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Sample records for adenylate cyclase atp

  1. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    PubMed

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed.

  2. Digitonin effects on photoreceptor adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Bitensky, M W; Gorman, R E; Miller, W H

    1972-03-24

    Adenylate cyclase is described in a number of photoreceptor membranes. Vertebrate rod outer segments contain light-regulated cyclase, and light regulation is abolished by digitonin. Disruption of microvilli in cone and rhabdomphotoreceptors is also associated with loss of light regulation and retention of full enzymic activity. The data suggest that inhibitory constraint provides regulation in cyclase systems and that disruption of membrane structure uncouples catalytic and regulatory elements.

  3. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  4. Dopaminergic modulation of adenylate cyclase stimulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide in anterior pituitary.

    PubMed Central

    Onali, P; Schwartz, J P; Costa, E

    1981-01-01

    The activation of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was used as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms triggered by the occupancy of dopamine recognition sites in rat anterior pituitary. Dopamine failed to change the basal enzyme activity, but it inhibited the stimulation of adenylate cyclase elicited by VIP. Apomorphine, 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine mimicked the effect of dopamine, whereas (-)-sulpiride and and classical neuroleptics antagonized it. Dopamine failed to modulate the activation of pituitary adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1, which does not increase prolactin secretion. From these results we infer that stimulation of D-2 (dopamine) receptors may affect pituitary secretion by inhibiting the activation of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase by VIP or other secretagogues. PMID:6171819

  5. Diuretics and the renal adenylate cyclase system

    PubMed Central

    Dawborn, J.K.; Macneil, S.; Martin, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    1 The relationship between the diuretic effectiveness and the effect on the renal adenylate cyclase of three diuretics, acetazolamide, frusemide and ethacrynic acid, was examined. The hypothesis that acetazolamide and parathyroid hormone (PTH), inhibit renal carbonic anhydrase by a cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent mechanism was also tested. 2 In vitro, acetazolamide, frusemide and ethacrynic acid at high concentrations (10-3M) all produced some inhibition of basal and stimulated rat kidney plasma membrane adenylate cyclase. The effect of acetazolamide was much less than that of frusemide and ethacrynic acid. These plasma membrane effects were reproduced in studies of cyclic AMP formation in isolated kidney tubules of rats. 3 Intravenous injections of acetazolamide did not change the total cyclic AMP content of the kidneys of rats killed by microwave irradiation. 4 Acetazolamide produced a diuresis in the rat and a slight inhibition of the antidiuretic effect of Pitressin. Frusemide produced a diuresis and greatly reduced the antidiuretic response to Pitressin. Ethacrynic acid was ineffective as a diuretic in the rat and actually enhanced the antidiuretic response to Pitressin. 5 In investigating the possible influence of diuretics and PTH on the activity and state of phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase it was found that: there was no correlation between the ability of diuretics to inhibit carbonic anhydrase activity and to inhibit carbonic anhydrase phosphorylation; neither PTH nor cyclic AMP (in the presence of adenosine triphosphate, Mg2+, K+ and incubation at 37°C) inhibited rat cortex homogenate carbonic anhydrase activity. 6 It seems unlikely that any of the tested diuretics exerts its pharmacological effect by means of changes in kidney cyclic AMP metabolism. PMID:202362

  6. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, R G; Van Haastert, P J

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular or intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a heterodimer and are activated by G-proteins. In contrast, membrane-bound guanylate cyclases have only one transmembrane spanning region and one cyclase domain, and are activated by extracellular ligands to form a homodimer. In the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity is induced after cAMP stimulation; a G-protein-coupled cAMP receptor and G-proteins are essential for this activation. We have cloned a Dictyostelium gene, DdGCA, encoding a protein with 12 transmembrane spanning regions and two cyclase domains. Sequence alignment demonstrates that the two cyclase domains are transposed, relative to these domains in adenylate cyclases. DdGCA expressed in Dictyostelium exhibits high guanylate cyclase activity and no detectable adenylate cyclase activity. Deletion of the gene indicates that DdGCA is not essential for chemotaxis or osmo-regulation. The knock-out strain still exhibits substantial guanylate cyclase activity, demonstrating that Dictyostelium contains at least one other guanylate cyclase. PMID:11237875

  7. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  8. Evidence for a dissociable protein subunit required for calmodulin stimulation of brain adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, W A; Westcott, K R; LaPorte, D C; Storm, D R

    1979-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphatelyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] preparation that is not stimulated by NaF,5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate, or Ca2+.calmodulin has been isolated from bovine cerebral cortex by Affi-Gel Blue chromatography and calmodulin-Sepharose chromatography. Sensitivity to these effectors was restored by incubation of the adenylate cyclase preparation with detergent-solubilized protein from bovine cerebral cortex. Reconstitution of of Ca2+.calmodulin activation required the presence of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate. The factor required for restoration of Ca2+.calmodulin stimulation was sensitive to heat, trypsin digestion, and N-ethylmaleimide. These observations suggest that this adenylate cyclase activity requires the presence of one or more guanyl nucleotide binding subunits for calmodulin sensitivity. PMID:293663

  9. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  10. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica: role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Gueirard, P; Guiso, N

    1993-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pathogen of laboratory, domestic, and wild animals and sometimes of humans. In the present study some characteristics of the virulence of B. bronchiseptica isolates of different origin were studied. All isolates had similar phenotypes, similar bacteriological characters, and synthesized adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin but not pertussis toxin. These isolates, however, differed in their ability to express dermonecrotic toxin and to cause a lethal infection, but no correlation was found with the human or animal origin of the isolates. The fact that the most virulent isolate did not express dermonecrotic toxin suggests that this toxin does not play an important role in the virulence of the bacteria in the murine model. After infection with virulent B. bronchiseptica a very early synthesis and a persistence of anti-adenylate cyclase-hemolysin and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antibodies were observed in the sera of infected mice, suggesting a persistence of the bacteria or of its antigens. B. bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase-hemolysin was purified and was shown to be a major protective antigen against B. bronchiseptica infection. Furthermore, we showed that its immunological and protective properties were different from that of B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, confirming that Bordetella species are immunologically different. Images PMID:8406794

  11. Properties of Adenyl Cyclase from Human Jejunal Mucosa during Naturally Acquired Cholera and Convalescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lincoln C.; Rohde, Jon E.; Sharp, Geoffrey W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The enterotoxin of Vibrio cholerae causes copious fluid production throughout the lenght of the small intestine. As this is thought to be mediated by stimulation of adenyl cyclase, a study has been made of the activity and properties of this enzyme in jejunal biopsy tissue taken from patients during the diarrheal phase of cholera and after recovery. Adenyl cyclase activity during cholera was increased more than twofold relative to the enzyme in convalescence. Under both conditions stimulation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and by fluoride was observed. The responsiveness to PGE1 was not altered in cholera; the total activity of the fluoride-stimulated enzyme was similar, a finding that suggests cholera toxin stimulates pre-existing enzyme in the intestinal cell. The enzymes during cholera and convalescence were similar in all other properties examined. Optimal Mg++ concentration was 10 mM; Mn++ at 5 mM stimulated the enzyme but could not replace Mg++ except in the presence of 10 mM fluoride. Calcium was markedly inhibitory at concentrations greater than 10-4 M. The pH optimum was 7.5 and the Michaelis constant (Km) for ATP concentration approximated 10-4 M. Thus the interaction of cholera toxin with human intestinal adenyl cyclase does not alter the basic properties of the enzyme. When biopsy specimens were maintained intact in oxygenated Ringer's solution at 0°C, no loss of activity was observed at 1½ and 3 hr. In contrast, when the cells were homogenized, rapid loss of activity, with a half-life of 90 min was seen even at 0°C. Consequently for comparative assays of human jejunal adenyl cyclase, strict control of the experimental conditions is required. It was under such conditions that a twofold increase in basal adenyl cyclase activity during cholera was observed. Images PMID:4335441

  12. Defective responsiveness of adenylate cyclase to forskolin in the Drosophila memory mutant rutabaga.

    PubMed

    Dudai, Y; Sher, B; Segal, D; Yovell, Y

    1985-12-01

    The Drosophila memory mutant rutabaga (rut) has been previously shown to have a defective subpopulation (or functional state) of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. We report here that the reduced adenylate cyclase activity is also associated with a defective responsiveness of the enzyme to forskolin. Forskolin activation isotherms of the enzyme in normal membranes reveal low- and high-affinity forskolin-interacting components; the residual enzyme in the mutant shows a smaller proportion of the high-affinity response. In addition, in mutant membrane preparations, forskolin fails to shift the Km of the enzyme for free Mg2+ and for MgATP, in contrast to the situation in the normal tissue. The defect in the responsiveness to forskolin in rut is even more pronounced in a Lubrol-solubilized enzyme preparation, and is due to intrinsic properties of the cyclase system rather than to the absence (or presence) of a soluble, or detergent solubilized, factor in rut. The reduced forskolin responsiveness maps to the X chromosomal segment 12F5-6 to 13A1-5, within the region previously reported to span the locus that controls both the abortive memory and the lack of Ca2+-stimulation of adenylate cyclase in rut17. The possible relevance of the findings to postulated molecular mechanisms of short-term memory formation is discussed. PMID:3935769

  13. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Israeli, Ma’ayan; Rotem, Shahar; Elia, Uri; Bar-Haim, Erez; Cohen, Ofer; Chitlaru, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Edema Factor (EF), the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a) determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b) evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c) rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules. PMID:27548219

  14. Antagonism of histamine-activated adenylate cyclase in brain by D-lysergic acid diethylamide.

    PubMed

    Green, J P; Johnson, C L; Weinstein, H; Maayani, S

    1977-12-01

    D-Lysergic acid diethylamide and D-2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide are competitive antagonists of the histamine activation of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing); E.C. 4.6.1.1] in broken cell preparations of the hippocampus and cortex of guinea pig brain. The adenylate cyclase is linked to the histamine H2-receptor. Both D-lysergic acid diethylamide and D-2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide show topological congruency with potent H2-antagonists. D-2-Bromolysergic acid diethylamide is 10 times more potent as an H2-antagonist than cimetidine, which has been the most potent H2-antagonist reported, and D-lysergic acid diethylamide is about equipotent to cimetidine. Blockade of H2-receptors could contribute to the behavioral effects of D-2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and D-lysergic acid diethylamide.

  15. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explain observed abnormalities of phosphorylase activation and sarcoplasmic reticulum function. PMID:6271806

  16. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Kang, In-Hye; Nelson, Mathew D.; Jensen, Tricia M.; Lyuksyutova, Anna I.; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Raizen, David M.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties make bacteriophytochromes particularly attractive for optogenetic applications. However, the lack of understanding of how light-induced conformational changes control output activities has hindered engineering of bacteriophytochrome-based optogenetic tools. Many bacteriophytochromes function as homodimeric enzymes, in which light-induced conformational changes are transferred via α-helical linkers to the rigid output domains. We hypothesized that heterologous output domains requiring homodimerization can be fused to the photosensory modules of bacteriophytochromes to generate light-activated fusions. Here, we tested this hypothesis by engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by light in the near-infrared spectral window using the photosensory module of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteriophytochrome BphG1 and the adenylate cyclase domain from Nostoc sp. CyaB1. We engineered several light-activated fusion proteins that differed from each other by approximately one or two α-helical turns, suggesting that positioning of the output domains in the same phase of the helix is important for light-dependent activity. Extensive mutagenesis of one of these fusions resulted in an adenylate cyclase with a sixfold photodynamic range. Additional mutagenesis produced an enzyme with a more stable photoactivated state. When expressed in cholinergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, the engineered adenylate cyclase affected worm behavior in a light-dependent manner. The insights derived from this study can be applied to the engineering of other homodimeric bacteriophytochromes, which will further expand the optogenetic toolset. PMID:24982160

  17. Adenylate cyclase in Arthrospira platensis responds to light through transcription.

    PubMed

    Kashith, M; Keerthana, B; Sriram, S; Ramamurthy, V

    2016-08-19

    Cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule, but its role in higher plants was in doubt due to its very low concentration. In this study we wanted to look at the flux of cAMP in response to light in algae, considered to be the more primitive form of photosynthetic organisms. While it did not fluctuate very much in the tested green algae, in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis its level was closely linked to exposure to light. The expression from cyaC, the major isoform of adenylate cyclase was strongly influenced by exposure of the cells to light. There was about 300 fold enhancement of cyaC transcripts in cells exposed to light compared to the transcripts in cells in the dark. Although post-translational regulation of adenylate cyclase activity has been widely known, our studies suggest that transcriptional control could also be an important aspect of its regulation in A. platensis. PMID:27311855

  18. Reduced basal and stimulated (isoprenaline, Gpp(NH)p, forskolin) adenylate cyclase activity in Alzheimer's disease correlated with histopathological changes.

    PubMed

    Ohm, T G; Bohl, J; Lemmer, B

    1991-02-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an adenylate cyclase borne second messenger involved in basic metabolic events. The beta-adrenoceptor sensitive adenylate cyclase was studied in post-mortem hippocampi of controls and Alzheimer patients. Virtually identical subsets of each hippocampus homogenate were stimulated by 100 mumol isoprenaline, Gpp(NH)p and forskolin, respectively, in presence of an ATP-regenerating system. The determination of cAMP formed was carried out by means of a radioassay. The observed significant 50% reduction in basal as well as in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in Alzheimer's disease is negatively correlated with semiquantitative evaluations of amyloid plaques (P less than 0.05) but not with neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles or neuropil threads. This reduction in enzyme activity is obviously not due to simple cell loss alone. It is likely that the crucial point of the observed functional disturbance is at the level of the catalytic unit of the adenylate cyclase, since the same degree of reduction is maintained at all steps of the signal cascade. PMID:2054615

  19. Adenylate cyclase activity in fish gills in relation to salt adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Guibbolini, M.E.; Lahlou, B.

    1987-07-06

    The influence of salt adaptation on specific adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P) - ATP into (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P) - cAMP) was investigated in gill plasma membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) adapted to various salinities (deionized water, DW; fresh water, FW; 3/4 sea water, 3/4 SW; sea water, SW) and in sea water adapted- mullet (Mugil sp.). Basal activity declined by a factor of 2 in trout with increasing external salinity (pmoles cAMP/mg protein/10 min: 530 in DW, 440 in FW, 340 in 3/4 SW; 250 in SW) and was very low in SW adapted-mullet: 35. The Km for ATP was similar (0.5 mM) in both FW adapted- and SW adapted- trout in either the absence (basal activity) or in the presence of stimulating agents (isoproterenol; NaF) while the Vm varied. Analysis of stimulation ratios with respect to basal levels of the enzyme showed that hormones and pharmacological substances (isoproterenol, NaF) display a greater potency in high salt than in low salt adapted- fish gills. In contrast, salt adaptation did not have any effect on the regulation of adenylate cyclase by PGE/sub 1/. These results are interpreted in relation to the general process of osmoregulation. 27 references, 6 figures.

  20. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 attenuates adenylate cyclase sensitization after chronic morphine treatment.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyoshi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Fujiwara, Yoko; Shibata, Katsushi; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Fujimura, Akio

    2010-02-19

    Cellular adaptations to chronic opioid treatment result in enhanced responsiveness of adenylate cyclase and an increase in forskolin- or agonist-stimulated cAMP production. It is, however, not known whether chaperone molecules such as heat shock proteins contribute to this adenylate cyclase sensitization. Here, we report that treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), led to effective attenuation of morphine-induced adenylate cyclase sensitization. In SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, morphine significantly increased RNA transcript and protein levels of type I adenylate cyclase, leading to sensitization. Whole-genome tiling array analysis revealed that cAMP response element-binding protein, an important mediator for cellular adaptation to morphine, associated with the proximal promoter of Hsp90AB1 not only in SK-N-SH cells but also in rat PC12 and human embryonic kidney cells. Hsp90AB1 transcript and protein levels increased significantly during morphine treatment, and co-application of geldanamycin (0.1-10 nM) effectively suppressed the increase in forskolin-activated adenylate cyclase activation by 56%. Type I adenylate cyclase, but not Hsp90AB1, underwent significant degradation during geldanamycin treatment. These results indicate that Hsp90 is a new pharmacological target for the suppression of adenylate cyclase sensitization induced by chronic morphine treatment.

  1. The Effects of Thrombin on Adenyl Cyclase Activity and a Membrane Protein from Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, G. N.; Baenziger, Nancy Lewis; Chase, Lewis R.; Majerus, Philip W.

    1972-01-01

    Washed human platelets were incubated with 0.1-1.0 U/ml human thrombin and the effects on adenyl cyclase activity and on a platelet membrane protein (designated thrombin-sensitive protein) were studied. Adenyl cyclase activity was decreased 70-90% when intact platelets were incubated with thrombin. The T½ for loss of adenyl cyclase activity was less than 15 sec at 1 U/ml thrombin. There was no decrease of adenyl cyclase activity when sonicated platelets or isolated membranes were incubated with these concentrations of thrombin. Loss of adenyl cyclase activity was relatively specific since the activities of other platelet membrane enzymes were unaffected by thrombin. Prior incubation of platelets with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), prostaglandin E1, or theophylline protected adenyl cyclase from inhibition by thrombin. Incubation of intact but not disrupted platelets with thrombin resulted in the release of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane. The rapid release of this protein (T½ < 15 sec) at low concentrations of thrombin suggested that removal of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane is an integral part of the platelet release reaction. This hypothesis is supported by the parallel effects of thrombin on adenyl cyclase activity and thrombin-sensitive protein release in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E1, and theophylline at varying concentrations of thrombin. Images PMID:4331802

  2. Interactions between lysergic acid diethylamide and dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hungen, K V; Roberts, S; Hill, D F

    1975-08-22

    Investigations were carried out on the interactions of the hallucinogenic drug, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (D-LSD), and other serotonin antagonists with catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in cell-free preparations from different regions of rat brain. In equimolar concentration, D-LSD, 2-brono-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), or methysergide (UML) strongly blocked maximal stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by either norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from cerebral cortices of young adult rats. D-LSD also eliminated the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity of equimolar concentrations of norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from rat hippocampus. The effects of this hallucinogenic agent on adenylate cyclase activity were most striking in particulate preparations from corpus striatum. Thus, in 10 muM concentration, D-LSD not only completely eradicated the response to 10 muM dopamine in these preparations but also consistently stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. L-LSD (80 muM) was without effect. Significant activation of striatal adenylate cyclase was produced by 0.1 muM D-LSD. Activation of striatal adenylate cyclase of either D-LSD or dopamine was strongly blocked by the dopamine-blocking agents trifluoperazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol. The stimulatory effects of D-LSD and dopamine were also inhibited by the serotonin-blocking agents, BOL, 1-methyl-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (MLD), and cyproheptadine, but not by the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, propranolol. However, these serotonin antagonists by themselves were incapable of stimulating adenylate cyclase activity in the striatal preparations. Several other hallucinogens, which were structurally related to serotonin, were also inactive in this regard, e.g., mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin and bufotenine. Serotonin itself produced a small stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in striatal preparations and

  3. 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenylate cyclase in phototransduction by limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J E; Kaupp, U B; Malbon, C C

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological measurements were made on photoreceptor cells from Limulus ventral eyes to investigate the possible role of cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase in the visual transduction mechanism. Cyclic AMP content in a photoreceptor-enriched fraction (the end organs) of Limulus ventral eyes was approximately 15 pmol/mg protein. The cyclic AMP content was increased by bathing eyes in 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine or forskolin and was increased almost 100-fold when bathed in both. Illumination did not change cyclic AMP content significantly in any of these conditions. Discrete events that can be recorded electrophysiologically occur spontaneously in darkness. An increase in the frequency of discrete events is evoked by dim illumination. The discrete events are a sign of excitation of Limulus photoreceptor cells. Drug-induced changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness were not correlated with changes in cyclic AMP content. Adenylate cyclase activity measured from a small number of pooled photoreceptor clusters was stimulated by fluoride and vanadate ions, hydrolysis-resistant analogues of GTP, cholera toxin and forskolin. The Limulus enzyme is similar pharmacologically to mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Activation of adenylate cyclase by drugs was not correlated with changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness. A heat-treated Lubrol extract of membranes from Limulus ventral eyes reconstituted the adenylate cyclase activity of membranes from S49 mouse lymphoma cyc- mutant cells which lack a functional regulatory protein. These findings suggest that Limulus ventral eye photoreceptors contain a regulatory protein that mediates the activation of adenylate cyclase by guanine nucleotides, fluoride or cholera toxin. This regulatory protein is homologous with that found in mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Our findings suggest that

  4. Crystal Structure of Human Soluble Adenylate Cyclase Reveals a Distinct, Highly Flexible Allosteric Bicarbonate Binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Saalau-Bethell, Susanne M; Berdini, Valerio; Cleasby, Anne; Congreve, Miles; Coyle, Joseph E; Lock, Victoria; Murray, Christopher W; O'Brien, M Alistair; Rich, Sharna J; Sambrook, Tracey; Vinkovic, Mladen; Yon, Jeff R; Jhoti, Harren

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein. PMID:24616449

  5. Isolation of adenylate cyclase-free, beta-adrenergic receptor from turkey erythrocyte membranes by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Vauquelin, G; Geynet, P; Hanoune, J; Strosberg, A D

    1977-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphatelyase (cyclizing); EC 4.6.1.1] and beta-adrenergic receptor of plasma membranes of turkey erythrocytes were solubilized in an active form by treatment with either NaF or guanylylimidodiphosphate and digitonin. The solubilized enzyme was no longer stimulated by catecholamines, NaF, or guanine nucleotides. The digitonin extract was chromatographed on an alprenolol-agarose derivative. While the bulk of protein and all the adenylate cyclase activity passed unretarded through the column, the receptor was retained. It eluted free of enzyme activity with an alprenolol solution containing 1 M NaCl; the yield was 25-30%. The protein content of the alprenolol eluates was too low to be estimated by the Lowry technique and was assessed by a more sensitive fluorometric method. Under these conditions, the beta-adrenergic receptor was purified approximately 2000-fold in a single step with retention of all its pharmacological properties. These experiments establish that the beta-adrenergic receptor and the adenylate cyclase are independent entities which may be separated on a functional basis. PMID:198798

  6. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of guanine nucleotides on arginine-vasotocin-sensitive adenylate cyclase in the epithelial cell membranes of the bullfrog bladder.

    PubMed

    Mishina, T; Shimada, H; Marumo, F

    1983-11-01

    The effects of arginine-vasotocin and nucleotides on the steady-state kinetics of the adenylate cyclase activity in the epithelial cell membranes of the bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) bladder were studied. Arginine-vasotocin stimulated adenylate cyclase more effectively than oxytocin or arginine-vasopressin, with respect to both the maximal hormonal activation ratio relative to basal, and the hormone concentration yielding a half-maximal response (apparent Km). Arginine-vasotocin, GTP and its analogue guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) increased the Vmax of the basal adenylate cyclase activity, but showed no effect of the apparent Km of the system for ATP. In addition, Gpp(NH)p enhanced the arginine-vasotocin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, further increasing the Vmax, while GTP showed no statistically significant effect. Dual effects of GDP were apparent: it was stimulatory at 1 x 10(-5) mol/l and inhibitory at 1 x 10(-3) mol/l, on both the basal and the arginine-vasotocin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate, CTP, UTP and ITP showed no apparent effect on the enzyme activity. Sodium fluoride acted in the same manner as GTP on the adenylate cyclase system, increasing only basal activity. Adenylate cyclase activities exhibited pH optima that were less distinct in the presence than in the absence of Gpp(NH)p. The Arrhenius plot of the temperature experiment showed that a high-energy step was involved for activation by Gpp(NH)p or arginine-vasotocin. When the relative activation ratios by arginine-vasotocin at different ATP concentrations were studied, a distinct activation optimum was shown at 2.5 x 10(-4) mol ATP/l, either in the absence or presence of Gpp(NH)p. The possibility that GTP, GDP nd ATP play a regulatory role in the epithelial cells of the bullfrog bladder by adjusting the responsiveness of the system to a natural hormone, arginine-vasotocin, is discussed. PMID:6606697

  7. Stimulation of hormone-responsive adenylate cyclase activity by a factor present in the cell cytosol.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, S; Crawford, A; Amirrasooli, H; Johnson, S; Pollock, A; Ollis, C; Tomlinson, S

    1980-01-01

    1. Homogenates of whole tissues were shown to contain both intracellular and extracellular factors that affected particulate adenylate cyclase activity in vitro. Factors present in the extracellular fluids produced an inhibition of basal, hormone- and fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity but factors present in the cell cytosol increased hormone-stimulated activity with relatively little effect on basal or fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity. 2. The existence of this cytosol factor or factors was investigated using freshly isolated human platelets, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, and cultured cells derived from rat osteogenic sarcoma, rat calvaria, mouse melanoma, pig aortic endothelium, human articular cartilage chondrocytes and human bronchial carcinoma (BEN) cells. 3. The stimulation of the hormone response by the cytosol factor ranged from 60 to 890% depending on the tissue of origin of the adenylate cyclase. 4. In each case the behaviour of the factor was similar to the action of GTP on that particular adenylate cyclase preparation. 5. No evidence of tissue or species specificity was found, as cytosols stimulated adenylate cyclase from their own and unrelated tissues to the same degree. 6. In the human platelet, the inclusion of the cytosol in the assay of adenylate cyclase increased the rate of enzyme activity in response to stimulation by prostaglandin E1 without affecting the amount of prostaglandin E1 required for half-maximal stimulation or the characteristics of enzyme activation by prostaglandin E. PMID:7396869

  8. Sweet tastants stimulate adenylate cyclase coupled to GTP-binding protein in rat tongue membranes.

    PubMed

    Striem, B J; Pace, U; Zehavi, U; Naim, M; Lancet, D

    1989-05-15

    Sucrose and other saccharides, which produce an appealing taste in rats, were found to significantly stimulate the activity of adenylate cyclase in membranes derived from the anterior-dorsal region of rat tongue. In control membranes derived from either tongue muscle or tongue non-sensory epithelium, the effect of sugars on adenylate cyclase activity was either much smaller or absent. Sucrose enhanced adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-related manner, and this activation was dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotides, suggesting the involvement of a GTP-binding protein ('G-protein'). The activation of adenylate cyclase by various mono- and di-saccharides correlated with their electrophysiological potency. Among non-sugar sweeteners, sodium saccharin activated the enzyme, whereas aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone did not, in correlation with their sweet-taste effectiveness in the rat. Sucrose activation of the enzyme was partly inhibited by Cu2+ and Zn2+, in agreement with their effect on electrophysiological sweet-taste responses. Our results are consistent with a sweet-taste transduction mechanism involving specific receptors, a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein and the cyclic AMP-generating enzyme adenylate cyclase.

  9. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  10. Dynamics of adenylate cyclase regulation via heterotrimeric G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Milde, Markus; Werthmann, Ruth C; von Hayn, Kathrin; Bünemann, Moritz

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of G-protein-coupled receptors either activate or inhibit ACs (adenylate cyclases), thereby regulating cellular cAMP levels and consequently inducing proper physiological responses. Stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins interact directly with ACs, whereas G(q)-coupled receptors exert their effects primarily via Ca2+. Using the FRET-based cAMP sensor Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1)-cAMPS (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate), we studied cAMP levels in single living VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) or HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) with subsecond temporal resolution. Stimulation of purinergic (VSMCs) or thrombin (HUVECs) receptors rapidly decreased cAMP levels in the presence of the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline via a rise in Ca2+ and subsequent inhibition of AC5 and AC6. Specifically in HUVECs, we observed that, in the continuous presence of thrombin, cAMP levels climbed slowly after the initial decline with a delay of a little less than 1 min. The underlying mechanism includes phospholipase A2 activity and cyclo-oxygenase-mediated synthesis of prostaglandins. We studied further the dynamics of the inhibition of ACs via G(i)-proteins utilizing FRET imaging to resolve interactions between fluorescently labelled G(i)-proteins and AC5. FRET between Gα(i1) and AC5 developed at much lower concentration of agonist compared with the overall G(i)-protein activity. We found the dissociation of Gα(i1) subunits and AC5 to occur slower than the G(i)-protein deactivation. This led us to the conclusion that AC5, by binding active Gα(i1), interferes with G-protein deactivation and reassembly and thereby might sensitize its own regulation. PMID:24646224

  11. Role of Adenylate Cyclase 1 in Retinofugal Map Development

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C.; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1−/−) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1−/− mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1−/− mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1−/−;β2−/− double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only β2−/−, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in β2−/− mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

  12. Alterations in adipocyte adenylate cyclase activity in morbidly obese and formerly morbidly obese humans.

    PubMed

    Martin, L F; Klim, C M; Vannucci, S J; Dixon, L B; Landis, J R; LaNoue, K F

    1990-08-01

    Studies examining animal models of genetic obesity have identified defects in adipocyte hormone-stimulated lipolysis that involve the adenylate cyclase transmembrane signaling system, specifically those components that decrease adenylate cyclase activity. To determine whether obese people demonstrate alterations in adenylate cyclase activity that could contribute to the maintenance of obesity by inhibiting lipolysis, we examined human adipocytes from patients who were lean, obese, or formerly obese. Fat samples were obtained from the lower abdomen of 14 women who were morbidly obese (obese group), from 10 women who were formerly morbidly obese and had lost weight after gastric stapling (postobese group), and from 10 similarly aged women of normal weight (controls). Adipocyte adenylate cyclase activity was determined under ligand-free (no stimulatory or inhibitory influences present), hormone-stimulated (isoproterenol, 10(-6) mmol/L), and maximal (cells stimulated with 10 mumol/L forskolin) conditions by measuring cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels by radioimmunoassay. The activity of adenylate cyclase was significantly different (p less than 0.01) in the three groups. Adipocytes from obese women had lower levels of cyclase activity under both ligand-free (5% vs 16% of maximal) and hormone-stimulated conditions (76% vs 100% of maximal) than adipocytes from normal women. Postobese women had levels of hormone-stimulated cAMP identical to those of normal women but still had abnormal ligand-free levels (under 5%). These results suggest the presence of an alteration in adipocyte adenylate cyclase regulation in morbidly obese women that is not entirely corrected when weight is lost after food intake is reduced by gastric stapling. This alteration in ligand-free cAMP activity may contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity. PMID:2166354

  13. Adenylate cyclase 3: a new target for anti-obesity drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Shen, C; Seed Ahmed, M; Östenson, C-G; Gu, H F

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide, and abdominal obesity has a negative impact on health. Current treatment options on obesity, however, still remain limited. It is then of importance to find a new target for anti-obesity drug development based upon recent molecular studies in obesity. Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is the third member of adenylyl cyclase family and catalyses the synthesis of cAMP from ATP. Genetic studies with candidate gene and genome-wide association study approaches have demonstrated that ADCY3 genetic polymorphisms are associated with obesity in European and Chinese populations. Epigenetic studies have indicated that increased DNA methylation levels in the ADCY3 gene are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Furthermore, biological analyses with animal models have implicated that ADCY3 dysfunction resulted in increased body weight and fat mass, while reduction of body weight is partially explained by ADCY3 activation. In this review, we describe genomic and biological features of ADCY3, summarize genetic and epigenetic association studies of the ADCY3 gene with obesity and discuss dysfunction and activation of ADCY3. Based upon all data, we suggest that ADCY3 is a new target for anti-obesity drug development. Further investigation on the effectiveness of ADCY3 activator and its delivery approach to treat abdominal obesity has been taken into our consideration. PMID:27256589

  14. Inhibition of hormonally regulated adenylate cyclase by the beta gamma subunit of transducin.

    PubMed Central

    Bockaert, J; Deterre, P; Pfister, C; Guillon, G; Chabre, M

    1985-01-01

    Transducin (T), the GTP-binding protein of the retina activates the cGMP phosphodiesterase system, and presents analogies with the proteins GS and Gi which respectively mediate adenylate cyclase activation and inhibition by hormone receptors. These proteins are all comprised of an alpha subunit carrying the GTP-binding site and a beta gamma subunit made of two peptides. The beta peptide (35 kd) appears similar in the three proteins. We demonstrate here that purified T beta gamma inhibits adenylate cyclase from human platelet membranes. This inhibition was observed when adenylate cyclase was stimulated by GTP, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), NaF and forskolin, but not when stimulated by GTP(gamma)S. In the presence of GTP and forskolin, the T beta gamma-induced maximal inhibition was not additive with the alpha 2-receptor-induced adenylate cyclase inhibition mediated by Gi. Both inhibitions were suppressed at high Mg2+ concentrations, which as also known to dissociate T beta gamma from T alpha-GDP. This suggests that these adenylate cyclase inhibitions are due to the formation of inactive complexes of GS alpha-GDP with T beta gamma or Gi beta gamma. T beta gamma-induced inhibition did not require detergent and could be suppressed by simple washing. T beta gamma effects are dependent on its concentration rather than on its total amount. This suggests that T beta gamma can operate in solution with no integration into the membrane. Similar inhibitory effects of T beta gamma are observed on adenylate cyclase from anterior pituitary and lymphoma S49 cell lines. PMID:3861319

  15. Changed sensitivity of adenylate cyclase signaling system to biogenic amines and peptide hormones in tissues of starving rats.

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Pertseva, M N

    2007-07-01

    In the myocardium and skeletal muscles of rats deprived of food for 2 days, basal activity of adenylate cyclase decreased, while the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase signaling system to the stimulating effects of non-hormonal agents (guanine nucleotides and NaF) and beta-agonist isoproterinol modulating adenylate cyclase through stimulating G proteins increased. In starving organism, the regulatory effects of hormones realizing their effects through inhibitory G proteins (somatostatin in the myocardium and bromocryptin in the brain) weakened. Their inhibitory effects on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and stimulating effects on binding of guanosine triphosphate decreased. In the brain of starving rats, the differences in the sensitivity of the adenylate cyclase signaling system to hormones and nonhormonal agents were less pronounced than in the muscle tissues, which attested to tissue-specific changes in the functional state of this system under conditions of 2-day starvation.

  16. The Arabidopsis thaliana K(+)-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) contains a functional cytosolic adenylate cyclase catalytic centre.

    PubMed

    Al-Younis, Inas; Wong, Aloysius; Gehring, Chris

    2015-12-21

    Adenylate cyclases (ACs) catalyse the formation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Although cAMP is increasingly recognised as an important signalling molecule in higher plants, ACs have remained somewhat elusive. Here we used a search motif derived from experimentally tested guanylyl cyclases (GCs), substituted the residues essential for substrate specificity and identified the Arabidopsis thaliana K(+)-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) as one of several candidate ACs. Firstly, we show that a recombinant N-terminal, cytosolic domain of AtKUP7(1-100) is able to complement the AC-deficient mutant cyaA in Escherichia coli and thus restoring the fermentation of lactose, and secondly, we demonstrate with both enzyme immunoassays and mass spectrometry that a recombinant AtKUP7(1-100) generates cAMP in vitro. PMID:26638082

  17. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  18. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, P J; Baresi, L A; Morley, J E

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the beta-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the beta-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. beta-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed beta 1- and beta 2-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the beta 1-adrenergic subtype. This BAT beta-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. In contrast, food deprivation did not alter BAT beta-adrenergic receptor density. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. The ratio of isoproterenol-stimulated to forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity decreased in the sucrose-fed and cold-exposed rats but not in the food-deprived rats. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability. PMID:2827501

  19. Mechanisms of nonhormonal activation of adenylate cyclase based on target analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Ausiello, D.A.; Jung, C.Y.; Skorecki, K.L.

    1986-08-12

    Radiation inactivation was used to examine the mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase in the cultured renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 with hormonal (vasopressin) and nonhormonal (GTP, forskolin, fluoride, and chloride) activating ligands. Intact cells were frozen, irradiated at -70 degrees C (0-14 Mrad), thawed, and assayed for adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of activating ligands. The ln (adenylate cyclase activity) vs. radiation dose relation was linear (target size 162 kDa) for vasopressin- (2 microM) stimulated activity and concave downward for unstimulated (10 mM Mn/sup 2 +/), NaF- (10 mM) stimulated, and NaCl- (100 mM) stimulated activities. Addition of 2 microM vasopressin did not alter the ln activity vs. dose relation for NaF- (10 mM) stimulated activity. The dose-response relations for adenylate cyclase activation and for transition in the ln activity vs. dose curve shape were measured for vasopressin and NaF. On the basis of our model for adenylate cyclase subunit interactions reported previously (Verkman, A. S., Skorecki, K. L., and Ausiello, D. A. (1986) Am. J. Physiol. 260, C103-C123) and of new mathematical analyses, activation mechanisms for each ligand are proposed. In the unstimulated state, equilibrium between alpha beta and alpha + beta favors alpha beta; dissociated alpha binds to GTP (rate-limiting step), which then combines with the catalytic (C) subunit to form active enzyme. Vasopressin binding to receptor provides a rapid pathway for GTP binding to alpha. GTP and its analogues accelerate the rate of alpha GTP formation. Forskolin inhibits the spontaneous deactivation of activated C. Activation by fluoride may occur without alpha beta dissociation or GTP addition through activation of C by an alpha beta-F complex.

  20. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase by cholera enterotoxin and prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Kimberg, Daniel V.; Field, Michael; Johnson, Judith; Henderson, Antonia; Gershon, Elaine

    1971-01-01

    The effects of several prostaglandins (PG) and a highly purified preparation of cholera enterotoxin (CT) on intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase activity and the effect of CT on intestinal mucosal cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate concentration were determined in guinea pig and rabbit small intestine and were correlated with the effects of the same agents on ion transport. Adenyl cyclase activity, measured in a crude membrane fraction of the mucosa, was found at all levels of the small intestine with the highest activity per milligram protein in the duodenum. The prostaglandins, when added directly to the assay, increased adenyl cyclase activity; the greatest effect (2-fold increase) was obtained with PGE1 (maximal effect at 0.03 mM) and PGE2. The prostaglandins also increased short-circuit current (SCC) in isolated guinea pig ileal mucosa, with PGE1 and PGE2 again giving the greatest effects. The prior addition of theophylline (10 mM) reduced the subsequent SCC response to PGE1 and vice versa. It was concluded, therefore, that the SCC response to PGE1, like the response to theophylline, represented active Cl secretion. CT increased adenyl cyclase activity in guinea pig and rabbit ileal mucosa when preincubated with the mucosa from 1 to 2.5 hr in vitro or for 2.5 hr in vivo but not when added directly to the assay. The increments in activity caused by PGE1 and NaF were the same in CT-treated and control mucosa. Cyclic 3′,5′-AMP concentration in rabbit ileal mucosa was increased 3.5-fold after a 2 hr preincubation with CT in vitro. Phosphodiesterase activity in the crude membrane fraction of the mucosa was unaffected by either CT or PGE1. A variety of other agents including insulin, glucagon, parathormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, L-thyroxine, thyrocalcitonin, vasopressin, and epinephrine all failed to change adenyl cyclase activity. It is concluded that CT and certain prostaglandins produce small intestinal fluid secretion by increasing mucosal adenyl

  1. Effects of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis on human neutrophil interactions with Coccidioides immitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Galgiani, J N; Hewlett, E L; Friedman, R L

    1988-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis extract that contained adenylate cyclase toxin produced large increases in human neutrophil cyclic AMP levels and inhibited their oxidative burst, as reflected by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence and superoxide release. The adenylate cyclase toxin-containing extract blocked neutrophil-mediated inhibition of N-acetylglucosamine incorporation by arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis in a dose-dependent fashion but had no effect on neutrophil phagocytosis of Candida glabrata and only a slight inhibitory effect on arthroconidial attachment. Neither purified pertussis toxin nor extracts from Bordetella mutants lacking the adenylate cyclase toxin affected neutrophil-mediated inhibition of arthroconidial N-acetylglucosamine incorporation. These studies indicate that adenylate cyclase toxin, alone or in concert with other B. pertussis-elaborated toxins, blocks neutrophil inhibition of arthroconidia, primarily by affecting neutrophil responses other than attachment or phagocytosis. PMID:2894360

  2. Alkaline phosphatase relieves desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1987-05-01

    Desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes results in 40-65% decrease in agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and correlates with increased phosphorylation of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors. To assess the role of phosphorylation in desensitization, membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized turkey erythrocytes were incubated with alkaline phosphatase for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C, pH = 8.0. In both cases alkaline phosphatase treatment significantly reduced desensitization of agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by 40-60%. Similar results were obtained following alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized duck erythrocytes. In addition, alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from duck erythrocytes desensitized with phorbol 12-mystrate 13-acetate returned adenylate cyclase activity to near control values. In all experiments inclusion of 20 mM NaPO/sub 4/ to inhibit alkaline phosphatase during treatment of membranes blocked the enzyme's effect on agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes.

  3. Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Eggerickx, D; Denef, J F; Labbe, O; Hayashi, Y; Refetoff, S; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M; Libert, F

    1995-01-01

    A human gene encoding an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor named ACCA (adenylate cyclase constitutive activator) was isolated from a genomic library using as a probe a DNA fragment obtained by low-stringency PCR. Human ACCA (hACCA) is a protein of 330 amino acids that exhibits all the structural hallmarks of the main family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Expression of hACCA resulted in a dramatic stimulation of adenylate cyclase, similar in amplitude to that obtained with other Gs-coupled receptors fully activated by their respective ligands. This stimulation was obtained in a large variety of stable cell lines derived from various organs, and originating from different mammalian species. hACCA was found to be the human homologue of a recently reported mouse orphan receptor (GPCR21). The mouse ACCA (mACCA) was therefore recloned by PCR, and expression of mACCA in Cos-7 cells demonstrated that the mouse receptor behaved similarly as a constitutive activator of adenylate cyclase. It is not known presently whether the stimulation of adenylate cyclase is the result of a true constitutive activity of the receptor or, alternatively, is the consequence of a permanent stimulation by a ubiquitous ligand. The tissue distribution of mACCA was determined by RNase protection assay. Abundant transcripts were found in the brain, whereas lower amounts were detected in testis, ovary and eye. Various hypotheses concerning the constitutive activity of ACCA and their potential biological significance are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7639700

  4. Non-co-ordinate development of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase in chick heart.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R W; Galper, J B; Neer, E J; Smith, T W

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the properties of beta-adrenergic receptors and of their interaction with adenylate cyclase in the chick myocardium during embryogenesis. Between 4.5 and 7.5 days in ovo the number of receptors determined by (-)-[3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA) binding is constant at approx. 0.36 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. By day 9 the density decreases significantly to 0.22 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. At day 12.5--13.5 the number was 0.14--0.18 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. This number did not change further up to day 16. The same results were obtained with guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) added to the assay mixtures. There was no significant change in receptor affinity for the antagonist [3H]DHA between days 5.5 and 13. Despite the decrease in numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors, there was no change in basal, p[NH]ppG-, isoprenaline- or isoprenaline-plus-p[NH]ppG-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity between days 3 and 12 of development. We conclude that beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase are not co-ordinately regulated during early embryonic development of the chick heart. Some of the beta-adrenergic receptors present very early in the ontogeny of cardiac tissue appear not to be coupled to adenylate cyclase since their loss is not reflected in decreased activation of the enzyme. PMID:6289805

  5. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  6. Ontogeny of fetal adenylate cyclase; mechanisms for regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Maier, J A; Roberts, J M; Jacobs, M M

    1989-11-01

    Transmembrane second messenger signalling systems regulate differentiation, growth and homeostatic responses during fetal development. The beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase system is the best studied of these and has been used as a model to investigate the control of developmental processes. In tissues such as lung, heart and parotid, beta-adrenergic responsiveness of adenylate cyclase increases during development. In the developing fetal lung beta-receptor concentration increases during gestation or after glucocorticoid treatment, but cannot fully explain enhanced adrenergic responsiveness. To probe developmental and hormonal effects on beta-receptor function, we asked if advancing gestation or glucocorticoid treatment alters beta-receptor-Gs interactions in fetal rabbit lung membrane particulates. Before 25 days gestation, 1-isoproterenol competes for 3H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA), a radiolabelled beta-antagonist, with a single low affinity, later in gestation, high and low affinities of isoproterenol for the beta-receptor are present which can be shifted to the lower affinity by addition of guanyl nucleotide. High affinity binding is precociously induced in 25 days--fetal lung particulates as early as 3 h after maternal betamethasone treatment, but beta-adrenoreceptor concentration in treated fetuses was increased over controls only after 24 h of treatment. Cholera toxin catalyzed ADP ribosylation of membrane particulates showed cholera toxin substrate (Gs) was not altered by glucocorticoid treatment. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity with isoproterenol (100mM) and GTP (100mM) resulted in no incremental increase over that produced by GTP (100mM) alone in glucocorticoid treated or control particulates, either early or late in gestation. These data demonstrate that beta-receptor-Gs interactions are not sufficient to produce full agonist responses. Although both beta-adrenergic receptors and Gs are present in fetal rabbit lung early in gestation, interaction

  7. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F. )

    1990-12-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30{degree}C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus.

  8. Persistent stimulation of adenylate cyclase and urea transport by an AVP photolabel

    SciTech Connect

    Eggena, P.; Ma, C.L.; Fahrenholz, F.; Schwartz, I.L.

    1985-07-01

    The effects of a photoaffinity label for arginine vasopressin receptors, (Phe2, Phe(p-N3)3)AVP (N3-AVP), on urea permeability and adenylate cyclase activity have been investigated in the toad urinary bladder. This compound, when activated by ultraviolet light, induced a maximal and persistent increase in the urea permeability of the intact bladder and a persistent increase in the adenylate cyclase activity of toad bladder epithelial cell homogenates. Covalent attachment of the analogue to target tissue during photolysis was equivalent at 4 and 20 degrees C. Bladders exposed to N3-AVP in the presence of AVP during photolysis were substantially less permeable to urea than controls that had been exposed to N3-AVP alone. These findings constitute further evidence in support of the previous suggestion that N3-AVP binds covalently to AVP receptors and, in addition, demonstrates that N3-AVP evokes a persistent increase in adenylate cyclase activity which, in turn, triggers a persistent increase in bladder permeability to urea.

  9. Biochemical mechanisms of myocardial adenylate cyclase subsensitivity to isoproterenol in cardiac hypertrophy of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The responsiveness of the myocardial adenylate cyclase (AC) system in generating cAMP was studied using isoproterenol (a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist), cholera toxin (a guanosinetriphosphatase inhibitor) and forskolin (a catalytic unit activator) in isolated myocytes of age-matched, 14-17 weeks old Wistar Kyoto normotensive rates (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We found a reduction in isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP formation in myocytes of SHRs compared with WKYs. This reduction was not due to changes in isoproterenol-receptor interactions. Scatchard plot analysis of (/sup 3/H)CGP 12177 binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in isolated myocytes of WKYs and SHRs revealed to significant differences in the maximum number of binding sites or dissociation constant. There were no significant differences in Ki and IC/sub 50/ calculated from the competitive displacement of (/sup 3/H)CGP 12177 binding by (-) isoproterenol, suggesting no change in the affinity of the beta-adrenergic receptors for isoproterenol. We found no significant differences in forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation between the two groups. This suggest that the reduction in isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP formation observed in myocytes of SHRs is not due to changes in the ability of catalytic unit to convert ATP to cAMP. Interestingly, cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP formation was increased in myocytes of SHRs. One possible explanation for these observations may be increased guanosinetriphosphatase (GTPase) activation by isoproterenol in myocytes of SHRs. The activation of GTPase by isoproterenol in myocytes of SHRs. The activation of GTPase by isoproterenol was measured as the release of Pi from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)GTP. There was an increase in isoproterenol-stimulated GTPase activity in myocytes of SHRs compared with WKYs.

  10. Mode of coupling between the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tolkovsky, A M; Levitzki, A

    1978-09-01

    The mode of coupling of the beta-adrenergic receptor to the enzyme adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes was analyzed in detail. A number of experimental techniques have been used: (1) measurement of the kinetics of cyclase activation to its permanetly active state in the presence of guanylyl imidodiphosphate, as a function of hormone concentrations; (2) measurement of antagonist and agoinst binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor prior and subsequent to the enzyme activation by hormone and guanylyl imidodiphosphate. On the bases of these two approaches, all the models of receptor to enzyme coupling which involve an equilibrium between the enzyme and the receptor can be rejected. The binding and the kinetic data, however, can be fitted by two diametrically opposed models of receptor to enzyme coupling: (a) the precouped enzyme-receptor model where activation of the enzyme occurs, according to the following scheme: formula (see text) where H is the hormone, RE is the precoupled respetor-enzyme complex, k1 and k2 are the rate constants describing hormone binding, and k is the rate constant characterizing the formation of HRE' from the intermediate HRE. According to this model, the activated complex is composed of all of the interacting species. (b) The other model is the collision coupling mechanism: formula (see test) wheere KH is the horome-receptor dissociation constant, k1 is the bimolecular rate constant governing the formation of HRE, and k3 the rate constant governing the activation of the enzyme. In this case the intermediate never accumulates and constitutes only a small fraction of the total receptor and adenylate cyclase concentrations. In order to establish which of the two mechanisms governs the mode of adenylate cyclase activation by its receptor, a diagnostic experiment was performed: Progressive inactivation of the beta receptor by a specific affinity label was found to cause a decrease in the maximal binding capacity of the receptor and a

  11. Insect Stage-Specific Adenylate Cyclases Regulate Social Motility in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Saada, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated systems for cell-cell communication enable unicellular microbes to act as multicellular entities capable of group-level behaviors that are not evident in individuals. These group behaviors influence microbe physiology, and the underlying signaling pathways are considered potential drug targets in microbial pathogens. Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes substantial human suffering and economic hardship in some of the most impoverished regions of the world. T. brucei lives on host tissue surfaces during transmission through its tsetse fly vector, and cultivation on surfaces causes the parasites to assemble into multicellular communities in which individual cells coordinate their movements in response to external signals. This behavior is termed “social motility,” based on its similarities with surface-induced social motility in bacteria, and it demonstrates that trypanosomes are capable of group-level behavior. Mechanisms governing T. brucei social motility are unknown. Here we report that a subset of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the trypanosome flagellum regulate social motility. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6), or dual knockdown of AC1 and AC2, causes a hypersocial phenotype but has no discernible effect on individual cells in suspension culture. Mutation of the AC6 catalytic domain phenocopies AC6 knockdown, demonstrating that loss of adenylate cyclase activity is responsible for the phenotype. Notably, knockdown of other ACs did not affect social motility, indicating segregation of AC functions. These studies reveal interesting parallels in systems that control social behavior in trypanosomes and bacteria and provide insight into a feature of parasite biology that may be exploited for novel intervention strategies. PMID:25416239

  12. Insect stage-specific adenylate cyclases regulate social motility in African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Miguel A; Saada, Edwin A; Hill, Kent L

    2015-01-01

    Sophisticated systems for cell-cell communication enable unicellular microbes to act as multicellular entities capable of group-level behaviors that are not evident in individuals. These group behaviors influence microbe physiology, and the underlying signaling pathways are considered potential drug targets in microbial pathogens. Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes substantial human suffering and economic hardship in some of the most impoverished regions of the world. T. brucei lives on host tissue surfaces during transmission through its tsetse fly vector, and cultivation on surfaces causes the parasites to assemble into multicellular communities in which individual cells coordinate their movements in response to external signals. This behavior is termed "social motility," based on its similarities with surface-induced social motility in bacteria, and it demonstrates that trypanosomes are capable of group-level behavior. Mechanisms governing T. brucei social motility are unknown. Here we report that a subset of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the trypanosome flagellum regulate social motility. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6), or dual knockdown of AC1 and AC2, causes a hypersocial phenotype but has no discernible effect on individual cells in suspension culture. Mutation of the AC6 catalytic domain phenocopies AC6 knockdown, demonstrating that loss of adenylate cyclase activity is responsible for the phenotype. Notably, knockdown of other ACs did not affect social motility, indicating segregation of AC functions. These studies reveal interesting parallels in systems that control social behavior in trypanosomes and bacteria and provide insight into a feature of parasite biology that may be exploited for novel intervention strategies. PMID:25416239

  13. Effects of Ca++ and Prostaglandin E1 on Vasopressin Activation of Renal Adenyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Marumo, Fumiaki; Edelman, Isidore S.

    1971-01-01

    Adenyl cyclase activity was assayed in crude homogenates of the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla of the golden hamster. The specific activity (moles C-AMP/unit of time per mg protein of tissue) of the enzyme under basal conditions, was greatest in papilla, somewhat lower in medulla, and least in cortex. On an absolute scale, the sensitivity to vasopressin was greater in the medullary and papillary than in the cortical homogenates. In addition, at concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mm, CaCl2 inhibited the enzyme in the order papilla > medulla > cortex. These results imply the existence of distinct differences in the composition of the adenyl cyclase-receptor complex in various parts of the kidney. We proposed that Ca++ inhibits the core enzyme directly since at the minimally inhibitory concentration (0.1 mm), CaCl2 reduced to an equivalent extent (a) basal activity, (b) the response to graded doses of vasopressin (0.5 to 50.0 mU/ml) and (c) the response to maximal stimulatory concentrations of NaF (10 mm). Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 = 10−7m) had no effect on either basal adenyl-cyclase activity or the response to 10 mm NaF in medullary and papillary homogenates. 7-Oxa-13-prostynoic acid (10−4m) similarly had no effect under basal conditions or on stimulation with NaF in medullary homogenates. Both fatty acids, however, inhibited the enzymic response to vasopressin, particularly at low concentrations of the peptide. The straight-chain fatty acid, 11-eicosanoic acid (10−7m), was inactive on basal activity or on the response to vasopressin. The possibility that PGE1 modifies the coupling mechanism between the core enzyme and the hormone-specific receptor is discussed. PMID:4329002

  14. Aluminum: a requirement for activation of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by fluoride.

    PubMed Central

    Sternweis, P C; Gilman, A G

    1982-01-01

    Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-. PMID:6289322

  15. Isolated neuronal growth cones from developing rat forebrain possess adenylate cyclase activity which can be augmented by various receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, R O; Hervé, D; Blanc, G; Tassin, J P; Glowinski, J

    1988-01-01

    Isolated neuronal growth cones from neonatal rat forebrain were found to contain a high specific activity of adenylate cyclase (61 pmol cyclic AMP/min/mg protein) compared to the pelleted starting homogenate (5 pmol cyclic AMP/min/mg protein). Forskolin at 10(-4) M increased adenylate cyclase activity in both the pelleted homogenate and growth cone fraction by 70 and 217 pmol cyclic AMP/min/mg protein, respectively, over basal levels. The incremental effect of forskolin was 3-fold greater in the growth cone fraction than in the pelleted homogenate. However, relative to basal levels in each of the two fractions, forskolin increased adenylate cyclase activity in the growth cone fraction by only approx. 5-fold compared to 15-fold in the pelleted homogenate. Dopamine (10(-4) M), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (10(-6) M) and isoproterenol (10(-5) M) also augmented adenylate cyclase activity in the two fractions. In the growth cone fraction, dopamine and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide produced a stimulation over basal levels by approx. 20 pmol cyclic AMP/min/mg protein while isoproterenol produced a stimulation of approx. 10 pmol cAMP/min/mg protein. The incremental effects of these receptor agonists in the growth cone fraction are approx. 5-fold greater than in the pelleted homogenate. The dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the growth cone fraction could be blocked by the compound SCH23390, a selective D1 receptor antagonist. At saturating concentrations, all combinations of dopamine, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and isoproterenol were found to be completely additive on adenylate cyclase activity in the growth cone fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) from Bordetella hinzii: Characterization and Differences from ACT of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gina M.; Hsia, Hung-Lun J.; Green, Candace S.; Hewlett, Erik L.

    2005-01-01

    Bordetella hinzii is a commensal respiratory microorganism in poultry but is increasingly being recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans. Although associated with a variety of disease states, practically nothing is known about the mechanisms employed by this bacterium. In this study, we show by DNA sequencing and reverse transcription-PCR that both commensal and clinical strains of B. hinzii possess and transcriptionally express cyaA, the gene encoding adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) in other pathogenic Bordetella species. By Western blotting, we also found that B. hinzii produces full-length ACT protein in quantities that are comparable to those made by B. pertussis. In contrast to B. pertussis ACT, however, ACT from B. hinzii is less extractable from whole bacteria, nonhemolytic, has a 50-fold reduction in adenylate cyclase activity, and is unable to elevate cyclic AMP levels in host macrophages (nontoxic). The decrease in enzymatic activity is attributable, at least in part, to a decreased binding affinity of B. hinzii ACT for calmodulin, the eukaryotic activator of B. pertussis ACT. In addition, we demonstrate that the lack of intoxication by B. hinzii ACT may be due to the absence of expression of cyaC, the gene encoding the accessory protein required for the acylation of B. pertussis ACT. These results demonstrate the expression of ACT by B. hinzii and represent the first characterization of a potential virulence factor of this organism. PMID:16267282

  17. Guanine-nucleotide-dependent inhibition of adenylate cyclase of rabbit heart by glucagon.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Z; Tkachuk, V A

    1984-07-16

    The present study demonstrates an inhibitory effect of glucagon on the adenylate cyclase system of rabbit heart. Inhibition was maximal (22-40%) at 0.1-0.01 microM glucagon and required the presence of 0.01-0.1 mM GTP or guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (GuoPP[NH]P). Reduced or no inhibitor effect of glucagon was observed: (a) after limited proteolysis of plasma membrane proteins by trypsin, (b) in the presence of 1 mM Mn2+, (c) in the absence of Na+, and (d) during the first 10 min of incubation if GuoPP[NH]P was the activating ligand. With GTP as the activating ligand, inhibition of cyclase by glucagon occurred without delay. These data are consistent with a mediation of glucagon inhibition by a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein. In the presence of ethanol (0.2 M) or benzyl alcohol (0.05 M), agents which are known to increase the fluidity of biological membranes, glucagon increased the enzyme activity in a guanine-nucleotide-dependent manner. Activation of cyclase in the presence of alcohols was maximal (30-60%) at 0.1-1.0 microM glucagon and 0.01 mM guanine nucleotides. Data suggest that glucagon receptors can interact with both the activatory and inhibitory guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins and the physical state of membranes may play a role in determining which interaction will be preferential.

  18. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  19. Endotoxic lipopolysaccharides stimulate steroidogenesis and adenylate cyclase in adrenal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J; Cook, G H

    1975-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcesens and Salmonella typhosa stimulated steroid production in Y-1 adrenal tumor cells in culture with a latent period of 3-4 h. Lipid A, derived from Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, also stimulated steroidogenesis. Lipopolysaccharides and lipid A also stimulate adenylate cyclase activity and cause rounding of the cells. In contrast, lipopolysaccharides do not stimulate steroidogenesis in receptor-deficient adrenal tumor cells (OS-3) or Leydig tumor cells (I-10). This tends to rule out contamination by enterotoxin to which these lines respond. Although both hormone and lipopolysaccharide responses are lost in these lines, there was no interaction between these sites as judged by the failure of lipopolysaccharides to block, during their latency, the response to corticotropin in Y-1 cells. The possibility that the lipopolysaccharide effect is one on membrane conformation is discussed.

