:17812192

  9. Premature termination by human RNA polymerase II occurs temporally in the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, M; Maderious, A; Chen-Kiang, S

    1984-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated pausing and premature termination of transcription by eucaryotic RNA polymerase II at specific sites in the major late transcriptional unit of adenovirus type 2 in vivo and in vitro. In further developing this as a system for studying eucaryotic termination control, we found that prematurely terminated transcripts of 175 and 120 nucleotides also occur in adenovirus type 5-infected cells. In both cases, premature termination occurs temporally, being found only during late times of infection, not at early times before DNA replication or immediately after the onset of DNA replication when late gene expression has begun (intermediate times). To examine the phenomenon of premature termination further, a temperature-sensitive mutant virus, adenovirus type 5 ts107, was used to uncouple DNA replication and transcription. DNA replication is defective in this mutant at restrictive temperatures. We found that premature termination is inducible at intermediate times by shifting from a permissive temperature to a restrictive temperature, allowing continuous transcription in the absence of continuous DNA replication. No premature termination occurs when the temperature is shifted up at early times before DNA replication. Our data suggest that premature termination of transcription is dependent on both prior synthesis of new templates and cumulative late gene transcription but does not require continuous DNA replication. Images PMID:6209554

  10. Mapping of a gene coding for a major late structural polypeptide on the vaccinia virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Wittek, R; Hänggi, M; Hiller, G

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free translation of total RNA isolated from vaccinia virus-infected cells late in infection results in a complex mixture of polypeptides. A monospecific antibody directed against one of the major structural proteins of the virus particle immunoprecipitated a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 11,000 (11K) from this mixture. Immunoprecipitation was therefore used to identify the structural polypeptide among the in vitro translation products of RNA purified by hybridization selection to restriction fragments of the vaccinia virus genome. This allowed us to map the mRNA coding for the 11K polypeptide to the extreme left-hand end of the HindIII E fragment. Detailed transcriptional mapping of this region of the genome by nuclease S1 analysis revealed the presence of a late RNA transcribed from the rightward-reading strand. Its 5' end mapped at ca. 130 base pairs to the left of the HindIII site at the junction between the HindIII F and E fragments. The map position of this RNA coincided precisely with the map position of the late message coding for the 11K polypeptide. Images PMID:6319738

  11. The Adenovirus L4 33-Kilodalton Protein Binds to Intragenic Sequences of the Major Late Promoter Required for Late Phase-Specific Stimulation of Transcription▿

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Humayra; LeRoy, Gary; Bridge, Gemma; Flint, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    The adenovirus late IVa2 protein is required for maximally efficient transcription from the viral major late (ML) promoter, and hence, the synthesis of the majority of viral late proteins. This protein is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that also promotes the assembly of progeny virus particles. Previous studies have established that a IVa2 protein dimer (DEF-B) binds specifically to an intragenic ML promoter sequence necessary for late phase-specific stimulation of ML transcription. However, activation of transcription from the ML promoter correlates with binding of at least one additional infected-cell-specific protein, termed DEF-A, to the promoter. Using an assay for the DNA-binding activity of DEF-A, we identified the unknown protein by using conventional purification methods, purification of FLAG-tagged IVa2-protein-containing complexes, and transient synthesis of viral late proteins. The results of these experiments established that the viral L4 33-kDa protein is the only component of DEF-A: the IVa2 and L4 33-kDa proteins are necessary and sufficient for formation of all previously described complexes in the intragenic control region of the ML promoter. Furthermore, the L4 33-kDa protein binds to the promoter with the specificity characteristic of DEF-A and stimulates transcription from the ML promoter in transient-expression assays. PMID:17093188

  12. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, P.

    2003-04-01

    The end Ordovician extinction has become arguably the best-understood major extinction event in Earth History. A plethora of workers have established the pattern of faunal change and causes of the extinction with remarkably little disagreement. The first indication of increased extinction at the end of the Ordovician was a graph of global diversity patterns by Norman Newell in 1967, although he did not recognize it as a major event. The presence of a major extinction event became clear as William Berry and Art Boucot assembled data for Silurian correlation charts in the late 1960s. The first reports of North African glaciation in the late 1960s provided a cause for the extinction and study of the event snowballed. It was no accident that recognition of the extinction began in North America, because it was there that the extinction completely overturned faunas in the epicontinental seas. Glacio-eustatic regression of shallow seaway coincided with the disappearance of endemic Laurentian faunas and replacement by a highly cosmopolitan fauna in the Silurian. Once the event was established in North America, paleontologists soon found evidence of the event around the globe. The well-documented Hirnantia Fauna was found to correspond to the glacial interval, and Pat Brenchley soon recognized that there were two pulses of extinction, at the beginning and end of the glaciation. At the same time that the faunal changes were being documented geologic studies of the glaciation provided information on the environmental changes associated with the extinction. The timing of the glacial maximum was established in Africa and by the presence of dropstones in high latitude marine rocks. The 1990s saw geochemical techniques employed that allowed examination of atmospheric CO2 and temperature changes. In many places carbonate deposition declined. Glacio-eustatic regression was obvious in many areas, and a sea-level decline in the range of 50-100 m was established. Shallow

  13. Modification of an adenovirus major late promoter-binding factor during poliovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lazard, D; Fernández-Tomás, C; Gariglio, P; Weinmann, R

    1989-01-01

    To further characterize the mechanism involved in poliovirus-induced inhibition of HeLa cells mRNA synthesis, in vitro formation of DNA-protein complexes between nuclear upstream stimulatory transcription factor (USF) and the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter upstream promoter element (UPE; located between -45 and -65 base pairs) was studied. Using the gel shift assay, we found differences between the UPE-protein complex formed with partially purified nuclear extracts from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells and that obtained in the presence of mock-infected extracts. Formation of the modified UPE-USF complex coincided with virus-induced inhibition of host cell RNA synthesis in vivo and with a less efficient in vitro transcriptional activity of the nuclear extracts from infected cells. Furthermore, using a cross-linking protocol, we found that the host 46-kilodalton UPE-binding USF factor was severely diminished and that a virus-induced or -modified 50-kilodalton polypeptide appeared to be specifically bound to the UPE template. Images PMID:2474675

  14. Blood Transcriptomic Markers in Patients with Late-Onset Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Shigeo; Kurachi, Masashi; Okano, Yoshiko; Sakurai, Noriko; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Harada, Kenichiro; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Keisuke; Narita, Kosuke; Fukuda, Masato; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated transcriptomic markers of late-onset major depressive disorder (LOD; onset age of first depressive episode ≥ 50 years) from the genes expressed in blood cells and identified state-dependent transcriptomic markers in these patients. We assessed the genes expressed in blood cells by microarray and found that the expression levels of 3,066 probes were state-dependently changed in the blood cells of patients with LOD. To select potential candidates from those probes, we assessed the genes expressed in the blood of an animal model of depression, ovariectomized female mice exposed to chronic ultra-mild stress, by microarray and cross-matched the differentially expressed genes between the patients and the model mice. We identified 14 differentially expressed genes that were similarly changed in both patients and the model mice. By assessing statistical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), the following 4 genes were selected as candidates: cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector c (CIDEC), ribonuclease 1 (RNASE1), solute carrier family 36 member-1 (SLC36A1), and serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1 (STYXL1). The discriminating ability of these 4 candidate genes was evaluated in an independent cohort that was validated. Among them, CIDEC showed the greatest discriminant validity (sensitivity 91.3% and specificity 87.5%). Thus, these 4 biomarkers should be helpful for properly diagnosing LOD. PMID:26926397

  15. Properties of the adenovirus IVa2 gene product, an effector of late-phase-dependent activation of the major late promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, P; Kedinger, C

    1996-01-01

    The adenovirus major late promoter is strongly activated after the onset of viral DNA replication. Sequence elements located downstream of the major later promoter start site have previously been shown to be essential for this activation. Two proteins (DEF-A and DEF-B) bind to these elements in a late-phase-dependent manner. DEF-B has been identified as the product of adenovirus intermediate gene IVa2 (pIVa2) (C. Tribouley, P. Lutz, A. Staub, and C. Kedinger, J. Virol. 68:4450-4457, 1994). Here we show that pIVa2, while monomeric in solution, binds to its recognition sequence as a dimer and that two 20-residue amphipathic alpha helices play an essential role in this DNA-binding activity. Attempts to purify DEF-A have failed, but its chromatographic behavior, together with its immunological properties, established that pIVa2 is also a component of this heteromeric protein. In addition, the time course of pIVa2 synthesis during infection correlated with simultaneous detection of the binding of both DEF-A and DEF-B complexes to the downstream elements. Finally, as revealed by immunomicroscopy, pIVa2 is targeted to the nucleus, where it distributes to restricted locations in the nucleoplasm, as well as to the nucleoli. Altogether, these results demonstrate that pIVa2 plays a critical role in the transition from the early to the late phase of the lytic cycle. Furthermore, pIVa2 may serve additional functions yet to be uncovered, as suggested by its presence within the cell nucleolus. PMID:8627656

  16. Combined Use of the Canine Adenovirus-2 and DREADD-Technology to Activate Specific Neural Pathways In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boender, Arjen J.; de Jong, Johannes W.; Boekhoudt, Linde; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a technique to transiently activate specific neural pathways in vivo. It comprises the combined use of a CRE-recombinase expressing canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) and an adeno-associated virus (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry) that contains the floxed inverted sequence of the designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) hM3D(Gq)-mCherry. CAV-2 retrogradely infects projection neurons, which allowed us to specifically express hM3D(Gq)-mCherry in neurons that project from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (Acb), the majority of which were dopaminergic. Activation of hM3D(Gq)-mCherry by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) leads to increases in neuronal activity, which enabled us to specifically activate VTA to Acb projection neurons. The VTA to Acb pathway is part of the mesolimbic dopamine system and has been implicated in behavioral activation and the exertion of effort. Injections of all doses of CNO led to increases in progressive ratio (PR) performance. The effect of the lowest dose of CNO was suppressed by administration of a DRD1-antagonist, suggesting that CNO-induced increases in PR-performance are at least in part mediated by DRD1-signaling. We hereby validate the combined use of CAV-2 and DREADD-technology to activate specific neural pathways and determine consequent changes in behaviorally relevant paradigms. PMID:24736748

  17. Role of the serotonin transporter gene locus in the response to SSRI treatment of major depressive disorder in late life.

    PubMed

    Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Andrea; Paroni, Giulia; Fontana, Andrea; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Gravina, Carolina; Urbano, Maria; Cascavilla, Leandro; Paris, Francesco; Panza, Francesco; Padovani, Alessandro; Pilotto, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has been suggested that the serotonin or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) and its gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) response modulators in late-life depression (LLD), and particularly in late-life major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies differed in design and results. Our study aimed to investigate the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter and serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) gene locus, encoding 5-HTT and SSRI treatment response in late-life MDD. For a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 234 patients with late-life MDD to be treated with escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine or citalopram for 6 months. The SLC6A4 polymorphisms rs4795541 (5-HTTLPR), rs140701 and rs3813034 genotypes spanning the SLC6A4 locus were investigated in blinded fashion. No placebo group was included. We assessed responder or non-responder phenotypes according to a reduction in the 21-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score of ⩾ 50%. At follow-up, 30% of the late-life MDD patients were non-responders to SSRI treatment. No time-course of symptoms and responses was made. A poor response was associated with a higher baseline HDRS-21 score. We observed a significant over-representation of the rs4795541-S allele in the responder patients (0.436 versus 0.321; p = 0.023). The single S-allele dose-additive effect had OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.12-2.69) in the additive regression model. Our findings suggested a possible influence of 5-HTTLPR on the SSRI response in patients with late-life MDD, which is potentially useful in identifying the subgroups of LLD patients whom need a different pharmacological approach. PMID:25827644

  18. Major events in the late Precambrian to early Triassic geohistory of the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, T.E.; Connally, T.C.; Van der Eem, J.G.L.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The late Precambrian to Early Triassic of the Arabian Peninsula occur in five supergroups. Their geohistory resulted from sedimentation along fluvial to midshelf facies tracts, eustatic oscillation and periodic uplift. The first supergroup, Plate Precambrian-Middle Cambrian, includes the Siq/Salib and Yatib formations. Deposited by north-eastward-flowing braided streams, they eroded and buried an Arabian shield topography. The Saq Formation lies in angular unconformity on the Siq which documents early Middle Cambrian uplift. Supergroup two, Middle Cambrian-middle Caradocian, the Burj and Saq formations, the Hanadir, Kahfah, and Ra'an members, Qasim Formation, were deposited on a stable continental margin in fluvio-deltaic to midshelf settings. Coastal onlap occurred in the Middle Cambrian, early Llanvirn, middle Llandeilo and early Caradoc. Middle Caradocian uplift deeply eroded parts of central and southern Arabia. Supergroup three of middle Caradocian-early Llandoverian are the Quwarah Member, Qasim Formation and the Zarqa/Sarah formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic shallow shelf. Late Ashgill uplift, combined with glacially induced sea level lowering, incised valleys up to 2000 ft (610 m) deep. Supergroup four, early Llandovery-Middle Carboniferous, includes the Qalibah, Tawil, Jauf, Jubah and Berwath formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic marine, river dominated system. The Quysaiba and Sharawra members, Qalibah Formation, were the offshore clays and prodelta sands, the Tawil-Jubah were the fluvial to delta front, and the Berwath the delta plain facies. Deep pre-Tawil erosion documents late Silurian-Early Devonian uplift. The fifth supergroup are the Juwayl, Unayzah, Khuff and Sudair formations. The first two units were deposited in a glacio-fluvial system which eroded and infilled a Hercynian topography. The Khuff transgression occurred during the Artinsklan-Tartarian and the Early Triassic regressive Sudair documents renewed uplift.

  19. The NGC 4013 tale: a pseudo-bulged, late-type spiral shaped by a major merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianling; Hammer, Francois; Puech, Mathieu; Yang, Yanbin; Flores, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Many spiral galaxy haloes show stellar streams with various morphologies when observed with deep images. The origin of these tidal features is discussed, either coming from a satellite infall or caused by residuals of an ancient, gas-rich major merger. By modelling the formation of the peculiar features observed in the NGC 4013 halo, we investigate their origin. By using GADGET-2 with implemented gas cooling, star formation, and feedback, we have modelled the overall NGC 4013 galaxy and its associated halo features. A gas-rich major merger occurring 2.7-4.6 Gyr ago succeeds in reproducing the NGC 4013 galaxy properties, including all the faint stellar features, strong gas warp, boxy-shaped halo and vertical 3.6 μm luminosity distribution. High gas fractions in the progenitors are sufficient to reproduce the observed thin and thick discs, with a small bulge fraction, as observed. A major merger is able to reproduce the overall NGC 4013 system, including the warp strength, the red colour and the high stellar mass density of the loop, while a minor merger model cannot. Because the gas-rich model suffices to create a pseudo-bulge with a small fraction of the light, NGC 4013 is perhaps the archetype of a late-type galaxy formed by a relatively recent merger. Then late type, pseudo-bulge spirals are not mandatorily made through secular evolution, and the NGC 4013 properties also illustrate that strong warps in isolated galaxies may well occur at a late phase of a gas-rich major merger.

  20. ALK5-dependent TGF-β signaling is a major determinant of late stage adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingbo; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Andrea; Villeda, Saul A; Jaeger, Philipp A; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Fainberg, Nina; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway serves critical functions in central nervous system (CNS) development, but apart from its proposed neuroprotective actions, its physiological role in the adult brain is unclear. We observed a prominent activation of TGF-β signaling in the adult dentate gyrus and expression of downstream Smad proteins in this neurogenic zone. Consistent with a function of TGF-β signaling in adult neurogenesis, genetic deletion of the TGF-β receptor ALK5 reduced the number, migration, and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons. Conversely, constitutive activation of neuronal ALK5 in forebrain caused a striking increase in these aspects of neurogenesis and was associated with higher expression of c-fos in newborn neurons and with stronger memory function. Our findings describe a new and unexpected role for ALK5-dependent TGF-β signaling as a regulator of the late stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis which may have implications for changes in neurogenesis during aging and disease. PMID:24859199

  1. Integrated genomic approaches identify major pathways and upstream regulators in late onset Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinzhong; Long, Jintao; He, Taigang; Belshaw, Robert; Scott, James

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated gene expression in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains to identify mechanistic processes, but have been limited by the size of the datasets studied. Here we have implemented a novel meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in published datasets comprising 450 late onset AD (LOAD) brains and 212 controls. We found 3124 DEGs, many of which were highly correlated with Braak stage and cerebral atrophy. Pathway Analysis revealed the most perturbed pathways to be (a) nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in macrophages (NOROS), (b) NFkB and (c) mitochondrial dysfunction. NOROS was also up-regulated, and mitochondrial dysfunction down-regulated, in healthy ageing subjects. Upstream regulator analysis predicted the TLR4 ligands, STAT3 and NFKBIA, for activated pathways and RICTOR for mitochondrial genes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis emphasised the role of NFKB; identified a key interaction of CLU with complement; and linked TYROBP, TREM2 and DOK3 to modulation of LPS signalling through TLR4 and to phosphatidylinositol metabolism. We suggest that NEUROD6, ZCCHC17, PPEF1 and MANBAL are potentially implicated in LOAD, with predicted links to calcium signalling and protein mannosylation. Our study demonstrates a highly injurious combination of TLR4-mediated NFKB signalling, NOROS inflammatory pathway activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in LOAD. PMID:26202100

  2. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Cromeans, Theresa L.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Humphrey, Charles D.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  3. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Amy M; Cromeans, Theresa L; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Humphrey, Charles D; Hill, Vincent R

    2016-06-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  4. Embryonic Development and Rates of Metabolic Activity in Early and Late Hatching Eggs of the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Maria L.; Duncan, Frances D.; Brooke, Basil D.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae eggs generally hatch at the completion of embryo development; two-three days post oviposition. However, staggered or delayed hatching has been observed whereby a single batch of eggs shows marked variation in time-to-hatch, with some eggs hatching 18 days post oviposition or later. The mechanism enabling delayed hatch has not been clearly elucidated but is likely mediated by environmental and genetic factors that either induce diapause or slow embryo development. This study aimed to compare metabolic activity and embryonic development between eggs collected from sub-colonies of the baseline Anopheles gambiae GAH colony previously selected for early or late time-to-hatch. Egg batches from early and late hatch sub-colonies as well as from the baseline colony were monitored for hatching. For both time-to-hatch selected sub-colonies and the baseline colony the majority of eggs hatched on day two post oviposition. Nevertheless, eggs produced by the late hatch sub-colony showed a significantly longer mean time to hatch than those produced by the early hatch sub-colony. The overall proportions that hatched were similar for all egg batches. CO2 output between eggs from early and late hatch sub-colonies showed significant differences only at 3 and 7 days post oviposition where eggs from the early hatch and the late hatch sub-colony were more metabolically active, respectively. No qualitative differences were observed in embryo development between the sub-colonies. It is concluded that all viable embryos develop to maturity at the same rate and that a small proportion then enter a state of diapause enabling them to hatch later. As it has previously been shown that it is possible to at least partially select for late hatch, this characteristic is likely to involve genetic as well as environmental factors. Delayed hatching in An. gambiae is likely an adaptation to maximise reproductive output despite the increased risk of desiccation in an unstable aquatic

  5. Effect of major burns on early and late activating markers of peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sayed, S; Bakry, R; El-Shazly, M; El-Oteify, M; Terzaki, S; Fekry, M

    2012-03-31

    It is known that lymphocytes immunophenotype is a reflection of the functional level of the immune system. The immunosuppressive effect of major burns is also known for many years. T lymphocytes of 50 major burn patients were analyzed in base line (BL) samples at 24 hours and at 1 week and 2 weeks after burn, using monoclonal antibodies of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25 (IL2R) and HLA-DR by flow cytometry and β2-microglobulin (β2-m) by ELISA. Recorded values were compared with those of 50 healthy donors. There was statistically significant reduction in absolute number of CD3 positive cells (CD3+) (p<0.000) and CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.01) in the first 24 hours in comparison with controls. CD25 (IL-2R) shows insignificant upregulation on T lymphocytes after burn with significant upregulation of HLA-DR. The absolute number of CD3+ cells began to increase after 2 weeks (p=0.03) but remained less than controls (p=0.08). CD4/CD8 ratio was more or less same as healthy controls after 2 weeks. Upregulation of CD25 was insignificantly increased and that of HLA-DR was markedly increased after 2 weeks (p=0.001). Significant negative correlations were detected between mean values of β2-m and both absolute numbers of CD3 and CD4 positive cells in BL and one week samples. In addition there was significant correlation between mean values of β2-m and values of CD25 expression in the BL samples. The obtained data is suggestive of persistent activation of T lymphocytes two weeks after major burns whereas early shedding of β2-m is related to activation of lymphocytes increasing their susceptibility to apoptosis, both indicative of altered immune response. Burn intensivists and surgeons should be keen to support the patients' immune system in the first hours following major burns. This support will ensure free-bacteremic blood with a consequent better prognosis. PMID:23012611

  6. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  7. Ecotone shift and major droughts during the mid-late Holocene in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Shen, Caiming; Liu, Kam-Biu; Morrill, Carrie; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Peng, Jinlan; Tang, Lingyu

    2008-04-01

    A well-dated pollen record from a large lake located on the meadow-steppe ecotone provides a history of ecotone shift in response to monsoonal climate changes over the last 6000 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. The pollen record indicates that the ecotone shifted eastward during 6000-4900, 4400-3900, and 2800-1600 cal. yr BP when steppes occupied this region, whereas it shifted westward during the other intervals when the steppes were replaced by meadows. The quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate derived from the pollen record shows that monsoon precipitation fluctuated around the present level over the last 6000 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. Three major drought episodes of 5600-4900, 4400-3900, and 2800-2400 cal. yr BP are detected by pollen signals and lake sediments. Comparison of our record with other climatic proxy data from the Tibetan Plateau and other monsoonal regions shows that these episodes are three major centennial-scale monsoon weakening events. PMID:18481532

  8. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Ash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of sedimentary provenance and altitude distribution of volcanic strata along Fortymile Wash, the primary desert wash east of Yucca Mountain, NV, indicates a major change in surface drainage basins related to late Miocene volcanic disruption. This event resulted in the establishment of the modern Fortymile Wash basin before 3 Ma, and probably by latest Miocene time. An understanding of this event is useful for evaluation of extensive alluviation east of Yucca Mountain and its relation to paleoclimate, hydrology and tectonics. To the northeast of Yucca Mountain, Fortymile Wash provides southward surface drainage from 60% of the area of the 11 Ma Timber Mountain caldera via Fortymile Canyon, a major breach in the caldera wall. In the southeast caldera moat, the distribution of volcanic units that predate and include the 9.4 Ma Thirsty Canyon Group and the characteristics of intercalated sediments indicate a northward paleoslope and sediment transport from a major drainage divide near Dome Mountain, a shield volcano now deeply incised by Fortymile Canyon. Eruption of the Thirsty Canyon Group from the Black Mountain area, 10 km northwest of the Timber Mountain caldera, is likely to have dammed a counterclockwise drainage system of the east moat. Following drainage disruption, the east moat filled with sediment up to the level of a new southward outlet at the saddle between Dome Mountain and the onlapping rhyolite of Shoshone Mountain. An older canyon south of this saddle received the overflow from the east moat and became the throughgoing Fortymile Canyon, integrating the east moat basin with a lower base level in Jackass Flats. Well-integrated southward drainage existed by the time the trachybasalt flows of Buckboard Mesa (2.8 Ma) were emplaced, because basal elevations of these flows slope southward about 100 m above modern Fortymile Wash.

  9. Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe.

    PubMed

    Posth, Cosimo; Renaud, Gabriel; Mittnik, Alissa; Drucker, Dorothée G; Rougier, Hélène; Cupillard, Christophe; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Furtwängler, Anja; Wißing, Christoph; Francken, Michael; Malina, Maria; Bolus, Michael; Lari, Martina; Gigli, Elena; Capecchi, Giulia; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Flas, Damien; Germonpré, Mietje; van der Plicht, Johannes; Cottiaux, Richard; Gély, Bernard; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Svoboda, Jiří; Semal, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Bocherens, Hervé; Harvati, Katerina; Conard, Nicholas J; Haak, Wolfgang; Powell, Adam; Krause, Johannes

    2016-03-21

    How modern humans dispersed into Eurasia and Australasia, including the number of separate expansions and their timings, is highly debated [1, 2]. Two categories of models are proposed for the dispersal of non-Africans: (1) single dispersal, i.e., a single major diffusion of modern humans across Eurasia and Australasia [3-5]; and (2) multiple dispersal, i.e., additional earlier population expansions that may have contributed to the genetic diversity of some present-day humans outside of Africa [6-9]. Many variants of these models focus largely on Asia and Australasia, neglecting human dispersal into Europe, thus explaining only a subset of the entire colonization process outside of Africa [3-5, 8, 9]. The genetic diversity of the first modern humans who spread into Europe during the Late Pleistocene and the impact of subsequent climatic events on their demography are largely unknown. Here we analyze 55 complete human mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of hunter-gatherers spanning ∼35,000 years of European prehistory. We unexpectedly find mtDNA lineage M in individuals prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This lineage is absent in contemporary Europeans, although it is found at high frequency in modern Asians, Australasians, and Native Americans. Dating the most recent common ancestor of each of the modern non-African mtDNA clades reveals their single, late, and rapid dispersal less than 55,000 years ago. Demographic modeling not only indicates an LGM genetic bottleneck, but also provides surprising evidence of a major population turnover in Europe around 14,500 years ago during the Late Glacial, a period of climatic instability at the end of the Pleistocene. PMID:26853362

  10. Late Major Hemoptysis After Lung Volume Reduction With Coils Induced by Dual Antiaggregation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Antonio; Casutt, Alessio; Koutsokera, Angela; Noetzli, Jasmine; Perentes, Jean Yannis; Krueger, Thorsten; Pons, Marco; Nicod, Laurent P; Lovis, Alban

    2016-02-01

    Lung-volume reduction using coils is an effective and safe treatment for selected patients presenting severe emphysema and hyperinflation. Most complications occur during the first 30 days after the procedure. Although frequent, hemoptysis is usually transient and minor. Antiaggregation therapy is common in patients with emphysema who, very often, have additional tobacco-associated comorbidities. Aspirin is considered safe for most major interventions; however, clopidogrel is mainly contraindicated and considered an exclusion criterion. We present a case of life-threatening hemoptysis caused by dual antiaggregation therapy "accidentally" introduced 3 months after the procedure. So far no recommendations exist on the optimal therapeutic strategy after lung-volume reduction with coils. PMID:26777971

  11. Major storm periods and climate forcing in the Western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Bony, Guénaëlle

    2015-12-01

    Big storm events represent a major risk for populations and infrastructures settled on coastal lowlands. In the Western Mediterranean, where human societies colonized and occupied the coastal areas since the Ancient times, the variability of storm activity for the past three millennia was investigated with a multi-proxy sedimentological and geochemical study from a lagoonal sequence. Mappings of the geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility of detrital sources in the watershed of the lagoon and from the coastal barriers were undertaken in order to track the terrestrial or coastal/marine origin of sediments deposited into the lagoon. The multi-proxy analysis shows that coarser material, low magnetic susceptibility, and high strontium content characterize the sedimentological signature of the paleostorm levels identified in the lagoonal sequence. A comparison with North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean paleoclimate proxies shows that the phases of high storm activity occurred during cold periods, suggesting a climatically-controlled mechanism for the occurrence of these storm periods. Besides, an in-phase storm activity pattern is found between the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Spectral analyses performed on the Sr content revealed a new 270-year solar-driven pattern of storm cyclicity. For the last 3000 years, this 270-year cycle defines a succession of ten major storm periods (SP) with a mean duration of 96 ± 54 yr. Periods of higher storm activity are recorded from >680 to 560 cal yr BC (SP10, end of the Iron Age Cold Period), from 140 to 820 cal yr AD (SP7 to SP5) with a climax of storminess between 400 and 800 cal yr AD (Dark Ages Cold Period), and from 1230 to >1800 cal yr AD (SP3 to SP1, Little Ice Age). Periods of low storm activity occurred from 560 cal yr BC to 140 cal yr AD (SP9 and SP8, Roman Warm Period) and from 820 to 1230 cal yr AD (SP4, Medieval Warm Period).

  12. Predicting 6-week treatment response to escitalopram pharmacotherapy in late-life major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Ramin; Brown, Charlotte; Butters, Meryl A.; Cyranowski, Jill; Dew, Mary Amanda; Frank, Ellen; Gildengers, Ariel; Karp, Jordan F.; Lenze, Eric J.; Lotrich, Francis; Martire, Lynn; Mazumdar, Sati; Miller, Mark D.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Weber, Elizabeth; Whyte, Ellen; Morse, Jennifer; Stack, Jacqueline; Houck, Patricia R.; Bensasi, Salem; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Approximately half of older patients treated for major depressive disorder (MDD) do not achieve symptomatic remission and functional recovery with first-line pharmacotherapy. This study aims to characterize sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychologic correlates of full, partial, and non-response to escitalopram monotherapy of unipolar MDD in later life. Methods One hundred and seventy-five patients aged 60 and older were assessed at baseline on demographic variables, depression severity, hopelessness, anxiety, cognitive functioning, co-existing medical illness burden, social support, and quality of life (disability). Subjects received 10 mg/d of open-label escitalopram and were divided into full (n =55; 31%), partial (n =75; 42.9%), and non-responder (n =45; 25.7%) groups based on Hamilton depression scores at week 6. Univariate followed by multivariate analyses tested for differences between the three groups. Results Non-responders to treatment were found to be more severely depressed and anxious at baseline than both full and partial responders, more disabled, and with lower self-esteem than full responders. In general partial responders resembled full responders more than they resembled non-responders. In multivariate models, more severe anxiety symptoms (both psychological and somatic) and lower self-esteem predicted worse response status at 6 weeks. Conclusion Among treatment-seeking elderly persons with MDD, higher anxiety symptoms and lower self-esteem predict poorer response after six weeks of escitalopram treatment. PMID:17486678

  13. mtDNA analysis reveals a major late Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A; Bandelt, H J; D'Urbano, L; Lahermo, P; Moral, P; Sellitto, D; Rengo, C; Forster, P; Savontaus, M L; Bonné-Tamir, B; Scozzari, R

    1998-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 419 individuals from nine Eurasian populations, by high-resolution RFLP analysis, and it was followed by sequencing of the control region of a subset of these mtDNAs and a detailed survey of previously published data from numerous other European populations. This analysis revealed that a major Paleolithic population expansion from the "Atlantic zone" (southwestern Europe) occurred 10,000-15,000 years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum. As an mtDNA marker for this expansion we identified haplogroup V, an autochthonous European haplogroup, which most likely originated in the northern Iberian peninsula or southwestern France at about the time of the Younger Dryas. Its sister haplogroup, H, which is distributed throughout the entire range of Caucasoid populations and which originated in the Near East approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, also took part in this expansion, thus rendering it by far the most frequent (40%-60%) haplogroup in western Europe. Subsequent migrations after the Younger Dryas eventually carried those "Atlantic" mtDNAs into central and northern Europe. This scenario, already implied by archaeological records, is given overwhelming support from both the distribution of the autochthonous European Y chromosome type 15, as detected by the probes 49a/f, and the synthetic maps of nuclear data. PMID:9545392

  14. Aeolian to shallow-marine shelf architecture off a major desert since the Late Pleistocene (northern Mauritania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Mersmeyer, H.; Kudrass, H. R.; Westphal, H.

    2013-12-01

    Continental shelves off major desert regions are not expected to host substantial amounts of sediments due to long-lasting and unfocused material supply and a high re-mobilization potential of aeolian material. This study, in contrast, demonstrates that significant volumes of sediments have accumulated on the northern Mauritanian shelf under the arid climate conditions and prevail over consecutive climatic cycles. Eight late Pleistocene to Holocene depositional units, each formed under contrasting depositional conditions, are identified in high-resolution seismo-acoustic data and dated sediment cores. These are: (1) a highly differentiated Pleistocene paleo-landscape older than the past climatic cycle, (2) a continental dune complex (MIS-4), (3) a thick regressive shallow-water clinoform (late MIS-3), (4) a regressive to lowstand shore deposit (latest MIS-3), and (5) a local transgressive cover (LGM to deglacial). Additionally, (6) an open-shelf highstand cover, (7) an outer-shelf highstand wedge and (8) mid-shelf mud depocenters have formed during the Holocene sea-level highstand. The common local offshore formation and preservation of confined stratigraphic units, in particular from during MIS-3, mark the interplay of: a) episodes of pronounced arid climatic conditions resulting in enhanced aeolian and coastal sediment input, b) shelf current patterns focusing sediment deposition locally, and c) early post-depositional sediment stabilization providing protection against erosion. Prominent internal surfaces at 63 and 115 m modern water depths indicate widespread and intense erosional activity during late MIS-3 regression and MIS-2 lowstand to post-LGM transgression, hosting coarse shell sands and gravels from beach and shoreface paleo-environments. The reasons for the high preservation potential of confined stratigraphic units are: a) carbonaceous cementation, b) sediment composition (massive widespread shore-related gravel and shell beds with subtle minor

  15. Comparison of human and monkey cells for the ability to attenuate transcripts that begin at the adenovirus major late promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiberg, M.; Aloni, Y. ); Levine, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Late transcription from the adenovirus major late promoter can terminate prematurely at a site 182 to 188 nucleotides downstream. Experiments have been designed, with run-on transcription in nuclei in vitro or riboprobe protection of RNA obtained both in vivo and in vitro, that demonstrate that the ratio of attenuator RNA to readthrough RNA is greater in monkey cells (CV-1) than in human cells (HeLa). This may explain, in part, why the human adenoviruses replicate more poorly in CV-1 cells than in HeLa cells. A mutant adenovirus that replicates better than wild-type virus in monkey cells produces less of the attenuator RNA than wild-type adenovirus does in monkey cells. Monkey cell extracts have been shown to contain a factor that, when added to human cell extracts transcribing adenovirus DNA in vitro, increases the production of attenuator RNA in these reactions. These observations help to explain a portion of the block to the production of infectious adenoviruses in monkey cells.

  16. Adenovirus vaccine vectors expressing hepatitis B surface antigen: importance of regulatory elements in the adenovirus major late intron.

    PubMed

    Mason, B B; Davis, A R; Bhat, B M; Chengalvala, M; Lubeck, M D; Zandle, G; Kostek, B; Cholodofsky, S; Dheer, S; Molnar-Kimber, K

    1990-08-01

    Adenovirus types 4 and 7 are currently used as live oral vaccines for prevention of acute respiratory disease caused by these adenovirus serotypes. To investigate the concept of producing live recombinant vaccines using these serotypes, adenovirus types 4 (Ad4) and 7 (Ad7) were constructed that produce HBsAg upon infection of cell cultures. Ad4 recombinants were constructed that express HBsAg from a cassette inserted 135 bp from the right-hand terminus of the viral genome. The cassette contained the Ad4 major late promoter followed by leader 1 of the tripartite leader, the first intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2, leaders 2 and 3, the HBsAg gene, and tandem polyadenylation signals from the Ad4 E3B and hexon genes. Using this same cassette, a series of Ad4 recombinants expressing HBsAg were constructed with deletions in the intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2 to evaluate the contribution of the downstream control elements more precisely. Inclusion of regions located between +82 and +148 as well as +148 and +232 resulted in increases in expression levels of HBsAg in A549-infected cells by 22-fold and 44-fold, respectively, over the levels attained by an adenovirus recombinant retaining only sequences from +1 to +82, showing the importance of these elements in the activation of the major late promoter during the course of a natural Ad4 viral infection. Parallel increases were also observed in steady-state levels of cytoplasmic HBsAg-specific mRNA. When similar Ad7 recombinant viruses were constructed, these viruses also expressed 20-fold more HBsAg due to the presence of the intron. All Ad4 and Ad7 recombinants produced HBsAg particles containing gp27 and p24 which were secreted in the medium. When dogs were immunized intratracheally with one of these Ad7 recombinants, they seroconverted to both Ad7 and HBsAg to a high level. PMID:2371766

  17. Early region 1B of adenovirus 2 encodes two coterminal proteins of 495 and 155 amino acid residues.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, C W; Schmitt, R C; Smart, J E; Lewis, J B

    1984-01-01

    Partial sequence analysis of tryptic peptides has identified the E1B-495R (E1b-57K) (early transcription region 1B of 495 amino acid residues, with an approximate molecular weight of 57,000) protein of adenovirus 2 as encoded by the 495 amino acid open reading frame located in the adenovirus 2 DNA sequence between nucleotides 2016 and 3500. Additional proteins of 16,000 Mr and 18,000 Mr that are related to the E1B-495R protein were identified by cell-free translation of hybridization-selected mRNA. Analysis of [35S]methionine-containing amino terminal tryptic peptides by thin-layer chromatography showed that the E1B-495R, E1B-18K, and E1B-16K proteins all begin at the same initiation codon. The E1B-495R protein from 293 cells also has the same initial tryptic peptide, acetyl-methionyl-glutamyl-arginine. Sequence analysis of E1B-18K tryptic peptides indicated that this protein also has the same carboxy terminus as the E1B-495R protein and that it is derived from an mRNA that is spliced to remove sequences between nucleotides 2250 and 3269, resulting in a protein product of 155 amino acid residues. Analysis of E1B-16K tryptic peptides has not yet revealed the carboxy terminal structure of this protein. Both the E1B-495R and the E1B-155R (E1B-18K) proteins, as well as the E1B-16K protein, were precipitated from cell-free translations and from extracts of infected cells by antiserum against an amino terminal nonapeptide common to these proteins. Images PMID:6323739

  18. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time.

  19. Major mid-late Holocene cooling in the East China Sea revealed by an alkenone sea surface temperature record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meixun; Ding, Ling; Xing, Lei; Qiao, Shuqing; Yang, Zuosheng

    2014-12-01

    Although the mid-late Holocene cold and dry event about 4000 years ago (the 4 ka event) has been observed almost globally, it was most prominent in terrestrial climate proxies from the lower latitudes. Here we evaluate the oceanic response to this event in terms of a Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) record reconstructed using the U37K' index for Core B3 on the continental shelf of the East China Sea. The record reveals a large temperature drop of about 5°C from the mid-Holocene (24.7°C at 5.6 ka) to the 4 ka event (19.2°C at 3.8 ka). This mid-late Holocene cooling period in Core B3 correlated with (i) decreases in the East Asia summer monsoon intensity and (ii) the transition period with increased El Niño/Southern Oscillation activities in the Equatorial Pacific. Our SST record provides oceanic evidence for a more global nature of the mid-late Holocene climate change, which was most likely caused by a southward migration of the Intertropical Converge Zone in response to the decreasing summer solar insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the large SST drop around Core B3 indicates that the mid-late Holocene cooling was regionally amplified by the initiation/strengthening of eddy circulation/cold front which caused upwelling and resulted in additional SST decrease. Upwelling during the mid-late Holocene also enhanced with surface productivity in the East China Sea as reflected by higher alkenone content around Core B3.

  20. Major and trace element geochemistry and Os isotopic composition of metalliferous umbers from the Late Cretaceous Japanese accretionary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Metalliferous umbers and red shales occur as unique products of the Kula-Pacific ridge-forearc collision in the Late Cretaceous Shimanto Supergroup, an accretionary complex in Japan. These umbers are closely associated with greenstones of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) origin and are regarded as hydrothermal metalliferous precipitates related to MOR-type volcanism. The umbers and red shales were deposited in the trench area where both terrigenous detritus from land and hydrothermal metalliferous particulates from a MOR were supplied simultaneously. Besides a predominance of Fe and Mn, the umbers exhibit remarkable enrichments in P, V, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Mo, rare earth elements (REEs), and Os relative to continental crustal abundances. The X/Fe (X = Mn, P, V, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, and REEs) ratios and PAAS-normalized REE patterns of the umbers are very similar to those of modern hydrothermal plume fallout precipitates deposited on flanks of MOR. This indicates that the umbers preserve primary geochemical signatures of hydrothermal metalliferous sediments that scavenged seawater-derived elements and thus can be used as a proxy for Late Cretaceous seawater. The marine 187Os/188Os ratios reconstructed from the late Maastrichtian umbers range from 0.42 to 0.56 and are very consistent with recent data obtained from the Pacific and Atlantic pelagic carbonates that record an abrupt decline from 0.55 to 0.4 during the period between 67.0 Ma and 65.7 Ma.

  1. Major Late Miocene cooling of the middle crust associated with extensional orogenesis in the Funeral Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Dokka, Roy K.

    1991-09-01

    The Funeral Mountains of the Death Valley region consist of a metamorphic core complex that underlies the Miocene Boundary Canyon detachment fault. Fissiontrack age determinations on sphene, zircon, and apatite from the highest grade portions of the Funeral Mountains (collected in Monarch Canyon) indicate rapid cooling from above ˜285°C at 9-10 Ma. The steep dT/dt slope implied by the cooling path envelope as well as its synchroneity with development of the Boundary Canyon detachment suggests tectonic unroofing of between 9.5 and 17 km since ˜10 Ma (assuming typical geothermal gradients prior to detachment development of between ˜20-30°C/km). Previous studies report muscovite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages from the same area indicating that the Funeral Mountains core may have cooled below ˜350°C between 110-55 Ma. These data, when combined with the fission track ages, suggest residence of the metamorphic terrain at 285-350°C from Late Cretaceous to late Miocene time. Recent studies, using petrologic constraints, have suggested that much of the unroofing of the Funeral Mountains, as well as development of tectonite fabrics, occurred during Mesozoic extension. Recognition of temperatures in the 300°C range during Miocene time suggests some of the ductile extensional fabrics may be late Miocene in age.

  2. Splice junctions in adenovirus 2 early region 4 mRNAs: multiple splice sites produce 18 to 24 RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, M A; Raskas, H J

    1984-01-01

    We localized the splice junctions in adenovirus 2 early region 4 (E4) mRNAs. Processing of the E4 precursor RNA positioned the donor splice site of the 5' leader sequence adjacent to acceptor sites near the 5' ends of five of the six open reading regions in the E4 transcription unit. Of particular interest among the E4 mRNAs is an extensively spliced class which includes multiple species with sizes ranging from 1.1 to 0.75 kilobases (kb). Purified 1.1- to 0.75-kb mRNAs specified at least 10 polypeptides in vitro. We detected eight acceptor and two donor splice sites utilized in the deletion of the intron from the 3' portion of these mRNAs. E4 RNAs were isolated from the cytoplasm of infected cells at 5, 9, 12, and 18 h after infection. The E4 mRNAs were present throughout infection, but different members of the 1.1- to 0.7-kb class were predominant at each time assayed. Alternate splicing of the 3.0-kb E4 precursor RNA can generate as many as 25 mRNAs that encode at least 16 polypeptides. Images PMID:6336328

  3. Biosynthesis and properties of the adenovirus 2 L1-encoded 52,000- and 55,000-Mr proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Symington, J S; Green, M

    1986-01-01

    The adenovirus type 2 L1 region, which is located at 30.7 to 39.2 map units on the viral genome, is transcribed from the major late promoter during both early and late stages of virus replication, and a 52,000-Mr (52K) protein-55K protein doublet has been translated in vitro on L1-specific RNA. To investigate the biosynthesis and properties of the L1 52K and 55K proteins, we prepared antibody against a synthetic peptide encoded near the predicted N terminus. As determined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis, the antipeptide antibody recognized major 52K and 55K proteins synthesized in adenovirus type 2-infected cells that appeared to be identical to the 52K-55K doublet translated in vitro. The immunoprecipitated 52K and 55K proteins were very closely related, as shown by a peptide map analysis. Both L1 proteins were phosphorylated, and they were phosphorylated at similar sites. No precursor-product relationship was detected between the 52K and 55K proteins by a pulse-chase analysis. Biosynthesis of the L1 52K and 55K proteins began about 6 to 7 h postinfection, after biosynthesis of the early region 1A and early region 1B 19K (175R) T antigens, and reached a maximum rate at about 15 h; the maximum rate was maintained until at least 25 h postinfection. At all times, the 55K protein appeared to be synthesized at a severalfold-higher level than the 52K protein. Both proteins were quite stable and accumulated until late times after infection. Viral DNA replication was not essential for formation of the L1 proteins. Thus, the L1 52K-55K gene appears to be regulated in a manner different from the classical early and late viral genes but similar to the protein encoded by the i-leader (Symington et al., J. Virol. 57:849-856, 1986). The L1 proteins were detected in the cell nucleus by immunofluorescence microscopy with antipeptide antibody and were found to be primarily associated with the nuclear membrane by an immunoblot analysis of subcellular fractions

  4. Human adenovirus 2 E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens: antipeptide antibodies targeted to the NH2 and COOH termini.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Lucher, L A; Symington, J S; Kramer, T A

    1983-01-01

    The human adenovirus 2 (Ad2) transforming region is located in the left 11.1% of the viral genome and encodes two early transcription units, E1A and E1B. Based on the amino acid sequence deduced from the Ad2 E1B DNA sequence (Gingeras et al., J. Biol. Chem. 257:13475-13491, 1982), we have prepared antibodies against synthetic peptides, 8 to 16 amino acids in length, encoded at the NH2 and COOH termini of the major E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens. The antipeptide antibodies immunoprecipitated the targeted E1B-19K or E1B-53K tumor antigens from extracts of Ad2-infected cells. The specificity of the peptide competition studies. Antipeptide antibodies directed to the NH2 and COOH termini immunoprecipitated the E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens from two Ad2-transformed rat cell lines, F17 and F4, providing evidence that identical tumor antigens are synthesized in Ad2-infected and Ad2-transformed cells. These results show that the E1B-19K and E1B-53K T antigens are not processed proteolytically at either the NH2 or COOH terminus. Our data provide strong evidence at the protein level that the E1B-19K and E1B-53K tumor antigens partially overlap in DNA sequence, with the E1B-19K initiating translation at the first ATG at nucleotide 1711 in translation reading frame 1 and the E1B-53K tumor antigen initiating translation at the second ATG at nucleotide 2016 in reading frame 3. This confirms the results of others on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of E1B-19K and theoretical deductions based on the DNA sequence. Our findings prove that the large E1B-53K T antigen initiates translation at the second ATG at nucleotide 2016 and not at equally plausible initiation codons located farther downstream at nucleotides 2202 and 2235. Thus, the E1B-53K T antigen is another example of a protein which initiates translation at an internal ATG rather than at the 5'-proximal ATG. Images PMID:6632083

  5. Virus deletion mutants that affect a 3' splice site in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, B M; Brady, H A; Wold, W S

    1985-01-01

    Five viable virus mutants were constructed with deletions near a 3' splice site located at nucleotide 2157 in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2. The mutants were examined for splicing activity at the 2157 3' splice site in vivo by nuclease-gel analysis of steady-state cytoplasmic mRNA. Splicing was not prevented by an exon deletion (dl719) that leaves 16 5'-proximal exon nucleotides intact or by intron deletions that leave 34 (dl717, dl712) or 18 (dl716) 3'-proximal intron nucleotides intact. The sequences deleted in one of these intron mutants (dl716) include the putative branchpoint site used in lariat formation during splicing. Thus, a surrogate branchpoint site apparently can be used for splicing. Another intron mutant (dl714) has a deletion that leaves 15 3'-proximal intron nucleotides intact; remarkably, this deletion virtually abolished splicing, even though the deletion is only 3 nucleotides closer to the splice site than is the deletion in dl716 which splices normally. The three nucleotides deleted in dl714 that are retained by dl716 are the sequence TGT. The TGT sequence is located on the 5' boundary of the pyrimidine-rich region upstream of the nucleotide 2157 3' splice site. Such pyrimidine-rich regions are ubiquitous at 3' splice sites. Most likely, the TGT is required for splicing at the nucleotide 2157 3' splice site. The TGT may be important because of its specific sequence or because it forms the 5' boundary of the pyrimidine-rich region. Images PMID:3879768

  6. Shared Decision-Making in the Primary Care Treatment of Late-Life Major Depression: A Needed New Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Schulberg, Herbert C.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Hoffman, Amy S.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We suggest that clinicians consider models of shared decision-making for their potential ability to improve the treatment of major depression in the primary care setting and overcome limitations of collaborative care and other interventions. Methods We explore the characteristics and techniques of patient-clinician shared decision-making, with particular emphasis on this model’s relevance to the unique treatment concerns of depressed older adults. Results We describe a shared decision-making intervention to engage older adults in depression treatment in the primary care sector. Conclusions It is timely to examine shared decision-making models for elderly depressed primary care patients given their potential ability to improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. PMID:19946872

  7. Amalgamation of East Eurasia Since Late Paleozoic: Constraints from the Apparent Polar Wander Paths of the Major China Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Potter, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    It has been a longstanding challenge in the last few decades to quantitatively reconstruct the paleogeographic evolution of East Eurasia because of its great tectonic complexities. As the core region, the major China cratons including North China Block, South China Block and Tarim Block hold the key clues for the understanding of the amalgamation history, tectonic activities and biological affinity among the component blocks and terranes in East Eurasia. Compared with the major Gondwana and Laurentia plates, however, the apparent polar wander paths of China are not well constrained due to the outdated paleomagnetic database and relatively loose pole selection process. With the recruitment of the new high-fidelity poles published in the last decade, the rejection of the low quality data and the strict implementation of Voo's grading scheme, we build an updated paleomagnetic database for the three blocks from which three types of apparent polar wander paths (APWP) are computed. Version 1 running mean paths are constructed during the pole selection and compared with those from the previous publications. Version 2 running mean and spline paths with different sliding time windows are computed from the thoroughly examined poles to find the optimal paths with the steady trend, reasonable speed for the polar drift and plate rotation. The spline paths are recommended for the plate reconstructions, however, considering the poor data coverage during certain periods. Our new China APWPs, together with the latest European reference path, the geological, geochronological and biological evidence from the studied Asian plates allow us to reevaluate the paleogeographic and tectonic history of East Eurasia.

  8. The N-terminal extension of yeast ribosomal protein L8 is involved in two major remodeling events during late nuclear stages of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Wu, Shan; Gao, Ning; Woolford, John L

    2016-09-01

    Assaying effects on pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly upon depleting individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) provided an initial paradigm for assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo-that each structural domain of ribosomal subunits assembles in a hierarchical fashion. However, two features suggest that a more complex pathway may exist: (i) Some r-proteins contain extensions that reach long distances across ribosomes to interact with multiple rRNA domains as well as with other r-proteins. (ii) Individual r-proteins may assemble in a stepwise fashion. For example, the globular domain of an r-protein might assemble separately from its extensions. Thus, these extensions might play roles in assembly that could not be revealed by depleting the entire protein. Here, we show that deleting or mutating extensions of r-proteins L7 (uL30) and L35 (uL29) from yeast reveal important roles in early and middle steps during 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Detailed analysis of the N-terminal terminal extension of L8 (eL8) showed that it is necessary for late nuclear stages of 60S subunit assembly involving two major remodeling events: removal of the ITS2 spacer; and reorganization of the central protuberance (CP) containing 5S rRNA and r-proteins L5 (uL18) and L11 (uL5). Mutations in the L8 extension block processing of 7S pre-rRNA, prevent release of assembly factors Rpf2 and Rrs1 from pre-ribosomes, which is required for rotation of the CP, and block association of Sda1, the Rix1 complex, and the Rea1 ATPase involved in late steps of remodeling. PMID:27390266

  9. A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Khedikar, Y. P.; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sarvamangala, C.; Patgar, K. V.; Upadhyaya, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust are two major foliar diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) that often occur together leading to 50–70% yield loss in the crop. A total of 268 recombinant inbred lines of a mapping population TAG 24 × GPBD 4 segregating for LLS and rust were used to undertake quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Phenotyping of the population was carried out under artificial disease epiphytotics. Positive correlations between different stages, high to very high heritability and independent nature of inheritance between both the diseases were observed. Parental genotypes were screened with 1,089 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, of which 67 (6.15%) were found polymorphic. Segregation data obtained for these markers facilitated development of partial linkage map (14 linkage groups) with 56 SSR loci. Composite interval mapping (CIM) undertaken on genotyping and phenotyping data yielded 11 QTLs for LLS (explaining 1.70–6.50% phenotypic variation) in three environments and 12 QTLs for rust (explaining 1.70–55.20% phenotypic variation). Interestingly a major QTL associated with rust (QTLrust01), contributing 6.90–55.20% variation, was identified by both CIM and single marker analysis (SMA). A candidate SSR marker (IPAHM 103) linked with this QTL was validated using a wide range of resistant/susceptible breeding lines as well as progeny lines of another mapping population (TG 26 × GPBD 4). Therefore, this marker should be useful for introgressing the major QTL for rust in desired lines/varieties of groundnut through marker-assisted backcrossing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1366-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20526757

  10. Centennial- to decadal scale environmental shifts in and around Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin) related to a major Late Miocene lake level rise

    PubMed Central

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Kern, Andrea; Soliman, Ali; Minati, Klaus; Piller, Werner E.; Danielopol, Dan L.; Zuschin, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A detailed ultra-high-resolution analysis of a 37-cm-long core of Upper Miocene lake sediments of the long-lived Lake Pannon has been performed. Despite a general stable climate at c. 11–9 Ma, several high-frequency oscillations of the paleoenvironments and depositional environments are revealed by the analysis over a short time span of less than 1000 years. Shifts of the lake level, associated with one major 3rd order flooding are reflected by all organisms by a cascade of environmental changes on a decadal scale. Within a few decades, the pollen record documents shifting vegetation zones due to the landward migration of the coast; the dinoflagellate assemblages switch towards “offshore-type” due to the increasing distance to the shore; the benthos is affected by low oxygen conditions due to the deepening. This general trend is interrupted by smaller scale cycles, which lack this tight interconnection. Especially, the pollen data document a clear cyclicity that is expressed by iterative low pollen concentration events. These “negative” cycles are partly reflected by dinoflagellate blooms suggesting a common trigger-mechanism and a connection between terrestrial environments and surface waters of Lake Pannon. The benthic fauna of the core, however, does not reflect these surface water cycles. This forcing mechanism is not understood yet but periodic climatic fluctuations are favoured as hypothesis instead of further lake level changes. Short phases of low precipitation, reducing pollen production and suppressing effective transport by local streams, might be a plausible mechanism. This study is the first hint towards solar activity related high-frequency climate changes during the Vallesian (Late Miocene) around Lake Pannon and should encourage further ultra-high-resolution analyses in the area. PMID:21179376

  11. Late-orogenic, post-orogenic, and anorogenic granites: Distinction by major-element and trace-element chemistry and possible origins

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K. )

    1990-05-01

    Granites classified into four categories based solely on tectonics of occurrence and associated rock types also have compositional characteristics that are consistent within groups and different among groups. Orogenically related granites include late-orogenic varieties (LO) associated with calc-alkaline batholiths, and post-orogenic varieties (PO), which occur in broad zones of isolated diapiric plutons in recently deformed orogenic belts. Inclined REE patterns, moderate Sr contents, and K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} relationships show that late-orogenic granites formed by fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and amphibole from calcalkaline magmas. Flatter REE patterns and K{sub 2}O contents near 5%, plus the absence of associated magmatic rocks, indicate that the post-orogenic granites developed by partial melting of subduction-produced mafic/intermediate magmatic rocks. Both the late- and post-orogenic granites can be part of material newly added to continental crust as a result of orogeny. Anorogenic granites in anorthosite/rapakivi complexes (AR) or alkaline ring complexes (RC) have LIL contents too high to have been equilibrated with a mafic mineral assemblage. These anorogenic rocks probably formed by partial melting of preexisting sialic crust and do not represent new crustal increment.

  12. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses III. Base Composition, Molecular Weight, and Conformation of the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Kakefuda, Tuyoski; Rowe, Wallace P.; Levin, Myron J.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    The nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, differs from the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, in that this hybrid virus can replicate without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from this virus, which can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA, is well suited for biophysical studies on Ad-SV40 hybrid DNA. Such studies have been performed and demonstrate Ad2+ND1 DNA to have a buoyant density (1.715 g/cm3) and thermal denaturation profile (Tm = 75.1 C) almost identical with nonhybrid Ad2 DNA. Furthermore, its molecular weight, as determined by analytical zone sedimentation and electron microscopy, was 22 × 106 to 25 × 106 daltons, which is also very similar to that determined for Ad2. Electron micrographs showed all of the hybrid molecules to be double-stranded and linear. By using this determination of the molecular weight of Ad2+ND1 DNA and assuming that 1% of this molecule consists of covalently linked SV40 DNA (see companion paper), we calculate that the hybrid DNA molecule contains 220 × 103 to 250 × 103 daltons of SV40 DNA, or the equivalent of one-tenth of the SV40 genome. PMID:4323710

  13. Immune responses in pigs induced by recombinant canine adenovirus 2 expressing the glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J-X; Xue, J-D; Yu, T; Zhang, J-B; Liu, Y; Jiang, N; Li, Y-L; Hu, R-L

    2010-04-01

    To develop a new type vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) prevention by using canine adenovirus 2(CAV-2) as vector, the Glycoprotein 5(GP5) gene from PRRSV strain JL was amplified by RT-PCR, and the expression cassette of GP5 was constructed using the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) promoter and the simian virus 40 (SV40) early mRNA polyadenylation signal. The expression cassette of Glycoprotein 5 was cloned into the CAV-2 genome in which E3 region had been partly deleted, and the recombinant virus (CAV-2-GP5) was obtained by transfecting the recombinant CAV-2-GP5 genome into MDCK cells together with Lipofectamine 2000. Immunization trial in pigs with the recombinant virus CAV-2-GP5 showed that CAV-2-GP5 could stimulate a specific immune response to PRRSV. Immune response to the GP5 and PRRSV was confirmed by ELISA, neutralization test and lymphocyte proliferative responses, and western blotting confirmed expression of GP5 by the vector in cells. These results indicated that CAV-2 may serve as a vector for development of PRRSV vaccine in pigs, and the CAV-2-GP5 might be a candidate vaccine to be tested for preventing PRRSV infection. PMID:20432066

  14. An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous, constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Tai

    2013-11-01

    Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip fault system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip fault system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. Subsequently, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several-kilometer wide ductile shear zone at the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East

  15. Mapping a new gene that encodes an 11,600-molecular-weight protein in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed Central

    Wold, W S; Cladaras, C; Magie, S C; Yacoub, N

    1984-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the early E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2 (Ad2) (J. Hérissé et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:2173-2192, 1980), indicates that an open reading frame exists between nucleotides 1860 and 2163 that could encode a protein of Mr 11,600 (11.6K). We have determined the DNA sequence of the corresponding region in Ad5 (closely related to Ad2) and have established that this putative gene is conserved in Ad5 (a 10.5K protein). To determine whether this protein is expressed, we prepared an antiserum in rabbits against a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 66 to 74 in the 11.6K protein of Ad2. The peptide antiserum immunoprecipitated a ca. 13K-14K protein doublet, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, from [35S]methionine-labeled Ad2- or Ad5-early-infected KB cells. The antiserum also immunoprecipitated a 13K-14K protein doublet translated in vitro from Ad2 or Ad5 early E3-specific mRNA purified by hybridization to Ad2 EcoRI-D (nucleotides -236 to 2437). The synthetic peptide successfully competed with the 13K-14K protein doublet in immunoprecipitation experiments, thereby confirming the specificity of the antiserum. As deduced from the DNA sequence, the 11.6K protein (and the corresponding 10.5K Ad5 protein) has a conserved 22-amino-acid hydrophobic domain, suggesting that the protein may be associated with membranes. We conclude that a gene located at nucleotides 1860 to 2143 in the Ad2 E3 transcription unit (nucleotides 1924 to 2203) in the Ad5 E3 transcription unit) encodes an 11.6K protein (10.5K in Ad5). Images PMID:6492252

  16. Late-glacial and Holocene Vegetation and Climate Variability, Including Major Droughts, in the Sky Lakes Region of Southeastern New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menking, Kirsten M.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Anderson, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment cores from Lakes Minnewaska and Mohonk in the Shawangunk Mountains of southeastern New York were analyzed for pollen, plantmacrofossils, macroscopic charcoal, organic carbon content, carbon isotopic composition, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and lithologic changes to determine the vegetation and landscape history of the greater Catskill Mountain region since deglaciation. Pollen stratigraphy generally matches the New England pollen zones identified by Deevey (1939) and Davis (1969), with boreal genera (Picea, Abies) present during the late Pleistocene yielding to a mixed Pinus, Quercus and Tsuga forest in the early Holocene. Lake Minnewaska sediments record the Younger Dryas and possibly the 8.2 cal kyr BP climatic events in pollen and sediment chemistry along with an 1400 cal yr interval of wet conditions (increasing Tsuga and declining Quercus) centered about 6400 cal yr BP. BothMinnewaska andMohonk reveal a protracted drought interval in themiddle Holocene, 5700-4100 cal yr BP, during which Pinus rigida colonized the watershed, lake levels fell, and frequent fires led to enhanced hillslope erosion. Together, the records show at least three wet-dry cycles throughout the Holocene and both similarities and differences to climate records in New England and central New York. Drought intervals raise concerns for water resources in the New York City metropolitan area and may reflect a combination of enhanced La Niña, negative phase NAO, and positive phase PNA climatic patterns and/or northward shifts of storm tracks.

  17. Fate of the major outer membrane protein P.IA in early and late events of gonococcal infection of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weel, J F; van Putten, J P

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the fate of the major outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, P.IA, during gonococcal infection of Chang conjunctiva epithelial cells by using immunoelectron microscopy. Probing of P.IA epitopes with mono- and polyclonal antibodies revealed variable, fixation-dependent P.IA epitope exposure in the gonococci used as an inoculum in the infection experiments. Detection of invariable exposed P.IA epitopes in cryosections of infected epithelial cells with a polyclonal antiserum revealed unaltered P.IA exposure on the bacterial membranes during early attachment of the bacteria to the eukaryotic cells. Upon entry of the bacteria into the host cells, however, labelling was extended to membraneous structures that intercalated between the bacteria and the host cell surface, and, occasionally, to the host cell plasma membrane. The latter observation is consistent with the suggested active role of P.I. in the uptake process (as shown in 1985 by E.C. Gotschlich). Once inside the epithelial cells, both morphologically intact and disintegrating bacteria could be distinguished. The disintegration of the bacteria was accompanied by a loss of P.IA immunoreactivity. PMID:1725221

  18. Regulation of glycoprotein D synthesis: does alpha 4, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus 1, regulate late genes both positively and negatively?

    PubMed Central

    Arsenakis, M; Campadelli-Fiume, G; Roizman, B

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have described the alpha 4/c113 baby hamster kidney cell line which constitutively expresses the alpha 4 protein, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Introduction of the HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) gene, regulated as a gamma 1 gene, into these cells yielded a cell line which constitutively expressed both the alpha 4 and gamma 1 gB genes. The expression of the gB gene was dependent on the presence of functional alpha 4 protein. In this article we report that we introduced into the alpha 4/c113 and into the parental BHK cells, the HSV-1 BamHI J fragment, which encodes the domains of four genes, including those of glycoproteins D, G, and I (gD, gG, and gI), and most of the coding sequences of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. In contrast to the earlier studies, we obtained significant constitutive expression of gD (also a gamma 1 gene) in a cell line (BJ) derived from parental BHK cells, but not in a cell line (alpha 4/BJ) which expresses functional alpha 4 protein. RNA homologous to the gD gene was present in significant amounts in the BJ cell line; smaller amounts of this RNA were detected in the alpha 4/BJ cell line. RNA homologous to gE, presumed to be polyadenylated from signals in the vector sequences, was present in the BJ cells but not in the alpha 4/BJ cells. The expression of the HSV-1 gD and gE genes was readily induced in the alpha 4/BJ cells by superinfection with HSV-2. The BJ cell line was, in contrast, resistant to expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genes. The BamHI J DNA fragment copy number was approximately 1 per BJ cell genome equivalent and 30 to 50 per alpha 4/BJ cell genome equivalent. We conclude that (i) the genes specifying gD and gB belong to different viral regulatory gene subsets, (ii) the gD gene is subject to both positive and negative regulation, (iii) both gD and gE mRNAs are subject to translational controls although they may be different, and (iv) the absence of expression of gD in the alpha 4/BJ

  19. Mapping of Ppd-B1, a Major Candidate Gene for Late Heading on Wild Emmer Chromosome Arm 2BS and Assessment of Its Interactions with Early Heading QTLs on 3AL

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mingquan; Li, Jingjuan; Shi, Zhaobin; Wei, Wei; Guo, Jialian; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yurong; Rong, Junkang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat heading date is an important agronomic trait determining maturation time and yield. A set of common wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring; CS)-wild emmer (T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccoides (TDIC)) chromosome arm substitution lines (CASLs) was used to identify and allocate QTLs conferring late or early spike emergence by examining heading date. Genetic loci accelerating heading were found on TDIC chromosome arms 3AL and 7BS, while loci delaying heading were located on 4AL and 2BS. To map QTLs conferring late heading on 2BS, F2 populations derived from two cross combinations of CASL2BS × CS and CASL3AL × CASL2BS were developed and each planted at two times, constituting four F2 mapping populations. Heading date varied continuously among individuals of these four populations, suggesting quantitative characteristics. A genetic map of 2BS, consisting of 23 SSR and one single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) marker(s), was constructed using these F2 populations. This map spanned a genetic length of 53.2 cM with average marker density of 2.3 cM. The photoperiod-sensitivity gene Ppd-B1 was mapped to chromosome arm 2BS as a SSCP molecular marker, and was validated as tightly linked to a major QTL governing late heading of CASL2BS in all mapping populations. A significant dominance by additive effect of Ppd-B1 with the LUX gene located on 3AL was also detected. CS had more copies of Ppd-B1 than CASL2BS, implying that increased copy number could elevate the expression of Ppd-1 in CS, also increasing expression of LUX and FT genes and causing CS to have an earlier heading date than CASL2BS in long days. PMID:26848576

  20. Expression of adenovirus-2 early region 4: assignment of the early region 4 polypeptides to their respective mRNAs, using in vitro translation.

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, M A; Raskas, H J

    1982-01-01

    Adenovirus-2 early region 4 (E4; map positions 91.3 to 99.1) encodes six 5' and 3' coterminal, differently spliced mRNAs, which are 2.5, 2.1, 1.8, 1.5, 1.2, and 0.8 kilobases (kb) long. Hybridization selection with five cloned viral DNA fragments that hybridize with subsets of E4 mRNAs was used to purify these six mRNAs and a previously unreported 3.0-kb mRNA from virus-infected cells. E4 mRNAs which were purified by hybridization selection with cloned EcoRI fragment C (map positions 89.7 to 100) were also fractionated by size. The purified mRNAs were then translated in rabbit reticulocyte or wheat germ lysate systems. The full complement of E4 mRNAs specified as many as 16 different polypeptides, with molecular weights ranging from 24,000 (24K) to 10K. The most abundant E4 mRNA, which was 2.1 kb long, specified an 11K polypeptide. The 1.5-kb mRNA, which differed from the 2.1-kb mRNA only by deletion of a second intron from the 3' untranslated region, also specified an 11K polypeptide. The second most abundant mRNA, which was 1.8 kb long, and the 1.2-kb mRNA, which had an intron deleted from the 3' untranslated region, specified a 15K polypeptide. This polypeptide was labeled more intensely with [5,6-(3)H]leucine than with [35S]methionine. The 3.0- and 2.5-kb mRNAs specified four polypeptides (24K, 22K, 19K, and 17K). Translation of E4 mRNAs with a mean size of 0.8 kb, which accumulated preferentially in the presence of cycloheximide, yielded at least 10 polypeptides that migrated in polyacrylamide gels with apparent molecular weights ranging from 21,800 to 10,000. On the basis of translation in wheat germ lysates and the distribution of polypeptides encoded by size-fractionated mRNAs, we concluded that the 0.8-kb mRNA size class includes a heterogeneous mixture of mRNAs which are probably formed as the result of utilization of alternate splice acceptor and donor sites during removal of the second intron. Our polypeptide assignments for the 2.1-, 1.8-, 1.5-, and 1

  1. Transcriptional induction of the mouse metallothionein-I gene in hydrogen peroxide-treated Hepa cells involves a composite major late transcription factor/antioxidant response element and metal response promoter elements.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, T; Palmiter, R D; Andrews, G K

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of metallothionein-I (MT-I) and heme oxygenase mRNAs is rapidly and transiently induced by H2O2 in mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa) and this effect is blocked by catalase. Menadione, which generates free radicals, also induces these mRNAs. Deletion mutagenesis revealed that a region between -42 and -153 in the mouse MT-I promoter was essential for induction of a CAT reporter gene. A multimer of a 16 bp sequence (-101 to -86) that includes an antioxidant response element and overlapping adenovirus major late transcription factor binding site elevated basal expression and allowed induction by H2O2 when inserted upstream of a minimal promoter. However, deletion of this region (-100 to -89) from the intact MT-I promoter (-153) did not completely eliminate response. Multiple copies of a metal response element also permitted response to H2O2. These results suggest that induction of MT-I gene transcription by H2O2 is mediated by at least two different elements within the proximal MT-I gene promoter and suggest a previously undescribed function of the MRE. Induction of MT gene transcription by ROS and the subsequent scavenging of ROS by the MT peptide is reminiscent of the metal regulatory loop and is consistent with the hypothesized protective functions of MT. Images PMID:7800494

  2. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  3. Helping the Habitually Late Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    The author gives three major reasons for a student being habitually late to class: resistance, disorganization, or unavoidable schedule conflicts. He makes specific suggestions to teachers for dealing with the disorganized and resistant latecomers. (SJL)

  4. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  5. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  6. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  7. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  9. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  10. Late-Glacial to Late-holocene Shifts in Global Precipitation Delta(sup 18)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F.S.R.; Fawcett, P.J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendon, D.I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation delta(sup 18)O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n 59), cave calcite (n 15) and ice core (n 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as 50,000 to 20,000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past 5000 years). We show that precipitation delta(sup 18)O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1% (delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene) > delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) to +1.7% (delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) > delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene), with the majority (77) of records having lower late-glacial delta(sup 18)O than late-Holocene delta(sup 18)O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation delta(sup 18)O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors.

  11. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  12. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  13. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  14. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 May 2004 This image of Syrtis Major was acquired August 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.8, Longitude 79.5 East (280.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  15. Complications in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meguerdichian, David

    2012-11-01

    Complications of late pregnancy are managed infrequently in the emergency department and, thus, can pose a challenge when the emergency physician encounters acute presentations. An expert understanding of the anatomic and physiologic changes and possible complications of late pregnancy is vital to ensure proper evaluation and care for both mother and fetus. This article focuses on the late pregnancy issues that the emergency physician will face, from the bleeding and instability of abruptio placentae to the wide spectrum of complications and management strategies encountered with preterm labor. PMID:23137403

  16. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  17. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  18. Late Cretaceous vicariance in Gondwanan amphibians.

    PubMed

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Roelants, Kim; Biju, S D; Nagaraju, J; Bossuyt, Franky

    2006-01-01

    Overseas dispersals are often invoked when Southern Hemisphere terrestrial and freshwater organism phylogenies do not fit the sequence or timing of Gondwana fragmentation. We used dispersal-vicariance analyses and molecular timetrees to show that two species-rich frog groups, Microhylidae and Natatanura, display congruent patterns of spatial and temporal diversification among Gondwanan plates in the Late Cretaceous, long after the presumed major tectonic break-up events. Because amphibians are notoriously salt-intolerant, these analogies are best explained by simultaneous vicariance, rather than by oceanic dispersal. Hence our results imply Late Cretaceous connections between most adjacent Gondwanan landmasses, an essential concept for biogeographic and palaeomap reconstructions. PMID:17183706

  19. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  20. Management of anxiety in late life.

    PubMed

    Flint, A J

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic data are used as a framework to discuss the pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral management of anxiety disorders in late life. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and phobias account for most cases of anxiety in late life. The high level of comorbidity between GAD and major depression, and the observation that the anxiety usually arises secondarily to the depression, suggests that antidepressant medication should be the primary pharmacologic treatment for many older people with GAD. Most individuals with late-onset agoraphobia do not have a history of panic attacks and the illness often starts after a traumatic event. Exposure therapy is the treatment of choice for agoraphobia without panic. It is uncommon for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder to start for the first time in old age, but these disorders can persist from younger years into late life. Case reports and uncontrolled case series suggest that elderly people with OCD or panic disorder can benefit from pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatments that are known to be effective in younger patients. However, it is not known whether the rate of response among elderly patients is adversely affected by the chronicity of these disorders. The prevalence and incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in late life are not known. Uncontrolled data support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in war veterans with chronic symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder; other treatments for this condition await evaluation in the elderly. PMID:10230998

  1. Creating an Undergraduate InfoTech Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeier, Harold H.

    Franklin Pierce College (New Hampshire) has established an information technology (IT) major which combines courses from the computer science, graphic communications, and mass communication disciplines to conform more closely to the reality of technology in the late 1990s. Information technology brings together tools from these disciplines for the…

  2. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  3. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  4. Late-glacial to late-Holocene shifts in global precipitation δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F. S. R.; Fawcett, P. J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendón, D. I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation δ18O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n = 59), cave calcite (n = 15) and ice core (n = 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as ~ 50 000 to ~ 20 000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past ~ 5000 years). We show that precipitation δ18O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1 ‰ (δ18Olate-Holocene > δ18Olate-glacial) to +1.7 ‰ (δ18Olate-glacial > δ18Olate-Holocene), with the majority (77 %) of records having lower late-glacial δ18O than late-Holocene δ18O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation δ18O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors (δ18Olate-Holocene > δ18Olate-glacial by more than 3 ‰). Conversely, low-magnitude, positive precipitation δ18O shifts are concentrated along tropical and subtropical coasts (δ18Olate-glacial > δ18Olate-Holocene by less than 2 ‰). Broad, global patterns of late-glacial to late-Holocene precipitation δ18O shifts suggest that stronger-than-modern isotopic distillation of air masses prevailed during the late-glacial, likely impacted by larger global temperature differences between the tropics and the poles. Further, to test how well general circulation models reproduce global precipitation δ18O shifts, we compiled simulated precipitation δ18O shifts from five isotope-enabled general circulation models simulated under recent and last glacial maximum climate states. Climate simulations generally show better inter-model and model-measurement agreement in temperate regions than in the tropics, highlighting a need for further research to better understand how inter-model spread in

  5. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  6. Mars and Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Taking advantage of Mars's closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space- based observatory's sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. The telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped these images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images, which, together, show the entire planet. Each view depicts the planet as it completes one quarter of its daily rotation. In these views the north polar cap is tilted toward the Earth and is visible prominently at the top of each picture. The images were taken in the middle of the Martian northern summer, when the polar cap had shrunk to its smallest size. During this season the Sun shines continuously on the polar cap. Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have shown that this summertime 'residual' polar cap is composed of water ice, just like Earth's polar caps. These Hubble telescope snapshots reveal that substantial changes in the bright and dark markings on Mars have occurred in the 20 years since the NASA Viking spacecraft missions first mapped the planet. The Martian surface is dynamic and ever changing. Some regions that were dark 20 years ago are now bright red; some areas that were bright red are now dark. Winds move sand and dust from region to region, often in spectacular dust storms. Over long timescales many of the larger bright and dark markings remain stable, but smaller details come and go as they are covered and then uncovered by sand and dust. The dark feature known as Syrtis Major was first seen telescopically by the astronomer Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century. Many small, dark, circular impact craters can be seen in this region, attesting to the Hubble telescope's ability to reveal fine detail on the planet's surface. To the south of

  7. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  8. Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Analysis of Evidence Compared to Chronic or Late Neurosyphilis

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Whether spirochetes persist in affected host tissues and cause the late/chronic manifestations of neurosyphilis was the subject of long-lasting debate. Detection of Treponema pallidum in the brains of patients with general paresis established a direct link between persisting infection and tertiary manifestations of neurosyphilis. Today, the same question is in the center of debate with respect to Lyme disease. The goal of this review was to compare the established pathological features of neurosyphilis with those available for Lyme neuroborreliosis. If the main tertiary forms of neurosyphilis also occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis and Borrelia burgdorferi can be detected in brain lesions would indicate that the spirochete is responsible for the neuropsychiatric manifestations of late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. The substantial amounts of data available in the literature show that the major forms of late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis (meningovascular and meningoencephalitis) are clinically and pathologically confirmed. Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in association with tertiary brain lesions and cultivated from the affected brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The accumulated data also indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi is able to evade from destruction by the host immune reactions, persist in host tissues and sustain chronic infection and inflammation. These observations represent evidences that Borrelia burgdorferi in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum is responsible for the chronic/late manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Late Lyme neuroborreliosis is accepted by all existing guidelines in Europe, US and Canada. The terms chronic and late are synonymous and both define tertiary neurosyphilis or tertiary Lyme neuroborreliosis. The use of chronic and late Lyme neuroborreliosis as different entities is inaccurate and can be confusing. Further pathological investigations and the detection of spirochetes in infected tissues and body fluids are strongly needed

  9. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  10. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  11. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  12. Arctic palaeosalinities during late Cainozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, Y.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    DURING the late Cainozoic, alternations between interglacial and glacial conditions, manifested by waning and waxing of continental ice sheets coincided with the rise and fall of seawater temperatures. Our palaeontological and oxygen isotope data indicate that although the major oceans and low latititude seas underwent large temperature variations, ??? 5-10 ??C, Arctic water temperatures remained near freezing point for at least the past 3 Myr, the time interval represented by the longest studied cores. We have determined palaeotemperatures from the ratio of left to right coiling Globigerina pachyderma1-3 and calculated palaeosalinities using the oxygen isotope palaeotemperature expression of Epstein et al.4. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, James A.; Bailey, Jack N.; Chesnut, Dwayne; Compton, James; Snell, Richard D.

    1997-11-10

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS).

  14. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  15. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  16. Hydropower major rehabilitation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Norlin, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Corps of Engineers has developed an active Major Rehabilitation Program to handle large, long duration restoration projects. These projects are funded by specific appropriations and subsequently are required to have detailed rehabilitation plans to justify the work. The emphasis of the Major Rehabilitation Program is correcting reliability problems. Papers that were presented at Waterpower `93 discussed the basic concepts that are required in preparing a Major Rehabilitation Evaluation Report. This paper will cover the current status of each of the current major rehabilitation projects that the Corps of Engineers has in progress.