  20. Adenylate cyclase 5 is required for melanophore and male pattern development in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kottler, Verena A; Künstner, Axel; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Langenecker, Tobias; Hoffmann, Margarete; Sharma, Eshita; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are colorful fish that have attracted the attention of pigmentation researchers for almost a century. Here, we report that the blond phenotype of the guppy is caused by a spontaneous mutation in the guppy ortholog of adenylate cyclase 5 (adcy5). Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we linked the blond phenotype to a candidate region of 118 kb, in which we subsequently identified a 2-bp deletion in adcy5 that alters splicing and leads to a premature stop codon. We show that adcy5, which affects life span and melanoma growth in mouse, is required for melanophore development and formation of male orange pigmentation traits in the guppy. We find that some components of the male orange pattern are particularly sensitive to loss of Adcy5 function. Our work thus reveals a function for Adcy5 in patterning of fish color ornaments.

  1. Characterization of the dopamine stimulated adenylate cyclase in the pedal ganglia of Mytilus edulis: interactions with etorphine, beta-endorphin, DALA, and methionine enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Stefano, G B; Catapane, E J; Kream, R M

    1981-03-01

    The dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was studied both in vivo and in vitro in the central nervous system of the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. Dopamine, epinine, and apomorphine stimulated the enzyme system. Fluphenazine, haloperidol, chlorpromaxine, and to a lesser extent BOL inhibited the dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. Etorphine, beta-endorphine, DALA, and methionine enkephalin depressed cyclic AMP levels. This phenomena was naloxone reversible. In addition, the opioids inhibited the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by dopamine. This phenomena was also naloxone reversible. The study demonstrates an interaction among dopamine, the opioids, and cyclic AMP. PMID:6286125

  2. Tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 after inhibition of NO synthesis: a loss of adenylate cyclase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27) are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This study examined whether this tachyphylaxis is due to the loss of vasodilator potency of cAMP generated by activation of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptors. Five successive treatments with PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats that were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME (50 micromol/kg iv)-treated rats produced vasodilator responses of similar magnitude to those in saline-treated rats, whereas four subsequent injections produced progressively and markedly smaller responses. The hemodynamic effects of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP; 5-15 micromol/kg iv) were similar in L-NAME-treated rats and in L-NAME-treated rats that had received the five injections of PACAP-27. In addition, five injections of 8-CPT-cAMP (10 micromol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline- and L-NAME-treated rats that were not subject to the development of tachyphylaxis. These results suggest that a loss of biological potency of cAMP is not responsible for tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 in L-NAME-treated rats. This tachyphylaxis may be due to the inability of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptor to activate adenylate cyclase.

  3. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    PubMed Central

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The ‘AC to Hly-linking segment’ thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  4. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The 'AC to Hly-linking segment' thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  5. Transmembrane segments of complement receptor 3 do not participate in cytotoxic activities but determine receptor structure required for action of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed

    Wald, Tomas; Osickova, Adriana; Masin, Jiri; Liskova, Petra M; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Matousek, Tomas; Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis penetrates phagocytes expressing the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, α(M)β(2) or Mac-1). CyaA translocates its adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme domain into cell cytosol and catalyzes unregulated conversion of ATP to cAMP, thereby subverting cellular signaling. In parallel, CyaA forms small cation-selective membrane pores that permeabilize cells for potassium efflux, contributing to cytotoxicity of CyaA and eventually provoking colloid-osmotic cell lysis. To investigate whether the single-pass α-helical transmembrane segments of CR3 subunits CD11b and CD18 do directly participate in AC domain translocation and/or pore formation by the toxin, we expressed in CHO cells variants of CR3 that contained artificial transmembrane segments, or lacked the transmembrane segment(s) at all. The results demonstrate that the transmembrane segments of CR3 are not directly involved in the cytotoxic activities of CyaA but serve for maintaining CR3 in a conformation that is required for efficient toxin binding and action. PMID:26802078

  6. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Adenylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Zaid; Byers, Sara Overstreet; Kriebel, Patrick; Rothrock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaA). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database had 378 cyaA sequences from S. enterica subspecies I, which included 42 unique DNA sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. Five representative isolates, namely serotypes Typhimurium, Kentucky, Enteritidis phage type PT4, and two variants of Enteritidis phage type PT13a, were differentiated within a microsphere-based fluidics system in cyaA by allele-specific primer extension. Validation against 25 poultry-related environmental Salmonella isolates representing 11 serotypes yielded a ∼89% success rate at identifying the serotype of the isolate, and a different region could be targeted to achieve 100%. When coupled with ISR, all serotypes were differentiated. Phage lineages of serotype Enteritidis 13a and 4 were identified, and a biofilm-forming strain of PT13a was differentiated from a smooth phenotype within phage type. Comparative ranking of mutation indices to genes such as the tRNA transferases, the diguanylate cyclases, and genes used for multilocus sequence typing indicated that cyaA is an appropriate gene for assessing epidemiological trends of Salmonella because of its relative stability in nucleotide composition. PMID:27035032

  7. Magnesium regulation of the beta-receptor-adenylate cyclase complex. II. Sc3+ as a Mg2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M E

    1982-09-01

    Sc3+ bears the same relationship to Mg2+ as La3+ to Ca2+, a similar ionic radius but increased charge. Therefore, the possibility was investigated that Sc3+ would be a Mg2+ antagonist at Mg2+ sites on the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of the murine S49 lymphoma cell. Sc3+ is consistently much more potent than La3+ in inhibiting adenylate cyclase regardless of the mode of activation. IC50 values for Sc3+ of 10-30 microM were observed, whereas those for La3+ were about 300 microM. However, Sc3+ does not block the ability of Mg2+ to increase beta-receptor affinity for agonist nor alter agonist affinity by itself. Furthermore, Sc3+ is a weak inhibitor of the beta-receptor-mediated inhibition of Mg2+ influx. In cyc- S49 membranes, in which the catalytic subunit of cyclase cannot interact with the nucleotide-coupling protein(s), Sc3+ is as potent as in wild-type S49 membranes and again more potent than La3+. Substrate kinetics show that Sc3+, like Mg2+, modulates adenylate cyclase activity by affecting the Vmax without altering the Km for substrate. The data suggest that Sc3+ is a specific antagonist of Mg2+ at the Mg2+ site on the catalytic subunit and support the suggestion that there are two distinct sites for Mg2+ with different functions, one site on the coupling protein(s) and one on the catalytic subunit. It was also found that an apparent complex of Sc3+ and F-, ScF4-, is a potent inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, with an IC50 of 3 microM. PMID:6292689

  8. Heavy isotope labeling study of the turnover of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in BC/sup 3/H1 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhelal, R.; Bockaert, J.; Mermet-Bouvier, R.; Guillon, G.; Homburger, V.

    1987-06-25

    We have used the method of heavy isotope labeling to study the metabolic turnover of adenylate cyclase in a nonfusing muscle cell line, the BC/sup 3/H1 cells. These cells contains an adenylate cyclase coupled to beta-adrenergic receptors and highly stimulated by forskolin, a potent activator of the enzyme. After transfer of the cells from normal medium to heavy medium (a medium containing heavy labeled amino acids, /sup 3/H, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N), heavy isotope-labeled adenylate cyclase molecules progressively replace pre-existing light molecules. In sucrose gradient differential sedimentation, after a 5-day switch in heavy medium, the enzyme exhibited a higher mass (s = 8.40 +/- 0.03 S, n = 13) compared to the control enzyme. Indeed, the increase in the sedimentation coefficient of the heavy molecules was due to the synthesis of new molecules of adenylate cyclase labeled with heavy isotope amino acids since in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, no change in the sedimentation pattern of the forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase occurred. After incorporation of heavy isotope amino acids in the adenylate cyclase molecules, the kinetics parameters of the enzyme did not change. However, adenylate cyclase from cells incubated with heavy medium exhibits an activity about 2-fold lower than control. After switching the cells to the heavy medium, the decrease of the activity of the enzyme occurred during the first 24 h and thereafter remained at a steady state for at least 4 days. In contrast, 24 h after the switch, the sedimentation coefficient of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase was progressively shifted to a higher value.

  9. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT{sub 1C} receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing ({sup 3}H)serotonin, ({sup 3}H)lysergic acid diethylamide or ({sup 3}H)dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor.

  10. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  11. Regulation of uterine adenylate cyclase by magnesium, manganese and calcium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rayford, W.; Sanders, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    The regulation of rat uterine adenylate cyclase (AC) by Mg/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ was examined during metestrus and proestrus of the estrous cycle and Days 1 and 4 of pseudopregnancy, before and after a mild trauma to the uterus. Mg/sup 2 +/ increased cyclase activity on all days measured. Maximal enzymic activity occurred with 5-10 mM Mg/sup 2 +/ during Day 4 following a mild traumatic stimulus to the uterus. The apparent Ka for Mg/sup 2 +/ was not significantly changed during these days. AC activity as a function of Mn/sup 2 +/ concentration was biphasic. It increased with increasing concentrations of Mn/sup 2 +/ and was maximal at 1.0-2.5 mM during Day 4 following uterine trauma. Higher concentrations of Mn/sup 2 +/ were inhibitory. The apparent Ka for Mn/sup 2 +/ was 0.36 +/- 0.05 mM and was not significantly altered during the days studied. Even though the Ka for Mn/sup 2 +/ was ten-fold lower than that for Mg/sup 2 +/, the Vmaxes shown with both ions were similar. Ca/sup 2 +/ is a potent inhibitor of uterine AC activity. When measured at its I.C./sub 50/, it lowered AC activity as Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations were increased. Ca/sup 2 +/ did not have a significant effect on AC activated by Mn/sup 2 +/. The data showed that Mg/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ might have important regulatory roles in the activation and inhibition of uterine AC in the rodent.

  12. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Reverses Ammonium Metavanadate-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tlili, Mounira; Rouatbi, Sonia; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Vaudry, David; Wurtz, Olivier; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    The rate of atmospheric vanadium is constantly increasing due to fossil fuel combustion. This environmental pollution favours vanadium exposure in particular to its vanadate form, causing occupational bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Based on the well admitted bronchodilator properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), we investigated the ability of this neuropeptide to reverse the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. Exposure to ammonium metavanadate aerosols (5 mg/m3/h) for 15 minutes induced 4 hours later an array of pathophysiological events, including increase of bronchial resistance and histological alterations, activation of proinflammatory alveolar macrophages, and increased oxidative stress status. Powerfully, PACAP inhalation (0.1 mM) for 10 minutes alleviated many of these deleterious effects as demonstrated by a decrease of bronchial resistance and histological restoration. PACAP reduced the level of expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, and KC) and cytokines (IL-1α and TNF-α) in alveolar macrophages and improved the antioxidant status. PACAP reverses the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness not only through its bronchodilator activity but also by counteracting the proinflammatory and prooxidative effects of the metal. Then, the development of stable analogs of PACAP could represent a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disorders. PMID:26199679

  13. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Matthew M.; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E.; Frenkel, Mogen M.; Reilly, Michael J.; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A.; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  14. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-11-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine.

  15. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10766.001 PMID:26650353

  16. Heterogeneity of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase (cyaA) RTX domain.

    PubMed

    Wehmann, Enikő; Khayer, Bernadett; Magyar, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread pathogen, with a broad host range, occasionally including humans. Diverse virulence factors (adhesins, toxins) allow its adaptation to its host, but this property of the adenylate cyclase (cyaA) toxin is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the repeats-in-toxin domain of B. bronchiseptica cyaA with PCR, followed by restriction fragment length analysis. Of ninety-two B. bronchiseptica strains collected from different hosts and geographic regions, 72 (78.3 %) carried cyaA and four RFLP types (A-D) were established using NarI and SalI. However, in 20 strains, cyaA was replaced with a peptide transport protein operon. A phylogenetic tree based on partial nucleotide sequences of cyaA revealed that group 2 contains strains of specifically human origin, whereas subgroup 1a contains all but one of the strains from pigs. The human strains showed many PCR-RFLP and sequence variants, confirming the clonal population structure of B. bronchiseptica. PMID:25475014

  17. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. PMID:26650353

  18. Progesterone prevents linkage of rabbit myometrial alpha 2-adrenergic receptors to inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Y; Riemer, R K; Goldfien, A; Roberts, J M

    1989-04-01

    The uterine response to adrenergic stimulation is determined by the hormonal milieu. This response is particularly well characterized in the rabbit. In this species, as in humans, the response of the uterus to sympathetic stimulation is alpha-adrenergically mediated contraction with elevated circulating estrogen. However, with progesterone predominance, similar stimulation inhibits uterine contractions, a response mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors acting through their second message, cyclic adenosine monophosphate. We studied the mechanisms by which sex steroids regulate myometrial adrenergic responses. In this study, we questioned whether part of the effect of sex steroids could be explained by an alteration of the coupling of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. We found that in the progesterone-treated rabbit, although alpha 2-receptors are present, they are not linked to inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis. The net synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphage in response to endogenous catecholamines is determined by their activation of beta-adrenergic receptors to increase and alpha 2-receptors to decrease cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. Thus the uncoupling of alpha 2-receptors contributes to increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in myometrium of progesterone-treated animals consistent with the reported predominance of beta-adrenergic contractile responses in this setting.

  19. Heterogeneity of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase (cyaA) RTX domain.

    PubMed

    Wehmann, Enikő; Khayer, Bernadett; Magyar, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread pathogen, with a broad host range, occasionally including humans. Diverse virulence factors (adhesins, toxins) allow its adaptation to its host, but this property of the adenylate cyclase (cyaA) toxin is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the repeats-in-toxin domain of B. bronchiseptica cyaA with PCR, followed by restriction fragment length analysis. Of ninety-two B. bronchiseptica strains collected from different hosts and geographic regions, 72 (78.3 %) carried cyaA and four RFLP types (A-D) were established using NarI and SalI. However, in 20 strains, cyaA was replaced with a peptide transport protein operon. A phylogenetic tree based on partial nucleotide sequences of cyaA revealed that group 2 contains strains of specifically human origin, whereas subgroup 1a contains all but one of the strains from pigs. The human strains showed many PCR-RFLP and sequence variants, confirming the clonal population structure of B. bronchiseptica.

  20. Hypoxia and glucose independently regulate the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, K J; Honbo, N Y; Karliner, J S

    1991-01-01

    We explored the effects of two components of ischemia, hypoxia and glucose deprivation, on the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR)-adenylate cyclase system in a model of hypoxic injury in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. After 2 h of hypoxia in the presence of 5 mM glucose, cell surface beta AR density (3H-CGP-12177) decreased from 54.8 +/- 8.4 to 39 +/- 6.3 (SE) fmol/mg protein (n = 10, P less than 0.025), while cytosolic beta AR density (125I-iodocyanopindolol [ICYP]) increased by 74% (n = 5, P less than 0.05). Upon reexposure to oxygen cell surface beta AR density returned toward control levels. Cells exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation without glucose exhibited similar alterations in beta AR density. In hypoxic cells incubated with 5 mM glucose, the addition of 1 microM (-)-norepinephrine (NE) increased cAMP generation from 29.3 +/- 10.6 to 54.2 +/- 16.1 pmol/35 mm plate (n = 5, P less than 0.025); upon reoxygenation cAMP levels remained elevated above control (n = 5, P less than 0.05). In contrast, NE-stimulated cAMP content in glucose-deprived hypoxic myocytes fell by 31% (n = 5, P less than 0.05) and did not return to control levels with reoxygenation. beta AR-agonist affinity assessed by (-)-isoproterenol displacement curves was unaltered after 2 h of hypoxia irrespective of glucose content. Addition of forskolin (100 microM) to glucose-supplemented hypoxic cells increased cAMP generation by 60% (n = 5; P less than 0.05), but in the absence of glucose this effect was not seen. In cells incubated in glucose-containing medium, the decline in intracellular ATP levels was attenuated after 2 h of hypoxia (21 vs. 40%, P less than 0.05). Similarly, glucose supplementation prevented LDH release in hypoxic myocytes. We conclude that (a) oxygen and glucose independently regulate beta AR density and agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation; (b) hypoxia has no effect on beta AR-agonist or antagonist affinity; (c) 5 mM glucose attenuates the rate of decline in

  1. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-09-20

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 ..mu..M isoproterenol and 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of ..beta..-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes.

  2. Structural insight into photoactivation of an adenylate cyclase from a photosynthetic cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Mio; Sugiyama, Kanako; Kawai, Fumihiro; Tanaka, Hitomi; Nihei, Yuuki; Unzai, Satoru; Takebe, Masumi; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Shibayama, Naoya; Zhou, Zhiwen; Koyama, Ryuta; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tame, Jeremy R. H.; Iseki, Mineo; Park, Sam-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic-AMP is one of the most important second messengers, regulating many crucial cellular events in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and precise spatial and temporal control of cAMP levels by light shows great promise as a simple means of manipulating and studying numerous cell pathways and processes. The photoactivated adenylate cyclase (PAC) from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) is a small homodimer eminently suitable for this task, requiring only a simple flavin chromophore within a blue light using flavin (BLUF) domain. These domains, one of the most studied types of biological photoreceptor, respond to blue light and either regulate the activity of an attached enzyme domain or change its affinity for a repressor protein. BLUF domains were discovered through studies of photo-induced movements of Euglena gracilis, a unicellular flagellate, and gene expression in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, but the precise details of light activation remain unknown. Here, we describe crystal structures and the light regulation mechanism of the previously undescribed OaPAC, showing a central coiled coil transmits changes from the light-sensing domains to the active sites with minimal structural rearrangement. Site-directed mutants show residues essential for signal transduction over 45 Å across the protein. The use of the protein in living human cells is demonstrated with cAMP-dependent luciferase, showing a rapid and stable response to light over many hours and activation cycles. The structures determined in this study will assist future efforts to create artificial light-regulated control modules as part of a general optogenetic toolkit. PMID:27247413

  3. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  4. Hemodynamic actions of systemically injected pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to characterize the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27 0.1-2.0 nmol/kg, i.v.) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (2) to determine the roles of the autonomic nervous system, adrenal catecholamines and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of PACAP-27-mediated effects on hemodynamic function. PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and hindquarter and mesenteric vascular resistances in saline-treated rats. PACAP-27 also produced pronounced falls in mean arterial blood pressure in rats treated with the ganglion blocker, chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive and vasodilator actions of PACAP-27 were not attenuated by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.), or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 50 micromol/kg, i.v.). PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate whereas the hypotensive response produced by the nitrovasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg, i.v.), was associated with a minimal tachycardia. The PACAP-27-induced tachycardia was unaffected by chlorisondamine, but was virtually abolished by propranolol. These results suggest that the vasodilator effects of PACAP-27 are due to actions in the microcirculation rather than to the release of adrenal catecholamines and that this vasodilation may not involve the release of endothelium-derived NO. These results also suggest that PACAP-27 produces tachycardia by directly releasing norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals rather than by direct or baroreceptor reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  5. Structural insight into photoactivation of an adenylate cyclase from a photosynthetic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Mio; Sugiyama, Kanako; Kawai, Fumihiro; Tanaka, Hitomi; Nihei, Yuuki; Unzai, Satoru; Takebe, Masumi; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Adachi, Shin-Ichi; Shibayama, Naoya; Zhou, Zhiwen; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tame, Jeremy R H; Iseki, Mineo; Park, Sam-Yong

    2016-06-14

    Cyclic-AMP is one of the most important second messengers, regulating many crucial cellular events in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and precise spatial and temporal control of cAMP levels by light shows great promise as a simple means of manipulating and studying numerous cell pathways and processes. The photoactivated adenylate cyclase (PAC) from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) is a small homodimer eminently suitable for this task, requiring only a simple flavin chromophore within a blue light using flavin (BLUF) domain. These domains, one of the most studied types of biological photoreceptor, respond to blue light and either regulate the activity of an attached enzyme domain or change its affinity for a repressor protein. BLUF domains were discovered through studies of photo-induced movements of Euglena gracilis, a unicellular flagellate, and gene expression in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, but the precise details of light activation remain unknown. Here, we describe crystal structures and the light regulation mechanism of the previously undescribed OaPAC, showing a central coiled coil transmits changes from the light-sensing domains to the active sites with minimal structural rearrangement. Site-directed mutants show residues essential for signal transduction over 45 Å across the protein. The use of the protein in living human cells is demonstrated with cAMP-dependent luciferase, showing a rapid and stable response to light over many hours and activation cycles. The structures determined in this study will assist future efforts to create artificial light-regulated control modules as part of a general optogenetic toolkit. PMID:27247413

  6. Reconstitution of beta-adrenergic receptor with components of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, M; Feder, D; Keenan, A K; Gal, A; Klein, H W; Pfeuffer, T; Levitzki, A; Helmreich, E J

    1984-01-01

    Beta 1-Adrenergic receptor proteins were extracted from turkey erythrocyte membranes with lauroyl sucrose and digitonin and purified by affinity chromatography on a column of alprenolol agarose Affi-gel 10 or 15. The 5000-fold purified receptor is able to couple functionally with the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (GS) from either turkey or duck erythrocytes. Functional coupling was achieved by three different approaches. (i) Purified beta-receptor polypeptides were coupled in phospholipid (asolectin) vesicles with GS from a crude cholate or lauroyl sucrose extract of turkey erythrocyte membranes. The detergent was removed and vesicles were formed with SM-2 beads. (ii) Purified beta-receptor was reconstituted with pure, homogeneous GS in asolectin vesicles. (iii) Purified beta-receptors were either coupled in asolectin vesicles with a mixture of pure, homogeneous Gpp(NH)p-activated GS and a lauroyl sucrose extract of turkey erythrocyte membranes, or with pure, homogeneous Gpp(NH)p-activated GS alone. The decay of activity was measured on addition of GTP and hormone. In (ii) and (iii), the detergent was removed and vesicles were formed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 columns. In each of the three different experimental conditions, the beta-receptor was activated with l-isoproterenol and activation was blocked with d,l-propranolol. Activated GS were measured separately by means of their capacity to activate a crude Lubrol PX-solubilized adenylate cyclase preparation from rabbit myocardial membrane. The kinetics of GS activation by purified beta-receptors occupied by l-isoproterenol was first order and activation was linearly dependent on receptor concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:6098472

  7. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Matthew M.; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E.; Frenkel, Mogen M.; Reilly, Michael J.; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A.; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents contrast-induced nephropathy in a novel mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Altaf-M; Maderdrut, Jerome L; Li, Min; Toliver, Herman L; Coy, David H; Simon, Eric E; Batuman, Vecihi

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) prevents contrast-induced nephropathy using human renal proximal tubule epithelial (HK-2) cells and homozygous endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient (eNOS−/−) mice as a novel in vivo model. Cultured HK-2 cells were pretreated with 10−9–10−6 mol/L PACAP or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for 1 h, and then exposed to ionic (Urografin) or nonionic (iohexol) contrast media at 50 mg iodine/mL for 24 h. Male eNOS−/− mice received Urografin (1.85 g iodine/kg) intravenously after water deprivation for 24 h, and PACAP38 (10 μg) intraperitoneally 1 h before and 12 h after Urografin injection. Urografin and iohexol increased lactate dehydrogenase and kidney injury molecule 1 in the culture medium, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation in HK-2 cell cultures. PACAP38 and VIP reduced these changes in a dose-dependent manner. PACAP38 was more potent than VIP. In eNOS−/− mice, Urografin raised serum creatinine and cystatin C levels, caused renal tubule damage, induced apoptosis, and promoted neutrophil influx. Urografin also increased kidney protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and kidney mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, kidney injury biomarkers, and enzymes responsible for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. PACAP38 significantly reduced these Urografin-induced changes in eNOS−/− mice. This study shows that both Urografin and iohexol are toxic to HK-2 cells, but Urografin is more toxic than iohexol. Urografin causes acute kidney injury in eNOS−/− mice. PACAP38 protects HK-2 cells and mouse kidneys from contrast media and is a potential therapeutic agent for contrast-induced nephropathy. PMID:24400164

  9. Quantification of the Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis In Vitro and during Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Joshua C.; Gray, Mary C.; Warfel, Jason M.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Jones, Tara F.; Day, Shandra R.; Bowden, James; Poulter, Melinda D.; Donato, Gina M.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2013-01-01

    Whooping cough results from infection of the respiratory tract with Bordetella pertussis, and the secreted adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is essential for the bacterium to establish infection. Despite extensive study of the mechanism of ACT cytotoxicity and its effects over a range of concentrations in vitro, ACT has not been observed or quantified in vivo, and thus the concentration of ACT at the site of infection is unknown. The recently developed baboon model of infection mimics the prolonged cough and transmissibility of pertussis, and we hypothesized that measurement of ACT in nasopharyngeal washes (NPW) from baboons, combined with human and in vitro data, would provide an estimate of the ACT concentration in the airway during infection. NPW contained up to ∼108 CFU/ml B. pertussis and 1 to 5 ng/ml ACT at the peak of infection. Nasal aspirate specimens from two human infants with pertussis contained bacterial concentrations similar to those in the baboons, with 12 to 20 ng/ml ACT. When ∼108 CFU/ml of a laboratory strain of B. pertussis was cultured in vitro, ACT production was detected in 60 min and reached a plateau of ∼60 ng/ml in 6 h. Furthermore, when bacteria were brought into close proximity to target cells by centrifugation, intoxication was increased 4-fold. Collectively, these data suggest that at the bacterium-target cell interface during infection of the respiratory tract, the concentration of ACT can exceed 100 ng/ml, providing a reference point for future studies of ACT and pertussis pathogenesis. PMID:23429530

  10. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Satoko; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Toyama, Keiko; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory. PMID:23060763

  11. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide induces a depressive-like phenotype in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seiglie, Mariel P.; Smith, Karen L.; Blasio, Angelo; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a chronic, life-threatening psychiatric condition characterized by depressed mood, psychomotor alterations, and a markedly diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, known as anhedonia. Available pharmacotherapies have limited success and the need for new strategies is clear. Recent studies attribute a major role to the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) system in mediating the response to stress. PACAP knockout mice display profound alterations in depressive-like behaviors and genetic association studies have demonstrated that genetic variants of the PACAP gene are associated with MDD. However, the effects of PACAP on depressive-like behaviors in rodents have not yet been systematically examined. The present study investigated the effects of central administration of PACAP in rats on depressive-like behaviors, using well-established animal models that represent some of the endophenotypes of depression. We used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to assess the brain reward function, saccharin preference test to assess anhedonia, social interaction to assess social withdrawal, and forced swim test (FST) to assess behavioral despair. PACAP raised the current threshold for ICSS, elevation blocked by the PACAP antagonist PACAP(6-38). PACAP reduced the preference for a sweet saccharin solution, and reduced the time the rats spent interacting with a novel animal. Interestingly, PACAP administration did not affect immobility in the FST. Our results demonstrate a role for the central PACAP/PAC1R system in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors, and suggest that hyperactivity of the PACAP/PAC1R system may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression, particularly the associated anhedonic symptomatology and social dysfunction. PMID:26264905

  12. Concanavalin A amplifies both beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor-adenylate cyclase-linked pathways in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, K J; Hines, D K; Honbo, N Y; Karliner, J S

    1991-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) is a tetrameric plant lectin that disrupts plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interactions and alters plasma membrane fluidity. We used Con A as a probe to explore beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor-mediated regulation of cAMP in intact neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Preincubation with Con A, 0.5 micrograms/ml, attenuated 1 microM (-)-norepinephrine (NE)-induced downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors and resulted in a 50% augmentation of cAMP accumulation stimulated by 1 microM NE. Con A also augmented forskolin (1-10 microM)-stimulated cAMP accumulation by an average of 37% (P less than 0.05); however, Con A preincubation had no effect on basal or cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP content. The muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol (1-100 microM) decreased 1 microM NE-stimulated cAMP generation by an average of 32% (n = 7, P less than 0.05); preincubation with Con A further enhanced the inhibitory effect of carbachol by 18% (n = 7, P less than 0.05). Carbachol (1 microM) for 2 h decreased muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in whole cells by 33%; preincubation with Con A prevented this receptor downregulation. Con A pretreatment did not affect (-)-isoproterenol- or forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in cell homogenates, suggesting that an intact cytoarchitecture is necessary for Con A to augment cAMP formation. We conclude that Con A, through its modulation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor signaling, amplifies both stimulatory and inhibitory adenylate cyclase-linked pathways in intact neonatal ventricular myocytes. These data suggest the possibility that plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interaction is an important regulator of transmembrane signaling because interference with this interaction results in alterations in cAMP accumulation mediated by both beta-adrenergic- and muscarinic cholinergic-adenylate cyclase pathways. PMID:1653274

  13. Oxymetazoline inhibits adenylate cyclase by activation of serotonin-1 receptors in the OK cell, an established renal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T J; Bylund, D B

    1988-07-01

    The nonselective alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline inhibits parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated cAMP production in intact OK cells, an epithelial cell line derived from an American opossum kidney. This inhibition, however, is not blocked by alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists. After excluding several alternate hypotheses to explain this anomalous activity of oxymetazoline, we hypothesized that oxymetazoline activates a receptor in OK cells that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase but distinct from the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. Prior exposure of OK cells to pertussis toxin blocks the inhibitory response to oxymetazoline, suggesting involvement of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein. Screening various compounds for attenuation of PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase showed that serotonin (5HT) is a potent and fully efficacious agonist. Desensitization of alpha 2-receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP production by epinephrine did not alter the response to either 5HT or oxymetazoline, indicating that these compounds do not produce their effect by activating alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The 5HT1 receptor-selective antagonist methiothepin, but not ketanserin (5HT2-selective) or ICS-205,930 (5HT3-selective), blocked the response to both 5HT and oxymetazoline. The potency of methiothepin for antagonizing oxymetazoline-induced inhibition of PTH-stimulated cAMP production was not significantly different from its potency for the 5HT-induced effect. These data indicate that OK cells express a 5HT1 receptor that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase and that oxymetazoline is an agonist at these receptors.

  14. Allosteric equilibrium model explains steady-state coupling of beta-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Onaran, H O

    1997-05-01

    We used a simple experimental approach to clarify some contradictory predictions of the collision coupling and equilibrium models (e.g. ternary complex, two-state ternary complex or quinternary complex), which describe G-protein-mediated beta-adrenergic receptor signalling in essentially different manners. Analysis of the steady-state coupling of beta-adrenoceptors to adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes showed that: (1) in the absence of an agonist, Gpp(NH)p (a hydrolysis-resistant analogue of GTP) can activate adenylate cyclase very slowly; (2) this activity reaches a steady state in approx. 5 h, the extent of activity depending on the concentration of the nucleotide; (3) isoprenaline-activated steady-state adenylate cyclase can be inactivated by propranolol (a competitive antagonist that relaxes the receptor activation), in the presence of Gpp(NH)p (which provides a virtual absence of GTPase) and millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ (the rate of this inactivation is relatively fast); (4) increasing the concentration of Gpp(NH)p can saturate the steady-state activity of adenylate cyclase. The saturated enzyme activity was lower than that induced by isoprenaline under the same conditions. This additional agonist-induced activation was reversible. In the light of these results, we conclude that agonist can also activate the guanine nucleotide-saturated system in the absence of GTPase by a mechanism other than guanine nucleotide exchange. We explain these phenomena in the framework of a quinternary complex model as an agonist-induced and receptor-mediated dissociation of guanine nucleotide-saturated residual heterotrimer, the equilibrium concentration of which is not necessarily zero. These results, which suggest a continuous interaction between receptor and G-protein, can hardly be accommodated by the collision coupling model that was originally suggested for the present experimental system and then applied to many other G-protein systems. Therefore we

  15. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh; Finley, Natosha L.

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken

  16. Allosteric equilibrium model explains steady-state coupling of beta-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, O; Onaran, H O

    1997-01-01

    We used a simple experimental approach to clarify some contradictory predictions of the collision coupling and equilibrium models (e.g. ternary complex, two-state ternary complex or quinternary complex), which describe G-protein-mediated beta-adrenergic receptor signalling in essentially different manners. Analysis of the steady-state coupling of beta-adrenoceptors to adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes showed that: (1) in the absence of an agonist, Gpp(NH)p (a hydrolysis-resistant analogue of GTP) can activate adenylate cyclase very slowly; (2) this activity reaches a steady state in approx. 5 h, the extent of activity depending on the concentration of the nucleotide; (3) isoprenaline-activated steady-state adenylate cyclase can be inactivated by propranolol (a competitive antagonist that relaxes the receptor activation), in the presence of Gpp(NH)p (which provides a virtual absence of GTPase) and millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ (the rate of this inactivation is relatively fast); (4) increasing the concentration of Gpp(NH)p can saturate the steady-state activity of adenylate cyclase. The saturated enzyme activity was lower than that induced by isoprenaline under the same conditions. This additional agonist-induced activation was reversible. In the light of these results, we conclude that agonist can also activate the guanine nucleotide-saturated system in the absence of GTPase by a mechanism other than guanine nucleotide exchange. We explain these phenomena in the framework of a quinternary complex model as an agonist-induced and receptor-mediated dissociation of guanine nucleotide-saturated residual heterotrimer, the equilibrium concentration of which is not necessarily zero. These results, which suggest a continuous interaction between receptor and G-protein, can hardly be accommodated by the collision coupling model that was originally suggested for the present experimental system and then applied to many other G-protein systems. Therefore we

  17. Studies on cell migration, adenylate cyclase and membrane-coating granules in the buccal epithelium of the zinc-deficient rabbit, including the influence of isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y

    1988-01-01

    Cell migration was slightly increased; cytochemical reaction deposits of adenylate cyclase and the area density of membrane-coating granules (MCG) were significantly increased. Upon isoproterenol stimulation, the MCG area density was significantly increased, whereas the cell migration rate was unchanged. Thus in zinc deficiency, there may be a simultaneous increase in the production and secretion of MCGs, in adenylate cyclase activity, and in cell migration. The non-significantly increased cell migration rate may not keep pace with the significantly increased cell-production rate, resulting in thickening of the epithelium.

  18. Adrenalectomy mediated alterations in adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refai, M.; Chan, T.

    1986-05-01

    Adrenalectomy caused a large increase in the number of ..beta..-adrenergic binding sites on liver plasma membranes as measured by /sup 125/I-iodocyanopindolol (22 and 102 fmol/mg protein for control and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats). Concomitantly an increase in the number of binding sites for /sup 3/H-yohimbine was also observed (104 and 175 fmol/mg protein for control and adx membranes). Epinephrine-stimulated increase in cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated hepatocytes were greater in cells from ADX rats. This increase in ..beta..-adrenergic mediated action was much less than what may be expected as a result of the increase in the ..beta..-adrenergic binding in ADX membranes. In addition phenoxybenzamine (10 ..mu..M) further augmented this action of epinephrine in both control and ADX cells. To test the hypothesis that the increase in the number of the inhibitory ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in adrenalectomy is responsible for the muted ..beta..-adrenergic response, the authors injected rats with pertussis toxin (PT). This treatment may cause the in vivo ribosylation of the inhibitory binding protein (Ni). Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in liver plasma membranes prepared from treated and untreated animals was measured. In contrast with control rats, treatment of ADX rats with PT resulted in a significant increase in the basal activity of AC (5.5 and 7.7 pmol/mg protein/min for untreated and treated rats respectively). Isoproterenol (10 ..mu..M), caused AC activity to increase to 6.5 and 8.4 pmol/mg protein/min for membranes obtained from ADX untreated and ADX treated rats respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists had no significant effect on the ..beta..-adrenergic-mediated activation of AC in liver plasma membranes from PT treated control and ADX rats. The authors conclude that the ..beta..-adrenergic activation of AC is attenuated by Ni protein both directly and as a result of activation of ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors.

  19. Involvement of a membrane-bound class III adenylate cyclase in regulation of anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Charania, M A; Brockman, K L; Zhang, Y; Banerjee, A; Pinchuk, G E; Fredrickson, J K; Beliaev, A S; Saffarini, D A

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide requires parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C to entrain circadian rhythms to a predictable phase

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungwon; Irwin, Robert P.; Allen, Charles N.; Tsai, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Circadian oscillations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) depend on transcriptional repression by Period (PER)1 and PER2 proteins within single cells and on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling between cells. Because VIP is released by SCN neurons in a circadian pattern, and, after photic stimulation, it has been suggested to play a role in the synchronization to environmental light cycles. It is not known, however, if or how VIP entrains circadian gene expression or behavior. Here, we tested candidate signaling pathways required for VIP-mediated entrainment of SCN rhythms. We found that single applications of VIP reset PER2 rhythms in a time- and dose-dependent manner that differed from light. Unlike VIP-mediated signaling in other cell types, simultaneous antagonism of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities was required to block the VIP-induced phase shifts of SCN rhythms. Consistent with this, VIP rapidly increased intracellular cAMP in most SCN neurons. Critically, daily VIP treatment entrained PER2 rhythms to a predicted phase angle within several days, depending on the concentration of VIP and the interval between VIP applications. We conclude that VIP entrains circadian timing among SCN neurons through rapid and parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities. PMID:21389307

  1. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  2. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K.; Zhang, Yang; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, S. oneidensis MR-1 uses the cAMP receptor protein, CRP, for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an E. coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, DMSO, or Fe(III), whereas the deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III), and to a lesser extent with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and the cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagella biosynthesis, and electron transport, were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant, but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration, and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  3. Adenyl cyclase and interleukin 6 are downstream effectors of parathyroid hormone resulting in stimulation of bone resorption.

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, E M; Shaw, S M; Gornik, S A; Banks, M A

    1995-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone and other bone resorptive agents function, at least in part, by inducing osteoblasts to secrete cytokines that stimulate both differentiation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts. We previously identified two potentially important cytokines by demonstrating that parathyroid hormone induces expression by osteoblasts of IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor without affecting levels of 14 other cytokines. Although parathyroid hormone activates multiple signal transduction pathways, induction of IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor is dependent on activation of adenyl cyclase. This study demonstrates that adenyl cyclase is also required for stimulation of osteoclast activity in cultures containing osteoclasts from rat long bones and UMR106-01 rat osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Since the stimulation by parathyroid hormone of both cytokine production and bone resorption depends on the same signal transduction pathway, we hypothesized that IL-6 might be a downstream effector of parathyroid hormone. We found that addition of exogenous IL-6 mimics the ability of parathyroid hormone to stimulate bone resorption. More importantly, an antibody directed against the IL-6 receptor blocks moderate stimulation of osteoclast activity induced by the hormone. Interestingly, strong stimulation of resorption overcomes this dependence on IL-6. Thus, parathyroid hormone likely induces multiple, redundant cytokines that can overcome the IL-6 requirement associated with moderate stimulation. Taken together with studies showing that many other bone resorptive agents also stimulate IL-6 production, our results suggest that IL-6 may be a downstream effector of these agents as well as of parathyroid hormone. Images PMID:7657797

  4. Glyoxylate lowers metabolic ATP in human platelets without altering adenylate energy charge or aggregation.

    PubMed

    Dangelmaier, Carol A; Holmsen, Holm

    2014-01-01

    Human blood platelets adhere to exposed collagen at the site of vascular injury, initiating a signaling cascade leading to fibrinogen activation, secretion of granules and aggregation, thus producing a stable thrombus. All these steps require metabolic ATP. In this study we have labeled the metabolic pool of ATP with nucleotides, treated platelets with various inhibitors and have monitored their ability to be activated. Incubating platelets with glyoxylate dramatically reduced the ATP level without a change in the adenylate energy charge (AEC). This reduction of ATP did not affect ADP-induced primary or secondary aggregation, whereas glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, or the combination of antimycin plus deoxyglucose reduced both ATP and AEC and inhibited aggregation. The reduction of ATP by glyoxylate was almost quantitatively matched by an increase in hypoxanthine without elevation of ADP. AMP, IMP or inosine, acetoacetate, aspartate, or glutamate had no effect on glyoxylate-induced breakdown of ATP, while pyruvate stopped the ATP reduction fast and efficiently. Glyoxylate also lowered the citrate content. The glyoxylate-induced breakdown of ATP coincided with an increase in fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, indicating that the phosphofructokinase reaction was the main ATP-consuming step. Glyoxylate was a substrate for lactate dehydrogenase although with a Km almost 100 times higher than pyruvate. We suggest that glyoxylate primarily competes with pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction, thus lowering the citrate concentration, which in turn activates phosphofructokinase. Clearly, lowering of ATP in the cytosol by more than 50% does not affect platelet aggregation provided that the AEC is not reduced.

  5. Adenylate cyclase toxin-mediated delivery of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Masaaki; Konda, Toshifumi

    2016-02-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) of Bordetella pertussis internalizes its catalytic domain into target cells. ACT can function as a tool for delivering foreign protein antigen moieties into immune effector cells to induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. In this study, we replaced the catalytic domain of ACT with an enzymatically active protein moiety, the S1 (ADP-ribosyltransferase) subunit of pertussis toxin (PT). The S1 moiety was successfully internalized independent of endocytosis into sheep erythrocytes. The introduced polypeptide exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in CHO cells and induced clustering typical to PT. The results indicate that ACT can act as a vehicle for not only epitopes but also enzymatically active peptides to mammalian cells.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-like compounds could modulate the activity of coelomocytes in the earthworm.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Ildiko; Boros, Akos; Engelmann, Peter; Varhalmi, Eszter; Nemeth, Jozsef; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Kiss, Peter; Reglodi, Dora; Pollak, Edit; Molnar, Laszlo

    2009-04-01

    By means of radioimmunoassay, we studied the concentration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-like proteins in intact and regenerating earthworms. Transection of animals increased the concentration of PACAP-like compounds in coelomocytes, and a decreasing rostrocaudal gradient was detected in the regenerating animals. Western blot analysis revealed a range of PAC1-receptor proteins with molecular weights from 40 to 80 kDa. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry showed that PAC1 receptors were located on distinct sets of coelomocytes (mainly on amebocytes and on some granulocytes). Based on our results we hypothesize a link between PACAP and coelomocytes, suggesting that PACAP modulates the function of amebocytes and certain granulocytes that play a role in tissue remodeling of regenerating earthworms. PMID:19456404

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in stress-related disorders: data convergence from animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The maladaptive expression and function of several stress-associated hormones have been implicated in pathological stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Among these, recent evidence has suggested that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has critical roles in central neurocircuits mediating stress-related emotional behaviors. We describe the PACAPergic systems, the data implicating PACAP in stress biology and how altered PACAP expression and signaling may result in psychopathologies. We include our work implicating PACAP signaling within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure and relatedly, describe more recent studies suggesting that PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) may impact the emotional aspects of chronic pain states. In aggregate, these results are consistent with data suggesting that PACAP dysregulation is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. PMID:25636177

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robin L; Crawford, Natalie M; Grafer, Constance M; Halvorson, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an ancient molecule highly preserved across species, has been classified as a member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide/growth hormone-releasing hormone polypeptide family. PACAP was first identified as a hypothalamic-releasing factor; nevertheless, it has subsequently been determined to have widespread distribution and function, including expression in the pituitary, gonads, placenta, central and peripheral nervous systems, intestinal tract, and adrenal gland. Consistent with its widespread distribution, PACAP has been found to exert pleiotropic effects. Although first described over 20 years ago, only relatively recently has substantial attention turned to evaluating PACAP's role in the reproductive system. This review will focus on our current understanding of the expression pattern and function of PACAP in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  9. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies I using single nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase (cyaA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized within adenylate cyclas...

  10. The detection of micromolar pericellular ATP pool on lymphocyte surface by using lymphoid ecto-adenylate kinase as intrinsic ATP sensor.

    PubMed

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Mikhailov, Andrey; Samburski, Sergei S; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2006-08-01

    Current models of extracellular ATP turnover include transient release of nanomolar ATP concentrations, triggering of signaling events, and subsequent ectoenzymatic inactivation. Given the high substrate specificity for adenylate kinase for reversible reaction (ATP + AMP <--> 2ADP), we exploited lymphoid ecto-adenylate kinase as an intrinsic probe for accurate sensing pericellular ATP. Incubation of leukemic T- and B-lymphocytes with [3H]AMP or [alpha-32P]AMP induces partial nucleotide conversion into high-energy phosphoryls. This "intrinsic" AMP phosphorylation occurs in time- and concentration-dependent fashions via nonlytic supply of endogenous gamma-phosphate-donating ATP, remains relatively resistant to bulk extracellular ATP scavenging by apyrase, and is diminished after lymphocyte pretreatment with membrane-modifying agents. This enzyme-coupled approach, together with confocal imaging of quinacrine-labeled ATP stores, suggests that, along with predominant ATP accumulation within cytoplasmic granules, micromolar ATP concentrations are constitutively retained on lymphoid surface without convection into bulk milieu. High basal levels of inositol phosphates in the cells transfected with ATP-selective human P2Y2-receptor further demonstrate that lymphocyte-surrounding ATP is sufficient for triggering purinergic responses both in autocrine and paracrine fashions. The ability of nonstimulated lymphocytes to maintain micromolar ATP halo might represent a novel route initiating signaling cascades within immunological synapses and facilitating leukocyte trafficking between the blood and tissues.

  11. Developmental changes in ANP-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activity enhanced by ATP in rat lung membrane fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Charoonroje, P; Tokumitsu, Y; Nomura, Y

    1994-01-01

    1. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptides)- or ANP/ATP-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activities were compared in adult (2 month old) and neonatal (5-7 day old) rat lung membrane fractions. 2. The enzyme activities of both membranes depended on the incubation time and ATP concentration: although the activities of both membranes were similar after a short incubation time (4 min), those in adult membranes were lower than those of neonatal membranes after longer incubation times (10 and 30 min) or at lower concentrations of ATP. 3. ANP/ATP gamma S-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activities, which were much higher than ANP/ATP-stimulated activities, were similar in both membranes. 4. ATPase activity of adult membranes was higher than that of neonatal membranes, suggesting that hydrolysis of ATP leads to a decrease of ANP/ATP-guanylyl cyclase activity in adult membranes. Triton X-100 enhanced and diminished ANP/ATP-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activities of adult and neonatal membranes, respectively, and thereby abolished the adult/neonatal difference in the membrane response to ATP. 5. ANP-stimulated activities of both membranes were much more activated by pre-incubation with ATP gamma S than those induced by simultaneous addition of ATP gamma S. The former activities were decreased to levels of the latter by Triton X-100. The latter activities were not affected by Triton X-100. 6. The present results suggested that conformation of lung plasma membranes is related to activation of the ANP receptor/guanylyl cyclase system. PMID:7834209

  12. Adenylate cyclase toxin is critical for colonization and pertussis toxin is critical for lethal infection by Bordetella pertussis in infant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, M S; Weiss, A A

    1990-01-01

    Proliferation of Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of infant mice challenged by the intranasal route was examined. The bacteria rapidly proliferated in the lungs of mice challenged with a sublethal dose of a wild-type strain (BP338) or a filamentous hemagglutinin mutant (BPM409) from 500 at day 0 to 10(7) at day 15. The infection cleared in about 40 days. Pertussis toxin-deficient mutant BP357 gave a similar profile; however, the number of bacteria recovered was slightly reduced, suggesting that pertussis toxin is not essential for bacterial growth in the lungs. In contrast, adenylate cyclase toxin mutant BP348 was rapidly cleared from the lungs, with no viable bacteria remaining 10 days postchallenge, suggesting that the adenylate cyclase toxin is a colonization factor required for the bacteria to initiate infection. PMID:2401570

  13. CO2/HCO3(-)- and calcium-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase as a physiological ATP sensor.

    PubMed

    Zippin, Jonathan H; Chen, Yanqiu; Straub, Susanne G; Hess, Kenneth C; Diaz, Ana; Lee, Dana; Tso, Patrick; Holz, George G; Sharp, Geoffrey W G; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2013-11-15

    The second messenger molecule cAMP is integral for many physiological processes. In mammalian cells, cAMP can be generated from hormone- and G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases or via the widely expressed and structurally and biochemically distinct enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). sAC activity is uniquely stimulated by bicarbonate ions, and in cells, sAC functions as a physiological carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and pH sensor. sAC activity is also stimulated by calcium, and its affinity for its substrate ATP suggests that it may be sensitive to physiologically relevant fluctuations in intracellular ATP. We demonstrate here that sAC can function as a cellular ATP sensor. In cells, sAC-generated cAMP reflects alterations in intracellular ATP that do not affect transmembrane AC-generated cAMP. In β cells of the pancreas, glucose metabolism generates ATP, which corresponds to an increase in cAMP, and we show here that sAC is responsible for an ATP-dependent cAMP increase. Glucose metabolism also elicits insulin secretion, and we further show that sAC is necessary for normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Springer, Tzvia I; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh; Finley, Natosha L

    2014-10-10

    Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD's β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD's β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken together, our data provide new structural insights into the β-hairpin's role in stabilizing interactions between CyaA-ACD and N-CaM.

  15. Desensitization of adenylate cyclase in a human keratinocyte cell line by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, E.J.; Young, M.J.; Toscano, D.L.; Greenlee, W.F.; Toscano, W.A. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of adenylate cyclase in human keratinocyte cell line SCC 12 is altered after TCDD exposure. TCDD-treated cells show a 50% decrease in isoproterenol - stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. The reduced responsiveness of these cells to isoproterenol was concentration dependent on TCDD. The inactive TCDD analog, 2,7-dibenzo-p-dioxin did not affect isoproterenol activation. Altered hormone stimulation of adenylate cyclase can result from decreased receptor number or affinity, a defect in coupling of receptors via G/sub s/, or modification of the catalytic subunit. To distinguish between these possibilities, enzyme activity was assayed in the presence of different site-specific activators of this enzyme system. Cells exposed to TCDD for 24 hr showed a reduced response to the GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p. Forskolin stimulation was not affected by TCDD treatment. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP) binding to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors was examined after TCDD treatment. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K/sub d/) for ICP was unaffected by TCDD treatment, whereas, the total number of specific ICP-binding sites was reduced from 1080 in control cells to 780 sites per cell in TCDD (10 nM) exposed cells.

  16. Glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase detects a selective perturbation of the inner half of the liver plasma-membrane bilayer achieved by the local anaesthetic prilocaine.

    PubMed

    Houslay, M D; Dipple, I; Rawal, S; Sauerheber, R D; Esgate, J A; Gordon, L M

    1980-07-15

    Prilocaine can increase the fluidity of rat liver plasma membranes, as indicated by a fatty acid spin-probe. This led to the activation of the membrane-bound fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, but not the Lubrol-solubilized activity, suggesting that increased lipid fluidity can activate the enzyme. With increasing prilocaine concentrations above 10 mM, the membrane-bound fluoride-stimulated activity was progressively inhibited, even though bilayer fluidity continued to increase and the activity of the solubilized enzyme remained unaffected. Glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase was progressively inhibited by increasing prilocaine concentrations. Prilocaine (10 mM) had no effect on the lipid phase separation occurring at 28 degrees C and attributed to those lipids in the external half of the bilayer, as indicated by Arrhenius plots of both glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and the order parameter of a fatty acid spin-probe. However, 10 mM-prilocaine induced a lipid phase separation at around 11 degrees C that was attributed to the lipids of the internal (cytosol-facing) half of the bilayer. It is suggested that prilocaine (10 mM) can selectively perturb the inner half of the bilayer of rat liver plasma membranes owing to its preferential interaction with the acidic phospholipids residing there.

  17. Corticotropin-releasing factor binding to peripheral tissue and activation of the adenylate cyclase-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate system

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, J.R.; Eiden, L.E.; Eskay, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    Specific binding sites for rat corticotropin-releasing factor (rCRF) are present in rat adrenal medulla, ventral prostate, spleen, liver, kidney, and testis and bovine chromaffin cells in culture. Maximal binding of (/sup 125/I)rCRF occurred within 25 min at 4 C and was saturable. Scatchard analysis of rCRF binding to rat adrenal membranes and bovine chromaffin cells revealed the existence of two classes of binding sites. One class had a relatively higher apparent affinity and lower number of binding sites, whereas the other class had a relatively lower affinity and higher number of binding sites. CRF induced a dose-related increase in rat adrenal membrane adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells. Nanomolar concentrations of rCRF maximally stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in rat adrenal membranes and maximally increased cAMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells to 86% and 130% above control values, respectively. The demonstration of specific CRF-binding sites in a variety of peripheral tissues and the finding that activation of specific CRF-binding sites in adrenal tissue stimulates the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system suggest that CRF may have an important regulatory role in various peripheral tissues.

  18. The biological role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in growth and feeding behavior in juvenile fish.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Juana Maria; Oliva, Aymé; Morales, Antonio; Reyes, Osvaldo; Garay, Hilda Elisa; Herrera, Fidel; Cabrales, Ania; Pérez, Ever; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2010-11-01

    To date, many technologies have been developed to increase efficiency in aquaculture, but very few successful biotechnology molecules have arrived on the market. In this context, marine biotechnology has an opportunity to develop products to improve the output of fish in aquaculture. Published in vivo studies on the action of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in fish are scarce. Recently, our group, for the first time, demonstrated the biological role of this neuropeptide administrated by immersion baths in the growth and development of larval fish. In this work, we have evaluated the effects of recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administration by intraperitoneal injection on growth performance and feeding behavior in juvenile fish. Our results showed the physiological role of this peptide for growth control in fish, including the juvenile stage, and confirm that its biological functions are well conserved in fish, since C. gariepinus PACAP stimulated growth in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In addition, we have observed that the growth-promoting effect of PACAP in juvenile tilapia was correlated with higher GH concentration in serum. With regard to the neuroendocrine regulation of growth control by PACAP, it was demonstrated that PACAP stimulates food intake in juvenile tilapia. In general, PACAP appears to act in the regulation of the growth control in juvenile fish. These findings propose that PACAP is a prominent target with the potential to stimulate fish growth in aquaculture. PMID:20853308

  19. Studies of the cAMP mediated aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum: receptor mediated activation of the adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Theibert, W.E.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryotic amoeba of the cellular slime mold family, provides an interesting paradigm in developmental biology. During development, hundreds of thousands of cells aggregate to form a multicellular aggregate. Aggregation is mediated by chemotaxis and chemical signaling. Waves of adenosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) propagate through the monolayer and provide transient gradients for chemotaxis. The author has used a reversible inhibitor of the cAMP signaling response to demonstrate that adaptation to cAMP is independent of the activation of the adenylate cyclase and therefore is not caused by the rise in intracellular cAMP. Next, it is shown that adenosine inhibits the cAMP signaling response. Inhibition is rapid, reversible, and depends on the cAMP stimulus concentration. Then the specificity of the cAMP receptors which mediates signaling is determined and compared with the receptors which mediate chemotaxis, the cGMP response, and cAMP binding antagonism. The cAMP surface receptor has been identified by photoaffinity labeling intact cells with (/sup 32/P)-8-N/sub 3/-cAMP using an ammonium sulfate binding stabilization technique. The photoactivated ligand specifically labels a polypeptide, localized to the membrane fraction, which migrates as a closely spaced doublet on SDS Page.

  20. PPARgamma-dependent regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 amplifies the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Desch, Michael; Schubert, Thomas; Schreiber, Andrea; Mayer, Sandra; Friedrich, Björn; Artunc, Ferruh; Todorov, Vladimir T

    2010-11-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays an important role in the regulation of renin gene expression. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is known to stimulate renin gene transcription acting through PPARγ-binding sequences in renin promoter. We show now that activation of PPARγ by unsaturated fatty acids or thiazolidinediones drastically augments the cAMP-dependent increase of renin mRNA in the human renin-producing cell line Calu-6. The underlying mechanism involves potentiation of agonist-induced cAMP increase and up-regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6) gene expression. We identified a palindromic element with a 3-bp spacer (Pal3) in AC6 intron 1 (AC6Pal3). AC6Pal3 bound PPARγ and mediated trans-activation by PPARγ agonist. AC6 knockdown decreased basal renin mRNA level and attenuated the maximal PPARγ-dependent stimulation of the cAMP-induced renin gene expression. AC6Pal3 decoy oligonucleotide abrogated the PPARγ-dependent potentiation of cAMP-induced renin gene expression. Treatment of mice with PPARγ agonist increased AC6 mRNA kidney levels. Our data suggest that in addition to its direct effect on renin gene transcription, PPARγ "sensitizes" renin gene to cAMP via trans-activation of AC6 gene. AC6 has been identified as PPARγ target gene with a functional Pal3 sequence.

  1. Cell-cycle arrest induced by the bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins from Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Mary C.; Hewlett, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) and Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) enter host cells and produce cAMP. To understand the cellular consequences, we exposed J774 cells to these toxins at ng/ml (pM) concentrations, then followed cell number and changes in cell signaling pathways. Under these conditions, both toxins produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation without cytotoxicity. ET and ACT increase the proportion of cells in G1/G0 and reduce S-phase, such that a single addition of ET or ACT inhibits cell division for 3 to 6 days. Treatment with ET or ACT produces striking changes in proteins controlling cell cycle, including virtual elimination of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 and Cyclin D1 and increases in phospho-CREB and p27Kip1. Importantly, PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, elicits a comparable reduction in Cyclin D1 to that produced by the toxins and blocks proliferation. These data show that non-lethal concentrations of ET and ACT impose a prolonged block on the proliferation of J774 cells by impairment of the progression from G1/G0 to S-phase in a process involving cAMP-mediated increases in phospho-CREB and p27Kip1 and reductions in phospho-ERK 1/2 and Cyclin D1. This phenomenon represents a new mechanism by which these toxins affect host cells. PMID:20946259

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide in the rat central nervous system: an immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens

    2002-11-25

    In the present study the localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)-expressing cell bodies and PACAP projections were mapped in the adult rat brain and spinal cord by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry. A widespread occurrence of PACAP-containing cell bodies was found, with the greatest accumulation in several hypothalamic nuclei and in several brainstem nuclei, especially the habenular nuclei, the pontine nucleus, the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB), and the vagal complex. PACAP was also present in cell bodies in the olfactory areas, in neocortical areas, in the hippocampus, in the vestibulo- and cochlear nuclei, in cell bodies of the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord and in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, in the subfornical organ, and in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. An intense accumulation of PACAP-immunoreactive (-IR) nerve fibers was observed throughout the hypothalamus, in the amydaloid and extended amygdaloid complex, in the anterior and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, in the intergeniculate leaflet, in the pretectum, and in several brainstem nuclei, such as the parabrachial nucleus, the sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. PACAP-IR nerve fibers were also found in the area postrema, the posterior pituitary and the choroid plexus, and the dorsal and ventral horn of the spinal cord. The widespread distribution of PACAP in the brain and spinal cord suggests that PACAP is involved in the control of many autonomic and sensory functions as well as higher cortical processes.