  17. Dolomitization and late secondary porosity development in Nisku reefs (late Devonian) of Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1983-03-01

    Dolomitization and associated calcite dissolution are important controls on reservoir quality in coral reefs on the Nisku Formation. Average porosities of 13 to 15% and permeabilities of 3 darcys are recorded in the fully dolomitized reefs, while lower average porosities of 3 to 5% and permeabilities of 350 millidarcys are recorded in partly dolomitized reefs. Dolomitization occurred over a long period of burial and resulted in the formation of two major types of dolomites that are volumetrically significant. The first is characterized by matrix-selective, gray, cloudy, 20 to 150-..mu.. crystals that grade from scattered subhedral and euhedral rhombs to interlocking crystalline mosaics. The second major type of dolomite is characterized by pervasive, brown, cloudy, 60 to 300-..mu.. crystals that occur in the flanks of structurally updip reefs and throughout the downdip reefs. Concentration of dolomite crystals and dissolution of individual rhombs along stylolites indicate that the matrix dolomite initially formed at shallow depths. As dolomitization progressed, dolomite recrystallization and cementation along with extensive calcite dissolution resulted in dramatic increases in porosity and permeability. Calcite dissolution continued after dolomitization ceased, but much of the dissolution is coeval with dolomitization. Late dolomites and secondary porosity in the Nisku reef trend increase in abundance down structural dip, toward the southwest. Thus, much of the dolomite and late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic when the regional structure tilted to the southwest. Although all Nisku reefs form stratigraphic traps, late diagenetic overprints in some significantly enhanced their reservoir quality.

  18. Divorce Counseling Guidelines for the Late Divorced Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelier, Regis; Deckert, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    Offers divorce counseling guidelines for the female who divorces after 20 years or more of marriage, based on a 1977 study of late divorced female Canadians. Research emphasizes six major life adjustment areas: emotions; divorce grounds; finances and budgeting; children; life-style change; and independence. (Author)

  19. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  20. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  1. Late Jurassic plutonism in the southwest U.S. Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Howard, K.A.; Richards, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Although plate reconstructions suggest that subduction was an approximately steady-state process from the mid-Mesozoic through the early Tertiary, recent precise geochronologic studies suggest highly episodic emplacement of voluminous continental-margin batholiths in the U.S. Cordillera. In central and southern California and western Arizona, major episodes of batholithic magmatism are known to have occurred in Permian-Triassic, Middle Jurassic, and late Early to Late Cretaceous time. However, recent studies of forearc-basin and continental-interior sediments suggest that Late Jurassic time was probably also a period of significant magmatism, although few dated plutons of this age have been recognized. We describe a belt of Late Jurassic plutonic and hypabyssal rocks at least 200 km in length that extends from the northwestern Mojave Desert through the Transverse Ranges. The belt lies outboard of both the voluminous Middle Jurassic arc and the ca. 148 Ma Independence dike swarm at these latitudes. The plutons include two intrusive suites emplaced between 157 and 149 Ma: a calc-alkaline suite compositionally unlike Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic mon-zonitic suites but similar to Late Cretaceous arc plutons emplaced across this region, and a contemporaneous but not comagmatic alkaline suite. The Late Jurassic was thus a time of both tectonic and magmatic transitions in the southern Cordillera. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB. PMID:24401535

  3. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    Thirty-three years after the first manned landing on the Moon, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) has obtained what may be the sharpest image of the lunar surface ever recorded from the ground, cf. PR Photo 19a/02 . It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. The photo shows an area about 700 km from the Apollo XI landing site. The location is in the Eastern hemisphere, just North of the lunar equator, and right between two of the major "seas", Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquillity) and Mare Foecunditatis (Sea of Fertility). The field-of-view measures about 60 x 45 km 2 (taking into account the foreshortening because of the viewing angle [2]), with part of a sunlit, 10-km wide crater named Cameron [1] surrounded by a comparatively level terrain, bordered by some hills and, not least, with an incredible number of smaller craters. The site of this NACO photo is situated at the rim of an older, rather eroded 56-km crater, Taruntius [1]. A small part of the multiple walls of that crater are seen in the upper right corner and also to the left of the bottom centre of PR Photo 19a/02 . The centre of Taruntius is near the lower right corner of the photo. The rather flat terrain to the left in the photo corresponds to an "opening" in the crater walls. At the time of the exposure, the Sun was approximately 7° above the Western horizon to the left [2], and the shadows are therefore quite prominent, approx. 8 times longer than the elevation of the corresponding peaks and hills. The nominal image sharpness is 0.07 arcsec, or about 130 metres on the lunar surface (in the N-S direction). Elevation differences of a few tens of metres only are therefore visible by the shadows they cast. The VLT image represents what an astronaut (with normal eye acuity of 1 arcmin) would see from 400 km above the surface. Lunar surface formations ESO PR Photo 19b/02 ESO PR Photo 19b/02 [Preview - JPEG

  4. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  5. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  6. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    Thirty-three years after the first manned landing on the Moon, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) has obtained what may be the sharpest image of the lunar surface ever recorded from the ground, cf. PR Photo 19a/02 . It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. The photo shows an area about 700 km from the Apollo XI landing site. The location is in the Eastern hemisphere, just North of the lunar equator, and right between two of the major "seas", Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquillity) and Mare Foecunditatis (Sea of Fertility). The field-of-view measures about 60 x 45 km 2 (taking into account the foreshortening because of the viewing angle [2]), with part of a sunlit, 10-km wide crater named Cameron [1] surrounded by a comparatively level terrain, bordered by some hills and, not least, with an incredible number of smaller craters. The site of this NACO photo is situated at the rim of an older, rather eroded 56-km crater, Taruntius [1]. A small part of the multiple walls of that crater are seen in the upper right corner and also to the left of the bottom centre of PR Photo 19a/02 . The centre of Taruntius is near the lower right corner of the photo. The rather flat terrain to the left in the photo corresponds to an "opening" in the crater walls. At the time of the exposure, the Sun was approximately 7° above the Western horizon to the left [2], and the shadows are therefore quite prominent, approx. 8 times longer than the elevation of the corresponding peaks and hills. The nominal image sharpness is 0.07 arcsec, or about 130 metres on the lunar surface (in the N-S direction). Elevation differences of a few tens of metres only are therefore visible by the shadows they cast. The VLT image represents what an astronaut (with normal eye acuity of 1 arcmin) would see from 400 km above the surface. Lunar surface formations ESO PR Photo 19b/02 ESO PR Photo 19b/02 [Preview - JPEG

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Se-Ying; Liu, Jin-Ji; Fan, Yin-Guang; Shan, Gui-Su; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-06-01

    While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they could not acquire HIV from their regular heterosexual partners, those who never considered getting tested for HIV, and patients with unexplained weight loss, angular cheilitis, or prolonged fever prior to HIV diagnosis. On the other hand, those participants who were diagnosed via testing at compulsory rehabilitation centers and those whose annual household income was greater than 30,000 Yuan were less likely to be diagnosed late. These results suggested that late HIV diagnosis is common in Liuzhou city, and it is essential to promote appropriate strategies to detect HIV infections earlier. Strategies that require HIV/AIDS patients to notify their spouse/sexual-partners about their HIV-positive results within one month and start provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in medical facilities are beneficial to earlier HIV diagnosis. PMID:25758129

  8. Reasons for late presentation to HIV care in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Hachfeld, Anna; Ledergerber, Bruno; Darling, Katharine; Weber, Rainer; Calmy, Alexandra; Battegay, Manuel; Sugimoto, Kiyoshi; Di Benedetto, Caroline; Fux, Christoph A; Tarr, Philip E; Kouyos, Roger; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wandeler, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Late presentation to HIV care leads to increased morbidity and mortality. We explored risk factors and reasons for late HIV testing and presentation to care in the nationally representative Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). Methods Adult patients enrolled in the SHCS between July 2009 and June 2012 were included. An initial CD4 count <350 cells/µl or an AIDS-defining illness defined late presentation. Demographic and behavioural characteristics of late presenters (LPs) were compared with those of non-late presenters (NLPs). Information on self-reported, individual barriers to HIV testing and care were obtained during face-to-face interviews. Results Of 1366 patients included, 680 (49.8%) were LPs. Seventy-two percent of eligible patients took part in the survey. LPs were more likely to be female (p<0.001) or from sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001) and less likely to be highly educated (p=0.002) or men who have sex with men (p<0.001). LPs were more likely to have their first HIV test following a doctor's suggestion (p=0.01), and NLPs in the context of a regular check-up (p=0.02) or after a specific risk situation (p<0.001). The main reasons for late HIV testing were “did not feel at risk” (72%), “did not feel ill” (65%) and “did not know the symptoms of HIV” (51%). Seventy-one percent of the participants were symptomatic during the year preceding HIV diagnosis and the majority consulted a physician for these symptoms. Conclusions In Switzerland, late presentation to care is driven by late HIV testing due to low risk perception and lack of awareness about HIV. Tailored HIV testing strategies and enhanced provider-initiated testing are urgently needed. PMID:26584954

  9. Narrative Skill and Syntactic Complexity in School-Age Children with and without Late Language Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domsch, Celeste; Richels, Corrin; Saldana, Michelle; Coleman, Cardin; Wimberly, Clayton; Maxwell, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who do not produce single words by the expected age have been described as "late talkers" or as demonstrating "late language emergence" (LLE). Although their short-term growth in vocabulary is often strong, longer-term consequences of LLE remain in dispute. It has been argued that the majority of school-age children who had…

  10. Ice Age Earth: Late Quaternary geology and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a concise and readable account of the most important geologic records of the late Quaternary. It provides a synopsis of the major environmental changes that took place from approximately 13,000 to 7,000 years ago, highlighting the complexity and rapidity of past climate changes and the environmental responses they produced. The text is well illustrated, though some figures are rough and need more explanation. Also needed is a critical appraisal of the geochronology which places the paleoenvironmental records into the temporal domain. However, as a whole the book reaches its objective of summarizing the most important scientific findings about the nature of the late Quaternary climate changes.

  11. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape. PMID:27381794

  12. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  13. Planetary science: Ubiquitous late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenan, James

    2012-09-01

    Iron-loving elements are thought to have been added to Mars, Earth and the Moon after core formation. An analysis of meteorites formed in the first two to three million years of Solar System history suggests that a similar late veneer was added elsewhere too.

  14. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy. Images PMID:1800646

  15. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  16. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  17. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  18. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  19. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  20. Risk Factors and Prevention of Late Onset Sepsis in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Downey, L Corbin; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2010-01-01

    Late-onset sepsis in premature infants is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased medical costs. Risk factors include low birth weight, low gestational age, previous antimicrobial exposure, poor hand hygiene, and central venous catheters. Methods studied to prevent late-onset sepsis include early feedings, immune globulin administration, prophylactic antimicrobial administration, and improved hand hygiene. In this review, we will outline the risk factors for development of late-onset sepsis and evidence supporting methods for prevention of late-onset sepsis in premature infants. PMID:20116186

  1. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  2. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  3. Major SSC tunneling begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

  4. Late Onset Clozapine Induced Agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Kakkan, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported. PMID:25336778

  5. Did intense volcanism trigger the first Late Ordovician icehouse?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buggisch, Werner; Joachimski, Michael M.; Lehnert, Oliver; Bergstrom, S. M.; Repetski, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen isotopes measured on Late Ordovician conodonts from Minnesota and Kentucky (United States) were studied to reconstruct the paleotemperature history during late Sandbian to Katian (Mohawkian–Cincinnatian) time. This time interval was characterized by intense volcanism, as shown by the prominent Deicke, Millbrig, and other K-bentonite beds. A prominent carbon isotope excursion (Guttenberg δ13C excursion, GICE) postdates the Millbrig volcanic eruptions, and has been interpreted to reflect a drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide and climatic cooling. The oxygen isotope record in conodont apatite contradicts this earlier interpretation. An increase in δ18O of 1.5‰ (Vienna standard mean ocean water) just above the Deicke K-bentonite suggests an abrupt and short-lived cooling that possibly initiated a first short-term glacial episode well before the major Hirnantian glaciation. The decrease in δ18O immediately after the mega-eruptions indicates warming before the GICE, and no cooling is shown in the GICE interval. The coincidence of the Deicke mega-eruption with a cooling event suggests that this major volcanic event had a profound effect on Late Ordovician (late Mohawkian) climate.

  6. Did intense volcanism trigger the first Late Ordovician icehouse?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buggisch, Werner; Joachimski, Michael M.; Lehnert, Oliver; Bergström, Stig M.; Repetski, John E.; Webers, Gerald F.

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen isotopes measured on Late Ordovician conodonts from Minnesota and Kentucky (United States) were studied to reconstruct the paleotemperature history during late Sandbian to Katian (Mohawkian–Cincinnatian) time. This time interval was characterized by intense volcanism, as shown by the prominent Deicke, Millbrig, and other K-bentonite beds. A prominent carbon isotope excursion (Guttenberg δ13C excursion, GICE) postdates the Millbrig volcanic eruptions, and has been interpreted to reflect a drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide and climatic cooling. The oxygen isotope record in conodont apatite contradicts this earlier interpretation. An increase in δ18O of 1.5‰ (Vienna standard mean ocean water) just above the Deicke K-bentonite suggests an abrupt and short-lived cooling that possibly initiated a first short-term glacial episode well before the major Hirnantian glaciation. The decrease in δ18O immediately after the mega-eruptions indicates warming before the GICE, and no cooling is shown in the GICE interval. The coincidence of the Deicke mega-eruption with a cooling event suggests that this major volcanic event had a profound effect on Late Ordovician (late Mohawkian) climate.

  7. AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under…

  8. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  9. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  10. Information about the Late Effects of Polio

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professionals Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors Late Effects of Polio ... Contact info@post-polio.org. Remember POLIO? Polio (poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis) triggers memories of closed swimming ...

  11. Late blight – Is resistance futile?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article will provide an overview of late blight resistance research that has been done within the USDA/ARS and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The article is meant to be an informative look at the history of late blight resistance and the ability of the late blight pathogen to overcome res...

  12. 24 CFR 241.1105 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charges. 241.1105 Section 241...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1105 Late charges. The note and security instrument may provide for the lender's collection of a late charge, not to exceed 2 cents for each dollar of each payment to interest...

  13. 24 CFR 242.38 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 242.38 Section 242.38... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.38 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and standards of HUD for...

  14. 24 CFR 235.1216 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 235.1216 Section 235... § 235.1216 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge... date upon which payment is due. Such charge shall not be included in the assistance payment....

  15. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and... Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may include in a home loan contract a provision authorizing the imposition of a late charge with respect...

  16. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and... Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may include in a home loan contract a provision authorizing the imposition of a late charge with respect...

  17. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  18. 24 CFR 241.1105 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charges. 241.1105 Section 241...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1105 Late charges. The note and security instrument may provide for the lender's collection of a late charge, not to exceed 2 cents for each dollar of each payment to interest...

  19. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  20. 24 CFR 235.1216 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 235.1216 Section 235... § 235.1216 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge... date upon which payment is due. Such charge shall not be included in the assistance payment....

  1. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015... charges. The late charge to fish buyers for fee payment, collection, deposit, and/or disbursement shall be..., deposited, and/or disbursed. The full late charge shall apply to the fee for each month or portion of...

  2. 24 CFR 242.38 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 242.38 Section 242.38... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.38 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and standards of HUD for...

  3. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  5. Early and late neonatal septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, M M; Whitelaw, A

    1983-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1982 we reviewed 1000 consecutive admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit of this hospital. Sixty five infants had positive blood cultures. Mortality was 70% among 17 infants who had septicaemia in the first 48 hours of life and for whom appropriate treatment may have been too late because of difficulties of early diagnosis. In the remaining 48 infants mortality was 12%, septicaemia occurred later, and was associated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (56%) and with the presence of an intravascular catheter (50%). PMID:6625634

  6. Soft coincidence in late acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2005-06-15

    We study the coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration by assuming that the present ratio between dark matter and dark energy is a slowly varying function of the scale factor. As the dark energy component we consider two different candidates, first a quintessence scalar field, and then a tachyon field. In either case analytical solutions for the scale factor, the field, and the potential are derived. Both models show a good fit to the recent magnitude-redshift supernovae data. However, the likelihood contours disfavor the tachyon field model as it seems to prefer a excessively high value for the matter component.

  7. Teaching surgery in late Byzantine Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, John

    2010-01-01

    When one examines Alexandrian commentaries on works of Galen and Hippocrates, disclosed are essential guides to the Art of Medicine as practiced in the late fifth, sixth, and early seventh centuries. These are outlines and contents of a 'medical curriculum' in late Byzantine Alexandria, as well as Ravenna, and thanks to the patient and skilled labors of Dickson,' Duffy,2 Irmer, Palmieri, Pritchet, Westerink, and others, following and building on the pioneering studies of Bräutigam, Meyerhoff, and Temkin, medical historians can now peruse carefully edited Greek and Latin texts and generally reliable translations of some commentaries by Agnellus of Ravenna, John of Alexandria, Palladius, and Stephanus of Athens. Deeply experienced medical practitioners became teachers of would-be medical students in Alexandria and Ravenna. Alexandria had long functioned as a city reputed to be the home of medical instruction, and by ca. 550 or slightly later, teachers began to produce commentaries on the classic texts of Greek and Roman medicine, with Galen and Hippocrates as major authorities. Underpinning what the medical professors set down in their commentaries were extended lives spent in the actual practice of medicine, sometimes as military physicians (as may have been the case of Paul of Aegina in the early seventh century), sometimes as doctors who had gained lengthy experience in Alexandria itself, and sometimes as medical professionals who had emigrated to Egypt after successful careers in another part of the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire. Reflecting time as a medical student and later career in Constantinople, Aetius of Amida's Tetrabiblon foreshadows editorial mechanics and techniques of textual exegesis as they emerge more clearly with the medical commentators after 550. It may well be that Stephanus, 'the Philosopher and Physician', was originally from Athens, but whether he was or not, the attribution of an Athenian background suggests that non

  8. Late Diagenesis and Mass Transfer in Sandstone Shale Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    , involving only compaction and dewatering of sedimentary materials. Detrital phases that survived weathering were seen as essentially inert to subsequent reaction during burial and prior to the onset of metamorphism. Metamorphism itself was viewed as isochemical and accomplished principally through solid-state reactions (see a brief summary in Ague, 1991). Notable exceptions to these views constitute the foundations of existing theory regarding the nature of late diagenesis. "Intrastratal solution" of chemically unstable detrital minerals (e.g., Pettijohn, 1941), apparent potassium metasomatism of shales (e.g., Weaver and Beck, 1971), and massive mineralogical changes during progressive burial (e.g., Coombs et al., 1959) are observations that established the directions of modern research in late diagenesis. Advances in petrographic imaging techniques (e.g., backscattered electron- and cathodoluminescence-imaging) and integration of petrographic observations with both bulk and spatially resolved chemical analyses have greatly accelerated the evolution of concepts about late diagenesis and early metamorphism.Today, basin-scale mass transfer of some materials (e.g., helium, water, and petroleum) is unquestioned (e.g., Hunt, 1996). Other materials (e.g., titanium and the REEs) are sufficiently mobile to appear within authigenic precipitates, but are likely to be "immobile" on the scale of a hand specimen. Mobilities of the major elements that make up sandstones and shales (silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, potassium) remain controversial. Conflicting notions about processes in rock suites across the wide range of burial conditions and alteration show that fundamental questions remain unanswered about the nature of the volumetrically significant processes within a major segment of the rock cycle. It is very likely that something is wrong, or at least inadequate, with the present concepts and/or data pertaining to the evolution of permeability, transport mechanisms, and timing

  9. Late Relapse of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J; Feldman, Darren R; Carver, Brett S; Sheinfeld, Joel

    2015-08-01

    Germ cell tumors of the testis have an overall survival rate greater than 90% as a result of a successful multidisciplinary approach to management. Late relapse affects a subset of patients however, and tends to be chemorefractory and the overall prognosis is poor. Surgery is the mainstay in management of late relapse but salvage chemotherapy can be successful. In this review, the clinical presentation and detection of late relapse, clinical outcomes, and predictors of survival in late relapse and the importance of a multidisciplinary treatment approach for successful management of late relapse are discussed. PMID:26216823

  10. Late Oligocene to Late Miocene Antarctic Climate Reconstructions Using Molecular and Isotopic Biomarker Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Mckay, R. M.; Bendle, J. A.; Naish, T.; Levy, R. H.; Ventura, G. T.; Moossen, H. M.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major climate and environmental changes occurred during late Oligocene to the late Miocene when atmospheric CO2 ranged between 500 and 300ppm, indicating threshold response of Antarctic ice sheets and climate to relatively modest CO2 variations. This implies that the southern high latitudes are highly sensitive to feedbacks associated with changes in global ice sheet and sea-ice extent, as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. This study focuses on two key intervals during the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: (1) The Late Oligocene and the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded close to present day volume following an extended period of inferred warmth. (2) The Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO ~17-15 Ma), a period of global warmth and moderately elevated CO2 (350->500 ppm) which was subsequently followed by rapid cooling at 14-13.5 Ma. Reconstructions of climate and ice sheet variability, and thus an understanding of the various feedbacks that occurred during these intervals, are hampered by a lack of temperature and hydroclimate proxy data from the southern high latitudes. We present proxy climate reconstructions using terrestrial and marine organic biomarkers that provide new insights into Antarctica's climate evolution, using Antarctic drill cores and outcrop samples from a range of depositional settings. Bacterial ether-lipids have been analysed to determine terrestrial mean annual temperatures and soil pH (via the methylation and cyclisation indexes of branched tetraethers - MBT and CBT, respectively). Tetraether-lipids of crenarchaeota found in marine sediments sampled from continental shelves around Antarctica have been used to derive sea surface temperatures using the TEX86 index. Compound specific stable isotopes on n-alkanes sourced from terrestrial plants have been analysed to investigate changes in the hydrological and carbon cycles.

  11. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  12. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  13. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  14. Climatic basis for sluggish macroevolution during the late Paleozoic ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Matthew G.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine invertebrates fell at the onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in late Mississippian time and remained low until glaciation ended in middle Permian time. Through the use of a database of stratigraphic and geographic occurrences of brachiopod genera, these macroevolutionary changes are traced to the loss of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges, which had intrinsically high turnover rates, at the onset of glaciation in late Viséan time. When glaciation waned in late Sakmarian time, narrowly distributed genera rebounded abruptly and restored the global fauna to its pre ice-age configuration. Because narrowly distributed brachiopod genera had dominated tropical diversity, the major biotic effects of the late Paleozoic ice age were felt at low latitudes. The climatic regime of this ice age thus altered the marine ecosystem to one characterized by broadly adapted, long-lived genera.

  15. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  16. Late Glacial and Late Holocene Paleohydrology of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.; Rajabov, I.; Wang, Y.; Heinecke, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of past climatological, ecological and hydrological changes in Central Asia, by means of organic geochemical proxies and in close cooperation with other work groups providing biological and sedimentological data. We analysed an 8 m sediment core from Lake Karakuli, a small open freshwater lake situated at an altitude of 3,657 m between the massifs of Muztagh Ata (7,546 m) and Kongur Shan (7,719 m) in western China. Additional work is in progress on a 12 m core derived from Lake Karakul in Tajikistan, a large closed saline lake situated in a tectonic graben structure at an altitude of 3,928 m. The distance between the two lakes is 130 km and basal ages of the cores are ca. 4.7 ka BP (China) and ca. 27 ka BP (Tajikistan). The lake catchments may be classified as alpine steppe to alpine deserts with mean annual temperature of ca. 0 °C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 100 mm, respectively. Summer precipitation, associated with the Indian monsoon, accounts for <30% of the annual total, whereas most precipitation is supplied by mid-latitude Westerlies between March and May. In the small Chinese lake long-chain fatty acids (FAs) were mainly attributed to terrestrial sources by compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses. In contrast δ13C values up to -14‰ for abundant mid-chain FAs suggest aquatic origins in the large Lake Karakul. Hydrogen isotopic variability is ca. 15‰ in the mid-Holocene record and ca. 60‰ in the first data derived from the Late Glacial record. In the latter, the most pronounced change from higher to lower δD-values of aquatic biomarkers is tentatively interpreted as change from arid to more humid conditions at the Late Glacial to Holocene transition. Since in Central Asia isotopic variability of precipitation mainly correlates with temperature, we interpret high resolution δD data of terrestrial long-chain FAs in the younger core to mainly reflect mid-Holocene temperature variations

  17. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  18. Constraints and Facilitators to Friendships in Late Late Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian E.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzed friendship patterns of individuals aged 85+ years, 77% of whom were women. Despite high levels of disability and loss of age peers, majority were in frequent contact with friends and still had close friend. Over 31 months, predictors of friendship involvement changed. At Time 1, mood was most important; at Time 3, increased disability was…

  19. Late Eocene rings around the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion of O'Keefe (1980) that the terminal Eocene event was caused by rings of tektite material encircling the earth is discussed. It is argued that the assumption that the tektites are of lunar volcanic origin is unwarranted and contrary to existing data, including the lack of lunar rocks of suitable composition, the lack of lunar rocks of the correct age, the lack of evidence that the North American tektites fell throughout a sedimentary rock column of a few million years, and the nondetection of a tektite with a measurable cosmic ray exposure age. Alternatively, it is suggested that the terminal Eocene event may be associated with volcanic ash, air-fall tuff and bentonite in the late Eocene. O'Keefe replies that the hypothesis of the terrestrial origin of the tektites conflicts with the laws of physics, for example in the glass structure and shaping of the tektites. Furthermore, evidence is cited for lunar rocks of the proper major-element composition and ages, and it is noted that the proposed solar Poynting-Robertson effect would account for the particle fall distributions and cosmic ray ages.

  20. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  1. What Has He Done For Me Lately?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2002-01-01

    I had a boss once who continually asked me what the purpose of my work was, who were my customers, and how was I keeping my customers informed about my team's work. At first I found these questions perplexing, as my customers should have known the answers. I had covered them in my monthly/quarterly reports or in my project meeting notes. Finally, I confronted him about his questions. He acknowledged that my customers had this information, but he was hearing some disturbing comments between when I submitted my reports, comments like, 'What has he done for me lately?' I decided to take this input to heart. My ideas about communications norms needed a major overhaul. The communication norms I was comfortable with were becoming outdated. I realized the written and verbal communications response time was suddenly being measured in days or minutes. People's perception of a project team based on monthly or quarterly meetings was no longer adequate. In the past, once the team's credibility was established it was hard to change. In a rapid-fire communications world, no news causes people to question what the team is doing to move the business/project ahead.

  2. Rate-Limiting Late Blight Resistance Conferred by the RB Gene in Solanum tuberosum Transgenic Lines Does Not Impact Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight of potato, caused by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating plant pathogens of potato. A major late blight resistance gene, called RB, was previously identified in the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum and has been integrated ...

  3. On the nature of the extreme-ultraviolet late phase of solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.; Dai, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) late phase of solar flares is a second peak of warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI) for many minutes to a few hours after the GOES soft X-ray peak. It was first observed by the EUV Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The late-phase emission originates from a second set of longer loops (late-phase loops) that are higher than the main flaring loops. It is suggested to be caused by either additional heating or long-lasting cooling. In this paper, we study the role of long-lasting cooling and additional heating in producing the EUV late phase using the enthalpy based thermal evolution of loops model. We find that a long cooling process in late-phase loops can well explain the presence of the EUV late-phase emission, but we cannot exclude the possibility of additional heating in the decay phase. Moreover, we provide two preliminary methods based on the UV and EUV emissions from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO to determine whether or not additional heating plays a role in the late-phase emission. Using nonlinear force-free field modeling, we study the magnetic configuration of the EUV late phase. It is found that the late phase can be generated either in hot spine field lines associated with a magnetic null point or in large-scale magnetic loops of multipolar magnetic fields. In this paper, we also discuss why the EUV late phase is usually observed in warm coronal emissions and why the majority of flares do not exhibit an EUV late phase.

  4. Osmium isotope constraints on Earth's late accretionary history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Osmium isotope measurements reported by Alle??gre and Luck 1,2 indicate that terrestrial osmiridiums evolved in a mantle source region in which the osmium/rhenium ratio falls strictly within the range found in chondrites. This suggests that the highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle were introduced by a late influx of chondritic material and are not a result of endogenous processes. I have now examined the available data in more detail and conclude that the inferred Os/Re ratio of the Earth's mantle matches the E group and C3 chondrites, but that C1 and probably C2 chondrites were not major components of the material accreted in the late stages of mantle formation. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Separation and characterization of late endosomal membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihide; Beuchat, Marie-Hélène; Chevallier, Julien; Makino, Asami; Mayran, Nathalie; Escola, Jean-Michel; Lebrand, Cecile; Cosson, Pierre; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Gruenberg, Jean

    2002-08-30

    Very little is known about the biophysical properties and the lipid or protein composition of membrane domains presumably present in endocytic and biosynthetic organelles. Here we analyzed the membrane composition of late endosomes by suborganellar fractionation in the absence of detergent. We found that the internal membranes of this multivesicular organelle can be separated from the limiting membrane and that each membrane population exhibited a defined composition. Our data also indicated that internal membranes may consist of at least two populations, containing primarily phosphatidylcholine or lysobisphosphatidic acid as major phospholipid, arguing for the existence of significant microheterogeneity within late endosomal membranes. We also found that lysobisphosphatidic acid exhibited unique pH-dependent fusogenic properties, and we speculated that this lipid is an ideal candidate to regulate the dynamic properties of this internal membrane mosaic. PMID:12065580

  6. North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of physiognomy of Late Cretaceous leaf assemblages and of structural adaptations of Late Cretaceous dicotyledonous woods indicate that megathermal vegetation was an open-canopy, broad-leaved evergreen woodland that existed under low to moderate amounts of rainfall evenly distributed through the year, with a moderate increase at about 40-45??N. Many dicotyledons were probably large, massive trees, but the tallest trees were evergreen conifers. Megathermal climate extended up to paleolatitude 45-50??N. Mesothermal vegetation was at least partially an open, broad-leaved evergreen woodland (perhaps a mosaic of woodland and forest), but the evapotranspirational stress was less than in megathermal climate. Some dicotyledons were large trees, but most were shrubs or small trees; evergreen conifers were the major tree element. Some mild seasonality is evidenced in mesothermal woods; precipitational levels probably varied markedly from year to year. Northward of approximately paleolatitude 65??N, evergreen vegetation was replaced by predominantly deciduous vegetation. This replacement is presumably related primarily to seasonality of light. The southern part of the deciduous vegetation probably existed under mesothermal climate. Comparisons to leaf and wood assemblages from other continents are generally consistent with the vegetational-climatic patterns suggested from North American data. Limited data from equatorial regions suggest low rainfall. Late Cretaceous climates, except probably those of the Cenomanian, had only moderate change through time. Temperatures generally appear to have warmed into the Santonian, cooled slightly into the Campanian and more markedly into the Maastrichtian, and then returned to Santonian values by the late Maastrichtian. The early Eocene was probably warmer than any period of the Late Cretaceous. Latitudinal temperature gradients were lower than at present. For the Campanian and Maastrichtian, a gradient of about 0.3??C/1

  7. PALEOECOLOGY. Abrupt warming events drove Late Pleistocene Holarctic megafaunal turnover.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Alan; Turney, Chris; Hughen, Konrad A; Brook, Barry W; McDonald, H Gregory; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of Late Pleistocene megafauna extinctions remain fiercely contested, with human impact or climate change cited as principal drivers. We compared ancient DNA and radiocarbon data from 31 detailed time series of regional megafaunal extinctions and replacements over the past 56,000 years with standard and new combined records of Northern Hemisphere climate in the Late Pleistocene. Unexpectedly, rapid climate changes associated with interstadial warming events are strongly associated with the regional replacement or extinction of major genetic clades or species of megafauna. The presence of many cryptic biotic transitions before the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary revealed by ancient DNA confirms the importance of climate change in megafaunal population extinctions and suggests that metapopulation structures necessary to survive such repeated and rapid climatic shifts were susceptible to human impacts. PMID:26250679

  8. Late effects from particulate radiations in primate and rabbit tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Bergtold, D. S.; Lee, A. C.; Pickering, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with studies regarding the hazards posed by ionizing radiations to man in space, the U.S. Air Force conducted an experiment about 20 years ago. In this experiment a large number of young rhesus monkeys was exposed to proton fluxes similar to those to be anticipated during solar flares. After irradiation, the animals were kept at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine in Texas. The monkeys have been employed in investigations concerning aspects of late radiation damage. These investigations are discussed, taking into account the propagation of fibroblasts from irradiated monkeys. The results of the investigations are evaluated, giving attention also to experiments with white rabbits. It is found that, except in the case of major solar flares, when acute radiation damage could lead quickly to death, the hazards to astronauts from space radiations arise from such debilitating late effects as cataracts, damage to the central nervous system and benign tumors, and life-threatening neoplasia.

  9. Reduction in postsystolic wall thickening during late preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Xavier; Lucats, Laurence; Colin, Patrice; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Hittinger, Luc; Ghaleh, Bijan; Berdeaux, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Brief coronary artery occlusion (CAO) and reperfusion induce myocardial stunning and late preconditioning. Postsystolic wall thickening (PSWT) also develops with CAO and reperfusion. However, the time course of PSWT during stunning and the regional function pattern of the preconditioned myocardium remain unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolution of PSWT during myocardial stunning and its modifications during late preconditioning. Dogs were chronically instrumented to measure (sonomicrometry) systolic wall thickening (SWT), PSWT, total wall thickening (TWT = SWT + PSWT), and maximal rate of thickening (dWT/dt(max)). Two 10-min CAO (circumflex artery) were performed 24 h apart (day 0 and day 1, n = 7). At day 0, CAO decreased SWT and increased PSWT. During the first hours of the subsequent stunning, evolution of PSWT was symmetrical to that of SWT. At day 1, baseline SWT was similar to day 0, but PSWT was reduced (-66%), while dWT/dt(max) and SWT/TWT ratio increased (+48 and +14%, respectively). After CAO at day 1, stunning was reduced, indicating late preconditioning. Simultaneously vs. day 0, PSWT was significantly reduced, and dWT/dt(max) as well as SWT/TWT ratio were increased, i.e., a greater part of TWT was devoted to ejection. Similar decrease in PSWT was observed with a nonischemic preconditioning stimulus (rapid ventricular pacing, n = 4). In conclusion, a major contractile adaptation occurs during late preconditioning, i.e., the rate of wall thickening is enhanced and PWST is almost abolished. These phenotype adaptations represent potential approaches for characterizing stunning and late preconditioning with repetitive ischemia in humans. PMID:16920813

  10. Predictors of late cardiac events following treatment with Sr-90 {beta}-irradiation for instent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Dave C.Y.; Almeda, Francis Q.; Senter, Shaun; Haynie, Justin; Nguyen, Cam; Chu, James C.H.; Kavinsky, Clifford J.; Snell, R. Jeffrey; Schaer, Gary L

    2003-03-01

    Background: Intracoronary radiation therapy (IRT) with Sr-90 using the Novoste Beta-Cath system has been shown to be an effective therapy for instent restenosis (ISR), but the temporal occurrence of cardiac events and the predictors of late complications require further investigation. Methods: We analyzed the demographics, lesion characteristics and clinical outcomes of 138 consecutive patients with ISR treated with IRT from September 1998 to March 2002. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR). Characteristics of early ({<=}8 months) and late (>8 months) failures were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two (23.1%) of 138 patients had MACE on follow-up; 25% (8/32) of failures occurred late after treatment with IRT. A comparison of the clinical and angiographic profile of early and late failures using univariate analysis indicates no correlations to late failure following IRT. Duration to failure after IRT was 14.25{+-}3.69 months in the late group compared to 4.63{+-}2.86 months in the early group (P<.001). Conclusions: Late MACE after IRT with Sr-90 for ISR occur beyond the traditional period for clinical restenosis in 25% of cases and are difficult to predict. Further study is warranted to identify patients at risk for the development of late complications after IRT.

  11. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  12. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  13. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  14. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  15. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  16. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In... any deliquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the...

  17. 12 CFR 535.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 535.4 Section 535.4 Banks and.... until 7-1-2010) § 535.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an... delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the applicable period and...

  18. 24 CFR 203.25 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 203.25 Section 203.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge, not to exceed...

  19. 24 CFR 203.25 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 203.25 Section 203.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge, not to exceed...

  20. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In... any deliquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the...

  1. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and... OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an... indirectly, to levy or collect any delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full...

  2. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  3. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  4. 30 CFR 218.54 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 218.54 Section 218.54 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, General § 218.54 Late...

  5. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology. PMID:23014937

  6. Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions show all are gradual save one, which is a catastrophic extinction of terrestrial origin. These extinctions show a continuum of environmental insults from major to minor. The major causes of these extinctions are positive and negative eustatic sea level changes, temperature, or ecological competition. Extraterrestrial causes should not be posited without positive association with a stratigraphically sharp extinction. The Cretaceous-Tertiary terrestrial extinction is considerably smaller in percentage of extinction than the marine extinction and is spread over 10 my of the Cretaceous and 1 my of the Tertiary. Sixty percent of the 30 dinosaurs in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada had become extinct in the 9 my before the late Maastrichtian sea level drop. The best data on the Permo-Triassic terrestrial extinction are from the Karoo basin of South Africa. This is a series of 6 extinctions in some 8 my, recorded in some 2800 meters of sediment. Precision of dating is enhanced by the high rate of accumulation of these sediments. Few data are readily available on the timing of the marine Permo-Triassic extinction, due to the very restricted number of sequences of Tatarian marine rocks. The terminal Ordovician extinction at 438 my is relatively rapid, taking place over about 0.5 my. The most significant aspect of this extinction is a eustatic sea level lowering associated with a major episode of glaciation. New data on this extinction is the reduction from 61 genera of trilobites in North America to 14, for a 77 percent extinction. Another Ordovician extinction present over 10 percent of the North American craton occurs at 454 my in the form of a catastrophic extinction due to a volcanic eruption which blanketed the U.S. east of the Transcontinental Arch. This is the only other sizeable extinction in the Ordovician.

  7. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  8. MOST SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES ARE MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.; Tacconi, L. J.; Davies, R. I.; Genzel, R.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Smail, I.; Chapman, S. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Omont, A.

    2010-11-20

    We analyze subarcsecond resolution interferometric CO line data for 12 submillimeter-luminous (S{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} {>=} 5 mJy) galaxies with redshifts between 1 and 3, presenting new data for 4 of them. Morphologically and kinematically, most of the 12 systems appear to be major mergers. Five of them are well-resolved binary systems, and seven are compact or poorly resolved. Of the four binary systems for which mass measurements for both separate components can be made, all have mass ratios of 1:3 or closer. Furthermore, comparison of the ratio of compact to binary systems with that observed in local ULIRGs indicates that at least a significant fraction of the compact submillimeter-luminous galaxies (SMGs) must also be late-stage mergers. In addition, the dynamical and gas masses we derive are most consistent with the lower end of the range of stellar masses published for these systems, favoring cosmological models in which SMGs result from mergers. These results all point to the same conclusion that most of the bright SMGs with L{sub IR} {approx}> 5 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun} are likely major mergers.

  9. Followup review of major system aquisitions and major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    In 1985, we reviewed the Department's procedures and practices for managing and controlling its major acquisition program, both for major systems and major projects. The 1985 review resulted in the identification of significant deficiencies. We found, for example, deficiencies relating to documentation and reporting requirements for major acquisitions. The purpose of this review was to determine if this condition had been corrected. The review included an examination of applicable laws, Executive Orders, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars, and Department policies. We examined key documents prepared for major acquisitions and reviewed reports used by senior Departmental officials to monitor these projects. Our audit was based primarily on a limited review of documentation available at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. We did not extend our review of the issues raised in this report because we concluded that the management of major acquisitions was of such importance to the Department at this time that expedited reporting was needed.

  10. Late cretaceous and paroxysmal cretaceous/tertiary extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Officer, Charles B.; Drake, Charles L.; Hallam, Anthony; Devine, Joseph D.

    1987-03-01

    The various geological signatures at Cretaceous/Tertiary time including iridium and other associated elements, microspherules, and shock deformation features are compatible with the suggestion that the transition is marked by a period of intense volcanism. The volatile emissions from this volcanism would lead to acid rain, reduction in the alkalinity and pH of the surface ocean, global atmospheric temperature changes, and ozone layer depletion. These environmental effects coupled with those related to the major sea level regression of the late Cretaceous provide the framework for an explanation of the selective nature of the observed extinction record.

  11. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B

    2015-11-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:26476121

  12. Comet or asteroid shower in the late Eocene?

    PubMed

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

    2004-07-23

    The passage of a comet shower approximately 35 million years ago is generally advocated to explain the coincidence during Earth's late Eocene of an unusually high flux of interplanetary dust particles and the formation of the two largest craters in the Cenozoic, Popigai and the Chesapeake Bay. However, new platinum-group element analyses indicate that Popigai was formed by the impact of an L-chondrite meteorite. Such an asteroidal projectile is difficult to reconcile with a cometary origin. Perhaps instead the higher delivery rate of extraterrestrial matter, dust, and large objects was caused by a major collision in the asteroid belt. PMID:15273387

  13. Glacial onset predated Late Ordovician climate cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Alexandre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Le Hir, Guillaume; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Ordovician glaciation represents the acme of one of only three major icehouse periods in Earth's Phanerozoic history and is notorious for setting the scene for one of the "big five" mass extinction events. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that drove ice sheet growth remain poorly understood and the final extent of the ice sheet crudely constrained. Here using an Earth system model with an innovative coupling method between ocean, atmosphere, and land ice accounting for climate and ice sheet feedback processes, we report simulations portraying for the first time the detailed evolution of the Ordovician ice sheet. We show that the emergence of the ice sheet happened in two discrete phases. In a counterintuitive sequence of events, the continental ice sheet appeared suddenly in a warm climate. Only during the second act, and set against a background of decreasing atmospheric CO2, followed steeply dropping temperatures and extending sea ice. The comparison with abundant sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological data suggests that glacial onset may have occurred as early as the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian, in agreement with recent studies reporting third-order glacioeustatic cycles during the same period. The second step in ice sheet growth, typified by a sudden drop in tropical sea surface temperatures by ˜8°C and the further extension of a single, continental-scale ice sheet over Gondwana, marked the onset of the Hirnantian glacial maximum. By suggesting the presence of an ice sheet over Gondwana throughout most of the Middle and Late Ordovician, our models embrace the emerging paradigm of an "early Paleozoic Ice Age."

  14. Early and late toxicity of radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Joye, Ines; Haustermans, Karin

    2014-01-01

    With the implementation of total mesorectal excision surgery and neoadjuvant (chemo) radiotherapy, the outcome of rectal cancer patients has improved and a substantial proportion of them have become long-term survivors. These advances come at the expense of radiation- and chemotherapy-related toxicity which remains an underestimated problem. Radiation-induced early toxicity in rectal cancer treatment mainly includes diarrhea, cystitis, and perineal dermatitis, while bowel dysfunction, fecal incontinence, bleeding, and perforation, genitourinary dysfunction, and pelvic fractures constitute the majority of late toxicity. It is now generally accepted that short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) and immediate surgery is associated with less early toxicity compared to conventionally fractionated chemoradiotherapy with delayed surgery. There are no significant differences in late toxicity between both treatment regimens. While there is hardly an increase in early toxicity after preoperative SCRT with immediate surgery, late toxicity is substantial compared to surgery alone. Early toxicity is more frequent when a longer interval between SCRT and surgery is used and is comparable to the toxicity observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy except that it occurs after the end of the radiotherapy. So far, randomized phase III trials failed to demonstrate a substantial gain in tumoural response when oxaliplatin or molecular agents are added to the multimodality treatment. Moreover, the addition of these drugs increases toxicity and remains therefore experimental. PMID:25103006

  15. Late-quaternary vegetational dynamics and community stability reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.

    1983-03-01

    Defining the spatial and temporal limits of vegetational processes such as migration and invasion of established communities is a prerequisite to evaluating the degree of stability in plant communities through the late Quaternary. The interpretation of changes in boundaries of major vegetation types over the past 20,000 yr offers a complementary view to that provided by migration maps for particular plant taxa. North of approximately 43°N in eastern North America, continual vegetational disequilibrium has resulted from climatic change, soil development, and species migrations during postglacial times. Between 33° and 39°N, stable full-glacial vegetation was replaced by a relatively unstable vegetation during late-glacial climatic amelioration; stable interglacial vegetation developed there after about 9000 yr B.P. Late-Quaternary vegetation has been in dynamic equilibrium, with a relatively constant flora, south of 33°N on upland interfluves along the northern Gulf Coastal Plain, peninsular Florida, and west-central Mexico.

  16. Late Pennsylvanian climate changes and palynomorph extinctions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kosanke, R.M.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    A major floral change occurs in the Upper Pennsylvanian strata in the Midcontinent, Illinois basin, and in the northern Appalachian basin of eastern United States. Lycospora spp. (derived from arborescent lycopsids) became extinct along with some other palynomorph taxa. This investigation is concerned with the importance of this major floral change. Samples were studied from western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and West Virginia (from a previous study) cover the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Freeport coal bed, uppermost part of the Allegheny Formation, to the Mahoning, Mason, Brush Creek, Wilgus, and Anderson coal beds in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation. The floral change occurs either at or below the accepted Desmoinesian-Missourian boundary in the Midcontinent and Illinois basin, whereas in the northern Appalachians this change occurs in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation, between the Mahoning and Brush Creek coal beds, or when the Mason is present, between the Mahoning and Mason coal beds. With the advent of late Middle Pennsylvanian time, the climate began to change from wet tropical to seasonal tropical. The Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary is the culmination of this drying trend, which was marked by reduction of available water. The peat swamps are interpreted as having changed from the domed type of bog to the planar type under these circumstances. Thus, in general, the coals of the Conemaugh Formation are characteristically much thinner than those of the Allegheny Formation. This was caused by a number of factors including reduced or more seasonal rainfall, decline of arborescent lycopsids, and the increased dominance of herbaceous and fern plants. As a result, there are fewer minable coal beds in the Conemaugh Formation. The first coal bed above the extinction of Lycospora spp. is dominated by the palynomorph taxon Endosporites globiformis which is derived from a heterosporous, herbaceous lycopsid. However, Sigillaria, another

  17. Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

    1985-01-01

    Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

  18. Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-01-01

    Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (p<.001) and significantly less likely to have a father (p=.025) or a mother (p=.048) with a gambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:18499125

  19. SDO Sees Late Phase in Solar Flares

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 2010, shortly after the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) began normal operation, the sun erupted with numerous coronal loops and flares. Many of these showed a previously unseen "late pha...

  20. Late Endovascular Pulmonary Artery Band Migration.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Lucchese, Gianluca; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Treviso, Oscar; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here reported is an unusual case of pulmonary artery band migration with serendipitous clinical presentation late after neonatal palliation of single ventricle with aortic arch hypoplasia. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:26694278

  1. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  2. Outer atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observational results concerning chromospheres and coronae in late-type stars are described. In particular, it is indicated where in the cool half of the HR diagram chromospheres, transition regions, coronae, and large mass loss occur and what the important parameters determining the energy balance of these layers are. The chromospheric modelling process is summarized and models of the late-type supergiants Beta Dra, Epsilon Gem, and Alpha Ori recently computed by Basri and Linsky (1980) are detailed.

  3. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto Herrera, Mariana; Restrepo, José A.; Felipe Buitrago, Andrés; Gómez Mejía, Mabel; Díaz, Jesús H.

    2013-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation. PMID:24829831

  4. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and.... until 7-1-10) § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an extension... indirectly, to levy or collect any delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full...

  5. Unusual late nodular presentation of secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, E; van der Meijden, W I; den Hollander, J C; Neumann, H A M

    2009-04-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a five-week history of an eruption of papules and nodules disseminated over his body and face. We propose that this patient has a late form of secondary syphilis with a nodular, granulomatous inflammation in urgent need of treatment. Otherwise late irreversible sequelae could develop and unwanted possible further sexual transmission could take place. PMID:19304976

  6. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  7. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  8. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  9. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  10. Resistance to late blight in potato clones evaluated at five U.S. locations in 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight (LB), caused by Phytophthora infestans, continues to be a major disease of potatoes. In 2008, 40 potato clones (4 varieties, 32 selections, 4 LB differentials) were evaluated for foliar LB at five U.S. locations (MI, MN, ND, OR, PA) to allow for evaluation under environmental and pathog...

  11. Late-Holocene rodent middens from Rio Limay, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markgraf, Vera; Betancourt, J.; Rylander, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pollen analysis of late-Holocene amberat deposits from two caves near the forest-steppe ecotone in northern Patagonia documents a major shift from Austrocedrus-Nothofagus forest to steppe shrub assemblages some time after 1800 and before 1300 BP. The probable explanation of the reduction of tree taxa calls for either drier summers or intensified land use or a combination of both.

  12. At Issue: A Comprehensive Review and Synthesis of the Literature on Late Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Patrick; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a literature review taxonomy described by Cooper and Hedges (2009), an analysis of 32 publicly available studies of late registrations was conducted to provide researchers and policymakers with an assessment of the extent, quality, and major findings of the studies. The reviewer asserted that few high-quality studies have been conducted on…

  13. Involvement of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the major neurotrophic factors, plays an important role in the maintenance and survival of neurons, synaptic integrity, and synaptic plasticity. Evidence suggests that BDNF is involved in major depression, such that the level of BDNF is decreased in depressed patients and that antidepressants reverse this decrease. Stress, a major factor in depression, also modulates BDNF expression. These studies have led to the proposal of the neurotrophin hypothesis of depression. Late-life depression is associated with disturbances in structural and neural plasticity as well as impairments in cognitive behavior. Stress and aging also play a crucial role in late-life depression. Many recent studies have suggested that not only expression of BDNF is decreased in the serum/plasma of patients with late-life depression, but structural abnormalities in the brain of these patients may be associated with a polymorphism in the BDNF gene, and that there is a relationship between a BDNF polymorphism and antidepressant remission rates. This review provides a critical review of the involvement of BDNF in major depression, in general, and in late-life depression, in particular. PMID:23570887

  14. Trace Elements Reveal a Possible Link Between Jack Hills Detrital Zircons and the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

    2012-03-01

    The Jack Hills detrital zircons range in age 4.3-3.0 Ga. At ca. 3.9 Ga the record contains a population that appears to have recrystallized during a major thermal event. This may be circumstantial terrestrial evidence for the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  15. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major ...

  16. Causes of major tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.

    1980-07-01

    The nonlinear saturation theory of the tearing mode is used to examine the necessary conditions for the occurrence of a major tokamak disruption. The results are compared with full three-dimensional numerical simulations, and with experimental data.

  17. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  18. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  19. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.

    2005-11-01

    The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E-W and NW-SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment

  20. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  1. Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: Consequential late damage

    SciTech Connect

    Heemsbergen, Wilma D. . E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Koper, Peter; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy can be partly explained by late effects of acute toxicity (consequential late damage). We studied whether there is a direct relationship between acute and late GI toxicity. Patients and Methods: A total of 553 evaluable patients from the Dutch dose escalation trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. We defined three outcomes for acute reactions: 1) maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity, 2) maximum acute mucous discharge (AMD), and 3) maximum acute proctitis. Within a multivariable model, late endpoints (overall toxicity and five toxicity indicators) were studied as a function of acute toxicity, pretreatment symptoms, and relevant dose parameters. Results: At multivariable analysis, AMD and acute proctitis were strong predictors for overall toxicity, 'intermittent bleeding,' and 'incontinence pads' (p {<=} 0.01). For 'stools {>=}6/day' all three were strong predictors. No significant associations were found for 'severe bleeding' and 'use of steroids.' The predictive power of the dose parameters remained at the same level or became weaker for most late endpoints. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity is an independent significant predictor of late GI toxicity. This suggests a significant consequential component in the development of late GI toxicity.

  2. Serial population extinctions in a small mammal indicate Late Pleistocene ecosystem instability

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Selina; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love; Lister, Adrian M.; Miller, Rebecca; Otte, Marcel; Germonpré, Mietje; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Stewart, John R.; Barnes, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene global extinction of many terrestrial mammal species has been a subject of intensive scientific study for over a century, yet the relative contributions of environmental changes and the global expansion of humans remain unresolved. A defining component of these extinctions is a bias toward large species, with the majority of small-mammal taxa apparently surviving into the present. Here, we investigate the population-level history of a key tundra-specialist small mammal, the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), to explore whether events during the Late Pleistocene had a discernible effect beyond the large mammal fauna. Using ancient DNA techniques to sample across three sites in North-West Europe, we observe a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity in this species over the last 50,000 y. We further identify a series of extinction-recolonization events, indicating a previously unrecognized instability in Late Pleistocene small-mammal populations, which we link with climatic fluctuations. Our results reveal climate-associated, repeated regional extinctions in a keystone prey species across the Late Pleistocene, a pattern likely to have had an impact on the wider steppe-tundra community, and one that is concordant with environmental change as a major force in structuring Late Pleistocene biodiversity. PMID:23185018

  3. Implementation of the Second Major Requirement for Teacher Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polen, Deborah A.; And Others

    An exploratory study was conducted in North Carolina to examine the impact on teacher education programs of improved academic preparation for undergraduate teacher education majors. This report describes one such approach--the requirement that in addition to general college and teacher preparation courses, undergraduate education students complete…

  4. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a…

  5. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  6. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Fisher, Roberta M; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  7. The late early Miocene Sabine River

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, E. )

    1990-09-01

    Work on a new late early Miocene vertebrate fossil site, in a paleochannel deposit of the upper Carnahan Bayou Member of the lower Fleming Formation, has revealed unexpected data on the course and nature of the Sabine River of that time. Screen washing for smaller vertebrate remains at the site, just west of the Sabine River in Newton County, central eastern Texas, has resulted in the recovery of early Permian, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian), Paleocene/Eocene, late Eocene, and Oligocene/Miocene fossils, in addition to the main early Miocene fauna. The reworked fossils, as well as distinctive mineral grains, show that the late early Miocene Sabine River was connected to the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the Red River, as well as to rivers draining the southern Ouachita Mountains. These rivers must have joined the Texas/Louisiana boundary section of the Sabine River somewhere in northwest Louisiana at that time. This suggests that the Louisiana section of the present Red River pirated the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the river some time after the early Miocene. The preservation of recognizable fossils transported hundreds of miles in a large river itself requires explanation. It is speculated here that the late early Miocene Sabine River incorporated a large amount of the then recently deposited volcanic ash from the Trans-Pecos Volcanic Field. Montmorillonite clay from the altered volcanic ash would have made the river very turbid, which could have allowed coarse sand-sized particles to be carried in the suspended load of the river, rather than in its bed load (where they would have been destroyed by the rolling chert gravel). Additional evidence for such long-distance fossil transport in the late early Miocene rivers of the western Gulf Coastal Plain comes from the abundant Cretaceous fossils of the upper Oakville Formation of southeast Texas and the Siphonina davisi zone of the southeast Texas subsurface.

  8. Late Paleozoic orogeny in Alaska's Farewell terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Dumoulin, J.; Layer, P.; Sunderlin, D.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, B.; Harris, A.G.; Abbott, G.; Bundtzen, T.; Kusky, T.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously unrecognized late Paleozoic orogeny in two parts of Alaska's Farewell terrane, an event that has not entered into published scenarios for the assembly of Alaska. The Farewell terrane was long regarded as a piece of the early Paleozoic passive margin of western Canada, but is now thought, instead, to have lain between the Siberian and Laurentian (North American) cratons during the early Paleozoic. Evidence for a late Paleozoic orogeny comes from two belts located 100-200 km apart. In the northern belt, metamorphic rocks dated at 284-285 Ma (three 40Ar/39Ar white-mica plateau ages) provide the main evidence for orogeny. The metamorphic rocks are interpreted as part of the hinterland of a late Paleozoic mountain belt, which we name the Browns Fork orogen. In the southern belt, thick accumulations of Pennsylvanian-Permian conglomerate and sandstone provide the main evidence for orogeny. These strata are interpreted as the eroded and deformed remnants of a late Paleozoic foreland basin, which we name the Dall Basin. We suggest that the Browns Fork orogen and Dall Basin comprise a matched pair formed during collision between the Farewell terrane and rocks to the west. The colliding object is largely buried beneath Late Cretaceous flysch to the west of the Farewell terrane, but may have included parts of the so-called Innoko terrane. The late Paleozoic convergent plate boundary represented by the Browns Fork orogen likely connected with other zones of plate convergence now located in Russia, elsewhere in Alaska, and in western Canada. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Infrared Observations of Late Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    Substantive mass loss resulting in appreciable circumstellar dust envelopes is common in late-type stars. The evolutionary history and physical state of a cool star determine the chemistry within the outer stellar atmosphere mirrored by the molecular and particulate material present in the envelope. The observational consequences of this debris determined by moderate spectral resolution infrared spectrophotometry are reviewed. Significant information is provided by observations of the emergent energy flux of both the cool stellar photosphere and of the circumstellar dust envelope. The observation suggests that mass-loss occurs to some degree throughout late stellar evolutionary phases and that occasional periods of high mass loss are not uncommon.

  10. A case of late-onset oligomeganephronia.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rafael José Vargas; Oppermann, Kenselyn; Schein, Luiz Eduardo; Pêgas, Karla Lais

    2012-01-01

    A 33-year old caucasian man was investigated for pain in the right flank, proteinuria, hemathuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. He also presented an abnormal ultrasonography, which revealed asymmetric kidneys. Through renal biopsy, the diagnosis of oligomeganephronia (OMN) was confirmed. OMN is a very rare form of renal hypoplasia, and late-onset in adulthood is even rarer. In the pediatric population, OMN leads to end-stage-renal-failure(ESRF) in a few years. This is the sixth case related in the literature of a late-onset OMN who have not yet developed ESRF. PMID:23318829

  11. Nonavian feathers in a late Triassic archosaur.

    PubMed

    Jones, T D; Ruben, J A; Martin, L D; Kurochkin, E N; Feduccia, A; Maderson, P F; Hillenius, W J; Geist, N R; Alifanov, V

    2000-06-23

    Longisquama insignis was an unusual archosaur from the Late Triassic of central Asia. Along its dorsal axis Longisquama bore a series of paired integumentary appendages that resembled avian feathers in many details, especially in the anatomy of the basal region. The latter is sufficiently similar to the calamus of modern feathers that each probably represents the culmination of virtually identical morphogenetic processes. The exact relationship of Longisquama to birds is uncertain. Nevertheless, we interpret Longisquama's elongate integumentary appendages as nonavian feathers and suggest that they are probably homologous with avian feathers. If so, they antedate the feathers of Archaeopteryx, the first known bird from the Late Jurassic. PMID:10864867

  12. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  13. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  14. Phylogeny of major intrinsic proteins.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jonas A H; Johanson, Urban

    2010-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form a large superfamily of proteins that can be divided into different subfamilies and groups according to phylogenetic analyses. Plants encode more MIPs than o ther organisms and se ven subfamilies have been defined, whereofthe Nodulin26-like major intrinsic proteins (NIPs) have been shown to permeate metalloids. In this chapter we review the phylogeny of MIPs in general and especially of the plant MIPs. We also identify bacterial NIP-like MIPs and discuss the evolutionary implications of this finding regarding the origin and ancestral transport specificity of the NIPs. PMID:20666221

  15. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  16. Deformation of the late Miocene to Pliocene Inyo Surface, eastern Sierra region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A middle and late Miocene erosion surface, the Inyo Surface, underlies late Miocene mafic flows in the White Mountains and late Miocene and (or) early Pliocene flows elsewhere in the eastern Sierra region. The Inyo Surface is correlated with an erosion surface that underlies late Miocene mafic flows in the central and northern Sierra Nevada. The mafic flows had outpourings similar to flood basalts, although of smaller volume, providing paleohorizontal and paleolowland indicators. The flows filed and locally topped the existing landscape forming broad plateau-like flats. Topographic relief in the region was characterized by weathered and rounded slopesp rior to late Miocene mafic magmatism. Relicts of the older landscape lie adjacent to late Miocene and early Pliocene basalt-covered lowlands that now occur within the crests of ranges that have 2500-3000 m relief and dramatically steep escarpments. Late Miocene mafic flows that lie on the crest of the Sierra Nevada adjacent to the White Mountains predate significant activity on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone. These deposits and accompanying erosion surfaces provide excellent strain markers for reconstructing part of the Walker Lane north of the Garlock fault and west of the Amargosa drainage, here referred to as the eastern Sierra region. The Inyo Surface is a compound erosional surface that records at least four major erosion events during the Cenozoic. These four surfaces were first recognized on the Kern Plateau and named from oldest to youngest, the Summit Upland, the Subsummit Plateau, the Chagoopa Plateau, and the Canyon. The three older surfaces have also been subsequently modifi ed by Pleistocene glaciation. The compound erosion surface, which is locally overlain by late Miocene mafic flows in the northern and central Sierra Nevada, is here referred to as the Lindgren Surface. Correlatives in the eastern Sierra region are found in the White Mountains, Inyo Mountains, Darwin Plateau, Coso Range, and

  17. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  18. Treatment of Late-Life Depression Alleviates Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Whyte, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the burden experienced by family caregivers of older adults with depression and to examine the positive effects on caregivers of treating late-life depression. Design Two-phase treatment study for major depressive disorder (MDD) that included 6 weeks of open treatment with antidepressant medication for all older patients followed by 16 weeks of randomized treatment for patients who were partial responders, comparing a combination of medication and interpersonal psychotherapy with medication alone. Setting Primary care and university late-life mental health research clinic. Participants Adults aged 60 and older participating in a randomized trial for treatment of MDD who enrolled in a family caregiver study and their caregiver (N = 244 dyads). Measurements Improvement in patient symptoms during open treatment (lower scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)) and remission of depression during randomized treatment (3 consecutive weekly HRSD scores of ≤7) were examined as predictors of lower general caregiver burden and burden specific to patient depression. Results Caregivers reported a moderate to high level of general caregiver burden on average. Change in patient depression during open treatment was associated with significantly decreased depression-specific burden (β = −0.22, P =.001) and a trend toward lower general burden (β = − 0.08, P =.08). Caregivers of patients who remitted showed significantly decreased depression-specific burden (F (1,76) = 4.27, P =.04). Conclusion Treatment of late-life depression has benefits that extend to the family members on whom patients depend. Caregiver education and support may strengthen these effects. PMID:19943833

  19. A complete insect from the Late Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Clément, Gaël; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Grandcolas, Philippe; D'Haese, Cyrille; Lagebro, Linda; Denayer, Julien; Gueriau, Pierre; Lafaite, Patrick; Olive, Sébastien; Prestianni, Cyrille; Nel, André

    2012-08-01

    After terrestrialization, the diversification of arthropods and vertebrates is thought to have occurred in two distinct phases, the first between the Silurian and the Frasnian stages (Late Devonian period) (425-385 million years (Myr) ago), and the second characterized by the emergence of numerous new major taxa, during the Late Carboniferous period (after 345 Myr ago). These two diversification periods bracket the depauperate vertebrate Romer's gap (360-345 Myr ago) and arthropod gap (385-325 Myr ago), which could be due to preservational artefact. Although a recent molecular dating has given an age of 390 Myr for the Holometabola, the record of hexapods during the Early-Middle Devonian (411.5-391 Myr ago, Pragian to Givetian stages) is exceptionally sparse and based on fragmentary remains, which hinders the timing of this diversification. Indeed, although Devonian Archaeognatha are problematic, the Pragian of Scotland has given some Collembola and the incomplete insect Rhyniognatha, with its diagnostic dicondylic, metapterygotan mandibles. The oldest, definitively winged insects are from the Serpukhovian stage (latest Early Carboniferous period). Here we report the first complete Late Devonian insect, which was probably a terrestrial species. Its 'orthopteroid' mandibles are of an omnivorous type, clearly not modified for a solely carnivorous diet. This discovery narrows the 45-Myr gap in the fossil record of Hexapoda, and demonstrates further a first Devonian phase of diversification for the Hexapoda, as in vertebrates, and suggests that the Pterygota diversified before and during Romer's gap. PMID:22859205

  20. Late Cretaceous tectonic framework of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenhan; Barosh, Patrick J.; Ye, Peisheng; Hu, Daogong

    2015-12-01

    New research, coupled with previous data, reveals the Late Cretaceous paleo-geography, and related paleo-tectonic movement of the Tibetan Plateau. A vast ocean, the Neo-Tethys Ocean, perhaps as wide as ∼7000 km, existed between the Indian and Eurasian Continental Plates in the early Late Cretaceous. In addition, a Himalaya Marginal Sea lay along the border of the Indian Plate and other marginal seas were present to the north in both the southern Lhasa and southwestern Tarim Blocks. Northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Oceanic Plate along the Yalung-Zangbu Suture closed most of the ocean and led to intensive thrusting, tight folding, magmatic plutonism and volcanic eruptions in the central plateau to the north. A magmatic arc up to 500 km wide formed across the southern margin of the continental plate in central Tibet and its varying granitic composition appears to reflect the depth to the subducted plate and define its geometry. A series of large, chiefly north-dipping thrust systems also developed across central Tibet. These include thrusts along the Yalung-Zangbu and Bangong-Nujiang Sutures, the North Gangdese and North Lhasa Thrusts in the Lhasa Block, the Qiangtang and North Tangula Thrusts in the Qiangtang block, the Hoh-Xil and Bayan Har Thrusts in the Hoh-Xil Block, as well as the sinistral-slip South Kunlun and Altyn Tagh Faults in northern Tibet. Uplifts formed above the hanging walls of the major thrusts and their eroded debris formed thick red-beds in basins below them. The central Tibetan Plateau maintained a low elevation and coastal vegetation was dominant during the Late Cretaceous.

  1. APATHY IN LATE-LIFE DEPRESSION: COMMON, PERSISTENT, AND DISABLING

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Genevieve S.; Bhutani, Saumya; Lucas, Bryony J.; Gunning, Faith M.; AbdelMalak, Bassem; Seirup, Joanna K.; Klimstra, Sibel A.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the relationship between apathy and disability in late-life depression, and (2) the functional significance of improvement in apathy following escitalopram treatment in terms of its relationship to disability. Methods Subjects were 71 non-demented elderly with non-psychotic major depression. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, subjects who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) ≥ 18 received escitalopram 10mg daily for 12 weeks. Apathy and disability were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS) respectively. These measures and the HDRS were administered at baseline and again following 12 weeks of treatment. Results At baseline, 38% of depressed subjects had significant apathy (AES ≥ 36.5). Severity of apathy at baseline significantly correlated with severity of disability. In a multivariate regression model, baseline severity of apathy, but not the overall depressive syndrome (HDRS), significantly correlated with baseline disability. Following escitalopram treatment, improvement in apathy significantly correlated with improvement in disability measures, while change in the rest of the depressive syndrome did not. The overall change in apathy and disability in response to escitalopram treatment was significant but small. Conclusions Apathy is common in late-life depression and is associated with disability above and beyond the influence of other depressive symptoms. Given the strong relationship between apathy and disability, understanding the neurobiology of apathy and developing treatments for apathy may improve the functional outcomes of late-life depression. PMID:25047306

  2. Cataclysmic Late pleistocene flooding from glacial Lake Missoula: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Bunker, Russell C.

    Late Wisconsin floods from glacial Lake Missoula occurred between approximately 16 and 12 ka BP. Many floods occurred; some were demonstrably cataclysmic. Early studies of Missoula flooding centered on the anomalous physiography of the Channeled Scabland, which J. Harlen Bretz hypothesized in 1923 to have developed during a debacle that he named 'The Spokane Flood'. Among the ironies in the controversy over this hypothesis was a mistaken view of uniformitarianism held by Bretz's adversaries. After resolution of the scabland's origin by cataclysmic outburst flooding from glacial Lake Missoula, research since 1960 emphasized details of flood magnitudes, frequency, routing and number. Studies of flood hydraulics and other physical parameters need to utilize modern computerized procedures for flow modeling, lake-burst simulation, and sediment-transport analysis. Preliminary simulation models indicate the probability of multiple Late Wisconsin jökulhlaups from Lake Missoula, although these models predict a wide range of flood magnitudes. Major advances have been made in the study of low-energy, rhythmically bedded sediments that accumulated in flood slack-water areas. The 'forty floods' hypothesis postulates that each rhythmite represents the deposition in such slack-water areas of separate, distinct cataclysmic floods that can be traced from Lake Missoula to the vicinity of Portland, Oregon. However, the hypothesis has numerous unsubstantiated implications concerning flood magnitudes, sources, routing and sedimentation dynamics. There were multiple great Late Wisconsin floods in the Columbia River system of the northwestern United States. Studies of high-energy, high altitude flood deposits are necessary to evaluate the magnitudes of these floods. Improved geochronologic studies throughout the immense region impacted by the flooding will be required to properly evaluate flood frequency. The cataclysmic flood concept championed by J. Harlen Bretz continues to stimulate

  3. Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families

    SciTech Connect

    Corder, E.H.; Saunders, A.M.; Strittmatter, W.J.; Gaskell, P.C.; Roses, A.D.; Petricak-Vance, M.A. ); Schmechel, D.E. Durham VA Medical Center, CA ); Small, G.W. ); Haines, J.L. )

    1993-08-13

    The apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE-[epsilon]4) is genetically associated with the common late onset familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Risk for AD increased from 20% to 90% and mean age at onset decreased from 84 to 68 years with increasing number of APOE-[epsilon]4 alleles in 42 families with late onset AD. Thus APOE-[epsilon]4 gene dose is a major risk factor for late onset AD and, in these families, homozygosity for APOE-[epsilon]4 was virtually sufficient to cause AD by age 80.

  4. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  5. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  6. Major Books on Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Michael H.

    A review of the literature of intercultural communication comprises this document. The author deals with both communication (the process) and communications (the channels) of the various disciplinary approaches across and within national and cultural boundaries. The essay introduces the major books in intercultural communication, emphasizing…

  7. Coffee, Tea, or Major Gifts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann

    1990-01-01

    The University of Notre Dame (Indiana) fund-raising program uses first-class transportation and hospitality in major donor weekends. Features include careful research, personalized correspondence, transportation provided by trustee-owned private planes, scheduled ground transportation, accommodations, information packets, and a weekend of…

  8. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  9. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  10. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  11. Major Work Program Parent Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This guide is designed to help parents and other interested persons understand the nature and needs of gifted children, to provide ideas and activities that will nurture gifted children, and to explain the components of the Major Work Program, which is the gifted education program of the Cleveland (Ohio) Public School District. The guide outlines…

  12. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  13. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  15. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  16. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  17. Late relapses in acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Roberto; Carmosino, Ida; Breccia, Massimo; Minni, Antonio; Testi, Anna; Iorio, Nicol; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Mandelli, Franco; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1997, among 53 acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients in 1st complete remission (CR) after 5 years from diagnosis, we observed 5 late relapses (9.4%) after 60, 61, 71, 101 and 155 months from diagnosis; 3 of those late relapses (7.7%) occurred among 39 patients previously treated with all-trans-retinoic acid. An involvement of the mastoid occurred in 3/5 patients (60%), compared with 2/32 patients (6.3%) at an early relapse (p < 0.02). As to the treatment of the late relapse, 1 patient received all-trans-retinoic acid alone followed by allogeneic transplantation and 4 patients were treated according to the GIMEMA 0191 protocol. All patients achieved a 2nd CR and are still alive: 4 in the 2nd molecular CR after 6, 33, 34 and 115 months; 1 relapsed after 15 months and is now in the 3rd CR. In conclusion, a late relapse occurred in a sizeable fraction of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients: the high rate of ear involvement might be explained considering the ear as a 'disease sanctuary'. PMID:17135723

  18. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework § 600.1015...

  19. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  20. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  1. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  2. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  3. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  4. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  5. The early days of late blight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years. PMID:23795302

  6. Successful School Principalship in Late-Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill; Edmunds, Bill; Ewington, John; Kendall, Lawrie; Kendall, Diana; Silins, Halia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Who are late-career school principals? Do they continue to make a positive contribution to their schools? Do they feel tired and trapped or do they maintain their commitment to education and young people? The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues, employing the results of a survey on successful school principalship with the…

  7. 30 CFR 870.21 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 870.21 Section 870.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  8. Late breast recurrence after lumpectomy and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.M.; Spitalier, J.M.; Amalric, R.

    1983-08-01

    For 276 patients with early breast cancer followed from 10 to 21 years after lumpectomy and radiotherapy, the recurrence rate in the treated breast was 15.6%, and 7.2% developed contralateral breast cancer. Only 63% of breast recurrences occurred within 5 years, and the remainder were late failures, with 5 of the 43 recurrences observed after 10 years. The proportion of failures occurring late was greater for T/sub 1/ than for T/sub 2/ tumors (53% vs 25%). Twenty-six percent of early recurrences were inoperable, and an adverse impact of early recurrence on 10-year survival was clearly demonstrable. Late recurrences were all operable and did not appear to be associated with decreased survival. Only 16 of the 36 patients (44%) with operable breast recurrence ever developed metastatic disease, and 5 year survival following salvage therapy was 62%. Although the treated breast remains at continuous cancer risk even beyond 5 years, the prognosis of late recurrence appears quite similar to that of contralateral breast cancer.

  9. Processing of Inflected Nouns in Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portin, Marja; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the recognition of Swedish inflected nouns in two participant groups. Both groups were Finnish-speaking late learners of Swedish, but the groups differed in regard to their Swedish language proficiency. In a visual lexical decision task, inflected Swedish nouns from three frequency ranges were contrasted with corresponding…

  10. Bereaved Elders: Transformative Learning in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand older adults' (elders) transformative learning through bereavement in late life. Nine bereaved elders were engaged through in-depth interviews. Data analysis via the constant comparative method indicated deep changes in views of death-related issues as well as ongoing life-related issues. The process of…

  11. The late maintenance of hippocampal LTP: requirements, phases, 'synaptic tagging', 'late-associativity' and implications.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Klaus G; Frey, Julietta U

    2007-01-01

    Our review focuses on the mechanisms which enable the late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP; >3h), a phenomenon which is thought to underlie prolonged memory. About 20 years ago we showed for the first time that the maintenance of LTP - like memory storage--depends on intact protein synthesis and thus, consists of at least two temporal phases. Here we concentrate on mechanisms required for the induction of the transient early-LTP and of the protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP. Our group has shown that the induction of late-LTP requires the associative activation of heterosynaptic inputs, i.e. the synergistic activation of glutamatergic and modulatory, reinforcing inputs within specific, effective time windows. The induction of late-LTP is characterized by novel, late-associative properties such as 'synaptic tagging' and 'late-associative reinforcement'. Both phenomena require the associative setting of synaptic tags as well as the availability of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) and they are restricted to functional dendritic compartments, in general. 'Synaptic tagging' guarantees input specificity and thus the specific processing of afferent signals for the establishment of late-LTP. 'Late-associative reinforcement' describes a process where early-LTP by the co-activation of modulatory inputs can be transformed into late-LTP in activated synapses where a tag is set. Recent evidence from behavioral experiments, which studied processes of emotional and cognitive reinforcement of LTP, point to the physiological relevance of the above mechanisms during cellular and system's memory formation. PMID:16919684

  12. Late Quaternary sedimentation on the North Aegean continental margin, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D.J.W. ); Perissoratis, C. )

    1991-01-01

    The late Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the North Aegean continental shelf and adjacent basins has been interpreted from boomer and 3.5-kHz seismic profiles. Ages derived from shallow cores and offshore wells, and relative offsets on small synsedimentary faults, provide chronological control. Sea level history inferred from seismic stratigraphy correlates with the global eustatic sea level record based on oxygen isotopic curves. The present depth of the delta plain formed on the outer shelf during the late stage 6 lowstand provides a dated and originally horizontal marker for estimating rates of tectonic subsidence. Gross distribution of sediment facies is similar in both tectonically stable and active areas. The shell break formed by delta progradation, but is marked by faults in most places because of the accommodation provided by graben subsidence rates of 0.3-1.5 mm/yr. Standard sequence stratigraphic analysis can be applied to these sediments deposited during high-amplitude Quaternary sea level oscillations. High rates of subsidence result in the preservation an unusually complete record of sea level change. Major lowstand progradation is dependent on the duration, rather than the magnitude, of sea level lowstand. The long glaciations in isotopic stages 6, 12, 16, and 22 resulted in the most prominent seaward progradation on the margin. Sandy lowstand turbidite deposits formed only when there was rapid fall in sea level; otherwise sand was trapped on delta tops and silty muds were deposited in deep water.

  13. Late effects from particulate radiations in primate and rabbit tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Bergtold, D. S.; Lee, A. C.; Pickering, J. E.

    Optic tissues in groups of New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated locally at different stages throughout the median life span of the species with a single dose (9 Gy) of 425 MeV/amu Ne ions (LET∞~30 keV/μm) and then inspected routinely for the progression of radiation cataracts. The level of early cataracts was found to be highest in the youngest group of animals irradiated (8 weeks old) but both the onset of late cataracts and loss of vision occurred earlier when animals were irradiated during the second half of the median life span. This age response can have serious implications in terms of space radiation hazards to man. Rhesus monkeys that had been subjected to whole-body skin irradiation (2.8 and 5.6 Gy) by 32 MeV protons (range in tissue ~ 1 cm) some twenty years previously were analysed for radiation damage by the propagation of skin fibroblasts in primary cultures. Such propagation from skin biopsies in MEM-α medium (serial cultivation) or in supplemented Ham's F-10 medium (cultivation without dilution) revealed late damage in the stem (precursor) cells of the skins of the animals. The proton fluxes employed in this experiment are representative of those occurring in major solar flares.

  14. Global Views of Mars in late Northern Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbits around the red planet 12 times a day. Each orbit goes from pole to pole. Over the course of a single day, the wide angle cameras of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system take 24 pictures--12 red and 12 blue--that are assembled to create a daily global map. Such global views are used to monitor the martian weather and observe changes in the patterns of frost and dust distribution on the surface. These two pictures are examples of what Mars looks like in late northern summer, which is also late southern winter. At this time of year, the south polar cap (bottom, white feature in each image) is very large, extending from the south pole northward to 60oS. Also at this time of year, clouds of water ice crystals are common over the four largest volcanoes in Tharsis. The picture on the right shows Tharsis, with the four volcanoes forming a triangle resembling the pattern of holes on a bowling ball. The image on the left is centered on Syrtis Major, a dark, windswept volcanic plain so large that it has been known to science since the first telescopes were turned toward Mars in the 1600s. The elliptical bright feature at lower-center in the left image is the Hellas Basin, the largest unequivocal impact basin (formed by an asteroid or comet) on the planet. Hellas is approximately 2200 km (1,370 mi) across.

  15. Late Quaternary glaciation in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Michéle; Gillespie, Alan R.; Burke, Raymond M.; Thompson, Stephen C.; Stone, John

    2008-04-01

    The Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan contains multiple moraines and drift from late Quaternary glaciations. The spatial/temporal distribution of the glaciers inferred from the moraines suggests that the main factor controlling glacier advance here was the availability of moisture. The dominant modern climatic signatures in northern Central Asia include orographic thunderstorms in summer, cold and dry Siberian high-pressure cells in winter, and westerly cyclonic storms from the North Atlantic and eastern Mediterranean in spring and fall. Changes in any of these systems during the late Quaternary would have varied precipitation delivery to, and glacier growth in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. Geomorphic mapping and reconnaissance-level 10Be cosmic-ray exposure dating of moraine sequences in six drainages indicate that there were multiple "maximum" advances of similar extents and equilibrium-line depressions across the range. Glaciers in the north and east of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan last advanced to their maximum positions during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5 and again during MIS 4, while in the south and west of the range advance occurred during MIS 3. In contrast to maritime Europe and North America, there is no evidence of a major glacial advance during MIS 2. Glacier advances during MIS 2 and since were restricted to the vicinity of modern glaciers, allowing the older glacial record to be preserved well.