  3. Circulating kisspeptin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) do not correlate with gonadotropin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Purwana, Indri N; Oride, Aki; Mijiddorj, Tselmeg; Sukhbaatar, Unurjargal; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2013-06-01

    Kisspeptins are known to be the principle regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the regulation of pituitary gonadotropins has been elucidated. We measured plasma concentrations of kisspeptin and PACAP and determined whether the levels of these peptides varied in proportion to circulating gonadotropin levels. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were higher in postmenopausal women and in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) and lower in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) compared with the LH level in normally menstruating women. Similarly, serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were higher in postmenopausal women and in patients with POF but lower in pregnant women and patients with IHH compared with normally menstruating women. Plasma levels of kisspeptins were significantly higher in pregnant women compared with normally menstruating women. However, no significant differences were observed in postmenopausal women, patients with POF, and patients with IHH. On the other hand, plasma levels of PACAP were significantly lower in pregnant women, patients with POF, and in IHH patients when compared with normally menstruating women. No significant differences were observed in PACAP concentration between postmenopausal women and in normally menstruating women. Our observations suggest that the serum levels of kisspeptins and PACAP did not correlate with variations in serum gonadotropin levels.

  4. Regulation by the quorum sensor from Vibrio indicates a receptor function for the membrane anchors of adenylate cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Stephanie; Bassler, Jens; Schultz, Joachim E

    2016-01-01

    Adenylate cyclases convert intra- and extracellular stimuli into a second messenger cAMP signal. Many bacterial and most eukaryotic ACs possess membrane anchors with six transmembrane spans. We replaced the anchor of the AC Rv1625c by the quorum-sensing receptor from Vibrio harveyi which has an identical 6TM design and obtained an active, membrane-anchored AC. We show that a canonical class III AC is ligand-regulated in vitro and in vivo. At 10 µM, the cholera-autoinducer CAI-1 stimulates activity 4.8-fold. A sequence based clustering of membrane domains of class III ACs and quorum-sensing receptors established six groups of potential structural and functional similarities. The data support the notion that 6TM AC membrane domains may operate as receptors which directly regulate AC activity as opposed and in addition to the indirect regulation by GPCRs in eukaryotic congeners. This adds a completely novel dimension of potential AC regulation in bacteria and vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13098.001 PMID:26920221

  5. Amidate prodrugs of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine as inhibitors of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvoráková, Alexandra; Tloust'ová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is the key virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis that facilitates its invasion into the mammalian body. 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine diphosphate (PMEApp), the active metabolite of the antiviral drug bis(POM)PMEA (adefovir dipivoxil), has been shown to inhibit ACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate six novel amidate prodrugs of PMEA, both phenyloxy phosphonamidates and phosphonodiamidates, for their ability to inhibit ACT activity in the J774A.1 macrophage cell line. The two phenyloxy phosphonamidate prodrugs exhibited greater inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 22 and 46 nM) than the phosphonodiamidates (IC50 = 84 to 3,960 nM). The inhibitory activity of the prodrugs correlated with their lipophilicity and the degree of their hydrolysis into free PMEA in J774A.1 cells. Although the prodrugs did not inhibit ACT as effectively as bis(POM)PMEA (IC50 = 6 nM), they were significantly less cytotoxic. Moreover, they all reduced apoptotic effects of ACT and prevented an ACT-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i. The amidate prodrugs were less susceptible to degradation in Caco-2 cells compared to bis(POM)PMEA, while they exerted good transepithelial permeability in this assay. As a consequence, a large amount of intact amidate prodrug is expected to be available to target macrophages in vivo. This feature makes nontoxic amidate prodrugs attractive candidates for further investigation as novel antimicrobial agents.

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  7. Stress tolerance of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylate cyclase fil1 (CYR1) mutant depends on Hsp26.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Cristina R; Ferreira, Mariana C; Silva, Carol L C; Tanghe, An; Neves, Maria J; Thevelein, Johan M; Rosa, Carlos A; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance in yeast is an important phenotype from an industrial point of view. It hampers optimal use of frozen dough applications as well as high gravity brewing fermentations because these applications require stress-tolerant yeast strains during active fermentation. Different mutants (e.g. fil1, an adenylate cyclase mutant CYR1(lys1682)) that are affected in this loss of stress resistance have been isolated, but so far the identification of the target genes important for the increased tolerance has failed. Previously we have shown that neither trehalose nor Hsp104 nor STRE-controlled genes are involved in the higher stress tolerance of the fil1 mutant. The contribution of other putative downstream factors of the PKA pathway was investigated and here we show that the small heat-shock protein Hsp26 is required for the high heat stress tolerance of the fil1 mutant, both in stationary phase cells as well as during active fermentation. PMID:20924200

  8. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 ..mu..M and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 ..mu..M and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 ..mu..M respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D/sub 2/-dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 ..mu..M. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, /sup 3/H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D/sup 1/- and D/sup 2/-dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Snf1 Phosphorylates Adenylate Cyclase and Negatively Regulates Protein Kinase A-dependent Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Gaggini, Marco; Castoldi, Andrea; Reghellin, Veronica; Nonnis, Simona; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-10-01

    In eukaryotes, nutrient availability and metabolism are coordinated by sensing mechanisms and signaling pathways, which influence a broad set of cellular functions such as transcription and metabolic pathways to match environmental conditions. In yeast, PKA is activated in the presence of high glucose concentrations, favoring fast nutrient utilization, shutting down stress responses, and boosting growth. On the contrary, Snf1/AMPK is activated in the presence of low glucose or alternative carbon sources, thus promoting an energy saving program through transcriptional activation and phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes. The PKA and Snf1/AMPK pathways share common downstream targets. Moreover, PKA has been reported to negatively influence the activation of Snf1/AMPK. We report a new cross-talk mechanism with a Snf1-dependent regulation of the PKA pathway. We show that Snf1 and adenylate cyclase (Cyr1) interact in a nutrient-independent manner. Moreover, we identify Cyr1 as a Snf1 substrate and show that Snf1 activation state influences Cyr1 phosphorylation pattern, cAMP intracellular levels, and PKA-dependent transcription.

  10. Regulation by the quorum sensor from Vibrio indicates a receptor function for the membrane anchors of adenylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Beltz, Stephanie; Bassler, Jens; Schultz, Joachim E

    2016-02-27

    Adenylate cyclases convert intra- and extracellular stimuli into a second messenger cAMP signal. Many bacterial and most eukaryotic ACs possess membrane anchors with six transmembrane spans. We replaced the anchor of the AC Rv1625c by the quorum-sensing receptor from Vibrio harveyi which has an identical 6TM design and obtained an active, membrane-anchored AC. We show that a canonical class III AC is ligand-regulated in vitro and in vivo. At 10 µM, the cholera-autoinducer CAI-1 stimulates activity 4.8-fold. A sequence based clustering of membrane domains of class III ACs and quorum-sensing receptors established six groups of potential structural and functional similarities. The data support the notion that 6TM AC membrane domains may operate as receptors which directly regulate AC activity as opposed and in addition to the indirect regulation by GPCRs in eukaryotic congeners. This adds a completely novel dimension of potential AC regulation in bacteria and vertebrates.

  11. Linalool from rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) oil inhibits adenylate cyclase in the retina, contributing to understanding its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Lucia de Fatima S; Maia, José Guilherme S; de Parijós, Amanda M; de Souza, Rita Z; Barata, Lauro Euclides S

    2012-01-01

    Rosewood oil (RO) (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) is rich in linalool, a monoterpene alcohol, which has well studied anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant effects. The inhibition of the increases in cAMP protects against seizures in a diversity of models of epilepsy. In this paper, the principal aim was to investigate the effects of RO, (±)-linalool and (-)-linalool) on adenylate cyclase. They were tested in chick retinas and forskolin was used to stimulate the enzyme target. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-imidazolidin-2-one, and the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist 3-isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), were used to control the participation of phosphodiesterase and adenosine receptors in the resulting effects, respectively. The cAMP accumulation was measured by enzyme immune assay (EIA). Rosewood oil, (-)-linalool and (±)-linalool inhibited exclusively the cAMP accumulation stimulated by forskolin, even when adenosine receptors were blocked with IBMX. The IC(50) values (in μ m concentration range) calculated from their concentration response-curves were not statistically different, however, the compounds presented a different relative efficacy. These results extend the range of subcellular mechanisms underlying the relaxant action of linalool on the central nervous system.

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide protects dopaminergic neurons and improves behavioral deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Reglodi, Dóra; Lubics, Andrea; Tamás, Andrea; Szalontay, Luca; Lengvári, István

    2004-05-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, exerting different actions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among others, it has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PACAP in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Rats were given unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra. PACAP-treated animals received 0.1 microg PACAP as a pretreatment. Control animals without PACAP treatment displayed severe hypokinesia at 1 and 10 days postlesion when compared to animals receiving saline only. In only 1 day postlesion, by contrast, PACAP-treated rats showed no hypokinesia. Asymmetrical signs, such as turning, rearing and biased thigmotaxic scanning were observed in all lesioned animals 1 day postlesion. PACAP-treated animals, however, showed better recovery as they ceased to display asymmetrical signs 10 days later and showed markedly less apomorphine-induced rotations. Tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed that control animals had more than 95% loss of the dopaminergic cells in the ipsilateral substantia nigra, while PACAP-treated animals had only approximately 50% loss of dopaminergic cells. In summary, the present results show the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in 6-OHDA-induced lesion of substantia nigra, with less severe acute neurological symptoms and a more rapid amelioration of behavioral deficits.

  13. The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on elevated plus maze behavior and hypothermia induced by morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Lipták, Nándor; Dochnal, Roberta; Babits, Anikó; Csabafi, Krisztina; Szakács, Júlia; Tóth, Gábor; Szabó, Gyula

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on morphine withdrawal-induced behavioral changes and hypothermia in male CFLP mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and jump tests were used to assess naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced behavior responses. Different doses of subcutaneous (s.c.) naloxone, (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively) were used to precipitate the emotional and psychical aspects of withdrawal on EPM and 1 mg/kg (s.c.) was used to induce the somatic withdrawal signs such as jumping, and the changes in body temperature. In our EPM studies, naloxone proved to be anxiolytic in mice treated with morphine. Chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of PACAP alone had no significant effect on withdrawal-induced anxiolysis and total activity at doses of 500 ng and 1 μg. At dose of 500 ng, however, PACAP significantly counteracted the reduced motor activity in the EPM test in mice treated with morphine and diminished the hypothermia and shortened jump latency induced by naloxone in mice treated with morphine. These findings indicate that anxiolytic-like behavior may be mediated via a PACAP-involved pathway and PACAP may play an important role in chronic morphine withdrawal-induced hypothermia as well.

  14. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  15. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5′-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl− channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  16. Region-Specific Disruption of Adenylate Cyclase Type 1 Gene Differentially Affects Somatosensorimotor Behaviors in Mice(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2014-01-01

    Cover FigureRegion-specific adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) loss of function differentially affects both patterning and sensorimotor behaviors in mice. AC1 is expressed at all levels of the somatosensory pathway and plays a major role in refinement and patterning of topographic sensory maps. Cortex-specific AC1 loss of function (CxAC1KO mice) does not affect barrel patterning and activation of specific barrels corresponding to stimulated whiskers and does not impair sensorimotor behaviors. While global (AC1KO) and thalamus-specific (ThAC1KO) AC1 loss of function leads to absence of barrel patterns, selective whisker stimulation activates topographically aligned cortical loci. Despite functional topography of the whisker-barrel cortex, sensorimotor and social behaviors are impaired, indicating the importance of patterning of topographical sensory maps in the neocortex. Adenylate cyclase type I (AC1) is primarily, and, abundantly, expressed in the brain. Intracellular calcium/calmodulin increases regulate AC1 in an activity-dependent manner. Upon stimulation, AC1 produces cAMP and it is involved in the patterning and the refinement of neural circuits. In mice, spontaneous mutations or targeted deletion of the Adcy1 gene, which encodes AC1, resulted in neuronal pattern formation defects. Neural modules in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, the barrels, which represent the topographic distribution of the whiskers on the snout, failed to form (Welker et al., 1996; Abdel-Majid et al., 1998). Cortex- or thalamus-specific Adcy1 deletions led to different cortical pattern phenotypes, with thalamus-specific disruption phenotype being more severe (Iwasato et al., 2008; Suzuki et al., 2013). Despite the absence of barrels in the "barrelless"/Adcy1 null mice, thalamocortical terminal bouton density and activation of cortical zones following whisker stimulation were roughly topographic (Abdel-Majid et al., 1998; Gheorghita et al., 2006). To what extent does patterning of the

  17. What is the possible contribution of Ca2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase to acquisition, consolidation and retention of an associative olfactory memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dudai, Y; Corfas, G; Hazvi, S

    1988-01-01

    We have quantitatively analyzed the effect of the mutation rut, which lesions a Ca2+-stimulated subpopulation (or functional state) of adenylate cyclase, on acquisition, consolidation and retention of an olfactory associative memory in Drosophila. The classical conditioning paradigm developed by Tully and Quinn (1985) was employed. Our data indicate that rut reduces acquisition and short-term memory in this paradigm, yet does not abolish consolidation of residual memory into an anesthesia-resistant form. Assuming that the rut behavioral defect is not due to altered neuroanatomy, the data also suggest that the adenylate cyclase activity lesioned by rut is only one of the molecular processes required for acquisition and short-term memory. These different postulated processes seem to act in parallel but are probably recruited sequentially; the mechanism involving rut+ gene product is necessary for response prior to other mechanisms which do not require rut+. It is also suggested, on the basis of the present results combined with previous data, that processes which do not require Ca2+-activated cyclase can not fulfill the partial role of this enzyme during acquisition but can partially compensate for its absence in later phases of memory formation. PMID:3127581

  18. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of fasting on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in largemouth bass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengjie; Han, Linqiang; Bai, Junjie; Ma, Dongmei; Quan, Yingchun; Fan, Jiajia; Jiang, Peng; Yu, Lingyun

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a wide range of biological functions. We cloned the full-length cDNAs encoding PACAP and PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from the brain of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) and used real-time quantitative PCR to detect PRP-PACAP mRNA expression. The PRP-PACAP cDNA has two variants expressed via alternative splicing: a long form, which encodes both PRP and PACAP, and a short form, which encodes only PACAP. Sequence analysis results are consistent with a higher conservation of PACAP than PRP peptide sequences. The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts was highest in the forebrain, followed by the medulla, midbrain, pituitary, stomach, cerebellum, intestine, and kidney; however, these transcripts were either absent or were weakly expressed in the muscle, spleen, gill, heart, fatty tissue, and liver. The level of PACAP-short transcript expression was significantly higher than expression of the long transcript in the forebrain, cerebella, pituitary and intestine, but lower than that of the long transcript in the stomach. PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts were first detected at the blastula stage of embryogenesis, and the level of expression increased markedly between the muscular contraction stage and 3 d post hatch (dph). The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts decreased significantly in the brain following 4 d fasting compared with the control diet group. The down-regulation effect was enhanced as fasting continued. Conversely, expression levels increased significantly after 3 d of re-feeding. Our results suggest that PRP-PACAP acts as an important factor in appetite regulation in largemouth bass.

  19. Restricting mobility of Gsalpha relative to the beta2-adrenoceptor enhances adenylate cyclase activity by reducing Gsalpha GTPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel-Seifert, K; Lee, T W; Seifert, R; Kobilka, B K

    1998-01-01

    The beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2AR) activates the G-protein Gsalpha to stimulate adenylate cyclase (AC). Fusion of the beta2AR C-terminus to the N-terminus of Gsalpha (producing beta2ARGsalpha) markedly increases the efficiency of receptor/G-protein coupling compared with the non-fused state. This increase in coupling efficiency can be attributed to the physical proximity of receptor and G-protein. To determine the optimal length for the tether between receptor and G-protein we constructed fusion proteins from which 26 [beta2AR(Delta26)Gsalpha] or 70 [beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha] residues of the beta2AR C-terminus had been deleted and compared the properties of these fusion proteins with the previously described beta2ARGsalpha. Compared with beta2ARGsalpha, basal and agonist-stimulated GTP hydrolysis was markedly decreased in beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha, whereas the effect of the deletion on binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) was relatively small. Surprisingly, deletions did not alter the efficiency of coupling of the beta2AR to Gsalpha as assessed by GTP[S]-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding. Moreover, basal and ligand-regulated AC activities in membranes expressing beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha and beta2AR(Delta26)Gsalpha were higher than in membranes expressing beta2ARGsalpha. These findings suggest that restricting the mobility of Gsalpha relative to the beta2AR results in a decrease in G-protein inactivation by GTP hydrolysis and thereby enhanced activation of AC. PMID:9729456

  20. Stimulation of the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces hypophagia and thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Jon M.; Boisvert, Joanne P.; Hourigan, Allison E.; Mueller, Christopher R.; Yi, Sun Shin

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) regulate energy homeostasis by integrating and utilizing behavioral and metabolic mechanisms. The VMN heavily express pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type I receptors (PAC1R). Despite the receptor distribution, most PACAP experiments investigating affects on feeding have focused on intracerebroventricular administration or global knockout mice. To identify the specific contribution of PACAP signaling in the VMN, we injected PACAP directly into the VMN and measured feeding behavior and indices of energy expenditure. Following an acute injection of PACAP, nocturnal food intake was significantly reduced for 6 h after injections without evidence of malaise. In addition, PACAP-induced suppression of feeding also occurred following an overnight fast and could be blocked by a specific PAC1R antagonist. Metabolically, VMN-specific injections of PACAP significantly increased both core body temperature and spontaneous locomotor activity with a concurrent increase in brown adipose uncoupling protein 1 mRNA expression. To determine which signaling pathways were responsive to PACAP administration into the VMN, we measured mRNA expression of well-characterized hypothalamic neuropeptide regulators of feeding. One hour after PACAP administration, expression of pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA was significantly increased in the arcuate nuclei (ARC), with no changes in neuropeptide Y and agouti-related polypeptide mRNA levels. This suggests that PAC1R expressing VMN neurons projecting to pro-opiomelanocortin neurons contribute to hypophagia by involving melanocortin signaling. While the VMN also abundantly express PACAP protein, the present study demonstrates that PACAP input to the VMN can influence the control of energy homeostasis. PMID:21957159

  1. Pituitary Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide orchestrates neuronal regulation of the astrocytic glutamate-releasing mechanism system xc (.).

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghai; Albano, Rebecca; Madayag, Aric; Raddatz, Nicholas; Mantsch, John R; Choi, SuJean; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate signaling is achieved by an elaborate network involving neurons and astrocytes. Hence, it is critical to better understand how neurons and astrocytes interact to coordinate the cellular regulation of glutamate signaling. In these studies, we used rat cortical cell cultures to examine whether neurons or releasable neuronal factors were capable of regulating system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate-releasing mechanism that is expressed primarily by astrocytes and has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission. We found that astrocytes cultured with neurons or exposed to neuronal-conditioned media displayed significantly higher levels of Sxc activity. Next, we demonstrated that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) may be a neuronal factor capable of regulating astrocytes. In support, we found that PACAP expression was restricted to neurons, and that PACAP receptors were expressed in astrocytes. Interestingly, blockade of PACAP receptors in cultures comprised of astrocytes and neurons significantly decreased Sxc activity to the level observed in purified astrocytes, whereas application of PACAP to purified astrocytes increased Sxc activity to the level observed in cultures comprised of neurons and astrocytes. Collectively, these data reveal that neurons coordinate the actions of glutamate-related mechanisms expressed by astrocytes, such as Sxc, a process that likely involves PACAP. A critical gap in modeling excitatory signaling is how distinct components of the glutamate system expressed by neurons and astrocytes are coordinated. In these studies, we found that system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate release mechanism expressed by astrocytes, is regulated by releasable neuronal factors including PACAP. This represents a novel form of neuron-astrocyte communication, and highlights the possibility that pathological changes involving astrocytic Sxc may stem from altered neuronal activity.

  2. Augmented cystine-glutamate exchange by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide signaling via the VPAC1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Resch, Jon M; Albano, Rebecca; Liu, XiaoQian; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A; Choi, SuJean

    2014-07-28

    In the central nervous system, cystine import in exchange for glutamate through system xc(-) is critical for the production of the antioxidant glutathione by astrocytes, as well as the maintenance of extracellular glutamate. Therefore, regulation of system xc(-) activity affects multiple aspects of cellular physiology and may contribute to disease states. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuronally-derived peptide that has already been demonstrated to modulate multiple aspects of glutamate signaling suggesting PACAP may also target activity of cystine-glutamate exchange via system xc(-) . In the current study, 24-hour treatment of primary cortical cultures containing neurons and glia with PACAP concentration-dependently increased system xc(-) function as measured by radiolabeled cystine uptake. Furthermore, the increase in cystine uptake was completely abolished by the system xc(-) inhibitor, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG), attributing increases in cystine uptake specifically to system xc(-) activity. Time course and quantitative PCR results indicate that PACAP signaling may increase cystine-glutamate exchange by increasing expression of xCT, the catalytic subunit of system xc(-) . Furthermore, the potentiation of system xc(-) activity by PACAP occurs via a PKA-dependent pathway that is not mediated by the PAC1R, but rather the shared vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor VPAC1R. Finally, assessment of neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial-enriched cultures demonstrated that only astrocyte-enriched cultures exhibit enhanced cystine uptake following both PACAP and VIP treatment. These data introduce a novel mechanism by which both PACAP and VIP regulate system xc(-) activity. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. In vitro adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity predicts the occurrence of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E C; Insogna, K L; Brownstein, D G; Bander, N H; Broadus, A E

    1988-01-01

    A number of factors have been proposed as potential mediators of the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), but to date no firm cause-and-effect relationship has been established. We attempted to establish such a relationship by determining whether the presence or absence of adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity (ACSA) in the media of cultured tumor cells predicted the occurrence of the syndrome of HHM when these cell lines were grown in nude mice in vivo. Conditioned media from 35 human renal carcinoma cell lines were surveyed for ACSA in the PTH-sensitive rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cell assay. 12 lines were positive (mean, 13.7-fold stimulation, range, 3.0 to 44.0), and 23 lines were negative (mean, 1.2-fold stimulation, range, 0.9 to 1.5). We were successful in establishing five of the positive and six of the negative lines in three to five nude mice per line. Mice implanted with the positive lines uniformly became hypercalcemic (mean serum calcium, 15.8 mg/dl), whereas mice implanted with the negative lines uniformly remained normocalcemic (mean serum calcium, 9.5 mg/dl), in spite of comparable mean tumor size. Acid-urea tumor extracts from each of four hypercalcemic animals contained potent in vitro ACSA (mean, 15.9-fold stimulation), while 5/5 extracts from normocalcemic animals did not (mean, 1.4-fold stimulation). Our study demonstrates that in this model system in vitro ACSA is a reliable predictive marker for HHM in vivo. Whether the protein responsible for this activity is also the mediator of the bone resorption seen in HHM remains to be demonstrated. Images PMID:3343341

  4. Changes in lipid composition and isoproterenol- and ethanol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in aging Fischer rat bladders.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, M A; Pontari, M; Nishimoto, T; Weiss, R M

    1990-07-01

    In the aging rat bladder dome, changes are noted in membrane composition and in the activity of the membrane-bound enzyme, adenylate cyclase (AC). When bladder domes from 22 day and 22 to 24 month Fischer rats are compared, changes in composition include: a 25% decrease in percentage of protein [(milligrams of protein per milligram of wet weight) x 100]; an approximately 40% decrease in both the total phospholipid content and in the content of the major phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine; and a 69% increase in the cholesterol to phospholipid ratio. These changes are indicative of a more rigid lipid bilayer in the aged rat bladder. Changes in AC with aging include a decrease in basal and forskolin-activated AC and a loss of the ability of isoproterenol to activate AC in the aged (22-24 month) rat bladder dome homogenate. Activation by isoproterenol (ISO; 3 microM) is 55 and 72% over 5' guanylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p; 1 microM] controls in 22 day and 90 day rat bladder dome homogenates, respectively. Activation by AC by NaF and Gpp(NH)p does not decline with aging. Ethanol, an agent that increases membrane fluidity, stimulates AC to a much greater extent in homogenates from the 22 month than from the 22 day or 90 day rat bladder dome. The ethanol-induced activation occurs not only in basal AC but also in Gpp(NH)p- and ISO-plus Gpp(NH)p-activated AC. The observed changes in AC with aging in part may reflect changes in the membrane lipid environment. PMID:2366184

  5. Hepatic adenylate cyclase 3 is upregulated by Liraglutide and subsequently plays a protective role in insulin resistance and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Y; Li, Z; Liang, S; Li, Y; Yang, L; Lu, M; Gu, H F; Xia, N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have demonstrated that adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) has a protective role in obesity. This gene resides at the pathway with glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Liraglutide is a GLP-1 analog and has independent glucose and body weight (BW)-reducing effects. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether hepatic AC3 activity was regulated by Liraglutide and to further understand the effect of AC3 in reduction of BW and insulin resistance. Subjects: The diabesity and obese mice were induced from db/db and C57BL/6 J mice, respectively, by high-fat diet. Liraglutide (0.1 mg kg−1 per 12 h) was given to the mice twice daily for 12 weeks. C57BL/6 J mice fed with chow diet and obese or diabesity mice treated with saline were used as the controls. Hepatic AC3 gene expression at mRNA and protein levels was analyzed with real-time reverse transcription-PCR and western blot. Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured and followed insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment. Results: After administration of Liraglutide, BW and HOMA-IR in obese and diabesity mice were decreased, whereas hepatic AC3 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated. The AC3 gene expression was negatively correlated with BW, HOMA-IR and the area ratio of hepatic fat deposition in the liver. Conclusions: The present study thus provides the evidence that hepatic AC3 gene expression is upregulated by Liraglutide. The reduction of BW and improvement of insulin resistance with Liraglutide may be partially explained by AC3 activation. PMID:26807509

  6. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1HOP1 Receptor Activation Coordinates Multiple Neurotrophic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor; Lutz, Eve; MacKenzie, Christopher; Schutz, Kristin C.; Dozark, Kate; Braas, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK and Akt pathways are predominant mediators of trophic signaling for many neuronal systems. Among the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family of related peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding to specific PAC1 receptor isoforms can engage multiple signaling pathways and promote neuroprotection through mechanisms that are not well understood. Using a primary sympathetic neuronal system, the current studies demonstrate that PACAP activation of PAC1HOP1 receptors engages both MAPK and Akt neurotrophic pathways in an integrated program to facilitate neuronal survival after growth factor withdrawal. PACAP not only stimulated prosurvival ERK1/2 and ERK5 activation but also abrogated SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK signaling in parallel. In contrast to the potent and rapid effects of PACAP in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, PACAP stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a late phase of PAC1HOP1 receptor signaling. From inhibitor and immunoprecipitation analyses, the PACAP/PAC1HOP1 receptor-mediated Akt responses did not represent transactivation mechanisms but appeared to depend on Gαq/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ activity and vesicular internalization pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ-selective inhibitors blocked PACAP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in primary neuronal cultures and in PAC1HOP1-overexpressing cell lines; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the receptor effectors attenuated PACAP-mediated Akt activation. Similarly, perturbation of endocytic pathways also blocked Akt phosphorylation. Between ERK and Akt pathways, PACAP-stimulated Akt signaling was the primary cascade that attenuated cultured neuron apoptosis after growth factor withdrawal. The partitioning of PACAP-mediated Akt signaling in endosomes may be a key mechanism contributing to the high spatial and temporal specificity in signal transduction necessary for survival pathways. PMID:20093365

  7. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Signalling Exerts Chondrogenesis Promoting and Protecting Effects: Implication of Calcineurin as a Downstream Target

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Tamás; Matta, Csaba; Katona, Éva; Somogyi, Csilla; Takács, Roland; Gergely, Pál; Csernoch, László; Panyi, Gyorgy; Tóth, Gábor; Reglődi, Dóra; Tamás, Andrea; Zákány, Róza

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an important neurotrophic factor influencing differentiation of neuronal elements and exerting protecting role during traumatic injuries or inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although increasing evidence is available on its presence and protecting function in various peripheral tissues, little is known about the role of PACAP in formation of skeletal components. To this end, we aimed to map elements of PACAP signalling in developing cartilage under physiological conditions and during oxidative stress. mRNAs of PACAP and its receptors (PAC1,VPAC1, VPAC2) were detectable during differentiation of chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Expression of PAC1 protein showed a peak on days of final commitment of chondrogenic cells. Administration of either the PAC1 receptor agonist PACAP 1-38, or PACAP 6-38 that is generally used as a PAC1 antagonist, augmented cartilage formation, stimulated cell proliferation and enhanced PAC1 and Sox9 protein expression. Both variants of PACAP elevated the protein expression and activity of the Ca-calmodulin dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase calcineurin. Application of PACAPs failed to rescue cartilage formation when the activity of calcineurin was pharmacologically inhibited with cyclosporine A. Moreover, exogenous PACAPs prevented diminishing of cartilage formation and decrease of calcineurin activity during oxidative stress. As an unexpected phenomenon, PACAP 6-38 elicited similar effects to those of PACAP 1-38, although to a different extent. On the basis of the above results, we propose calcineurin as a downstream target of PACAP signalling in differentiating chondrocytes either in normal or pathophysiological conditions. Our observations imply the therapeutical perspective that PACAP can be applied as a natural agent that may have protecting effect during joint inflammation and/or may promote cartilage regeneration

  8. Upregulation of adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) increases the tumorigenic potential of cells by activating the CREB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Il-Ju; Seo, Hyehyun; Park, Jong-Hoon; Suzuki, Hiromu; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Kim, In-Hoo; Jeong, Jin Sook; Ju, Mi Ha; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Yeon-Su

    2013-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is a widely expressed membrane-associated protein in human tissues, which catalyzes the formation of cyclic adenosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP). However, our transcriptome analysis of gastric cancer tissue samples (NCBI GEO GSE30727) revealed that ADCY3 expression was specifically altered in cancer samples. Here we investigated the tumor-promoting effects of ADCY3 overexpression and confirmed a significant correlation between the upregulation of ADCY3 and Lauren's intestinal-type gastric cancers. ADCY3 overexpression increased cell migration, invasion, proliferation, and clonogenicity in HEK293 cells; conversely, silencing ADCY3 expression in SNU-216 cells reduced these phenotypes. Interestingly, ADCY3 overexpression increased both the mRNA level and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 by increasing the levels of cAMP and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). Consistent with these findings, treatment with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor decreased MMP2 and MMP9 expression levels in ADCY3-overexpressing cells. Knockdown of ADCY3 expression by stable shRNA in human gastric cancer cells suppressed tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model. Thus, ADCY3 overexpression may exert its tumor-promoting effects via the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. Additionally, bisulfite sequencing of the ADCY3 promoter region revealed that gene expression was reduced by hypermethylation of CpG sites, and increased by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC)-induced demethylation. Our study is the first to report an association of ADCY3 with gastric cancer as well as its tumorigenic potentials. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of ADCY3 is regulated through an epigenetic mechanism. Further study on the mechanism of ADCY3 in tumorigenesis will provide the basis as a new molecular target of gastric cancer. PMID:24113161

  9. Contribution of Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and adenylate cyclase toxin to suppression and evasion of interleukin-17-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Michael W; Inatsuka, Carol S; Sheets, Amanda J; Williams, Corinne L; Benaron, David J; Donato, Gina M; Gray, Mary C; Hewlett, Erik L; Cotter, Peggy A

    2012-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica establish respiratory infections with notorious efficiency. Our previous studies showed that the fhaB genes of B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica, which encode filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), are functionally interchangeable and provided evidence that FHA-deficient B. bronchiseptica induces more inflammation in the lungs of mice than wild-type B. bronchiseptica. We show here that the robust inflammatory response to FHA-deficient B. bronchiseptica is characterized by the early and sustained influx of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-positive neutrophils and macrophages and, at 72 h postinoculation, IL-17-positive CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that FHA allows the bacteria to suppress the development of an IL-17-mediated inflammatory response. We also show that the cyaA genes of B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica, which encode adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), are functionally interchangeable and that ACT, specifically its catalytic activity, is required for B. bronchiseptica to resist phagocytic clearance but is neither required for nor inhibitory of the induction of inflammation if bacteria are present in numbers sufficient to persist during the first 3 days postinoculation. Incubation of bone marrow-derived macrophages with a ΔcyaA strain caused decreased production of IL-1β and increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-12, while incubation with a ΔcyaA ΔfhaB strain caused increased production of IL-23. These data suggest that FHA and ACT both contribute to suppress the recruitment of neutrophils and the development of an IL-17-mediated immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a microbial pathogen suppressing IL-17-mediated inflammation in vivo as a strategy to evade innate immunity.

  10. Differential effects of GTP on the coupling of beta-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase from frog and turkey erythrocytes. Application of new methods for the analysis of receptor-effector coupling.

    PubMed

    Limbird, L E; DeLean, A; Hickey, A R; Pike, L J; Lefkowitz, R J

    1979-08-22

    A detailed comparison of the interaction of beta-adrenergic receptors with adenylate cyclase stimulation and modification of this interaction by guanine nucleotides has been made in two model systems, the frog and turkey erythrocyte. Objective analysis of the data was facilitated by the development of new graphical methods which involve the use of logit-logit transformations of percent receptor occupancy versus percent enzyme stimulation plots (coupling curves). Receptor-cyclase coupling in turkey erythrocyte membranes demonstrates a proportional relationship between receptor occupancy and adenylate cyclase activation and is unaffected by exogenous guanine nucleotides. By comparison, the proportional relationship of receptor occupancy and adenylate cyclase activation observed in frog erythrocyte membranes in the absence of guanine nucleotides is modified by the addition of exogenous guanine nucleotides such that a greater fractional enzyme stimulation is elicited by low receptor occupancy. Methodological criteria crucial for valid comparison of receptor occupancy and adenylate cyclase activity are delineated. In addition, the possible molecular mechanisms of receptor-cyclase coupling which might give rise to the coupling curves observed are discussed.

  11. Effects of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and its inactive derivative 1,9-dideoxyforskolin on insect cytochrome P-450 dependent steroid hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Keogh, D P; Mitchell, M J; Crooks, J R; Smith, S L

    1992-01-15

    The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and its pharmacologically inactive derivative 1,9-dideoxyforskolin were found to inhibit in a dose-dependent fashion the ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity associated with wandering stage larvae of Drosophila melanogaster and fat body and midgut from last instar larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. The concentrations of these labdane diterpenes required to elicit a 50% inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent steroid hydroxylase activity in the insect tissues ranged from approximately 5 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-4) M.

  12. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  13. Photo-dynamics and thermal behavior of the BLUF domain containing adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-02-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of the photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure. The typical BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) flavin cofactor absorption and fluorescence photo-cycle dynamics was observed. For fresh samples a reversible concentration dependent protein oligomerization occurred showing up in free flavin binding and protein color center formation with increasing protein concentration. Thermal and temporal irreversible protein unfolding with loss of BLUF domain activity was investigated. Temperature dependent protein melting times and the apparent protein melting temperature were determined. The photodynamic behavior of the NgPAC2 is compared with the behavior of the previously investigated photo-activated cyclase NgPAC1 (nPAC) from the same N. gruberi NEG-M strain.

  14. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the catalysis of shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that the adenyl moiety of ATP plays a direct role in the regulation of ATP binding and/or phosphoryl transfer within a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. The role of the C8-H of ATP in the binding and/or phosphoryl transfer on the enzyme activity of a number of kinase and synthetase enzymes has been elucidated. The intrinsic catalysis rate mediated by each kinase enzyme is complex, yielding apparent KM values ranging from less than 0.4 μM to more than 1 mM for ATP in the various kinases. Using a combination of ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP) as a molecular probe with site directed mutagenesis (SDM) of conserved amino acid residues in shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase active sites, we have elucidated a mechanism by which the ATP C8-H is induced to be labile in the broader kinase family. We have demonstrated the direct role of the C8-H in the rate of ATP consumption, and the direct role played by conserved Thr residues interacting with the C8-H. The mechanism by which the vast range in KM might be achieved is also suggested by these findings. Results We have demonstrated the mechanism by which the enzyme activities of Group 2 kinases, shikimate kinase (SK) and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1), are controlled by the C8-H of ATP. Mutations of the conserved threonine residues associated with the labile C8-H cause the enzymes to lose their saturation kinetics over the concentration range tested. The relationship between the role C8-H of ATP in the reaction mechanism and the ATP concentration as they influence the saturation kinetics of the enzyme activity is also shown. The SDM clearly identified the amino acid residues involved in both the catalysis and regulation of phosphoryl transfer in SK and AK1 as mediated by C8H-ATP. Conclusions The data outlined serves to demonstrate the “push” mechanism associated with the control of the saturation kinetics of Group 2 kinases mediated by ATP C8-H. It is therefore conceivable

  15. Interactions between neuropeptide Y and the adenylate cyclase pathway in rat mesenteric small arteries: role of membrane potential.

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, D; Buus, C; Mulvany, M J; Nilsson, H

    1997-01-01

    arteries: a depolarization of arterial smooth muscle which is probably due to activation of non-selective cation channels, and a marked inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, which in turn inhibits the hyperpolarization produced by cAMP accumulation in these arteries. PMID:9263910

  16. A baker's yeast mutant (fil1) with a specific, partially inactivating mutation in adenylate cyclase maintains a high stress resistance during active fermentation and growth.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, P; Ma, P; Versele, M; Gorwa, M F; Colombo, S; Lemaire, K; Bossi, D; Loïez, A; Thevelein, J M

    2000-10-01

    The initiation of fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is associated with a rapid drop in stress resistance. This is disadvantageous for several biotechnological applications, e.g. the preparation of freeze doughs. We have isolated mutants in a laboratory strain which are deficient in fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance ('fil' mutants) using a heat shock selection protocol. We show that the fil1 mutant contains a mutation in the CYR1 gene which encodes adenylate cyclase. It causes a change at position 1682 of glutamate into lysine and results in a tenfold drop in adenylate cyclase activity. The fil1 mutant displays a reduction in the glucose-induced cAMP increase, trehalase activation and loss of heat resistance. Interestingly, the fil1 mutant shows the same growth and fermentation rate as the wild type strain, as opposed to other mutants with reduced activity of the cAMP pathway. Introduction of the fil1 mutation in the vigorous Y55 strain and cultivation of the mutant under pilot scale conditions resulted in a yeast that displayed a higher freeze and drought resistance during active fermentation compared to the wild type Y55 strain. These results show that high stress resistance and high fermentation activity are compatible biological properties. Isolation of fil-type mutations appears a promising avenue for development of industrial yeast strains with improved stress resistance during active fermentation.

  17. Bisamidate Prodrugs of 2-Substituted 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir) as Selective Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Česnek, Michal; Jansa, Petr; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Brust, Tarsis F; Pávek, Petr; Trejtnar, František; Watts, Val J; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-08-01

    Novel small-molecule agents to treat Bordetella pertussis infections are highly desirable, as pertussis (whooping cough) remains a serious health threat worldwide. In this study, a series of 2-substituted derivatives of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir), in their isopropyl ester bis(L-phenylalanine) prodrug form, were designed and synthesized as potent inhibitors of adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) isolated from B. pertussis. The series consists of PMEA analogues bearing either a linear or branched aliphatic chain or a heteroatom at the C2 position of the purine moiety. Compounds with a small C2 substituent showed high potency against ACT without cytotoxic effects as well as good selectivity over human adenylate cyclase isoforms AC1, AC2, and AC5. The most potent ACT inhibitor was found to be the bisamidate prodrug of the 2-fluoro PMEA derivative (IC50 =0.145 μM). Although the bisamidate prodrugs reported herein exhibit overall lower activity than the bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) prodrug (adefovir dipivoxil), their toxicity and plasma stability profiles are superior. Furthermore, the bisamidate prodrug was shown to be more stable in plasma than in macrophage homogenate, indicating that the free phosphonate can be effectively distributed to target tissues, such as the lungs. Thus, ACT inhibitors based on acyclic nucleoside phosphonates may represent a new strategy to treat whooping cough.

  18. A baker's yeast mutant (fil1) with a specific, partially inactivating mutation in adenylate cyclase maintains a high stress resistance during active fermentation and growth.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, P; Ma, P; Versele, M; Gorwa, M F; Colombo, S; Lemaire, K; Bossi, D; Loïez, A; Thevelein, J M

    2000-10-01

    The initiation of fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is associated with a rapid drop in stress resistance. This is disadvantageous for several biotechnological applications, e.g. the preparation of freeze doughs. We have isolated mutants in a laboratory strain which are deficient in fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance ('fil' mutants) using a heat shock selection protocol. We show that the fil1 mutant contains a mutation in the CYR1 gene which encodes adenylate cyclase. It causes a change at position 1682 of glutamate into lysine and results in a tenfold drop in adenylate cyclase activity. The fil1 mutant displays a reduction in the glucose-induced cAMP increase, trehalase activation and loss of heat resistance. Interestingly, the fil1 mutant shows the same growth and fermentation rate as the wild type strain, as opposed to other mutants with reduced activity of the cAMP pathway. Introduction of the fil1 mutation in the vigorous Y55 strain and cultivation of the mutant under pilot scale conditions resulted in a yeast that displayed a higher freeze and drought resistance during active fermentation compared to the wild type Y55 strain. These results show that high stress resistance and high fermentation activity are compatible biological properties. Isolation of fil-type mutations appears a promising avenue for development of industrial yeast strains with improved stress resistance during active fermentation. PMID:11075928

  19. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand (3H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ((3H)CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that (3H) CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for (3H) CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific (3H)CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid).

  20. Long-term morphine treatment enhances proteasome-dependent degradation of G beta in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: correlation with onset of adenylate cyclase sensitization.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Neasta, Jérémie; Uttenweiler-Joseph, Sandrine; Stella, Alexandre; Matondo, Mariette; Corbani, Maïthé; Monsarrat, Bernard; Meunier, Jean-Claude

    2005-08-01

    The initial aim of this study was to identify protein changes associated with long-term morphine treatment in a recombinant human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y clone (sc2) stably overexpressing the human mu-opioid (MOP) receptor. In MOP receptor-overexpressing sc2 cells, short-term morphine exposure was found to be much more potent and efficacious in inhibiting forskolin-elicited production of cAMP, and long-term morphine exposure was shown to induce a substantially higher degree of opiate dependence, as reflected by adenylate cyclase sensitization, than it did in wild-type neuroblastoma cells. Differential proteomic analysis of detergent-resistant membrane rafts isolated from untreated and chronically morphine-treated sc2 cells revealed long-term morphine exposure to have reliably induced a 30 to 40% decrease in the abundance of five proteins, subsequently identified by mass spectrometry as G protein subunits alphai(2), alphai(3), beta(1), and beta(2), and prohibitin. Quantitative Western blot analyses of whole-cell extracts showed that long-term morphine treatment-induced down-regulation of Gbeta but not of the other proteins is highly correlated (r(2) = 0.96) with sensitization of adenylate cyclase. Down-regulation of Gbeta and adenylate cyclase sensitization elicited by long-term morphine treatment were suppressed in the presence of carbobenzoxy-l-leucyl-l-leucyl-l-norvalinal (MG-115) or lactacystin. Thus, sustained activation of the MOP receptor by morphine in sc2 cells seems to promote proteasomal degradation of Gbeta to sensitize adenylate cyclase. Together, our data suggest that the long-term administration of opiates may elicit dependence by altering the neuronal balance of heterotrimeric G proteins and adenylate cyclases, with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway playing a pivotal role. PMID:15901846

  1. X-linked recessive congenital muscle fiber hypotrophy with central nuclei: abnormalities of growth and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Askanas, V; Engel, W K; Reddy, N B; Barth, P G; Bethlem, J; Krauss, D R; Hibberd, M E; Lawrence, J V; Carter, L S

    1979-10-01

    Muscle cells in cultures established from biopsy specimens of two children with an infantile-fatal form of X-linked recessive muscle fiber smallness with central nuclei showed an unusual ability to proliferate through numerous passages. Ultrastructurally, the cultured muscle fibers appeared very immature even after several weeks. The nuclei were large, the number of ribosomes was greatly increased, the myofibrils remained unstriated, and glycogen was accumulated in large lakes. The plasmalemma bound concanavalin A, alpha-bungarotoxin, and ruthenium red normally, but with tannic acid it did not show the dark binding of mature fibers. Biochemically, in the cultured muscle fibers, beta-adrenergic receptors were quantitatively normal. The level of adenylate cyclase in membranes was less than in cultured normal muscle; this defect could be responsible for impaired control mechanisms resulting in the other abnormalities observed.

  2. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Targets Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1 (DSCR1/RCAN1) to control Neuronal Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Seul; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic peptide involved in a wide range of nervous functions, including development, differentiation, and survival, and various aspects of learning and memory. Here we report that PACAP induces the expression of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1), which is abnormally expressed in the brains of Down syndrome patients. Increased RCAN1 expression is accompanied by activation of the PKA-cAMP response element-binding protein pathways. EMSA and ChIP analyses demonstrate the presence of a functional cAMP response element in the RCAN1 promoter. Moreover, we show that PACAP-dependent neuronal differentiation is significantly disturbed by improper RCAN1 expression. Our data provide the first evidence of RCAN1, a Down syndrome-related gene, as a novel target for control of the neurotrophic function of PACAP. PMID:26157140

  3. A homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is both necessary and instructive for the rapid formation of associative memory in an invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Pirger, Zsolt; László, Zita; Kemenes, Ildikó; Tóth, Gábor; Reglodi, Dóra; Kemenes, György

    2010-10-13

    Similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate animals, cAMP-dependent signaling cascades are key components of long-term memory (LTM) formation in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an established experimental model for studying evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms of long-term associative memory. Although a great deal is already known about the signaling cascades activated by cAMP, the molecules involved in the learning-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) in Lymnaea remained unknown. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy in combination with biochemical and immunohistochemical methods, recently we have obtained evidence for the existence of a Lymnaea homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and for the AC-activating effect of PACAP in the Lymnaea nervous system. Here we first tested the hypothesis that PACAP plays an important role in the formation of robust LTM after single-trial classical food-reward conditioning. Application of the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP6-38 around the time of single-trial training with amyl acetate and sucrose blocked associative LTM, suggesting that in this "strong" food-reward conditioning paradigm the activation of AC by PACAP was necessary for LTM to form. We found that in a "weak" multitrial food-reward conditioning paradigm, lip touch paired with sucrose, memory formation was also dependent on PACAP. Significantly, systemic application of PACAP at the beginning of multitrial tactile conditioning accelerated the formation of transcription-dependent memory. Our findings provide the first evidence to show that in the same nervous system PACAP is both necessary and instructive for fast and robust memory formation after reward classical conditioning.

  4. Enzyme–adenylate structure of a bacterial ATP-dependent DNA ligase with a minimized DNA-binding surface

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Adele; Rothweiler, Ulli; Schrøder Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. Here, the structure and activity of a recombinantly produced ATP-dependent DNA ligase from the bacterium Psychromonas sp. strain SP041 is described. This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme–adenylate complex reveals no unstructured loops or segments, and suggests that this enzyme binds the DNA without requiring full encirclement of the DNA duplex. This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. The Psychromonas sp. enzyme is the first structure available for the minimal type of bacterial DNA ligases and is the smallest DNA ligase to be crystallized to date. PMID:25372693

  5. Role of water in the enzymatic catalysis: study of ATP + AMP → 2ADP conversion by adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Adkar, Bharat V; Jana, Biman; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-04-28

    The catalytic conversion ATP + AMP → 2ADP by the enzyme adenylate kinase (ADK) involves the binding of one ATP molecule to the LID domain and one AMP molecule to the NMP domain. The latter is followed by a phosphate transfer and then the release of two ADP molecules. We have computed a novel two-dimensional configurational free energy surface (2DCFES), with one reaction coordinate each for the LID and the NMP domain motions, while considering explicit water interactions. Our computed 2DCFES clearly reveals the existence of a stable half-open half-closed (HOHC) intermediate state of the enzyme. Cycling of the enzyme through the HOHC state reduces the conformational free energy barrier for the reaction by about 20 kJ/mol. We find that the stability of the HOHC state (missed in all earlier studies with implicit solvent model) is largely because of the increase of specific interactions of the polar amino acid side chains with water, particularly with the arginine and the histidine residues. Free energy surface of the LID domain is rather rugged, which can conveniently slow down LID's conformational motion, thus facilitating a new substrate capture after the product release in the catalytic cycle.

  6. Multiple splice variants of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor detected by RT-PCR in single rat pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Bresson-Bépoldin, L; Jacquot, M C; Schlegel, W; Rawlings, S R

    1998-10-01

    Alternative splicing of the rat type 1 pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor (PVR1) produces variants that couple either to both adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC) (PVR1 short, PVR1 hop, PVR1 hiphop), or to AC alone (PVR1 hip). We have previously shown that populations of clonal alphaT3-1 gonadotrophs express PVR1 hop and PVR1 short mRNAs, whereas clonal GH4C1 somatotrophs do not. Here we have used the single cell RT-PCR technique to investigate whether normal rat gonadotrophs and somatotrophs express PVR1 mRNA, whether a single cell co-expresses multiple splice variant forms, and whether differential PVR1 mRNA expression correlates with differences in PACAP-stimulated Ca2+ signalling. We found that individual rat gonadotrophs expressed mRNA either for PVR1 hop, for PVR1 short, or co-expressed the two forms. Although we found no differences between the splice variant(s) expressed and the characteristics of PACAP-stimulated Ca2+ responses, the expression of PVR1 mRNA is consistent with the known PACAP stimulation of the PLC system in gonadotrophs. Individual rat somatotrophs also expressed PVR1 hop or PVR1 short (but not PVR1 hip) mRNAs although these forms were never co-expressed. The expression of PVR1 mRNA in somatotrophs can explain in part the activation by PACAP of the AC system in such cells. In conclusion, the single cell RT-PCR technique was used to demonstrate expression of multiple PVR1 splice variants in single identified pituitary cells. These findings open up important questions on the role of alternative splicing in cell biology. PMID:9801454

  7. Multiple splice variants of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor detected by RT-PCR in single rat pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Bresson-Bépoldin, L; Jacquot, M C; Schlegel, W; Rawlings, S R

    1998-10-01

    Alternative splicing of the rat type 1 pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor (PVR1) produces variants that couple either to both adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC) (PVR1 short, PVR1 hop, PVR1 hiphop), or to AC alone (PVR1 hip). We have previously shown that populations of clonal alphaT3-1 gonadotrophs express PVR1 hop and PVR1 short mRNAs, whereas clonal GH4C1 somatotrophs do not. Here we have used the single cell RT-PCR technique to investigate whether normal rat gonadotrophs and somatotrophs express PVR1 mRNA, whether a single cell co-expresses multiple splice variant forms, and whether differential PVR1 mRNA expression correlates with differences in PACAP-stimulated Ca2+ signalling. We found that individual rat gonadotrophs expressed mRNA either for PVR1 hop, for PVR1 short, or co-expressed the two forms. Although we found no differences between the splice variant(s) expressed and the characteristics of PACAP-stimulated Ca2+ responses, the expression of PVR1 mRNA is consistent with the known PACAP stimulation of the PLC system in gonadotrophs. Individual rat somatotrophs also expressed PVR1 hop or PVR1 short (but not PVR1 hip) mRNAs although these forms were never co-expressed. The expression of PVR1 mRNA in somatotrophs can explain in part the activation by PACAP of the AC system in such cells. In conclusion, the single cell RT-PCR technique was used to demonstrate expression of multiple PVR1 splice variants in single identified pituitary cells. These findings open up important questions on the role of alternative splicing in cell biology.

  8. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  9. AKAP79, PKC, PKA and PDE4 participate in a Gq-linked muscarinic receptor and adenylate cyclase 2 cAMP signalling complex

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia X.; Cooper, Dermot M. F.

    2014-01-01

    AC2 (adenylate cyclase 2) is stimulated by activation of Gq-coupled muscarinic receptors through PKC (protein kinase C) to generate localized cAMP in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. In the present study, we utilized a sensitive live-cell imaging technique to unravel the proteins that play essential roles in a Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor-mediated cAMP signalling complex. We reveal that, upon agonist binding to the Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor, AKAP79 (A-kinase-anchoring protein 79) recruits PKC to activate AC2 to produce cAMP. The cAMP formed is degraded by PDE4 (phosphodiesterase 4) activated by an AKAP-anchored PKA (protein kinase A). Calcineurin, a phosphatase bound to AKAP79, is not involved in this regulation. Overall, a transient cAMP increase is generated from AC2 by Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor activation, subject to sophisticated regulation through AKAP79, PKC, PDE4 and PKA, which significantly enhances acetylcholine-mediated signalling. PMID:23889134

  10. Molecular cloning and mRNA distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide in the lungfish.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T O; Tam, J K V; Chan, D W; Chow, B K C

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from lungfish Protopterus dolloi. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences, the lungfish PACAP was found to be highly conserved with other vertebrates; however, the PRP shares only lower levels of sequence identity with known PRP sequences. Consistently in phylogenetic analysis, the lungfish PRP, similar to sturgeon PRP, fails to cluster with other PRPs. In addition to the full-length clone, another cDNA encoding a short precursor that lacks the first 32 amino acids of the PRP was also isolated. Interestingly, similar isoforms were also identified in several nonmammalian vertebrates, and it was suggested that exon skipping of PRP/PACAP transcripts was a mechanism that regulated the expression ratio of PACAP to PRP in nonmammalian vertebrates. By real-time PCR, both long and short PRP/PACAP transcripts were found almost exclusively in the brain, and the short isoform is the more abundant transcript (3.7 times more), indicating that PACAP is the major product produced in lungfish brain. The expression patterns of lungfish and previously studied frog PRP/PACAP suggest that the PRP/PACAP gene in the tetrapod lineage may first express in the central nervous system; in the process of evolution, the functions of these peptides diversified and were later found in other tissues.

  11. Calcium, acylation, and molecular confinement favor folding of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase CyaA toxin into a monomeric and cytotoxic form.

    PubMed

    Karst, Johanna C; Ntsogo Enguéné, V Yvette; Cannella, Sara E; Subrini, Orso; Hessel, Audrey; Debard, Sylvain; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2014-10-31

    The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin, a multidomain protein of 1706 amino acids, is one of the major virulence factors produced by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is able to invade eukaryotic target cells in which it produces high levels of cAMP, thus altering the cellular physiology. Although CyaA has been extensively studied by various cellular and molecular approaches, the structural and functional states of the toxin remain poorly characterized. Indeed, CyaA is a large protein and exhibits a pronounced hydrophobic character, making it prone to aggregation into multimeric forms. As a result, CyaA has usually been extracted and stored in denaturing conditions. Here, we define the experimental conditions allowing CyaA folding into a monomeric and functional species. We found that CyaA forms mainly multimers when refolded by dialysis, dilution, or buffer exchange. However, a significant fraction of monomeric, folded protein could be obtained by exploiting molecular confinement on size exclusion chromatography. Folding of CyaA into a monomeric form was found to be critically dependent upon the presence of calcium and post-translational acylation of the protein. We further show that the monomeric preparation displayed hemolytic and cytotoxic activities suggesting that the monomer is the genuine, physiologically active form of the toxin. We hypothesize that the structural role of the post-translational acylation in CyaA folding may apply to other RTX toxins.

  12. Alteration with dietary state of the activity and zonal distribution of adenylate cyclase stimulated by glucagon, fluoride and forskolin in microdissected rat liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Zierz, S; Jungermann, K

    1984-12-17

    Adenylate cyclase activated by glucagon, fluoride and forskolin was measured in liver homogenates and microdissected periportal and perivenous tissue of fed and fasted rats. A radiochemical microtest, more sensitive by 2-3 orders of magnitude as compared with the usual assay, was established for the determination of the activity in liver samples corresponding to 200-600 ng dry weight. In liver homogenates from fasted as compared to fed animals the glucagon-stimulated and fluoride-stimulated activity was increased by 1.65-fold, while the basal and the forskolin-stimulated activity remained the same. In microdissected tissue of both fed and fasted animals the activity was stimulated in about 60% of the samples by glucagon, fluoride and forskolin (responsive samples). However, in about 40% of the microdissected tissue samples the activity could not be stimulated by any of the above activators (non-responsive samples). In responsive microdissected tissue of fasted as compared to fed animals, the glucagon-stimulated and fluoride stimulated activity but not the basal and the forskolin-activated activity was increased by 2-3-fold. In responsive microdissected samples of fed animals neither the basal nor the stimulated activities showed a significant periportal to perivenous gradient. In samples of fasted animals, however, a zonal gradient was observed for the glucagon-stimulated activity exhibiting a 1.5-fold higher rate in the perivenous zone.

  13. Generation of highly selective VPAC2 receptor agonists by high throughput mutagenesis of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide.

    PubMed

    Yung, Stephanie L; Dela Cruz, Fernando; Hamren, Sarah; Zhu, Jian; Tsutsumi, Manami; Bloom, James W; Caudle, Margaret; Roczniak, Steve; Todd, Tracey; Lemoine, Lynn; MacDougall, Margit; Shanafelt, Armen B; Pan, Clark Q

    2003-03-21

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) has a specific receptor PAC1 and shares two receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VPAC2 activation enhances glucose-induced insulin release while VPAC1 activation elevates glucose output. To generate a large pool of VPAC2 selective agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, structure-activity relationship studies were performed on PACAP, VIP, and a VPAC2 selective VIP analog. Chemical modifications on this analog that prevent recombinant expression were sequentially removed to show that a recombinant peptide would retain VPAC2 selectivity. An efficient recombinant expression system was then developed to produce and screen hundreds of mutant peptides. The 11 mutations found on the VIP analog were systematically replaced with VIP or PACAP sequences. Three of these mutations, V19A, L27K, and N28K, were sufficient to provide most of the VPAC2 selectivity. C-terminal extension with the KRY sequence from PACAP38 led to potent VPAC2 agonists with improved selectivity (100-1000-fold). Saturation mutagenesis at positions 19, 27, 29, and 30 of VIP and charge-scanning mutagenesis of PACAP27 generated additional VPAC2 selective agonists. We have generated the first set of recombinant VPAC2 selective agonists described, which exhibit activity profiles that suggest therapeutic utility in the treatment of diabetes.

  14. In vivo control of gluconeogenesis in wild-type Neurospora crassa and in the adenylate cyclase-deficient cr-1 (crisp) mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Neves, M J; Terenzi, H F

    1989-01-01

    The rate of cycloheximide-resistant incorporation of carbon from [14C]alanine and [14C]acetate into polysaccharidic material was used to study gluconeogenic activity in wild-type Neurospora crassa and in the adenylate cyclase-deficient cr-1 (crisp-1) mutant. The wild-type efficiently utilized alanine and acetate as gluconeogenic substrates, whereas the mutant used acetate efficiently but was unable to use alanine. Cycloheximide-resistant 14C-incorporating activity was sensitive to carbon catabolite effects (repression and inactivation) in the two strains, which suggested that cyclic AMP metabolism was not involved in these regulatory responses. In the wild type, gluconeogenesis was induced by incubation of the cells in the absence of a carbon source. In contrast, cr-1 required supplementation with acetate. This finding suggested that induction of gluconeogenesis in N. crassa could be mediated by metabolites formed in carbon-starved cells. The cr-1 mutant seemed to be deficient in this process and to depend on an exogenous effector to induce gluconeogenesis. Incubation of cr-1 with cyclic AMP partially overcame the acetate requirement for induction of gluconeogenesis. PMID:2522093

  15. Complete protection against P. berghei malaria upon heterologous prime/boost immunization against circumsporozoite protein employing Salmonella type III secretion system and Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid.