  16. Review article: late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saad Aldin, Ehab; Saadeh, Joanna; Ghulmiyyah, Labib; Hitti, Eveline

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis to prevent the increased mortality associated with rupture. Twenty-seven cases of late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancy reported in the English literature since 1918 were reviewed and analysed for presenting symptoms, missed diagnosis rate at initial presentation, location of ectopic and rupture rate at diagnosis. The presenting symptoms were found to be non-specific. The diagnosis in this population is twice more likely to be missed than in women with intact uteri. The rupture rate is 63%, compared with 37% in women with intact uteri. The majority of late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancies (62%) were located in the fallopian tubes. Because of the potential risk of mortality, emergency physicians should always consider the possibility of ectopic pregnancy in childbearing women whose surgical history includes hysterectomy without oophorectomy. Evaluation of abdominal pain in this population should include a pregnancy test to ensure prompt diagnosis when the possibility of pregnancy exists clinically. PMID:22672163

  17. Fractures in late medieval skeletal populations from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Marija P; Roberts, Charlotte A; Rakocević, Zoran B; Djonić, Danijela D; Lesić, Aleksandar R

    2006-06-01

    Bone fractures were analyzed from skeletal remains of 861 adult individuals from six cemeteries dating to the Late Medieval period in Serbia. Results of the study were compared to other cemetery populations (635 individual skeletons) of the same date and region in an attempt to understand fracture patterns. The association of types of fractures and their prevalence with sex, age at death, cemetery site, and information deriving from historical sources are discussed. Results showed that the long bone fracture frequency was 0.7%, and the majority of the fractures were the result of direct force. This rate is similar to some studies of contemporary British skeletal samples. However, it is much lower than for some other Old World sites. Cranial vault fractures had a rate of 6.7%, and of the facial skeleton, 1.3%; the frontal bone was the most affected of bones of the cranial vault. Injuries were more common on the upper extremities (0.8%) compared to the lower (0.6%). However, the fibula was the most fractured bone (2.8%), followed by the ulna (2.4%). This pattern is similar to three of six Late Medieval urban sites in Britain. These findings suggest that this rural community was exposed to a low risk of trauma, probably related mostly to accidents sustained during farming, and rarely to interpersonal violence. PMID:16365855

  18. Distance majorization and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

  19. Distance majorization and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton’s method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

  20. Oxidative Stress and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Mona; Srivastava, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major causative factor for major depression is inflammation, autoimmune tissue damage and prolonged psychological stress, which leads to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to know the association of free radicals and antioxidant status in subjects suffering from major depression. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed as a case of unipolar depression as per DSM IV, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were compared with 40 healthy age and sex matched controls. The sera of both the groups were collected taking aseptic precautions and were evaluated for the markers of oxidative stress and for the antioxidants. The age group of the sample and the controls was between 18-60 y, both males and females were equally represented in the groups. Results: A significantly high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in the patients with major depression (1.95 ± 1.04 mmol/L) as compared to healthy controls (0.366 ± 0.175 mmol/L) (p < 0.0001). The serum level of nitrite was found to be lower in cases (23.18 ± 12.08 μmol/L) in comparison to controls (26.18 ± 8.68 μmol/L) (p = 0.1789). Similarly the serum level of ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly below as compared to healthy controls (all p < 0.0001). Ceruloplasmin levels were also depressed in cases (p = 0.3943). Conclusion: The study concluded that in the absence of known oxidative injury causative agents, the lowered levels of antioxidants and higher levels of MDA implicate the high degree of oxidative stress in unipolar depression. PMID:25653939

  1. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    PubMed

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  2. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Tjalling; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2013-07-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (˜1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and surface relief between lobes of different ages. The boulder breakdown rate is 3.5 m/Myr, surface smoothing (denudation) rate is approximated as 0.89 m/Myr. These rates exceed previous estimates for the Amazonian by orders of magnitude. We attribute this to locality, high initial smoothing rates after morphological activity and obliquity and eccentricity-driven variation in the availability of (metastable) liquid water, which acts as a catalyst for weathering during these periods. The results have major implications for process interpretation of Martian landforms, as they imply that typical small-scale morphology may be subdued within <1 Myr.

  3. Geochemical evidence for a comet shower in the late Eocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, K.A.; Montanari, A.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Shoemaker, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Analyses of pelagic limestones indicate that the flux of extraterrestrial helium-3 to Earth was increased for a 2.5-million year (My) period in the late Eocene. The enhancement began ~1 My before and ended ~1.5 My after the major impact events that produced the large Popigai and Chesapeake Bay craters ~36 million years ago. The correlation between increased concentrations of helium-3, a tracer of fine-grained interplanetary dust, and large impacts indicates that the abundance of Earth-crossing objects and dustiness in the inner solar system were simultaneously but only briefly enhanced. These observations provide evidence for a comet shower triggered by an impulsive perturbation of the Oort cloud.

  4. Chad Basin: Paleoenvironments of the Sahara since the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Roquin, Claude; Sepulchre, Pierre; Moussa, Abderamane; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-08-01

    Since the mid 1990s, the Mission paléoanthropologique francotchadienne (MPFT) conducts yearly paleontological field investigations of the Miocene-Pliocene of the Chad Basin. This article synthesizes some of the results of the MPFT, with focus on the Chad Basin development during the Neogene. We propose an overview of the depositional paleoenvironments of this part of Africa at different scales of time and space, based on a multidisciplinary approach (sedimentary geology, geomorphology, geophysic, numerical simulations and geochronology). The Miocene-Pliocene paleoenvironments are examined through the sedimentary archives of the early hominids levels and the Holocene Lake Mega-Chad episode illustrates the last major paleoenvironmental change in this area. The sedimentary record of the Chad Basin since the Late Miocene can be schematized as the result of recurrent interactions from lake to desert environments.

  5. Direct evidence of hybodont shark predation on Late Jurassic ammonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain

    2011-06-01

    Sharks are known to have been ammonoid predators, as indicated by analysis of bite marks or coprolite contents. However, body fossil associations attesting to this predator-prey relationship have never been described so far. Here, I report a unique finding from the Late Jurassic of western France: a complete specimen of the Kimmeridgian ammonite Orthaspidoceras bearing one tooth of the hybodont shark Planohybodus. Some possible tooth puncture marks are also observed. This is the first direct evidence of such a trophic link between these two major Mesozoic groups, allowing an accurate identification of both organisms. Although Planohybodus displays a tearing-type dentition generally assumed to have been especially adapted for large unshelled prey, our discovery clearly shows that this shark was also able to attack robust ammonites such as aspidoceratids. The direct evidence presented here provides new insights into the Mesozoic marine ecosystem food webs.

  6. Geochemical evidence for a comet shower in the late Eocene.

    PubMed

    Farley, K A; Montanari, A; Shoemaker, E M; Shoemaker, C S

    1998-05-22

    Analyses of pelagic limestones indicate that the flux of extraterrestrial helium-3 to Earth was increased for a 2.5-million year (My) period in the late Eocene. The enhancement began approximately 1 My before and ended approximately 1.5 My after the major impact events that produced the large Popigai and Chesapeake Bay craters approximately 36 million years ago. The correlation between increased concentrations of helium-3, a tracer of fine-grained interplanetary dust, and large impacts indicates that the abundance of Earth-crossing objects and dustiness in the inner solar system were simultaneously but only briefly enhanced. These observations provide evidence for a comet shower triggered by an impulsive perturbation of the Oort cloud. PMID:9596575

  7. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  8. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  9. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  10. Study on the Late Quaternary Activity of Niyang River Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangtou, T.

    2015-12-01

    Niyang River fault with north-west trending is located on the west side of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. It dislocated the eastern segment of Brahmaputra fault zone. We study the late Quaternary activity of the Niyang River fault by the high-resolution image data in combination with detailed field investigation, GPS observation, trenching and radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples. The GPS observation data shows that the movement characteristics of Niyang River fault is dextral strike-slip with extrusion at present, its strike-slip rate is 3~4mm/a and its extrusion rate is 2~3mm/a. The trench at Bayi town revealed that the first terraces of Niyang River was dislocated 50cm by the fault and it is dated to be 1220±40cal.a BP.. We found that third Lake terraces of the Linzhi ancient lakes was dislocated about 1.5m at Mirui town and it is dated to be 18060±60cal.a BP.. By the fault influence, there are different elevations at the same level terraces of Niyang river and the Linzhi ancient lakes both sides of Niyang river near Bayi town. The altitude of the second terraces of Niyang River is about 20 meters at eastern side higher than western side and it is dated to be between 8860±40cal.a BP. and 9870±50cal.a BP., the altitude of the third lake terraces of the Linzhi ancient lakes is about 60 meters at eastern side higher than western side. So, the average vertical slip rate of Niyang River fault was about 2mm/a since Holocene and its average vertical slip rate was about 3mm/a since late period of the late Pleistocene. This is consistent with GPS observation data. All these data suggest that Niyang River fault is active since Holocene. So further detailed research will be necessary to determine the range of the latest activity of this fault, movement characteristics and velocity and recurrence intervals of major earthquakes. These data will be a great significance for earthquake zonation and assessment of seismic risk in this region. Keywords:Niyang River fault

  11. Early, middle, and late Miocene basin development, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.

    1988-03-01

    Contrary to earlier models of progressive basin development related to northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, it can now be documented that the major basins of coastal California developed at about the same time in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. This basin development is marked by rapid deepening of basin floors, subsequent changes in depositional facies from nonmarine and shallow marine to deep marine, and widespread volcanism dated at 23-20 Ma. The coastal basins likely formed by rifting and subsidence linked to the proximity of the Farallon-pacific spreading ridge and the subduction of hot young oceanic crust, but cannot be correlated to any existing models of triple junction migration. Indeed, strike-slip restored positions of the coastal basins at their inception indicate that the basins were spread out over about 800 km of the southern coast of California. The Miocene basins were likely larger than the present coastal basins, although their configurations are obscured by late Neogene faulting and erosion. It is likely, however, that paleohighs separated at least some of the margin into proximal and distal basins. With local exceptions, structuring in the Miocene basins was primarily extensional, with widespread strike-slip and thrust tectonics restricted mainly to latest Miocene and younger events. Plate reconstructions suggest several hundred kilometers of transform motion occurred along the California margin during the Miocene, but there is only limited evidence of this movement in the known history of either the basins or the major faults of California. Sedimentation during the Miocene was controlled by both oceanic conditions (biogenic component) and the relative abundance of clastic input. The clastic input was controlled by a combination of proximal vs distal basinal positions, eustatic sea level changes, and local tectonics.

  12. Late Quaternary river drainage and fish evolution, Southland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, D.; Burridge, C.; Anderson, L.; Waters, J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Late Quaternary to Holocene landscape evolution in southern New Zealand was dominated by glacial outwash processes. Evolution of the drainage network on a regional scale was punctuated by numerous river capture events associated with outwash transport and deposition. River capture events can be inferred from geological and topographic observations throughout the region. Independent evidence for river capture and drainage reorientation can be obtained from genetic studies of a freshwater-limited fish ( Galaxias 'southern', informal name). Regionally extensive interlinking of principal rivers (Mataura, Oreti, Aparima) via coalescence of alluvial plains onshore, and offshore at sea level lowstands, has resulted in a widespread genetic homogenisation of fish populations (< 0.9% mtDNA divergence). Genetically similar populations of G. 'southern' are present in an adjacent catchment (Von) that was captured episodically by the neighbouring major river system (Clutha). The low degree of genetic divergence between Oreti and Von catchments (< 0.15% mtDNA divergence) demonstrates that genetic interaction between fish populations was severed recently, probably during the early Holocene. This is in accord with radiocarbon dating (11-13 ka) of the youngest gravel level within the intervening divide. In contrast, morphologically similar fish in another adjacent major river (Waiau) have a minimum mtDNA divergence of 2.4% from the fish in the Mataura, Oreti, and Aparima Rivers. This genetic separation occurred at ca. 145-240 ka, based on the late Quaternary outwash terrace dating, in agreement with "molecular clock" estimates. Geological and genetic data in combination provide powerful tools for the elucidation of local and regional geomorphic evolution where river capture is an important process. The potential is strong for genetic data alone to provide information on the relative and absolute timing of river capture events, but must be interpreted in the context of severance of

  13. Late glacial climate estimates for southern Nevada: The ostracode fossil record

    SciTech Connect

    Forester, R.M.; Smith, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    Climate change plays an important role in determining as possible long term hydrological performance of the potential high level nuclear waste repository within Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Present-day global circulation results in this region having an arid to semi-arid climate characterized by hot and relatively dry summers. Global circulation during the late glacial (about 14 to 20 ka) was very different from the present-day. Preliminary study of late-glacial fossil ostracodes from {open_quotes}marsh deposits{close_quotes} in the upper Las Vegas Valley suggests mean annual precipitation may have been four times higher, while mean annual temperature may have been about 10{degrees}C cooler than today. A major difference between present-day and late-glacial climate was likely the existence of cooler, cloudier, and wetter summers in the past.

  14. Late accretion on the earliest planetesimals revealed by the highly siderophile elements.

    PubMed

    Dale, Christopher W; Burton, Kevin W; Greenwood, Richard C; Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Wade, Jonathan; Wood, Bernard J; Pearson, D Graham

    2012-04-01

    Late accretion of primitive chondritic material to Earth, the Moon, and Mars, after core formation had ceased, can account for the absolute and relative abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) in their silicate mantles. Here we show that smaller planetesimals also possess elevated HSE abundances in chondritic proportions. This demonstrates that late addition of chondritic material was a common feature of all differentiated planets and planetesimals, irrespective of when they accreted; occurring ≤5 to ≥150 million years after the formation of the solar system. Parent-body size played a role in producing variations in absolute HSE abundances among these bodies; however, the oxidation state of the body exerted the major control by influencing the extent to which late-accreted material was mixed into the silicate mantle rather than removed to the core. PMID:22491852

  15. Late miocene atmospheric CO(2) concentrations and the expansion of C(4) grasses

    PubMed

    Pagani; Freeman; Arthur

    1999-08-01

    The global expansion of C(4) grasslands in the late Miocene has been attributed to a large-scale decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations. This triggering mechanism is controversial, in part because of a lack of direct evidence for change in the partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) and because other factors are also important determinants in controlling plant-type distributions. Alkenone-based pCO(2) estimates for the late Miocene indicate that pCO(2) increased from 14 to 9 million years ago and stabilized at preindustrial values by 9 million years ago. The estimates presented here provide no evidence for major changes in pCO(2) during the late Miocene. Thus, C(4) plant expansion was likely driven by additional factors, possibly a tectonically related episode of enhanced low-latitude aridity or changes in seasonal precipitation patterns on a global scale (or both). PMID:10436153

  16. Simulation of the December 1998 Stratospheric Major Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Swinbank, R.; ONeill, A.; Connew, P. M.; Zurek, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to 1991, major warmings (defined by increasing zonal mean temperatures and zonal mean easterly winds from 60degN to the pole at 10 hPa) typically occurred approximately once every two Arctic winters; a major warming in mid-Dec. 1998 was the first since Feb. 1991. The Dec. 1998 warming was also the second earliest on record. The earliest, and the only other major warming on record before the end of Dec. was in early Dec 1987; prior to that, the earliest was in late Dec./early Jan. 1984-85. The 1984-85 and 1987 warmings resulted in the warmest and weakest lower stratospheric polar vortices in the 20 years before 1998-99. Fig. 1 compares temperatures and vortex strength in 1998-99 with those in the previous 20 years, using the US National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) record; 1987-88 and 1984-85 are also highlighted. The Dec. 1998 warming had a more pronounced effect on mid-stratospheric temperatures than the Dec. 1987 warming (Fig. 1a), although smaller than that of warmings later in winter (e.g., 1984-85). 10-hPa temperatures fell well below average again in late Jan. 1999 and remained unusually low until an early final warming began in late Feb. 840 K PV gradients (Fig. 1c) set a record minimum in Jan. 1999, but were near average in Feb before the final warming. The effect of the Dec. 1998 warming on lower stratospheric temperatures was comparable to that of other major warmings; there was a brief period of record-high minimum 46-hPa temperatures in early Jan 1999 (Fig. 1b), and temperatures then fell to near average for a short period in mid-Feb. Lower stratospheric PV gradients were the weakest on record during the 1998-99 winter (Fig. 1d). The evolution of the vortex and minimum temperatures during 1998-99 was remarkably similar to that during 1987-88, the only previous year when a major warming was observed before the end of Dec.

  17. Late Eocene Hydrological Conditions on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, S. J.; Deconto, R. M.; Warny, S.

    2013-12-01

    The late Eocene to Oligocene transition (EOT) witnessed a major ice advance on Antarctica. Little is known about hydrological conditions in the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene prior to the major ice advance. Here we explore the hydrological conditions with proxy reconstructions from marine sediment core NBP0602A-3C, adjacent to the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, with sediments dated to approximately 35.9 × 1.1 Ma providing a snapshot of conditions prior to the EOT. We combine plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic evidence paired with previously-published evidence from pollen assemblages from the marine core, and compare to results of climate model experiments. The pollen from late Eocene sediments of NBP0602A-3C indicate a Nothofagidites (southern beech) dominated landscape. In the same sediments, leaf wax hydrogen isotope (δDwax) values average -202×7‰ (1σ, n=22) for the C28 n-alkanoic acid. Based on an estimated net fractionation of -100‰, these values suggest paleoprecipitation δD values on the order of -118×8‰. The similarity between Late Eocene precipitation isotopic reconstructions (with no ice on what was then an island) and in situ modern isotopic values (while ice-covered) is surprising as ice-free conditions should imply warmer temperatures which would normally imply more enriched isotopic values. Convergent isotopic compositions during demonstrably different environments require a dynamical test to evaluate this validity of this isotopic result. In order to test the isotopic response to an expanding Antarctic ice sheet across the EOT, we conducted experiments with an isotope-enabled GCM. We simulated conditions before, during, and after the transition by systematically decreasing carbon dioxide levels from 1000 to 560 ppm while increasing ice volume to represent an ice-free to fully glaciated continent. Model experiments predict changes in vegetation cover from mixed forest to tundra biomes, reductions in austral summer temperature of

  18. A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  20. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  1. Youth Indicators of Late-M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Cruz, K.; Lépine, S.; Alpert, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study in which we searched for a correlation between weak Na absorption doublet (8183Å, 8194Å) and strong H-Alpha emission (6563Å) in late-M dwarf stars (M6-M9), as both are indicative of youth. Our sample consists of late-M Dwarfs from the LSPM Survey (Lépine and Shara, 2005), which contain stars with measured proper motions of mu > 40 mas/yr. Measurements for emission and absorption strength were made using spectral indices. Our preliminary results are presented; future work will include a similar analysis of early type M Dwarfs, as well as kinematics. This work was funded by the CUNY Summer Undergraduate Research Program, as well as the CUNY Macaulay Honors College, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  2. Late onset spondyloarthropathy mimicking polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Aydeniz, Ali; Altındağ, Ozlem; Oğüt, Evrim; Gürsoy, Savaş

    2012-05-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with late onset spondyloarthropathy who had widespread body pain and pitting oedema of both ankles. She had been followed up for polymyalgia rheumatica for nearly 10 years. On laboratory examination, ESR: 62 mm/h and CRP: 16.1 mg/dl. HLA was positive. There was tenderness on both of her ankles. We diagnosed late onset spondyloarthropathy according to clinic and radiographic findings. The patient was treated with sulphasalazine 200 mg/day and indomethacin 100 mg/day. As a conclusion, LoSPA may mimic a variety of rheumatic conditions such as PMR and reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Careful examination should be warranted in such conditions. PMID:20237931

  3. Lifetime constraints for late dark matter decay

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Galea, Ahmad J.; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2010-07-15

    We consider a class of late-decaying dark matter models, in which a dark matter particle decays to a heavy stable daughter of approximately the same mass, together with one or more relativistic particles which carry away only a small fraction of the parent rest mass. Such decays can affect galactic halo structure and evolution, and have been invoked as a remedy to some of the small-scale structure formation problems of cold dark matter. There are existing stringent limits on the dark matter lifetime if the decays produce photons. By considering examples in which the relativistic decay products instead consist of neutrinos or electron-position pairs, we derive stringent limits on these scenarios for a wide range of dark matter masses. We thus eliminate a sizable portion of the parameter space for these late-decay models if the dominant decay channel involves standard model final states.

  4. Late B Star X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The most basic conclusion to be drawn from the EINSTEIN stellar X-ray observations was that all stars are X-ray sources - except the late-B and early- to mid-A stars. While this is still true in general, observations with the ROSAT X-ray observatory have shown that young late-B/early-A stars, those in and near regions of star formation, are often bright X-ray sources. It is not yet clear why (or, indeed, whether) young B-A stars are often X-ray sources. We request time on the IUE to observe a sample of these stars. We will compare the line profiles against B star models against archival spectra, looking for evidence of mass loss or mass inflows, as well as evidence of transition region gas. Detection of the latter will prove that the B stars are indeed X-ray sources.

  5. Perceptions of conventional war: late adolescents' views.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, B W; Roscoe, B; Kennedy, D

    1988-01-01

    Late adolescents' views concerning conventional war were assessed in order to better understand the thinking of today's youth and to compare their views with those of early adolescents previously reported in the literature. Three hundred ninety-nine college undergraduates from two universities were surveyed regarding conventional warfare in general and United States military involvement in Latin America specifically. Results suggest that attitudes toward war were related to sex, socioeconomic status, and political affiliation. Although two-thirds of the respondents believed wars were sometimes needed, there was little support for United States military involvement in Latin America and much skepticism of President Reagan's honesty on the issue. Overall, late adolescents' views were less positive and less extreme than were those of early adolescents. PMID:3195377

  6. Pharmacologic treatment of depression in late life

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A J

    1997-01-01

    A number of age-related factors, including changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, medical comorbidity and an increased risk of drug-drug interaction, can complicate the pharmacologic management of depression in late life. Nevertheless, over 80% of elderly depressed patients will eventually respond to vigorous treatment and, when treated over 2 years, up to 75% of those will not have a relapse or recurrence of depression. This article reviews a number of issues relating to the pharmacotherapy of depression in elderly people. In particular, it discusses the similarities and differences between various antidepressant medications, issues pertaining to dosing and length of treatment, and management of the patient who does not respond to first-line treatment. The author emphasizes that, because of the high risk of relapse and recurrence, a long-term collaboration between the patient and the physician is required to successfully manage depression in late life. PMID:9347777

  7. Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón, Diego

    2007-06-01

    It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.

  8. Treatment of childhood cancers: late effects.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    In France, about 1 in 1000 young adults aged 20 to 30 years is a survivor of childhood cancer and is thus faced with late effects of their cancer and its treatment (radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy). What are the late effects of childhood cancer therapy? A systematic review by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) provides useful information based on European and North American data. Cancer treatments can have many long-term consequences that depend on the drugs and doses used, radiation therapy protocols and irradiated organs, and age at the time of treatment. Cytotoxic drugs and radiation can both cause infertility. Abdominopelvic radiation therapy in girls has been linked to an increased risk of premature delivery and other complications of pregnancy. No increase in birth defects has been reported among children born to childhood cancer survivors. Anthracyclines and radiation therapy can cause cardiomyopathy. Neck irradiation can lead to thyroid disorders, and cranial irradiation to growth retardation. Chemotherapy can cause osteonecrosis and loss of bone density, but without an increased risk of fracture. The risk of cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities of the brain is higher when the child is younger or receives a high cumulative dose of cranial irradiation or total irradiation dosage. Some cytotoxic drugs can damage the kidneys. Cranial radiation therapy can cause long-term neuroendocrine disorders and growth disorders, especially when the dose exceeds 18 Gy. Cytotoxic drugs (alkylating agents, etoposide, etc.) and radiation therapy can cause second cancers of a different histological type. One analysis of second cancers showed a median time to onset of 7 years for solid tumours and 2.5 years for lymphoma and leukaemia. Better knowledge of the late effects of childhood cancer therapy can help orient the choice of treatment towards less harmful options or, if necessary, implement measures aimed at preventing late adverse

  9. Cryptosporidiosis in intensively reared Barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Gabor, Les J; Srivastava, Mukesh; Titmarsh, Jeff; Dennis, Michelle; Gabor, Melinda; Landos, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Two outbreaks of mortality in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis are described. Juvenile barramundi at a separate hatchery and grow-out facility were demonstrating markedly increased mortality rates. Histological examination in all cases indicated a heavy infection of Cryptosporidium-like organisms within the distal stomach and proximal small intestine. Electron microscopy confirmed a diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis; however, speciation was not possible. PMID:21398470

  10. A new Late Carboniferous Pangea reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetically reconstructed Laurasia and Gondwana are well satisfied. However, the Pangea reconstruction remains controversial. The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic reconstruction, Pangea A, is consistent with one derived by closure of the Atlantic Ocean. As going back to older Period, the Pangea A reconstruction cannot stand. Particularly, the Late Carboniferous and Permian reconstruction, Pangea B, placed Gondwana ~3500 km eastward relative to its Pangea A configuration. This might indicate that the super continent was tectonically evolving during the period. For instance, an intra Pangean megashear zone has been proposed to show the evolution from Pangea B to Pangea A. On the other hand, researchers suspected that the Pangea B reconstruction is not accurate, because of several factors, i.e., the effect of persistent, large non-dipole field, remagnetization, errors in paleomagnetic record (inclination shallowing), and so on. To test the effect of inclination shallowing on the Pangea reconstruction, we here focus on the Late Carboniferous time, because, the Laurasian poles are mainly from volcanic rocks, and the Gondwana poles dominantly from sediments. This makes the test rather simple. Assuming a flattening factor of 0.5, we corrected the paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Carboniferous results from Gondwana, and the inclination-corrected poles are thus achieved. The mean Laurasia and Gondwana poles can largely be accommodated by closure of the Atlantic Ocean, and the remaining offset may be solved by a ~15 degree relative rotation between the two continents. Relative rotation is often observed during continental collision (e.g., the collision between the North and South China blocks, the India-Asia collision, and so on), and more likely than the large scale shear. Our test indicates that Pangea B is probably the artifact of paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks.

  11. Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Hall, H Irene; Tang, Tian; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003-2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2-23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission. PMID:26542730

  12. Qualitative Assessment of Speech Perception Performance of Early and Late Cochlear Implantees.

    PubMed

    Kant, Anjali R; Pathak, Sonal

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to provide a qualitative description and comparison of speech perception performance using model based tests like multisyllabic lexical neighborhood test (MLNT) and lexical neighborhood test (LNT), in early and late implanted (prelingual) hearing impaired children using cochlear implants. The subjects comprised of cochlear implantees; Group I (early implantees)-n = 15, 3-6 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years. Group II (late implantees)-n = 15, 7-13 years of age; mean age at implantation-5 years. The tests were presented in a sound treated room at 70 dBSPL. The children were instructed to repeat the words on hearing them. Responses were scored as percentage of words correctly repeated. Their means were computed. The late implantees achieved higher scores for words on MLNT than those on LNT. This may imply that late implantees are making use of length cues in order to aid them in speech perception. The major phonological process used by early implantees was deletion and by the late implantees was substitution. One needs to wait until the child achieves a score of 20 % on LNT before assessing other aspects of his/her speech perception abilities. There appears to be a need to use speech perception tests which are based on theoretical empirical models, in order to enable us to give a descriptive analysis of post implant speech perception performance. PMID:26405667

  13. Interaction of FLC and late-flowering mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanda, S L; Amasino, R M

    1996-04-24

    The phenotype caused by mutations that affect the timing of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana has been most extensively analyzed in the Landsberg erecta (Ler) genetic background. In Ler, the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and mutations in LUMINIDEPENDENS is suppressed by the Ler allele of FLC. In this study, the interactions of nine mutations conferring late flowering with the FLC allele of the Columbia ecotype (FLC-Col), which does not suppress late flowering, were examined. The effect on flowering time of combining six of the mutations with FLC-Col was additive; plants containing FLC-Col with fd, gi, fwa, fha, ft, and fe flowered slightly later than plants containing these mutations with the Ler allele of FLC. In contrast, a synergistic effect was observed between FLC-Col and three mutations; fca, fpa, and fve plants became extremely late flowering when combined with FLC-Col. Maximum delay in flowering for the majority of the mutant strains required FLC-Col in a homozygous state, although for fpa and fe a single copy of FLC-Col allowed maximum lateness. In addition, the fd and fe mutations became more dominant in the presence of FLC-Col. PMID:8628249

  14. [Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antelava, N A; Pachkoriia, K Z; Kezeli, T D; Nikuradze, N S; Shamkulashvili, G G

    2005-11-01

    The experimental and clinical data concerning pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis are summarized and analyzed in this article. Major concepts that explain initiation and progressive growth of atherosclerosis such as lipid infiltrations, response to disturbing factors, "response on the keeping of particles" and inflammatory processes are discussed. These concepts are considered as base for integral theory of atherosclerosis according which the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis are the result of the universal response reaction of endothelium to the various disturbing risk factors. Chronic inflammation leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions among cells derived from the endothelium, smooth muscle and several blood cell components and causes oxidative stress, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, oxidative modification of LDL, uptake and macrophage foam cell formation, endothelium dysfunction. Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, oxidative modification of LDL, lipid infiltration, endothelial dysfunction closely interact, forming close vicious circles which leads to metabolic and morphological disturbances, re-modulation of blood vessels, cardiovascular diseases and such complication as cardiac infarction and stroke. Pathogenic peculiarities of atherosclerosis are the theoretic base to the elaboration of therapeutic strategy. Endothelium may be discussed as a new therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. So far as the leukotrienes play an important role in inflammatory processes, it is suggested that the leukotrienes may be as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16369071

  15. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. PMID:27062077

  16. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  17. Wartime major venous vessel injuries.

    PubMed

    Hudorovic, Narcis

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome. PMID:18006557

  18. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  19. Late quaternary sequence stratigraphy, South Florida margin

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    Late Quaternary sea-level change and the Florida Current have combined to produce a progradational shelf-slope margin along the western portion of the south Florida Platform facing the Straits of Florida. Analysis of high resolution seismic reflection profiles suggest at least eight 5th order late Quaternary sequences downlap onto the Pourtales Terrace at 250 m water depth. Along most of the south Florida margin, this Late Quaternary section is very thin, and only where significant accumulations occur can the stratigraphic patterns produced by sea-level change be clearly observed. Recognition of systems tracts and their boundaries from high-resolution seismic data is important for prediction of sedimentary facies and stratigraphic development of margins. Many south Florida seismic boundaries can be fit to the Exxon sequence stratigraphy model. Others appear to reflect the added effect of bottom-current erosion that complicates the signal produced by sea-level change. Overall, the sea-level signal appears to dominate the stratigraphic record, especially from the 2-dimensional perspective of dip-oriented seismic profiles. However, the 3-dimensional geometry of deposits are strongly influenced by along slope accumulation patterns controlled by the Florida Current. This study provides new insight on the importance of both geostrophic boundary currents and sea-level change in controlling stratigraphic development of a carbonate platform margin. Similar anomalously thick slope deposits in ancient sequences may indicate similar controls on accumulation and could lend to predictions of related paleo-platform configurations.

  20. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  2. Very Late Photometry of SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of 56Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  3. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx. greater than 5), structures existing on scales of 100 M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ((Delta)T/T) (approx. less than 10(exp -5)) can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random Gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of approx. 100 M pc for large scale structure as well as approx. 1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition.

  4. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    SciTech Connect

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  5. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  6. Pyomyositis of Obturator Muscles: Unusual Late Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Soraganvi, Prasad Channappa; Ramakanth, R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks) of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. PMID:27298909

  7. Late Paleozoic subulitacea (mollusca:gastropoda), mass extinctions and the replacement of evolutionary faunas

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mesogastropod subulitaceans possess characteristics typical of active carnivores and occupied a trophic regime typical of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolutionary fauna. Despite occupying a vacant niche, subulitaceans are low in both diversity and abundance in late Paleozoic gastropod faunas. In addition, Paleozoic Archaeogastropoda and Mesogastropoda are taxonomically and functionally distinct from Mesozoic groups and display diversity dynamics typical of the Paleozoic evolutionary fauna, not the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fauna with which they were grouped by Sepkoski. Late Paleozoic gastropods are different from pre-Carboniferous taxa, but there is no preferential expansion of the major Mesozoic taxa, nor is there any pattern of exploitation of a major niche utilized by later groups but under-used by Paleozoic taxa. The high taxonomic level used Sepkoski's factor analysis neglects the finer scale of replacement and diversification. This distinct evolutionary behavior of Paleozoic gastropods may be typical of other taxa as well. It weakens the assertions of Kitchell and Carr and Sepkoksi and Miller that the replacement of evolutionary Fauna II by Fauna III began in the late Paleozoic and would have occurred even without the Guadelupian-Dzulfian mass extinction. Thus for gastropods at last, the Late Permian mass extinction did not merely speed up on ongoing process, but probably determined the evolutionary outcome.

  8. Late Holocene evolution of the Bečva River floodplain (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Václav; Pánek, Tomáš; Sedláček, Jan

    2014-02-01

    To reconstruct the geomorphic imprint of the anthropogenic and natural environmental changes in the Late Holocene, we studied the alluvial record of the Bečva River floodplain (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic). Coring, geophysical sounding and lithological analysis of floodplain deposits supported by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating enabled the establishment of the primary evolutionary stages of Late Holocene floodplain evolution. During the Late Atlantic and Early Subboreal periods, gravel aggradation and braided environments occurred in the studied floodplain. The Late Subboreal and Early Subatlantic are characterised by overbank sedimentation, and the Middle Subatlantic is marked by the recurrence of gravel aggradation. A major incision phase took place during the Mediaeval Warm Period. The onset of overbank sedimentation in the 15th century correlated with ongoing deforestation of the lower parts of catchment, and colonisation of the mountain ridges during the 16th-17th centuries further accelerated this process. During the 20th century, reforestation of mountains and river-channel training resulted in a significant incision phase. Our data suggest that climate fluctuations were major driving factors for the morpho-sedimentary evolution of the floodplain approximately up to the 12th century, whereas in the latter evolution period, anthropogenic activity superseded natural factors. This transition occurred more than one millennium later than in other Central and Western European catchments.

  9. Experiences with Dating Violence and Help Seeking Among Hispanic Females in Their Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Ferranti, Dina; Halstead, Valerie; Ilias, Vanessa M

    2016-04-01

    Hispanic females in their late adolescence appear to be disproportionately affected by dating violence, yet the majority of victims never seek out formal services. The purpose of this study was to explore the dating violence and help-seeking experiences of Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Participants were recruited from a social service agency providing wrap-around services to individuals and families affected by abuse in South Florida. Eleven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence (18 to 24 years of age) in English or Spanish. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified four major themes: (a) conflict, culture, and context influences Hispanic couples; (b) missed opportunities to accessing help; (c) pivotal moments are needed to access formal services; and (d) family matters. Participants of this study believed that dating violence was more normative in Hispanic relationships than "American" relationships. Although participants had opportunities to seek formal services early in their relationships, formal services were only sought after pivotal moments. Families played an important role in supporting or further victimizing the participants. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing both informal and formal sources of support for Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence. PMID:27077507

  10. Nile behaviour and Late Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt during the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Van Neer, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of the environment and the human population history of the Nile Valley during the Late Pleistocene have received a lot of attention in the literature thus far. There seems to be a consensus that during MIS2 extreme dry conditions prevailed over north-eastern Africa, which was apparently not occupied by humans. The Nile Valley seems to be an exception; numerous field data have been collected suggesting an important population density in Upper Egypt during MIS2. The occupation remains are often stratified in, or at least related to, aeolian and Nile deposits at some elevation above the present-day floodplain. They are rich in lithics and animal bones, mainly fish, illustrating the exploitation of the Nile Valley by the Late Palaeolithic inhabitants. The fluvial processes active during that period have traditionally been interpreted as a continuously rising highly braided river. In this paper we summarize the evidence thus far available for the Late Pleistocene on the population densities in the Nile Valley, and on the models of Nilotic behaviour. In the discussion we include data on the environmental conditions in Eastern Africa, on the aeolian processes in the Western Desert of Egypt derived from satellite images, 14C and OSL dates, in order to formulate a new model that explains the observed high remnants of aeolian and Nilotic deposits and the related Late Palaeolithic sites. This model hypothesizes that, during the Late Pleistocene, and especially the LGM, dunes from the Western Desert invaded the Nile Valley at several places in Upper Egypt. The much reduced activity of the White Nile and the Blue Nile was unable to evacuate incoming aeolian sand and, as a consequence, several dams were created in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley. Behind such dams the created lakes offered ideal conditions for human subsistence. This model explains the occurrence of Late Palaeolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers in a very arid environment with very low Nile flows

  11. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  12. A simplified system for generating recombinant E3-deleted canine adenovirus-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zuo; Jiang, Qian; Liu, Jiasen; Guo, Dongchun; Quan, Chuansong; Li, Botao; Qu, Liandong

    2015-01-01

    Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) has been used extensively as a vector for studying gene therapy and vaccine applications. We describe a simple strategy for generating a replication-competent recombinant CAV-2 using a backbone vector and a shuttle vector. The backbone plasmid containing the full-length CAV-2 genome was constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli strain BJ5183. The shuttle plasmid, which has a deletion of 1478 bp in the nonessential E3 viral genome region, was generated by subcloning a fusion fragment containing the flanking sequences of the CAV-2 E3 region and expression cassette sequences from pcDNA3.1(+) into modified pUC18. To determine system effectiveness, a gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was inserted into the shuttle plasmid and cloned into the backbone plasmid using two unique NruI and SalI sites. Transfection of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with the recombinant adenovirus genome containing the EGFP expression cassette resulted in infectious viral particles. This strategy provides a solid foundation for developing candidate vaccines using CAV-2 as a delivery vector. PMID:25450764

  13. Atmospheric replacement and late formation of N2 on undifferentiated Titan during the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Y.; Genda, H.; Sugita, S.; Kadono, T.; Matsui, T.

    2010-12-01

    Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, has a massive N2 atmosphere, often compared with that of Earth; however, the origin and evolution of Titan’s atmosphere remains largely unknown. Although several mechanisms (UV photolysis(1), atmospheric shock heating(2) and endogenic(3)) have been proposed for forming Titan’s N2 atmosphere from primordial NH3, all these mechanisms require a prolonged, warm proto-atmosphere during Titan’s accretion. These mechanisms accordingly would not have worked efficiently, if Titan has stayed cold, as indicated by the incompletely differentiated interior observed by Cassini(4). Because formation of a massive secondary atmosphere on a planetary body is suggested to associate with a major differentiation of its sold body during accretion, the presence of such an atmosphere on undifferentiated Titan is enigmatic and has challenged our view of how planetary bodies develop atmospheres. Here we propose a new mechanism for the post-accretion formation of atmospheric N2 on Titan to resolve this problem: conversion and replenishment of N2 from NH3 contained in Titan by cometary impacts during the late heavy bombardment (LHB)(5). Recently, we developed a new chemically clean technique to accelerate projectiles using a high-energy laser pulse (the laser gun)(6). Using this laser gun, we investigate chemistry in impact-induced vapor cloud by direct measurements of gas species formed by impact experiments. Our experiments and calculations show that Titan would acquire sufficient N2 to account for the current atmosphere during the LHB and that most of the pre-existing atmosphere would have replaced by impact-induced N2. This is the first scenario capable of generating a N2-rich and nearly primordial Ar-free atmosphere on undifferentiated Titan. We also suggest that Titan’s N2 was delivered from a different source in the solar nebula compared with Earth, based on the comparison of isotopic composition of N2(7). Reference: (1) Atreya et al. 1979

  14. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  15. 24 CFR 203.554 - Enforcement of late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on the part of the mortgagor is the failure to pay a late charge or charges (§ 203.25), except as provided in § 203.556. (b) A late charge attributable to a particular installment payment due under the... mortgagor of his obligation to pay a late charge, such a charge may be deducted from any subsequent...