    PubMed

    Tartz, Susanne; Rüssmann, Holger; Kamanova, Jana; Sebo, Peter; Sturm, Angelika; Heussler, Volker; Fleischer, Bernhard; Jacobs, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Sterile immunity against malaria can be achieved by the induction of IFNgamma-producing CD8(+) T cells that target infected hepatocytes presenting epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). In the present study we evaluate the protective efficacy of a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol based on the delivery of the CD8(+) epitope of Plasmodium berghei CSP into the MHC class I presentation pathway, by either a type III secretion system of live recombinant Salmonella and/or by direct translocation of a recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid fusion (ACT-CSP) into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A single intraperitoneal application of the recombinant ACT-CSP toxoid, as well as a single oral immunization with the Salmonella vaccine, induced a specific CD8(+) T cell response, which however conferred only a partial protection on mice against a subsequent sporozoite challenge. In contrast, a heterologous prime/boost vaccination with the live Salmonella followed by ACT-CSP led to a significant enhancement of the CSP-specific T cell response and induced complete protection in all vaccinated mice.

  16. Molecular cloning and mRNA distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide in the lungfish.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T O; Tam, J K V; Chan, D W; Chow, B K C

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from lungfish Protopterus dolloi. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences, the lungfish PACAP was found to be highly conserved with other vertebrates; however, the PRP shares only lower levels of sequence identity with known PRP sequences. Consistently in phylogenetic analysis, the lungfish PRP, similar to sturgeon PRP, fails to cluster with other PRPs. In addition to the full-length clone, another cDNA encoding a short precursor that lacks the first 32 amino acids of the PRP was also isolated. Interestingly, similar isoforms were also identified in several nonmammalian vertebrates, and it was suggested that exon skipping of PRP/PACAP transcripts was a mechanism that regulated the expression ratio of PACAP to PRP in nonmammalian vertebrates. By real-time PCR, both long and short PRP/PACAP transcripts were found almost exclusively in the brain, and the short isoform is the more abundant transcript (3.7 times more), indicating that PACAP is the major product produced in lungfish brain. The expression patterns of lungfish and previously studied frog PRP/PACAP suggest that the PRP/PACAP gene in the tetrapod lineage may first express in the central nervous system; in the process of evolution, the functions of these peptides diversified and were later found in other tissues. PMID:19456341

  17. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Tamás; Szentléleky, Eszter; Somogyi, Csilla Szűcs; Takács, Roland; Dobrosi, Nóra; Engler, Máté; Tamás, Andrea; Reglődi, Dóra; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load. PMID:26230691

  18. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Tamás; Szentléleky, Eszter; Szűcs Somogyi, Csilla; Takács, Roland; Dobrosi, Nóra; Engler, Máté; Tamás, Andrea; Reglődi, Dóra; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load. PMID:26230691

  19. Photo-dynamics of the BLUF domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.; Kateriya, Suneel

    2011-08-01

    The amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M comprises a BLUF ( blue light sensor using flavin) regulated adenylate cyclase (nPAC). The nPAC gene was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the photo-dynamics of the nPAC protein was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Blue-light exposure of nPAC caused a typical BLUF-type photo-cycle behavior (spectral absorption red-shift, fluorescence quenching, absorption and fluorescence recovery in the dark). Additionally, time-delayed reversible photo-induced one-electron reduction of fully oxidized flavin (Fl ox) to semi-reduced flavin (FlH rad ) occurred. Furthermore, photo-excitation of FlH rad caused irreversible electron transfer to fully reduced anionic flavin (FlH -). A photo-induced electron transfer from Tyr or Trp to flavin (Tyr rad +-Fl rad - or Trp rad +-Fl rad - radical ion-pair formation) is thought to cause H-bond restructuring responsible for BLUF-type photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation enabling photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. Some photo-degradation of Fl ox to lumichrome was observed. A model of the photo-dynamics of nPAC is developed.

  20. ATP-binding site of adenylate kinase: mechanistic implications of its homology with ras-encoded p21, F1-ATPase, and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1986-02-01

    The MgATP binding site of adenylate kinase, located by a combination of NMR and x-ray diffraction, is near three protein segments, five to seven amino acids in length, that are homologous in sequence to segments found in other nucleotide-binding phosphotransferases, such as myosin and F1-ATPase, ras p21 and transducin GTPases, and cAMP-dependent and src protein kinases, suggesting equivalent mechanistic roles of these segments in all of these proteins. Segment 1 is a glycine-rich flexible loop that, on adenylate kinase, may control access to the ATP-binding site by changing its conformation. Segment 2 is an alpha-helix containing two hydrophobic residues that interact with the adenine-ribose moiety of ATP, and a lysine that may bind to the beta- and gamma-phosphates of ATP. Segment 3 is a hydrophobic strand of parallel beta-pleated sheet, terminated by a carboxylate, that flanks the triphosphate binding site. The various reported mutations of ras p21 that convert it to a transforming agent all appear to involve segment 1, and such substitutions may alter the properties of p21 by hindering a conformational change at this segment. In F1-ATPase, the flexible loop may, by its position, control both the accessibility and the ATP/ADP equilibrium constant on the enzyme.

  1. Characteristics of muscarinic receptors that selectively couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase or stimulation of phospholipase C on NG108-15 and 1321N1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to establish whether different muscarinic receptor proteins selectively couple to different second messenger response system. Although both second messenger response systems are fully functional in both cell lines, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors only results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase in NG108-15 neuroblastoma {times} glioma cells and stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic receptors on both cell types were covalently labeled with ({sup 3}H)Propylbenzilylcholine mustard (({sup 3}H)PBCM) and the mobilities of the ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species of both cells were compared by SDS-PAGE. 1321N1 and NG108-15 cells each primarily expressed a single ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species with an apparent size of approximately 92,000 and 66,000 Da, respectively. ({sup 3}H)PBCM labelling was completely inhibited by 1 {mu}M atropine or by down-regulation of muscarinic receptors by an overnight incubation with carbachol. The apparent size of the ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species of both cell lines was not altered by treatment with a series of protease inhibitors or by treatment with dithiothreitol and iodoacetamide. Another approach for determining differences in the muscarinic receptors of 2 cells lines was to study agonist-induced alteration of muscarinic receptor number. Exposure of both cell types to agonists resulted in rapid loss of muscarinic receptors from cell surface without change of total cellular muscarinic receptors followed by subsequently loss of receptors from cells. Muscarinic receptors on both cell lines were regulated by agonist with similar properties.

  2. Testosterone regulates levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles of orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Siti Khadijah; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 μg/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P < 0.05 compared to nontreated orchidectomized rats). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and AC were expressed at the apical membrane of the epithelium lining the seminal vesicle lumen with higher expression levels observed in testosterone-treated rats than in non-treated orchidectomized rats (P < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of flutamide or finasteride on these parameters were greater in 250 μg/kg/day testosterone-treated rats than their effects in 125 μg/kg/day testosterone-treated rats. Higher dihydrotestosterone levels were observed in seminal vesicle homogenates after treatment with 250 μg/kg/day than with 125 μg/kg/day of testosterone (P < 0.05). Increased levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in seminal vesicles might contribute toward an increase in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in the seminal fluid as reported under testosterone influence.

  3. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Impairs the Regulation of Apoptosis in Megakaryocytes by Activating NF-κB: a Proteomic Study*

    PubMed Central

    Di Michele, Michela; Peeters, Karen; Loyen, Serena; Thys, Chantel; Waelkens, Etienne; Overbergh, Lutgart; Hoylaerts, Marc; Van Geet, Christel; Freson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor VPAC1 are negative regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet function, but their downstream signaling pathway that inhibits this process still remained unknown. A combined proteomic, transcriptomic, and bioinformatic approach was here used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying PACAP signaling via VPAC1 in megakaryocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and tandem MS were applied to detect differentially expressed proteins in megakaryocytic CHRF cells stimulated with PACAP. The majority of the 120 proteins modulated by PACAP belong to the class of “cell cycle and apoptosis” proteins. The up- or down-regulated expression of some proteins was confirmed by immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis. A meta-analysis of our data and 12 other published studies was performed to evaluate signaling pathways involved in different cellular models of PACAP response. From 2384 differentially expressed genes/proteins, 83 were modulated by PACAP in at least three independent studies and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis further identified apoptosis as the highest scored network with NF-κB as a key-player. PACAP inhibited serum depletion-induced apoptosis of CHRF cells via VPAC1 stimulation. In addition, PACAP switched on NF-κB dependent gene expression since higher nuclear levels of the active NF-κB p50/p65 heterodimer were found in CHRF cells treated with PACAP. Finally, a quantitative real time PCR apoptosis array was used to study RNA from in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes from a PACAP overexpressing patient, leading to the identification of 15 apoptotic genes with a 4-fold change in expression and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis again revealed NF-κB as the central player. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PACAP interferes with the regulation of apoptosis in megakaryocytes, probably via stimulation of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:21972247

  4. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

  5. Stimulation of Synthesis and Release of Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) from Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells by Substance P and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, M.; Alkahtani, R.; Akbarali, H.I.; Murthy, K.S.; Grider, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin present in the intestine where it participates in survival and growth of enteric neurons, augmentation of enteric circuits, and stimulation of intestinal peristalsis and propulsion. Previous studies largely focused on the role of neural and mucosal BDNF. The expression and release of BDNF from intestinal smooth muscle and the interaction with enteric neuropeptides has not been studied in gut. Methods The expression and secretion of BDNF from smooth muscle cultured from rabbit longitudinal intestinal muscle in response to substance P and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) was measured by western blot and ELISA. BDNF mRNA was measured by rt-PCR. Key Results The expression of BNDF protein and mRNA was greater in smooth muscle cells from the longitudinal muscle than from circular muscle layer. PACAP and substance P increased the expression of BDNF protein and mRNA in cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. PACAP and substance P also stimulated the secretion of BDNF from cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA prevented substance P-induced increase in BDNF mRNA and protein expression as well as substance P-induced secretion of BDNF. Conclusions & Inferences Neuropeptides known to be present in enteric neurons innervating the longitudinal layer increase the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in smooth muscle cells and stimulate the release of BDNF. Considering the ability of BDNF to enhance smooth muscle contraction, this autocrine loop may partially explain the characteristic hypercontractility of longitudinal muscle in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26088546

  6. Testosterone regulates levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles of orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Siti Khadijah; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 μg/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P < 0.05 compared to nontreated orchidectomized rats). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and AC were expressed at the apical membrane of the epithelium lining the seminal vesicle lumen with higher expression levels observed in testosterone-treated rats than in non-treated orchidectomized rats (P < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of flutamide or finasteride on these parameters were greater in 250 μg/kg/day testosterone-treated rats than their effects in 125 μg/kg/day testosterone-treated rats. Higher dihydrotestosterone levels were observed in seminal vesicle homogenates after treatment with 250 μg/kg/day than with 125 μg/kg/day of testosterone (P < 0.05). Increased levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in seminal vesicles might contribute toward an increase in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in the seminal fluid as reported under testosterone influence. PMID:26483308

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present and biochemically active in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

  8. Parabrachial nucleus (PBn) pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the amygdala: implication for the sensory and behavioral effects of pain

    PubMed Central

    Missig, Galen A.; Roman, Carolyn W.; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Braas, Karen M.; May, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The intricate relationships that associate pain, stress responses and emotional behavior have been well established. Acute stressful situations can decrease nociceptive sensations and conversely, chronic pain can enhance other pain experiences and heighten the emotional and behavioral consequences of stress. Accordingly, chronic pain is comorbid with a number of behavioral disorders including depression, anxiety abnormalities and associated stress-related disorders including post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) represents a convergence of pathways for pain, stress and emotion, and we have identified pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) immunoreactivity in fiber elements in the lateral capsular division of the CeA (CeLC). The PACAP staining patterns colocalized in part with those for calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP); anterograde fiber tracing and excitotoxic lesion studies demonstrated that the CeLC PACAP/CGRP immunoreactivities represented sensory fiber projections from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBn) along the spino-parabrachioamygdaloid tract. The same PBn PACAP/CGRP fiber system also projected to the BNST. As in the BNST, CeA PACAP signaling increased anxiety-like behaviors accompanied by weight loss and decreased feeding. But in addition to heightened anxiety-like responses, CeA PACAP signaling also altered nociception as reflected by decreased latency and threshold responses in thermal and mechanical sensitivity tests, respectively. From PACAP expression in major pain pathways, the current observations are novel and suggest that CeA PACAP nociceptive signaling and resulting neuroplasticity via the spino-parabrachioamygdaloid tract may represent mechanisms that associate chronic pain with sensory hypersensitivity, fear memory consolidation and severe behavioral disorders. PMID:24998751

  9. Optogenetic Modulation of an Adenylate Cyclase in Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrates a Requirement of the Parasite cAMP for Host-Cell Invasion and Stage Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anne; Arroyo-Olarte, Ruben Dario; Imkeller, Katharina; Hegemann, Peter; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection and transmission of the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii depends on its ability to switch between fast-replicating tachyzoite (acute) and quiescent bradyzoite (chronic) stages. Induction of cAMP in the parasitized host cells has been proposed to influence parasite differentiation. It is not known whether the parasite or host cAMP is required to drive this phenomenon. Other putative roles of cAMP for the parasite biology also remain to be identified. Unequivocal research on cAMP-mediated signaling in such intertwined systems also requires a method for an efficient and spatial control of the cAMP pool in the pathogen or in the enclosing host cell. We have resolved these critical concerns by expressing a photoactivated adenylate cyclase that allows light-sensitive control of the parasite or host-cell cAMP. Using this method, we reveal multiple roles of the parasite-derived cAMP in host-cell invasion, stage-specific expression, and asexual differentiation. An optogenetic method provides many desired advantages such as: (i) rapid, transient, and efficient cAMP induction in extracellular/intracellular and acute/chronic stages; (ii) circumvention of the difficulties often faced in cultures, i.e. poor diffusion, premature degradation, steady activation, and/or pleiotropic effects of cAMP agonists and antagonists; (iii) genetically encoded enzyme expression, thus inheritable to the cell progeny; and (iv) conditional and spatiotemporal control of cAMP levels. Importantly, a successful optogenetic application in Toxoplasma also illustrates its wider utility to study cAMP-mediated signaling in other genetically amenable two-organism systems such as in symbiotic and pathogen-host models. PMID:23525100

  10. Ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of centrally and peripherally administered trout pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the unanaesthetized trout.

    PubMed

    Le Mével, J-C; Lancien, F; Mimassi, N; Conlon, J M

    2009-12-01

    In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are involved in cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of PACAP, VIP and their receptors in various tissues of teleost fish, including the brain, but little is known about their respiratory and cardiovascular effects. The present study was undertaken to compare the central and peripheral actions of graded doses (25-100 pmol) of trout PACAP and trout VIP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanaesthetized rainbow trout. Compared with vehicle, only intracerebroventricular injection of PACAP significantly (P<0.05) elevated the ventilation frequency and the ventilation amplitude, but both peptides significantly increased the total ventilation (total ventilation). However, the maximum hyperventilatory effect of PACAP was approximately 2.5-fold higher than the effect of VIP at the 100 pmol dose (PACAP, (total ventilation)=+5407+/-921 arbitrary units, a.u.; VIP, (total ventilation)=+2056+/-874 a.u.; means +/- s.e.m.). When injected centrally, only PACAP produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(DA)) (100 pmol: +21%) but neither peptide affected heart rate (f(H)). Intra-arterial injections of either PACAP or VIP were without effect on the ventilatory variables. PACAP was without significant action on P(DA) and f(H) while VIP significantly elevated P(DA) (100 pmol: +36%) without changing f(H). In conclusion, the selective central hyperventilatory actions of exogenously administered trout PACAP, and to a lesser extent VIP, suggest that the endogenous peptides may be implicated in important neuroregulatory functions related to the central control of ventilation in trout.

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide enhances saliva secretion via direct binding to PACAP receptors of major salivary glands in mice.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Yuko; Nonaka, Naoko; Takagi, Yoshitoki; Imamura, Eisaku; Narukawa, Masayuki; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shioda, Seiji; Banks, William A; Nakamura, Masanori

    2016-09-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common syndrome that is generally treated with artificial saliva; however, no other effective methods have yet been established. Saliva secretion is mainly under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is recognized as a multifunctional neuropeptide in various organs. In this study, we examined the effect of PACAP on saliva secretion, and detected the distribution of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, in 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Intranasal administration of PACAP 38 increased the amount of saliva secreted, which was not inhibited by atropine pretreatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PAC1R was distributed in the three major salivary glands. In the parotid and sublingual glands, PAC1R was detected in striated duct cells, whereas in the submandibular gland, a strong PAC1R immunoreaction was detected in tall columnar epithelial cells in the granular ducts (i.e., pillar cells), as well as in some striated duct cells. PACAP significantly increased the concentration of epidermal growth factor in saliva. These results suggest that PACAP directly regulates saliva secretion by controlling the absorption activity in the ducts, and that pillar cells regulate the function of granular epithelial cells in the granular duct, such as the secretion of growth factors into the saliva. Collectively, these results suggest the possibility of PACAP as a new effective treatment of xerostomia. Anat Rec, 299:1293-1299, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27339371

  12. Bi-directional effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on fear-related behavior and c-Fos expression after fear conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Edward G; Venkataraman, Archana; Donahue, Rachel J; Carlezon, William A

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. PACAP has neuromodulatory actions on brain structures within the limbic system that could contribute to its acute and persistent effects in animal models of stress and anxiety-like behavior. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula for infusion of PACAP-38 (0.5, 1, or 1.5 μg) or vehicle followed 30 min later by fear conditioning. Freezing was measured early (1, 4, and 7 days) or following a delay (7, 10, and 13 days) after conditioning. PACAP (1.5 μg) produced a bi-phasic response in freezing behavior across test days: relative to controls, PACAP-treated rats showed a reduction in freezing when tested 1 or 7 days after fear conditioning that evolved into a significant elevation in freezing by the third test session in the early, but not delayed, group. Corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in PACAP-treated rats following fear conditioning, but not at the time of testing (Day 1). Brain c-Fos expression revealed PACAP-dependent alterations within, as well as outside of, areas typically implicated in fear conditioning. Our findings raise the possibility that PACAP disrupts fear memory consolidation by altering synaptic plasticity within neurocircuits normally responsible for encoding fear-related cues, producing a type of dissociation or peritraumatic amnesia often seen in people early after exposure to a traumatic event. However, fear memories are retained such that repeated testing and memory reactivation (e.g., re-experiencing) causes the freezing response to emerge and persist at elevated levels. PACAP systems may represent an axis on which stress and exposure to trauma converge to promote maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of psychiatric illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:26590791

  13. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Regulate Murine Neural Progenitor Cell Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M.; Shutz, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes. PMID:18629655

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M; Shutz, Kristin C; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2008-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes.

  15. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide in the Central Amygdala Causes Anorexia and Body Weight Loss via the Melanocortin and the TrkB Systems.

    PubMed

    Iemolo, Attilio; Ferragud, Antonio; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1 receptor system represents one of the main regulators of the behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress. Although induction of anorexia is a well-documented effect of PACAP, the central sites underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present studies addressed this question by examining the neuroanatomical, behavioral, and pharmacological mechanisms mediating the anorexia produced by PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure implicated in the emotional components of ingestive behavior. Male rats were microinfused with PACAP (0-1 μg per rat) into the CeA and home-cage food intake, body weight change, microstructural analysis of food intake, and locomotor activity were assessed. Intra-CeA (but not intra-basolateral amygdala) PACAP dose-dependently induced anorexia and body weight loss without affecting locomotor activity. PACAP-treated rats ate smaller meals of normal duration, revealing that PACAP slowed feeding within meals by decreasing the regularity and maintenance of feeding from pellet-to-pellet; postprandial satiety was unaffected. Intra-CeA PACAP-induced anorexia was blocked by coinfusion of either the melanocortin receptor 3/4 antagonist SHU 9119 or the tyrosine kinase B (TrKB) inhibitor k-252a, but not the CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). These results indicate that the CeA is one of the brain areas through which the PACAP system promotes anorexia and that PACAP preferentially lessens the maintenance of feeding in rats, effects opposite to those of palatable food. We also demonstrate that PACAP in the CeA exerts its anorectic effects via local melanocortin and the TrKB systems, and independently from CRF.

  16. Expression of beta 1- and beta 3-adrenergic-receptor messages and adenylate cyclase beta-adrenergic response in bovine perirenal adipose tissue during its transformation from brown into white fat.

    PubMed Central

    Casteilla, L; Muzzin, P; Revelli, J P; Ricquier, D; Giacobino, J P

    1994-01-01

    Possible modifications of the beta-adrenergic effector system during the development of bovine perirenal brown adipose tissue (BAT) in utero and its transformation into white-like adipose tissue after birth were studied. The parameters assessed were the level of expression of beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) mRNAs and the response of the plasma-membrane adenylate cyclase to (-)-isoprenaline and to the beta 3-agonist BRL 37344. The beta 3-AR mRNA was found to be expressed very early in utero, i.e. before the third month of foetal life. Then it increased dramatically (9-fold) between month 6 of foetal life and birth. A high beta 3-AR mRNA level was maintained after birth up to an age of 3 months. After conversion of BAT into white-like adipose tissue, i.e. in the adult bovine, the beta 3-AR mRNA expression became small or not detectable, and the beta 1-AR mRNA, which was expressed much less than the beta 3-AR mRNA in foetal life, became predominant. A response of the adenylate cyclase to (-)-isoprenaline was observed in foetal life (3.1-fold stimulation). It decreased after birth (1.8-fold stimulation) and then remained constant until adulthood. A response to BRL 37344 was also observed in foetal life (1.8-fold stimulation). It was maintained after birth, but disappeared in the adult. A possible relationship between the beta-AR expression and the adenylate cyclase response to (-)-isoprenaline on the one hand and the uncoupling-protein expression on the other is discussed. The bovine might represent a good model to understand the transition from brown to white fat in the human. Images Figure 3 PMID:7904157

  17. Direct deamination of AMP, ADP, ATP and NADH by non-specific adenylate deaminase in the foot muscle of the snail Helix pomatia.

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, A J

    1983-01-01

    Homogeneous adenylate deaminase from snail foot muscle deaminated 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP, 5'-ATP and NADH with similar velocity and affinity to all substrates. At millimolar concentration NAD+ was also deaminated to a comparable extent, but NADP+, NADPH and FAD were not substrates for the snail enzyme. The amount of deaminase activity per g of fresh tissue is 5-10 times greater than in the muscle of any other species studied. The activity of the snail deaminase is regulated by pH, KCl and buffer concentrations, and Pi; however, regulation seems to be very poor in comparison with that of muscle deaminases from other species, specific to 5'-AMP. Snail enzyme appears as the first animal deaminase so far described that has such characteristics. It offers also some opportunities as an analytical tool as a consequence of its very high affinity toward adenylates. PMID:6626180

  18. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fry, D C; Byler, D M; Susi, H; Brown, E M; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1988-05-17

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme [Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., & Mildvan, A.S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694], appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase [Sachsenheimer, W., & Schulz, G.E. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 114, 23-26], with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of beta-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% alpha-helix, 38% beta-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possibly due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. On this basis, the peptide consists of 35 +/- 10% beta-structure, 60 +/- 12% turns and aperiodic structure, and not more than 10% alpha-helix. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% alpha-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% beta-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformational changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assessed by CD. Detailed assignments of resonances in the peptide spectrum and intermolecular NOEs between protons of bound MgATP and

  19. Increased sensitivity in the interaction of the dopaminergic/adenosinergic system at the level of the adenylate cyclase activity in the striatum of the "weaver" mouse.

    PubMed

    K, Botsakis; V, Tondikidou; N, Panagopoulos; M, Margariti; N, Matsokis; F, Angelatou

    2016-10-01

    The specific antagonistic interaction between dopamine D1 and adenosine A1 receptors (D1/A1), as well as between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2a receptors (D2/A2a) exist not only at the receptor/receptor level, but also at the level of the secondary messengers. In this study, we examined the possible changes in these interactions at the level of cAMP formation in membrane preparation from "weaver" mouse striatum (a genetic model of Parkinson disease), by using specific agonists of these receptors. We also examined in the striatum of the "weaver" mouse the interaction between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Our results showed that in the striatum of "weaver" mice: a) the cAMP synthesis induced by D1 receptor activation (SKF 38393), was significantly reduced compared to control mice, while A1 receptor activation (L-PIA) leaded to a more intense inhibition of the D1-induced cAMP-formation compared to the controls, b) the cAMP synthesis which was induced by A2a receptor activation (CGS 21680), was significantly increased compared to the control mice. The specific D2 receptor agonist Quinpirole, added in low concentrations, caused a significant reduction of the A2a-induced cAMP formation, which was not observed in the control mouse. Furthermore, the D1 receptor induced cAMP synthesis was significantly higher in control compared to "weaver" striatum, which was more efficiently downregulated by D2 receptor agonist Quinpirole. These results suggest that the sensitivity to D1 and A2a receptor agonists is altered and that the interaction between D1/A1 and D2/A2a receptors is enhanced in the striatum of the "weaver" mutation, while an uncoupling between D1 and D2 receptors was observed. Since the adenylate cyclase basal activity did not differ between "weaver" and control striatum, the above-mentioned changes seem to be due to alterations in the function of the adenosine/dopamine receptors and their coupling to the G-proteins.

  20. Saturated high-fat diet-induced obesity increases adenylate cyclase of myocardial β-adrenergic system and does not compromise cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Vileigas, Danielle F; de Deus, Adriana F; da Silva, Danielle C T; de Tomasi, Loreta C; de Campos, Dijon H S; Adorni, Caroline S; de Oliveira, Scarlet M; Sant'Ana, Paula G; Okoshi, Katashi; Padovani, Carlos R; Cicogna, Antonio C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic associated with high incidence of cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which the obesity leads cardiac dysfunction are not fully elucidated and few studies have evaluated the relationship between obesity and proteins involved in myocardial β-adrenergic (βA) system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac function and βA pathway components in myocardium of obese rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: control (n = 17; standard diet) and obese (n = 17; saturated high-fat diet) fed for 33 weeks. Nutritional profile and comorbidities were assessed. Cardiac structure and function was evaluated by macroscopic postmortem, echocardiographic and isolated papillary muscle analyzes. Myocardial protein expression of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors, Gαs protein, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) was performed by Western blot. Cardiac cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and PKA activity were assessed by ELISA Obese rats showed increased adiposity index (P < 0.001) and several comorbidities as hypertension, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia compared with control rats. Echocardiographic assessment revealed increased left atrium diameter (C: 4.98 ± 0.38 vs. Ob: 5.47 ± 0.53, P = 0.024) and posterior wall shortening velocity (C: 37.1 ± 3.6 vs. Ob: 41.8 ± 3.8, P = 0.007) in obese group. Papillary muscle evaluation indicated that baseline data and myocardial responsiveness to isoproterenol stimulation were similar between the groups. Protein expression of myocardial AC was higher in obese group than in the control (C: 1.00 ± 0.21 vs. Ob: 1.25 ± 0.10, P = 0.025), whereas the other components were unchanged. These results suggest that saturated high-fat diet-induced obesity was not effective in triggering cardiac dysfunction and impair the beta-adrenergic signaling. PMID:27582064

  1. In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: activation of the adenylate cyclase system influences JHM virus expression in explanted rat oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beushausen, S; Narindrasorasak, S; Sanwal, B D; Dales, S

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of JHM virus (JHMV) tropism for rat oligodendrocytes, as one of the primary host cells in the central nervous system, is maintained after explanation (S. Beushausen and S. Dales, Virology 141:89-101, 1985). The temporal correlation between onset of resistance to JHMV infection in vivo, completion of myelination, and maturation of the central nervous system can be simulated in vitro by inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation (Beushausen and Dales, Virology, 1985). Stimulation of differentiation through the elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels suggests a possible connection between activation of the adenylate cyclase system and coronavirus expression. Chromatographic analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in cytosol extracts prepared from astrocytes or oligodendrocytes revealed that both glial cell types were deficient in protein kinase I, indicating that expression of coronavirus in differentiated cells was not contingent upon the presence of protein kinase I. However, treatment with N6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) resulted in a severalfold enhancement of the free regulatory subunit (RI) in oligodendrocytes but not in astrocytes. The RII subunit in both neural cell types was relatively unaffected. Rapid increase in RI due to dbcAMP treatment was correlated with inhibition of JHMV expression. Other differentiation inducers, including 8-Br cAMP and forskolin which, by contrast, caused a decrease in detectable RI, also blocked JHMV expression. This apparent anomaly can be attributed to an increased turnover of RI due to destabilization of the molecule which occurs upon site-specific binding of the cyclic nucleotides. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that the state of oligodendrocyte differentiation manifested with the modulation of RI regulates JHMV expression. The differentiation process did not affect either virus adsorption or sequestration but appeared to inhibit the

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide induces long-lasting neuroprotection through the induction of activity-dependent signaling via the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcription co-activator 1

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul S; Martel, Marc-Andre; McMahon, Aoife; Kind, Peter C; Hardingham, Giles E

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuroprotective peptide which exerts its effects mainly through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Here, we show that in cortical neurons, PACAP-induced PKA signaling exerts a major part of its neuroprotective effects indirectly, by triggering action potential (AP) firing. Treatment of cortical neurons with PACAP induces a rapid and sustained PKA-dependent increase in AP firing and associated intracellular Ca2+ transients, which are essential for the anti-apoptotic actions of PACAP. Transient exposure to PACAP induces long-lasting neuroprotection in the face of apoptotic insults which is reliant on AP firing and the activation of cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB)-mediated gene expression. Although direct, activity-independent PKA signaling is sufficient to trigger phosphorylation on CREB’s activating serine-133 site, this is insufficient for activation of CREB-mediated gene expression. Full activation is dependent on CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 1 (CRTC1), whose PACAP-induced nuclear import is dependent on firing activity-dependent calcineurin signaling. Over-expression of CRTC1 is sufficient to rescue PACAP-induced CRE-mediated gene expression in the face of activity-blockade, while dominant negative CRTC1 interferes with PACAP-induced, CREB-mediated neuroprotection. Thus, the enhancement of AP firing may play a significant role in the neuroprotective actions of PACAP and other adenylate cyclase-coupled ligands. PMID:21623792

  3. NMR studies of the MgATP binding site of adenylate kinase and of a 45-residue peptide fragment of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1985-08-13

    Proton NMR was used to study the interaction of beta,gamma-bidentate Cr3+ATP and MgATP with rabbit muscle adenylate kinase, which has 194 amino acids, and with a synthetic peptide consisting of residues 1-45 of the enzyme, which has previously been shown to bind MgepsilonATP [Hamada, M., Palmieri, R. H., Russell, G. A., & Kuby, S. A. (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 195, 155-177]. The peptide is globular and binds Cr3+ATP competitively with MgATP with a dissociation constant, KD(Cr3+ATP) = 35 microM, comparable to that of the complete enzyme [KI(Cr3+ATP) = 12 microM]. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE's) were used to measure interproton distances on enzyme- and peptide-bound MgATP. The correlation time was measured directly for peptide-bound MgATP by studying the frequency dependence of the NOE's at 250 and 500 MHz. The H2' to H1' distance so obtained (3.07 A) was within the range established by X-ray and model-building studies of nucleotides (2.9 +/- 0.2 A). Interproton distances yielded conformations of enzyme- and peptide-bound MgATP with indistinguishable anti-glycosyl torsional angles (chi = 63 +/- 12 degrees) and 3'-endo/O1'-endo ribose puckers (sigma = 96 +/- 12 degrees). Enzyme- and peptide-bound MgATP molecules exhibited different C4'-C5' torsional angles (gamma) of 170 degrees and 50 degrees, respectively. Ten intermolecular NOE's from protons of the enzyme and four such NOE's from protons of the peptide to protons of bound MgATP were detected, which indicated proximity of the adenine ribose moiety to the same residues on both the enzyme and the peptide. Paramagnetic effects of beta,gamma-bidentate Cr3+ATP on the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons of the peptide provided a set of distances to the side chains of five residues, which allowed the location of the bound Cr3+ atom to be uniquely defined. Distances from enzyme-bound Cr3+ATP to the side chains of three residues of the protein agreed with those measured for the peptide. The mutual

  4. Dynamic coupling between the LID and NMP domain motions in the catalytic conversion of ATP and AMP to ADP by adenylate kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Biman; Adkar, Bharat V.; Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by adenylate kinase (ADK) involves large amplitude, ligand induced domain motions, involving the opening and the closing of ATP binding domain (LID) and AMP binding domain (NMP) domains, during the repeated catalytic cycle. We discover and analyze an interesting dynamical coupling between the motion of the two domains during the opening, using large scale atomistic molecular dynamics trajectory analysis, covariance analysis, and multidimensional free energy calculations with explicit water. Initially, the LID domain must open by a certain amount before the NMP domain can begin to open. Dynamical correlation map shows interesting cross-peak between LID and NMP domain which suggests the presence of correlated motion between them. This is also reflected in our calculated two-dimensional free energy surface contour diagram which has an interesting elliptic shape, revealing a strong correlation between the opening of the LID domain and that of the NMP domain. Our free energy surface of the LID domain motion is rugged due to interaction with water and the signature of ruggedness is evident in the observed root mean square deviation variation and its fluctuation time correlation functions. We develop a correlated dynamical disorder-type theoretical model to explain the observed dynamic coupling between the motion of the two domains in ADK. Our model correctly reproduces several features of the cross-correlation observed in simulations.

  5. Dynamic coupling between the LID and NMP domain motions in the catalytic conversion of ATP and AMP to ADP by adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biman; Adkar, Bharat V; Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-21

    The catalytic conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by adenylate kinase (ADK) involves large amplitude, ligand induced domain motions, involving the opening and the closing of ATP binding domain (LID) and AMP binding domain (NMP) domains, during the repeated catalytic cycle. We discover and analyze an interesting dynamical coupling between the motion of the two domains during the opening, using large scale atomistic molecular dynamics trajectory analysis, covariance analysis, and multidimensional free energy calculations with explicit water. Initially, the LID domain must open by a certain amount before the NMP domain can begin to open. Dynamical correlation map shows interesting cross-peak between LID and NMP domain which suggests the presence of correlated motion between them. This is also reflected in our calculated two-dimensional free energy surface contour diagram which has an interesting elliptic shape, revealing a strong correlation between the opening of the LID domain and that of the NMP domain. Our free energy surface of the LID domain motion is rugged due to interaction with water and the signature of ruggedness is evident in the observed root mean square deviation variation and its fluctuation time correlation functions. We develop a correlated dynamical disorder-type theoretical model to explain the observed dynamic coupling between the motion of the two domains in ADK. Our model correctly reproduces several features of the cross-correlation observed in simulations.

  6. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Janusz; Łakomy, Ireneusz Mirosław

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections) were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  7. Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, K

    2003-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP) was studied in the neurons of the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) projecting to the uterine horn and uterine cervix after uterus extirpation-induced axotomy in sexually immature gilts. The expression was studied with immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Uterus-projecting neurons were identified by retrograde tracing with Fast Blue (FB). Immunohistochemistry revealed that FB-positive (FB+) uterus-projecting neurons in control animals contained only immunoreactivities to NPY (ca. 50%) and GAL (single neurons). Uterus extirpation increased the occurrence of NPY and GAL in FB+ neurons. No other studied neuropeptides were found in axotomized uterus-projecting neurons. Hybridization in situ revealed the reduction of NPY expression and induction of GAL expression in FB+ neurons. RT-PCR detected induction of GAL expression in the IMG after uterus extirpation. The expression level of NPY and SOM was significant and was not affected by axotomy. The expression level of PACAP was very low and did not differ between IMG of control, partially and totally hysterectomized animals. No VIP and SP expression was detected in all ganglia. The presented data show clear axotomy-related changes in the expression of GAL and NPY in the uterus-projecting neurons of the porcine IMG. PMID:12817785

  8. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of food deprivation on pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) and preprosomatostatin 1 (PPSS 1) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiyu; Volkoff, Hélène

    2009-04-01

    Full-length complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequences encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) and preprosomatostatin 1 (PPSS 1) were cloned from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) hypothalamus using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid ends. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction shows that PRP/PACAP mRNA and PPSS 1 mRNA are widely distributed throughout cod brain. During development, PRP/PACAP and PPSS 1 were detected at the 30-somite stage and pre-hatching stage, respectively, and expression levels gradually increased up to the hatched larvae. PPSS 1, but not PRP/PACAP, appeared to be affected by food availability during early development. In juvenile cod, PPSS 1 expression levels increased and remained significantly higher than that of control fed fish throughout 30 days of starvation and during a subsequent 10 days refeeding period. In contrast, PRP/PACAP expression levels were not affected by 30 days of food deprivation, but a significant increase in expression levels was observed during the 10 days refeeding period in the experimental food-deprived group as compared to the control fed group. Our results suggest that PRP/PACAP and PPSS 1 may be involved in the complex regulation of growth, feeding and metabolism during food deprivation and refeeding in Atlantic cod. PMID:19135491

  9. Beta-agonist- and prostaglandin E1-induced translocation of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: evidence that the kinase may act on multiple adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, R H; Benovic, J L; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J

    1986-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-AR kinase) is a cytosolic enzyme that phosphorylates the beta-adrenergic receptor only when it is occupied by an agonist [Benovic, J. Strasser, R. H., Caron, M. G. & Lefkowitz, R. J. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 2797-2801.] It may be crucially involved in the processes that lead to homologous or agonist-specific desensitization of the receptor. Stimulation of DDT1MF-2 hamster smooth muscle cells or S49 mouse lymphoma cells with a beta-agonist leads to translocation of 80-90% of the beta-AR kinase activity from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. The translocation process is quite rapid, is concurrent with receptor phosphorylation, and precedes receptor desensitization and sequestration. It is also transient, since much of the activity returns to the cytosol as the receptors become sequestered. Stimulation of beta-AR kinase translocation is a receptor-mediated event, since the beta-antagonist propranolol blocks the effect of agonist. In the kin- mutant of the S49 cells (lacks cAMP-dependent protein kinase), prostaglandin E1, which provokes homologous desensitization of its own receptor, is at least as effective as isoproterenol in promoting beta-AR kinase translocation to the plasma membrane. However, in the DDT1MF-2 cells, which contain alpha 1-adrenergic receptors coupled to phosphatidylinositol turnover, the alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine is ineffective. These results suggest that the first step in homologous desensitization of the beta-adrenergic receptor may be an agonist-promoted translocation of beta-AR kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane and that beta-AR kinase may represent a more general adenylate cyclase-coupled receptor kinase that participates in regulating the function of many such receptors. Images PMID:3018728

  10. Beta 1-adrenergic regulation of the GT1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal cell lines: stimulation of GnRH release via receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Martínez de la Escalera, G; Choi, A L; Weiner, R I

    1992-09-01

    The release of GnRH evoked by norepinephrine (NE) was studied in GT1 GnRH neuronal cell lines in superfusion and static cultures. GnRH release from static cultured GT1-7 cells was stimulated by NE in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was mimicked by the nonsubtype-selective beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the beta 1-adrenergic subtype-specific antagonist CGP 20712A. However, the stimulation of GnRH release by NE was not affected by the beta 2-, alpha-, alpha 1-, or alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists ICI 118.551, phentolamine, prazosin, or yohimbine, respectively. Superfusion of GT1-1 cells with NE for 60-100 min resulted in rapid and sustained increases in GnRH secretion. The NE-stimulated GnRH release showed a higher amplitude and longer duration than the spontaneous GnRH pulses characteristic of GT1-1 cells. In parallel to the stimulation of GnRH release, NE also rapidly increased (first observed at 60 sec) the intracellular concentration of cAMP in isobutylmethylxanthine-pretreated GT1-1 and GT1-7 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The stimulation of intracellular cAMP concentration was also mimicked by isoproterenol and blocked by propranolol and CGP 20712A. In addition, GT1 cells express beta 1- but not beta 2-adrenergic receptor mRNA, as probed by Northern blot analysis. These results demonstrate a direct stimulatory effect of NE on GnRH neurons. The pharmacological evidence and the mRNA analysis are consistent with NE acting through a beta 1-adrenergic receptor positively coupled to adenylate cyclase.

  11. Chronic stress increases pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST): roles for PACAP in anxiety-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hammack, Sayamwong E.; Cheung, Joseph; Rhodes, Kimberly M.; Schutz, Kristin C.; Falls, William A.; Braas, Karen M.; May, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress has been argued to produce maladaptive anxiety-like behavioral states, and many of the brain regions associated with stressor responding also mediate anxiety-like behavior. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its specific G protein-coupled PAC1 receptor have been associated with many of these stress- and anxiety-associated brain regions, and signaling via this peptidergic system may facilitate the neuroplasticity associated with pathological affective states. Here we investigated whether chronic stress increased transcript expression for PACAP, PAC1 receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in several nuclei. In rats exposed to a 7 day chronic variate stress paradigm, chronic stress enhanced baseline startle responding induced by handling and exposure to bright lights. Following chronic stress, quantitative transcript assessments of brain regions demonstrated dramatic increases in PACAP and PAC1 receptor, BDNF, and TrkB receptor mRNA expression selectively in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST). Related vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VPAC receptor, and other stress peptide transcript levels were not altered compared to controls. Moreover, acute PACAP38 infusion into the dBNST resulted in a robust dose-dependent anxiogenic response on baseline startle responding that persisted for 7 days. PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling has established trophic functions and its coordinate effects with chronic stress-induced dBNST BDNF and TrkB transcript expression may underlie the maladaptive BNST remodeling and plasticity associated with anxiety-like behavior. PMID:19181454

  12. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Human isoenzymes of adenylate kinase: isolation and physicochemical comparison of the crystalline human ATP-AMP transphosphorylases from muscle and liver.

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Frischat, A; Cress, M C; Hamada, M

    1983-02-10

    Procedures are described for the isolation, in crystalline form, of the adenylate kinases from autopsy samples of human muscle and from human liver. Weight average molecular weights were determined by sedimentation equilibrium to be 22,000 (+/- 700) and 25,450 (+/- 160) for the human muscle and liver isoenzymes, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their molecular weights were estimated to be 21,700 and 26,500 for the muscle and liver enzymes, respectively. Both isoenzymes are accordingly monomeric proteins in their native state. Amino acid analyses are reported here for the normal human liver, calf liver, and rabbit liver adenylate kinases and compared with the normal human muscle, calf muscle, and rabbit muscle myokinases. The liver types as a group and the muscle types as a group show a great deal of homology, but some distinct differences are evident between the liver and muscle enzyme groups, especially in the number of residues of His, Pro, half-cystine, and the presence of tryptophan in the liver enzymes. The normal human liver adenylate kinase, as isolated in this report, has proved to be similar in its properties, if not identical, to the adenylate kinase isolated directly from human liver mitochondria (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128). Therefore, the liver-type adenylate kinase may be considered a mitochondrial type.

  13. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  14. Alterations in the expression of G-proteins and regulation of adenylate cyclase in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells chronically exposed to low-efficacy mu-opioids.

    PubMed

    Ammer, H; Schulz, R

    1993-10-01

    Western-blot analysis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (mu- and delta-receptors) revealed the presence of the following G-protein subunits: Gi alpha 1, Gi alpha 2, Gs alpha, G(o) alpha, Gz alpha, and G beta, a pattern resembling that observed in central nervous tissue. Chronic treatment of differentiated [all-trans-retinoic acid (10 microM; 6 days)] SH-SY5Y cells with D(-)-morphine (10 microM; 3 days) significantly increased the abundance of all G-protein subunits identified. Co-incubation of morphine-exposed cells together with naloxone (10 microM; 3 days) or the mu-selective opioid antagonist CTOP (10 microM; 3 days), but not with the delta-selective antagonist ICI-174,864 (10 microM; 3 days), completely abolished this effect, suggesting that the increase in G-protein abundance is specifically mediated by mu-receptors. Moreover, the biologically inactive enantiomer L(+)-morphine (10 microM; 3 days) failed to produce a similar effect. G-protein up-regulation developed in a time- and dose-dependent manner and is most likely due to enhanced protein synthesis de novo, since concomitant treatment of the cells with cycloheximide (100 micrograms/ml; 3 days) prevented this effect. Chronic treatment with the low-efficacy mu-selective opioid peptide morphiceptin (10 microM; 3 days), but not with the highly potent mu-agonist DAGO (0.1 microM; 3 days) produced a comparable increase in G-protein abundance. Coincident with quantitative effects on G-protein levels in morphine-tolerant/dependent SH-SY5Y cells, we found elevated levels of basal, forskolin (1 microM)- and prostaglandin-E1 (1 microM)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities. Reconstitution experiments using S49 cyc- lymphoma-cell membranes suggest that this increase is most likely due to elevated levels of functionally intact Gs. Chronic treatment with both morphine and DAGO induces high degrees of tolerance in this cell line. However, the intrinsic activity of G1 was unchanged, as assessed in functional studies

  15. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. XVIII. Synthesis and preparation of peptides and peptide fragments of rabbit muscle ATP-AMP transphosphorylase (adenylate kinase) and their nucleotide-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Hamada, M; Johnson, M S; Russell, G A; Manship, M; Palmieri, R H; Fleming, G; Bredt, D S; Mildvan, A S

    1989-08-01

    Two peptide fragments, derived from the head and tail of rabbit muscle myokinase, were found to possess remarkable and specific ligand-binding properties (Hamada et al., 1979). By initiating systematic syntheses and measurements of equilibrium substrate-binding properties of these two sets of peptides, or portions thereof, which encompass the binding sites for (a) the magnesium complexes of the nucleotide substrates (MgATP2- and MgADP-) and (b) the uncomplexed nucleotide substrates (ADP3- and AMP2-) of rabbit muscle myokinase, some of the requirements for binding of the substrates to ATP-AMP transphosphorylase are being deduced and chemically outlined. One requirement for tight nucleotide binding appears to be a minimum peptide length of 15-25 residues. In addition, Lys-172 and/or Lys-194 may be involved in the binding of epsilon AMP. The syntheses are described as a set of peptides corresponding to residues 31-45, 20-45, 5-45, and 1-45, and a set of peptides corresponding to residues 178-192, 178-194, and 172-194 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase. The ligand-binding properties of the first set of synthetic peptides to the fluorescent ligands: epsilon MgATP/epsilon ATP and epsilon MgADP/epsilon ADP are quantitatively presented in terms of their intrinsic dissociation constants (K'd) and values of N (maximal number of moles bound per mole of peptide); and compared with the peptide fragment MT-I (1-44) obtained from rabbit muscle myokinase (Kuby et al., 1984) and with the native enzyme (Hamada et al., 1979). In addition, the values of N and K'd are given for the second set of synthetic peptides to the fluorescent ligands epsilon AMP and epsilon ADP as well as for the peptide fragments MT-XII(172-194) and CB-VI(126-194) (Kuby et al., 1984) and, in turn, compared with the native enzyme. A few miscellaneous dissociation constants which had been derived kinetically are also given for comparison (e.g., the Ki for epsilon AMP and the value of KMg epsilon ATP obtained for

  16. Integrative Signaling Networks of Membrane Guanylate Cyclases: Biochemistry and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa; Makino, Clint L.

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity. Although the cyclic GMP pathway is direct, it is by no means simple. The modular design of the molecule incorporates regulation by ATP binding and phosphorylation. MGCs can form complexes with Ca2+-sensing subunits that either increase or decrease cyclic GMP synthesis, depending on subunit identity. In some systems, co-expression of two Ca2+ sensors, GCAP1 and S100B with ROS-GC1 confers bimodal signaling marked by increases in cyclic GMP synthesis when intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises or falls. Some MGCs monitor or are modulated by carbon dioxide via its conversion to bicarbonate. One MGC even functions as a thermosensor as well as a chemosensor; activity reaches a maximum with a mild drop in temperature. The complexity afforded by these multiple limbs of operation enables MGC networks to perform transductions traditionally reserved for G protein coupled receptors and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels and to serve a diverse array of functions, including control over cardiac vasculature, smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation, cellular growth, sensory transductions, neural plasticity and memory. PMID:27695398

  17. Integrative Signaling Networks of Membrane Guanylate Cyclases: Biochemistry and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa; Makino, Clint L.

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity. Although the cyclic GMP pathway is direct, it is by no means simple. The modular design of the molecule incorporates regulation by ATP binding and phosphorylation. MGCs can form complexes with Ca2+-sensing subunits that either increase or decrease cyclic GMP synthesis, depending on subunit identity. In some systems, co-expression of two Ca2+ sensors, GCAP1 and S100B with ROS-GC1 confers bimodal signaling marked by increases in cyclic GMP synthesis when intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises or falls. Some MGCs monitor or are modulated by carbon dioxide via its conversion to bicarbonate. One MGC even functions as a thermosensor as well as a chemosensor; activity reaches a maximum with a mild drop in temperature. The complexity afforded by these multiple limbs of operation enables MGC networks to perform transductions traditionally reserved for G protein coupled receptors and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels and to serve a diverse array of functions, including control over cardiac vasculature, smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation, cellular growth, sensory transductions, neural plasticity and memory.

  18. Inhibitory role of monovalent ions on rat brain cortex adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Mitrovic, Marina; Zelen, Ivanka; Zaric, Milan; Kastratovic, Tatjana; Stanojevic, Marijana; Nenadovic, Milutin; Stojanovic, Tomislav

    2013-10-01

    Adenylyl cyclases, comprise of a large family of enzymes that catalyze synthesis of the cyclic AMP from ATP. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of monovalent ions on both basal, stimulated adenylate cyclase EC 4.6.1.1 (AC) activity and C unit of AC and on GTPase active G-protein in the synaptic membranes of rat brain cortex. The effect of ion concentration from 30 to 200 mM (1 mM MgCl2) showed dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the basal AC activity, stimulated and unstimulated C unit activity. Stimulation of AC with 5 μM GTPγS in the presence of 50-200 mM of tested salts showed inhibitory effect on the AC activity. From our results it could be postulated that the investigated monovalent ions exert inhibitory effect on the AC complex activity by affecting the intermolecular interaction of the activated α subunit of G/F protein and the C unit of AC complex an inhibitory influence of tested monovalent ions on these molecular interaction.

  19. Bifunctional Homodimeric Triokinase/FMN Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; Couto, Ana; Cabezas, Alicia; Pinto, Rosa María; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Canales, José; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian triokinase, which phosphorylates exogenous dihydroxyacetone and fructose-derived glyceraldehyde, is neither molecularly identified nor firmly associated to an encoding gene. Human FMN cyclase, which splits FAD and other ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds to ribonucleoside monophosphate and cyclic X-phosphodiester, is identical to a DAK-encoded dihydroxyacetone kinase. This bifunctional protein was identified as triokinase. It was modeled as a homodimer of two-domain (K and L) subunits. Active centers lie between K1 and L2 or K2 and L1: dihydroxyacetone binds K and ATP binds L in different subunits too distant (≈14 Å) for phosphoryl transfer. FAD docked to the ATP site with ribityl 4′-OH in a possible near-attack conformation for cyclase activity. Reciprocal inhibition between kinase and cyclase reactants confirmed substrate site locations. The differential roles of protein domains were supported by their individual expression: K was inactive, and L displayed cyclase but not kinase activity. The importance of domain mobility for the kinase activity of dimeric triokinase was highlighted by molecular dynamics simulations: ATP approached dihydroxyacetone at distances below 5 Å in near-attack conformation. Based upon structure, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations, relevant residues were mutated to alanine, and kcat and Km were assayed whenever kinase and/or cyclase activity was conserved. The results supported the roles of Thr112 (hydrogen bonding of ATP adenine to K in the closed active center), His221 (covalent anchoring of dihydroxyacetone to K), Asp401 and Asp403 (metal coordination to L), and Asp556 (hydrogen bonding of ATP or FAD ribose to L domain). Interestingly, the His221 point mutant acted specifically as a cyclase without kinase activity. PMID:24569995

  20. Adenylate-forming enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Stefan; Naismith, James H

    2009-12-01

    Thioesters, amides, and esters are common chemical building blocks in a wide array of natural products. The formation of these bonds can be catalyzed in a variety of ways. For chemists, the use of an activating group is a common strategy and adenylate enzymes are exemplars of this approach. Adenylating enzymes activate the otherwise unreactive carboxylic acid by transforming the normal hydroxyl leaving group into adenosine monophosphate. Recently there have been a number of studies of such enzymes and in this review we suggest a new classification scheme. The review highlights the diversity in enzyme fold, active site architecture, and metal coordination that has evolved to catalyze this particular reaction. PMID:19836944

  1. Crystal Structures of the Catalytic Domain of Human Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Allerston, Charles K.; von Delft, Frank; Gileadi, Opher

    2013-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) catalyses the synthesis of cyclic GMP in response to nitric oxide. The enzyme is a heterodimer of homologous α and β subunits, each of which is composed of multiple domains. We present here crystal structures of a heterodimer of the catalytic domains of the α and β subunits, as well as an inactive homodimer of β subunits. This first structure of a metazoan, heteromeric cyclase provides several observations. First, the structures resemble known structures of adenylate cyclases and other guanylate cyclases in overall fold and in the arrangement of conserved active-site residues, which are contributed by both subunits at the interface. Second, the subunit interaction surface is promiscuous, allowing both homodimeric and heteromeric association; the preference of the full-length enzyme for heterodimer formation must derive from the combined contribution of other interaction interfaces. Third, the heterodimeric structure is in an inactive conformation, but can be superposed onto an active conformation of adenylate cyclase by a structural transition involving a 26° rigid-body rotation of the α subunit. In the modelled active conformation, most active site residues in the subunit interface are precisely aligned with those of adenylate cyclase. Finally, the modelled active conformation also reveals a cavity related to the active site by pseudo-symmetry. The pseudosymmetric site lacks key active site residues, but may bind allosteric regulators in a manner analogous to the binding of forskolin to adenylate cyclase. This indicates the possibility of developing a new class of small-molecule modulators of guanylate cyclase activity targeting the catalytic domain. PMID:23505436

  2. An aberrant adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hamada, M; Okuda, H; Oka, K; Watanabe, T; Ueda, K; Nojima, M; Kuby, S A; Manship, M; Tyler, F H; Ziter, F A

    1981-08-13

    The sera from patients with human Duchenne (X-linked) progressive muscular dystrophy contain elevated adenylate kinase (ATP: AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activities, in addition to their characteristically high creatine kinase (ATP; creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) activities. By agarose gel electrophoresis of human Duchenne dystrophic serum, the presence of an apparently normal human serum adenylate kinase together with a variant species of adenylate kinase was detected. The latter enzyme species appeared, in its mobility, to be similar to that of the normal human liver-type adenylate kinase. The presence of this aberrant liver-type adenylate kinase could also be demonstrated by characteristic (for the liver type) inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di-(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate. On the other hand, by inhibition titrations with an anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase, hemolysates from the erythrocytes of several Duchenne and Becker's dystrophics were found to contain approx. 96% muscle-type adenylate kinase and their serum approx. 97% muscle-type adenylate kinase. These same patients contained approx. 89% M-M type creatine kinase in their serum (by inhibition against anti-human muscle-type creatine kinase) indicative of the presence also of M-B plus B-B type active isoenzymes. All of these data can best be explained by the presence of a variant or mutant adenylate kinase isoenzyme in the dystrophic serum. This isoenzyme appears to resemble the liver type in its inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in its heat stability (compare also the agarose gel electrophoresis pattern); but structurally, it is a muscle type, or derived from a muscle type, as shown immunologically by inhibition reactions with anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase. Whether this is a fetal-type isoenzyme of adenylate kinase will require further

  3. Primary structure of maize chloroplast adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, E; Burger, S; Grafmüller, R; Deppert, W R; Haehnel, W; Wagner, E

    1994-06-15

    This paper describes the sequence of adenylate kinase (Mg-ATP+AMP<-->Mg-ADP+ADP) from maize chloroplasts. This light-inducible enzyme is important for efficient CO2 fixation in the C4 cycle, by removing and recycling AMP produced in the reversible pyruvate phosphate dikinase reaction. The complete sequence was determined by analyzing peptides from cleavages with trypsin, AspN protease and CNBr and subcleavage of a major CNBr peptide with chymotrypsin. N-terminal Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion established the terminal residues. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the final sequence of 222 residues (M(r) = 24867) including one cysteine and one tryptophan. The sequence shows this enzyme to be a long-variant-type adenylate kinase, the nearest relatives being adenylate kinases from Enterobacteriaceae. Alignment of the sequence with the adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli reveals 44% identical residues. Since the E. coli structure has been published recently at 0.19-nm resolution with the inhibitor adenosine(5')pentaphospho(5')adenosine (Ap5A) [Müller, C. W. & Schulz, G. E. (1992) J. Mol. Biol. 224, 159-177], catalytically essential residues could be compared and were found to be mostly conserved. Surprisingly, in the nucleotide-binding Gly-rich loop Gly-Xaa-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly-Lys the middle Gly is replaced by Ala. This is, however, compensated by an Ile-->Val exchange in the nearest spatial neighborhood. A Thr-->Ala exchange explains the unusual tolerance of the enzyme for pyrimidine nucleotides in the acceptor site. PMID:8026505

  4. Challenge of human Jurkat T-cells with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin elicits major changes in cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) expression by up-regulating PDE3 and inducing PDE4D1 and PDE4D2 splice variants as well as down-regulating a novel PDE4A splice variant.