  16. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  17. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  18. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  19. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  20. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  6. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  7. Late neogene history of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.; Zenker, C.E.; Stone, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal provinces of Caribbean DSDP Hole 502A and East Pacific DSDP Hole 503A have been analyzed and compared with benthic and planktic isotope records, carbonate, hiatus events, and sea level changes. Four major events are evident in the closure history of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway, at 6.2, 4.2, 2.4 and 1.8 Ma. The faunal change at 6.2 Ma coincides with the ??13C shift and is primarily caused by upwelling in the western Caribbean. This suggests restricted circulation of intermediate water and deflection northeastward, strengthening the Gulf Stream as reflected in the first major erosion on Blake Plateau. The second faunal change, at 4.2 Ma, coincides with increased surface water salinity evident in ??18O data and indicates increasingly restricted surface water exchange. Divergence of faunal provinces beginning at 2.4 Ma is marked by increasing abundance of high salinity tolerant species (Globigerinoides ruber) in the Caribbean. This suggests that initial closure of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway and cessation of sustained surface current flow between the Pacific and Caribbean occurred as late as 2.4 Ma. Maximum divergence of faunal provinces begins at 1.8 Ma and continues to the present. This implies that at least incipient littoral-neritic leakage occurred across the Pacific-Caribbean gateway between 2.4 and 1.8 Ma, with final closure by 1.8 Ma. ?? 1989.

  8. Late Neogene changes in diatom sedimentation in the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    During the late Neogene, North Pacific diatom sedimentation underwent major changes in response to high-latitude cooling and changes in surface and deep water circulation. At 9 Ma diatom mass accumulation rates (MARs) increased in the NW Pacific and off northeast Japan, possibly due to shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama, which lead to an enrichment of nutrients in North Pacific deep waters. During the latest Miocene, diatom MARs increased progressively off southern California (6.5 Ma), at high latitudes of the North Pacific (6.2 Ma), and off northeastern Japan (5.5 Ma), presumably in response to high latitude cooling. At about 4.5 Ma diatom sedimentation abruptly increased in the NW Pacific but declined off Japan and California, coincident with the onset of a prolonged period of high-latitude warmth. Enhanced upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters in the NW Pacific probably stimulated diatom production there. A major step in high latitude cooling at 2.7 Ma caused a reversal of these mid Pliocene diatom sedimentation patterns. Upwelling of deep, nutrient-rich waters waned at higher latitudes, leading to a decline in diatom productivity; while wind-driven, coastal upwelling increased off southern California and stimulated diatom growth.

  9. Late Quaternary Pollen Record from Cheyenne Bottoms, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredlund, Glen G.

    1995-01-01

    A sediment and pollen record from Cheyenne Bottoms, a large (166 km 2) enclosed basin in central Kansas, provides evidence for local and regional vegetation and climate change during the late Quaternary (ca. 30,000 yr.). Although radiocarbon dating of the carbonate-rich lacustrine sediments remains problematic, a basic chronological framework for the section is established. Two major litho- and biostratigraphic units, a Farmdalian zone (ca. 30,000 to 24,000 yr B.P.) and a Holocene zone (ca. 11,000 yr B.P. to present), are separated by a major unconformity spanning the Woodfordian (ca. 24,000 to 11,000 yr B.P.). Pollen and sedimentary data indicate a period of basin-wide drying preceding this unconformity. The sustained absence of sediment accumulation within this playa-like basin suggests that early Woodfordian conditions were increasingly arid with strengthened surface winds. Before this, persistent shallow water marshland dominated the local basin-bottom vegetation. Regional upland vegetation was an open grassland-sage steppe throughout the Farmdalian with limited populations of spruce, juniper, aspen, birch, and boxelder in riparian settings and escarpments. Throughout the Holocene, water levels within the basin fluctuated. Changes in wetland vegetation resulting from water level fluctuation have increased during the last 3,000 yr indicating that periodic episodes of wetland loss and rebound are not unique to postsettlement conditions but are an ongoing phenomenon at Cheyenne Bottoms.

  10. Modern and late Holocene dolomite formation: Manito Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Fawn M.; Last, William M.; Halden, Norman M.

    2012-12-01

    Major advances have occurred in our understanding of modern dolomite formation and penecontemporaneous dolomitization over the past several decades. Manito Lake, located in west-central Saskatchewan, Canada, is a large (65 km2), deep (zmax: 22 m) perennial saline (~ 45 ppt TDS) lake in which modern and late Holocene dolomite coexists with other endogenic and authigenic carbonate precipitates, including aragonite, monohydrocalcite, calcite, and Mg-calcite. Like many other lacustrine dolomites, Manito Lake dolomite is microcrystalline (less than 1 μm to 5 μm), Ca-rich and poor to moderately ordered. It occurs as relatively pure hardgrounds and as a component of nearshore microbialites. It also forms isopachous cements in consolidated siliciclastic shoreline sediments. Manito Lake dolomite is most likely forming by mainly biomediated precipitation at or near the sediment-water interface (i) in pore spaces of coarse siliciclastic sediments (i.e., beachrock), (ii) as fine laminae associated with microbialites, and (iii) as a major component of mudstone hardgrounds and pavements.

  11. Control of adenovirus E1B mRNA synthesis by a shift in the activities of RNA splice sites.

    PubMed Central

    Montell, C; Fisher, E F; Caruthers, M H; Berk, A J

    1984-01-01

    The primary transcript from adenovirus 2 early region 1B (E1B) is processed by differential RNA splicing into two overlapping mRNAs, 13S and 22S. The 22S mRNA is the major E1B mRNA during the early phase of infection, whereas the 13S mRNA predominates during the late phase. In previous work, it has been shown that this shift in proportions of the E1B mRNAs is influenced by increased cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA at late times in infection. Two observations presented here demonstrate that the increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA at late times is also regulated by a change in the specificity of RNA splicing. First, the relative concentrations of the 13S to 22S nuclear RNAs were not constant throughout infection but increased at late times. Secondly, studies with the mutant, adenovirus 2 pm2250 , provided evidence that there was an increased propensity to utilize a 5' splice in the region of the 13S 5' splice site at late times in infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 has a G----C transversion in the first base of E1B 13S mRNA intron preventing splicing of the 13S mRNA but not of the 22S mRNA. During the early phase of a pm2250 infection, the E1B primary transcripts were processed into the 22S mRNA only. However, during the late phase, when the 13S mRNA normally predominates, E1B primary transcripts were also processed by RNA splicing at two formerly unused or cryptic 5' splice sites. Both cryptic splice sites were located much closer to the disrupted 13S 5' splice site than to the 22S 5' splice site. Thus, the temporal increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA to the 22S mRNA is regulated by two processes, an increase in cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA and an increased propensity to utilize the 13S 5' splice site during the late phase of infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 was not defective for productive infection of HeLa cells or for transformation of rat cells. Images PMID:6727875

  12. The history of the Arabian platform evolution in the Late Permian and Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of comprehensive investigations of the Upper Permian and Triassic sequences of the Arabian platform, three stages were recognized, corresponding to distinct time intervals. The first stage corresponds to the Latest Permian-Early Triassic, the second - to the Early-Middle Triassic, the third - to the Late Triassic. Special maps were plotted for the second and third stages, reflecting major paleogeographic and paleotectonic events. An effort was made to test the oil potential of the sequences.

  13. Large stratospheric sudden warming in Antarctic late winter and shallow ozone hole in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzawa, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Sadao )

    1990-01-01

    There occurred a large stratospheric sudden warming in the southern hemisphere in late winter of 1988 which competes in suddenness and size with major mid-winter warmings in the northern hemisphere. Associated with the dynamical phenomenon of the sudden warming, total ozone increased over the eastern hemispheric part of Antarctica. The sudden warming as well as other warmings which followed it made the 1988 Antarctic ozone hole shallow in depth and small in area.

  14. The major-ion composition of Silurian seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Lowenstein, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    One-hundred fluid inclusions in Silurian marine halite were analyzed in order to determine the major-ion composition of Silurian seawater. The samples analyzed were from three formations in the Late Silurian Michigan Basin, the A-1, A-2, and B Evaporites of the Salina Group, and one formation in the Early Silurian Canning Basin (Australia), the Mallowa Salt of the Carribuddy Group. The results indicate that the major-ion composition of Silurian seawater was not the same as present-day seawater. The Silurian ocean had lower concentrations of Mg2+, Na+, and SO2-4, and much higher concentrations of Ca2+ relative to the ocean's present-day composition. Furthermore, Silurian seawater had Ca2+ in excess of SO2-4. Evaporation of Silurian seawater of the composition determined in this study produces KC1-type potash minerals that lack the MgSO4-type late stage salts formed during the evaporation of present-day seawater. The relatively low Na+ concentrations in Silurian seawater support the hypothesis that oscillations in the major-ion composition of the oceans are primarily controlled by changes in the flux of mid-ocean ridge brine and riverine inputs and not global or basin-scale, seawater-driven dolomitization. The Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of Silurian seawater was ~1.4, and the K+/Ca2+ ratio was ~0.3, both of which differ from the present-day counterparts of 5 and 1, respectively. Seawaters with Mg2+/Ca2+ 2 (e.g., modern seawater) facilitate the precipitation of aragonite and high-magnesian calcite. Therefore, the early Paleozoic calcite seas were likely due to the low Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of seawater, not the pCO2 of the Silurian atmosphere. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Molecular signatures of major depression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10(-14), odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81-0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. PMID:25913401

  16. Major sources of benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  17. Population policy: major party positions.

    PubMed

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues. PMID:12294231

  18. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  19. Major transitions in information technology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431527

  20. Major General Robert A. Rushworth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Air Force test pilot Robert A. Rushworth is shown in an X-15. He was selected for the X-15 program in 1958, and made his first flight on November 4, 1960. Over the next six years, he made 34 flights in the X-15, the most of any pilot. This included a flight to an altitude of 285,000 feet, made on June 27, 1963. This flight above 50 miles qualified Rushworth for astronaut wings. On a later X-15 flight, he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for successfully landing an X-15 after its nose wheel extended while flying at nearly Mach 5. He made his final X-15 flight on July 1, 1966, then returned to regular Air Force duties. These included a tour in Vietnam as an F-4 pilot, flying 189 combat missions. He also served as the Commander of the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, and as the Commander of the Air Force Test and Evaluation Center at Kirtland AFB. At the time of his retirement as a major general, he was Vice Commander, Aeronautical Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, at Wright-Patterson AFB. Rushworth flew C-47s and C-46s as a transport pilot in World War II, as well as F-80Cs, F-101s, TF-102s, F-104s, F-105s, F-106s, and F-4s. He died on March 17, 1993.

  1. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L A

    1989-01-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

  2. Late Pliocene deglaciation of Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Carlson, A. E.; Stoner, J. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Wolhowe, M. D.; Mathias, A.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the response of the remaining Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is an important goal of climate science. The late Pliocene (3.3-3.0 Ma; formerly the middle Pliocene) may offer a natural quasi-analogue to climate in the upcoming centuries: CO2 levels were ~400 PPM, global surface temperatures were 2-3 degrees higher, and sea level was likely at least 6 m higher than today. Yet little is currently known about the history of the pre-Quaternary Greenland ice sheet. IODP Expedition 303 site U1307 at 2575 m depth on the Eirik Ridge extends back to 3.4 Ma, capturing the late-Pliocene warm period adjacent to the southern Greenland ice sheet. Ice-rafted debris records, interpreted on a paleomagnetic reversal age model, suggest roughly 40 ka cyclicity of between ~5% and ~40% sand. Between ~3.3 and 3.2 Ma there is a significant change in lithology characterized by an abrupt reduction in magnetic susceptibility, during which time the sand fraction remains below 10%. Assuming a magnetite mineralogy, hysteresis ratios support a much finer magnetic assemblage of unique provenance in this interval; Mrs/Ms values of the silt fraction range from ~0.2-0.25, compared to ~0.1 in the sediments above and below. The origin this material will be discussed, although this observation is unambiguously consistent with the disappearance of silt transported from the southern Greenland ice sheet. The lack of Greenlandic source material observed in this interval is unique in the last 3.4 Ma at this location, and may indicate full deglaciation of southern Greenland in the late Pliocene.

  3. Late Cretaceous sea level from a paleoshoreline

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough, K.J.; Cross, T.A. )

    1991-04-10

    The contemporary elevation of a Late Cenomanian ({approx}93 Ma) shoreline was determined at five localities along the tectonically stable, eastern margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, North America. This shoreline, represented by marine-to-nonmarine facies transitions in strata of the Greenhorn sequence (UZA-2 cycle of Haq et al. (1987)), was identified from outcrop and borehole data. Biostratigraphic zonations constrained the geologic age at each locality. Sequence stratigraphic correlations, based on identifying discrete progradational units and the surfaces that separate them, were used to refine age correlations to better than 100 kyr between localities. A single Cenomanian shoreline was correlated within a single progradational unit, and its elevation was determined at five localities. This paleostrandline occurs 265-286m above present-day sea level, at an average elevation of 276 m. Isostatic and flexural corrections were applied to remove the effects of postdepositional vertical movement, including sediment compaction by loading, uplift due to erosion, and glacial loading and rebound. Errors inherent in each measurement and each correction were estimated. Corrections and their cumulative error estimates yield a Late Cenomanian elevation of 269{plus minus}87 m above present sea level. The corrected elevation approximates sea level at 93 Ma and provides a measure of Late Cenomanian eustasy prior to the Early Turonian highstand. Establishing the absolute value for eustasy at a single point in geologic time provides a frame of reference for calibrating relative sea level curves, as well as constraining the magnitudes of tectonic subsidence, sediment flux, and other variables that controlled water depth and relative sea level.

  4. Comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE identifies novel candidate genes for controlling potato quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity

    PubMed Central

    Draffehn, Astrid M.; Li, Li; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Ding, Jia; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Muktar, Meki S.; Walkemeier, Birgit; Rotter, Björn; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to pathogens is essential for survival of wild and cultivated plants. Pathogen susceptibility causes major losses of crop yield and quality. Durable field resistance combined with high yield and other superior agronomic characters are therefore, important objectives in every crop breeding program. Precision and efficacy of resistance breeding can be enhanced by molecular diagnostic tools, which result from knowledge of the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility. Breeding uses resistance conferred by single R genes and polygenic quantitative resistance. The latter is partial but considered more durable. Molecular mechanisms of plant pathogen interactions are elucidated mainly in experimental systems involving single R genes, whereas most genes important for quantitative resistance in crops like potato are unknown. Quantitative resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans causing late blight is often compromised by late plant maturity, a negative agronomic character. Our objective was to identify candidate genes for quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late plant maturity. We used diagnostic DNA-markers to select plants with different field levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight and compared their leaf transcriptomes before and after infection with P. infestans using SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) technology and next generation sequencing. We identified 2034 transcripts up or down regulated upon infection, including a homolog of the kiwi fruit allergen kiwellin. 806 transcripts showed differential expression between groups of genotypes with contrasting MCR levels. The observed expression patterns suggest that MCR is in part controlled by differential transcript levels in uninfected plants. Functional annotation suggests that, besides biotic and abiotic stress responses, general cellular processes such as photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and degradation play a role in MCR. PMID

  5. [Late-onset alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Batel, P; Larivière, P

    2000-10-01

    The alcoholic withdrawal syndrome (AWS) arises variably within hours following the hospitalization of an alcohol dependent patient. Delay usually observed between admission and the first symptoms depends above all on alcohol serum level concentration at arrival and on the degree of severity of physical dependence. The case reported here describes the very late onset severe alcoholic withdrawal syndrome observed in a 57-year-old alcohol dependent patient hospitalized for leg trauma and operated within hours followed admission. The first symptoms of AWS appeared only the 4-th day after hospitalization and the patient quickly developed a clinical state of delirium tremens. Delay in the onset of this AWS is discussed. PMID:11104941

  6. An uncommon late complication of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Lapus, Robert M; Baker, Mark D

    2010-10-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a 2.5-week history of right leg pain and limp. A right flank mass was noted by a parent on the day of presentation. The child's past medical history was remarkable for perforated appendicitis treated with an interval laparoscopic appendectomy 2 years before this presentation. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography revealed a retroperitoneal mass with calcifications, suggestive of a retained appendicolith with abscess formation. This case illustrates the importance of considering very late complications of appendicitis in patients presenting with fever and abdominal or flank pain or masses. PMID:20930600

  7. Late-stage sinking of plutons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glazner, A.F.; Miller, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Many granodiorite to diorite plutons in the Great Basin of western North America are surrounded by rim monoclines or anticlines that suggest relative downward movement of the plutons while wall rocks were hot and ductile. We propose that such plutons rise to a level of approximately neutral buoyancy and then founder as their densities increase ??? 40% during crystallization. Late-stage sinking of intermediate to mafic plutons should be common when wall rocks are rich in weak, low-density minerals such as quartz and calcite. Structures related to sinking will overprint those related to initial pluton emplacement and may be mistaken for regional tectonic structures.

  8. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  9. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Spatial Response of Mammals to Late Quaternary Environmental Fluctuations

    PubMed

    Graham; Lundelius; Graham; Schroeder; Toomey; Anderson; Barnosky; Burns; Churcher; Grayson; Guthrie; Harington; Jefferson; Martin; McDonald; Morlan; Semken; Webb; Werdelin; Wilson

    1996-06-14

    Analyses of fossil mammal faunas from 2945 localities in the United States demonstrate that the geographic ranges of individual species shifted at different times, in different directions, and at different rates in response to late Quaternary environmental fluctuations. The geographic pattern of faunal provinces was similar for the late Pleistocene and late Holocene, but differing environmental gradients resulted in dissimilar species composition for these biogeographic regions. Modern community patterns emerged only in the last few thousand years, and many late Pleistocene communities do not have modern analogs. Faunal heterogeneity was greater in the late Pleistocene. PMID:8662471

  11. Wind Streaks in Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located on the lava flows of Meroe Patera in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.7, Longitude 73.2 East (286.8 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Carcano, C.; Garzanti, E.; Ghielmi, M.; Piccin, A.; Pini, R.; Rogledi, S.; Sciunnach, D.

    2003-04-01

    Since alligators patrolled Greenland swamps in the Eocene, the Earth's climate underwent significant cooling, which culminated in the Pleistocene Ice Age with recurring glaciations in vast regions of the Alps, Eurasia and North America, and overgrowth of polar icecaps in Antarctica and Greenland. During main Pleistocene glacial penetrations, the Alpine icecap invaded the low gradients of the Central Europe uplands and Italian Po plain. Peri-glacial sedimentary basins such as the Po Basin are natural collectors of past biological and climatic changes involving the waxing and waning of major icecaps. We have found in a 200m-thick core from the central Po plain near Milan stratigraphic evidence for a major glacial pulsation of the nearby Alpine icecap, which occurred in correspondence of a seismically traceable unconformity of regional relevance, termed the "Red Unconformity" (RU) in Eni/Agip terminology. The RU is associated with a major reorganization of vegetation cover and Alpine drainage pattern. The age of the RU was constrained magnetostratigraphically to the the first major Pleistocene glacio-eustatic low-stand at 0.87Ma (Oxygen Isotope Stage 22). This corresponds to the end of the "Mid Pleistocene Revolution" (MPR), a marked reorganization of northern hemisphere glaciation pattern which took place in the late Early Pleistocene. We suggest that the MPR/MIS 22 was associated with the onset of the first major Pleistocene glaciation in the Alps. Noticing the similarity in number of major Pleistocene glacieustatic low-stands starting with MIS 22, and the four-fold Alpine glacial subdivision of Penck and Brückner (1909), we conclude that "Penck and Brückner in 1909 may not have been, after all, that wrong" (Kukla and Cilek, 1996).

  13. Low Abundances of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Lunar Mantle: Evidence for Prolonged Late Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    The highly siderophile elements (HSE: including Re, Au, Ir, Os, Ru, Pt, Pd, Rh) are strongly partitioned into metal relative to silicates. In the terrestrial planets these elements are concentrated in metallic cores. Earth s mantle has sufficiently high abundances of the HSE (0.008 times CI abundances) that it has been hypothesized approximately 0.1-0.5% of the mass of the Earth was added following the last major interaction between the core and mantle [e.g. 1]. The additional material added to the Earth and Moon has been termed a late veneer , and the process has often been termed late accretion [2]. The timing of the dominant late accretionary period of the Earth and Moon is still poorly known. The abundances of HSE in the lunar mantle could provide important constraints on when the late veneer was added. The material that ultimately became the silicate portion of the Moon was likely stripped of most of its HSE prior to and during coalescence of the Moon. Consequently the initial lunar mantle likely had very low concentrations of the HSE. Unlike Earth, the generation of permanent lunar crust by 4.4 Ga prevented subsequent additions of HSE to the lunar mantle via continued accretion. Thus, if a substantial portion of the late veneer was added after 4.4 Ga, the lunar mantle should have retained very low HSE concentrations. Conversely, if the late veneer was mostly added prior to 4.4 Ga, HSE abundances in the lunar mantle may be roughly similar to abundances in the terrestrial mantle.

  14. Tectonic control on the Late Quaternary hydrography of the Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Moroni, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    We examine the intramontane Upper Tiber Basin in the Northern Apennines (central Italy), where sub-orthogonal fault systems forced river deviation and the abandonment of alluvial fans since the late Middle Pleistocene. Archaeological material, spanning the Middle Palaeolithic-Iron Age, was collected mostly from the surface of the Late Quaternary alluvial landforms and related deposits (MUP and HOL units). This information contributed to the partial dating of seven major stages of drainage development. Normal faults parallel and transverse to the basin trend were active at different times and conditioned the valley pattern of the Middle (MUP1-2)-Late (MUP3) Pleistocene Tiber, Singerna, Sovara and Tignana rivers, which still flow today into the basin. The MUP1 and the MUP3 fans were beheaded by the displacement of their feeder valleys along the basin-transverse Carmine and Montedoglio faults. In some cases, the former feeder rivers underwent stream piracy but their courses mostly deviated in response of the topographic gradient created by faulting, as well as through the incision of new valleys that exploited the lithological contrast along the fault lines. The MUP3 Tignana fan was abandoned mostly due to the activity of the basin-parallel, dip-slip Sansepolcro fault. Subsidence driven by the basin-parallel Anghiari and Sansepolcro fault systems also provided the accommodation space for the MUP3 and HOl1-2 Afra fans between Late Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene. This study exemplifies the interplay between longitudinal and transverse fault systems, and the Late Quaternary hydrographic evolution of an extensional basin settled in the axial zone of an active fold-and-thrust belt. Although the faulting has interacted with the forcing exerted by the Late Quaternary climate fluctuations on the basin drainage systems, the tectonic rates are sufficiently high to represent the prime controller on base-level change and drainage routing patterns.

  15. Rock varnish microlamination dating of late Quaternary geomorphic features in the drylands of western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tanzhuo; Broecker, Wallace S.

    2008-01-01

    Varnish microlamination (VML) dating is a correlative age determination technique that can be used to date and correlate various geomorphic features in deserts. In this study, we establish a generalized late Quaternary (i.e., 0-300 ka) varnish layering sequence for the drylands of western USA and tentatively correlate it with the SPECMAP oxygen isotope record. We then use this climatically correlated varnish layering sequence as a correlative dating tool to determine surface exposure ages for late Quaternary geomorphic features in the study region. VML dating of alluvial fan deposits in Death Valley of eastern California indicates that, during the mid to late Pleistocene, 5-15 ky long aggradation events occurred during either wet or dry climatic periods and that major climate shifts between glacial and interglacial conditions may be the pacemaker for alteration of major episodes of fan aggradation. During the Holocene interglacial time, however, 0.5-1 ky long brief episodes of fan deposition may be linked to short periods of relatively wet climate. VML dating of alluvial desert pavements in Death Valley and the Mojave Desert reveals that pavements can be developed rapidly (< 10 ky) during the Holocene (and probably late Pleistocene) in the arid lowlands (< 800 m msl) of these regions; but once formed, they may survive for 74-85 ky or even longer without being significantly disturbed by geomorphic processes operative at the pavement surface. Data from this study also support the currently accepted, "being born at the surface" model of desert pavement formation. VML dating of colluvial boulder deposits on the west slope of Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada, yields a minimum age of 46 ka for the emplacement of these deposits on the slope, suggesting that they were probably formed during the early phase of the last glaciation or before. These results, combined with those from our previous studies, demonstrate that VML dating has great potential to yield numerical age

  16. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  17. Convection in Oblate Late-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    In this talk, we present recent investigations of the convection, oblateness and differential rota-tion in rapidly rotating late-type stars with a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Un-structured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code (J. Comput. Physics Vol. 290, 190-211, 2015). Recent observations have revealed the drastic effects of rapid rotation on stellar structure, including centrifugal deformation and gravity darkening. The centrifugal force counteracts gravity, causing the equatorial region to expand. Consequently, rapidly rotating stars are oblate and cannot be described by an one-dimensional spherically symmetric model. If convection establishes a substantial differential rotation, as in the envelopes of late-type stars, this can considerably increase the oblateness. We have successfully extended the CHORUS code to model rapidly rotating stars on fixed unstructured grids. In the CHORUS code, the hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM). The discretization stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS has been verified by comparing to spherical anelastic convection simulations on benchmark problems. This talk will be centred on the first global simulations by CHORUS for convection in oblate stars with different rotating rates. We quantify the influence of the oblateness on the mean flows and the thermal structure of the convection zone through these new simulations and implications of these results for stellar observations will be discussed.

  18. Microvascular pathology in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Santos, Micaela; Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Kövari, Enikö; Gold, Gabriel; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2012-11-15

    Since the era of Gaupp who introduced the concept of atheroscletic depressive disorder, the concept of late-life depression has been correlated with cerebrovascular comorbidities, microvascular lesions, frontal cortical and subcortical gray and white matter hyperintensities. The predominant neuropsychological deficits concern the domains of planning, organization and abstraction, with executive dysfunction being the predominant finding. MRI studies reveal a higher prevalence of white matter lesions in elderly patients with depression. Molecular mechanisms underlying the disease still remain unclear. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with depression through its toxicity to neurons and blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is another possible mechanism referring to the loss of vasodilatation capacity. Inflammatory phenomena, such as increased peripheral leucocytes, elevated CRP and cytokine levels, could play a role in endothelial dysfunction. In this review we will briefly combine findings from neurobiological, epidemiological, structural and post-mortem data. A more complex model in late-life depression combining different modalities could be an elucidating approach to the disease's etiopathogeny in the future. PMID:22687957

  19. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  20. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  1. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. PMID:26440125

  2. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  3. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  4. Midlife migraine and late-life parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Ross, G. Webster; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa; Gudmundsson, Larus S.; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Sigurlaug; Wagner, Amy K.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that having migraine in middle age is related to late-life parkinsonism and a related disorder, restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED). Methods: The AGES-Reykjavik cohort (born 1907–1935) has been followed since 1967. Headaches were classified based on symptoms assessed in middle age. From 2002 to 2006, 5,764 participants were reexamined to assess symptoms of parkinsonism, diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), family history of PD, and RLS/WED. Results: Subjects with midlife migraine, particularly migraine with aura (MA), were in later life more likely than others to report parkinsonian symptoms (odds ratio [OR]MA = 3.6 [95% CI 2.7–4.8]) and diagnosed PD (ORMA = 2.5 [95% CI 1.2–5.2]). Women with MA were more likely than others to have a parent (ORMA = 2.26 [95% CI 1.3–4.0]) or sibling (ORMA = 1.78 [95% CI 1.1–2.9]) with PD. Late-life RLS/WED was increased for headache generally. Associations were independent of cardiovascular disease and MRI-evident presumed ischemic lesions. Conclusions: These findings suggest there may be a common vulnerability to, or consequences of, migraine and multiple indicators of parkinsonism. Additional genetic and longitudinal observational studies are needed to identify candidate pathways that may account for the comorbid constellation of symptoms. PMID:25230997

  5. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the

  6. Late Permian to Late Triassic basin evolution of North Vietnam: geodynamic implications for the South China and Indochina blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Roger, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The core of South East Asia is composed of a mosaic of continental blocks, among which the Indochina and the South China blocks (present day northern Vietnam), amalgamated during the Permian and/or the Triassic. Late Permian to Late Triassic geodynamic evolution of these two blocks remains controversial. The main discussion points concern the existence and the closure of an oceanic domain separating the Indochina and the South China blocks during this period. Especially, the polarity and the timing of the subduction zone that led to the collision between the blocks as well as the present location of the suture delimiting them are a matter of debate. Despite the valuable information they can provide, the sedimentary basins from northern Vietnam have been neglected in the previous studies dealing with the geodynamic evolution of South East Asia. To determine the geodynamic evolution of the area, the basins of Sam Nua and Song Da, presently located in North Vietnam, have been investigated using a combined approach involving sedimentology, geochronology (U-Pb/zircon) and geochemistry (whole-rock major and trace elements composition of both volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks). The palaeoenvironment evolution, the main unconformities, their age and the tectonic affinities of the interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastics series have been characterized for these two basins. Our results demonstrate (i) that the Song Da Basin exhibits a palaeogeographic affinity with the South China block, (ii) the occurrence of extensive calk-alkaline volcanism and associated volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua Basin, related to the existence of an active magmatic arc during the Early and the lower Middle Triassic, (iii) a South dipping (present day coordinate) oceanic lithosphere beneath the Indochina block, deduced from the location of the magmatic arc south of the potential suture zones, (iv) that an angular unconformity postdates the lower Middle Triassic volcaniclastic deposits in the

  7. The Late-Divorce Phenomenon: The Causes and Impact of Ending 20-Year-Old or Longer Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Pamela; Langelier, Regis

    1978-01-01

    This study examined late divorce occurring after 20 years or more of marriage. Divorce was rated the highest in stress for any major life event. Even though divorce resulted in much social readjustment and stress, it also resulted in positive feelings, personal independence, and relief. Subjects were 427 Quebec residents. (Author)

  8. Political Participation in Late Modernity among Norwegian Youth: An Individual Choice or a Statement of Social Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Guro; Berglund, Frode

    2008-01-01

    Past research has established socioeconomic status as a major determinant of political participation. This explanation has been challenged by sociologists such as Giddens and Beck, who claim that politics in late modernity has become influenced by social class and family tradition to a "lesser" degree than politics in the traditional industrial…

  9. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  10. Quantitative resistance to late blight from Solanum berthaultii cosegregates with RPi-ber: insights in stability through isolates and environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance is a valuable tool in the fight against late blight of potatoes, but little is known about the stability and specificity of quantitative resistance including the effect of defeated major resistance genes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different isolates of Ph...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND MAPPING OF RPI-BER, A NOVEL POTATO LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE GENE FROM SOLANUM BERTHAULTII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, threatens potato production worldwide. An important tool in the management of the disease is the use of resistant varieties. Eleven major resistance genes have been identified and introgressed from Solanum demissum. However, new sources of res...

  12. Precursors and correlates of anxiety trajectories from late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed young people's psychosocial adjustment from infancy to adulthood. The present research analyzes data collected from the first 12 waves of data, from 4-8 months to 17 years. Parents, primary school teachers, maternal and child health nurses, and from the age of 11 onward, the young people themselves have provided survey data. Trajectory analyses revealed three distinct patterns of self-reported anxiety from late childhood to late adolescence, comprising low, moderate, and high (increasing) trajectories, which differed somewhat between boys and girls. A range of parent- and teacher-reported factors was found to be associated with these trajectories, including temperament style, behavior problems, social skills, parenting, negative family events, and peer relationships. Compared with male trajectories, female trajectories were associated with a greater variety of psychosocial variables (including parenting and externalizing problems), which may partially account for the higher prevalence of anxiety in adolescent girls compared with boys. Findings shed light on gender-specific pathways to anxiety and the need for comprehensive, integrative approaches to intervention and prevention programs. PMID:22551395

  13. Intracontinental deformation in southern Africa during the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Roderick; Summerfield, Michael; Gleadow, Andrew; Gallagher, Kerry; Carter, Andrew; Beucher, Romain; Wildman, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Intracontinental deformation accommodated along major lithospheric scale shear zone systems and within associated extensional basins has been well documented within West, Central and East Africa during the Late Cretaceous. The nature of this deformation has been established by studies of the tectonic architecture of sedimentary basins preserved in this part of Africa. In southern Africa, where the post break-up history has been dominated by major erosion, little evidence for post-break-up tectonics has been preserved in the onshore geology. Here we present the results of 38 new apatite fission track analyses from the Damara region of northern Namibia and integrate these new data with our previous results that were focused on specific regions or sections only to comprehensively document the thermo-tectonic history of this region since continental break-up in the Early Cretaceous. The apatite fission track ages range from 449 ± 20 Ma to 59 ± 3 Ma, with mean confined track lengths between 14.61 ± 0.1 μm (SD 0.95 μm) to 10.83 ± 0.33 μm (SD 2.84 μm). The youngest ages (c. 80-60 Ma) yield the longest mean track lengths, and combined with their spatial distribution, indicate major cooling during the latest Cretaceous. A simple numerical thermal model is used to demonstrate that this cooling is consistent with the combined effects of heating caused by magmatic underplating, related to the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood volcanism associated with rifting and the opening of the South Atlantic, and enhanced erosion caused by major reactivation of major lithospheric structures within southern Africa during a key period of plate kinematic change that occurred in the South Atlantic and SW Indian ocean basins between 87 and 56 Ma. This phase of intraplate tectonism in northern Namibia, focused in discrete structurally defined zones, is coeval with similar phases elsewhere in Africa and suggests some form of trans-continental linkage between these lithospheric zones.

  14. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic Tectonic History of South Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A. E. J.; Schultejann, P. A.

    1984-11-01

    The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of south central California is punctuated by at least five major tectonic events. The oldest of these involves Late Cretaceous drag folding and thrusting of epizonal shelf sediments westward over and to the north along the rising eastern margin of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith. These overthrusts, with associated drag folds and nappes, form imbricate stacks of metasediments, slices of plutons, and mylonites which overlie a regional core of Cretaceous granitic plutons of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith. A second, distinct kind of epizonal, low-temperature crustal displacement includes an episode of mid-Tertiary detachment faulting and folding. This represents the westerly extension of the detachment terrane of eastern California and western Arizona and Utah, superimposed upon the Cretaceous structural features, The mid-Tertiary motions involve major E-W extension and N-S compressive strain, with formation of east-trending antiformal "core complexes," remarkably parallel to a pervasive set of fold axes and B-lineations formed in the Cretaceous thrusting and folding. All of these features are repeatedly segmented and displaced by step-faulting as sial in the Salton Trough is fragmented and depressed 5 to 10 km below sea level at intervals throughout the Cenozoic. The irregular step-faulted interface of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith and Salton Trough is accentuated by a series of NE to SE striking left-lateral and dipslip faults with displacements of several to 10 kilometers. These appear to both predate and occur during movements along the San Andreas system. Pliocene-Pleistocene right-lateral faulting, a younger extension of the San Andreas displacements north of the Transverse Ranges, has broken and displaced all older structural features, with total net slip in south central California of perhaps 300 km. Total right-lateral slip along the several strands of the San Andreas system are measurable via reconstruction of the mosaic

  15. Massive-star supernovae as major dust factories.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, Ben E K; Ercolano, Barbara; Barlow, M J; Tielens, A G G M; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Zijlstra, Albert A; Meixner, Margaret; Speck, Angela; Gledhill, Tim M; Panagia, Nino; Cohen, Martin; Gordon, Karl D; Meyer, Martin; Fabbri, Joanna; Bowey, Janet E; Welch, Douglas L; Regan, Michael W; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2006-07-14

    We present late-time optical and mid-infrared observations of the Type II supernova 2003gd in the galaxy NGC 628. Mid-infrared excesses consistent with cooling dust in the ejecta are observed 499 to 678 days after outburst and are accompanied by increasing optical extinction and growing asymmetries in the emission-line profiles. Radiative-transfer models show that up to 0.02 solar masses of dust has formed within the ejecta, beginning as early as 250 days after outburst. These observations show that dust formation in supernova ejecta can be efficient and that massive-star supernovae could have been major dust producers throughout the history of the universe. PMID:16763110

  16. Major advances in milk marketing: government and industry consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stukenberg, D; Blayney, D; Miller, J

    2006-04-01

    Federal dairy programs have been instituted to assist dairy farmers in marketing their milk. Milk marketing licenses were issued for city markets in 1933 during the depression. Federal Milk Orders replaced licenses in 1937 with enactment of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. Low prices returned in the late 1940s and Congress passed the Agricultural Act of 1949 creating the support program for milk. Congressional involvement in milk marketing was minimal until passage of the 1977 Farm Bill. A support price adjustment to seek favorable political responses from farmers resulted in higher prices and ultimately higher production. Large expenditures and burdensome supplies caused Congress to make major changes to both programs. Other milk marketing programs have evolved from Congressional actions, including export and promotion programs. The exiting and consolidation of the dairy processors and producers has lead to a reduction in the number of marketing orders. PMID:16537953

  17. Major histocompatibility complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, T J; Parker, K M; Hedrick, P W

    1999-01-01

    The chinook salmon of the Sacramento River, California, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. Here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class II exon in the four Sacramento chinook salmon runs. Examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. We found a significant amount of variation in each of the runs, including the federally endangered winter run. All of the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significant amount of genetic differentiation between runs was revealed by several measures of differentiation. Winter run was the most genetically divergent, while the spring, late-fall, and fall runs were less differentiated. PMID:10049927

  18. Major issues and outstanding questions. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Robert O.; Carr, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    The physical, chemical, geologic, and biological issues underlying current efforts to understand Mars are introduced and summarized. Attention is given not only to the present status and past history of Mars, and also to Mars as one member of the class of terrestrial planets and as one product of the evolution from the primordial accretion disk. The issue of the origin and evolution of Mars' inventory of volatile elements is treated in detail, as are the SNC meteorites, both for what these putative Martian samples indicate about volatile distributions and because of their profound impact on assessments on bulk chemical composition and the chronology of planetary differentiation and late-stage volcanism. Overviews of the major problems arising from multidisciplinary investigations of the planet are also presented.

  19. Support Tool in the Diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Luciano Comin; Pinheiro, Plácido Rogério; Pequeno, Tarcísio Cavalcante; Pinheiro, Mirian Calíope Dantas

    Major Depressive Disorder have been responsible for millions of professionals temporary removal, and even permanent, from diverse fields of activities around the world, generating damage to social, financial, productive systems and social security, and especially damage to the image of the individual and his family that these disorders produce in individuals who are patients, characteristics that make them stigmatized and discriminated into their society, making difficult their return to the production system. The lack of early diagnosis has provided reactive and late measures, only when the professional suffering psychological disorder is already showing signs of incapacity for working and social relationships. This article aims to assist in the decision making to establish early diagnosis of these types of psychological disorders. It presents a proposal for a hybrid model composed of expert system structured methodologies for decision support (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis - MCDA) and representations of knowledge structured in logical rules of production and probabilities (Artificial Intelligence - AI).

  20. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  1. Late HIV diagnosis in Europe: a call for increased testing and awareness among general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Delpech, Valerie C

    2012-09-01

    Major advancements in the treatment of HIV infection mean near normal life expectancy of persons diagnosed at an early stage of infection. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of HIV infected persons remain undiagnosed and are diagnosed at a late stage of infection, putting them at higher risk for preventable HIV-related morbidity and mortality and risking onward transmission to others. In Europe, half of people diagnosed with HIV in 2010 were diagnosed late with a CD4<350 cells/ul, at a point after which treatment should have begun. The causes of late diagnosis are manifold, and comprise barriers to testing at the patient, healthcare provider, and institutional level. Strategies to address barriers to HIV testing are essential to ensure prompt diagnosis. Routine universal HIV testing in general practice consisting of informed consent and a pre-test discussion is feasible and acceptable and should be considered in high prevalence areas to normalize HIV testing, reduce stigma, and reduce the number of infected individuals who are diagnosed late. PMID:22568402

  2. The Transcriptional Repressor EUO Regulates Both Subsets of Chlamydia Late Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Christopher J.; Hanson, Brett R.; Tan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenic bacterium Chlamydia replicates in a eukaryotic host cell via a developmental cycle marked by temporal waves of gene expression. We have previously shown that late genes transcribed by the major chlamydial RNA polymerase, σ66 RNA polymerase, are regulated by a transcriptional repressor EUO. We now report that EUO also represses promoters for a second subset of late genes that are transcribed by an alternative polymerase called σ28 RNA polymerase. EUO bound in the vicinity of six σ28-dependent promoters and inhibited transcription of each promoter. We used a mutational analysis to demonstrate that the EUO binding site functions as an operator that is necessary and sufficient for EUO-mediated repression of σ28-dependent transcription. We also verified specific binding of EUO to σ66-dependent and σ28-dependent promoters with a DNA immunoprecipitation assay. These findings support a model in which EUO represses expression of both σ66-dependent and σ28-dependent late genes. We thus propose that EUO is the master regulator of late gene expression in the chlamydial developmental cycle. PMID:25250726

  3. Late Proterozoic and Silurian alkaline plutons within the southeastern New England Avalon zone

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, O.D. ); Zartman, R.E. )

    1992-07-01

    Distinct pulses of quartz-bearing, alkaline plutonism and volcanism are known to have occurred in the Avalon zone of southeastern New England during the Late Ordovician, Early Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous. Zircon separates from the Franklin and Dartmouth plutons demonstrate that two additional, previously unrecognized periods of alkaline magmatism occurred. The Franklin pluton yields an age of 417 {plus minus} 6 Ma (Late Silurian), whereas the Dartmouth pluton is Late Proterozoic (595 {plus minus} 5 Ma) and markedly older than the other plutons of alkaline affinity. The new ages further emphasize the episodic nature and long-term duration of such alkaline igneous events within the southeastern New England Avalon zone. The Dartmouth pluton may represent a post-collisional alkaline granite emplaced in the Late Proterozoic, almost immediately after a major period of calcalkaline igneous activity that accompanied plate convergence and continental accretion. The abrupt change from orogenic calcalkaline igneous activity to post-collisional alkaline granite, followed by younger episodes of anorogenic emplacement, is remarkably similar to igneous events reported from pan-African mobile belts widespread throughout Africa. In addition, parts of the Dartmouth pluton exhibit features indicative of mixing and commingling of felsic and mafic melts that are associated with coevally formed mylonitic fabrics. Because these fabrics are conformable to those in adjacent gneisses, but discordant with Alleghanian fabrics in the nearby Carboniferous Narragansett basin, they represent some of the best candidates for pre-Alleghanian structures thus far identified in the southeastern New England Avalon zone.

  4. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of bacteriophage BF23 late genes 24 and 25 encoding tail proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, S; Kaneko, T; Ishimaru, H; Moriwaki, H; Mizobuchi, K

    1994-01-01

    Two bacteriophage BF23 late genes, genes 24 and 25, were isolated on a 7.4-kb PstI fragment from the phage DNA, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Gene 24 encodes a minor tail protein with the expected M(r) of 34,309, and gene 25 located 4 bp upstream of gene 24 encodes a major tail protein with the expected M(r) of 50,329. When total cellular RNA isolated from either phage-infected cells or cells bearing the cloned genes was analyzed by the primer extension method using the primers specific to either gene 25 or gene 24, we identified a possible late gene promoter, designated P25, in the 5'-flanking region of gene 25. This promoter was similar in structure to Escherichia coli promoters for sigma 70. Studies of the translational gene 25- and gene 24-lacZ fusions in the cloned gene system revealed that the promoter P25 was responsible for the expression of both genes 25 and 24 even in the absence of the regulatory genes which were absolutely required for late gene expression in the normal phage-infected cells. These results indicate that the two genes constitute an operon under the control of P25 and that the regulatory gene products of BF23 do not participate directly in specifying the late gene promoter. Images PMID:7961500

  5. Nitric acid flowsheet with late wash PHA testing. Task Technical Plan, Integrated DWPF Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1993-10-28

    This Task Technical Plan outlines the activities to be conducted in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) in ongoing support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) utilizing the Nitric Acid Flowsheet in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produced by the Late Wash Flowsheet. The IDMS facility is to be operated over a series of runs (2 to 4) using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet. The PHA will be produced with the Late Wash Flowsheet in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). All operating conditions shall simulate the expected DWPF operating conditions as closely as possible. The task objectives are to perform at least two IDMS runs with as many operating conditions as possible at nominal DWPF conditions. The major purposes of these runs are twofold: verify that the combined Late Wash and Nitric Acid flowsheets produce glass of acceptable quality without additional changes to process equipment, and determine the reproducibility of data from run to run. These runs at nominal conditions will be compared to previous runs made with PHA produced from the Late Wash flowsheet and with the Nitric Acid flowsheet in the SRAT (Purex 4 and Purex 5).

  6. A major perturbation in the Agulhas retroflection area in 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, L. V.; Agenbag, J. J.; Walker, N. D.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

    1990-03-01

    During late 1985 and in 1986 a major perturbation in the retroflection of the Agulhas Current occurred. A combination of climatological data and satellite-derived sea surface temperature observations are used to describe the evolution of the disturbance which resulted in 1986 being the warmest year on record in the southeast Atlantic. Possible causes of the changes in the retroflection and the associated input of Agulhas water into the southern Benguela Current region are discussed. Results show that, following intermittent leakage of elements of the Agulhas Current around the Cape of Good Hope, during the second half of 1985 and the first part of 1986, an offshoot of the Current developed in June as a flow into the Atlantic around the edge of the Agulhas Bank. Subsequently a major change in the retroflection occurred, and in August 1986 a large body of warm water joined to the Current moved northwards and was situated within 20 km of the Cape Peninsula and Cape Columbine. Boundary thermal gradients associated with this warm intrusion were 3-4°C in 25 km. This intrusion moved progressively northwards and westwards at 4.5-9.5 cm s -1 during the winter and spring of 1986 and had a typical zonal width of 240 km. The intrusion was evidently terminated when filaments of subtarctic water moved northwards, flooding much of the area with cold water during December 1986 and January 1987. Although intermittent leakage of Agulhas water into the southeast Atlantic continued during 1987, it was not substantial. By late 1987 the situation in the retroflection area had returned to normal. The observations of the Agulhas intrusion, when viewed in the light of changes in wind stress in the southwest Indian Ocean and south of Africa, are consistent with published numerical modelling results which predict a substantial flow of Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope under certain conditions.

  7. Dating the diversification of the major lineages of Passeriformes (Aves)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The avian Order Passeriformes is an enormously species-rich group, which comprises almost 60% of all living bird species. This diverse order is believed to have originated before the break-up of Gondwana in the late Cretaceous. However, previous molecular dating studies have relied heavily on the geological split between New Zealand and Antarctica, assumed to have occurred 85–82 Mya, for calibrating the molecular clock and might thus be circular in their argument. Results This study provides a time-scale for the evolution of the major clades of passerines using seven nuclear markers, five taxonomically well-determined passerine fossils, and an updated interpretation of the New Zealand split from Antarctica 85–52 Mya in a Bayesian relaxed-clock approach. We also assess how different interpretations of the New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event influence our age estimates. Our results suggest that the diversification of Passeriformes began in the late Cretaceous or early Cenozoic. Removing the root calibration for the New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event (85–52 Mya) dramatically increases the 95% credibility intervals and leads to unrealistically old age estimates. We assess the individual characteristics of the seven nuclear genes analyzed in our study. Our analyses provide estimates of divergence times for the major groups of passerines, which can be used as secondary calibration points in future molecular studies. Conclusions Our analysis takes recent paleontological and geological findings into account and provides the best estimate of the passerine evolutionary time-scale currently available. This time-scale provides a temporal framework for further biogeographical, ecological, and co-evolutionary studies of the largest bird radiation, and adds to the growing support for a Cretaceous origin of Passeriformes. PMID:24422673

  8. Migration of a Late Cretaceous fish.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Scott J; Erickson, J Mark; Holland, F D

    2003-05-01

    Late Cretaceous sediments from the Western Interior of North America yield exceptionally well preserved fossils that serve as proxies for the rapidly changing climate preceding the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (about 67-65 Myr ago). Here we reconstruct the ontogenetic history of a Maastrichtian-age fish, Vorhisia vulpes, by using the carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope ratios of four aragonite otoliths collected from the Fox Hills Formation of South Dakota. Individuals of V. vulpes spawned in brackish water (about 70-80% seawater) and during their first year migrated to open marine waters of the Western Interior Seaway, where they remained for 3 years before returning to the estuary, presumably to spawn and die. The mean delta(18)O from the marine growth phase of V. vulpes yields a seawater temperature of 18 degrees C, which is consistent with leaf physiognomy and general-circulation-model temperature estimates for the Western Interior during the latest Maastrichtian. PMID:12721626

  9. Solar and late-type dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's and the IUE's contributions to knowledge of coronal formation in late-type stars are discussed. The HR diagram of stars seen as X-ray sources by these observatories is presented, and the influence of rotation on X-ray emission is reviewed. Emission from the Alpha Cen system and from active stars with quiescent coronae is examined, and the extent of the contribution of emission from normal stars to the soft X-ray background is addressed. The quiescent and flare emission from Alpha Cen, the temporal variability of X-ray emission from a sample of active chromosphere stars, and the predicted contribution of chromospheric emission to the diffuse soft X-ray background are depicted. Chromospheric indicators of activity are discussed, the connection between surface magnetic fields and X-ray emission in the chromosphere is briefly reviewed, and the quantitative links between X-ray data and magnetic fields is summarily presented.

  10. Late Mousterian persistence near the Arctic Circle.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Svendsen, John Inge; Mangerud, Jan; Plisson, Hugues; Heggen, Herbjørn Presthus; Brugère, Alexis; Pavlov, Pavel Yurievich

    2011-05-13

    Palaeolithic sites in Russian high latitudes have been considered as Upper Palaeolithic and thus representing an Arctic expansion of modern humans. Here we show that at Byzovaya, in the western foothills of the Polar Urals, the technological structure of the lithic assemblage makes it directly comparable with Mousterian Middle Palaeolithic industries that so far have been exclusively attributed to the Neandertal populations in Europe. Radiocarbon and optical-stimulated luminescence dates on bones and sand grains indicate that the site was occupied during a short period around 28,500 carbon-14 years before the present (about 31,000 to 34,000 calendar years ago), at the time when only Upper Palaeolithic cultures occupied lower latitudes of Eurasia. Byzovaya may thus represent a late northern refuge for Neandertals, about 1000 km north of earlier known Mousterian sites. PMID:21566192

  11. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  12. Late stage trifluoromethylthiolation strategies for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Barata-Vallejo, Sebastian; Bonesi, Sergio; Postigo, Al

    2016-07-26

    Substitution by the CF3S group allows for an increase in lipophilicity and electron-withdrawing properties along with an improvement in the bioavailability of medicinal targets; consequently, the late stage introduction of CF3S moieties into medicinal scaffolds is a sought-after strategy in synthetic organic chemistry. Different newly-developed electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents are used to effect the trifluoromethylthiolation of (hetero)aromatic compounds, aliphatic compounds (alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl substrates), the trifluoromethylthiolation at the α- and β-carbonyl positions, and heteroatoms (N- and S-). Such reactions can involve homolytic substitutions, or functional-group substitutions (ipso). Addition reactions of electrophilic reagents to double and triple bonds followed by ring-cyclizations will be shown to yield relevant CF3S-substituted heteroaromatic compounds with relevant pharmacological action. PMID:27354317

  13. Impact vaporization: Late time phenomena from experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    While simple airflow produced by the outward movement of the ejecta curtain can be scaled to large dimensions, the interaction between an impact-vaporized component and the ejecta curtain is more complicated. The goal of these experiments was to examine such interaction in a real system involving crater growth, ejection of material, two phased mixtures of gas and dust, and strong pressure gradients. The results will be complemented by theoretical studies at laboratory scales in order to separate the various parameters for planetary scale processes. These experiments prompt, however, the following conclusions that may have relevance at broader scales. First, under near vacuum or low atmospheric pressures, an expanding vapor cloud scours the surrounding surface in advance of arriving ejecta. Second, the effect of early-time vaporization is relatively unimportant at late-times. Third, the overpressure created within the crater cavity by significant vaporization results in increased cratering efficiency and larger aspect ratios.

  14. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda)

    PubMed Central

    Sravanthi, A.; Srivalli, P.; Gopal, K. V. T.; Rao, T. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  15. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda).

    PubMed

    Sravanthi, A; Srivalli, P; Gopal, K V T; Rao, T Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2(nd) decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  16. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of early- to mid-life musical training on cognition in older adults. A Musical Training Survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into Low, Medium, and High knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups’ longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that High knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to Low knowledge participants. ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early-to mid-life musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  17. Plate Tectonics in the Late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mat; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of 'full-plates' (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ~60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these 'continental' reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma). Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it can also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  18. Late termination of pregnancy. Professional dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2003-09-23

    Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester. This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional. In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality. Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women. Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus. PMID:14519900

  19. Late Glacial lakes - uniform or contrasting ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Climate changes are one of the most investigated topic in paleolimnology. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene time are specially interesting as than most abrupt changes happened. Lake sediments are known to be great source of information of the past environments. They are functioning as natural archives because in them preserve animal and plants remains. In this study we investigated three cores of the biogenic sediments from the lakes located in close vicinity in Tuchola Forest (Northern Poland): paleolake Trzechowskie, Lake Czechowskie-deepest part and Lake Czechowskie-bay. We made Cladocera, diatom and pollen analysis, the chronology was determined by varve counting, Laacher See Tephra (12,880 yrs BP) and 14C dating. The aim of our research was to find out the response of zooplankton, phytoplankton, lake and catchment vegetation to abrupt climate changes. We were interested in similarities and differences between those three locations in response of entire communities but also species composition. The preliminary results revealed that the Cladocera, diatoms and plants communities were sensitive to climatic shifts and it is well shown in the results of ordination method (PCA). However in the Cladocera and diatoms assemblages, which reflect well lake environment conditions, the dominant species and total number of species present, were different in all three locations. Especially great difference was noted between paleolake Trzechowskie and Lake Czechowskie (core from the deepest part). The results of our research shows that in Late Glacial time landscape in Lake Czechowskie region (Tuchola Forest, Northern Poland) had mosaic character. Local factors such as relief, edaphic conditions strongly modified type of vegetation and in close vicinity existed lakes that had very diverse environments.

  20. A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Burney, David A; Burney, Lida Pigott; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L; Goodman, Steven M; Wright, Henry T; Jull, A J Timothy

    2004-01-01

    A database has been assembled with 278 age determinations for Madagascar. Materials 14C dated include pretreated sediments and plant macrofossils from cores and excavations throughout the island, and bones, teeth, or eggshells of most of the extinct megafaunal taxa, including the giant lemurs, hippopotami, and ratites. Additional measurements come from uranium-series dates on speleothems and thermoluminescence dating of pottery. Changes documented include late Pleistocene climatic events and, in the late Holocene, the apparently human-caused transformation of the environment. Multiple lines of evidence point to the earliest human presence at ca. 2300 14C yr BP (350 cal yr BC). A decline in megafauna, inferred from a drastic decrease in spores of the coprophilous fungus Sporormiella spp. in sediments at 1720+/-40 14C yr BP (230-410 cal yr AD), is followed by large increases in charcoal particles in sediment cores, beginning in the SW part of the island, and spreading to other coasts and the interior over the next millennium. The record of human occupation is initially sparse, but shows large human populations throughout the island by the beginning of the Second Millennium AD. Dating of the "subfossil" megafauna, including pygmy hippos, elephant birds, giant tortoises, and large lemurs, demonstrates that most if not all the extinct taxa were still present on the island when humans arrived. Many taxa overlapped chronologically with humans for a millennium or more. The extinct lemurs Hadropithecus stenognathus, Pachylemur insignis, Mesopropithecus pithecoides, and Daubentonia robusta, and the elephant birds Aepyornis spp. and Mullerornis spp., were still present near the end of the First Millennium AD. Palaeopropithecus ingens, Megaladapis edwardsi, and Archaeolemur sp. (cf. edwardsi) may have survived until the middle of the Second Millennium A.D. One specimen of Hippopotamus of unknown provenance dates to the period of European colonization. PMID:15288523

  1. Skeletal and dental indicators of health in the late mediaeval (12-15th century) population from Nin, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, M; Martinčić, O; Strinović, D; Slaus, M

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive bioarchaeological study of the late mediaeval (12-15th century) skeletal sample from Nin was carried out in order to test the historically documented hypothesis that during the late mediaeval period Nin sustained a period of rapid development that resulted in it becoming one of the major urban centres on the eastern Adriatic coast. The analysed pathological changes (alveolar bone disease, dental caries, dental enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, periostitis, tuberculosis, Schmorl's nodes, vertebral osteoarthritis, and bone fractures) indicate a relatively good quality of life for the majority of the population from this late mediaeval site. A low prevalence of dental pathologies suggests an adequate diet while a low frequency of long bone trauma testifies to a relatively peaceful life for the inhabitants of mediaeval Nin. Increased urban development during this period resulted in a worsening of sanitary conditions most likely caused by overcrowding, which is reflected in the presence of tuberculosis and the relatively high frequencies of dental enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia. An additional health concern for the late mediaeval inhabitants of Nin may have been the presence of malaria, as recorded in numerous historical sources. Comparison with other Croatian mediaeval skeletal samples suggests that the inhabitants of late mediaeval Nin experienced somewhat better living conditions than their contemporaries from other parts of Croatia. PMID:23102923

  2. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Russell, A.; Bruner, D.

    1995-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptons, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed. 61 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Late Eocene-Middle Miocene paleoclimates of the south-west Pacific: oxygen isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Kennett, J.P.; Murphy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution oxygen isotopic stratigraphy is presented for Late Eocene-Middle Miocene sequences in a traverse of 6 DSDP sites from the southwest Pacific at water depths ranging from 1300 to 2000 m and from the warm subtropics to the cool temperature water masses. The data record the progressive increase of latitudinal temperature gradients from the late Eocene. A pattern of increasing isotopic offset between the latitudinally distributed sites is linked to the establishment and strengthening of the circum-Antarctic Current. The intensification of this current system progressively decoupled the warm subtropical gyres from cool polar circulation, in turn leading to Antarctic glaciation. Enriched oxygen isotopic values clustering in the middle Oligocene, are interpreted to represent accumulations of Antarctic ice, although this must have been temporary and of relatively low volume. This Antarctic ice must have disappeared by the Early Miocene when delta/sup 18/O values were relatively depleted, reaching minimum values during the late Early Miocene (19.5 to 16.5), the climax of Neogene warmth. This climatic optimum was immediately followed by a major enrichment in benthic delta/sup 18/O values between approx. 16.5 and 13.5 Ma, which is interpreted to represent major, permanent accumulation of the East Antarctic ice sheet and cooling of bottom waters.

  4. The case of late preterm birth: sliding forwards the critical window for cognitive outcome risk.

    PubMed

    Mento, Giovanni; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    Many survivors of preterm birth experience neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, visual and hearing problems. However, even in the absence of major neurological complications, premature babies show significant neuropsychological and behavioural deficits during childhood and beyond. While the clinical tools routinely used to assess neurocognitive development in those infants have been useful in detecting major clinical complications in early infancy, they have not been equally sensitive in identifying subtle cognitive impairments emerging during childhood. These methodological concerns become even more relevant when considering the case of late preterm children (born between 34 and 36 gestational weeks). Although these children have been traditionally considered as having similar risks for developmental problems as neonates born at term, a recent line of research has provided growing evidence that even late preterm children display altered structural and functional brain maturation, with potential life-long implications for neurocognitive functioning. A recent study by Heinonen put forward the hypothesis that environmental factors, in this case educational attainment, could moderate the association between late preterm birth (LPT) and neuropsychological impairments commonly associated with aging. In this paper we bring together clinical literature and recent neuroimaging evidence in order to provide two different but complementary approaches for a better understanding of the "nature-nurture" interplay underlying the lifespan neurocognitive development of preterm babies. PMID:26835378

  5. The case of late preterm birth: sliding forwards the critical window for cognitive outcome risk

    PubMed Central

    Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Many survivors of preterm birth experience neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, visual and hearing problems. However, even in the absence of major neurological complications, premature babies show significant neuropsychological and behavioural deficits during childhood and beyond. While the clinical tools routinely used to assess neurocognitive development in those infants have been useful in detecting major clinical complications in early infancy, they have not been equally sensitive in identifying subtle cognitive impairments emerging during childhood. These methodological concerns become even more relevant when considering the case of late preterm children (born between 34 and 36 gestational weeks). Although these children have been traditionally considered as having similar risks for developmental problems as neonates born at term, a recent line of research has provided growing evidence that even late preterm children display altered structural and functional brain maturation, with potential life-long implications for neurocognitive functioning. A recent study by Heinonen put forward the hypothesis that environmental factors, in this case educational attainment, could moderate the association between late preterm birth (LPT) and neuropsychological impairments commonly associated with aging. In this paper we bring together clinical literature and recent neuroimaging evidence in order to provide two different but complementary approaches for a better understanding of the “nature-nurture” interplay underlying the lifespan neurocognitive development of preterm babies. PMID:26835378

  6. Mandibular and dental characteristics of Late Triassic mammaliaform Haramiyavia and their ramifications for basal mammal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhe-Xi; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Jenkins, Farish A.; Amaral, William W.; Shubin, Neil H.

    2015-01-01

    As one of the earliest-known mammaliaforms, Haramiyavia clemmenseni from the Rhaetic (Late Triassic) of East Greenland has held an important place in understanding the timing of the earliest radiation of the group. Reanalysis of the type specimen using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) has revealed new details, such as the presence of the dentary condyle of the mammalian jaw hinge and the postdentary trough for mandibular attachment of the middle ear—a transitional condition of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals and are excluded from the Mammalia. Consequently, hypotheses of a Late Triassic diversification of the Mammalia that depend on multituberculate affinities of haramiyidans are rejected. Scanning electron microscopy study of tooth-wear facets and kinematic functional simulation of occlusion with virtual 3D models from CT scans confirm that Haramiyavia had a major orthal occlusion with the tallest lingual cusp of the lower molars occluding into the lingual embrasure of the upper molars, followed by a short palinal movement along the cusp rows alternating between upper and lower molars. This movement differs from the minimal orthal but extensive palinal occlusal movement of multituberculate mammals, which previously were regarded as relatives of haramiyidans. The disparity of tooth morphology and the diversity of dental functions of haramiyids and their contemporary mammaliaforms suggest that dietary diversification is a major factor in the earliest mammaliaform evolution. PMID:26630008

  7. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, E. M.; Gauß, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.

    2010-04-01

    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  8. Mandibular and dental characteristics of Late Triassic mammaliaform Haramiyavia and their ramifications for basal mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhe-Xi; Gatesy, Stephen M; Jenkins, Farish A; Amaral, William W; Shubin, Neil H

    2015-12-22

    As one of the earliest-known mammaliaforms, Haramiyavia clemmenseni from the Rhaetic (Late Triassic) of East Greenland has held an important place in understanding the timing of the earliest radiation of the group. Reanalysis of the type specimen using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) has revealed new details, such as the presence of the dentary condyle of the mammalian jaw hinge and the postdentary trough for mandibular attachment of the middle ear-a transitional condition of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals and are excluded from the Mammalia. Consequently, hypotheses of a Late Triassic diversification of the Mammalia that depend on multituberculate affinities of haramiyidans are rejected. Scanning electron microscopy study of tooth-wear facets and kinematic functional simulation of occlusion with virtual 3D models from CT scans confirm that Haramiyavia had a major orthal occlusion with the tallest lingual cusp of the lower molars occluding into the lingual embrasure of the upper molars, followed by a short palinal movement along the cusp rows alternating between upper and lower molars. This movement differs from the minimal orthal but extensive palinal occlusal movement of multituberculate mammals, which previously were regarded as relatives of haramiyidans. The disparity of tooth morphology and the diversity of dental functions of haramiyids and their contemporary mammaliaforms suggest that dietary diversification is a major factor in the earliest mammaliaform evolution. PMID:26630008

  9. Lyman alpha initiated winds in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    One of the first major results of the IUE survey of late-type stars was the discovery of a sharp division in the HR diagram between stars with solar type spectra (chromosphere and transition region lines) and those with non-solar type spectra (only chromosphere lines). This result is especially interesting in view of observational evidence for mass loss from G and K giants and super-giants discussed recently by both Reimers and Stencel. In the present paper models of both hot coronae and cool wind flows are calculated using stellar model chromospheres as starting points for stellar wind calculations in order to investigate the possibility of having a 'supersonic transition locus' in the HR diagram dividing hot coronae from cool winds. It is concluded from these models that the Lyman-alpha flux may play an important role in determining the location of a stellar wind critical point. The interaction of Lyman-alpha radiation pressure with Alfven waves in producing strong, low temperature stellar winds in the star Arcturus is investigated.

  10. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim; Carter, Lionel; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert; Sjunneskog, Charlotte; Winter, Diane; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Warren, Courtney; Pagani, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Willmott, Veronica; Levy, Richard; DeConto, Robert; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We provide evidence for a major expansion of an ice sheet in the Ross Sea that began at ∼3.3 Ma, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of ∼2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice, and polynya-style deep mixing in the Ross Sea between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma. The intensification of Antarctic cooling resulted in strengthened westerly winds and invigorated ocean circulation. The associated northward migration of Southern Ocean fronts has been linked with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by restricting surface water connectivity between the ocean basins, with implications for heat transport to the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. While our results do not exclude low-latitude mechanisms as drivers for Pliocene cooling, they indicate an additional role played by southern high-latitude cooling during development of the bipolar world. PMID:22496594

  11. Patterns of late Quaternary shelf-margin sedimentation, southwest Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, J.R.; Berryhill, H.L.

    1986-09-01

    Late Quaternary extension of the continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been largely accomplished by deposition at the shelf margin during sea level lowstands. The distribution and geometry of facies suggest that delta progradation during sea level fall and lowstand is a principal process for shelf accretion. Along the shelf margin of southwest Louisiana, sets of deltaic deposits corresponding to the last two lowstands of sea level have been mapped from high-resolution seismic profiles. Individual deltas extend farther than 5000 m/sup 2/ and are more than 160 m thick. Diapirism has had a controlling effect on sedimentation patterns of the shelf-margin deltas throughout their depositional histories. Shelf-margin deltas have also been the loci for the transfer of large volumes of sediment from the shelf to the upper slope by mass transport, with buried submarine troughs formed by retrogressive shelf-edge failure in association with major streams acting as conduits for sediment movement. In southwest Louisiana, mass transport deposits follow depressions formed by salt diapirism rather than creating broad aprons on the slope.

  12. Late Oligocene-early Miocene birth of the Taklimakan Desert.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongbo; Wei, Xiaochun; Tada, Ryuji; Clift, Peter D; Wang, Bin; Jourdan, Fred; Wang, Ping; He, Mengying

    2015-06-23

    As the world's second largest sand sea and one of the most important dust sources to the global aerosol system, the formation of the Taklimakan Desert marks a major environmental event in central Asia during the Cenozoic. Determining when and how the desert formed holds the key to better understanding the tectonic-climatic linkage in this critical region. However, the age of the Taklimakan remains controversial, with the dominant view being from ∼ 3.4 Ma to ∼ 7 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary sequences within and along the margins of the desert. In this study, we applied radioisotopic methods to precisely date a volcanic tuff preserved in the stratigraphy. We constrained the initial desertification to be late Oligocene to early Miocene, between ∼ 26.7 Ma and 22.6 Ma. We suggest that the Taklimakan Desert was formed as a response to a combination of widespread regional aridification and increased erosion in the surrounding mountain fronts, both of which are closely linked to the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan-Pamir Plateau and Tian Shan, which had reached a climatically sensitive threshold at this time. PMID:26056281

  13. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  14. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna

    PubMed Central

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically-oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  15. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch’s postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  16. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2007-12-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of the late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  17. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim; Carter, Lionel; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert; Sjunneskog, Charlotte; Winter, Diane; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Warren, Courtney; Pagani, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Willmott, Veronica; Levy, Richard; DeConto, Robert; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We provide evidence for a major expansion of an ice sheet in the Ross Sea that began at ~3.3 Ma, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of ~2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice, and polynya-style deep mixing in the Ross Sea between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma. The intensification of Antarctic cooling resulted in strengthened westerly winds and invigorated ocean circulation. The associated northward migration of Southern Ocean fronts has been linked with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by restricting surface water connectivity between the ocean basins, with implications for heat transport to the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. While our results do not exclude low-latitude mechanisms as drivers for Pliocene cooling, they indicate an additional role played by southern high-latitude cooling during development of the bipolar world.

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J.

    2015-02-10

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others.

  19. Late Oligocene–early Miocene birth of the Taklimakan Desert

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongbo; Wei, Xiaochun; Tada, Ryuji; Clift, Peter D.; Wang, Bin; Jourdan, Fred; Wang, Ping; He, Mengying

    2015-01-01

    As the world’s second largest sand sea and one of the most important dust sources to the global aerosol system, the formation of the Taklimakan Desert marks a major environmental event in central Asia during the Cenozoic. Determining when and how the desert formed holds the key to better understanding the tectonic–climatic linkage in this critical region. However, the age of the Taklimakan remains controversial, with the dominant view being from ∼3.4 Ma to ∼7 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary sequences within and along the margins of the desert. In this study, we applied radioisotopic methods to precisely date a volcanic tuff preserved in the stratigraphy. We constrained the initial desertification to be late Oligocene to early Miocene, between ∼26.7 Ma and 22.6 Ma. We suggest that the Taklimakan Desert was formed as a response to a combination of widespread regional aridification and increased erosion in the surrounding mountain fronts, both of which are closely linked to the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan–Pamir Plateau and Tian Shan, which had reached a climatically sensitive threshold at this time. PMID:26056281

  20. Momentum and energy balance in late-type stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, K. B.

    1981-01-01

    Observations at ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths indicate that the classical picture of a static stellar atmosphere containing a radiative equilibrium temperature distribution is inapplicable to the majority of late type stars. Mass loss and the presence of atmospheric regions characterized by gas temperatures in excess of the stellar effective temperature appear to be almost ubiquitous throughout the HR diagram. Evidence pertaining to the thermal and dynamical structure of the outer envelopes of cool stars is summarized. These results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models which were proposed to account for mass loss from latetype stars. Models in which the outflow is thermally radiatively, or wave driven are considered for identification of the physical processes responsible for the observed wind properties. The observed variation of both the wind, thermal and dynamical structure as one proceeds from the supergiant branch toward the main sequence in the cool portion of the HR diagram give consideration to potential mechanisms for heating and cooling the flow from low gravity stars.

  1. Persistence of coral-rudist reefs into the Late Cretaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W. ); Fernandez-Mendiola, P.A. ); Gili, E. ); Simo, A. )

    1990-04-01

    During the Early Cretaceous, coral-algal communities occupied deeper water habitats in the reef ecosystem, and rudist communities generally populated the shallow-water, carbonate-sand substrates. During the middle Cretaceous, however, coral-algal communities became less common, and Late Cretaceous reef communities consisted of both rudist-dominated and rudist-coral communities. In the Pyrenean basins and other basins in the Mediterranean, coral associations co-existed with rudists forming complex buildups at the shelf-edge. In some parts of these buildups corals were nearly as abundant as rudists; in some complex buildups large coral colonies encrusted the rudists. Behind the shelf margin cylindrical, elevator rudists dominated the lenticular thickets that were interspersed with carbonate sands. Global changes in oceanic conditions, such as marine productivity and oxygen content, may have stressed the deeper coral-algal reef communities leaving rudists as the major shallow reef biota in Caribbean reefs. However, the co-occurrence of corals with rudists in these Pyrenean complex buildups suggests that corals were able to compete with rudists for resources. The corals in the complex buildups generally belong to genera different from those in the coral-algal communities. Perhaps this ecological stress in the mid-Cretaceous resulted in the evolution of new coral taxa.

  2. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 deg N, 74 deg W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss -on -ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  3. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.; Wong, Jennifer K.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m. sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 N, 74 W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss-on-ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  4. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling.

    PubMed

    McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim; Carter, Lionel; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert; Sjunneskog, Charlotte; Winter, Diane; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Warren, Courtney; Pagani, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Willmott, Veronica; Levy, Richard; DeConto, Robert; Powell, Ross D

    2012-04-24

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We provide evidence for a major expansion of an ice sheet in the Ross Sea that began at ∼3.3 Ma, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of ∼2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice, and polynya-style deep mixing in the Ross Sea between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma. The intensification of Antarctic cooling resulted in strengthened westerly winds and invigorated ocean circulation. The associated northward migration of Southern Ocean fronts has been linked with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by restricting surface water connectivity between the ocean basins, with implications for heat transport to the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. While our results do not exclude low-latitude mechanisms as drivers for Pliocene cooling, they indicate an additional role played by southern high-latitude cooling during development of the bipolar world. PMID:22496594

  5. Did tropical rainforest vegetation exist during the Late Cretaceous? New data from the late Campanian to early Maastrichtian Olmos Formation, Coahuila, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, G. R.; Estrada-Ruiz, E.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    A major problem in paleobotany and paleoclimatology is the origin of modern tropical and paratropical rainforests. Studies of leaf macrofossils, beginning with those of Wolfe and Upchurch, have suggested that tropical and paratropical (i.e., megathermal) rainforests with dominant angiosperms are of Cenozoic origin, and that comparable vegetation was either absent or greatly restricted during the Late Cretaceous. Earth System modeling studies, in contrast, predict the existence of megathermal rainforest vegetation during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, though with less areal extent than during the Late Cenozoic and Recent. Megathermal climate with year-round precipitation is simulated along the paleoequator and along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean, and tends to occur in highly focused regions, in contrast to the more latitudinally zoned pattern of the Recent. Low-resolution climatic indicators, such as the distribution of coals and tree fern spores, are consistent with evidence from climate modeling for megathermal wet climates during the Late Cretaceous, and by extension megathermal rainforest vegetation. However, corroborative data from plant macrofossil assemblages is needed, because the physiognomy of leaves and woods directly reflects plant adaptation to the environment and can estimate climate independently of the generic and familial affinities of the paleoflora. Newly collected plant macrofossil assemblages from the late Campian to early Maastrichtian Olmos Formation of Coahuila, Mexico, provide evidence for megathermal rainforest vegetation on the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean at approximately 35 degrees paleolatitude. The newly collected leaf flora is 72 percent entire- margined and has abundant palms, features typical of modern megathermal rainforests. Thirty percent of the species have large leaves, and 50 percent of the species have drip tips, features indicative of wet conditions. Simple and multiple regression functions based on the

  6. Appetite Loss and Neurocognitive Deficits in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Guy G.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine association of appetite loss symptoms to neurocognitive performance in late-life depression (LLD). Methods Cross-sectional data from individuals aged 60+ with Major Depressive Disorder (N =322). Participants received clinical assessment of depression and neuropsychological testing. Factor analysis was used to characterize depression symptom factors, and composite scales were developed for episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory span. Results Factor analysis produced a five-factor solution: (1) Anhedonia/Sadness, (2) Suicidality/Guilt, (3) Appetite/Weight Loss, (4) Sleep Disturbance, and (5) Anxiety/Tension. In separate multivariate models for each neurocognitive domain and including all 5 depression factors, higher appetite-loss-related symptoms were associated with lower performance in episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, and verbal fluency; results were significant with covariates of age, education, race, sex, age of depression onset, and illness burden. No other depression factors were associated with neurocognitive performance in these models. In an additional set of models, the Appetite factor mediated the association between global depression severity and neurocognitive performance. Discussion A factor of appetite and weight loss symptoms in LLD was uniquely associated with neurocognitive performance, in contrast to lack of association among other depression symptom factors. Conclusion Cognitive deficits are a major adverse outcome of LLD, and prominent appetite loss during acute depression may be a marker for these deficits, independent of overall depression severity. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may explain this association, and how it is related to the cognitive and symptomatic course of LLD. PMID:25315155

  7. Functional significance of the TATA element major groove in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D K; Wang, K C; Roeder, R G

    1997-01-01

    The binding of TFIID to the TATA element initiates assembly of a preinitiation complex and thus represents one of the most important steps for transcriptional regulation. The fact that the TATA binding protein (TBP), a subunit of TFIID, exclusively contacts the minor groove of the TATA element led us to ask whether the major groove of the TATA element plays any role in transcription initiation or its regulation. Our results show that modifications of the major groove of the TATA element in the adenovirus major late promoter have no effect on TFIID binding affinity or on transcription in a cell-free system reconstituted with purified factors. However, major groove modifications do decrease the levels of both basal and activator-mediated transcription in unfractionated nuclear extracts, indicating that the intact structure of the major groove of the TATA element is functionally important for transcription initiation in a more physiological context. PMID:9336466

  8. Two-stage arterial switch operation: is late ever too late?

    PubMed

    Al Qethamy, Howaida O; Aizaz, Khawar; Aboelnazar, Saber A R; Hijab, Samina; Al Faraidi, Yahya

    2002-09-01

    Results of the two-stage arterial switch operation in 49 patients with transposition of the great arteries, performed between January 1995 and September 2000, were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-one patients had a ventricular septal defect. Anatomical correction was carried out 21.89 +/- 9.86 months after pulmonary artery banding, with or without a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Hospital mortality was 8% (4 patients). During follow-up of 30.12 +/- 14.38 months, there was 1 late death and 1 patient required reoperation for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta. Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation at 5 years were 90% and 97%, respectively. Late anatomic correction (> 6 months) after the preliminary procedure can be performed with an acceptable mortality and morbidity, but undue delay may lead to left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and new aortic valve regurgitation or subaortic stenosis. PMID:12213747

  9. High Calcium (~80mol%) Late Stage Carbonate in ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, K. J.; Holland, G.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Burgess, R.

    2006-03-01

    Brief petrological, chemical and textural description of previously undescribed high Ca late stage carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001. This carbonate surrounds Mg rich carbonates and rosette fragments.

  10. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bambach, R. K.; Canfield, D. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction.

  11. Comparative earth history and late Premian mass extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, A.H.; Bambach, R.K.; Canfield, D.E.; Grotzinger, J.P.