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, S; Houslay, M D

    1997-01-01

    The cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and PDE4 isoforms provide the major cAMP-hydrolysing PDE activities in Jurkat T-cells, with additional contributions from the PDE1 and PDE2 isoforms. Challenge of cells with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin led to a rapid, albeit transient, increase in PDE3 activity occurring over the first 45 min, followed by a sustained increase in PDE3 activity which began after approximately 3 h and continued for at least 24 h. Only this second phase of increase in PDE3 activity was blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D. After approximately 3 h of exposure to forskolin, PDE4 activity had increased, via a process that could be inhibited by actinomycin D, and it remained elevated for at least a 24 h period. Such actions of forskolin were mimicked by cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cAMP. Forskolin increased intracellular cAMP concentrations in a time-dependent fashion and its action was enhanced when PDE induction was blocked with actinomycin D. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis, using generic primers designed to detect transcripts representing enzymically active products of the four PDE4 genes, identified transcripts for PDE4A and PDE4D but not for PDE4B or PDE4C in untreated Jurkat T-cells. Forskolin treatment did not induce transcripts for either PDE4B or PDE4C; however, it reduced the RT-PCR signal for PDE4A transcripts and markedly enhanced that for PDE4D transcripts. Using RT-PCR primers for PDE4 splice variants, a weak signal for PDE4D1 was evident in control cells whereas, in forskolin-treated cells, clear signals for both PDE4D1 and PDE4D2 were detected. RT-PCR analysis of the PDE4A species indicated that it was not the PDE4A isoform PDE-46 (PDE4A4B). Immunoblotting of control cells for PDE4 forms identified a single PDE4A species of approximately 118 kDa, which migrated distinctly from the PDE4A4B isoform PDE-46, with immunoprecipitation analyses showing that it provided all of the PDE4 activity in control

  5. Adenylate kinases 1 and 2 are part of the accessory structures in the mouse sperm flagellum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenlei; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa; Gerton, George L; Moss, Stuart B

    2006-10-01

    Proper sperm function depends on adequate ATP levels. In the mammalian flagellum, ATP is generated in the midpiece by oxidative respiration and in the principal piece by glycolysis. In locations where ATP is rapidly utilized or produced, adenylate kinases (AKs) maintain a constant adenylate energy charge by interconverting stoichiometric amounts of ATP and AMP with two ADP molecules. We previously identified adenylate kinase 1 and 2 (AK1 and AK2) by mass spectrometry as part of a mouse SDS-insoluble flagellar preparation containing the accessory structures (fibrous sheath, outer dense fibers, and mitochondrial sheath). A germ cell-specific cDNA encoding AK1 was characterized and found to contain a truncated 3' UTR and a different 5' UTR compared to the somatic Ak1 mRNA; however, it encoded an identical protein. Ak1 mRNA was upregulated during late spermiogenesis, a time when the flagellum is being assembled. AK1 was first seen in condensing spermatids and was associated with the outer microtubular doublets and outer dense fibers of sperm. This localization would allow the interconversion of ATP and ADP between the fibrous sheath where ATP is produced by glycolysis and the axonemal dynein ATPases where ATP is consumed. Ak2 mRNA was expressed at relatively low levels throughout spermatogenesis, and the protein was localized to the mitochondrial sheath in the sperm midpiece. AK1 and AK2 in the flagellar accessory structures provide a mechanism to buffer the adenylate energy charge for sperm motility.

  6. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  7. Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Meili, Dimirela; Salathe, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is integral for many physiological processes. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was recently identified as a widely expressed intracellular source of cAMP in mammalian cells. sAC is evolutionary, structurally, and biochemically distinct from the G-protein-responsive transmembranous adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). The structure of the catalytic unit of sAC is similar to tmAC, but sAC does not contain transmembranous domains, allowing localizations independent of the membranous compartment. sAC activity is stimulated by HCO3-, Ca2+ and is sensitive to physiologically relevant ATP fluctuations. sAC functions as a physiological sensor for carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and therefore indirectly for pH. Here we review the physiological role of sAC in different human tissues with a major focus on the lung. PMID:25064591

  8. Nucleotidyl Cyclase Activity of Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase A: Comparison with Particulate Guanylyl Cyclases E and F, Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Bacterial Adenylyl Cyclases Cyaa and Edema Factor

    PubMed Central

    Beste, Kerstin Y.; Spangler, Corinna M.; Burhenne, Heike; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm; Shen, Yuequan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) regulate many physiological processes by catalyzing the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. The GC family consists of seven particulate GCs (pGCs) and a nitric oxide-activated soluble GC (sGC). Rat sGC α1β1 possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Moreover, the exotoxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis and edema factor (EF) from Bacillus anthracis possess nucleotidyl cyclase (NC) activity. pGC-A is a natriuretic peptide-activated homodimer with two catalytic sites that act cooperatively. Here, we studied the NC activity of rat pGC-A in membranes of stably transfected HEK293 cells using a highly sensitive and specific HPLC-MS/MS technique. GTP and ITP were effective, and ATP and XTP were only poor, pGC-A substrates. In contrast to sGC, pGC-A did not use CTP and UTP as substrates. pGC-E and pGC-F expressed in bovine rod outer segment membranes used only GTP as substrate. In intact HEK293 cells, pGC-A generated only cGMP. In contrast to pGCs, EF and CyaA showed very broad substrate-specificity. In conclusion, NCs exhibit different substrate-specificities, arguing against substrate-leakiness of enzymes and pointing to distinct physiological functions of cyclic purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. PMID:23922959

  9. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbale, Percy; Williams, Jessica S.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  10. Bacterial terpene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. This review summarises the accumulated knowledge about characterised bacterial terpene cyclases. The structures of identified products and of crystallised enzymes are included, and the obtained insights into enzyme mechanisms are discussed. After a summary of mono-, sesqui- and diterpene cyclases the special cases of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases that are both particularly widespread in bacteria will be presented. A total number of 63 enzymes that have been characterised so far is presented, with 132 cited references. PMID:26563452

  11. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, L; Gombault, A; Fanny, M; Villeret, B; Savigny, F; Guillou, N; Panek, C; Le Bert, M; Lagente, V; Rassendren, F; Riteau, N; Couillin, I

    2015-01-01

    The NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a major component of the innate immune system, but its mechanism of activation by a wide range of molecules remains largely unknown. Widely used nano-sized inorganic metal oxides such as silica dioxide (nano-SiO2) and titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages similarly to silica or asbestos micro-sized particles. By investigating towards the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to nanoparticles, we show here that active adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine receptor signalling are required for inflammasome activation. Nano-SiO2 or nano-TiO2 caused a significant increase in P2Y1, P2Y2, A2A and/or A2B receptor expression, whereas the P2X7 receptor was downregulated. Interestingly, IL-1β secretion in response to nanoparticles is increased by enhanced ATP and ADP hydrolysis, whereas it is decreased by adenosine degradation or selective A2A or A2B receptor inhibition. Downstream of these receptors, our results show that nanoparticles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome via activation of PLC-InsP3 and/or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (ADCY)-cAMP pathways. Finally, a high dose of adenosine triggers inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion through adenosine cellular uptake by nucleotide transporters and by its subsequent transformation in ATP by adenosine kinase. In summary, we show for the first time that extracellular adenosine activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by two ways: by interacting with adenosine receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations and through cellular uptake by equilibrative nucleoside transporters at millimolar concentrations. These findings provide new molecular insights on the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and new therapeutic strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25654762

  12. Structure of the DNA Ligase-Adenylate Intermediate: Lysine (ε-amino)-Linked Adenosine Monophosphoramidate*

    PubMed Central

    Gumport, Richard I.; Lehman, I. R.

    1971-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the Escherichia coli DNA ligase-adenylate intermediate releases adenosine 5′-monophosphate linked to the ε-amino group of lysine by a phosphoamide bond. Measurements of the rate of hydroxylaminolysis of the ligase-adenylate provide further support for a phosphoamide linkage in the native enzyme. Lysine (ε-amino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate has also been isolated from the T4 phage-induced ligase-adenylate intermediate. These results indicate that an initial step of the DNA ligase reaction consists of the nucleophilic attack of the ε-amino group of a lysine residue of the enzyme on the adenylyl phosphorus of DPN or ATP that leads to the formation of enzyme-bound lysine (εamino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate. PMID:4944632

  13. Inhibition of vaccinia mRNA methylation by 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acid) triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, O.K.; Goswami, B.B.

    1981-04-01

    Extracts of interferon-treated cells synthesize unique 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acid) 5'-phosphates in the presence of ATP and double-stranded RNA. 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acid) 5'-triphosphate inhibits protein synthesis at nanomolar concentrations by activating RNase. We have observed that oligo(adenylic acid) 5'-monophosphate and 5'-triphosphate are potent inhibitors of vaccinia mRNA methylation in vitro. Both the methylation of the 5'-terminal guanine at the 7 position and the 2'-O-ribose methylation of the penultimate nucleoside are inhibited. Such inhibition of mRNA methylation is not due to degradation of the mRNA. Inhibition of the requisite modification of the 5' terminus of mRNA by 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acids) may be a mechanism of interferon action against both DNA and RNA viruses in which mRNAs derived from them are capped.

  14. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  15. Product identification and adenylyl cyclase activity in chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Witters, Erwin; Quanten, Lieve; Bloemen, Jo; Valcke, Roland; Van Onckelen, Harry

    2004-01-01

    In view of the ongoing debate on plant cyclic nucleotide metabolism, especially the functional presence of adenylyl cyclase, a novel detection method has been worked out to quantify the reaction product. Using uniformly labelled (15)N-ATP as a substrate for adenylyl cyclase, a qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed to measure de novo formed (15)N-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Adenylyl cyclase activity was observed in chloroplasts obtained from Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havana and the kinetic parameters and influence of various metabolic effectors are discussed in their context.

  16. Delivery of Large Heterologous Polypeptides across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Antigen-Presenting Cells by the Bordetella RTX Hemolysin Moiety Lacking the Adenylyl Cyclase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Jana; Jelinek, Jiri; Tomala, Jakub; Masin, Jiri; Kosova, Martina; Stanek, Ondrej; Bumba, Ladislav; Michalek, Jaroslav; Kovar, Marek; Sebo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA; also called ACT or AC-Hly) targets CD11b-expressing phagocytes and translocates into their cytosol an adenylyl cyclase (AC) that hijacks cellular signaling by conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Intriguingly, insertion of large passenger peptides removes the enzymatic activity but not the cell-invasive capacity of the AC domain. This has repeatedly been exploited for delivery of heterologous antigens into the cytosolic pathway of CD11b-expressing dendritic cells by CyaA/AC− toxoids, thus enabling their processing and presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs). We produced a set of toxoids with overlapping deletions within the first 371 residues of CyaA and showed that the structure of the AC enzyme does not contain any sequences indispensable for its translocation across target cell membrane. Moreover, replacement of the AC domain (residues 1 to 371) with heterologous polypeptides of 40, 146, or 203 residues yielded CyaAΔAC constructs that delivered passenger CTL epitopes into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and induced strong antigen-specific CD8+ CTL responses in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. This shows that the RTX (repeats in toxin) hemolysin moiety, consisting of residues 374 to 1706 of CyaA, harbors all structural information involved in translocation of the N-terminal AC domain across target cell membranes. These results decipher the extraordinary capacity of the AC domain of CyaA to transport large heterologous cargo polypeptides into the cytosol of CD11b+ target cells and pave the way for the construction of CyaAΔAC-based polyvalent immunotherapeutic T cell vaccines. PMID:22215742

  17. Origin of asymmetry in adenylyl cyclases: structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1900c.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sangita C; Wetterer, Martina; Sprang, Stephen R; Schultz, Joachim E; Linder, Jürgen U

    2005-02-23

    Rv1900c, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenylyl cyclase, is composed of an N-terminal alpha/beta-hydrolase domain and a C-terminal cyclase homology domain. It has an unusual 7% guanylyl cyclase side-activity. A canonical substrate-defining lysine and a catalytic asparagine indispensable for mammalian adenylyl cyclase activity correspond to N342 and H402 in Rv1900c. Mutagenic analysis indicates that these residues are dispensable for activity of Rv1900c. Structures of the cyclase homology domain, solved to 2.4 A both with and without an ATP analog, form isologous, but asymmetric homodimers. The noncanonical N342 and H402 do not interact with the substrate. Subunits of the unliganded open dimer move substantially upon binding substrate, forming a closed dimer similar to the mammalian cyclase heterodimers, in which one interfacial active site is occupied and the quasi-dyad-related active site is occluded. This asymmetry indicates that both active sites cannot simultaneously be catalytically active. Such a mechanism of half-of-sites-reactivity suggests that mammalian heterodimeric adenylyl cyclases may have evolved from gene duplication of a primitive prokaryote-type cyclase, followed by loss of function in one active site. PMID:15678099

  18. Adenylate Energy Pool and Energy Charge in Maturing Rape Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Crane, Jim M.; Stamp, David L.

    1974-01-01

    A study of energy state and chemical composition of pod walls and seeds of maturing rape (Brassica napus L.) was conducted on two varieties, Victor and Gorczanski. Total adenosine phosphates, ATP, and adenylate energy charge increased with increasing cell number and cellular synthesis during the early stages, remained high at maximum dry weight accumulation and maximum substrate influx time, and decreased with ripening. A temporal control of energy supply and ATP concentration is evident in developing tissues with determined functions; whereas the association of a high energy charge and active cellular biosynthesis occurs only in tissues with a stabilized cell number. PMID:16658964

  19. Uridylation and adenylation of RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Song, JianBo; Song, Jun; Mo, BeiXin; Chen, XueMei

    2016-01-01

    The posttranscriptional addition of nontemplated nucleotides to the 3′ ends of RNA molecules can have a significant impact on their stability and biological function. It has been recently discovered that nontemplated addition of uridine or adenosine to the 3′ ends of RNAs occurs in different organisms ranging from algae to humans, and on different kinds of RNAs, such as histone mRNAs, mRNA fragments, U6 snRNA, mature small RNAs and their precursors etc. These modifications may lead to different outcomes, such as increasing RNA decay, promoting or inhibiting RNA processing, or changing RNA activity. Growing pieces of evidence have revealed that such modifications can be RNA sequence-specific and subjected to temporal or spatial regulation in development. RNA tailing and its outcomes have been associated with human diseases such as cancer. Here, we review recent developments in RNA uridylation and adenylation and discuss the future prospects in this research area. PMID:26563174

  20. Uridylation and adenylation of RNAs.

    PubMed

    Song, JianBo; Song, Jun; Mo, BeiXin; Chen, XueMei

    2015-11-01

    The posttranscriptional addition of nontemplated nucleotides to the 3' ends of RNA molecules can have a significant impact on their stability and biological function. It has been recently discovered that nontemplated addition of uridine or adenosine to the 3' ends of RNAs occurs in different organisms ranging from algae to humans, and on different kinds of RNAs, such as histone mRNAs, mRNA fragments, U6 snRNA, mature small RNAs and their precursors etc. These modifications may lead to different outcomes, such as increasing RNA decay, promoting or inhibiting RNA processing, or changing RNA activity. Growing pieces of evidence have revealed that such modifications can be RNA sequence-specific and subjected to temporal or spatial regulation in development. RNA tailing and its outcomes have been associated with human diseases such as cancer. Here, we review recent developments in RNA uridylation and adenylation and discuss the future prospects in this research area. PMID:26563174

  1. Extracellular ATP

    PubMed Central

    Chivasa, Stephen; Tomé, Daniel FA; Murphy, Alex M; Hamilton, John M; Lindsey, Keith; Carr, John P

    2009-01-01

    Living organisms acquire or synthesize high energy molecules, which they frugally conserve and use to meet their cellular metabolic demands. Therefore, it is surprising that ATP, the most accessible and commonly utilized chemical energy carrier, is actively secreted to the extracellular matrix of cells. It is now becoming clear that in plants this extracellular ATP (eATP) is not wasted, but harnessed at the cell surface to signal across the plasma membrane of the secreting cell and neighboring cells to cxontrol gene expression and influence plant development. Identification of the gene/protein networks regulated by eATP-mediated signaling should provide insight into the physiological roles of eATP in plants. By disrupting eATP-mediated signaling, we have identified pathogen defense genes as part of the eATP-regulated gene circuitry, leading us to the discovery that eATP is a negative regulator of pathogen defense in plants.1 Previously, we reported that eATP is a key signal molecule that modulates programmed cell death in plants.2 A complex picture is now emerging, in which eATP-mediated signaling cross-talks with signaling mediated by the major plant defense hormone, salicylic acid, in the regulation of pathogen defense and cell death. PMID:20009563

  2. On the Dynamics of the Adenylate Energy System: Homeorhesis vs Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Valero, Edelmira; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim; Malaina, Iker; Martínez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical energy is the fundamental element that maintains both the adequate turnover of the biomolecular structures and the functional metabolic viability of unicellular organisms. The levels of ATP, ADP and AMP reflect roughly the energetic status of the cell, and a precise ratio relating them was proposed by Atkinson as the adenylate energy charge (AEC). Under growth-phase conditions, cells maintain the AEC within narrow physiological values, despite extremely large fluctuations in the adenine nucleotides concentration. Intensive experimental studies have shown that these AEC values are preserved in a wide variety of organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here, to understand some of the functional elements involved in the cellular energy status, we present a computational model conformed by some key essential parts of the adenylate energy system. Specifically, we have considered (I) the main synthesis process of ATP from ADP, (II) the main catalyzed phosphotransfer reaction for interconversion of ATP, ADP and AMP, (III) the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP yielding ADP, and (IV) the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP providing AMP. This leads to a dynamic metabolic model (with the form of a delayed differential system) in which the enzymatic rate equations and all the physiological kinetic parameters have been explicitly considered and experimentally tested in vitro. Our central hypothesis is that cells are characterized by changing energy dynamics (homeorhesis). The results show that the AEC presents stable transitions between steady states and periodic oscillations and, in agreement with experimental data these oscillations range within the narrow AEC window. Furthermore, the model shows sustained oscillations in the Gibbs free energy and in the total nucleotide pool. The present study provides a step forward towards the understanding of the fundamental principles and quantitative laws governing the adenylate energy system, which is a fundamental element for

  3. Rat muscle 5'-adenylic acid aminohydrolase. Role of K+ and adenylate energy charge in expression of kinetic and regulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Coffee, C J; Solano, C

    1977-03-10

    The kinetic and regulatory properties of homogeneous AMP deaminase from rat skeletal muscle have ben examined with particular emphasis on (a) the role of potassium ions in the expression of these properties and (b) the role of the adenylate energy charge in the regulation of AMP deaminase activity. Although the enzyme has an absolute requirement for K+, the concentration required for maximum activation is dependent on the concentration of substrate. At saturating levels of AMP (greater than or equal 2.0 mM) maximum activation is observed with 25 mM KCl, whereas at lower substrate concentrations (0.2 mM) approximately 50 mM KCl is needed for maximum activation. Conversely, the response of enzyme activity ot increasing levels of substrate is dependent on the level of potassium ions. At substrating concentrations of K+, the saturation curve for AMP is highly sigmoidal (nh=3.2) whereas at higher KCl concentrations, the apparent cooperativity between AMP sites is almost completely abolished (nh=1.5). The inhibition by a number of phosphorylated metabolites, including ATP, GTP, creatine-P, and P1, is likewise sensitive to the concentration of K+. These results suggest that a significant amount of interaction between K+ sites and both substrate and effector sites is required for the expression of the catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme. The specific effects of ATP, creatine-P, and P1 on the parameters of Km and Vmax indicate that each of these profile of AMP deaminase activity generated in response to variations in the adenylate energy charge shows that within the physiological range of energy charge (0.75 to 0.95), the activity increases linearly with decreasesing energy charge and is insensitive to both the total adenylate pool size and the presence of P1 and creatine-P. These data suggest that the most important factor in the regulation of AMP deaminase activity is the state of the energy charge rather than the absolute concentrations of the individual

  4. Adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for growth through its catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Thach, Trung Thanh; Luong, Truc Thanh; Lee, Sangho; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infection causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Pneumococcal growth is a prerequisite for its virulence and requires an appropriate supply of cellular energy. Adenylate kinases constitute a major family of enzymes that regulate cellular ATP levels. Some bacterial adenylate kinases (AdKs) are known to be critical for growth, but the physiological effects of AdKs in pneumococci have been poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, by crystallographic and functional studies, we report that the catalytic activity of adenylate kinase from S.pneumoniae (SpAdK) serotype 2 D39 is essential for growth. We determined the crystal structure of SpAdK in two conformations: ligand-free open form and closed in complex with a two-substrate mimic inhibitor adenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A). Crystallographic analysis of SpAdK reveals Arg-89 as a key active site residue. We generated a conditional expression mutant of pneumococcus in which the expression of the adk gene is tightly regulated by fucose. The expression level of adk correlates with growth rate. Expression of the wild-type adk gene in fucose-inducible strains rescued a growth defect, but expression of the Arg-89 mutation did not. SpAdK increased total cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, lack of functional SpAdK caused a growth defect in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SpAdK is essential for pneumococcal growth in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25180151

  5. Vasorelaxant effect of isoliquiritigenin, a novel soluble guanylate cyclase activator, in rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S M; Kuo, S C

    1995-01-01

    1. The vasorelaxant activity of isoliquiritigenin, isolated from Dalbergia odorifera T, was investigated in the phenylephrine-precontracted rat aorta by measuring tension, guanylate and adenylate cyclase activities, guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels. 2. Isoliquiritigenin concentration-dependently relaxed rat aorta contracted with phenylephrine, KCl, U-46619, endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine, with EC50s of 7.4 +/- 1.6, 10.5 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 3.3, 11.8 +/- 2.0 and 13.6 +/- 3.7 microM, respectively. 3. Isoliquiritigenin caused endothelium-independent relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings. Neither NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (an inhibitor of the L-arginine-NO pathway) nor oxyhaemoglobin (which binds NO) modified the relaxant effect of isoliquiritigenin. The relaxant action of isoliquiritigenin also persisted in intact aorta in the presence of indomethacin or glibenclamide. However, methylene blue, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, abolished relaxation induced by isoliquiritigenin. 4. Incubation of rat aorta with isoliquiritigenin not only increased aortic cyclic GMP content but also caused small increases in aortic cyclic AMP content, and greatly potentiated the increases in cyclic AMP observed in the presence of forskolin. The maximum increase in cyclic GMP by isoliquiritigenin was reached earlier than the increase in cyclic AMP. This result suggests that the increases in cyclic GMP caused by isoliquiritigenin might stimulate the accumulation of cyclic AMP. 5. Concentration-dependent increases in soluble guanylate cyclase activity were observed in isoliquiritigenin (1-100 microM)- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-treated rat aortic smooth muscle cells, while adenylate cyclase activity was unchanged in isoliquiritigenin (100 microM)-treated cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599926

  6. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  7. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  8. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  9. Identification of a D1 dopamine receptor, not linked to adenylate cyclase, on lactotroph cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schoors, D. F.; Vauquelin, G. P.; De Vos, H.; Smets, G.; Velkeniers, B.; Vanhaelst, L.; Dupont, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    1. We studied the lactotroph cells of the rat by both in vivo and in vitro pharmacological techniques for the presence of D1-receptors. Both approaches revealed the presence of D2-receptor, stimulated by quinpirole (resulting in an inhibition of prolactin secretion) and blocked by domperidone. 2. Administration of fenoldopam, the most selective D1-receptor agonist currently available, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of prolactin secretion in vivo (after pretreatment with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine) and in vitro (cultured pituitary cells). This increase was dose-dependently blocked by the selective D1-receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, and although the effect of fenoldopam was less than that obtained by D2-receptor stimulation, these data suggest that a D1-receptor also controls prolactin secretion. 3. In order to detect the location of these dopamine receptors, autoradiographic studies were performed by use of [3H]-SCH 23390 and [3H]-spiperone as markers for D1- and D2-receptors, respectively. Specific binding sites for [3H]-SCH 23390 were demonstrated. Fenoldopam dose-dependently reduced [3H]-SCH 23390 binding, but had no effect on [3H]-spiperone binding. Immunocytochemical labelling of prolactin cells after incubation with [3H]-SCH 23390 revealed that the granulae and hence, D1 binding sites were present on the lactotroph cells. 4. Radioligand binding studies performed on membranes from anterior pituitary cells revealed the presence of the D2-receptor (54 fmol mg-1 protein) with a Kd of 0.58 nM for [3H]-spiperone, but failed to detect D1-receptors. 5. Finally, we studied the effect of dopamine and of fenoldopam on the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) content of anterior pituitary cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1833020

  10. Loss of Adenylate Cyclase Tonxin among closely related B. bronchiseptica strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a multi-host, gram-negative respiratory pathogen that causes everything from asymptomatic infection to fatal pneumonia. We have identified a strain of B. bronchiseptica, 253, that is inefficient at persisting in the lower respiratory tract of mice compared to the typica...

  11. STC1 interference on calcitonin family of receptors signaling during osteoblastogenesis via adenylate cyclase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Terra, Silvia R; Cardoso, João Carlos R; Félix, Rute C; Martins, Leo Anderson M; Souza, Diogo Onofre G; Guma, Fatima C R; Canário, Adelino Vicente M; Schein, Vanessa

    2015-03-01

    Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are involved in bone formation/remodeling. Here we investigate the effects of STC1 on functional heterodimer complex CALCRL/RAMP1, expression and activity during osteoblastogenesis. STC1 did not modify CALCRL and ramp1 gene expression during osteoblastogenesis when compared to controls. However, plasma membrane spatial distribution of CALCRL/RAMP1 was modified in 7-day pre-osteoblasts exposed to either CGRP or STC1, and both peptides induced CALCRL and RAMP1 assembly. CGRP, but not STC1 stimulated cAMP accumulation in 7-day osteoblasts and in CALCRL/RAMP1 transfected HEK293 cells. Furthermore, STC1 inhibited forskolin stimulated cAMP accumulation of HEK293 cells, but not in CALCRL/RAMP1 transfected HEK293 cells. However, STC1 inhibited cAMP accumulation in calcitonin receptor (CTR) HEK293 transfected cells stimulated by calcitonin. In conclusion, STC1 signals through inhibitory G-protein modulates CGRP receptor spatial localization during osteoblastogenesis and may function as a regulatory factor interacting with calcitonin peptide members during bone formation.

  12. Comparative theoretical study of the binding of luciferyl-adenylate and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate to firefly luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Vieira, João; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a study employing a computational approach to study the binding of (D/L)-luciferyl-adenlyates and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate to firefly luciferase. A semi-empirical/molecular mechanics methodology was used to study the interaction between these ligands and active site molecules. All adenylates are complexed with the enzyme, mostly due to electrostatic interactions with cationic residues. Dehydroluciferyl-adenylate is expected to be a competitive inhibitor of luciferyl-adenylate, as their binding mechanism and affinity to luciferase are very similar. Both luciferyl-adenylates adopt the L-orientation in the active site of luciferase.

  13. NMR studies of the AMP-binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1987-03-24

    NMR has previously been used to determine the conformation of enzyme-bound MgATP and to locate the MgATP-binding site on adenylate kinase [Fry, D. C., Kuby, S. A., & Mildvan, A. S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694]. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, AMP, distances have been measured from Cr3+AMPPCP, a linear competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP, to six protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase, with the paramagnetic probe-T1 method. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been used to measure five interproton distances on enzyme-bound AMP. These distances were used to determine the conformation of bound AMP in addition to its position with respect to metal-ATP. Enzyme-bound AMP exhibits a high anti-glycosyl torsional angle (chi = 110 +/- 10 degrees), a 3'-endo,2'-exo ribose pucker (delta = 105 +/- 10 degrees), and gauche-trans orientations about the C4'-C5' bond (gamma = 180 +/- 10 degrees) and the C5'-O5' bond (beta = 170 +/- 20 degrees). The distance from Cr3+ to the phosphorus of AMP is 5.9 +/- 0.3 A, indicating a reaction coordinate distance of approximately 3 A, which is consistent with an associative SN2 mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP, were detected, indicating the proximity of at least three hydrophobic amino acids to bound AMP. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the intersubstrate distances, were used to position AMP into the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase. The AMP binding site is found to be near (less than or equal to 4 A from) Leu-116, Arg-171, Val-173, Val-182, and Leu-190; all of these residues have been found to be invariant in muscle-type rabbit, calf, human, porcine [Kuby, S. A., Palmieri, R. H., Frischat, A., Fischer, A. H., Wu, L. H., Maland, L., & Manship, M. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 2393-2399], and chicken adenylate kinase [Kishi, F., Maruyama, M., Tanizawa, Y

  14. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Are the essential lysines essential?

    PubMed

    Tian, G C; Yan, H G; Jiang, R T; Kishi, F; Nakazawa, A; Tsai, M D

    1990-05-01

    Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have probed the structural and functional roles of lysine-21 and lysine-27 of adenylate kinase (AK) from chicken muscle expressed in Escherichia coli. The two residues were chosen since according to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) model [Mildvan, A. S., & Fry, D. C. (1987) Adv. Enzymol. 58, 241-313], they are located near the alpha- and the gamma-phosphates, respectively, of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the AK-MgATP complex. In addition, a lysine residue (Lys-21 in the case of AK) along with a glycine-rich loop is considered "essential" in the catalysis of kinases and other nucleotide binding proteins. The Lys-27 to methionine (K27M) mutant showed only slight increases in kcat and Km, but a substantial increase (1.8 kcal/mol) in the free energy of unfolding, relative to the WT AK. For proper interpretation of the steady-state kinetic data, viscosity-dependent kinetics was used to show that the chemical step is partially rate-limiting in the catalysis of AK. Computer modeling suggested that the folded form of K27M could gain stability (relative to the wild type) via hydrophobic interactions of Met-27 with Val-179 and Phe-183 and/or formation of a charge-transfer complex between Met-27 and Phe-183. The latter was supported by an upfield shift of the methyl protons of Met-27 in 1H NMR. Other than this, the 1H NMR spectrum of K27M is very similar to that of WT, suggesting little perturbation in the global or even local conformations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2161682

  15. RNA mimicry by the fap7 adenylate kinase in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Loc'h, Jérôme; Blaud, Magali; Réty, Stéphane; Lebaron, Simon; Deschamps, Patrick; Bareille, Joseph; Jombart, Julie; Robert-Paganin, Julien; Delbos, Lila; Chardon, Florian; Zhang, Elodie; Charenton, Clément; Tollervey, David; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    During biogenesis of the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, the pre-40S particles are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA to mature 18S rRNA. Amongst the factors involved in this maturation step, Fap7 is unusual, as it both interacts with ribosomal protein Rps14 and harbors adenylate kinase activity, a function not usually associated with ribonucleoprotein assembly. Human hFap7 also regulates Cajal body assembly and cell cycle progression via the p53-MDM2 pathway. This work presents the functional and structural characterization of the Fap7-Rps14 complex. We report that Fap7 association blocks the RNA binding surface of Rps14 and, conversely, Rps14 binding inhibits adenylate kinase activity of Fap7. In addition, the affinity of Fap7 for Rps14 is higher with bound ADP, whereas ATP hydrolysis dissociates the complex. These results suggest that Fap7 chaperones Rps14 assembly into pre-40S particles via RNA mimicry in an ATP-dependent manner. Incorporation of Rps14 by Fap7 leads to a structural rearrangement of the platform domain necessary for the pre-rRNA to acquire a cleavage competent conformation.

  16. Adenylate pool and energy charge in human lymphocytes and granulocytes irradiated at 632 nm (HeNe laser)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognani, Lorenzo; Venturelli, T.; Volpi, N.; Zirilli, O.

    1995-05-01

    Aim of this report was to investigate the adenylate pool and the energy charge in human white blood cells exposed to increasing time (15, 30 and 60 min) of HeNe laser treatment. EDTA treated human blood diluted 1:1 with 0.88% KCl was added (1:5) with NaCl-dextran solution to allow sedimentation of red blood cells. 6 ml of the white cells floating in the supernatant were layered on 3 ml of Lymphoprep in plastic tubes and each tube was centrifuged (from 50 to 5000 X g for 5 min). Granulocytes were concentrated in the lower phase, whilst lymphocytes were in the intermediated phase. After further purification cytological homogeneity was tested by a cell counter. Granulocytes and lymphocytes were irradiated at +22°C with HeNe (Space, Valfivre equipment). On these population ATP was tested by luminometric procedure, the adenylate pool was separated by HPLC (Jasco) on neutralyzed perchloric extracts. ATP concentration increased in lymphocytes (+63.9%, p < 0.01) and in granulocytes (+25.0%, p < 0.05) after 60 min irradiation. The adenylate pool (tested by HPLC) does not change significatively in lymphocytes or granulocytes after 30 min irradiation, whilst in 60 min irradiated lymphocytes and granulocytes a significative increment was observed in nucleotide concentration. No changes were observed in energy charge according to Atkinson.

  17. ATP Binding to Hemoglobin Response Gene 1 Protein Is Necessary for Regulation of the Mating Type Locus in Candida albicans*

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Alexander W.; Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.

    2011-01-01

    HBR1 (hemoglobin response gene 1) is an essential gene in Candida albicans that positively regulates mating type locus MTLα gene expression and thereby regulates cell type-specific developmental genes. Hbr1p contains a phosphate-binding loop (P-loop), a highly conserved motif characteristic of ATP- and GTP-binding proteins. Recombinant Hbr1p was isolated in an oligomeric state that specifically bound ATP with Kd ∼2 μm. ATP but not ADP, AMP, GTP, or dATP specifically protected Hbr1p from proteolysis by trypsin. Site-directed mutagenesis of the highly conserved P-loop lysine (K22Q) and the less conserved glycine (G19S) decreased the binding affinity for soluble ATP and ATP immobilized through its γ-phosphate. ATP bound somewhat more avidly than ATPγS to wild type and mutant Hbr1p. Although Hbr1p exhibits sequence motifs characteristic of adenylate kinases, and adenylate kinase and ATPase activities have been reported for the apparent human ortholog of Hbr1p, assays for adenylate kinase activity, autophosphorylation, and ATPase activity proved negative. Overexpression of wild type but not the mutant forms of Hbr1p restored MTlα2 expression in an HBR1/hbr1 mutant, indicating that ATP binding to the P-loop is necessary for this function of Hbr1p. PMID:21372131

  18. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    PubMed

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  19. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    PubMed

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  20. PKA-independent cAMP stimulation of white adipocyte exocytosis and adipokine secretion: modulations by Ca2+ and ATP.

    PubMed

    Komai, Ali M; Brännmark, Cecilia; Musovic, Saliha; Olofsson, Charlotta S

    2014-12-01

    We examined the effects of cAMP, Ca(2+) and ATP on exocytosis and adipokine release in white adipocytes by a combination of membrane capacitance patch-clamp recordings and biochemical measurements of adipokine secretion. 3T3-L1 adipocyte exocytosis proceeded even in the complete absence of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i; buffered with BAPTA) provided cAMP (0.1 mm) was included in the intracellular (pipette-filling) solution. Exocytosis typically plateaued within ∼10 min, probably signifying depletion of a releasable vesicle pool. Inclusion of 3 mm ATP in combination with elevation of [Ca(2+)]i to ≥700 nm augmented the rate of cAMP-evoked exocytosis ∼2-fold and exocytosis proceeded for longer periods (≥20 min) than with cAMP alone. Exocytosis was stimulated to a similar extent upon substitution of cAMP by the Epac (exchange proteins activated by cAMP) agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP (1 mm included in the pipette solution). Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by addition of Rp-cAMPS (0.5 mm) to the cAMP-containing pipette solution was without effect. A combination of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 μm) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (200 μm; forsk-IBMX) augmented adiponectin secretion measured over 30 min 3-fold and 2-fold in 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes, respectively. This effect was unaltered by pre-loading of cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and 2-fold amplified upon inclusion of the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 μm) in the extracellular solution. Adiponectin release was also stimulated by the membrane-permeable Epac agonist 8-Br-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM but unaffected by inclusion of the membrane-permeable PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS (200 μm). The adipokines leptin, resistin and apelin were present in low amounts in the incubation medium (1-6% of measured adiponectin). Adipsin was secreted in substantial quantities (50% of adiponectin concentration) but release of this adipokine was unaffected by forsk

  1. PKA-independent cAMP stimulation of white adipocyte exocytosis and adipokine secretion: modulations by Ca2+ and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Komai, Ali M; Brännmark, Cecilia; Musovic, Saliha; Olofsson, Charlotta S

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of cAMP, Ca2+ and ATP on exocytosis and adipokine release in white adipocytes by a combination of membrane capacitance patch-clamp recordings and biochemical measurements of adipokine secretion. 3T3-L1 adipocyte exocytosis proceeded even in the complete absence of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i; buffered with BAPTA) provided cAMP (0.1 mm) was included in the intracellular (pipette-filling) solution. Exocytosis typically plateaued within ∼10 min, probably signifying depletion of a releasable vesicle pool. Inclusion of 3 mm ATP in combination with elevation of [Ca2+]i to ≥700 nm augmented the rate of cAMP-evoked exocytosis ∼2-fold and exocytosis proceeded for longer periods (≥20 min) than with cAMP alone. Exocytosis was stimulated to a similar extent upon substitution of cAMP by the Epac (exchange proteins activated by cAMP) agonist 8-Br-2′-O-Me-cAMP (1 mm included in the pipette solution). Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by addition of Rp-cAMPS (0.5 mm) to the cAMP-containing pipette solution was without effect. A combination of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 μm) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (200 μm; forsk–IBMX) augmented adiponectin secretion measured over 30 min 3-fold and 2-fold in 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes, respectively. This effect was unaltered by pre-loading of cells with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and 2-fold amplified upon inclusion of the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 μm) in the extracellular solution. Adiponectin release was also stimulated by the membrane-permeable Epac agonist 8-Br-2′-O-Me-cAMP-AM but unaffected by inclusion of the membrane-permeable PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS (200 μm). The adipokines leptin, resistin and apelin were present in low amounts in the incubation medium (1–6% of measured adiponectin). Adipsin was secreted in substantial quantities (50% of adiponectin concentration) but release of this adipokine was unaffected by forsk–IBMX. We

  2. Bifunctional homodimeric triokinase/FMN cyclase: contribution of protein domains to the activities of the human enzyme and molecular dynamics simulation of domain movements.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; Couto, Ana; Cabezas, Alicia; Pinto, Rosa María; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Canales, José; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2014-04-11

    Mammalian triokinase, which phosphorylates exogenous dihydroxyacetone and fructose-derived glyceraldehyde, is neither molecularly identified nor firmly associated to an encoding gene. Human FMN cyclase, which splits FAD and other ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds to ribonucleoside monophosphate and cyclic X-phosphodiester, is identical to a DAK-encoded dihydroxyacetone kinase. This bifunctional protein was identified as triokinase. It was modeled as a homodimer of two-domain (K and L) subunits. Active centers lie between K1 and L2 or K2 and L1: dihydroxyacetone binds K and ATP binds L in different subunits too distant (≈ 14 Å) for phosphoryl transfer. FAD docked to the ATP site with ribityl 4'-OH in a possible near-attack conformation for cyclase activity. Reciprocal inhibition between kinase and cyclase reactants confirmed substrate site locations. The differential roles of protein domains were supported by their individual expression: K was inactive, and L displayed cyclase but not kinase activity. The importance of domain mobility for the kinase activity of dimeric triokinase was highlighted by molecular dynamics simulations: ATP approached dihydroxyacetone at distances below 5 Å in near-attack conformation. Based upon structure, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations, relevant residues were mutated to alanine, and kcat and Km were assayed whenever kinase and/or cyclase activity was conserved. The results supported the roles of Thr(112) (hydrogen bonding of ATP adenine to K in the closed active center), His(221) (covalent anchoring of dihydroxyacetone to K), Asp(401) and Asp(403) (metal coordination to L), and Asp(556) (hydrogen bonding of ATP or FAD ribose to L domain). Interestingly, the His(221) point mutant acted specifically as a cyclase without kinase activity.

  3. Mechanisms that match ATP supply to demand in cardiac pacemaker cells during high ATP demand.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Yael; Spurgeon, Harold A; Ziman, Bruce D; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-06-01

    The spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) involves high-throughput signaling via Ca(2+)-calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclases (AC), cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca(2+) cycling and surface membrane ion channel proteins. When the throughput of this signaling increases, e.g., in response to β-adrenergic receptor activation, the resultant increase in spontaneous AP firing rate increases the demand for ATP. We hypothesized that an increase of ATP production to match the increased ATP demand is achieved via a direct effect of increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)m) and an indirect effect via enhanced Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA-CaMKII signaling to mitochondria. To increase ATP demand, single isolated rabbit SANCs were superfused by physiological saline at 35 ± 0.5°C with isoproterenol, or by phosphodiesterase or protein phosphatase inhibition. We measured cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) and flavoprotein fluorescence in single SANC, and we measured cAMP, ATP, and O₂ consumption in SANC suspensions. Although the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate was accompanied by an increase in O₂ consumption, the ATP level and flavoprotein fluorescence remained constant, indicating that ATP production had increased. Both Ca(2+)m and cAMP increased concurrently with the increase in AP firing rate. When Ca(2+)m was reduced by Ru360, the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate in response to isoproterenol was reduced by 25%. Thus, both an increase in Ca(2+)m and an increase in Ca(2+) activated cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling regulate the increase in ATP supply to meet ATP demand above the basal level.

  4. Kinetics of a self-amplifying substrate cycle: ADP-ATP cycling assay.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; Varón, R; García-Carmona, F

    2000-01-01

    A kinetic study of an ATP-ADP amplification cyclic system involving the enzymes adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase has been made. The stoichiometry of the cycle is 2:1, because two molecules of ADP are synthesized from one each of ATP and AMP, and one molecule of ADP is converted back into one of ATP at each turn of the cycle. This results in a continuous exponential increase in the concentrations of ATP and ADP in the reaction medium, according to the equations obtained. This is therefore a substrate cycle that amplifies itself, the cycling rate increasing continuously with time. The background signal of the reagent was reduced by using apyrase to degrade ATP and ADP in the reagent, permitting detection limits as low as 16 pmol of ATP and/or ADP in a continuous spectrophotometric assay. PMID:10926849

  5. Adenine nucleotide levels and regional distribution of ATP in rabbit spinal cord after ischemia and recirculation.

    PubMed

    Danielisová, V; Chavko, M; Kehr, J

    1987-03-01

    Rabbit spinal cords were subjected to 10 to 40 minutes of ischemia with and without 4 days of recirculation and L-4 segment was analyzed for adenylates and ATP-induced bioluminiscence. ATP level and energy charge was progressively reduced by increasing durations of ischemia. Regional evaluation of ATP-induced bioluminiscence after 10 and 20 minutes of ischemia revealed ATP depletion mainly in the gray matter of spinal cord. Forty minutes of ischemia resulted in complete reduction of ATP bioluminiscence in both gray and white matter. Within 4 days of recirculation following all periods of ischemia studied, only partial metabolic recovery occurred. Restitution of ATP-induced bioluminiscence was regionally heterogeneous, reduced predominantly in the anterior horns of gray matter.

  6. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD[superscript +]-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S.; Griffor, Matt; Pfizer

    2010-09-17

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3''-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD{sup +}-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  7. A mitochondrial CO2-adenylyl cyclase-cAMP signalosome controls yeast normoxic cytochrome c oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kenneth C; Liu, Jingjing; Manfredi, Giovanni; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Barrientos, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria, the major source of cellular energy in the form of ATP, respond to changes in substrate availability and bioenergetic demands by employing rapid, short-term, metabolic adaptation mechanisms, such as phosphorylation-dependent protein regulation. In mammalian cells, an intramitochondrial CO2-adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway regulates aerobic energy production. One target of this pathway involves phosphorylation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit 4-isoform 1 (COX4i1), which modulates COX allosteric regulation by ATP. However, the role of the CO2-sAC-cAMP-PKA signalosome in regulating COX activity and mitochondrial metabolism and its evolutionary conservation remain to be fully established. We show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, normoxic COX activity measured in the presence of ATP is 55% lower than in the presence of ADP. Moreover, the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 activity is present in mitochondria, and it contributes to the ATP-mediated regulation of COX through the normoxic subunit Cox5a, homologue of human COX4i1, in a bicarbonate-sensitive manner. Furthermore, we have identified 2 phosphorylation targets in Cox5a (T65 and S43) that modulate its allosteric regulation by ATP. These residues are not conserved in the Cox5b-containing hypoxic enzyme, which is not regulated by ATP. We conclude that across evolution, a CO2-sAC-cAMP-PKA axis regulates normoxic COX activity.

  8. Identification of an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor for treating neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansen; Xu, Hui; Wu, Long-Jun; Kim, Susan S; Chen, Tao; Koga, Kohei; Descalzi, Giannina; Gong, Bo; Vadakkan, Kunjumon I; Zhang, Xuehan; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Zhuo, Min

    2011-01-12

    Neuropathic pain, often caused by nerve injury, is commonly observed among patients with different diseases. Because its basic mechanisms are poorly understood, effective medications are limited. Previous investigations of basic pain mechanisms and drug discovery efforts have focused mainly on early sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglion and spinal dorsal horn neurons, and few synaptic-level studies or new drugs are designed to target the injury-related cortical plasticity that accompanies neuropathic pain. Our previous work has demonstrated that calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) is critical for nerve injury-induced synaptic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Through rational drug design and chemical screening, we have identified a lead candidate AC1 inhibitor, NB001, which is relatively selective for AC1 over other adenylate cyclase isoforms. Using a variety of behavioral tests and toxicity studies, we have found that NB001, when administered intraperitoneally or orally, has an analgesic effect in animal models of neuropathic pain, without any apparent side effects. Our study thus shows that AC1 could be a productive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain and describes a new agent for the possible treatment of neuropathic pain.

  9. Synthetic genes for human muscle-type adenylate kinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tanaka, T; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gene coding for the human muscle-type cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1) was chemically synthesized and directly expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of trp promoter. The DNA duplex of 596 bp was designed and constructed from 40 oligonucleotide fragments of typically 30 nucleotides in length. Twelve unique restriction sites were fairly evenly spaced in the synthetic gene to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis at any part of this recombinant protein. The genes for mutant hAK1 (Tyr 95----Phe 95, Y95F hAK1; Arg 97----Ala 97, R97A hAK1) were constructed by cassette mutagenesis and utilized restriction sites incorporated in the hAK1 gene. The recombinant hAK1 was purified to homogeneity by a two-step chromatographic procedure with a good yield, and showed the same adenylate kinase activity as that of authentic hAK1. Preliminary kinetic studies show that the enzymatic activity (Vmax app,cor/Et) of Y95F hAK1 was slightly greater than that of recombinant hAK1, whereas R97A hAK1 still possessed approximately 4% of recombinant hAK1 activity. These results suggest that the Arg-97 residue is important but not essential for catalytic activity, and that Tyr-95 can be replaced by phenylalanine without substantial effects on the enzymatic activity. Moreover, preliminary estimates of the apparent kinetic parameters suggest that these residues are not required for MgATP binding, and therefore they do not appear to be part of the MgATP binding site.

  10. ATP regulation in bioproduction.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-10

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is consumed as a biological energy source by many intracellular reactions. Thus, the intracellular ATP supply is required to maintain cellular homeostasis. The dependence on the intracellular ATP supply is a critical factor in bioproduction by cell factories. Recent studies have shown that changing the ATP supply is critical for improving product yields. In this review, we summarize the recent challenges faced by researchers engaged in the development of engineered cell factories, including the maintenance of a large ATP supply and the production of cell factories. The strategies used to enhance ATP supply are categorized as follows: addition of energy substrates, controlling pH, metabolic engineering of ATP-generating or ATP-consuming pathways, and controlling reactions of the respiratory chain. An enhanced ATP supply generated using these strategies improves target production through increases in resource uptake, cell growth, biosynthesis, export of products, and tolerance to toxic compounds.

  11. Structural Studies of Archaealthermophilic Adenylate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Konisky, J.

    2002-07-10

    Through this DOE-sponsored program Konisky has studied the evolution and molecular biology of microbes that live in extreme environments. The emphasis of this work has been the determination of the structural features of thermophilic enzymes that allow them to function optimally at near 100 C. The laboratory has focused on a comparative study of adenylate kinase (ADK), an enzyme that functions to interconvert adenine nucleotides. Because of the close phylogenetic relatedness of members of the Methanococci, differences in the structure of their ADKs will be dominated by structural features that reflect contributions to their optimal temperature for activity, rather than differences due to phylogenetic divergence. We have cloned, sequenced and modeled the secondary structure for several methanococcal ADKs. Using molecular modeling threading approaches that are based on the solved structure for the porcine ADK, we have also proposed a general low resolution three dimensional structure for each of the methanococcal enzymes. These analyses have allowed us to propose structural features that confer hyperthermoactivity to those enzymes functioning in the hyperthermophilic members of the Methanococci. Using protein engineering methodologies, we have tested our hypotheses by examining the effects of selective structural changes on thermoactivity. Despite possessing between 68-81% sequence identity, the methanococcal AKs had significantly different stability against thermal denaturation, with melting points ranging from 69-103 C. The construction of several chimerical AKs by linking regions of the MVO and MJA AKs demonstrated the importance of cooperative interactions between amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions in influencing thermostability. Addition of MJA terminal fragments to the MVO AK increased thermal stability approximately 20 C while maintaining 88% of the mesophilic sequence. Further analysis using structural models suggested that hydrophobic interactions are

  12. Metabolic and developmental adaptations of growing potato tubers in response to specific manipulations of the adenylate energy status.

    PubMed

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Heterotrophic carbon metabolism has been demonstrated to be limited by oxygen availability in a variety of plant tissues, which in turn inevitably affects the adenylate status. To study the effect of altering adenylate energy metabolism, without changing the oxygen supply, we expressed a plastidially targeted ATP/ADP hydrolyzing phosphatase (apyrase) in tubers of growing potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants under the control of either inducible or constitutive promoters. Inducible apyrase expression in potato tubers, for a period of 24 h, resulted in a decrease in the ATP-content and the ATP-ADP ratio in the tubers. As revealed by metabolic profiling, this was accompanied by a decrease in the intermediates of sucrose to starch conversion and several plastidially synthesized amino acids, indicating a general depression of tuber metabolism. Constitutive tuber-specific apyrase expression did not lead to a reduction of ATP, but rather a decrease in ADP and an increase in AMP levels. Starch accumulation was strongly inhibited and shifted to the production of amylopectin instead of amylose in these tubers. Furthermore, the levels of almost all amino acids were decreased, although soluble sugars and hexose-Ps were highly abundant. Respiration was elevated in the constitutively expressing lines indicating a compensation for the dramatic increase in ATP hydrolysis. The increase in respiration did not affect the internal oxygen tensions in the tubers. However, the tubers developed a ginger-like phenotype having an elevated surface-volume ratio and a reduced mass per tuber. Decreased posttranslational redox activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and a shift in the ratio of soluble starch synthase activity to granule-bound starch synthase activity were found to be partially responsible for the alterations in starch structure and abundance. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase was decreased and pyruvate decarboxylase was induced, but this was neither reflected by an increase

  13. Structural characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei adenylate kinase (Adk): Profound asymmetry in the crystal structure of the 'open' state

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, G.W.; Robinson, H.; Abendroth, J.; Staker, B. L.; Myler, P. J.

    2010-04-16

    In all organisms adenylate kinases (Adks) play a vital role in cellular energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. Due to differences in catalytic properties between the Adks found in prokaryotes and in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes, there is interest in targeting this enzyme for new drug therapies against infectious bacterial agents. Here we report the 2.1 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure for the 220-residue Adk from Burkholderia pseudomallei (BpAdk), the etiological agent responsible for the infectious disease melioidosis. The general structure of apo BpAdk is similar to other Adk structures, composed of a CORE subdomain with peripheral ATP-binding (ATP{sub bd}) and LID subdomains. The two molecules in the asymmetric unit have significantly different conformations, with a backbone RMSD of 1.46 {angstrom}. These two BpAdk conformations may represent 'open' Adk sub-states along the preferential pathway to the 'closed' substrate-bound state.

  14. Exponential ATP amplification through simultaneous regeneration from AMP and pyrophosphate for luminescence detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Ju; Ho, Min-Rong; Tseng, Chih-Sian; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Huang, Meng-Shun; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria monitoring is essential for many industrial manufacturing processes, particularly those involving in food, biopharmaceuticals, and semiconductor production. Firefly luciferase ATP luminescence assay is a rapid and simple bacteria detection method. However, the detection limit of this assay for Escherichia coli is approximately 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU), which is insufficient for many applications. This study aims to improve the assay sensitivity by simultaneous conversion of PP(i) and AMP, two products of the luciferase reaction, back to ATP to form two chain-reaction loops. Because each consumed ATP continuously produces two new ATP molecules, this approach can achieve exponential amplification of ATP. Two consecutive enzyme reactions were employed to regenerate AMP into ATP: adenylate kinase converting AMP into ADP using UTP as the energy source, and acetate kinase catalyzing acetyl phosphate and ADP into ATP. The PP(i)-recycling loop was completed using ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5' phosphosulfate. The modification maintains good quantification linearity in the ATP luminescence assay and greatly increases its bacteria detection sensitivity. This improved method can detect bacteria concentrations of fewer than 10 CFU. This exponential ATP amplification assay will benefit bacteria monitoring in public health and manufacturing processes that require high-quality water.

  15. Recurrent adenylation domain replacement in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Fewer, David P; Rouhiainen, Leo; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Laakso, Kati; Wang, Hao; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2007-01-01

    Background Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcystins are produced simulatenously. A recombination event between the first module of mcyB (mcyB1) and mcyC in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster is linked to the simultaneous production of microcystin variants in strains of the genus Microcystis. Results Here we undertook a phylogenetic study to investigate the order and timing of recombination between the mcyB1 and mcyC genes in a diverse selection of microcystin producing cyanobacteria. Our results provide support for complex evolutionary processes taking place at the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains which recognize and activate the amino acids found at X and Z positions. We find evidence for recent recombination between mcyB1 and mcyC in strains of the genera Anabaena, Microcystis, and Hapalosiphon. We also find clear evidence for independent adenylation domain conversion of mcyB1 by unrelated peptide synthetase modules in strains of the genera Nostoc and Microcystis. The recombination events replace only the adenylation domain in each case and the condensation domains of mcyB1 and mcyC are not transferred together with the adenylation domain. Our findings demonstrate that the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains are recombination hotspots in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster. Conclusion Recombination is thought to be one of the main mechanisms driving the diversification of NRPSs. However, there is very little information on how recombination takes place in nature. This study demonstrates that functional peptide synthetases are created in nature through transfer of adenylation domains without the concomitant transfer of condensation domains. PMID:17908306

  16. Two members of a widely expressed subfamily of hormone-stimulated adenylyl cyclases.

    PubMed Central

    Premont, R T; Chen, J; Ma, H W; Ponnapalli, M; Iyengar, R

    1992-01-01

    cDNA encoding a hormone- and guanine nucleotide-stimulated adenylyl cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] (type 6) from rat liver and kidney has been cloned and expressed. This enzyme is stimulated by forskolin, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, and isoproterenol plus GTP but is not stimulated by beta gamma subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. A second form (type 5), which is 75% similar to type 6, has also been cloned. Both types 5 and 6 cDNAs have multiple messages. PCR-based detection of the mRNA for the type 5 and 6 enzymes indicates that both are widely distributed. Homology analyses indicate at least four distinct subfamilies of guanine nucleotide stimulatory protein-regulated adenylyl cyclases. Types 5 and 6 enzymes define one distinct subfamily of mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Diversity of one guanine nucleotide-binding protein-regulated effector may allow different modes of regulation of cell-surface signal transmission. Images PMID:1409703

  17. Mutations That Affect Transcription and Cyclic Amp-Crp Regulation of the Adenylate Cyclase Gene (Cya) of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Fandl, J. P.; Thorner, L. K.; Artz, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the expression of the cya promoter(s) in cya-lac fusion strains of Salmonella typhimurium and demonstrated cAMP receptor protein (CRP)-dependent repression by cAMP. Expression of cya was reduced about fourfold in cultures grown in acetate minimal medium as compared to cultures grown in glucose-6-phosphate minimal medium. Expression of cya was also reduced about fourfold by addition of 5 mM cAMP to cultures grown in glucose minimal medium. We constructed in vitro deletion and insertion mutations altering a major cya promoter (P2) and a putative CRP binding site overlapping P2. These mutations were recombined into the chromosome by allele replacement with M13mp::cya recombinant phages and the regulation of the mutant promoters was analyzed. A 4-bp deletion of the CRP binding site and a 4-bp insertion in this site nearly eliminated repression by cAMP. A mutant with the P2 promoter and the CRP binding site both deleted exhibited an 80% reduction in cya expression; the 20% residual expression was insensitive to cAMP repression. This mutant retained a Cya(+) phenotype. Taken together, the results establish that the cya gene is transcribed from multiple promoters one of which, P2, is negatively regulated by the cAMP-CRP complex. Correction for the contribution to transcription by the cAMP-CRP nonregulated cya promoters indicates that the P2 promoter is repressed at least eightfold by cAMP-CRP. PMID:2168849

  18. Adenylate cyclase and the cyclic AMP receptor protein modulate stress resistance and virulence capacity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Grant T; Norton, J Paul; Bower, Jean M; Mulvey, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    In many bacteria, the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) interacts with the transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP), forming active cAMP-CRP complexes that can control a multitude of cellular activities, including expanded carbon source utilization, stress response pathways, and virulence. Here, we assessed the role of cAMP-CRP as a regulator of stress resistance and virulence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the principal cause of urinary tract infections worldwide. Deletion of genes encoding either CRP or CyaA, the enzyme responsible for cAMP synthesis, attenuates the ability of UPEC to colonize the bladder in a mouse infection model, dependent on intact innate host defenses. UPEC mutants lacking cAMP-CRP grow normally in the presence of glucose but are unable to utilize alternate carbon sources like amino acids, the primary nutrients available to UPEC within the urinary tract. Relative to the wild-type UPEC isolate, the cyaA and crp deletion mutants are sensitive to nitrosative stress and the superoxide generator methyl viologen but remarkably resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and acid stress. In the mutant strains, H(2)O(2) resistance correlates with elevated catalase activity attributable in part to enhanced translation of the alternate sigma factor RpoS. Acid resistance was promoted by both RpoS-independent and RpoS-dependent mechanisms, including expression of the RpoS-regulated DNA-binding ferritin-like protein Dps. We conclude that balanced input from many cAMP-CRP-responsive elements, including RpoS, is critical to the ability of UPEC to handle the nutrient limitations and severe environmental stresses present within the mammalian urinary tract.

  19. Selective inhibition of responses to nerve growth factor and of microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation by activators of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Greene, L A; Drexler, S A; Connolly, J L; Rukenstein, A; Green, S H

    1986-11-01

    To study the influence of cAMP on cellular responses to nerve growth factor (NGF) and to use elevation of intracellular cAMP to probe the NGF mechanism, cultured PC12 pheochromocytoma cells were exposed to forskolin and cholera toxin. As in other cell types, the latter agents greatly increased PC12 cell cAMP levels. Such treatment also brought about a reversible, dose-dependent suppression of NGF-promoted regeneration of neurites. In support of the role of cAMP in this effect, regeneration blockage by forskolin was potentiated by phosphodiesterase inhibitors. When tested on NGF-stimulated initiation of process outgrowth, cholera toxin and forskolin exerted a dual effect. As in previous studies, these drugs, when applied along with NGF, significantly enhanced the initial formation of short cytoplasmic extensions. However, after approximately 3 d of NGF exposure, at which time such extensions begin to acquire the morphological and ultrastructural features of neurites, these agents suppressed process outgrowth. That is, the neurites were fewer in number, significantly less branched, and much shorter than in control cultures. Such changes also occurred when these drugs were added to cultures that had been pretreated with NGF alone. Whereas forskolin and cholera toxin affect the formation and regeneration of neurites, these drugs did not interfere with the short-latency, transient changes in surface morphology that are triggered by NGF, nor did they inhibit transcription-dependent priming. In contrast, the rapidly occurring NGF-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase was suppressed. Moreover, forskolin and cholera toxin rapidly and selectively blocked the NGF-promoted phosphorylation of a set of microtubule-associated proteins known as chartins. Previous observations have suggested a causal relationship between NGF-induced chartin microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation and the formation and outgrowth of neurites. This is supported by the present data and provides a possible mechanism whereby elevated cAMP may interfere with neurite growth and regeneration.