    1996-07-26

    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction. 65 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Late cretaceous extensional tectonics and associated igneous activity on the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, R. L.; Sundeen, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Major, dominantly compressional, orogenic episodes (Taconic, Acadian, Alleghenian) affected eastern North America during the Paleozoic. During the Mesozoic, in contrast, this same region was principally affected by epeirogenic and extensional tectonism; one episode of comparatively more intense tectonic activity involving extensive faulting, uplift, sedimentation, intrusion and effusion produced the Newark Series of eposits and fault block phenomena. This event, termed the Palisades Disturbance, took place during the Late Triassic - Earliest Jurassic. The authors document a comparable extensional tectonic-igneous event occurring during the Late Cretaceous (Early Gulfian; Cenomanian-Santonian) along the southern margin of the cratonic platform from Arkansas to Georgia.

  13. A remarkable short-snouted horned dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (late Campanian) of southern Laramidia

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Scott D.; Lund, Eric K.; Loewen, Mark A.; Farke, Andrew A.; Clayton, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The fossil record of centrosaurine ceratopsids is largely restricted to the northern region of western North America (Alberta, Montana and Alaska). Exceptions consist of single taxa from Utah (Diabloceratops) and China (Sinoceratops), plus otherwise fragmentary remains from the southern Western Interior of North America. Here, we describe a remarkable new taxon, Nasutoceratops titusi n. gen. et sp., from the late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of Utah, represented by multiple specimens, including a nearly complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton. Autapomorphies include an enlarged narial region, pneumatic nasal ornamentation, abbreviated snout and elongate, rostrolaterally directed supraorbital horncores. The subrectangular parietosquamosal frill is relatively unadorned and broadest in the mid-region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nasutoceratops is the sister taxon to Avaceratops, and that a previously unknown subclade of centrosaurines branched off early in the group's history and persisted for several million years during the late Campanian. As the first well-represented southern centrosaurine comparable in age to the bulk of northern forms, Nasutoceratops provides strong support for the provincialism hypothesis, which posits that Laramidia—the western landmass formed by inundation of the central region of North America by the Western Interior Seaway—hosted at least two coeval dinosaur communities for over a million years of late Campanian time. PMID:23864598

  14. North atlantic deepwater temperature change during late pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, G.S.; Cronin, T. M.; Baker, P.A.; Raymo, M.E.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.; Correge, T.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in the deep North Atlantic show that the change in bottom water temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity cycles averaged 1.5??C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) and increased to 2.3??C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, coincidentally with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary, bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5??C. These results show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since 3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively diminished deep-water production in the North Atlantic and of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the North Atlantic during glacial periods. The ostracode Mg/Ca data also allow the direct determination of the temperature component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary. The effects of dissolution on the Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode shells appear to have been minimal.

  15. The Insignificance of Major Mergers in Driving Star Formation at z approximately equal to 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaviraj, S.; Cohen, S.; Windhorst, R. A.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Dopita, M. A.; Dekel, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Straughn, A.; Rutkowski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the significance of major mergers in driving star formation in the early Universe, by quantifying the contribution of this process to the total star formation budget in 80 massive (M(*) > 10(exp 10) Solar M) galaxies at z approx = 2. Employing visually-classified morphologies from rest-frame V-band HST imaging, we find that 55(exp +/-14)% of the star formation budget is hosted by non-interacting late-types, with 27(exp +/-18% in major mergers and 18(exp +/- 6)% in spheroids. Given that a system undergoing a major merger continues to experience star formation driven by other processes at this epoch (e.g. cold accretion, minor mergers), approx 27% is a likely upper limit for the major-merger contribution to star formation activity at this epoch. The ratio of the average specific star formation rate in major mergers to that in the non-interacting late-types is approx 2.2:1, suggesting that the typical enhancement of star formation due to major merging is modest and that just under half the star formation in systems experiencing major mergers is unrelated to the merger itself. Taking this into account, we estimate that the actual major-merger contribution to the star formation budget may be as low as approx 15%. While our study does not preclude a major-merger-dominated. era in the very early Universe, if the major-merger contribution to star formation does not evolve significantly into larger look-back times, then this process has a relatively insignificant role in driving stellar mass assembly over cosmic time.

  16. A Late Devonian fertile organ with seed plant affinities from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  17. A Late Devonian Fertile Organ with Seed Plant Affinities from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  18. Glaciotectonic origin of the Massachusetts coastal end moraines and a fluctuating late Wisconsinan ice margin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; O'Hara, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Late Wisconsinan end moraines on Cape Cod and islands south and west of Cape Cod are believed to be glaciotectonic features formed by advancing ice fronts. Evidence for major ice readvances during general recession includes the moraines themselves, till atop stratified drift, and the numerous basal tills that are inferred to exist beneath Cape Cod Bay. The Thompson Glacier end moraine in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is considered to be a modern example of how late Wisconsinan end moraines on Cape Cod and the islands were formed. It is overriding its outwash plain, displacing outwash deposits forward and upward beyond the ice front. New sheets are added to the base of the moraine as the ice overrides it. Retreat of the ice from Cape Cod and the islands may have been similar to the retreat of the Lake Michigan lobe, deposits of which contain evidence of at least 12 moraine-building episodes caused by readvancing ice.-from Authors

  19. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for the existence of the Gulf Stream during the late Maastrichtian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, D.K.; Self-Trail J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Upper Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil assemblages, from eight cores on the South Carolina Coastal Plain (onshore set) and three deep sea drilling sites from the continental slope and abyssal hills (offshore set), were analyzed by correlation and principal component analysis to examine the ancient surface water thermal structure. In addition, a temperature index derived from independently published paleobiogeographic information was applied to the sample data. All three methods indicate a strong separation of the samples into onshore and offshore sets, with the offshore data set exhibiting significantly warmer paleotemperatures. The great disparity between these two sample sets indicates that there was a strong thermal contrast between the onshore and offshore surface water masses that persisted throughout the late Maastrichtian despite evident shortterm changes in fertility, productivity, and community structure. This suggests the Gulf Stream was present as a major oceanographic feature during the late Maastrichtian. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Biotic response to late Quaternary rapid climate switches in Santa Barbara Basin: Ecological and evolutionary implications

    SciTech Connect

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.; Behl, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Santa Barbara Basin exhibit major faunal and ecological switches associated with late Quaternary millennial- to decadal-scale global climate oscillations. Repeated turnovers of entire faunas occurred rapidly (<40--400 yr) without extinction or speciation in conjunction with Dansgaard-Oeschger shifts in thermohaline circulation, ventilation, and climate, confirming evolutionary model predictions of Roy et al. Consistent faunal successions of dysoxic taxa during successive interstadials reflect the extreme sensitivity and adaptation of the benthic ecosystem to the rapid environmental changes that marked the late Quaternary and possibly other transitional intervals in the history of the Earth`s ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system. These data support the hypothesis that broad segments of the biosphere are well adapted to rapid climate change.

  1. Late Devonian sedimentary record of the Paleotethys Ocean - The Mae Sariang section, northwestern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Königshof, P.; Savage, N. M.; Lutat, P.; Sardsud, A.; Dopieralska, J.; Belka, Z.; Racki, G.

    2012-06-01

    An 11 m thick condensed sequence of Late Devonian limestones in northwestern Thailand exhibits faunal associations and sedimentological-/microfacies data which are indicative of a pelagic facies setting. The entire long-ranging section is completely free from clastic input. Similar successions are known worldwide in a few sections only. The Mae Sariang section is characterised by low sedimentation rates as recognised by a number of hardgrounds, neptunian dikes and Fe/Mn crusts. The succession comprises a number of pelagic faunal elements e.g. conodonts, cephalopods and pelagic ostracodes. The fauna records rare macrofossils and the faunal diversity is low. The very condensed section ranges from the Late rhenana to praesulcata conodont biozones, but contains some global events as undoubtedly shown by biostratigraphical and carbon-isotope results (including major Kellwasser and Hangenberg biotic crises). In terms of plate tectonics this important succession most probably belongs to the Inthanon Zone comprising remnants of the Paleotethys Ocean.

  2. Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, U. K. North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. Ltd., Aberdeen ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Oil-bearing Late Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Graben. They form the reservoirs in Scott, which in 1993 will be the largest producing North Sea oil field to come on stream for more than a decade. Together with Scott, the Piper, Saltire, Tartan, Highlander, Petronella, Rob Roy, and Ivanhoe fields contained almost 2 Bbbl of recoverable reserves in these formations. The Sgiath and Piper represent two phases of Late Jurassic transgression and regression, initially represented by paralic deposited sand culminating in a wave-dominated delta sequence. The history of the Sgiath and Piper formations is reviewed and lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations presented to illustrate the distribution of the reservoir sandstones.

  3. How can anomalous western North Pacific Subtropical High intensify in late summer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Baoqiang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Weidong; Xu, Shibin

    2013-05-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) Subtropical High (WNPSH) is a controlling system for East Asian Summer monsoon and tropical storm activities, whereas what maintains the anomalous summertime WNPSH has been a long-standing riddle. Here we demonstrate that the local convection-wind-evaporation-SST (CWES) feedback relying on both mean flows and mean precipitation is key in maintaining the WNPSH, while the remote forcing from the development of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation is secondary. Strikingly, the majority of strong WNPSH cases exhibit anomalous intensification in late summer (August), which is dominantly determined by the seasonal march of the mean state. That is, enhanced mean precipitation associated with strong WNP monsoon trough in late summer makes atmospheric response much more sensitive to local SST forcing than early summer.

  4. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome associated with late onset postpartum eclampsia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Qi-Yu; Zhao, Xiu-He; Yang, Xue; Wang, Sheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Late onset postpartum eclampsia (LPE) is defined by its onset at >48 h after delivery. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES) associated with LPE is uncommon, with the majority of RPES cases having a late postpartum onset within 4 weeks after childbirth. The present study reported the case of a 15-year old female presenting with convulsions that began 5 weeks after delivery. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the cortex, subcortical region and deep white matter of the bilateral cerebellum, and occipital, frontal and parietal lobes. The clinical manifestations and radiological abnormalities were readily resolved subsequent to antihypertension and anticonvulsion treatment. In conclusion, the present rare case indicates that LPE should be considered as a potential diagnosis even at 4 weeks after delivery. Furthermore, clinicians should familiarize with the reversible radioimaging features of RPES, since early recognition and adequate treatment are important to the outcome of patients. PMID:27602098

  5. Role of unphosphorylated transcription factor STAT3 in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Samraj, Ajoy K; Müller, Anne H; Grell, Anne-Sofie; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms behind increased cerebral vasospasm and local inflammation in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly elucidated. Using system biology tools and experimental SAH models, we have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor as a possible major regulatory molecule. On the basis of the presence of transcription factor binding sequence in the promoters of differentially regulated genes (significant enrichment PE: 6 × 105) and the consistent expression of STAT3 (mRNA, P=0.0159 and Protein, P=0.0467), we hypothesize that unphosphorylated STAT3 may directly DNA bind and probably affect the genes that are involved in inflammation and late cerebral ischemia to influence the pathologic progression of SAH. PMID:24517975

  6. Late Pliocene age for the Atacama Desert: Implications for the desertification of western South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Adrian J.; Chong, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    The Atacama Desert forms one of the major hyperarid deserts of the world. Previous studies suggest that desertification commenced at 14 Ma during global climate desiccation. Sedimentologic data from middle Miocene to upper Pliocene successions in the modern Atacama Desert indicate that a semiarid climate persisted from 8 to 3 Ma, punctuated by a phase of increased aridity at ca. 6 Ma. As such, hyperaridity did not commence until the late Pliocene. Implications are (1) that the rain shadow generated by the Andean Cordillera has had a minor influence on climate change, and (2) that the upwelling, north- flowing, cold Humboldt Current, although important in establishing the generally arid climate of western South America, did not control the shift to hyperaridity. The formation of the hyperarid Atacama Desert in the late Pliocene accompanied the development of the current phase of aridification in the Sahara and Namib Deserts and is attributed to a phase of global climate cooling.

  7. The late Precambrian greening of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Knauth, L Paul; Kennedy, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Many aspects of the carbon cycle can be assessed from temporal changes in the (13)C/(12)C ratio of oceanic bicarbonate. (13)C/(12)C can temporarily rise when large amounts of (13)C-depleted photosynthetic organic matter are buried at enhanced rates, and can decrease if phytomass is rapidly oxidized or if low (13)C is rapidly released from methane clathrates. Assuming that variations of the marine (13)C/(12)C ratio are directly recorded in carbonate rocks, thousands of carbon isotope analyses of late Precambrian examples have been published to correlate these otherwise undatable strata and to document perturbations to the carbon cycle just before the great expansion of metazoan life. Low (13)C/(12)C in some Neoproterozoic carbonates is considered evidence of carbon cycle perturbations unique to the Precambrian. These include complete oxidation of all organic matter in the ocean and complete productivity collapse such that low-(13)C/(12)C hydrothermal CO(2) becomes the main input of carbon. Here we compile all published oxygen and carbon isotope data for Neoproterozoic marine carbonates, and consider them in terms of processes known to alter the isotopic composition during transformation of the initial precipitate into limestone/dolostone. We show that the combined oxygen and carbon isotope systematics are identical to those of well-understood Phanerozoic examples that lithified in coastal pore fluids, receiving a large groundwater influx of photosynthetic carbon from terrestrial phytomass. Rather than being perturbations to the carbon cycle, widely reported decreases in (13)C/(12)C in Neoproterozoic carbonates are more easily interpreted in the same way as is done for Phanerozoic examples. This influx of terrestrial carbon is not apparent in carbonates older than approximately 850 Myr, so we infer an explosion of photosynthesizing communities on late Precambrian land surfaces. As a result, biotically enhanced weathering generated carbon-bearing soils on a large

  8. Floral responses to the Late Paleozoic deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looy, C. V.; DiMichele, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The current human-induced thawing of ice house Earth prompts the careful examination of similar earlier events and their biotic consequences. The most recent full transition from a cool earth to a warm world took place in the Early to Middle Permian. Against a background of global warming, plant communities were affected globally resulting in migrations, extinctions and changed evolutionary patterns as a response to the environmental changes. The collapse of the southern hemisphere ice-sheets resulted in significant changes, not just at higher latitudes, but also in the tropics where the rainfall regime changed from seasonally dry to seasonally wet. In the Early Permian tropics - in areas where net sedimentation facilitates fossilization, to be more specific - vegetation rich in walchian conifers began to replace the spore plants and seed ferns that previously dominated the Late Pennsylvanian wetlands. The replacing drier floras probably lived in the basinal lowlands as well, but episodically at the drier times of climate cycles. New finds within the tropics of latest Early to Middle Permian-age, in particular from north-central Texas, indicate the existence of floras which were adapted to even more extended periods of drought. These were populated by the more derived voltzian conifers and other seed plants, such as cycads. Surprisingly, the clades in these floras were until recently only known from the tens-of-millions-of-years younger Late Permian and Early Mesozoic, where they were the dominant forms. These occurrences demonstrate that even more derived groups were already in existence and well differentiated by the Early Permian, outside the window of preservation. This pattern of change in conifers and their communities from north-central Texas is unique in that it represents the best documented record in the Phanerozoic of terrestrial ecosystem response to a change from a global cool-mode to warm-mode Earth. Conifers serve as "marker plants" for the

  9. Late Permian to Early Triassic magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Maja; Heller, Friedrich

    1991-10-01

    A Late Permian to Early Triassic magnetostratigraphic reference section is presented. The Lower Triassic part is based on results from marine limestone sections in South China published earlier [1,2]. Reliable new Permian data are added here which have been collected in the Nammal gorge (Salt Range, Northwest Pakistan) where marine sediments have been deposited quasi-continuously with occasional minor hiatuses during the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic. About 50% of the Permian samples from the Nammal section contain, hidden beneath a strong recent or Tertiary overprint, a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) which is very likely of Permian age. This component, which was imprinted on the southern hemisphere, has normal as well as reversed polarity with a normal mean direction (Decl. = 289.3°, Incl. = -50.3°, α 95 = 4.3° , N = 113) which is in close agreement with the palaeofield direction expected for a site belonging to the Indian plate as part of Gondwanaland during the Permian. In the lower Upper Permian several normal polarity zones are recognized. This contradicts the current assumption that rocks of this age belong to the long, reversely polarized Kiaman hyperzone. The Kiaman interval must end and the Illawarra hyperzone of mixed polarity must begin in or prior to the lowermost Upper Permian. The Permian/Triassic boundary at Nammal as well as in the Chinese sections is situated very close to a transition from a reversed to a normal polarity zone. The Upper Permian at Nammal together with the Lower Triassic South China sections is estimated to cover about 20 Ma. Nearly 30 polarity changes are observed which result in an average reversal frequency very similar to that observed during the early Tertiary. The reversal rate after the end of the long-lasting reversed Kiaman hyperchron apparently increases in a manner similar to that after the end of the Cretaceous Long Normal Superchron. Only a few polarity zones are found in the lower Upper Permian

  10. Palynological evidence for late Miocene stepwise aridification on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Ji Jun; Song, Chun Hui; Yu, Hao; Jiang Peng, Ting; Chuang Hui, Zheng; Ye, Xi Yan

    2016-07-01

    Holding a climatically and geologically key position both regionally and globally, the northeastern Tibetan Plateau provides a natural laboratory for illustrating the interactions between tectonic activity and the evolution of the Asian interior aridification. Determining when and how the late Miocene climate evolved on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau may help us better understand the relationships among tectonic uplift, global cooling and ecosystem evolution. Previous paleoenvironmental research has focused on the western Longzhong Basin. Late Miocene aridification data derived from pollen now require corroborative evidence from the eastern Longzhong Basin. Here, we present a late Miocene pollen record from the Tianshui Basin in the eastern Longzhong Basin. Our results show that a general trend toward dry climate was superimposed by stepwise aridification: a temperate forest with a rather humid climate existed in the basin between 11.4 and 10.1 Ma, followed by a temperate open forest environment with a less humid climate between 10.1 and 7.4 Ma, then giving way to an open temperate forest-steppe environment with a relatively arid climate between 7.4 and 6.4 Ma. The vegetation succession demonstrates that the aridification of the Asian interior occurred after ˜ 7-8 Ma, which is confirmed by other evidence from Asia. Furthermore, the aridification trend on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau parallels the global cooling of the late Miocene; the stepwise vegetation succession is consistent with the major uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau during this time. These integrated environmental proxies indicate that the long-term global cooling and the Tibetan Plateau uplift caused the late Miocene aridification of the Asian interior.

  11. Reconstruction of Late Cretaceous Magmatic Arcs in the Northern Andes: Single Versus Multiple Arc Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Leon, S.; Hincapie, S.; Mejia, D.; Patino, A. M.; Vanegas, J.; Zapata, S.; Valencia, V.; Jimenez, G.; Monsalve, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although magmatic rocks are major tracers of the geological evolution of convergent margins, pre-collisional events such as subduction erosion, collisional thrusting or late collisional strike slip segmentation may difficult the recognizing of multiple arc systems and therefore the existence of paleogeographic scenarios with multiple subduction systems. New field, U-Pb geochronology and whole rock geochemistry constraints from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera in the states of Antioquia and Caldas (Colombia) are used to understand the nature of the Late Cretaceous arc magmatism and evaluate the existence of single or multiple Pacific and Caribbean arc systems in the growth of the Northwestern Andes. The new results integrated with additional field and published information is used to suggest the existence of at least three different magmatic arcs. (1) An Eastern Continental arc built within a well defined Permian to Triassic continental crust that record a protracted 90-70 Ma magmatic evolution, (2) a 90-80 arc formed within attenuated continental crust and associated oceanic crust, (3) 90-88 Ma arc formed over a Late Cretaceous plateau crust. The eastern arcs were formed as part of double eastern vergent subduction system, where the most outboard arc represent a fringing arc formed over detached fragments of continental crust, whereas the easternmost continental arc growth by the closure an subduction of and older and broad Triassic to Early Jurassic back-arc ocean. Its closure also end up in ophiolite emplacement. The third allochtonous oceanic arc was formed over the Caribbean plateau crust and was accreted to the continental margin in the Late Cretaceous. Ongoing paleomagnetic, deformational, gravimetric and basin analysis will be integrate to test this model and understand the complex Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Northern Andes.

  12. Post-Late Jurassic, pre-late Eocene strike-slip faulting in west-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    Two events of strike-slip faulting interpreted to be of Late Mesozoic-Early Tertiary age are recorded in the northern Deep Creek Mountains. These fault systems display principal detachment zones that strike N50W and N84E. Both fault systems are manifested as fault mosaics, locally anastomosing with local duplex formation. They are interpreted to represent first-order structures that operated independently of other strain regimes. A quartz monzonite stock dated 38 Ma displays strong control of the intrusion by the NW-striking faults. That, in addition to cross-cutting relationships between the NW-striking faults and a granodiorite dated 152 Ma place age constraints on the strike-slip faulting. The ENE-striking faults are younger than the NW-striking faults and are interpreted to be older than the quartz monzonite, although this relationship is ambiguous. Strike-separation on the major NW-striking faults is on the order of 3 km. Offsets of similar magnitude or greater are interpreted for the ENE-striking faults, although this remains unquantified. Despite the small area of influence, relatively minor displacements, and broad time frame of occurrence, these faults have some regional significance. If Cretaceous-aged, the strike-slip faults are markedly different than the extensional structures that formed in the internal zone' of the Cordilleran thrust belt. If Tertiary-aged, the strike-slip faults represent an age of structure with few documented examples in the eastern Basin and Range.

  13. Moderate and late preterm infants exhibit widespread brain white matter microstructure alterations at term-equivalent age relative to term-born controls.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Claire E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Gabra Fam, Lillian; Leemans, Alexander; Seal, Marc L; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K

    2016-03-01

    Despite the many studies documenting cerebral white matter microstructural alterations associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks' gestation), there is a dearth of similar research in moderate and late preterm infants (born 32-36 weeks' gestation), who experience higher rates of neurodevelopmental delays than infants born at term (≥37 weeks' gestation). We therefore aimed to determine whether whole brain white matter microstructure differs between moderate and late preterm infants and term-born controls at term-equivalent age, as well as to identify potential perinatal risk factors for white matter microstructural alterations in moderate and late preterm infants. Whole brain white matter microstructure was studied in 193 moderate and late preterm infants and 83 controls at term-equivalent age by performing Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data. Moderate and late preterm infants had lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean, axial and radial diffusivities compared with controls in nearly 70 % of the brain's major white matter fiber tracts. In the moderate and late preterm group, being born small for gestational age and male sex were associated with lower fractional anisotropy, largely within the optic radiation, corpus callosum and corona radiata. In conclusion, moderate and late preterm infants exhibit widespread brain white matter microstructural alterations compared with controls at term-equivalent age, in patterns consistent with delayed or disrupted white matter microstructural development. These findings may underpin some of the neurodevelopmental delays observed in moderate and late preterm children. PMID:25739350

  14. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential...

  15. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of... 11 CFR 9002.6, candidate means, with respect to any preceding Presidential election, an individual... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6...

  16. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  17. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  18. Waqf and Madrasas in Late Medieval Syria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahamid, Hatim

    2013-01-01

    The "madrasa" began to spread in Syria ("Bilad al-Sham") as a higher institution for religious education since the Zangid rule (521H./1127 to 569H./ 1173). During the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, main cities of Syria were characterized by many madrasas, especially the major cities that served the political rule like, Damascus,…

  19. Association studies in late onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goate, A.M.; Lendon, C.; Talbot, C.

    1994-09-01

    Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is characterized by an adult onset progressive dementia and the presence of numerous plaques and tangles within the brain at autopsy. The senile plaques are composed of a proteinaceous core surrounded by dystrophic neurites. The major protein component of the core is {beta}-amyloid but antibodies to many other proteins bind to senile plaques, e.g., antibodies to apolioprotein E (ApoE) and to {alpha}1-antichymotrypsin (AACT). Genetic studies have implicated mutations within the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein gene as the cause of AD in a small number of early onset AD families. More recently, assocition studies in late onset AD have demonstrated a positive association between ApoE-{epsilon}4 and AD. We report evidence for a negative association between ApoE-{epsilon}2 and AD in a large sample of sporadic late onset AD cases and matched controls supporting the role of ApoE in the etiology of AD. Ninety-three patients with sporadic AD (average age = 75 years, s.d. 8 yrs.) and 67 normal controls from the same ethnic background (age = 77 yrs., s.d. 10 yrs.) were recruited through the patient registry of the Washington University Alzheimer`s Disease Research Center. We found a statistically significant increase in ApoE-{epsilon}4 allele frequency in patients compared with controls ({chi}{sup 2}=7.75, 1 d.f., one tailed p=0.0027) and a significant decrease in {epsilon}2 allele frequency (Fisher`s exact test, one tailed p=0.0048), whereas the decreased frequency of {epsilon}3 in the patient groups was not statistically significant. Allele {epsilon}2 conferred a strong protective effect in our sample, with the odds ratio for AD for subjects possessing this allele being 0.08 (85% confidence interval 0.01-0.69). Similar studies using a polymorphism within the AACT gene showed no association with alleles at this locus in the entire AD sample or in AD cases homozygous for ApoE-{epsilon}3.

  20. Broad-Scale Patterns of Late Jurassic Dinosaur Paleoecology

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Christopher R.; Grossman, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. Methodology/Principal Findings This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA) to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome) based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at least one case of

  1. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (<1 million years) this concept looses its practicability and has to be replaced by a taxon-range-zonation. To solve this problem a higher number of independently dated small-mammal localities are needed. This is especially crucial for the late Middle to earliest Late Miocene, for which vertebrate faunas in the (Central-)Paratethyan area rare. Recently, a new vertebrate fauna was discovered at the locality Gratkorn (clay pit St. Stefan) just beyond the northwestern margin of the Styrian Basin (Gratkorn Basin; 10 km NW Graz; 15°20'55"E/47°08'15"N). The fauna originates from a c. 0.5 m thick hydromorphic paleosol, underlain by fluvial sands and gravels and topped by c. 15 m thick limnic pelites (Gross, 2008). Sedimentological data as well as the gastropod (Harzhauser et al., 2008) and vertebrate faunas point to a highly structured, more or less vegetated alluvial fan/braided river landscape. Active and abandoned fluvial channels, moist floodplain-soils and ephemeral ponds but also nearby dryer open areas and limestone screes of the up-lifting Palaeozoic basement offered a wide range of habitats. The occurrence of xero- and thermophile terrestrial gastropods and ectothermic vertebrates correspond well with the late Middle/early Late Miocene dry-spell in Central Europe (Böhme et al., 2008). Furthermore, an overall semiarid climate is supported by the development of a calcrete horizon c. 0.6 m below the fossiliferous horizon. The vertebrate remains are irregularly distributed throughout the

  2. Late fiber deterioration in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, K; Sauvage, L R

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of late fiber deterioration was examined in 493 Dacron arterial prostheses. Grafts implanted were of four types: 137 Meadox Wesolowski Weavenit (WN), 71 Golaski Microknit (MK), 70 USCI Sauvage(Tm) external velour non-crimped (EVNC), and 215 USCI Sauvage external velour random-crimped (EVRC). Prostheses had been implanted for three to 15.3 years; no defects were detected prior to three years. Deterioration occurred in 15 of 493 grafts (mean incidence: 3%). Between 4.9% and 5.8% of patients had graft deterioration-nearly the same incidence in all four types of grafts. Deterioration consisted of thinning and breakage of yarn filaments, causing development of holes and, in some cases, graft dilatation. Dilatation did not always precede filament breakage. Broken filament ends were either tapered or square-ended, suggesting that modes of breakage. Tensile strength tests howed that fibers sometimes weakened nonuniformly within a specimen. Fiber breakage was associated with crimp ridges. The findings suggest that manufacturing variations probably reduce fiber resistance to mechanical fatigue. Other contributing factors may include storage conditions, sterilization methods, handling, and the degradative effects of tissue fluids and enzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6452101

  3. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aia; van der Marck, M A; van den Elsen, Gah; Olde Rikkert, Mgm

    2015-06-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicinal uses of cannabinoids, the bioactive components of the cannabis plant, including the treatment of LOAD and other physical conditions that are common in older people. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids can reduce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the key hallmarks of LOAD. In addition, in population-based studies, cannabinoids reduced dementia-related symptoms (e.g., behavioral disturbances). The current article provides an overview of the potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of LOAD and related neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people. We also discuss the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of cannabinoid-based drugs in older people with dementia. PMID:25788394

  4. Pliocene reversal of late Neogene aridification

    PubMed Central

    Sniderman, J. M. Kale; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Drysdale, Russell N.; Tyler, Jonathan J.; Porch, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The Pliocene epoch (5.3–2.6 Ma) represents the most recent geological interval in which global temperatures were several degrees warmer than today and is therefore considered our best analog for a future anthropogenic greenhouse world. However, our understanding of Pliocene climates is limited by poor age control on existing terrestrial climate archives, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and by persistent disagreement between paleo-data and models concerning the magnitude of regional warming and/or wetting that occurred in response to increased greenhouse forcing. To address these problems, here we document the evolution of Southern Hemisphere hydroclimate from the latest Miocene to the middle Pliocene using radiometrically-dated fossil pollen records preserved in speleothems from semiarid southern Australia. These data reveal an abrupt onset of warm and wet climates early within the Pliocene, driving complete biome turnover. Pliocene warmth thus clearly represents a discrete interval which reversed a long-term trend of late Neogene cooling and aridification, rather than being simply the most recent period of greater-than-modern warmth within a continuously cooling trajectory. These findings demonstrate the importance of high-resolution chronologies to accompany paleoclimate data and also highlight the question of what initiated the sustained interval of Pliocene warmth. PMID:26858429

  5. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  6. Late Quaternary environments in Ruby Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Palynological data from sediment cores from the Ruby Marshes provide a record of environmental and climatic changes over the last 40,000 yr. The modern marsh waters are fresh, but no deeper than ???3 m. A shallow saline lake occupied this basin during the middle Wisconsin, followed by fresh and perhaps deep waters by 18,000 to 15,000 yr B.P. No sediments were recovered for the period between 15,000 and 11,000 yr B.P., possibly due to lake desiccation. By 10,800 yr B.P. a fresh-water lake was again present, and deeper-than-modern conditions lasted until 6800 yr B.P. The middle Holocene was characterized by very shallow water, and perhaps complete desiccation. The marsh system deepened after 4700 yr B.P., and fresh-water conditions persisted until modern times. Vegetation changes in Ruby Valley were more gradual than those seen in the paleolimno-logical record. Sagebrush steppe was more widespread than at present through the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, giving way somewhat to expanded shadscale vegetation between 8500 and 6800 yr B.P. Shadscale steppe contracted by 4000 yr B.P., but had greater than modern coverage until 1000 to 500 yr ago. Pinyon-juniper woodland was established in the southern Ruby Mountains by 4700 yr B.P. ?? 1992.

  7. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  8. Late cenozoic subduction complex of Sicily

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roure, F.; Howell, D.G.; Muller, C.; Moretti, I.

    1990-01-01

    Besides remnants of Hercynian deformations in the Peloritani nappe and of pre-Oligocene Alpine structures in the Troiani nappe, most compressive structures observed in the Sicilian accretionary wedge result from the late Cenozoic (Tortonian to Present) continental subduction of the Apulia (Iblei) block, and are thus synchronous with distensive structures related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Syntectonic deposits fill southward-migrating foredeeps in a sequential fashion, and the dating of these deposits helps to constrain the timing of deformation. Similarly, Plio-Quaternary sediments, eroded from the accreted units, rest on top of the allochthon in either compressive piggy-back depressions or extensional basins. The age and configuration of these overlap deposits constrain our reconstructions of the subsurface geometry of the underlying peri-Tyrrhenian detachment faults or S-verging thrust-faults. Post-depositional erosion, normal faulting and syntectonic filling of basins contribute to maintaining the critical taper of the prism, whose geometry is continuously altered owing to frontal accretion, underplating and isostatic uplift. ?? 1990.

  9. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  10. Pliocene reversal of late Neogene aridification.

    PubMed

    Sniderman, J M Kale; Woodhead, Jon D; Hellstrom, John; Jordan, Gregory J; Drysdale, Russell N; Tyler, Jonathan J; Porch, Nicholas

    2016-02-23

    The Pliocene epoch (5.3-2.6 Ma) represents the most recent geological interval in which global temperatures were several degrees warmer than today and is therefore considered our best analog for a future anthropogenic greenhouse world. However, our understanding of Pliocene climates is limited by poor age control on existing terrestrial climate archives, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and by persistent disagreement between paleo-data and models concerning the magnitude of regional warming and/or wetting that occurred in response to increased greenhouse forcing. To address these problems, here we document the evolution of Southern Hemisphere hydroclimate from the latest Miocene to the middle Pliocene using radiometrically-dated fossil pollen records preserved in speleothems from semiarid southern Australia. These data reveal an abrupt onset of warm and wet climates early within the Pliocene, driving complete biome turnover. Pliocene warmth thus clearly represents a discrete interval which reversed a long-term trend of late Neogene cooling and aridification, rather than being simply the most recent period of greater-than-modern warmth within a continuously cooling trajectory. These findings demonstrate the importance of high-resolution chronologies to accompany paleoclimate data and also highlight the question of what initiated the sustained interval of Pliocene warmth. PMID:26858429

  11. [Medical statistics in the late Qing dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    Chinese medical statistics basically went through three stages in the Late Qing Dynasty. The early stage was individual behavior of missionary doctors. In the early 16(th) century, western countries began to collect materials about medicine and public health in China. After the Opium War in 1840, more missionaries came to China and more doctors engaged in medical information collection and statistics. In 1860s, the western countries stole the customs power control from the Qing's government and the systematization process of statistics began. The process, content, method and time of statistics were improved. In the 20(th) century, modernity of medicine became the scale for a country's self-management qualification. Statistics was needed by the Qing government and relevant medical administration was established. During this process, they carried out this activity with different purposes according to the different participants. But from the point of influence, medical statistics promoted the spread and development of western medicine in China. They were also helpful to the perfection of medical research and public health system in China. PMID:23879982

  12. History of Late-Notice HIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frakes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Question was raised: are we seeing more late-notice events in recent months? Two definitions oflate-notice used to compare data: Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 days where the Pcwas below 1E-7, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data point between TCA-2days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 dayswhere the Pc was below 1E-5, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data pointbetween TCA-2 days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4. The case studies that were examined all fall within criteriafor both definitions Terra vs 38192; TCA 24 JUN 2015Aura vs 89477; TCA 29 AUG 2015Terra vs 37131; TCA 19 DEC2015GPM vs 28685; TCA 5 SEP 2015.

  13. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  14. Late Precambrian bilaterians: grades and clades.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, J W

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of body plans and subplans appear during a period of perhaps 8 million years (my) within the Early Cambrian, an unequaled explosion of morphological novelty, the ancestral lineages represented chiefly or entirely by trace fossils. Evidence from the fossil record can be combined with that from molecular phylogenetic trees to suggest that the last common ancestor of (i) protostomes and deuterostomes was a roundish worm with a blood vascular system and (ii) of arthropods and annelids was similar, with a hydrostatic hemocoel; these forms are probably among trace makers of the late Precambrian. Cell-phenotype numbers in living phyla, and a model of cell-phenotype number increase, suggest an origin of metazoans near 600 my ago, followed by a passive rise in body-plan complexity. Living phyla appearing during the Cambrian explosion have a Hox/HOM gene cluster, implying its presence in the common ancestral trace makers. The explosion required a repatterning of gene expression that mediated the development of novel body plans but evidently did not require an important, abrupt increase in genomic or morphologic complexity. Images PMID:8041693

  15. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  16. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Rachel M.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2016-04-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal component analysis (PCA) on seven records from 0 to 430 ka and five records from 0 to 798 ka. The first principal component, which we use as the stack, describes ˜ 80 % of the variance in the data and is similar using either five or seven records. After scaling the stack based on Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea level estimates, the stack agrees to within 5 m with isostatically adjusted coral sea level estimates for Marine Isotope Stages 5e and 11 (125 and 400 ka, respectively). Bootstrapping and random sampling yield mean uncertainty estimates of 9-12 m (1σ) for the scaled stack. Sea level change accounts for about 45 % of the total orbital-band variance in benthic δ18O, compared to a 65 % contribution during the LGM-to-Holocene transition. Additionally, the second and third principal components of our analyses reflect differences between proxy records associated with spatial variations in the δ18O of seawater.

  17. Late Pleistocene Environments of the Central Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Gerasimenko, Natalia; Matviischina, Zhanna; Kukla, George

    2001-11-01

    The Vyazivok loess sequence from the Dnieper Plain, Ukraine, documents regional environmental changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Pedological and palynological analyses and low-field magnetic susceptibility document changes from dense temperate forest during the last interglacial maximum to open, harsh, loess-steppe during the latest Pleistocene. The Vyazivok section overlies hillwash derived from a lower Pleistocene terrace and consists of two stratified soil complexes (Kaydaky and Pryluky; marine isotope stage [MIS] 5 equivalent) separated by a layer of eolian dust (Tyasmyn silt). The lower soils in both complexes formed within forest. These soils are overlain by the Uday (MIS4) and Bug (MIS2) loess units, which are separated by boreal soils of the Vytachiv (MIS3) complex. The coldest conditions within the record occurred in the youngest loess. Holocene soils cap the Bug loess. The Vyazivok section shows remarkable similarities with other classical loess sequences in western Europe, the Czech Republic, and Austria. The Kaydaky, Pryluky, and Vytachiv deposits, correlate with the PKIII, PKII, and PKI soil complexes, respectively, of the Czech Republic. The Tyasmyn and Prylyky silt layers correspond to marker horizons from central Europe.

  18. Late-onset neonatal sepsis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ying; Speer, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) is inversely related to the degree of maturity and varies geographically from 0.61% to 14.2% among hospitalised newborns. Epidemiological data on very low birth weight infants shows that the predominant pathogens of neonatal LOS are coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Gram-negative bacilli and fungi. Due to the difficulties in a prompt diagnosis of LOS and LOS-associated high risk of mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, empirical antibiotic treatment is initiated on suspicion of LOS. However, empirical therapy is often inappropriately used with unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotics and a prolonged duration of treatment. The increasing number of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative micro-organisms in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) worldwide is a serious concern, which requires thorough and efficient surveillance strategies and appropriate treatment regimens. Immunological strategies for preventing neonatal LOS are not supported by current evidence, and approaches, such as a strict hygiene protocol and the minimisation of invasive procedures in NICUs represent the cornerstone to reduce the burden of neonatal LOS. PMID:25425653

  19. (Model) Peatlands in late Quaternary interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands have accumulated a substantial amount of carbon, roughly 600 PgC, during the Holocene. Prior to the Holocene, there is relatively little direct evidence of peatlands, though coal deposits bear witness to a long history of peat-forming ecosystems going back to the Carboniferous. We therefore need to rely on models to investigate peatlands in times prior to the Holocene. We have developed a dynamical model of wetland extent and peat accumulation, integrated in the coupled climate carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER2-LPJ, in order to mechanistically model interglacial carbon cycle dynamics. This model consists of the climate model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER2 and the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ, which we have extended with modules to determine peatland extent and carbon accumulation. The model compares reasonably well to Holocene peat data. We have used this model to investigate the dynamics of atmospheric CO2 in the Holocene and two other late Quaternary interglacials, namely the Eemian, which is interesting due to its warmth, and Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS11), which is the longest interglacial during the last 500ka. We will also present model results of peatland extent and carbon accumulation for these interglacials. We will discuss model shortcomings and knowledge gaps currently preventing an application of the model to full glacial-interglacial cycles.

  20. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823