  20. The crystal structure of human adenylate kinase 6: An adenylate kinase localized to the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Wang, Liya; Bennett, Matthew; Liang, Yuhe; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Fei; Li, Lanfen; Nan, Jie; Luo, Ming; Eriksson, Staffan; Zhang, Chuanmao; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2005-01-11

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) play important roles in nucleotide metabolism in all organisms and in cellular energetics by means of phosphotransfer networks in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of a human AK named AK6 was determined by in-house sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing methods and refined to 2.0-A resolution with a free R factor of 21.8%. Sequence analyses revealed that human AK6 belongs to a distinct subfamily of AKs present in all eukaryotic organisms sequenced so far. Enzymatic assays show that human AK6 has properties similar with other AKs, particularly with AK5. Fluorescence microscopy showed that human AK6 is localized predominantly to the nucleus of HeLa cells. The identification of a nuclear-localized AK sheds light on nucleotide metabolism in the nucleus and the energetic communication between mitochondria and nucleus by means of phosphotransfer networks.

  1. The adenosine salvage pathway as an alternative to mitochondrial production of ATP in maturing mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Scantland, Sara; Tessaro, Irene; Macabelli, Carolina H; Macaulay, Angus D; Cagnone, Gaël; Fournier, Éric; Luciano, Alberto M; Robert, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Although the oocyte is the largest cell in the body and an unavoidable phase in life, its physiology is still poorly understood, and other cell types provide little insight into its unique nature. Even basic cellular functions in the oocyte such as energy metabolism are not yet fully understood. It is known that the mitochondria of the female gamete exhibit an immature form characterized by limited energy production from glucose and oxidative phosphorylation. We show that the bovine oocyte uses alternative means to maintain ATP production during maturation, namely, the adenosine salvage pathway. Meiosis resumption is triggered by destruction of cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterases producing adenosine monophosphate that is converted into ATP by adenylate kinases and creatine kinases. Inhibition of these enzymes decreased ATP production, and addition of their substrates restored ATP production in denuded oocytes. Addition of phosphocreatine to the oocyte maturation medium influenced the phenotype of the resulting blastocysts. We propose a model in which adenylate kinases and creatine kinases act as drivers of ATP production from added AMP during oocyte maturation.

  2. New crystal structures of adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 in two conformations

    PubMed Central

    Thach, Trung Thanh; Lee, Sangho

    2014-01-01

    Adenylate kinases (AdKs; EC 2.7.3.4) play a critical role in intercellular homeostasis by the interconversion of ATP and AMP to two ADP molecules. Crystal structures of adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 (SpAdK) have recently been determined using ligand-free and inhibitor-bound crystals belonging to space groups P21 and P1, respectively. Here, new crystal structures of SpAdK in ligand-free and inhibitor-bound states determined at 1.96 and 1.65 Å resolution, respectively, are reported. The new ligand-free crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.5, b = 54.3, c = 62.7 Å, β = 118.8°. The new ligand-free structure revealed an open conformation that differed from the previously determined conformation, with an r.m.s.d on Cα atoms of 1.4 Å. The new crystal of the complex with the two-substrate-mimicking inhibitor P 1,P 5-bis(adenosine-5′-)pentaphosphate (Ap5A) belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.9, b = 62.3, c = 63.0 Å, α = 101.9, β = 112.6, γ = 89.9°. Despite belonging to the same space group as the previously reported crystal, the new Ap5A-bound crystal contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit, compared with two in the previous crystal, and shows slightly different lattice contacts. These results demonstrate that SpAdK can crystallize promiscuously in different forms and that the open structure is flexible in conformation. PMID:25372811

  3. Respiration in postharvest sugarbeet roots is not limited by respiratory capacity or adenylates.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Karen L; Finger, Fernando L; Anderson, Marc D

    2008-09-29

    Control of respiration has largely been studied with growing and/or photosynthetic tissues or organs, but has rarely been examined in harvested and stored plant products. As nongrowing, heterotrophic organs that are reliant on respiration to provide all of their metabolic needs, harvested plant products differ dramatically in their metabolism and respiratory needs from growing and photosynthetically active plant organs, and it cannot be assumed that the same mechanism controls respiration in both actively growing and harvested plant organs. To elucidate mechanisms of respiratory control for a harvested and stored plant product, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root respiration was characterized with respect to respiratory capacity, adenylate levels and cellular energy status in roots whose respiration was altered by wounding or cold treatment (1 degrees C) and in response to potential effectors of respiration. Respiration rate was induced by wounding in roots stored at 10 degrees C and by cold temperature in roots stored at 1 degrees C for 11-13d. Alterations in respiration rate due to wounding or storage temperature were unrelated to changes in total respiratory capacity, the capacities of the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) or alternative oxidase (AOX) pathways, adenylate concentrations or cellular energy status, measured by the ATP:ADP ratio. In root tissue, respiration was induced by exogenous NADH indicating that respiratory capacity was capable of oxidizing additional electrons fed into the electron transport chain via an external NADH dehydrogenase. Respiration was not induced by addition of ADP or a respiratory uncoupler. These results suggest that respiration rate in stored sugarbeet roots is not limited by respiratory capacity, ADP availability or cellular energy status. Since respiration in plants can be regulated by substrate availability, respiratory capacity or energy status, it is likely that a substrate, other than ADP, limits respiration in stored sugarbeet

  4. Imaging Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Megha; Dane, Eric; Conley, Jason; Tantama, Mathew

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a universal mediator of metabolism and signaling across unicellular and multicellular species. There is a fundamental interdependence between the dynamics of ATP and the physiology that occurs inside and outside the cell. Characterizing and understanding ATP dynamics provide valuable mechanistic insight into processes that range from neurotransmission to the chemotaxis of immune cells. Therefore, we require the methodology to interrogate both temporal and spatial components of ATP dynamics from the subcellular to the organismal levels in live specimens. Over the last several decades, a number of molecular probes that are specific to ATP have been developed. These probes have been combined with imaging approaches, particularly optical microscopy, to enable qualitative and quantitative detection of this critical molecule. In this review, we survey current examples of technologies available for visualizing ATP in living cells, and identify areas where new tools and approaches are needed to expand our capabilities. PMID:27638696

  5. Imaging Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Megha; Dane, Eric; Conley, Jason; Tantama, Mathew

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a universal mediator of metabolism and signaling across unicellular and multicellular species. There is a fundamental interdependence between the dynamics of ATP and the physiology that occurs inside and outside the cell. Characterizing and understanding ATP dynamics provide valuable mechanistic insight into processes that range from neurotransmission to the chemotaxis of immune cells. Therefore, we require the methodology to interrogate both temporal and spatial components of ATP dynamics from the subcellular to the organismal levels in live specimens. Over the last several decades, a number of molecular probes that are specific to ATP have been developed. These probes have been combined with imaging approaches, particularly optical microscopy, to enable qualitative and quantitative detection of this critical molecule. In this review, we survey current examples of technologies available for visualizing ATP in living cells, and identify areas where new tools and approaches are needed to expand our capabilities.

  6. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme.

  7. Hydroxamate based inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase. Part 1: the effect of acyclic linkers on P-site binding.

    PubMed

    Levy, Daniel; Marlowe, Charles; Kane-Maguire, Kim; Bao, Ming; Cherbavaz, Diana; Tomlinson, James; Sedlock, David; Scarborough, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a family of enzymes that are key elements of signal transduction by virtue of their ability to convert ATP to cAMP. The catalytic mechanism of this transformation proceeds through initial binding of ATP to the purine binding site (P-site) followed by metal mediated cyclization with loss of pyrophosphate. Crystallographic analysis of ACs with known inhibitors reveals the presence of two metals in the active site. Presently, nine isoforms of adenylyl cyclase are known and unique isoform combinations are expressed in a tissue specific manner. The development of isoform specific inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase may prove to be a useful strategy toward the design of novel therapeutic agents. In order to develop novel AC inhibitors, we have chosen a design approach utilizing molecules with the adenine ring system joined to a metal-coordinating hydroxamic acid via flexible acyclic linkers. The designed inhibitors were assayed against type V AC with the size and heteroatom content of the linkers varied to probe the interaction of the nucleotide and metal binding sites within the enzyme. PMID:12372507

  8. Diterpene Cyclases and the Nature of the Isoprene Fold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rong; Zhang, Yonghui; Mann, Francis M.; Huang, Cancan; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Hudock, Michael P.; Mead, Matthew; Prisic, Sladjana; Wang, Ke; Lin, Fu-Yang; Chang, Ting-Kai; Peters, Reuben; Oldfield, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The structures and mechanism of action of many terpene cyclases are known, but there are no structures of diterpene cyclases. Here, we propose structural models based on bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, domain swapping, enzyme inhibition and spectroscopy that help explain the nature of diterpene cyclase structure, function, and evolution. Bacterial diterpene cyclases contain ∼20 α-helices and the same conserved “QW” and DxDD motifs as in triterpene cyclases, indicating the presence of a βγ barrel structure. Plant diterpene cyclases have a similar catalytic motif and βγ-domain structure together with a third, α-domain, forming an αβγ structure, and in H+-initiated cyclases, there is an EDxxD-like Mg2+/diphosphate binding motif located in the γ-domain. The results support a new view of terpene cyclase structure and function and suggest evolution from ancient (βγ) bacterial triterpene cyclases to (βγ) bacterial and thence to (αβγ) plant diterpene cyclases. PMID:20602361

  9. Adenylating Enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Kathryn M.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2013-01-01

    Adenylation or adenylate-forming enzymes (AEs) are widely found in nature and are responsible for the activation of carboxylic acids to intermediate acyladenylates, which are mixed anhydrides of AMP. In a second reaction, AEs catalyze the transfer of the acyl group of the acyladenylate onto a nucleophilic amino, alcohol, or thiol group of an acceptor molecule leading to amide, ester, and thioester products, respectively. Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes for more than 60 adenylating enzymes, many of which represent potential drug targets due to their confirmed essentiality or requirement for virulence. Several strategies have been used to develop potent and selective AE inhibitors including high-throughput screening, fragment-based screening, and the rationale design of bisubstrate inhibitors that mimic the acyladenylate. In this review, a comprehensive analysis of the mycobacterial adenylating enzymes will be presented with a focus on the identification of small molecule inhibitors. Specifically, this review will cover the aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases (aaRSs), MenE required for menaquinone synthesis, the FadD family of enzymes including the fatty acyl-AMP ligases (FAAL) and the fatty acyl-CoA ligases (FACLs) involved in lipid metabolism, and the nonribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation enzyme MbtA that is necessary for mycobactin synthesis. Additionally, the enzymes NadE, GuaA, PanC, and MshC involved in the respective synthesis of NAD, guanine, pantothenate, and mycothiol will be discussed as well as BirA that is responsible for biotinylation of the acyl CoA-carboxylases. PMID:22283817

  10. Allosteric activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylyl cyclase by calmodulin: molecular dynamics and mutagenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Selwa, Edithe; Davi, Marilyne; Chenal, Alexandre; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Ladant, Daniel; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2014-07-25

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin is an essential toxin that allows Bordetella pertussis to invade eukaryotic cells, where it is activated after binding to calmodulin (CaM). Based on the crystal structure of the AC catalytic domain in complex with the C-terminal half of CaM (C-CaM), our previous molecular dynamics simulations (Selwa, E., Laine, E., and Malliavin, T. (2012) Differential role of calmodulin and calcium ions in the stabilization of the catalytic domain of adenyl cyclase CyaA from Bordetella pertussis. Proteins 80, 1028–1040) suggested that three residues (i.e. Arg(338), Asn(347), and Asp(360)) might be important for stabilizing the AC/CaM interaction. These residues belong to a loop-helix-loop motif at the C-terminal end of AC, which is located at the interface between CaM and the AC catalytic loop. In the present study, we conducted the in silico and in vitro characterization of three AC variants, where one (Asn(347); ACm1A), two (Arg(338) and Asp(360); ACm2A), or three residues (Arg(338), Asn(347), and Asp(360); ACm3A) were substituted with Ala. Biochemical studies showed that the affinities of ACm1A and ACm2A for CaM were not affected significantly, whereas that of ACm3A was reduced dramatically. To understand the effects of these modifications, molecular dynamics simulations were performed based on the modified proteins. The molecular dynamics trajectories recorded for the ACm3AC-CaM complex showed that the calcium-binding loops of C-CaM exhibited large fluctuations, which could be related to the weakened interaction between ACm3A and its activator. Overall, our results suggest that the loop-helix-loop motif at the C-terminal end of AC is crucial during CaM binding for stabilizing the AC catalytic loop in an active configuration.

  11. Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, David L.; Chrisman, Ted D.; Wiegn, Phi; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Bielinski, Vincent; Barylko, Barbara; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated key roles for several membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors in the regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration and extracellular matrix production, all of which having an impact on clinically relevant diseases, including tissue remodeling after injury. Additionally, cell differentiation, and even tumor progression, can be profoundly influenced by one or more of these receptors. Some of these receptors also mediate important communication between the heart and intestine, and the kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance. PMID:16815030

  12. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed.

  13. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is not required for axon guidance to netrin-1.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon W; Lai Wing Sun, Karen; Xie, Fang; Barker, Philip A; Conti, Marco; Kennedy, Timothy E

    2008-04-01

    During development, axons are directed to their targets by extracellular guidance cues. The axonal response to the guidance cue netrin-1 is profoundly influenced by the concentration of cAMP within the growth cone. In some cases, cAMP affects the sensitivity of the growth cone to netrin-1, whereas in others it changes the response to netrin-1 from attraction to repulsion. The effects of cAMP on netrin-1 action are well accepted, but the critical issue of whether cAMP production is activated by a netrin-1 induced signaling cascade remains uncertain. A previous report has suggested that axon guidance in response to netrin-1 requires cAMP production mediated by soluble adenyl cyclase (sAC). We have used genetic, molecular and biochemical strategies to assess this issue. Surprisingly, we found only extremely weak expression of sAC in embryonic neurons and determined that, under conditions where netrin-1 directs axonal pathfinding, exposure to netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels. Furthermore, although netrin-1-deficient mice exhibit major axon guidance defects, we show that pathfinding is normal in sAC-null mice. Therefore, although cAMP can alter the response of axons to netrin-1, we conclude that netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue, and that sAC is not required for axon attraction to netrin-1. PMID:18400890

  14. Aminoacyl transfer from an adenylate anhydride to polyribonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Imidazole catalysis of phenylalanyl transfer from phenylalanine adenylate to hydroxyl groups of homopolyribonucleotides is studied as a possible chemical model of biochemical aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA). The effect of pH on imidazole-catalyzed transfer of phenylalanyl residues to poly(U) and poly(A) double helix strands, the number of peptide linkages and their lability to base and neutral hydroxylamine, and the nature of adenylate condensation products are investigated. The chemical model entertained exhibits a constraint by not acylating the hydroxyl groups of polyribonucleotides in a double helix. The constraint is consistent with selective biochemical aminoacylation at the tRNA terminus. Interest in imidazole as a model of histidine residue in protoenzymes participating in prebiotic aminoacyl transfer to polyribonucleotides, and in rendering the tRNA a more efficient adaptor, is indicated.

  15. Adenylate nucleotide levels and energy charge in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation.

    PubMed

    Leps, W T; Ensign, J C

    1979-07-01

    The adenylate nucleotide concentrations, based on internal water space, were determined in cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation and the energy charge of the cells was calculated. The energy charge of spherical cells rose during the first 10 h of growth, then remained nearly constant for as long as 20 h into the stationary phase. The energy charge of rod-shaped cells rose during the first 4 h of growth, then remained constant during subsequent growth and decreased in the stationary growth phase. Both spherical and rod-shaped cells excreted adenosine monophosphate but not adenosine triphosphate or adenosine diphosphate during starvation. The intracellular energy charge of spherical cells declined during the initial 10 h and then remained constant for 1 week of starvation at a value of 0.78. The intracellular energy charge of rod-shaped cells declined during the first 24 h of starvation, remained constant for the next 80 h, then decreased to a value of 0.73 after a total of 168 h starvation. Both cell forms remained more than 90% viable during this time. Addition of a carbon and energy source to starving cells resulted in an increase in the ATP concentration and as a result the energy charge increased to the smae levels as found during growth.

  16. Kinetics of inhibition of firefly luciferase by oxyluciferin and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, César; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2008-09-01

    The inhibition mechanisms of the firefly luciferase (Luc) by the two major products of the reactions catalysed by Luc, oxyluciferin and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate (L-AMP), were investigated. Light production in the presence and absence of these inhibitors (0.5 to 2 microM oxyluciferin; 0.0025 to 1.25 microM L-AMP) has been measured in 50 mM Hepes buffer (pH=7.5), 10 nM Luc, 250 microM ATP and D-Luciferin (from 3.75 up to 120 microM). Nonlinear regression analysis with the appropriate kinetic models (Henri-Michaelis-Menten and William-Morrison equations) reveals that oxyluciferin is a competitive inhibitor of luciferase (Ki=0.50+/-0.03 microM) while L-AMP act as a tight-binding competitive inhibitor (Ki=3.8+/-0.7 nM). The Km values obtained both for oxyluciferin and L-AMP were 14.7+/-0.7 and 14.9+/-0.2 microM, respectively. L-AMP is a stronger inhibitor of Luc than oxyluciferin and the major responsible for the characteristic flash profile of in vitro Luc bioluminescence.

  17. Comparative analysis of plant lycopene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Koc, Ibrahim; Filiz, Ertugrul; Tombuloglu, Huseyin

    2015-10-01

    Carotenoids are essential isoprenoid pigments produced by plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. Lycopene cyclase (LYC) commonly cyclize carotenoids, which is an important branching step in the carotenogenesis, at one or both end of the backbone. Plants have two types of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). In this study, plant LYCs were analyzed. Based on domain analysis, all LYCs accommodate lycopene cyclase domain (Pf05834). Furthermore, motif analysis indicated that motifs were conserved among the plants. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs were classified in β and ϵ groups. Monocot and dicot plants separated from each other in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, Oryza sativa Japonica Group and Zea mays of LYCs as monocot plants and Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum of LYCs as dicot plants were analyzed. According to nucleotide diversity analysis of β-LCY and ϵ-LCY genes, nucleotide diversities were found to be π: 0.30 and π: 0.25, respectively. The result highlighted β-LCY genes showed higher nucleotide diversity than ϵ-LCY genes. LYCs interacting genes and their co-expression partners were also predicted using String server. The obtained data suggested the importance of LYCs in carotenoid metabolism. 3D modeling revealed that depicted structures were similar in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs. Likewise, the predicted binding sites were highly similar between O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera LCYs. Most importantly, analysis elucidated the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif for both type of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). This motif related to Rossmann fold domain and probably provides a flat platform for binding of FAD in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs with conserved structure. In addition to lycopene cyclase domain, the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif can be used for exploring LYCs proteins and to annotate the function of unknown proteins containing lycopene cyclase

  18. Comparative analysis of plant lycopene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Koc, Ibrahim; Filiz, Ertugrul; Tombuloglu, Huseyin

    2015-10-01

    Carotenoids are essential isoprenoid pigments produced by plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. Lycopene cyclase (LYC) commonly cyclize carotenoids, which is an important branching step in the carotenogenesis, at one or both end of the backbone. Plants have two types of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). In this study, plant LYCs were analyzed. Based on domain analysis, all LYCs accommodate lycopene cyclase domain (Pf05834). Furthermore, motif analysis indicated that motifs were conserved among the plants. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs were classified in β and ϵ groups. Monocot and dicot plants separated from each other in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, Oryza sativa Japonica Group and Zea mays of LYCs as monocot plants and Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum of LYCs as dicot plants were analyzed. According to nucleotide diversity analysis of β-LCY and ϵ-LCY genes, nucleotide diversities were found to be π: 0.30 and π: 0.25, respectively. The result highlighted β-LCY genes showed higher nucleotide diversity than ϵ-LCY genes. LYCs interacting genes and their co-expression partners were also predicted using String server. The obtained data suggested the importance of LYCs in carotenoid metabolism. 3D modeling revealed that depicted structures were similar in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs. Likewise, the predicted binding sites were highly similar between O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera LCYs. Most importantly, analysis elucidated the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif for both type of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). This motif related to Rossmann fold domain and probably provides a flat platform for binding of FAD in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs with conserved structure. In addition to lycopene cyclase domain, the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif can be used for exploring LYCs proteins and to annotate the function of unknown proteins containing lycopene cyclase

  19. Adenilate pool and thylakoid ATP-synthase content in pea leaves under clinorotation.

    PubMed

    Onoiko, E B; Podorvanov, V V; Zolotareva, E K

    2001-07-01

    It is known that plant resistance to stress factors is connected with energy metabolism. The energy stored in the process of photophosphorylation in the form of ATP is used then to support respiration, transpiration, organic compound synthesis, growth and development as well as to restore cell structure after its damage under extremal environmental factors. Transformation of light energy into chemical energy of ATP is catalyzed by thylakoid membrane enzymatic complex of ATPsynthase-CF1CF0. Its activity and amount in the thylakoid membrane depends on plant growth conditions. The aim of this work was investigation of clinorotation effect on light-induced dynamics of adenyl nucleotides (AMP, ADP and ATP) and estimation of CF1CF0 content in thylakoids of pea leaves grown under slow clinorotation and vertical control.

  20. Biochemistry and physiology of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylyl cyclases.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Johanne; Desjardins, Richard; Hum, David; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Hamet, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclases (GC) exist as soluble and particulate, membrane-associated enzymes which catalyse the conversion of GTP to cGMP, an intracellular signalling molecule. Several membrane forms of the enzyme have been identified up to now. Some of them serve as receptors for the natriuretic peptides, a family of peptides which includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), three peptides known to play important roles in renal and cardiovascular physiology. These are transmembrane proteins composed of a single transmembrane domain, a variable extracellular natriuretic peptide-binding domain, and a more conserved intracellular kinase homology domain (KHD) and catalytic domain. GC-A, the receptor for ANP and BNP, also named natriuretic peptide receptor-A or -1 (NPR-A or NPR- 1), has been studied widely. Its mode of activation by peptide ligands and mechanisms of regulation serve as prototypes for understanding the function of other particulate GC. Activation of this enzyme by its ligand is a complex process requiring oligomerization, ligand binding, KHD phosphorylation and ATP binding. Gene knockout and genetic segregation studies have provided strong evidence for the importance of GC-A in the regulation of blood pressure and heart and renal functions. GC-B is the main receptor for CNP, the latter having a more paracrine role at the vascular and venous levels. The structure and regulation of GC-B is similar to that of GC-A. This chapter reviews the structure and roles of GC-A and GC-B in blood pressure regulation and cardiac and renal pathophysiology. PMID:11952095

  1. The triterpene cyclase protein family: a systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Racolta, Silvia; Juhl, P Benjamin; Sirim, Demet; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Triterpene cyclases catalyze a broad range of cyclization reactions to form polycyclic triterpenes. Triterpene cyclases that convert squalene to hopene are named squalene-hopene cyclases (SHC) and triterpene cyclases that convert oxidosqualene are named oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC). Many sequences have been published, but there is only one structure available for each of SHCs and OSCs. Although they catalyze a similar reaction, the sequence similarity between SHCs and OSCs is low. A family classification based on phylogenetic analysis revealed 20 homologous families which are grouped into two superfamilies, SHCs and OSCs. Based on this family assignment, the Triterpene Cyclase Engineering Database (TTCED) was established. It integrates available information on sequence and structure of 639 triterpene cyclases as well as on structurally and functionally relevant amino acids. Family specific multiple sequence alignments were generated to identify the functionally relevant residues. Based on sequence alignments, conserved residues in SHCs and OSCs were analyzed and compared to experimentally confirmed mutational data. Functional schematic models of the central cavities of OSCs and SHCs were derived from structure comparison and sequence conservation analysis. These models demonstrate the high similarity of the substrate binding cavity of SHCs and OSCs and the equivalences of the respective residues. The TTCED is a novel source for comprehensive information on the triterpene cyclase family, including a compilation of previously described mutational data. The schematic models present the conservation analysis in a readily available fashion and facilitate the correlation of residues to a specific function or substrate interaction.

  2. In vitro mutagenesis studies at the arginine residues of adenylate kinase. A revised binding site for AMP in the X-ray-deduced model.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tokutomi, Y; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A; Uesugi, S

    1990-02-01

    Although X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies have been made on the adenylate kinases, the substrate-binding sites are not unequivocally established. In an attempt to shed light on the binding sites for MgATP2- and for AMP2- in human cytosolic adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3, hAK1), we have investigated the enzymic effects of replacement of the arginine residues (R44, R132, R138, and R149), which had been assumed by Pai et al. [Pai, E. F., Sachsenheimer, W., Schirmer, R. H., & Schulz, G. E. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 114, 37-45] to interact with the phosphoryl groups of AMP2- and MgATP2-. With use of the site-directed mutagenesis method, point mutations were made in the artificial gene for hAK1 [Kim, H. J., Nishikawa, S., Tanaka, T., Uesugi, S., Takenaka, H., Hamada, M., & Kuby, S. A. (1989) Protein Eng. 2, 379-386] to replace these arginine residues with alanyl residues and yield the mutants R44A hAK1, R132A hAK1, R138A hAK1, and R149A hAK1. The resulting large increases in the Km,app values for AMP2- of the mutant enzymes, the relatively small increases in the Km,app values for MgATP2-, and the fact that the R132A, R138A, and R149A mutant enzymes proved to be very poor catalysts are consistent with the idea that the assigned substrate binding sites of Pai et al. (1977) have been reversed and that their ATP-binding site may be assigned as the AMP site.

  3. Polymorphism in purified guanylate cyclase from vertebrate rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, F; Yamazaki, A

    1991-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase from rod photoreceptors of amphibian (toad, Bufo marinus, and frog, Rana catesbeiana) and bovine retinas was solubilized and purified by a single chromatography step on a GTP-agarose column. Silver staining of purified amphibian enzymes in SDS/polyacrylamide gels disclosed a doublet band (110 and 115 kDa), while the bovine enzyme appeared as a singlet band (110 kDa). The identification of these guanylate cyclases was confirmed using three chromatography systems with the purified enzymes. Specific binding to Con A-Sepharose suggested that rod guanylate cyclase is a glycoprotein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of purified toad, frog, and bovine enzymes resolved two, three, and five variants, respectively, that differed in isoelectric point. Two variants of toad guanylate cyclase showed differences in various characterizations. These data suggest multiple mechanisms for regulation of guanylate cyclase activity in vertebrate rod photoreceptors. Images PMID:1675787

  4. Tuber physiology and properties of starch from tubers of transgenic potato plants with altered plastidic adenylate transporter activity.

    PubMed

    Geigenberger, P; Stamme, C; Tjaden, J; Schulz, A; Quick, P W; Betsche, T; Kersting, H J; Neuhaus, H E

    2001-04-01

    We showed recently that antisense plants with decreased activity of the plastidic ATP/ADP-transporter protein exhibit drastically reduced levels of starch and a decreased amylose/amylopectin ratio, whereas sense plants with increased activity of the transporter possessed more starch than wild-type plants and an increased amylose/amylopectin ratio. In this paper we investigate the effect of altered plastidic ATP/ADP-transporter protein expression on primary metabolism and granule morphology in more detail. Tuber tissues from antisense and sense plants exhibited substantially increased respiratory activity compared with the wild type. Tubers from antisense plants contained markedly increased levels of free sugars, UDP-Glc, and hexose phosphates, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate, isocitrate, ATP, ADP, AMP, UTP, UDP, and inorganic pyrophosphate levels were slightly decreased. In contrast, tubers from sense plants revealed a slight increase in adenine and uridine nucleotides and in the levels of inorganic pyrophosphate, whereas no significant changes in the levels of soluble sugars and metabolites were observed. Antisense tubers contained 50% reduced levels of ADP-Glc, whereas sense tubers contained up to 2-fold increased levels of this sole precursor for starch biosynthesis. Microscopic examination of starch grain morphology revealed that the size of starch grains from antisense tubers was substantially smaller (50%) compared with the wild type. The large starch grains from sense tubers appeared of a more angular morphology, which differed to the more ellipsoid shape of wild type grains. The results suggest a close interaction between plastidial adenylate transport and starch biosynthesis, indicating that ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase is ATP-limited in vivo and that changes in ADP-Glc concentration determine starch yield, as well as granule morphology. Possible factors linking starch synthesis and respiration are discussed.

  5. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  6. A Novel Function for Arabidopsis CYCLASE1 in Programmed Cell Death Revealed by Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah J; Kroon, Johan T M; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R; Chivasa, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Programmed cell death is essential for plant development and stress adaptation. A detailed understanding of the signal transduction pathways that regulate plant programmed cell death requires identification of the underpinning protein networks. Here, we have used a protagonist and antagonist of programmed cell death triggered by fumonisin B1 as probes to identify key cell death regulatory proteins in Arabidopsis. Our hypothesis was that changes in the abundance of cell death-regulatory proteins induced by the protagonist should be blocked or attenuated by concurrent treatment with the antagonist. We focused on proteins present in the mobile phase of the extracellular matrix on the basis that they are important for cell-cell communications during growth and stress-adaptive responses. Salicylic acid, a plant hormone that promotes programmed cell death, and exogenous ATP, which can block fumonisin B1-induced cell death, were used to treat Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures prior to isobaric-tagged relative and absolute quantitation analysis of secreted proteins. A total of 33 proteins, whose response to salicylic acid was suppressed by ATP, were identified as putative cell death-regulatory proteins. Among these was CYCLASE1, which was selected for further analysis using reverse genetics. Plants in which CYCLASE1 gene expression was knocked out by insertion of a transfer-DNA sequence manifested dramatically increased cell death when exposed to fumonisin B1 or a bacterial pathogen that triggers the defensive hypersensitive cell death. Although pathogen inoculation altered CYCLASE1 gene expression, multiplication of bacterial pathogens was indistinguishable between wild type and CYCLASE1 knockout plants. However, remarkably severe chlorosis symptoms developed on gene knockout plants in response to inoculation with either a virulent bacterial pathogen or a disabled mutant that is incapable of causing disease in wild type plants. These results show that CYCLASE1, which

  7. Type VI adenylyl cyclase negatively regulates GluN2B-mediated LTD and spatial reversal learning

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Pang; Lee, Cheng-Ta; Hou, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Meng-Syuan; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chien, Chen-Li; Chang, Chen; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Chern, Yijuang

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensitive type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC6) is a membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase (AC) that converts ATP to cAMP under stimulation. It is a calcium-inhibited AC and integrates negative inputs from Ca2+ and multiple other signals to regulate the intracellular cAMP level. In the present study, we demonstrate that AC6 functions upstream of CREB and negatively controls neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. Genetic removal of AC6 leads to cyclase-independent and N-terminus of AC6 (AC6N)-dependent elevation of CREB expression, and enhances the expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons. Consequently, GluN2B-dependent calcium signaling and excitatory postsynaptic current, long-term depression, and spatial reversal learning are enhanced in the hippocampus of AC6−/− mice without altering the gross anatomy of the brain. Together, our results suggest that AC6 negatively regulates neuronal plasticity by modulating the levels of CREB and GluN2B in the hippocampus. PMID:26932446

  8. Hydroxamate based inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase. Part 2: the effect of cyclic linkers on P-site binding.

    PubMed

    Levy, Daniel; Bao, Ming; Tomlinson, James; Scarborough, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a family of enzymes that are key elements of signal transduction by virtue of their ability to convert ATP to cAMP. The catalytic mechanism of this transformation proceeds through initial binding of ATP to the purine binding site (P-site) followed by metal mediated cyclization with loss of pyrophosphate. Previous work in our group identified novel inhibitors which possess an adenine ring joined to a metal-coordinating hydroxamic acid through flexible linkers. Considering the spatial positioning of the metals with respect to the adenine binding site coupled with potentially favorable entropic factors, conformational restriction of the tether through a stereochemistry based SAR employing a rigid cyclic scaffold was explored. PMID:12372508

  9. Soluble variants of human recombinant glutaminyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Cristiana; Ciambellotti, Silvia; de Pablo-Latorre, Raquel; Lalli, Daniela; Porcari, Valentina; Turano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human Glutaminyl Cyclase expressed in E. coli is produced as inclusion bodies. Lack of glycosylation is the main origin of its accumulation in insoluble aggregates. Mutation of single isolated hydrophobic amino acids into negative amino acids was not able to circumvent inclusion bodies formation. On the contrary, substitution with carboxyl-terminal residues of two or three aromatic residues belonging to extended hydrophobic patches on the protein surface provided soluble but still active forms of the protein. These mutants could be expressed in isotopically enriched forms for NMR studies and the maximal attainable concentration was sufficient for the acquisition of (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra that represent the starting point for future drug development projects targeting Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23977104

  10. Soluble Variants of Human Recombinant Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Castaldo, Cristiana; Ciambellotti, Silvia; de Pablo-Latorre, Raquel; Lalli, Daniela; Porcari, Valentina; Turano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human Glutaminyl Cyclase expressed in E. coli is produced as inclusion bodies. Lack of glycosylation is the main origin of its accumulation in insoluble aggregates. Mutation of single isolated hydrophobic amino acids into negative amino acids was not able to circumvent inclusion bodies formation. On the contrary, substitution with carboxyl-terminal residues of two or three aromatic residues belonging to extended hydrophobic patches on the protein surface provided soluble but still active forms of the protein. These mutants could be expressed in isotopically enriched forms for NMR studies and the maximal attainable concentration was sufficient for the acquisition of 1H-15N HSQC spectra that represent the starting point for future drug development projects targeting Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23977104

  11. Structural and functional investigation of the intermolecular interaction between NRPS adenylation and carrier protein domains

    PubMed Central

    Sundlov, Jesse A.; Shi, Ce; Wilson, Daniel J.; Aldrich, Courtney C.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are modular proteins that produce peptide antibiotics and siderophores. These enzymes act as catalytic assembly lines where substrates, covalently bound to integrated carrier domains, are delivered to adjacent catalytic domains. The carrier domains are initially loaded by adenylation domains, which use two distinct conformations to catalyze sequentially the adenylation of the substrate and the thioesterification of the pantetheine cofactor. We have used a mechanism-based inhibitor to determine the crystal structure of an engineered adenylation-carrier domain protein illustrating the intermolecular interaction between the adenylation and carrier domains. This structure enabled directed mutations to improve the interaction between non-native partner proteins. Comparison with prior NRPS adenylation domain structures provides insights into the assembly line dynamics of these modular enzymes. PMID:22365602

  12. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Gupta, Anu; Zhang, Song; Viqar, Maria; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad; Dzeja, Petras

    2015-01-01

    Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK), creatine kinase (CK), and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2), third (18O3), and fourth (18O4) positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic vulnerability of aging

  13. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Gupta, Anu; Zhang, Song; Viqar, Maria; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad; Dzeja, Petras

    2015-01-01

    Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK), creatine kinase (CK), and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2), third (18O3), and fourth (18O4) positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic vulnerability of aging

  14. A specific inhibitor of the ubiquitin activating enzyme: synthesis and characterization of adenosyl-phospho-ubiquitinol, a nonhydrolyzable ubiquitin adenylate analogue.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K D; Smith, S E; O'Connor, L; Sternberg, E; Taggart, J J; Berges, D A; Butt, T

    1990-08-14

    A nonhydrolyzable analogue of ubiquitin adenylate has been synthesized for use as a specific inhibitor of the ubiquitination of proteins. Ubiquitin adenylate is a tightly bound intermediate formed by the ubiquitin activating enzyme. The inhibitor adenosyl-phospho-ubiquitinol (APU) is the phosphodiester of adenosine and the C-terminal alcohol derived from ubiquitin. APU is isosteric with the normal reaction intermediate, the mixed anhydride of ubiquitin and AMP, but results from the replacement of the carbonyl oxygen of Gly76 with a methylene group. This stable analogue would be expected to bind to both ubiquitin and adenosine subsites and result in a tightly bound competitive inhibitor of ubiquitin activation. APU inhibits the ATP-PPi exchange reaction catalyzed by the purified ubiquitin activating enzyme in a manner competitive with ATP (Ki = 50 nM) and noncompetitive with ubiquitin (Ki = 35 nM). AMP has no effect on the inhibition, confirming that the inhibitor binds to the free form of the enzyme and not the thiol ester form. This inhibition constant is 10-fold lower than the dissociation constants for each substrate and 30-1000-fold lower than the respective Km values for ubiquitin and ATP. APU also effectively inhibits conjugation of ubiquitin to endogenous proteins catalyzed by reticulocyte fraction II with an apparent Ki of 0.75 microM. This weaker inhibition is consistent with the fact that activation of ubiquitin is not rate limiting in the conjugation reactions catalyzed by fraction II. APU is similarly effective as an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of beta-lactoglobulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Adenylate Energy Charge in Escherichia coli During Growth and Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Astrid G.; Fall, Lana; Atkinson, Daniel E.

    1971-01-01

    The value of the adenylate energy charge, [(adenosine triphosphate) + ½ (adenosine diphosphate)]/[(adenosine triphosphate) + (adenosine diphosphate) + (adenosine monophosphate)], in Escherichia coli cells during growth is about 0.8. During the stationary phase after cessation of growth, or during starvation in carbon-limited cultures, the energy charge declines slowly to a value of about 0.5, and then falls more rapidly. During the slow decline in energy charge, all the cells are capable of forming colonies, but a rapid fall in viability coincides with the steep drop in energy charge. These results suggest that growth can occur only at energy charge values above about 0.8, that viability is maintained at values between 0.8 and 0.5, and that cells die at values below 0.5. Tabulation of adenylate concentrations previously reported for various organisms and tissues supports the prediction, based on enzyme kinetic observations in vitro, that the energy charge is stabilized near 0.85 in intact metabolizing cells of a wide variety of types. PMID:4333317

  16. Farnesyloxycoumarins, a new class of squalene-hopene cyclase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Balliano, Gianni; Robaldo, Bruna; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Chimichi, Stefano; Boccalini, Marco

    2004-04-19

    A few naturally occurring prenyl- and prenyloxycoumarins and several new related synthetic derivatives were evaluated as inhibitors of squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC), a useful model enzyme, to predict their interactions with oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC). Umbelliprenin-10',11'-monoepoxide (IC(50) 2.5 microM) and the corresponding 6',7'-10',11' diepoxide (IC(50) 1.5 microM) were the most active enzyme inhibitors.

  17. Curtains for ATP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The administration's efforts to keep various technology-transfer programs afloat in the budget process appear to be stalled. House Science Committee chair Robert Walker (R-Pa.) advised in early April that the Republican agenda for the pending budget process entails zeroing out the Commerce Department's Advanced Technology Program (ATP), which was funded at 431 million in fiscal year 1995. The ATP would lose about 90 million from its FY 95 budget. Although Walker says that the Republican leadership has no intention to dictate to the subcommittees how cuts should be made, they will be held to the "fairly severe caps" established by the House Budget Committee. In other words, Walker says, if ATP stays, something else will have to go in its place. In addition, a bill to rescind about 223 million from the FY 1995 budget of the Technology Reinvestment Project and another 77 million from TRP's FY 1994 budget, which has not been spent, is heading for the president's signature. Yet Walker says while he supports the merits of technology transfer, "the question is do you have to create government programs to get the technology out?"

  18. Modulation of a pre-existing conformational equilibrium tunes adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ådén, Jörgen; Verma, Abhinav; Schug, Alexander; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2012-10-10

    Structural plasticity is often required for distinct microscopic steps during enzymatic reaction cycles. Adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli (AK(eco)) populates two major conformations in solution; the open (inactive) and closed (active) state, and the overall turnover rate is inversely proportional to the lifetime of the active conformation. Therefore, structural plasticity is intimately coupled to enzymatic turnover in AK(eco). Here, we probe the open to closed conformational equilibrium in the absence of bound substrate with NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. The conformational equilibrium in absence of substrate and, in turn, the turnover number can be modulated with mutational- and osmolyte-driven perturbations. Removal of one hydrogen bond between the ATP and AMP binding subdomains results in a population shift toward the open conformation and a resulting increase of k(cat). Addition of the osmolyte TMAO to AK(eco) results in population shift toward the closed conformation and a significant reduction of k(cat). The Michaelis constants (K(M)) scale with the change in k(cat), which follows from the influence of the population of the closed conformation for substrate binding affinity. Hence, k(cat) and K(M) are mutually dependent, and in the case of AK(eco), any perturbation that modulates k(cat) is mirrored with a proportional response in K(M). Thus, our results demonstrate that the equilibrium constant of a pre-existing conformational equilibrium directly affects enzymatic catalysis. From an evolutionary perspective, our findings suggest that, for AK(eco), there exists ample flexibility to obtain a specificity constant (k(cat)/K(M)) that commensurate with the exerted cellular selective pressure.

  19. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  20. Novel hopanoid cyclases from the environment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Flood Page, Sarah R; Jorgenson, Tyler L; Fischer, Woodward W; Higgins, Meytal B

    2007-09-01

    Hopanoids are ubiquitous isoprenoid lipids found in modern biota, in recent sediments and in low-maturity sedimentary rocks. Because these lipids primarily are derived from bacteria, they are used as proxies to help decipher geobiological communities. To date, much of the information about sources of hopanoids has come from surveys of culture collections, an approach that does not address the vast fraction of prokaryotic communities that remains uncharacterized. Here we investigated the phylogeny of hopanoid producers using culture-independent methods. We obtained 79 new sequences of squalene-hopene cyclase genes (sqhC) from marine and lacustrine bacterioplankton and analysed them along with all 31 sqhC fragments available from existing metagenomics libraries. The environmental sqhCs average only 60% translated amino acid identity to their closest relatives in public databases. The data imply that the sources of these important geologic biomarkers remain largely unknown. In particular, genes affiliated with known cyanobacterial sequences were not detected in the contemporary environments analysed here, yet the geologic record contains abundant hopanoids apparently of cyanobacterial origin. The data also suggest that hopanoid biosynthesis is uncommon: < 10% of bacterial species may be capable of producing hopanoids. A better understanding of the contemporary distribution of hopanoid biosynthesis may reveal fundamental insight about the function of these compounds, the organisms in which they are found, and the environmental signals preserved in the sedimentary record.

  1. Novel hopanoid cyclases from the environment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Flood Page, Sarah R; Jorgenson, Tyler L; Fischer, Woodward W; Higgins, Meytal B

    2007-09-01

    Hopanoids are ubiquitous isoprenoid lipids found in modern biota, in recent sediments and in low-maturity sedimentary rocks. Because these lipids primarily are derived from bacteria, they are used as proxies to help decipher geobiological communities. To date, much of the information about sources of hopanoids has come from surveys of culture collections, an approach that does not address the vast fraction of prokaryotic communities that remains uncharacterized. Here we investigated the phylogeny of hopanoid producers using culture-independent methods. We obtained 79 new sequences of squalene-hopene cyclase genes (sqhC) from marine and lacustrine bacterioplankton and analysed them along with all 31 sqhC fragments available from existing metagenomics libraries. The environmental sqhCs average only 60% translated amino acid identity to their closest relatives in public databases. The data imply that the sources of these important geologic biomarkers remain largely unknown. In particular, genes affiliated with known cyanobacterial sequences were not detected in the contemporary environments analysed here, yet the geologic record contains abundant hopanoids apparently of cyanobacterial origin. The data also suggest that hopanoid biosynthesis is uncommon: < 10% of bacterial species may be capable of producing hopanoids. A better understanding of the contemporary distribution of hopanoid biosynthesis may reveal fundamental insight about the function of these compounds, the organisms in which they are found, and the environmental signals preserved in the sedimentary record. PMID:17686016

  2. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit. PMID:26920481

  3. Decreased expression of plastidial adenylate kinase in potato tubers results in an enhanced rate of respiration and a stimulation of starch synthesis that is attributable to post-translational redox-activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Sandra N; Tiessen, Axel; Fernie, Alisdair R; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Adenine nucleotides are of general importance for many aspects of cell function, but their role in the regulation of biosynthetic processes is still unclear. It was previously reported that decreased expression of plastidial adenylate kinase, catalysing the interconversion of ATP and AMP to ADP, leads to increased adenylate pools and starch content in transgenic potato tubers. However, the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated. Here, it is shown that decreased expression of plastidial adenylate kinase in growing tubers leads to increased rates of respiratory oxygen consumption and increased carbon fluxes into starch. Increased rates of starch synthesis were accompanied by post-translational redox-activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), catalysing the key regulatory step of starch synthesis in the plastid, while there were no substantial changes in metabolic intermediates or sugar levels. A similar increase in post-translational redox-activation of AGPase was found after supplying adenine to wild-type potato tuber discs to increase adenine nucleotide levels. Results provide first evidence for a link between redox-activation of AGPase and adenine nucleotide levels in plants.

  4. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  5. Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field. PMID:27030537

  6. ATP release through pannexon channels.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed 'pannexon'. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  7. Prokaryotic squalene-hopene cyclases can be converted to citronellal cyclases by single amino acid exchange.

    PubMed

    Siedenburg, Gabriele; Breuer, Michael; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Squalene-hopene cyclases (SHCs) are prokaryotic enzymes that catalyse the cyclisation of the linear precursor squalene to pentacyclic hopene. Recently, we discovered that a SHC cloned from Zymomonas mobilis (ZMO-1548 gene product) has the unique property to cyclise the monoterpenoid citronellal to isopulegol. In this study, we performed saturation mutagenesis of three amino acids of the catalytic centre of ZMO-1548 (F428, F486 and W555), which had been previously identified to interact with enzyme-bound substrate. Replacement of F428 by tyrosine increased hopene formation from squalene, but isopulegol-forming activity was strongly reduced or abolished in all muteins of position 428. W555 was essential for hopene formation; however, three muteins (W555Y, W428F or W555T) revealed enhanced cyclisation efficiency with citronellal. The residue at position 486 turned out to be the most important for isopulegol-forming activity. While the presence of phenylalanine or tyrosine favoured cyclisation activity with squalene, several small and/or hydrophobic residues such as cysteine, alanine or isoleucine and others reduced activity with squalene but greatly enhanced isopulegol formation from citronellal. Replacement of the conserved aromatic residue corresponding to F486 to cysteine in other SHCs cloned from Z. mobilis (ZMO-0872), Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (SHC(Aac)), Acetobacter pasteurianus (SHC(Apa)), Streptomyces coelicolor (SHC(Sco)) and Bradyrhizobium japonicum (SHC(Bja)) resulted in more or less strong isopulegol-forming activities from citronellal. In conclusion, many SHCs can be converted to citronellal cyclases by mutagenesis of the active centre thus broadening the applicability of this interesting class of biocatalyst. PMID:22526778

  8. Prokaryotic squalene-hopene cyclases can be converted to citronellal cyclases by single amino acid exchange.

    PubMed

    Siedenburg, Gabriele; Breuer, Michael; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Squalene-hopene cyclases (SHCs) are prokaryotic enzymes that catalyse the cyclisation of the linear precursor squalene to pentacyclic hopene. Recently, we discovered that a SHC cloned from Zymomonas mobilis (ZMO-1548 gene product) has the unique property to cyclise the monoterpenoid citronellal to isopulegol. In this study, we performed saturation mutagenesis of three amino acids of the catalytic centre of ZMO-1548 (F428, F486 and W555), which had been previously identified to interact with enzyme-bound substrate. Replacement of F428 by tyrosine increased hopene formation from squalene, but isopulegol-forming activity was strongly reduced or abolished in all muteins of position 428. W555 was essential for hopene formation; however, three muteins (W555Y, W428F or W555T) revealed enhanced cyclisation efficiency with citronellal. The residue at position 486 turned out to be the most important for isopulegol-forming activity. While the presence of phenylalanine or tyrosine favoured cyclisation activity with squalene, several small and/or hydrophobic residues such as cysteine, alanine or isoleucine and others reduced activity with squalene but greatly enhanced isopulegol formation from citronellal. Replacement of the conserved aromatic residue corresponding to F486 to cysteine in other SHCs cloned from Z. mobilis (ZMO-0872), Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (SHC(Aac)), Acetobacter pasteurianus (SHC(Apa)), Streptomyces coelicolor (SHC(Sco)) and Bradyrhizobium japonicum (SHC(Bja)) resulted in more or less strong isopulegol-forming activities from citronellal. In conclusion, many SHCs can be converted to citronellal cyclases by mutagenesis of the active centre thus broadening the applicability of this interesting class of biocatalyst.

  9. Regulation and organization of adenylyl cyclases and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dermot M F

    2003-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are a critically important family of multiply regulated signalling molecules. Their susceptibility to many modes of regulation allows them to integrate the activities of a variety of signalling pathways. However, this property brings with it the problem of imparting specificity and discrimination. Recent studies are revealing the range of strategies utilized by the cyclases to solve this problem. Microdomains are a consequence of these solutions, in which cAMP dynamics may differ from the broad cytosol. Currently evolving methodologies are beginning to reveal cAMP fluctuations in these various compartments. PMID:12940771

  10. AKAPs and Adenylyl Cyclase in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Efendiev, Riad; Dessauer, Carmen W.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic AMP, generated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), serves as a second messenger in signaling pathways regulating many aspects of cardiac physiology including contraction rate and action potential duration, and in the pathophysiology of hypertrophy and heart failure. A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) localize the effect of cAMP in space and time by organizing receptors, adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A and other components of the cAMP cascade into multiprotein complexes. In this review we discuss how interaction of AKAPs with distinct AC isoforms affects cardiovascular physiology. PMID:21978991

  11. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors augment UT-15C-stimulated ATP release from erythrocytes of humans with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Elizabeth A; Moody, Gina N; Yeragunta, Yashaswini; Stephenson, Alan H; Ellsworth, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Both prostacyclin analogs and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are effective treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In addition to direct effects on vascular smooth muscle, prostacyclin analogs increase cAMP levels and ATP release from healthy human erythrocytes. We hypothesized that UT-15C, an orally available form of the prostacyclin analog, treprostinil, would stimulate ATP release from erythrocytes of humans with PAH and that this release would be augmented by PDE5 inhibitors. Erythrocytes were isolated and the effect of UT-15C on cAMP levels and ATP release were measured in the presence and absence of the PDE5 inhibitors, zaprinast or tadalafil. In addition, the ability of a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor to prevent the effects of tadalafil was determined. Erythrocytes of healthy humans and humans with PAH respond to UT-15C with increases in cAMP levels and ATP release. In both groups, UT-15C-induced ATP release was potentiated by zaprinast and tadalafil. The effect of tadalafil was prevented by pre-treatment with an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase in healthy human erythrocytes. Importantly, UT-15C-induced ATP release was greater in PAH erythrocytes than in healthy human erythrocytes in both the presence and the absence of PDE5 inhibitors. The finding that prostacyclin analogs and PDE5 inhibitors work synergistically to enhance release of the potent vasodilator ATP from PAH erythrocytes provides a new rationale for the co-administration of these drugs in this disease. Moreover, these results suggest that the erythrocyte is a novel target for future drug development for the treatment of PAH. PMID:25125498

  12. Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert,H.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.

  13. P2 purinergic receptor activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase in the dorsal facial area of the medulla increases blood flow in the common carotid arteries of cats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Y-W; Leung, Y-M; Lin, N-N; Lee, T J-F; Kuo, J-S; Tung, K-C; Gong, C-L

    2015-02-12

    In the dorsal facial area (DFA) of the medulla, an activation of either P2 purinergic receptor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in the release of glutamate, leading to an increase in blood flow of the common carotid artery (CCA). It is not known whether activation of the P2 receptor by ATP may mediate activation of NOS/guanylyl cyclase to cause glutamate release and/or whether L-Arg (nitric oxide (NO) precursor) may also cause ATP release from any other neuron, to cause an increase in CCA flow. We demonstrated that microinjections of P2 receptor agonists (ATP, α,β-methylene ATP) or NO precursor (L-arginine) into the DFA increased CCA blood flow. The P2-induced CCA blood flow increase was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a relatively selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by that with D-NAME (an isomer of L-NAME) or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO, a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor). Involvement of glutamate release in these responses were substantiated by microdialysis studies, in which perfusions of ATP into the DFA increased the glutamate concentration in dialysates, but co-perfusion of ATP with L-NAME or 7-NI did not. Nevertheless, the arginine-induced CCA blood flow increase was abolished by combined pretreatment of L-NAME and MB, but not affected by pretreatment with a selective P2 receptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). In conclusion, ATP activation of the P2 receptor in the DFA induced activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which causes glutamate release leading to an increase in CCA blood flow. However, arginine activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which also caused glutamate release and CCA blood flow increase, did not induce activation of P2 receptors. These findings provide important information for drug design and

  14. P2 purinergic receptor activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase in the dorsal facial area of the medulla increases blood flow in the common carotid arteries of cats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Y-W; Leung, Y-M; Lin, N-N; Lee, T J-F; Kuo, J-S; Tung, K-C; Gong, C-L

    2015-02-12

    In the dorsal facial area (DFA) of the medulla, an activation of either P2 purinergic receptor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in the release of glutamate, leading to an increase in blood flow of the common carotid artery (CCA). It is not known whether activation of the P2 receptor by ATP may mediate activation of NOS/guanylyl cyclase to cause glutamate release and/or whether L-Arg (nitric oxide (NO) precursor) may also cause ATP release from any other neuron, to cause an increase in CCA flow. We demonstrated that microinjections of P2 receptor agonists (ATP, α,β-methylene ATP) or NO precursor (L-arginine) into the DFA increased CCA blood flow. The P2-induced CCA blood flow increase was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a relatively selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by that with D-NAME (an isomer of L-NAME) or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO, a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor). Involvement of glutamate release in these responses were substantiated by microdialysis studies, in which perfusions of ATP into the DFA increased the glutamate concentration in dialysates, but co-perfusion of ATP with L-NAME or 7-NI did not. Nevertheless, the arginine-induced CCA blood flow increase was abolished by combined pretreatment of L-NAME and MB, but not affected by pretreatment with a selective P2 receptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). In conclusion, ATP activation of the P2 receptor in the DFA induced activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which causes glutamate release leading to an increase in CCA blood flow. However, arginine activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which also caused glutamate release and CCA blood flow increase, did not induce activation of P2 receptors. These findings provide important information for drug design and

  15. Linkage between Fitness of Yeast Cells and Adenylate Kinase Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Tükenmez, Hasan; Magnussen, Helge Magnus; Kovermann, Michael; Byström, Anders; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have evolved with highly specific values of their catalytic parameters kcat and KM. This poses fundamental biological questions about the selection pressures responsible for evolutionary tuning of these parameters. Here we are address these questions for the enzyme adenylate kinase (Adk) in eukaryotic yeast cells. A plasmid shuffling system was developed to allow quantification of relative fitness (calculated from growth rates) of yeast in response to perturbations of Adk activity introduced through mutations. Biophysical characterization verified that all variants studied were properly folded and that the mutations did not cause any substantial differences to thermal stability. We found that cytosolic Adk is essential for yeast viability in our strain background and that viability could not be restored with a catalytically dead, although properly folded Adk variant. There exist a massive overcapacity of Adk catalytic activity and only 12% of the wild type kcat is required for optimal growth at the stress condition 20°C. In summary, the approach developed here has provided new insights into the evolutionary tuning of kcat for Adk in a eukaryotic organism. The developed methodology may also become useful for uncovering new aspects of active site dynamics and also in enzyme design since a large library of enzyme variants can be screened rapidly by identifying viable colonies. PMID:27642758

  16. Chirally selective, intramolecular interaction observed in an aminoacyl adenylate anhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Watkins, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between amino acids and nucleotide bases is studied. The proton NMR spectrum of N-acetylphenylalanyl-AMP-anhydride is analyzed H8 and H2 signals, two upfield signals of equal size, and five phenylalanine ring proton signals are observed in the spectrum; the upfield movement of the proton and the racemization of the N-acetyl L-phenylalanine material are examined. The differences in the position of the signals due to the diastereoisomers are investigated. The separation of the D and L amino acyl adenylates using HPLC is described. H-1 NMR spectra of the isomers are examined in order to determine which isomer displays the strongest interaction between the phenyl ring and the adenine ring. The spectra reveal that the L isomer shows the highest upfield change of both H8 and H2 signals. It is noted that the phenyl ring lies over C2 of the adenine ring with the phenyl meta and para protons extended past the adenine ring and the phenyl ortho protons.

  17. Linkage between Fitness of Yeast Cells and Adenylate Kinase Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tükenmez, Hasan; Magnussen, Helge Magnus; Kovermann, Michael; Byström, Anders; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have evolved with highly specific values of their catalytic parameters kcat and KM. This poses fundamental biological questions about the selection pressures responsible for evolutionary tuning of these parameters. Here we are address these questions for the enzyme adenylate kinase (Adk) in eukaryotic yeast cells. A plasmid shuffling system was developed to allow quantification of relative fitness (calculated from growth rates) of yeast in response to perturbations of Adk activity introduced through mutations. Biophysical characterization verified that all variants studied were properly folded and that the mutations did not cause any substantial differences to thermal stability. We found that cytosolic Adk is essential for yeast viability in our strain background and that viability could not be restored with a catalytically dead, although properly folded Adk variant. There exist a massive overcapacity of Adk catalytic activity and only 12% of the wild type kcat is required for optimal growth at the stress condition 20°C. In summary, the approach developed here has provided new insights into the evolutionary tuning of kcat for Adk in a eukaryotic organism. The developed methodology may also become useful for uncovering new aspects of active site dynamics and also in enzyme design since a large library of enzyme variants can be screened rapidly by identifying viable colonies. PMID:27642758

  18. Analysis of the Linker Region Joining the Adenylation and Carrier Protein Domains of the Modular Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bradley R.; Sundlov, Jesse A.; Drake, Eric J.; Makin, Thomas A.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPSs) are multi-modular proteins capable of producing important peptide natural products. Using an assembly-line process the amino acid substrate and peptide intermediates are passed between the active sites of different catalytic domains of the NRPS while bound covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain. Examination of the linker sequences that join the NRPS adenylation and PCP domains identified several conserved proline residues that are not found in standalone adenylation domains. We examined the roles of these proline residues and neighboring conserved sequences through mutagenesis and biochemical analysis of the reaction catalyzed by the adenylation domain and the fully reconstituted NRPS pathway. In particular, we identified a conserved LPxP motif at the start of the adenylation-PCP linker. The LPxP motif interacts with a region on the adenylation domain to stabilize a critical catalytic lysine residue belonging to the A10 motif that immediately precedes the linker. Further, this interaction with the C-terminal sub-domain of the adenylation domain may coordinate movement of the PCP with the conformational change of the adenylation domain. Through this work, we extend the conserved A10 motif of the adenylation domain and identify residues that enable proper adenylation domain function. PMID:24975514

  19. Tocopherol Cyclases-Substrate Specificity and Phylogenetic Relations.

    PubMed

    Dłużewska, Jolanta; Szymańska, Renata; Gabruk, Michal; Kós, Peter B; Nowicka, Beatrycze; Kruk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In the present studies, we focused on substrate specificity of tocopherol cyclase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the tocopherols and plastochromanol-8, the main plant lipid antioxidants, with special emphasis on the preference for tocopherols and plastochromanol-8 precursors, taking advantage of the recombinant enzyme originating from Arabidopsis thaliana and isolated plastoglobules, thylakoids and various model systems like micelles and thylakoids. Plastoglobules and triacylglycerol micelles were the most efficient reaction environment for the cyclase. In various investigated systems, synthesis of γ-tocopherol proceeded considerably faster than that of plastochromanol-8, probably mainly due to different localization of the corresponding substrates in the analyzed lipid structures. Moreover, our study was complemented by bioinformatics analysis of the phylogenetic relations of the cyclases and sequence motifs, crucial for the enzyme activity, were proposed. The analysis revealed also a group of tocopherol cyclase-like proteins in a number of heterotrophic bacterial species, with a conserved region common with photosynthetic organisms, that might be engaged in the catalytic activity of both groups of organisms. PMID:27462710

  20. General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-07-01

    Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Human Ubiquitin-activating Enzyme 5 (UBA5) Bound to ATP Mechanistic Insights into a Minimalistic E1 Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Bacik, John-Paul; Walker, John R.; Ali, Mohsin; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-08-30

    E1 ubiquitin-activating enzymes (UBAs) are large multidomain proteins that catalyze formation of a thioester bond between the terminal carboxylate of a ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifier (UBL) and a conserved cysteine in an E2 protein, producing reactive ubiquityl units for subsequent ligation to substrate lysines. Two important E1 reaction intermediates have been identified: a ubiquityl-adenylate phosphoester and a ubiquityl-enzyme thioester. However, the mechanism of thioester bond formation and its subsequent transfer to an E2 enzyme remains poorly understood. We have determined the crystal structure of the human UFM1 (ubiquitin-fold modifier 1) E1-activating enzyme UBA5, bound to ATP, revealing a structure that shares similarities with both large canonical E1 enzymes and smaller ancestral E1-like enzymes. In contrast to other E1 active site cysteines, which are in a variably sized domain that is separate and flexible relative to the adenylation domain, the catalytic cysteine of UBA5 (Cys{sup 250}) is part of the adenylation domain in an {alpha}-helical motif. The novel position of the UBA5 catalytic cysteine and conformational changes associated with ATP binding provides insight into the possible mechanisms through which the ubiquityl-enzyme thioester is formed. These studies reveal structural features that further our understanding of the UBA5 enzyme reaction mechanism and provide insight into the evolution of ubiquitin activation.

  2. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

  3. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase in relation to dopamine-induced long-term enhancement (LTE) of muscarinic depolarization in the rabbit superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Mochida, S; Kobayashi, H; Libet, B

    1987-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) induction of the long-term enhancement (LTE) of the slow muscarinic depolarizing response to methacholine (MCh), equivalent to the slow EPSP (S-EPSP), was previously found to be mimicked by exogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the rabbit superior cervical ganglion (SCG). DA-induced LTE of the S-EPSP was shown to be depressed by some DA antagonists. We now show that DA (15 microM), its analog, 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (ADTN), and a D2 receptor antagonist, metoclopramide, each can induce both LTE of MCh depolarization and an increase in ganglionic cAMP. Conversely, antagonists of DA-induced LTE also depress DA-induced rises in cAMP; these antagonists include haloperidol (1 microM), both (+) and (-) enantiomers of butaclamol (0.7-7 microM), flupenthixol (1 microM), and (+)-R-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-o l (SCH-23390) (7 microM). The selective D2 antagonists sulpiride (10 microM) and domperidone (10 microM) affect neither DA action. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists (alpha-methyl-norepinephrine and clonidine) produce no LTE; alpha-antagonist dihydroergotamine (35 microM) does not affect either DA action, although it can completely block the hyperpolarizing response to DA or other catecholamines. Beta-antagonist propranolol (5 microM) partially depresses DA-induced rises in cAMP but has no effect on the DA-induced LTE. (Butaclamol and propranolol in combination can completely block the cAMP rise induced by DA.) Beta-agonist isoproterenol can induce appreciable LTE of MCh depolarization, but this LTE is not depressed by propranolol (10 microM). Isoproterenol can elicit a substantial rise in cAMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and PAC1 receptor in the testis of cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata: A molecular and phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Agnese, Marisa; Valiante, Salvatore; Rosati, Luigi; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The role of PACAP in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis has been largely investigated in last years in mammals; conversely, a few studies have been performed in non mammalian vertebrates. In this paper we investigated the sequence, expression and localization of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in the testis of the benthic elasmobranch Torpedo marmorata, the marbled electric ray. Cloning a partial PACAP cDNA, we demonstrated for the first time in elasmobranches that PACAP shows a highly conserved sequence, compared with the PACAP of other chordates (tunicates and vertebrates). Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP has been well preserved during evolution and that a negative selection acts on PACAP sequence, leading to the conservation of the coding sites. The phylogenetic consensus tree showed also that Torpedo PACAP is more related with the amphibian PACAP than with the teleost one. Finally, we demonstrated that in T. marmorata PACAP and its PAC1 receptor are synthesized directly in the testis, where they show a wider localization than mammals, suggesting that this neuropeptide is involved in the control of Torpedo spermatogenesis. PMID:26393433

  5. Muscarinic cholinergic ligand binding to intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) coupling with two biochemical effectors: adenylate cyclase and phosphatidylinositol turnover.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Vickroy, T W; Watson, M; Roeske, W R; Reisine, T D; Smith, T L; Yamamura, H I

    1986-03-01

    (-)-[3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors on intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) was characterized in an attempt to correlate radioligand binding properties with receptor-coupled biochemical responses. Performing rinse time studies for 2 hr produced a remarkably improved ratio of specific/total (+)-[3H]QNB binding (85%). Kinetic experiments yielded association (k+1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants of 2.2 X 10(8) M-1 min-1 and 6.8 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively. Receptor occupancy curves demonstrated a uniform population of specific, saturable (-)-[3H]QNB binding sites with a Hill coefficient equal to 1.0 and an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) equal to 34 pM under our conditions. Stereoselectivity was observed with the enantiomers (dexetimide and levetimide) of benzetimide (a factor of 4300). Concentrations of carbachol that produced a half-maximal inhibition of cyclic AMP formation and a concentration of carbachol for producing half-maximal stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in the intact cells were 0.45 and 170 microM, respectively. Schild analysis revealed that pirenzepine, a nonclassical muscarinic antagonist, had a 40-fold greater affinity for reversing carbachol-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover (inhibition constant or Ki = 7 nM), compared to its antagonism of the carbachol-mediated inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP formation (Ki = 280 nM). Interestingly, pirenzepine inhibited (-)-[3H]QNB binding with a Ki value of 72 nM. In contrast, atropine was nearly equipotent (Ki = 0.3-0.5 nM) in binding studies and in both effector systems. PMID:3005550

  6. Functional analysis of the sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS in Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Cao; Ma, Yang; Wang, Xun; Xie, Yuqun; Ali, Maria K.; He, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial secondary messenger molecule, which is associated with various physiological functions. In the genus Bacillus, the intracellular level and turnover of c-di-AMP are mainly regulated by three diadenylate cyclases (DACs), including DisA, CdaA and CdaS, and two c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (GdpP and PgpH). In this study, we demonstrated that CdaS protein from B. thuringiensis is a hexameric DAC protein that can convert ATP or ADP to c-di-AMP in vitro and the N-terminal YojJ domain is essential for the DAC activity. Based on the markerless gene knock-out method, we demonstrated that the transcription of cdaS was initiated by the sporulation-specific sigma factor σH and the deletion of cdaS significantly delayed sporulation and parasporal crystal formation. These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis, wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σG. Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. In summary, this study identifies important aspects in the regulation of c-di-AMP in the genus Bacillus. PMID:26441857

  7. Structure of RNA 3′-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kevin K.; Bingman, Craig A.; Cheng, Chin L.; Phillips, George N.

    2014-01-01

    RNA 3′-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3′-phosphate to form a 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA–AMP and RNA(3′)pp(5′)A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3′-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3′-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3′-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P–N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to Nε of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3′-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3′-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. PMID:25161314

  8. Utilisation of glycogen, ATP and arginine phosphate in exercise and recovery in terrestrial red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Adamczewska, Agnieszka M

    2002-11-01

    Intermittent locomotion by terrestrial crustaceans may under specific circumstances increase walking distance and may allow partial re-oxidization of anaerobic products, and replenishment of ATP and arginine phosphate. The Christmas Island red crab G. natalis undertakes a substantial breeding migration each year. The leg muscles of G. natalis subjected to bouts of 2.5 min walking and 2.5 min rest were severely anaerobic. Adenylate energy charge and the large arginine phosphate stores were greatly reduced. Walking for 4 min with pauses of only 1 min exacerbated the anaerobiosis and utilised 50% of the endogenous muscle glycogen. Post-exercise, the adenylate energy charge recovered before the arginine phosphate charge and a large and persistent hyperglycaemia accompanied the restoration of glycogen. Arginine phosphate functioned as a large, longer term, energy reservoir-almost as part of the adenylate pool. Gluconeogenesis is yet to be generally substantiated in decapod crustaceans but G. natalis appears to remove lactate slowly and to reincorporate exogenous glucose into muscle glycogen in the same time frame as lactate removal from the haemolymph. The 4:1 exercise/pause regimen facilitated access to energy stores and increased walking distance, and it allowed L-lactate and H(+) efflux from the muscle during pausing. These responses are similar to those of G. natalis in the field, except during the migration when walking was entirely aerobic. Determinations of adenylate, fuel and arginine phosphate reserves and usage during the migration are required together with more detailed behavioral analysis to resolve the dichotomy in metabolic response.

  9. Energy transduction in ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, Timothy; Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondria, bacteria and chloroplasts use the free energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients to manufacture ATP by the action of ATP synthase. This enzyme consists of two principal domains. The asymmetric membrane-spanning Fo portion contains the proton channel, and the soluble F1 portion contains three catalytic sites which cooperate in the synthetic reactions. The flow of protons through Fo is thought to generate a torque which is transmitted to F1 by an asymmetric shaft, the coiled-coil γ-subunit. This acts as a rotating `cam' within F1, sequentially releasing ATPs from the three active sites. The free-energy difference across the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacteria is sufficient to produce three ATPs per twelve protons passing through the motor. It has been suggested that this protonmotive force biases the rotor's diffusion so that Fo constitutes a rotary motor turning the γ shaft. Here we show that biased diffusion, augmented by electrostatic forces, does indeed generate sufficient torque to account for ATP production. Moreover, the motor's reversibility - supplying torque from ATP hydrolysis in F1 converts the motor into an efficient proton pump - can also be explained by our model.

  10. Cobalt-, zinc- and iron-bound forms of adenylate kinase (AK) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kladova, A. V.; Gavel, O. Yu.; Mukhopaadhyay, A.; Boer, D. R.; Teixeira, S.; Shnyrov, V. L.; Moura, I.; Moura, J. J. G.; Romão, M. J.; Trincão, J.; Bursakov, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.4.3) is involved in the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group from ATP to AMP. AKs contribute to the maintenance of a constant level of cellular adenine nucleotides, which is necessary for the energetic metabolism of the cell. Three metal ions, cobalt, zinc and iron(II), have been reported to be present in AKs from some Gram-negative bacteria. Native zinc-containing AK from Desulfo­vibrio gigas was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to beyond 1.8 Å resolution. Furthermore, cobalt- and iron-containing crystal forms of recombinant AK were also obtained and diffracted to 2.0 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Zn2+–AK and Fe2+–AK crystallized in space group I222 with similar unit-cell parameters, whereas Co2+–AK crystallized in space group C2; a monomer was present in the asymmetric unit for both the Zn2+–AK and Fe2+–AK forms and a dimer was present for the Co2+–AK form. The structures of the three metal-bound forms of AK will provide new insights into the role and selectivity of the metal in these enzymes. PMID:19724135

  11. Phospho-transfer networks and ATP homeostasis in response to an ineffective electron transport chain in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Appanna, V P; Alhasawi, A A; Auger, C; Thomas, S C; Appanna, V D

    2016-09-15

    Although oxidative stress is known to impede the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, the nutritionally-versatile microbe, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been shown to proliferate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrosative stress. In this study we demonstrate the phospho-transfer system that enables this organism to generate ATP was similar irrespective of the carbon source utilized. Despite the diminished activities of enzymes involved in the TCA cycle and in the electron transport chain (ETC), the ATP levels did not appear to be significantly affected in the stressed cells. Phospho-transfer networks mediated by acetate kinase (ACK), adenylate kinase (AK), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are involved in maintaining ATP homeostasis in the oxidatively-challenged cells. This phospho-relay machinery orchestrated by substrate-level phosphorylation is aided by the up-regulation in the activities of such enzymes like phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS). The enhanced production of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate further fuel the synthesis of ATP. Taken together, this metabolic reconfiguration enables the organism to fulfill its ATP need in an O2-independent manner by utilizing an intricate phospho-wire module aimed at maximizing the energy potential of PEP with the participation of AMP. PMID:27431058

  12. Synthesis of amino acyl adenylates using the tert-butoxycarbonyl protecting group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, D. W.; Seguin, R.; Saburi, M.; Fendler, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of amino acyl adenylates using N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-protected amino acids is reported. Anhydrous solutions containing N-tert-butoxycarbonyl alanine, phenylalanine, and methionine were combined with the anhydrous mono (tri-n-octylammonium) salt of adenosine 5'-phosphate and the resultant amino acyl adenylates were characterized by means of elemental analysis, and infrared and proton NMR spectroscopy. Amino acyl adenylate yields of up to 60% were obtained with high purity at room temperatures. The reported synthesis is considered to represent a large improvement over previous methods due to the purity of the products, normal temperature requirements, and the stability of the starting compounds, which suggests its use in investigations of prebiotic oligo- and polypeptide synthesis.

  13. Clay catalyzed polymerization of amino acid adenylates and its relationship to biochemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption and polymerization of alanine adenylate on montmorillonite at pH 7 when either its interspacial faces or its edger are blocked by an excess of histidine or sodium hexametaphosphate was investigated. Results indicate that alanine adenylate can be adsorbed any place on the interspacial spaces of the clay; however, adsorption of its phosphate part, which is limited to the edges of the clay, is necessary for polymerization to occur. As a result, polymerization takes place only at sites on the interspacial faces bordering the edges.

  14. Zinc, a structural component of adenylate kinases from gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, A M; Glaser, P; Perrier, V; Meier, A; Longin, R; Sebald, M; Maignan, L; Pistotnik, E; Bârzu, O

    1994-01-01

    The recent finding that Bacillus stearothermophilus adenylate kinase contains a zinc atom coordinated to four cysteines prompted us to investigate the metal-binding properties of the enzyme from various bacteria. We conclude that zinc was present only in adenylate kinase from gram-positive species and that this property is correlated with the presence of three or four Cys residues in the sequence Cys-X2-Cys-X16-Cys-X2-Cys/Asp, in which X stands for different amino acid residues. PMID:8288548

  15. Activation of the pacidamycin PacL adenylation domain by MbtH-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Heemstra, John R; Walsh, Christopher T; Imker, Heidi J

    2010-11-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly lines are major avenues for the biosynthesis of a vast array of peptidyl natural products. Several hundred bacterial NRPS gene clusters contain a small (∼70-residue) protein belonging to the MbtH family for which no function has been defined. Here we show that two strictly conserved Trp residues in MbtH-like proteins contribute to stimulation of amino acid adenylation in some NRPS modules. We also demonstrate that adenylation can be stimulated not only by cognate MbtH-like proteins but also by homologues from disparate natural product pathways.

  16. Activation of the Pacidamycin PacL Adenylation Domain by MbtH-Like Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjun; Heemstra, John R.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Imker, Heidi J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly lines are major avenues for the biosynthesis of a vast array of peptidyl natural products. Several hundred bacterial NRPS gene clusters contain a small (~70 residue) protein belonging to the MbtH family for which no function has been defined. Here we show that two strictly conserved Trp residues in MbtH-like proteins contribute to stimulation of amino acid adenylation in some NRPS modules. We also demonstrate that adenylation can be stimulated not only by cognate MbtH-like proteins but also by homologues from disparate natural product pathways. PMID:20964365

  17. Does ATP cross the cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudry, I. H.

    1982-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of evidence which indicates that ATP is released as well as taken up by cells, the concept that ATP cannot cross the cell membrane has tended to prevail. This article reviews the evidence for the release as well as uptake of ATP by cells. The evidence presented by various investigators clearly indicates that ATP can cross the cell membrane and suggests that the release and uptake of ATP are physiological processes. PMID:7051582

  18. Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

  19. Factors influencing the rate of non-enzymatic activation of carboxylic and amino acids by ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The nonenzymatic formation of adenylate anhydrides of carboxylic and amino acids is discussed as a necessary step in the origin of the genetic code and protein biosynthesis. Results of studies are presented which have shown the rate of activation to depend on the pKa of the carboxyl group, the pH of the medium, temperature, the divalent metal ion catalyst, salt concentration, and the nature of the amino acid. In particular, it was found that of the various amino acids investigated, phenylalanine had the greatest affinity for the adenine derivatives adenosine and ATP. Results thus indicate that selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides were important during prebiotic chemical evolution, and may have played a major role in the origin of protein synthesis and genetic coding.

  20. Crystal structure of papaya glutaminyl cyclase, an archetype for plant and bacterial glutaminyl cyclases.

    PubMed

    Wintjens, René; Belrhali, Hassan; Clantin, Bernard; Azarkan, Mohamed; Bompard, Coralie; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent

    2006-03-24

    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of protein N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. QCs may be classified in two groups containing, respectively, the mammalian enzymes, and the enzymes from plants, bacteria, and parasites. The crystal structure of the QC from the latex of Carica papaya (PQC) has been determined at 1.7A resolution. The structure was solved by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique using sulfur and zinc as anomalous scatterers. The enzyme folds into a five-bladed beta-propeller, with two additional alpha-helices and one beta hairpin. The propeller closure is achieved via an original molecular velcro, which links the last two blades into a large eight stranded beta-sheet. The zinc ion present in the PQC is bound via an octahedral coordination into an elongated cavity located along the pseudo 5-fold axis of the beta-propeller fold. This zinc ion presumably plays a structural role and may contribute to the exceptional stability of PQC, along with an extended hydrophobic packing, the absence of long loops, the three-joint molecular velcro and the overall folding itself. Multiple sequence alignments combined with structural analyses have allowed us to tentatively locate the active site, which is filled in the crystal structure either by a Tris molecule or an acetate ion. These analyses are further supported by the experimental evidence that Tris is a competitive inhibitor of PQC. The active site is located at the C-terminal entrance of the PQC central tunnel. W83, W110, W169, Q24, E69, N155, K225, F22 and F67 are highly conserved residues in the C-terminal entrance, and their putative role in catalysis is discussed. The PQC structure is representative of the plants, bacterial and parasite enzymes and contrasts with that of mammalian enzymes, that may possibly share a conserved scaffold of the bacterial aminopeptidase.

  1. Efficient synthesis of stably adenylated DNA and RNA adapters for microRNA capture using T4 RNA ligase 1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunke; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA profiling methods have become increasingly important due to the rapid rise of microRNA in both basic and translational sciences. A critical step in many microRNA profiling assays is adapter ligation using pre-adenylated adapters. While pre-adenylated adapters can be chemically or enzymatically prepared, enzymatic adenylation is preferred due to its ease and high yield. However, previously reported enzymatic methods either require tedious purification steps or use thermostable ligases that can generate side products during the subsequent ligation step. We have developed a highly efficient, template- and purification-free, adapter adenylation method using T4 RNA ligase 1. This method is capable of adenylating large amounts of adapter at ~100% efficiency and can efficiently adenylate both DNA and RNA bases. We find that the adenylation reaction speed can differ between DNA and RNA and between terminal nucleotides, leading to bias if reactions are not allowed to run to completion. We further find that the addition of high PEG levels can effectively suppress these differences.

  2. A new small molecule inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Filipa; Gane, Paul; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Allerston, Charles K.; Garthwaite, John; Selwood, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a haem containing enzyme that regulates cardiovascular homeostasis and multiple mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous system. Commonly used inhibitors of sGC activity act through oxidation of the haem moiety, however they also bind haemoglobin and this limits their bioavailability for in vivo studies. We have discovered a new class of small molecule inhibitors of sGC and have characterised a compound designated D12 (compound 10) which binds to the catalytic domain of the enzyme with a KD of 11 μM in a SPR assay. PMID:26264842

  3. Expression of a fungal sesquiterpene cyclase gene in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hohn, T M; Ohlrogge, J B

    1991-09-01

    The complete coding sequence for the trichodiene synthase gene from Fusarium sporotrichioides was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) under the regulation of the cauliflower mosiac virus 35S promoter. Expression of trichodiene synthase was demonstrated in the leaves of transformed plants. Leaf homogenates incubated with [(3)H]farnesyl pyrophosphate produced trichodiene as a major product. Trichodiene was detected in the leaves of a transformed plant at a level of 5 to 10 nanograms per gram fresh weight. The introduction of a fungal sesquiterpene cyclase gene into tobacco has resulted in the expression of an active enzyme and the accumulation of low levels of its sesquiterpenoid product. PMID:16668409

  4. Redox regulation of ATP sulfurylase in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Prioretti, Laura; Lebrun, Régine; Gontero, Brigitte; Giordano, Mario

    2016-09-30

    ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) catalyzes the first step of sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms. An ATPS type A is mostly present in freshwater cyanobacteria, with four conserved cysteine residues. Oceanic cyanobacteria and most eukaryotic algae instead, possess an ATPS-B containing seven to ten cysteines; five of them are conserved, but only one in the same position as ATPS-A. We investigated the role of cysteines on the regulation of the different algal enzymes. We found that the activity of ATPS-B from four different microorganisms was enhanced when reduced and decreased when oxidized. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the ATPS-B from the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana showed that the residue Cys-247 was presumably involved in the redox regulation. The absence of this residue in the ATPS-A of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. instead, was consistent with its lack of regulation. Some other conserved cysteine residues in the ATPS from T. pseduonana and not in Synechocystis sp.were accessible to redox agents and possibly play a role in the enzyme regulation. Furthermore, the fact that oceanic cyanobacteria have ATPS-B structurally and functionally closer to that from most of eukaryotic algae than to the ATPS-A from other cyanobacteria suggests that life in the sea or freshwater may have driven the evolution of ATPS. PMID:27613093

  5. Redox regulation of ATP sulfurylase in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Prioretti, Laura; Lebrun, Régine; Gontero, Brigitte; Giordano, Mario

    2016-09-30

    ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) catalyzes the first step of sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms. An ATPS type A is mostly present in freshwater cyanobacteria, with four conserved cysteine residues. Oceanic cyanobacteria and most eukaryotic algae instead, possess an ATPS-B containing seven to ten cysteines; five of them are conserved, but only one in the same position as ATPS-A. We investigated the role of cysteines on the regulation of the different algal enzymes. We found that the activity of ATPS-B from four different microorganisms was enhanced when reduced and decreased when oxidized. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the ATPS-B from the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana showed that the residue Cys-247 was presumably involved in the redox regulation. The absence of this residue in the ATPS-A of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. instead, was consistent with its lack of regulation. Some other conserved cysteine residues in the ATPS from T. pseduonana and not in Synechocystis sp.were accessible to redox agents and possibly play a role in the enzyme regulation. Furthermore, the fact that oceanic cyanobacteria have ATPS-B structurally and functionally closer to that from most of eukaryotic algae than to the ATPS-A from other cyanobacteria suggests that life in the sea or freshwater may have driven the evolution of ATPS.

  6. Active-Site Structure of Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase and Transphyletic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    D Gallagher; S Kim; H Robinson; P Reddy

    2011-12-31

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) belonging to three nonhomologous classes (II, III, and IV) have been structurally characterized, enabling a comparison of the mechanisms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate biosynthesis. We report the crystal structures of three active-site complexes for Yersinia pestis class IV AC (AC-IV) - two with substrate analogs and one with product. Mn{sup 2+} binds to all three phosphates, and to Glu12 and Glu136. Electropositive residues Lys14, Arg63, Lys76, Lys111, and Arg113 also form hydrogen bonds to phosphates. The conformation of the analogs is suitable for in-line nucleophilic attack by the ribose O3' on {alpha}-phosphate (distance {approx} 4 {angstrom}). In the product complex, a second Mn ion is observed to be coordinated to both ribose 2' oxygen and ribose 3' oxygen. Observation of both metal sites, together with kinetic measurements, provides strong support for a two-cation mechanism. Eleven active-site mutants were also made and kinetically characterized. These findings and comparisons with class II and class III enzymes enable a detailed transphyletic analysis of the AC mechanism. Consistent with its lack of coordination to purine, Y. pestis AC-IV cyclizes both ATP and GTP. As in other classes of AC, the ribose is loosely bound, and as in class III, no base appears to ionize the O3' nucleophile. Different syn/anti conformations suggest that the mechanism involves a conformational transition, and further evidence suggests a role for ribosyl pseudorotation. With resolutions of 1.6-1.7 {angstrom}, these are the most detailed active-site ligand complexes for any class of this ubiquitous signaling enzyme.

  7. Active-Site Structure of Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase and Transphyletic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.T.; Robinson, H.; Kim, S.-K.; Reddy, P. T.

    2011-01-21

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) belonging to three nonhomologous classes (II, III, and IV) have been structurally characterized, enabling a comparison of the mechanisms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate biosynthesis. We report the crystal structures of three active-site complexes for Yersinia pestis class IV AC (AC-IV)-two with substrate analogs and one with product. Mn{sup 2+} binds to all three phosphates, and to Glu12 and Glu136. Electropositive residues Lys14, Arg63, Lys76, Lys111, and Arg113 also form hydrogen bonds to phosphates. The conformation of the analogs is suitable for in-line nucleophilic attack by the ribose O3' on {alpha}-phosphate (distance {approx} 4 {angstrom}). In the product complex, a second Mn ion is observed to be coordinated to both ribose 2' oxygen and ribose 3' oxygen. Observation of both metal sites, together with kinetic measurements, provides strong support for a two-cation mechanism. Eleven active-site mutants were also made and kinetically characterized. These findings and comparisons with class II and class III enzymes enable a detailed transphyletic analysis of the AC mechanism. Consistent with its lack of coordination to purine, Y. pestis AC-IV cyclizes both ATP and GTP. As in other classes of AC, the ribose is loosely bound, and as in class III, no base appears to ionize the O3' nucleophile. Different syn/anti conformations suggest that the mechanism involves a conformational transition, and further evidence suggests a role for ribosyl pseudorotation. With resolutions of 1.6-1.7 {angstrom}, these are the most detailed active-site ligand complexes for any class of this ubiquitous signaling enzyme.

  8. The role of adenylyl cyclase isoform 6 in β-adrenoceptor signalling in murine airways

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Mark A; Bonvini, Sara J; Wortley, Michael A; Buckley, James; Yew-Booth, Liang; Maher, Sarah A; Dale, Nicole; Dubuis, Eric D; Belvisi, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is a key signalling enzyme for many GPCRs and catalyses the conversion of ATP to cAMP which, in turn, is a crucial determinant of many biological responses. β-Adrenoceptor agonists are prescribed as bronchodilators for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and it is commonly assumed that they elicit their actions via AC-dependent production of cAMP. However, empirical evidence in support of this is lacking and the exact mechanism by which these drugs acts remains elusive. This is partly due to the existence of at least 10 different isoforms of AC and the absence of any truly selective pharmacological inhibitors. Here, we have used genetically modified mice and model systems to establish the role of AC isoforms in the airway responses to β-adrenoceptor agonists. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Receptors mediating responses to β-adrenoceptor agonists in airway smooth muscle (ASM) and sensory nerve were identified in isolated tissue systems. Expression of mRNA for the AC isoforms in ASM and neurones was determined by qPCR. Functional responses were assessed in AC isoform KO mice and wild-type controls. KEY RESULTS Airway and vagal tissue expressed mRNA for various isoforms of AC. AC6 was the most prominent isoform. Responses to β-adrenoceptor agonists in tissues from AC6 KO mice were virtually abolished. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AC6 played a critical role in relaxation of ASM to β1-adrenoceptor agonists and in modulation of sensory nerves by β1-3-adrenoceptor agonists. These results further unravel the signalling pathway of this extensively prescribed class of medicine. PMID:25205328

  9. Key Role of the Adenylate Moiety and Integrity of the Adenylate-Binding Site for the NAD(+)/H Binding to Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Inducing Factor.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Luca; Calogero, Alessandra Maria; Pandini, Vittorio; Vanoni, Maria Antonietta; Sevrioukova, Irina F; Aliverti, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein with pro-life and pro-death activities, which plays critical roles in mitochondrial energy metabolism and caspase-independent apoptosis. Defects in AIF structure or expression can cause mitochondrial abnormalities leading to mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration. The mechanism of AIF-induced apoptosis was extensively investigated, whereas the mitochondrial function of AIF is poorly understood. A unique feature of AIF is the ability to form a tight, air-stable charge-transfer (CT) complex upon reaction with NADH and to undergo a conformational switch leading to dimerization, proposed to be important for its vital and lethal functions. Although some aspects of interaction of AIF with NAD(+)/H have been analyzed, its precise mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated how the oxidized and photoreduced wild-type and G307A and -E variants of murine AIF associate with NAD(+)/H and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN(+)/H) to determine the role of the adenylate moiety in the binding process. Our results indicate that (i) the adenylate moiety of NAD(+)/H is crucial for the association with AIF and for the subsequent structural reorganization of the complex, but not for protein dimerization, (ii) FAD reduction rather than binding of NAD(+)/H to AIF initiates conformational rearrangement, and (iii) alteration of the adenylate-binding site by the G307E (equivalent to a pathological G308E mutation in human AIF) or G307A replacements decrease the affinity and association rate of NAD(+)/H, which, in turn, perturbs CT complex formation and protein dimerization but has no influence on the conformational switch in the regulatory peptide.

  10. The crystal structure of the adenylation enzyme VinN reveals a unique β-amino acid recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Cieślak, Jolanta; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Adenylation enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and degradation of primary and secondary metabolites. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of α-amino acid substrates have been obtained for α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. The Asp residue is invariant and is essential for the stabilization of the α-amino group of the substrate. In contrast, the β-amino acid recognition mechanism of adenylation enzymes is still unclear despite the importance of β-amino acid activation for the biosynthesis of various natural products. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the stand-alone adenylation enzyme VinN, which specifically activates (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate (3-MeAsp) in vicenistatin biosynthesis. VinN has an overall structure similar to that of other adenylation enzymes. The structure of the complex with 3-MeAsp revealed that a conserved Asp(230) residue is used in the recognition of the β-amino group of 3-MeAsp similar to α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. A mutational analysis and structural comparison with α-amino acid adenylation enzymes showed that the substrate-binding pocket of VinN has a unique architecture to accommodate 3-MeAsp as a β-amino acid substrate. Thus, the VinN structure allows the first visualization of the interaction of an adenylation enzyme with a β-amino acid and provides new mechanistic insights into the selective recognition of β-amino acids in this family of enzymes. PMID:25246523

  11. The Crystal Structure of the Adenylation Enzyme VinN Reveals a Unique β-Amino Acid Recognition Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Cieślak, Jolanta; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Adenylation enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and degradation of primary and secondary metabolites. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of α-amino acid substrates have been obtained for α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. The Asp residue is invariant and is essential for the stabilization of the α-amino group of the substrate. In contrast, the β-amino acid recognition mechanism of adenylation enzymes is still unclear despite the importance of β-amino acid activation for the biosynthesis of various natural products. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the stand-alone adenylation enzyme VinN, which specifically activates (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate (3-MeAsp) in vicenistatin biosynthesis. VinN has an overall structure similar to that of other adenylation enzymes. The structure of the complex with 3-MeAsp revealed that a conserved Asp230 residue is used in the recognition of the β-amino group of 3-MeAsp similar to α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. A mutational analysis and structural comparison with α-amino acid adenylation enzymes showed that the substrate-binding pocket of VinN has a unique architecture to accommodate 3-MeAsp as a β-amino acid substrate. Thus, the VinN structure allows the first visualization of the interaction of an adenylation enzyme with a β-amino acid and provides new mechanistic insights into the selective recognition of β-amino acids in this family of enzymes. PMID:25246523

  12. Crystallization of the class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Natasha; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Reddy, Prasad T.; Gallagher, D. Travis

    2006-03-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Y. pestis has been crystallized in an orthorhombic form suitable for structure determination. The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been cloned and crystallized in both a triclinic and an orthorhombic form. An amino-terminal His-tagged construct, from which the tag was removed by thrombin, crystallized in a triclinic form diffracting to 1.9 Å, with one dimer per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 35.5, c = 71.8 Å, α = 88.7, β = 82.5, γ = 65.5°. Several mutants of this construct crystallized but diffracted poorly. A non-His-tagged native construct (179 amino acids, MW = 20.5 kDa) was purified by conventional chromatography and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. These crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 56.8, b = 118.6, c = 144.5 Å, diffract to 3 Å and probably have two dimers per asymmetric unit and V{sub M} = 3.0 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Both crystal forms appear to require pH below 5, complicating attempts to incorporate nucleotide ligands into the structure. The native construct has been produced as a selenomethionine derivative and crystallized for phasing and structure determination.

  13. Structural analysis of an oxygen-regulated diguanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger that is involved in switching between motile and sessile lifestyles. Given the medical importance of biofilm formation, there has been increasing interest in understanding the synthesis and degradation of cyclic di-GMPs and their regulation in various bacterial pathogens. Environmental cues are detected by sensing domains coupled to GGDEF and EAL or HD-GYP domains that have diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively, producing and degrading cyclic di-GMP. The Escherichia coli protein DosC (also known as YddV) consists of an oxygen-sensing domain belonging to the class of globin sensors that is coupled to a C-terminal GGDEF domain via a previously uncharacterized middle domain. DosC is one of the most strongly expressed GGDEF proteins in E. coli, but to date structural information on this and related proteins is scarce. Here, the high-resolution structural characterization of the oxygen-sensing globin domain, the middle domain and the catalytic GGDEF domain in apo and substrate-bound forms is described. The structural changes between the iron(III) and iron(II) forms of the sensor globin domain suggest a mechanism for oxygen-dependent regulation. The structural information on the individual domains is combined into a model of the dimeric DosC holoprotein. These findings have direct implications for the oxygen-dependent regulation of the activity of the cyclase domain.

  14. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Demonstration of a functional relationship between aspartate 93 and Mg2+ by site-directed mutagenesis and proton, phosphorus-31, and magnesium-25 NMR.

    PubMed

    Yan, H G; Tsai, M D

    1991-06-01

    Earlier magnetic resonance studies suggested no direct interaction between Mg2+ ions and adenylate kinase (AK) in the AK.MgATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) complex. However, recent NMR studies concluded that the carboxylate of aspartate 119 accepts a hydrogen bond from a water ligand of the bound Mg2+ ion in the muscle AK.MgATP complex [Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., & Mildvan, A.S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694]. On the other hand, in the 2.6-A crystal structure of the yeast AK.MgAP5A [P1,P5-bis(5'-adenosyl)pentaphosphate] complex, the Mg2+ ion is in proximity to aspartate 93 [Egner, U., Tomasselli, A.G., & Schulz, G.E. (1987) J. Mol. Biol. 195, 649-658]. Substitution of Asp-93 with alanine resulted in no change in dissociation constants, 4-fold increases in Km, and a 650-fold decrease in kcat. Notable changes have been observed in the chemical shifts of the aromatic protons of histidine 36 and a few other aromatic residues. However, the results of detailed analyses of the free enzymes and the AK.MgAP5A complexes by one- and two-dimensional NMR suggested that the changes are due to localized perturbations. Thus it is concluded that Asp-93 stabilizes the transition state by ca. 3.9 kcal/mol. The next question is how. Since proton NMR results indicated that binding of Mg2+ to the AK.AP5A complex induces some changes in the proton NMR signals of WT but not those of D93A, the functional role of Asp-93 should be in binding to Mg2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Studies on the adenylate kinase isozymes from the serum and erythrocyte of normal and Duchenne dystrophic patients. Isolation, physicochemical properties, and several comparisons with the Duchenne dystrophic aberrant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hamada, M; Sumida, M; Kurokawa, Y; Sunayashiki-Kusuzaki, K; Okuda, H; Watanabe, T; Kuby, S A

    1985-09-25

    Two species of adenylate kinase isozymes (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) from human Duchenne dystrophic serum were separated by Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatography. One of these species was the "aberrant" adenylate kinase isozyme, found specifically in the Duchenne type of this disease (Hamada, M., Okuda, H., Oka, K., Watanabe, T., Ueda, K., Nojima, M., Kuby, S.A., Manship, M., Tyler, F., and Ziter, F. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 660, 227-237). The separated aberrant form possessed a molecular size of 98,000 (+/- 1,500), whereas the normal serum species of the enzyme was 87,000 (+/- 1,600) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, by gel filtration, and by sedimentation equilibrium. The sedimentation coefficient of each species was found to be 5.8 S for the aberrant form and 5.6 S for the normal form, respectively. The subunit size (Mr = 24,700) of the aberrant enzyme in 8 M urea proved to be very similar to that of the normal human liver enzyme (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S.A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128), and the normal species subunit (Mr = 21,700) was found to be very similar to that of the normal human muscle enzyme (Kuby, S.A., Fleming, G., Frischat, A., Cress, M.C., and Hamada, M. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 1901-1907). Both species were tetrameric enzymes in the serum. The amino acid composition for the normal species was similar to that for the muscle-type enzyme, and that for the aberrant species was similar to the liver enzyme, but with some notable exceptions in both cases. Thus, the normal species had no tryptophan and two half-cystine residues/subunit; whereas, there was 1 tryptophan and 4 half-cystine residues/subunit of the aberrant molecule. The amino acid composition of both serum isozymes when compared to their respective muscle or liver-type enzyme differed mainly in the content of Glu, Asp, His, Leu, Ile, Gly. Kinetic properties of the two forms

  16. Multiforms of mammalian adenylate kinase and its monoclonal antibody against AK1.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Y; Takenaka, H; Sumida, M; Oka, K; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the intracellular distribution of the multiforms of the adenylate kinase (AK) isoenzymes in mammalian tissues, to shed some light on their physiological roles, especially in energy metabolism. The adenylate kinase zymograms obtained from isoelectric focusing yielded two typical isoform patterns: (1) with a pI greater than or equal to 9 and 8.6, specific for bovine skeletal muscle, heart, aorta and brain, and (2) with a pI = 7.9 and 7.1, specific for liver and kidney. Pattern (1) was attributed to the cytosolic isoenzyme (AK1) as demonstrated by immunostaining with anti-AK1. Pattern (2) was attributed to the mitochondrial isoenzyme (AK2). These results were largely confirmed by chromatofocusing experiments. The AK1 isoenzyme was partially purified from the cytosol fraction of bovine aortic smooth muscle and had an apparent Mr of 23.5 kilodaltons. Its kinetic features are discussed from a comparative standpoint. Finally, the human serum AK1 isoform was also detected by Western blotting with a monoclonal antibody directed against crystalline porcine muscle AK1. These results are to form the basis of further studies on the 'aberrant' adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of Duchenne muscular dystrophics.

  17. GMP reductase and genetic uncoupling of adenylate and guanylate metabolism in Leishmania donovani parasites.

    PubMed

    Boitz, Jan M; Jardim, Armando; Ullman, Buddy

    2016-08-01

    Purine acquisition is an essential nutritional process for Leishmania. Although purine salvage into adenylate nucleotides has been investigated in detail, little attention has been focused on the guanylate branch of the purine pathway. To characterize guanylate nucleotide metabolism in Leishmania and create a cell culture model in which the pathways for adenylate and guanylate nucleotide synthesis can be genetically uncoupled for functional studies in intact cells, we created and characterized null mutants of L. donovani that were deficient in either GMP reductase alone (Δgmpr) or in both GMP reductase and its paralog IMP dehydrogenase (Δgmpr/Δimpdh). Whereas wild type parasites were capable of utilizing virtually any purine nucleobase/nucleoside, the Δgmpr and Δgmpr/Δimpdh null lines exhibited highly restricted growth phenotypes. The Δgmpr single mutant could not grow in xanthine, guanine, or their corresponding nucleosides, while no purine on its own could support the growth of Δgmpr/Δimpdh cells. Permissive growth conditions for the Δgmpr/Δimpdh necessitated both xanthine, guanine, or the corresponding nucleosides, and additionally, a second purine that could serve as a source for adenylate nucleotide synthesis. Interestingly, GMPR, like its paralog IMPDH, is compartmentalized to the leishmanial glycosome, a process mediated by its COOH-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal. The restricted growth phenotypes displayed by the L. donovani Δgmpr and Δgmpr/Δimpdh null mutants confirms the importance of GMPR in the purine interconversion processes of this parasite.

  18. Soluble guanylate cyclase as a novel treatment target for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Joshua, Jisha; Schwaerzer, Gerburg K; Kalyanaraman, Hema; Cory, Esther; Sah, Robert L; Li, Mofei; Vaida, Florin; Boss, Gerry R; Pilz, Renate B

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem leading to fractures that cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Current osteoporosis therapies have significant drawbacks, creating a need for novel bone-anabolic agents. We previously showed that the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G pathway mediates some of the anabolic effects of estrogens and mechanical stimulation in osteoblasts and osteocytes, leading us to hypothesize that cGMP-elevating agents may have bone-protective effects. We tested cinaciguat, a prototype of a novel class of soluble guanylate cyclase activators, in a mouse model of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis. Compared with sham-operated mice, ovariectomized mice had lower serum cGMP concentrations, which were largely restored to normal by treatment with cinaciguat or low-dose 17β-estradiol. Microcomputed tomography of tibiae showed that cinaciguat significantly improved trabecular bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized animals, with effect sizes similar to those obtained with estrogen replacement therapy. Cinaciguat reversed ovariectomy-induced osteocyte apoptosis as efficiently as estradiol and enhanced bone formation parameters in vivo, consistent with in vitro effects on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Compared with 17β-estradiol, which completely reversed the ovariectomy-induced increase in osteoclast number, cinaciguat had little effect on osteoclasts. Direct guanylate cyclase stimulators have been extremely well tolerated in clinical trials of cardiovascular diseases, and our findings provide proof-of-concept for this new class of drugs as a novel, anabolic treatment strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, confirming an important role of nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G signaling in bone. PMID:25188528

  19. Tetrahydrobiopterin protects soluble guanylate cyclase against oxidative inactivation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kurt; Neubauer, Andrea; Kolesnik, Bernd; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Werner, Ernst R; Gorren, Antonius C F; Mayer, Bernd

    2012-09-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major endogenous vasoprotective agent that improves endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and scavenging of superoxide and peroxynitrite. Therefore, administration of BH4 is considered a promising therapy for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Here we report on a novel function of BH4 that might contribute to the beneficial vascular effects of the pteridine. Treatment of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells with nitroglycerin (GTN) or 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) resulted in heme oxidation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), as evident from diminished NO-induced cGMP accumulation that was paralleled by increased cGMP response to a heme- and NO-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase [4-([(4-carboxybutyl)[2-(5-fluoro-2-([4'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-yl]methoxy)phenyl)ethyl]amino]methyl)benzoic acid (BAY 60-2770)]. Whereas scavenging of superoxide and/or peroxynitrite with superoxide dismutase, tiron, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin, and urate had no protective effects, supplementation of the cells with BH4, either by application of BH4 directly or of its precursors dihydrobiopterin or sepiapterin, completely prevented the inhibition of NO-induced cGMP accumulation by GTN and ODQ. Tetrahydroneopterin had the same effect, and virtually identical results were obtained with RFL-6 fibroblasts, suggesting that our observation reflects a general feature of tetrahydropteridines that is unrelated to NO synthase function and not limited to endothelial cells. Protection of sGC against oxidative inactivation may contribute to the known beneficial effects of BH4 in cardiovascular disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:22648973

  20. Effect of 3' terminal adenylic acid residue on the uridylation of human small RNAs in vitro and in frog oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Sinha, K; Perumal, K; Reddy, R

    2000-01-01

    It is known that several small RNAs including human and Xenopus signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and 7SK RNAs are posttranscriptionally adenylated, whereas U6 snRNA and ribosomal 5S RNA are posttranscriptionally uridylated on their 3' ends. In this study, we provide evidence that a small fraction of U6 snRNA and 5S ribosomal RNA molecules from human as well as Xenopus oocytes contain a single posttranscriptionally added adenylic acid residue on their 3' ends. These data show that U6 snRNA and 5S rRNAs are posttranscriptionally modified on their 3' ends by both uridylation and adenylation. Although the SRP RNA, 7SK RNA, 5S RNA, and U6 snRNA with the uridylic acid residue on their 3' ends were readily uridylated, all these RNAs with posttranscriptionally added adenylic acid residue on their 3' ends were not uridylated in vitro, or when U6 snRNA with 3' A(OH) was injected into Xenopus oocytes. These results show that the presence of a single posttranscriptionally added adenylic acid residue on the 3' end of SRP RNA, U6 snRNA, 5S rRNA, or 7SK RNA prevents 3' uridylation. These data also show that adenylation and uridylation are two competing processes that add nucleotides on the 3' end of some small RNAs and suggest that one of the functions of the 3' adenylation may be to negatively affect the 3' uridylation of small RNAs. PMID:10999605

  1. Structural Basis of the Interaction of MbtH-like Proteins, Putative Regulators of Nonribosomal Peptide Biosynthesis, with Adenylating Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Dominik A.; Boll, Björn; Zocher, Georg; Stehle, Thilo; Heide, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of nonribosomally formed peptides (NRPs), which include important antibiotics such as vancomycin, requires the activation of amino acids through adenylate formation. The biosynthetic gene clusters of NRPs frequently contain genes for small, so-called MbtH-like proteins. Recently, it was discovered that these MbtH-like proteins are required for some of the adenylation reactions in NRP biosynthesis, but the mechanism of their interaction with the adenylating enzymes has remained unknown. In this study, we determined the structure of SlgN1, a 3-methylaspartate-adenylating enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the hybrid polyketide/NRP antibiotic streptolydigin. SlgN1 contains an MbtH-like domain at its N terminus, and our analysis defines the parameters required for an interaction between MbtH-like domains and an adenylating enzyme. Highly conserved tryptophan residues of the MbtH-like domain critically contribute to this interaction. Trp-25 and Trp-35 form a cleft on the surface of the MbtH-like domain, which accommodates the alanine side chain of Ala-433 of the adenylating domain. Mutation of Ala-433 to glutamate abolished the activity of SlgN1. Mutation of Ser-23 of the MbtH-like domain to tyrosine resulted in strongly reduced activity. However, the activity of this S23Y mutant could be completely restored by addition of the intact MbtH-like protein CloY from another organism. This suggests that the interface found in the structure of SlgN1 is the genuine interface between MbtH-like proteins and adenylating enzymes. PMID:23192349

  2. Structural basis of the interaction of MbtH-like proteins, putative regulators of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, with adenylating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Dominik A; Boll, Björn; Zocher, Georg; Stehle, Thilo; Heide, Lutz

    2013-01-18

    The biosynthesis of nonribosomally formed peptides (NRPs), which include important antibiotics such as vancomycin, requires the activation of amino acids through adenylate formation. The biosynthetic gene clusters of NRPs frequently contain genes for small, so-called MbtH-like proteins. Recently, it was discovered that these MbtH-like proteins are required for some of the adenylation reactions in NRP biosynthesis, but the mechanism of their interaction with the adenylating enzymes has remained unknown. In this study, we determined the structure of SlgN1, a 3-methylaspartate-adenylating enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the hybrid polyketide/NRP antibiotic streptolydigin. SlgN1 contains an MbtH-like domain at its N terminus, and our analysis defines the parameters required for an interaction between MbtH-like domains and an adenylating enzyme. Highly conserved tryptophan residues of the MbtH-like domain critically contribute to this interaction. Trp-25 and Trp-35 form a cleft on the surface of the MbtH-like domain, which accommodates the alanine side chain of Ala-433 of the adenylating domain. Mutation of Ala-433 to glutamate abolished the activity of SlgN1. Mutation of Ser-23 of the MbtH-like domain to tyrosine resulted in strongly reduced activity. However, the activity of this S23Y mutant could be completely restored by addition of the intact MbtH-like protein CloY from another organism. This suggests that the interface found in the structure of SlgN1 is the genuine interface between MbtH-like proteins and adenylating enzymes.

  3. Structural and mutational analysis of archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligase identifies amino acids required for RNA binding and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huiqiong; Yoshinari, Shigeo; Ghosh, Raka; Ignatochkina, Anna V.; Gollnick, Paul D.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Ho, C. Kiong

    2016-01-01

    An ATP-dependent RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (MthRnl) catalyzes intramolecular ligation of single-stranded RNA to form a closed circular RNA via covalent ligase-AMP and RNA-adenylylate intermediate. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of an MthRnl•ATP complex as well as the covalent MthRnl–AMP intermediate. We also performed structure-guided mutational analysis to survey the functions of 36 residues in three component steps of the ligation pathway including ligase-adenylylation (step 1), RNA adenylylation (step 2) and phosphodiester bond synthesis (step 3). Kinetic analysis underscored the importance of motif 1a loop structure in promoting phosphodiester bond synthesis. Alanine substitutions of Thr117 or Arg118 favor the reverse step 2 reaction to deadenylate the 5′-AMP from the RNA-adenylate, thereby inhibiting step 3 reaction. Tyr159, Phe281 and Glu285, which are conserved among archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligases and are situated on the surface of the enzyme, are required for RNA binding. We propose an RNA binding interface of the MthRnl based on the mutational studies and two sulfate ions that co-crystallized at the active site cleft in the MthRnl–AMP complex. PMID:26896806

  4. On the ATP binding site of the ε subunit from bacterial F-type ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Krah, Alexander; Takada, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    F-type ATP synthases are reversible machinery that not only synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, but also can hydrolyze ATP to pump ions under certain conditions. To prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis, subunit ε in bacterial ATP synthases changes its conformation from the non-inhibitory down- to the inhibitory up-state at a low cellular ATP concentration. Recently, a crystal structure of the ε subunit in complex with ATP was solved in a non-biologically relevant dimeric form. Here, to derive the functional ATP binding site motif, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. Our results suggest that the ATP binding site markedly differs from the experimental resolved one; we observe a reorientation of several residues, which bind to ATP in the crystal structure. In addition we find that an Mg(2+) ion is coordinated by ATP, replacing interactions of the second chain in the crystal structure. Thus we demonstrate more generally the influence of crystallization effects on ligand binding sites and their respective binding modes. Furthermore, we propose a role for two highly conserved residues to control the ATP binding/unbinding event, which have not been considered before. Additionally our results provide the basis for the rational development of new biosensors based on subunit ε, as shown previously for novel sensors measuring the ATP concentration in cells.

  5. Bis-Halogen-Anthraniloyl-Substituted Nucleoside 5′-Triphosphates as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Bordetella pertussis Adenylyl Cyclase Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Geduhn, Jens; Dove, Stefan; Shen, Yuequan; Tang, Wei-Jen; König, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Whooping cough is caused by Bordetella pertussis and still constitutes one of the top five causes of death in young children, particularly in developing countries. The calmodulin-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin CyaA substantially contributes to disease development. Thus, potent and selective CyaA inhibitors would be valuable drugs for the treatment of whooping cough. However, it has been difficult to obtain potent CyaA inhibitors with selectivity relative to mammalian ACs. Selectivity is important for reducing potential toxic effects. In a previous study we serendipitously found that bis-methylanthraniloyl (bis-MANT)-IMP is a more potent CyaA inhibitor than MANT-IMP (Mol Pharmacol 72:526–535, 2007). These data prompted us to study the effects of a series of 32 bulky mono- and bis-anthraniloyl (ANT)-substituted nucleotides on CyaA and mammalian ACs. The novel nucleotides differentially inhibited CyaA and ACs 1, 2, and 5. Bis-ANT nucleotides inhibited CyaA competitively. Most strikingly, bis-Cl-ANT-ATP inhibited CyaA with a potency ≥100-fold higher than ACs 1, 2, and 5. In contrast to MANT-ATP, bis-MANT-ATP exhibited low intrinsic fluorescence, thereby substantially enhancing the signal-to noise ratio for the analysis of nucleotide binding to CyaA. The high sensitivity of the fluorescence assay revealed that bis-MANT-ATP binds to CyaA already in the absence of calmodulin. Molecular modeling showed that the catalytic site of CyaA is sufficiently spacious to accommodate both MANT substituents. Collectively, we have identified the first potent CyaA inhibitor with high selectivity relative to mammalian ACs. The fluorescence properties of bis-ANT nucleotides facilitate development of a high-throughput screening assay. PMID:20962032

  6. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Hejzlarová, K; Mráček, T; Vrbacký, M; Kaplanová, V; Karbanová, V; Nůsková, H; Pecina, P; Houštěk, J

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of ATP synthase, the key enzyme of mitochondrial energy provision belong to the most severe metabolic diseases presenting as early-onset mitochondrial encephalo-cardiomyopathies. Up to now, mutations in four nuclear genes were associated with isolated deficiency of ATP synthase. Two of them, ATP5A1 and ATP5E encode enzyme's structural subunits alpha and epsilon, respectively, while the other two ATPAF2 and TMEM70 encode specific ancillary factors that facilitate the biogenesis of ATP synthase. All these defects share a similar biochemical phenotype with pronounced decrease in the content of fully assembled and functional ATP synthase complex. However, substantial differences can be found in their frequency, molecular mechanism of pathogenesis, clinical manifestation as well as the course of the disease progression. While for TMEM70 the number of reported patients as well as spectrum of the mutations is steadily increasing, mutations in ATP5A1, ATP5E and ATPAF2 genes are very rare. Apparently, TMEM70 gene is highly prone to mutagenesis and this type of a rare mitochondrial disease has a rather frequent incidence. Here we present overview of individual reported cases of nuclear mutations in ATP synthase and discuss, how their analysis can improve our understanding of the enzyme biogenesis.

  7. Action of ATP on ventricular automaticity.

    PubMed

    Stark, G; Domanowits, H; Sterz, F; Stark, U; Bachernegg, M; Kickenweiz, E; Decrinis, M; Laggner, A N; Tritthart, H A

    1994-11-01

    ATP is an effective treatment of supraventricular tachycardia when the atrioventricular (AV) node is part of the reentrant circuit. However, the lower a pace-maker in the pacemaker hierarchy, the more sensitive it is to adenosine. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ATP on ventricular automaticity in in vivo and in vitro conditions. Wide and narrow QRS complex tachycardia in 46 patients was treated with 6, 12, and 18 mg ATP as sequential intravenous (i.v.) bolus. ATP terminated tachycardias in 67%. Bolus infusion ATP caused < or = 6.4-s asystole that was self-limited. Perfusion of isolated spontaneously beating guinea pig heart with 100 microM ATP completely suppressed ventricular automaticity. After ATP-infusion was discontinued, the first ventricular beat was evident after 3.1 +/- 0.9 s and sinus node activity recovered with a time constant of 3.0 +/- 1.1 s. Because sinus node and ventricular automaticity recovered within seconds after ATP infusion was discontinued in vitro, recovery in vivo is also likely to be determined by the short half-life (+1/2) of ATP. PMID:7532751

  8. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Joji Grace; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Tom; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Zhao, David; Kaiser, Markus; Patricelli, Matthew P.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding proteins. Our search for labeled peptides upon in-gel digest led to the discovery that the biotin moiety of the labeled peptides is oxidized. The in-gel analysis displayed kinase domains of two receptor-like kinases (RLKs) at a lower than expected molecular weight, indicating that these RLKs lost the extracellular domain, possibly as a result of receptor shedding. Analysis of modified peptides using a gel-free platform identified 242 different labeling sites for AcATP in the Arabidopsis proteome. Examination of each individual labeling site revealed a preference of labeling in ATP binding pockets for a broad diversity of ATP binding proteins. Of these, 24 labeled peptides were from a diverse range of protein kinases, including RLKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and calcium-dependent kinases. A significant portion of the labeling sites could not be assigned to known nucleotide binding sites. However, the fact that labeling could be competed with ATP indicates that these labeling sites might represent previously uncharacterized nucleotide binding sites. A plot of spectral counts against expression levels illustrates the high specificity of AcATP probes for protein kinases and known ATP binding proteins. This work introduces profiling of ATP binding activities of a large diversity of proteins in plant proteomes. The data have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000188. PMID:23722185

  9. The Structure of PA1221, a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase containing Adenylation and Peptidyl Carrier Protein Domains

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Carter A.; Shi, Ce; Aldrich, Courtney C.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Many bacteria use large modular enzymes for the synthesis of polyketide and peptide natural products. These multidomain enzymes contain integrated carrier domains that deliver bound substrates to multiple catalytic domains, requiring coordination of these chemical steps. Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPSs) load amino acids onto carrier domains through the activity of an upstream adenylation domain. Our lab recently determined the structure of an engineered two-domain NRPS containing fused adenylation and carrier domains. This structure adopted a domain swapped dimer that illustrated the interface between these two domains. To continue our investigation, we now examine PA1221, a natural two-domain protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We have determined the amino acid specificity of this new enzyme and used domain specific mutations to demonstrate that loading the downstream carrier domain within a single protein molecule occurs more quickly than loading of a non-fused carrier domain inter-molecularly. Finally, we have determined crystal structures of both the apo- and holo-PA1221 protein, the latter using a valine-adenosine vinylsulfonamide inhibitor that traps the adenylation-carrier domain interaction. The protein adopts a similar interface to that seen with the prior adenylation-carrier protein construct. A comparison of these structures with previous structures of multidomain NRPSs suggests that a large conformational change within the NRPS adenylation domains guides the carrier domain into the active site for thioester formation. PMID:22452656

  10. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Essential Diadenylate Cyclase CdaA from Listeria monocytogenes*

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Jonathan; Dickmanns, Achim; Neumann, Piotr; Gunka, Katrin; Arens, Johannes; Kaever, Volkhard; Stülke, Jörg; Ficner, Ralf; Commichau, Fabian M.

    2015-01-01

    The recently identified second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is involved in several important cellular processes, such as cell wall metabolism, maintenance of DNA integrity, ion transport, transcription regulation, and allosteric regulation of enzyme function. Interestingly, c-di-AMP is essential for growth of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Although the genome of B. subtilis encodes three c-di-AMP-producing diadenlyate cyclases that can functionally replace each other, the phylogenetically related human pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus possess only one enzyme, the diadenlyate cyclase CdaA. Because CdaA is also essential for growth of these bacteria, the enzyme is a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. Here we present the first crystal structure of the L. monocytogenes CdaA diadenylate cyclase domain that is conserved in many human pathogens. Moreover, biochemical characterization of the cyclase revealed an unusual metal cofactor requirement. PMID:25605729

  11. Functional classification of cNMP-binding proteins and nucleotide cyclases with implications for novel regulatory pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    McCue, L A; McDonough, K A; Lawrence, C E

    2000-02-01

    We have analyzed the cyclic nucleotide (cNMP)-binding protein and nucleotide cyclase superfamilies using Bayesian computational methods of protein family identification and classification. In addition to the known cNMP-binding proteins (cNMP-dependent kinases, cNMP-gated channels, cAMP-guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and bacterial cAMP-dependent transcription factors), new functional groups of cNMP-binding proteins were identified, including putative ABC-transporter subunits, translocases, and esterases. Classification of the nucleotide cyclases revealed subtle differences in sequence conservation of the active site that distinguish the five classes of cyclases: the multicellular eukaryotic adenylyl cyclases, the eukaryotic receptor-type guanylyl cyclases, the eukaryotic soluble guanylyl cyclases, the unicellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic adenylyl cyclases, and the putative prokaryotic guanylyl cyclases. Phylogenetic distribution of the cNMP-binding proteins and cyclases was analyzed, with particular attention to the 22 complete archaeal and eubacterial genome sequences. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Synechocystis PCC6803 were each found to encode several more putative cNMP-binding proteins than other prokaryotes; many of these proteins are of unknown function. M. tuberculosis also encodes several more putative nucleotide cyclases than other prokaryotic species. PMID:10673278

  12. Structure and Mechanism of the Diterpene Cyclase ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) reveals three α-helical domains (α, β, γ), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the βγ domains in CPS but exclusively in the α domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions. PMID:21602811

  13. [Soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of drugs].

    PubMed

    Piatakova, N V; Severina, I S

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ambroxol--a mucolytic drug--on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase and activation of both enzymes by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside and Sin-1) were investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 microM had no effect on the basal activity of both enzymes. Ambroxol inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase with the IC50 values 3.9 and 2.1 microM, respectively. Ambroxol did not influence the stimulation of both enzymes by protoporphyrin IX. The influence of artemisinin--an antimalarial drug--on human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase activity and the enzyme activation by NO-donors were investigated. Artemisinin (0.1-100 microM) had no effect on the basal activity of the enzyme. Artemisinin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced activation of human platelet guanylate cyclase with an IC50 value 5.6 microM. Artemisinin (10 microM) also inhibited (by 71 +/- 4.0%) the activation of the enzyme by thiol-dependent NO-donor the derivative of furoxan, 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-oxadiazolo-2-oxide (10 microM), but did not influence the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by protoporphyrin IX. It was concluded that the sygnalling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP is involved in the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol and artemisinin.

  14. [Soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of drugs].

    PubMed

    Piatakova, N V; Severina, I S

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ambroxol--a mucolytic drug--on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase and activation of both enzymes by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside and Sin-1) were investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 microM had no effect on the basal activity of both enzymes. Ambroxol inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase with the IC50 values 3.9 and 2.1 microM, respectively. Ambroxol did not influence the stimulation of both enzymes by protoporphyrin IX. The influence of artemisinin--an antimalarial drug--on human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase activity and the enzyme activation by NO-donors were investigated. Artemisinin (0.1-100 microM) had no effect on the basal activity of the enzyme. Artemisinin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced activation of human platelet guanylate cyclase with an IC50 value 5.6 microM. Artemisinin (10 microM) also inhibited (by 71 +/- 4.0%) the activation of the enzyme by thiol-dependent NO-donor the derivative of furoxan, 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-oxadiazolo-2-oxide (10 microM), but did not influence the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by protoporphyrin IX. It was concluded that the sygnalling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP is involved in the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol and artemisinin. PMID:22642150

  15. Dimerization Domain of Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Is an Essential Part of Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Protein (GCAP) Binding Interface.

    PubMed

    Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Dizhoor, Alexander M

    2015-08-01

    The photoreceptor-specific proteins guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) bind and regulate retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1) but not natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA). Study of RetGC1 regulation in vitro and its association with fluorescently tagged GCAP in transfected cells showed that R822P substitution in the cyclase dimerization domain causing congenital early onset blindness disrupted RetGC1 ability to bind GCAP but did not eliminate its affinity for another photoreceptor-specific protein, retinal degeneration 3 (RD3). Likewise, the presence of the NPRA dimerization domain in RetGC1/NPRA chimera specifically disabled binding of GCAPs but not of RD3. In subsequent mapping using hybrid dimerization domains in RetGC1/NPRA chimera, multiple RetGC1-specific residues contributed to GCAP binding by the cyclase, but the region around Met(823) was the most crucial. Either positively or negatively charged residues in that position completely blocked GCAP1 and GCAP2 but not RD3 binding similarly to the disease-causing mutation in the neighboring Arg(822). The specificity of GCAP binding imparted by RetGC1 dimerization domain was not directly related to promoting dimerization of the cyclase. The probability of coiled coil dimer formation computed for RetGC1/NPRA chimeras, even those incapable of binding GCAP, remained high, and functional complementation tests showed that the RetGC1 active site, which requires dimerization of the cyclase, was formed even when Met(823) or Arg(822) was mutated. These results directly demonstrate that the interface for GCAP binding on RetGC1 requires not only the kinase homology region but also directly involves the dimerization domain and especially its portion containing Arg(822) and Met(823).

  16. Cloning, chromosomal mapping, and expression of human fetal brain type I adenylyl cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Villacres, E.C.; Xia, Z.; Bookbinder, L.H.; Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Storm, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    The neural-specific calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (type I), which was first cloned from bovine brain, has been implicated in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to clone and determine the chromosomal localization of human fetal brain type I adenylyl cyclase. A 3.8-kb cDNA clone was isolated that contained sequence coinciding with the 3{prime} end 2553 nucleotides of the bovine open reading frame. This clone shows 87% nucleotide and 92% translated amino acid sequence identity to the bovine clone. The most significant sequence differences were in the carboxy-terminal 100 amino acid residues. This region contains one of several possible calmodulin binding domains and the only putative cAMP-dependent protein kinase A phosphorylation site. A chimera was constructed that contained the 5{prime} half of the bovine type I adenylyl cyclase and the 3{prime} half of the human type I adenylyl cyclase. The activity of the chimeric gene product and its sensitivity to calmodulin and calcium were indistinguishable from those of the bovine type I adenylyl cyclase. In situ hybridization was used to localize the human type I adenylyl cyclase gene to the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 7. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  17. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  18. A double origin electrophoretic method for the simultaneous separation of adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, and carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Murch, R S; Gambel, A M; Kearney, J J

    1986-10-01

    A rapid, reliable method for the simultaneous separation of adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, and carbonic anhydrase II by agarose gel electrophoresis is presented. This method uses a double origin sample application system. Unreduced sample extracts for adenylate kinase analysis are applied 13.0 cm from the anode. Reduced sample extracts for the remaining proteins of interest are applied 7.0 cm from the anode. The use of applicator foils and an increased voltage gradient result in superior resolution, linearity, and band sharpness of the allozyme patterns. Further, there is no masking of the adenylate kinase 2 band as a result of the use of a reducing agent, and carbonic anhydrase II is resolved without interference from hemoglobin as has been observed with other multisystem methods.

  19. Thermodynamics of proton transport coupled ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Turina, Paola; Petersen, Jan; Gräber, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamic H(+)/ATP ratio of the H(+)-ATP synthase from chloroplasts was measured in proteoliposomes after energization of the membrane by an acid base transition (Turina et al. 2003 [13], 418-422). The method is discussed, and all published data obtained with this system are combined and analyzed as a single dataset. This meta-analysis led to the following results. 1) At equilibrium, the transmembrane ΔpH is energetically equivalent to the transmembrane electric potential difference. 2) The standard free energy for ATP synthesis (reference reaction) is ΔG°(ref)=33.8±1.3kJ/mol. 3) The thermodynamic H(+)/ATP ratio, as obtained from the shift of the ATP synthesis equilibrium induced by changing the transmembrane ΔpH (varying either pH(in) or pH(out)) is 4.0±0.1. The structural H(+)/ATP ratio, calculated from the ratio of proton binding sites on the c-subunit-ring in F(0) to the catalytic nucleotide binding sites on the β-subunits in F(1), is c/β=14/3=4.7. We infer that the energy of 0.7 protons per ATP that flow through the enzyme, but do not contribute to shifting the ATP/(ADP·Pi) ratio, is used for additional processes within the enzyme, such as activation, and/or energy dissipation, due e.g. to internal uncoupling. The ratio between the thermodynamic and the structural H(+)/ATP values is 0.85, and we conclude that this value represents the efficiency of the chemiosmotic energy conversion within the chloroplast H(+)-ATP synthase.

  20. Role of MbtH-like Proteins in the Adenylation of Tyrosine during Aminocoumarin and Vancomycin Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Boll, Björn; Taubitz, Tatjana; Heide, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    MbtH-like proteins consist of ∼70 amino acids and are encoded in the biosynthetic gene clusters of non-ribosomally formed peptides and other secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Recently, several MbtH-like proteins have been shown to be required for the adenylation of amino acid in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. We now investigated the role of MbtH-like proteins in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and simocyclinone D8 and of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The tyrosine-adenylating enzymes CloH, SimH, and Pcza361.18, involved in the biosynthesis of clorobiocin, simocyclinone D8, and vancomycin, respectively, required the presence of MbtH-like proteins in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming heterotetrameric complexes. In contrast, NovH, involved in novobiocin biosynthesis, showed activity in the absence of MbtH-like proteins. Comparison of the active centers of CloH and NovH showed only one amino acid to be different, i.e. Leu-383 versus Met-383. Mutation of this amino acid in CloH (L383M) indeed led to MbtH-independent adenylating activity. All investigated tyrosine-adenylating enzymes exhibited remarkable promiscuity for MbtH-like proteins from different pathways and organisms. YbdZ, the MbtH-like protein from the expression host Escherichia coli, was found to bind to adenylating enzymes during expression and to influence their biochemical properties markedly. Therefore, the use of ybdZ-deficient expression hosts is important in biochemical studies of adenylating enzymes. PMID:21890635

  1. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) increases corticosterone in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Lezak, K. R.; Roelke, E.; Harris, O.; Choi, I.; Edwards, S.; Gick, N.; Cocchiaro, G.; Missig, G.; Roman, C. W.; Braas, K. M.; Toufexis, D.J.; May, V.; Hammack, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the genes for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and the PAC1 receptor have been associated with several psychiatric disorders whose etiology has been associated with stressor exposure and/or dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, exposure to repeated variate stress has been shown to increase PACAP and its cognate PAC1 receptor expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in anxiety and depression-related behaviors as well as the regulation of HPA axis activity. We have argued that changes in BNST PACAP signaling may mediate the changes in emotional behavior and dysregulation of the HPA axis associated with anxiety and mood disorders. The current set of studies was designed to determine whether BNST PACAP infusion leads to activation of the HPA axis as determined by increases in plasma corticosterone. We observed an increase in plasma corticosterone levels 30 minutes following BNST PACAP38 infusion in male and female rats, which was independent of estradiol (E2) treatment in females, and we found that plasma corticosterone levels were increased at both 30 minutes and 60 minutes, but returned to baseline levels 4 hours following the highest dose. PACAP38 infusion into the lateral ventricles immediately above the BNST did not alter plasma corticosterone level, and the increased plasma corticosterone following BNST PACAP was not blocked by BNST corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonism. These results support others suggesting that BNST PACAP plays a key role in regulating stress responses. PMID:24845172

  2. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  3. Control of outflow resistance by soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Suk; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the United States affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure, even in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Typically, this is accomplished by reducing the rate of aqueous flow by limiting aqueous production or enhancing drainage using drugs and surgery. Whereas these strategies are effective in diminishing vision loss, some patients continue to lose vision and many discontinue use of their medications because of undesirable side effects. Drugs known to be effective in altering conventional outflow have for the most part been abandoned from modern clinical practice due to undesirable side effects. Identification of new drugs that could enhance conventional outflow, would offer additional options in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. To this end, our laboratory has recently uncovered a novel pathway for regulation of conventional outflow by the ciliary body. This pathway is dependent on soluble adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the generation of cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) in response to bicarbonate.

  4. Guanylyl cyclase C signaling axis and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Amanda M; Merlino, Dante J; Blomain, Erik S; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms. These effects are mediated by the endogenous hormones guanylin (GUCA2A) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B), which bind and activate GUCY2C to regulate proliferation, metabolism and barrier function in intestine. Recent studies have demonstrated a link between GUCY2C silencing and intestinal dysfunction, including tumorigenesis. Indeed, GUCY2C silencing by the near universal loss of its paracrine hormone ligands increases colon cancer susceptibility in animals and humans. GUCY2C’s role as a tumor suppressor has opened the door to a new paradigm for CRC prevention by hormone replacement therapy using synthetic hormone analogs, such as the FDA-approved oral GUCY2C ligand linaclotide (Linzess™). Here we review the known contributions of the GUCY2C signaling axis to CRC, and relate them to a novel clinical strategy targeting tumor chemoprevention. PMID:27688649

  5. Guanylyl cyclase C signaling axis and colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Amanda M; Merlino, Dante J; Blomain, Erik S; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-09-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms. These effects are mediated by the endogenous hormones guanylin (GUCA2A) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B), which bind and activate GUCY2C to regulate proliferation, metabolism and barrier function in intestine. Recent studies have demonstrated a link between GUCY2C silencing and intestinal dysfunction, including tumorigenesis. Indeed, GUCY2C silencing by the near universal loss of its paracrine hormone ligands increases colon cancer susceptibility in animals and humans. GUCY2C's role as a tumor suppressor has opened the door to a new paradigm for CRC prevention by hormone replacement therapy using synthetic hormone analogs, such as the FDA-approved oral GUCY2C ligand linaclotide (Linzess™). Here we review the known contributions of the GUCY2C signaling axis to CRC, and relate them to a novel clinical strategy targeting tumor chemoprevention. PMID:27688649

  6. Murine Guanylate Cyclase C Regulates Colonic Injury and Inflammation1

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Harmel-Laws, Eleana; Garin-Laflam, Monica P.; Mann, Elizabeth A.; Bezerra, Lucas D.; Hogan, Simon P.; Cohen, Mitchell B.

    2011-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C or GC-C) and its ligands, guanylin (GUCA2A or Gn) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B or Ugn), are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and regulate ion secretion, intestinal barrier function, and epithelial monolayer homeostasis via cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to determine if GC-C and its ligands direct the course of intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that DSS-induced clinical disease and histological damage to the colonic mucosa were significantly less severe in GC-C−/− mice and moderately reduced in Gn−/− animals. Relative to wildtype controls, GC-C−/− and Gn−/− mice had reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation of IECs during DSS colitis. Basal and DSS-induced production of resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) was substantially diminished in GC-C−/− mice. RELMβ is thought to stimulate cytokine production in macrophages in this disease model and, consistent with this, TNFα and IFNγ production was minimal in GC-C−/− animals. RELMβ and cytokine levels were similar to wildtype in Gn−/− mice, however. Colonic instillation of recombinant RELMβ by enema into GC-C−/− mice restores sensitivity to DSS-mediated mucosal injury. These findings demonstrate a novel role for GC-C signaling in facilitating mucosal wounding and inflammation and further suggest that this may be mediated, in part, through control of RELMβ production. PMID:21555532

  7. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is essential for proper lysosomal acidification.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nawreen; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier; Milner, Teresa A; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R

    2016-10-01

    Lysosomes, the degradative organelles of the endocytic and autophagic pathways, function at an acidic pH. Lysosomes are acidified by the proton-pumping vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), but the molecular processes that set the organelle's pH are not completely understood. In particular, pH-sensitive signaling enzymes that can regulate lysosomal acidification in steady-state physiological conditions have yet to be identified. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a widely expressed source of cAMP that serves as a physiological pH sensor in cells. For example, in proton-secreting epithelial cells, sAC is responsible for pH-dependent translocation of V-ATPase to the luminal surface. Here we show genetically and pharmacologically that sAC is also essential for lysosomal acidification. In the absence of sAC, V-ATPase does not properly localize to lysosomes, lysosomes fail to fully acidify, lysosomal degradative capacity is diminished, and autophagolysosomes accumulate. PMID:27670898

  8. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  9. Guanylyl cyclase C signaling axis and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Amanda M; Merlino, Dante J; Blomain, Erik S; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms. These effects are mediated by the endogenous hormones guanylin (GUCA2A) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B), which bind and activate GUCY2C to regulate proliferation, metabolism and barrier function in intestine. Recent studies have demonstrated a link between GUCY2C silencing and intestinal dysfunction, including tumorigenesis. Indeed, GUCY2C silencing by the near universal loss of its paracrine hormone ligands increases colon cancer susceptibility in animals and humans. GUCY2C’s role as a tumor suppressor has opened the door to a new paradigm for CRC prevention by hormone replacement therapy using synthetic hormone analogs, such as the FDA-approved oral GUCY2C ligand linaclotide (Linzess™). Here we review the known contributions of the GUCY2C signaling axis to CRC, and relate them to a novel clinical strategy targeting tumor chemoprevention.

  10. Mutations in the Atp1p and Atp3p subunits of yeast ATP synthase differentially affect respiration and fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brian R; White, Karen H; Thorsness, Peter E

    2007-04-01

    ATP1-111, a suppressor of the slow-growth phenotype of yme1Delta lacking mitochondrial DNA is due to the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 111 of the alpha-subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (Atp1p in yeast). The suppressing activity of ATP1-111 requires intact beta (Atp2p) and gamma (Atp3p) subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase, but not the stator stalk subunits b (Atp4p) and OSCP (Atp5p). ATP1-111 and other similarly suppressing mutations in ATP1 and ATP3 increase the growth rate of wild-type strains lacking mitochondrial DNA. These suppressing mutations decrease the growth rate of yeast containing an intact mitochondrial chromosome on media requiring oxidative phosphorylation, but not when grown on fermentable media. Measurement of chronological aging of yeast in culture reveals that ATP1 and ATP3 suppressor alleles in strains that contain mitochondrial DNA are longer lived than the isogenic wild-type strain. In contrast, the chronological life span of yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA and containing these mutations is shorter than that of the isogenic wild-type strain. Spore viability of strains bearing ATP1-111 is reduced compared to wild type, although ATP1-111 enhances the survival of spores that lacked mitochondrial DNA.

  11. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  12. Inhibition by methioninyl adenylate of focus formation by Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gero, M; Lawrence, F; Vigier, P

    1975-12-01

    Methioninyl adenylate is a specific and potent inhibitor of the enzyme methionyl-tRNA synthetase and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis. In cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus, incubation for a 2-day period with 1 to 3 mM concentrations of this inhibitor, as late as 4 days after infection, irreversibly prevented subsequent formation of foci of transformed cells. Later addition could also elicit the irreversible disappearance of already existing foci, by phenotypic reversion and/or cell killing. Virus production in transformed cells and replication in newly infected cells were also inhibited but to a lesser degree. Under the same conditions, the same concentrations of methioninyl adenylate caused only a reversible growth arrest of normal cells. The selective toxicity of the inhibitor for transformed cells is not due to a greater affinity for the target enzyme, but it may be due to the fact that inhibition of protein biosynthesis is only partially reversible in these cells, whereas it is fully reversible in normal cells.

  13. Accurate Detection of Adenylation Domain Functions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System Using Active Site-directed Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Miyamoto, Kengo; Konno, Sho; Kasai, Shota; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-18

    A significant gap exists between protein engineering and enzymes used for the biosynthesis of natural products, largely because there is a paucity of strategies that rapidly detect active-site phenotypes of the enzymes with desired activities. Herein, we describe a proof-of-concept study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) using a combination of active site-directed probes coupled to a 5'-O-N-(aminoacyl)sulfamoyladenosine scaffold with a biotin functionality that immobilizes probe molecules onto a streptavidin-coated solid support. The recombinant NRPSs have a C-terminal His-tag motif that is targeted by an anti-6×His mouse antibody as the primary antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-linked goat antimouse antibody as the secondary antibody. These probes can selectively capture the cognate A domains by ligand-directed targeting. In addition, the ELISA technique detected A domains in the crude cell-free homogenates from the Escherichia coli expression systems. When coupled with a chromogenic substrate, the antibody-based ELISA technique can visualize probe-protein binding interactions, which provides accurate readouts of the A-domain functions in NRPS enzymes. To assess the ELISA-based engineering of the A domains of NRPSs, we reprogramed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)-activating enzyme EntE toward salicylic acid (Sal)-activating enzymes and investigated a correlation between binding properties for probe molecules and enzyme catalysts. We generated a mutant of EntE that displayed negligible loss in the kcat/Km value with the noncognate substrate Sal and a corresponding 48-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value with the cognate substrate DHB. The resulting 26-fold switch in substrate specificity was achieved by the replacement of a Ser residue in the active site of EntE with a Cys toward the nonribosomal codes of Sal-activating enzymes. Bringing a laboratory ELISA technique

  14. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz; Jensen, Thomas G.; Møller, Lisbeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6–8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation. PMID:27587995

  15. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz; Jensen, Thomas G; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation. PMID:27587995

  16. A lycopene β-cyclase/lycopene ε-cyclase/light-harvesting complex-fusion protein from the green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus can be modified to produce α-carotene and β-carotene at different ratios.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Andreas; Bauch, Matthias E; Pörschke, Yvonne; Lohr, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Biosynthesis of asymmetric carotenoids such as α-carotene and lutein in plants and green algae involves the two enzymes lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYE). The two cyclases are closely related and probably resulted from an ancient gene duplication. While in most plants investigated so far the two cyclases are encoded by separate genes, prasinophyte algae of the order Mamiellales contain a single gene encoding a fusion protein comprised of LCYB, LCYE and a C-terminal light-harvesting complex (LHC) domain. Here we show that the lycopene cyclase fusion protein from Ostreococcus lucimarinus catalyzed the simultaneous formation of α-carotene and β-carotene when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The stoichiometry of the two products in E. coli could be altered by gradual truncation of the C-terminus, suggesting that the LHC domain may be involved in modulating the relative activities of the two cyclase domains in the algae. Partial deletions of the linker region between the cyclase domains or replacement of one or both cyclase domains with the corresponding cyclases from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in pronounced shifts of the α-carotene-to-β-carotene ratio, indicating that both the relative activities of the cyclase domains and the overall structure of the fusion protein have a strong impact on the product stoichiometry. The possibility to tune the product ratio of the lycopene cyclase fusion protein from Mamiellales renders it useful for the biotechnological production of the asymmetric carotenoids α-carotene or lutein in bacteria or fungi.

  17. Nonribosomal Propeptide Precursor in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis Predicted from Adenylation Domain Specificity Dependent on the MbtH Family Protein NocI

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Jeanne M.; Bartley, David M.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Nocardicin A is a monocyclic β-lactam isolated from the actinomycete Nocardia uniformis that shows moderate antibiotic activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria. The monobactams are of renewed interest due to emerging Gram-negative strains resistant to clinically available penicillins and cephalosporins. Like isopenicillin N, nocardicin A has a tripeptide core of nonribosomal origin. Paradoxically, the nocardicin A gene cluster encodes two nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), NocA and NocB, predicted to encode five modules pointing to a pentapeptide precursor in nocardicin A biosynthesis, unless module skipping or other non-linear reactions are occurring. Previous radiochemical incorporation experiments and bioinformatic analyses predict the incorporation of p-hydroxy-L-phenylglycine (L-pHPG) into positions 1, 3, and 5 and L-serine into position 4. No prediction could be made for position 2. Multi-domain constructs of each module were heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli for determination of the adenylation domain (A-domain) substrate specificity using the ATP/PPi exchange assay. Three of the five A-domains, from modules 1, 2, and 4, required the addition of stoichiometric amounts of MbtH family protein NocI to detect exchange activity. Based on these analyses, the predicted product of the NocA+NocB NRPSs is L-pHPG–L-Arg–D-pHPG–L-Ser–L-pHPG, a pentapeptide. Despite being flanked by nonproteinogenic amino acids, proteolysis of this pentapeptide by trypsin yields two fragments from cleavage at the C-terminus of the L-Arg residue. Thus, a proteolytic step is likely involved in the biosynthesis of nocardicin A, a rare but precedented editing event in the formation of nonribosomal natural products which is supported by the identification of trypsin-encoding genes in N. uniformis. PMID:23330869

  18. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  19. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  20. Binding of ATP to the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Moudgil, V K; Toft, D O

    1975-01-01

    The possible interaction of progesterone--receptor complexes with nucleotides was tested by affinity chromatography. The cytosol progesterone receptor from hen oviduct was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation before use. When progesterone was bound to the receptor, the resulting complex could be selectively adsorbed onto columns of ATP-Sepharose. This interaction was reversible and of an ionic nature since it could be disrupted by high-salt conditions. A competitive binding assay was used to test the specificity of receptor binding to several other nucleotides, including ADP, AMP, and cAMP. A clear specificity for binding ATP was evident from these studies. When ATP was added to receptor preparations, the nucleotide did not affect the sedimentation properties or hormone binding characteristics of the receptor. Although the function of ATP remains unknown, these studies indicate a role of this nucleotide in some aspect of hormone receptor activity. PMID:165493

  1. Customized ATP towpreg. [Automated Tow Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  2. Role of soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the physiological effects of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Severina, I S

    1998-07-01

    In this review the molecular mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive and antiaggregatory actions of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. It has been shown that these effects are directly connected with the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and the accumulation of cyclic 3;,5;-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The mechanism of guanylate cyclase activation by NO is analyzed, especially the role and biological significance of the nitrosyl--heme complex formed as a result of interaction of guanylate cyclase heme with NO and the role of sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme in this process. Using new approaches for studying the antihypertensive and antiaggregatory actions of nitric oxide in combination with the newly obtained data on the regulatory role of guanylate cyclase in the platelet aggregation process, the most important results were obtained regarding the molecular bases providing for a directed search for and creation of new effective antihypertensive and antiaggregatory preparations. In studying the molecular mechanism for directed activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by new NO donors, a series of hitherto unknown enzyme activators generating NO and involved in the regulation of hemostasis and vascular tone were revealed. PMID:9721331

  3. Overexpression and characterization of lycopene cyclase (CrtY) from marine bacterium Paracoccus haeundaensis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Hyug; Ji, Keunho; Kim, Young Tae

    2013-02-01

    Lycopene cyclase converts lycopene to beta-carotene by catalyzing the formation of two beta-rings at each end of the linear carotene structure. This reaction takes place as a two-step reaction in which both sides of of the lycopene molecule are cyclized into beta-carotene rings via the monocyclic gamma-carotene as an intermediate. The crtY gene coding for lycopene cyclase from Paracoccus haeundaensis consists of 1,158 base pairs encoding 386 amino acids residues. An expression plasmid containing the crtY gene (pET44a-CrtY) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli, and produced a recombinant protein of approximately 43 kDa, corresponding to the molecular mass of lycopene cyclase. The expressed protein was purified to homogeneity by His-tag affinity chromatography and showed enzymatic activity corresponding to lycopene cyclase. We also determined the lycopene substrate specificity and NADPH cofactor requirements of the purified protein. The Km values for lycopene and NADPH were 3.5 microM and 2 mM, respectively. The results obtained from this study will provide a wider base of knowledge on the enzyme characterization of lycopene cyclase at the molecular level.

  4. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Steve J.; Stout, Jake M.; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2–C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity. PMID:22802619

  5. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  6. Alternative splicing impairs soluble guanylyl cyclase function in aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emil; Golunski, Eva; Laing, Susan T; Estrera, Anthony L; Sharina, Iraida G

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a key regulator of several important vascular functions and is important for maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and vascular plasticity. Diminished sGC expression and function contributes to pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. However, the processes that control sGC expression in vascular tissue remain poorly understood. Previous work in animal and cell models revealed the complexity of alternative splicing of sGC genes and demonstrated its importance in modulation of sGC function. The aim of this study was to examine the role of alternative splicing of α1 and β1 sGC in healthy and diseased human vascular tissue. Our study found a variety of α1 and β1 sGC splice forms expressed in human aorta. Their composition and abundance were different between samples of aortic tissue removed during surgical repair of aortic aneurysm and samples of aortas without aneurysm. Aortas with aneurysm demonstrated decreased sGC activity, which correlated with increased expression of dysfunctional sGC splice variants. In addition, the expression of 55-kDa oxidation-resistant α1 isoform B sGC (α1-IsoB) was significantly lower in aortic samples with aneurysm. The α1-IsoB splice variant was demonstrated to support sGC activity in aortic lysates. Together, our results suggest that alternative splicing contributes to diminished sGC function in vascular dysfunction. Precise understanding of sGC splicing regulation could help to design new therapeutic interventions and to personalize sGC-targeting therapies in treatments of vascular disease.

  7. Molecular characterization of tick salivary gland glutaminyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Steven W; Browning, Rebecca E; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-09-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the bloodmeal of adult female ticks prior to fast-feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with bloodmeal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  8. Renal Phosphate Wasting in the Absence of Adenylyl Cyclase 6

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Robert A.; Murray, Fiona; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A.; Tang, Tong; Levi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) enhance phosphate excretion by the proximal tubule of the kidney by retrieval of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (Npt2a and Npt2c) from the apical plasma membrane. PTH activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) through PTH 1 receptors and stimulates the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. However, the precise role and isoform(s) of AC in phosphate homeostasis are not known. We report here that mice lacking AC6 (AC6−/−) have increased plasma PTH and FGF-23 levels compared with wild-type (WT) mice but comparable plasma phosphate concentrations. Acute activation of the calcium-sensing receptor or feeding a zero phosphate diet almost completely suppressed plasma PTH levels in both AC6−/− and WT mice, indicating a secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism. Pharmacologic blockade of FGF receptors resulted in a comparable increase in plasma phosphate between genotypes, whereas urinary phosphate remained significantly higher in AC6−/− mice. Compared with WT mice, AC6−/− mice had reduced renal Npt2a and Npt2c protein abundance, with approximately 80% of Npt2a residing in lysosomes. WT mice responded to exogenous PTH with redistribution of Npt2a from proximal tubule microvilli to intracellular compartments and lysosomes alongside a PTH-induced dose–response relationship for fractional phosphate excretion and urinary cAMP excretion. These responses were absent in AC6−/− mice. In conclusion, AC6 in the proximal tubule modulates cAMP formation, Npt2a trafficking, and urinary phosphate excretion, which are highlighted by renal phosphate wasting in AC6−/− mice. PMID:24854272

  9. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  10. Non-ATP competitive protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, L; Roberti, M; Bottegoni, G

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases represent an attractive target in oncology drug discovery. Most of kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive and are called type I inhibitors. The ATP-binding pocket is highly conserved among members of the kinase family and it is difficult to find selective agents. Moreover, the ATP-competitive inhibitors must compete with high intracellular ATP levels leading to a discrepancy between IC50s measured by biochemical versus cellular assays. The non-ATP competitive inhibitors, called type II and type III inhibitors, offer the possibility to overcome these problems. These inhibitors act by inducing a conformational shift in the target enzyme such that the kinase is no longer able to function. In the DFG-out form, the phenylalanine side chain moves to a new position. This movement creates a hydrophobic pocket available for occupation by the inhibitor. Some common features are present in these inhibitors. They contain a heterocyclic system that forms one or two hydrogen bonds with the kinase hinge residue. They also contain a hydrophobic moiety that occupies the pocket formed by the shift of phenylalanine from the DFG motif. Moreover, all the inhibitors bear a hydrogen bond donor-acceptor pair, usually urea or amide, that links the hinge-binding portion to the hydrophobic moiety and interacts with the allosteric site. Examples of non ATP-competitive inhibitors are available for various kinases. In this review small molecules capable of inducing the DFG-out conformation are reported, especially focusing on structural feature, SAR and biological properties.

  11. Tau binds ATP and induces its aggregation.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mina; Corbo, Christopher P; Alonso, Alejandra Del C

    2014-02-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein mainly found in neurons. The protein is associated with process of microtubule assembly, which plays an important role in intracellular transport and cell structure of the neuron. Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases specifically associated with tau abnormalities. While a well-defined mechanism remains unknown, most facts point to tau as a prominent culprit in neurodegeneration. In most cases of Tauopathies, aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau have been found. Two proposals are present when discussing tau toxicity, one being the aggregation of tau proteins and the other points toward a conformational change within the protein. Previous work we carried out showed tau hyperphosphorylation promotes tau to behave abnormally resulting in microtubule assembly disruption as well as a breakdown in tau self-assembly. We found that tau's N-terminal region has a putative site for ATP/GTP binding. In this paper we demonstrate that tau is able to bind ATP and not GTP, that this binding induces tau self-assembly into filaments. At 1 mM ATP the filaments are 4-7 nm in width, whereas at 10 mM ATP the filaments appeared to establish lateral interaction, bundling and twisting, forming filaments that resembled the Paired Helical Filaments (PHF) isolated from Alzheimer disease brain. ATP-induced self-assembly is not energy dependent because the nonhydrolysable analogue of the ATP induces the same assembly. PMID:24258797

  12. ATP metabolism in rat liver chronically treated with ethanol and high fat

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; French, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Five pairs of Wistar male rats weighing about 350 g were continuously infused with a liquid diet in which 25-35% of total calories was derived from fat, plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose through gastrostomy cannulas for 3 wks to 3.5 mos. Mean ethanol intake was 12.9 +/- 0.7 g/kg B.W. (55% of total calories). High blood alcohol levels (BAL, 342 +/- 151 mg/dl) were maintained. The liver showed severe steatosis (4+) in all the ethanol-fed rats (ER). Two had mild focal mononuclear cell infiltration, one had mild fibrosis and one had spotty necrosis. Mild steatosis (1+) was seen in 4 out of 5 pair-fed control rats (CR). Serum ALT was significantly higher in ER (129 +/- 44 U) compared with Cr (59 +/- 30 U) or rats fed chow ad lib (NR) (48 +/- 26 U). Biopsied liver tissue was used to measure the concentration of adenine nucleotides by HPLC (6 pairs). There was a significant decrease of ATP in ER (1.7 +/- 0.3 ..mu..mol/g liver) as compared to CR (2.5 +/- 0.5 ..mu..mol/g) or NR (2.8 +/- 0.2 ..mu..mol/g, n = 6). There was no significant change in the ADP or AMP content, however. The total adenylate pool of the liver was also significantly reduced in ER when compared to that of CR or NR (3.2 +/- 0.4, 4.0 +/- 0.5 and 4.3 +/- 0.2 ..mu..mol/g liver, respectively). Adeynlate energy charge (E.C.) of the ER livers (0.71 +/- 0.05) was significantly reduced compared to NR (0.77 +/- 0.02) but not with CR (0.75 +/- 0.06). The results indicate that ethanol decreases the level of ATP as well as the biological mechanism to compensate for the lowered level.

  13. Ontogeny of regulatory mechanisms for beta-adrenoceptor control of rat cardiac adenylyl cyclase: targeting of G-proteins and the cyclase catalytic subunit.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, J L; Seidler, F J; Slotkin, T A

    1997-02-01

    Fetal and neonatal tissues are resistant to catecholamine-induced desensitization of essential physiological responses. We examined the mechanisms underlying the ontogeny of desensitization in neonatal rat heart for the beta-adrenergic receptor/adenylyl cyclase signaling cascade. Animals of different ages received isoproterenol daily or 4 days and cardiac membrane preparations were evaluated on the 5th day (6, 15, 25 days old and adults). Measurements were made of basal activity, activity stimulated by two agonists (isoproterenol or glucagon) that operate at different receptors but that share Gs as the transduction intermediate, or by forskolin-Mn' to assess total catalytic capacity of the cyclase subunit; we also assessed inhibition of activity by carbachol which acts via muscarinic cholinergic receptors and G. Adult rats exhibited robust desensitization of the adenylyl cyclase response but the effect was heterologous in that equivalent loss of activity was seen for basal, isoproterenol- and glucagon-stimulated activity forskolin-Mn(2+)-stimulated activity was also decreased. Two factors contributed to desensitization; generalized reduction in membrane protein concentrations caused by cell enlargement (reduced surface-to-volume ratio), and specific interference with the G-protein component that couples receptors to the cyclase. Thus, after adjustment for changes in membrane protein, the desensitization of the forskolin-Mn2, response was no longer evident, but the effects on the other measures were still present. In addition, isoproterenol treatment produced crosstalk with the carbachol/Gi signaling pathway, with significant reductions in the ability of carbachol to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. Heterologous desensitization by isoproterenol was also present in 15 and 25 day old rats, but involved only selective components of the effects seen in adults. At 25 days, uncoupling of signals operating through Gs and Gi was obtained without a reduction in forskolin

  14. Crystal structure of the Alpha subunit PAS domain from soluble guanylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Rahul; Weichsel, Andrzej; Montfort, William R

    2013-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric heme protein of ∼150 kDa and the primary nitric oxide receptor. Binding of NO stimulates cyclase activity, leading to regulation of cardiovascular physiology and providing attractive opportunities for drug discovery. How sGC is stimulated and where candidate drugs bind remains unknown. The α and β sGC chains are each composed of Heme-Nitric Oxide Oxygen (H-NOX), Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS), coiled-coil and cyclase domains. Here, we present the crystal structure of the α1 PAS domain to 1.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals the binding surfaces of importance to heterodimer function, particularly with respect to regulating NO binding to heme in the β1 H-NOX domain. It also reveals a small internal cavity that may serve to bind ligands or participate in signal transduction. PMID:23934793

  15. Effects of 39 Compounds on Calmodulin-Regulated Adenylyl Cyclases AC1 and Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lübker, Carolin; Seifert, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of ATP into the second messenger cAMP. Membranous AC1 (AC1) is involved in processes of memory and learning and in muscle pain. The AC toxin edema factor (EF) of Bacillus anthracis is involved in the development of anthrax. Both ACs are stimulated by the eukaryotic Ca2+-sensor calmodulin (CaM). The CaM-AC interaction could constitute a potential target to enhance or impair the AC activity of AC1 and EF to intervene in above (patho)physiological mechanisms. Thus, we analyzed the impact of 39 compounds including typical CaM-inhibitors, an anticonvulsant, an anticholinergic, antidepressants, antipsychotics and Ca2+-antagonists on CaM-stimulated catalytic activity of AC1 and EF. Compounds were tested at 10 μM, i.e., a concentration that can be reached therapeutically for certain antidepressants and antipsychotics. Calmidazolium chloride decreased CaM-stimulated AC1 activity moderately by about 30%. In contrast, CaM-stimulated EF activity was abrogated by calmidazolium chloride and additionally decreased by chlorpromazine, felodipine, penfluridol and trifluoperazine by about 20–40%. The activity of both ACs was decreased by calmidazolium chloride in the presence and absence of CaM. Thus, CaM-stimulated AC1 activity is more insensitive to inhibition by small molecules than CaM-stimulated EF activity. Inhibition of AC1 and EF by calmidazolium chloride is largely mediated via a CaM-independent allosteric mechanism. PMID:25946093

  16. Human adenylate kinase 2 deficiency causes a profound haematopoietic defect associated with sensorineural deafness

    PubMed Central

    Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Six, Emmanuelle M.; Picard, Capucine; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Michel, Vincent; Ditadi, Andrea; Chappedelaine, Corinne Demerens-de; Morillon, Estelle; Valensi, Françoise; Simon-Stoos, Karen L.; Mullikin, James C.; Noroski, Lenora M.; Besse, Céline; Wulffraat, Nicolas M.; Ferster, Alina; Abecasis, Manuel M.; Calvo, Fabien; Petit, Christine; Candotti, Fabio; Abel, Laurent; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is an autosomal recessive form of human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, characterized by an early differentiation arrest in the myeloid lineage and impaired lymphoid maturation. In addition, affected newborns have bilateral sensorineural deafness. We have identified biallelic mutations in the adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) gene in seven patients affected with RD. These mutations resulted in the absence or a strong decrease in protein expression. We then demonstrated that restoration of AK2 expression in the bone marrow cells of RD patients overcomes the neutrophil differentiation arrest underlining its specific requirement in the development of a restricted set of haematopoietic lineages. Lastly, we established that AK2 is specifically expressed in the stria vascularis region of the inner ear, which provides an explanation to the sensorineural deafness. These results suggest a novel mechanism regulating haematopoetic cell differentiation, and involved in one of the most severe human immunodeficiency syndromes. PMID:19043416

  17. The influence of various cations on the catalytic properties of clays. [polymerization of alanine adenylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1978-01-01

    The polymerization of alanine adenylate in the presence of the sodium form of various clays was studied, and hectorite was found to cause more polymerization than nontronite and montmorillonite (in that order) although the differences were not great. The effect on polymerization of presaturating montmorillonite with different cations was determined. Hectorite, with increased basicity of the interspatial planes, allows polymerization of lysine, which montmorillonite does not. The general trend is that, for the same amino acid, higher degrees of polymerization are obtained when the cation in the octahedral lattice of the clay is divalent rather than trivalent. With the exchangeable cations the order is reversed, for a reason that is explained. The main role of clays in the polymerization mechanism of amino acids is concentration and neutralization of charges.

  18. Energetics and Structural Characterization of the large-scale Functional Motion of Adenylate Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formoso, Elena; Limongelli, Vittorio; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Adenylate Kinase (AK) is a signal transducing protein that regulates cellular energy homeostasis balancing between different conformations. An alteration of its activity can lead to severe pathologies such as heart failure, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A comprehensive elucidation of the large-scale conformational motions that rule the functional mechanism of this enzyme is of great value to guide rationally the development of new medications. Here using a metadynamics-based computational protocol we elucidate the thermodynamics and structural properties underlying the AK functional transitions. The free energy estimation of the conformational motions of the enzyme allows characterizing the sequence of events that regulate its action. We reveal the atomistic details of the most relevant enzyme states, identifying residues such as Arg119 and Lys13, which play a key role during the conformational transitions and represent druggable spots to design enzyme inhibitors. Our study offers tools that open new areas of investigation on large-scale motion in proteins.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin Y Is a Promiscuous Cyclase That Increases Endothelial Tau Phosphorylation and Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Cristhiaan D.; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Pastukh, Viktoriya; Balczon, Ron; Stevens, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Exotoxin Y (ExoY) is a type III secretion system effector found in ∼ 90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Although it is known that ExoY causes inter-endothelial gaps and vascular leak, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Using both a bacteria-delivered and a codon-optimized conditionally expressed ExoY, we report that this toxin is a dual soluble adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase that results in intracellular cAMP and cGMP accumulation. The enzymatic activity of ExoY caused phosphorylation of endothelial Tau serine 214, accumulation of insoluble Tau, inter-endothelial cell gap formation, and increased macromolecular permeability. To discern whether the cAMP or cGMP signal was responsible for Tau phosphorylation and barrier disruption, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were engineered for the conditional expression of either wild-type guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cGMP, or a mutated guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cAMP. Sodium nitroprusside stimulation of the cGMP-generating cyclase resulted in transient Tau serine 214 phosphorylation and gap formation, whereas stimulation of the cAMP-generating cyclase induced a robust increase in Tau serine 214 phosphorylation, gap formation, and macromolecular permeability. These results indicate that the cAMP signal is the dominant stimulus for Tau phosphorylation. Hence, ExoY is a promiscuous cyclase and edema factor that uses cAMP and, to some extent, cGMP to induce the hyperphosphorylation and insolubility of endothelial Tau. Because hyperphosphorylated and insoluble Tau are hallmarks in neurodegenerative tauopathies such as Alzheimer disease, acute Pseudomonas infections cause a pathophysiological sequela in endothelium previously recognized only in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22637478

  20. ATP Synthesis in the Extremely Halophilic Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proton-translocating ATPases are multimeric enzymes that carry out a multitude of essential functions. Their origin and evolution represent a seminal event in the early evolution of life. Amino acid sequences of the two largest subunits from archaeal ATPases (A-ATPases), vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), and FOF1-ATP syntheses (FATPases) suggest these ATPases evolved from an ancestral vacuolar-like ATP syntheses. A necessary consequence of this notion is that the A-ATPases are ATP syntheses. With the possible exception of the A-ATPase from Halobacterium salinarium. no A-ATPase has been demonstrated to synthesize ATP. The evidence for this case is dubious since ATP synthesis occurs only when conditions are distinctively unphysiological. We demonstrated that ATP synthesis in H.saccharovorum is inconsistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. In order to determine if this phenomenon was unique to H. saccharovorum, ATP synthesis was examined in various extremely halophilic bacteria with the goal of ascertaining if it resembled what occurred in a. saccharovorum, or was consistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. A-, V-, and F-type ATPases respond singularly to certain inhibitors. Therefore, the effect of these inhibitors on ATP synthesis in several extreme halophiles was determined. Inhibitors that either blocked or collapsed proton-gradients inhibited the steady state synthesis of ATP thus verifying that synthesis took place at the expense of a proton gradient. Azide, an inhibitor of F-ATPases inhibited ATP synthesis. Since the arginine-dependent synthesis of ATP, which occurs by way of substrate-level phosphorylation, was unaffected by azide, it was unlikely that azide acted as an "uncoupler." N -ethylmaleimide and nitrate, which inhibit V- and A-ATPases, either did not inhibit ATP synthesis or resulted in higher steady-state levels of ATP. These results suggest there are two types of proton-motive ATPases in the extreme halophiles (and presumably in other

  1. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Nielsen, Jens-Jung; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

    2009-12-01

    ATP has been proposed to play multiple roles in local skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation and modulating sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of arterial ATP infusion and exercise on leg muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and NE concentrations were measured during 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0.42 +/- 0.04 and 2.26 +/- 0.52 micromol/min; mean +/- SE) and 2) one-leg knee-extensor exercise (18 +/- 0 and 37 +/- 2 W) in 10 healthy men. Arterial ATP infusion and exercise increased leg blood flow (LBF) in the experimental leg from approximately 0.3 l/min at baseline to 4.2 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5 l/min, respectively, whereas it was reduced or unchanged in the control leg. During arterial ATP infusion, muscle interstitial ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations remained unchanged in both legs, but muscle interstitial NE increased from approximately 5.9 nmol/l at baseline to 8.3 +/- 1.2 and 8.7 +/- 0.7 nmol/l in the experimental and control leg, respectively (P < 0.05), in parallel to a reduction in arterial pressure (P < 0.05). During exercise, however, interstitial ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations increased in the contracting muscle (P < 0.05), but not in inactive muscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial purinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its local concentration. PMID:19797688

  2. The polymerization of amino acid adenylates on sodium-montmorillonite with preadsorbed polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, Mella; Eirich, Frederick R.

    1988-12-01

    We studied the spontaneous polymerization of amino acid adenylates on Na-montmorillonite in dilute, neutral suspension, after polypeptides were adsorbed on the clay. This led to the unexpected finding that the degrees of polymerization (DP's) of the oligo- and poly-peptides obtained depended on the amounts of polypeptides that were preadsorbed. Plotting average molecular weights obtained against c-spacings of the clay platelet aggregates which widened as a result of polypeptide addition and adsorption before the polymerization, does not permit an obvious explanation of these observations. The best correlation assigns a role to the fractional occupation of the individual intercalation layers of the polypeptides, as the adsorption increases towards a first complete mono-interlayer, then to an incipient and eventually to a complete double layer on to a third interlayer, after which the clay stacking breaks up. Spacings which correspond to an intermediate occupation of any of the three successive interlayers favor amino acids self-addition to polymers. The opposite is true for nearly empty or filled intercalation layers. We hypothesize and describe, how a catalytic activity may derive from c-spacings that offer adsorption sites for the reagent amino acid adenylate within the peripheral recesses of irregularly stacked clay platelets by bringing the anhydride bonds and neutral amino groups into favorable reaction distances. Moderately filled intercalation spaces may also act as sinks for the newly formed oligomers and facilitate the freeing of reaction sites for the occupation by fresh reagent. The c-spacings required for these mechanisms are the result of the intercalation of the preadsorbed polymer, but similar conditions prevail when polymers are adsorbed as they are generated during polymerization.

  3. Compartmentalized ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle triads.

    PubMed

    Han, J W; Thieleczek, R; Varsányi, M; Heilmeyer, L M

    1992-01-21

    Isolated skeletal muscle triads contain a compartmentalized glycolytic reaction sequence catalyzed by aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase. These enzymes express activity in the structure-associated state leading to synthesis of ATP in the triadic junction upon supply of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. ATP formation occurs transiently and appears to be kinetically compartmentalized, i.e., the synthesized ATP is not in equilibrium with the bulk ATP. The apparent rate constants of the aldolase and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphoglycerate kinase reaction are significantly increased when fructose 1,6-bisphosphate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is employed as substrate. The observations suggest that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is especially effectively channelled into the junctional gap. The amplitude of the ATP transient is decreasing with increasing free [Ca2+] in the range of 1 nM to 30 microM. In the presence of fluoride, the ATP transient is significantly enhanced and its declining phase is substantially retarded. This observation suggests utilization of endogenously synthesized ATP in part by structure associated protein kinases and phosphatases which is confirmed by the detection of phosphorylated triadic proteins after gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Endogenous protein kinases phosphorylate proteins of apparent Mr 450,000, 180,000, 160,000, 145,000, 135,000, 90,000, 54,000, 51,000, and 20,000, respectively. Some of these phosphorylated polypeptides are in the Mr range of known phosphoproteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle, which might give a first hint at the functional importance of the sequential glycolytic reactions compartmentalized in triads. PMID:1731894

  4. Dynamic imaging of free cytosolic ATP concentration during fuel sensing by rat hypothalamic neurones: evidence for ATP-independent control of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Ainscow, Edward K; Mirshamsi, Shirin; Tang, Teresa; Ashford, Michael L J; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-10-15

    Glucose-responsive (GR) neurons from hypothalamic nuclei are implicated in the regulation of feeding and satiety. To determine the role of intracellular ATP in the closure of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in these cells and associated glia, the cytosolic ATP concentration ([ATP](c)) was monitored in vivo using adenoviral-driven expression of recombinant targeted luciferases and bioluminescence imaging. Arguing against a role for ATP in the closure of K(ATP) channels in GR neurons, glucose (3 or 15 mM) caused no detectable increase in [ATP](c), monitored with cytosolic luciferase, and only a small decrease in the concentration of ATP immediately beneath the plasma membrane, monitored with a SNAP25-luciferase fusion protein. In contrast to hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic glia responded to glucose (3 and 15 mM) with a significant increase in [ATP](c). Both neurons and glia from the cerebellum, a glucose-unresponsive region of the brain, responded robustly to 3 or 15 mM glucose with increases in [ATP](c). Further implicating an ATP-independent mechanism of K(ATP) channel closure in hypothalamic neurons, removal of extracellular glucose (10 mM) suppressed the electrical activity of GR neurons in the presence of a fixed, high concentration (3 mM) of intracellular ATP. Neurons from both brain regions responded to 5 mM lactate (but not pyruvate) with an oligomycin-sensitive increase in [ATP](c). High levels of the plasma membrane lactate-monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1, were found in both cell types, and exogenous lactate efficiently closed K(ATP) channels in GR neurons. These data suggest that (1) ATP-independent intracellular signalling mechanisms lead to the stimulation of hypothalamic neurons by glucose, and (2) these effects may be potentiated in vivo by the release of lactate from neighbouring glial cells.

  5. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ronglan; Liang, Dongchun; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27196432

  6. [Reactivity of the adenylyl cyclase system in rat tissues to biogenic amines and peptide hormones under starvation condition].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Pertseva, M N

    2007-04-01

    Under starvation condition, sensitivity of the adenylyl cyclase system to regulatory action of biogenic amines and peptide hormones in rat tissues are changed. In the myocardium and skeletal muscles, after 2 and 4 days of starvation, the regulatory effects of isoproterenol and relaxin acting via G,-proteins on the adenylyl cyclase activity and the G-protein GTP-binding are significantly increased compared with control. At the same time, regulatory effects ofsomatostatin which are realized via Gi-proteins, on adenylyl cyclase system in the myocardium are decreased. Under prolonged starvation consisting of two consecutive 4-days periods, the effects of hormones acting via Gs-proteins on the adenylyl cyclase activity in muscle tissues are decreased to control value levels. The effects of hormones acting via Gi-proteins are largely reduced. In the brain, intensification of adenylyl cyclase stimulating hormonal effects was late and only observed after a 4-day starvation. Unlike muscle tissues, the increase of adenylyl cyclase stimulating effects in the brain is preserved after two-period starvation. The weakening of adenylyl cyclase inhibiting hormonal signals both in the brain and muscles is observed after a 2-day starvation and then the weakening is intensified. Possible role of glucose level and basal adenylyl cyclase activity in determination of the sensitivity of the adenylyl cyclase system to hormones under study is discussed. It is suggested that one of the key causes of physiological changes in animal organism under starvation involves alteration of hormonal signalling systems sensitivity, in particular that of the adenylyl cyclase system, to hormone regulatory action.

  7. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  8. Magnetic field affects enzymatic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A

    2008-10-01

    The rate of ATP synthesis by creatine kinase extracted from V. xanthia venom was shown to depend on the magnetic field. The yield of ATP produced by enzymes with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions in catalytic sites increases by 7-8% at 55 mT and then decreases at 80 mT. For enzyme with 25Mg2+ ion in a catalytic site, the ATP yield increases by 50% and 70% in the fields 55 and 80 mT, respectively. In the Earth field the rate of ATP synthesis by enzyme, in which Mg2+ ion has magnetic nucleus 25Mg, is 2.5 times higher than that by enzymes, in which Mg2+ ion has nonmagnetic, spinless nuclei 24Mg or 26Mg. Both magnetic field effect and magnetic isotope effect demonstrate that the ATP synthesis is an ion-radical process, affected by Zeeman interaction and hyperfine coupling in the intermediate ion-radical pair. PMID:18774801

  9. Detection of viable fungal spores contaminant on documents and rapid control of the effectiveness of an ethylene oxide disinfection using ATP assay.

    PubMed

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina S; Héraud, Cécile; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to damage and even destroy archival and library materials. Nowadays the conventional method for detecting such micro-organisms is to put them in cultures but such methods are laborious and time-consuming. ATP methodology has been widely applied in other domains and its success on bacteria and yeast has been demonstrated. Several commercial reagent kits are available but they did not give satisfactory results on spores mould. We have elaborated new extraction strategies specific to fungi. A comparison of 42 extraction protocols of ATP from fungal spores was carried out. Extraction at 100 degrees C with DMSO 90% in a Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer proved to be the best method. The viability of cells is estimated by the determination of adenylate energy charge (EC). We applied our method successfully on well-known species such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Neosartorya fischeri, Eurotium chevalieri, Penicillium chrysogenum, Chaetomium globosum and Ulocladium spp. The results suggest that the ATP bioluminescence assay provides a sensitive and time-saving method for detecting viable fungal spores. The validity of the procedure was also tested on spores killed by steam and on spores treated with ethylene oxide. We showed that EC determination could be used for a rapid control of the effectiveness of a disinfection process performed with ethylene oxide.

  10. Adenylate kinase 1 gene deletion disrupts muscle energetic economy despite metabolic rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Edwin; Dzeja, Petras P.; Oerlemans, Frank; Simonetti, Arjan W.; Heerschap, Arend; Haan, Arnold de; Rush, Paula S.; Terjung, Ronald R.; Wieringa, Bé; Terzic, Andre

    2000-01-01

    Efficient cellular energy homeostasis is a critical determinant of muscle performance, providing evolutionary advantages responsible for species survival. Phosphotransfer reactions, which couple ATP production and utilization, are thought to play a central role in this process. Here, we provide evidence that genetic disruption of AK1-catalyzed β-phosphoryl transfer in mice decreases the potential of myofibers to sustain nucleotide ratios despite up-regulation of high-energy phosphoryl flux through glycolytic, guanylate and creatine kinase phosphotransfer pathways. A maintained contractile performance of AK1-deficient muscles was associated with higher ATP turnover rate and larger amounts of ATP consumed per contraction. Metabolic stress further aggravated the energetic cost in AK1–/– muscles. Thus, AK1-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy, enabling skeletal muscle to perform at the lowest metabolic cost. PMID:11101510

  11. Pathway of processive ATP hydrolysis by kinesin

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Susan P.; Webb, Martin R.; Brune, Martin; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct measurement of the kinetics of kinesin dissociation from microtubules, the release of phosphate and ADP from kinesin, and rebinding of kinesin to the microtubule have defined the mechanism for the kinesin ATPase cycle. The processivity of ATP hydrolysis is ten molecules per site at low salt concentration but is reduced to one ATP per site at higher salt concentration. Kinesin dissociates from the microtubule after ATP hydrolysis. This step is rate-limiting. The subsequent rebinding of kinesin · ADP to the microtubule is fast, so kinesin spends only a small fraction of its duty cycle in the dissociated state. These results provide an explanation for the motility differences between skeletal myosin and kinesin. PMID:7854446

  12. BRET-linked ATP assay with luciferase.

    PubMed

    Borghei, Golnaz; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2014-09-01

    Taking advantage of BRET, a mutant firefly luciferase with higher pH- and thermo-stability than the wild-type could be coupled with the red-emitting fluorescent protein of mCherry in both a fused and unfused format. The BRET pair allows >40% of the light emitted to be red shifted over 600 nm to the mCherry acceptor wavelength. Taking the expected quantum yield for mCherry (0.22), a good fit to predicted light transfer is shown, with no other losses. Two measurements are considered for ATP determination: (a) a ratiometric technique for ATP measurement using both donor and acceptor emission intensities, making the calibration slope independent of protein concentration in a broad range. This measurement was limited by the BRET efficiency and the low quantum yield of the mCherry acceptor, but this detection limit might be improved with other fluorescent proteins with higher quantum yield. The fused BRET pair also resulted in a small increase in the BRET ratio. (b) An ATP dependent shift in the wavelength maximum using just the acceptor mCherry emission was also proposed for ATP determination. This did not require a high BRET efficiency and only uses emission above 600 nm to obtain the acceptor emission maximum, but not its intensity; it is independent of protein concentration across a broad range. This offers a novel and robust method for determination of ATP between 10(-11) to 10(-5) M with an easy baseline calibration with ATP concentration >10(-4) M.

  13. Cytidylyl- and Uridylyl Cyclase Activity of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor and Bordetella pertussis CyaA

    PubMed Central

    Göttle, Martin; Dove, Stefan; Kees, Frieder; Schlossmann, Jens; Geduhn, Jens; König, Burkhard; Shen, Yuequan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cGMP) are second messengers for a numerous mammalian cell functions. The natural occurrence and synthesis of a third cyclic nucleotide (cNMP), cyclic cytidine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cCMP) is discussed controversially, and almost nothing is known about cyclic uridine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cUMP). Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis secrete the adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxins edema factor (EF) and CyaA, respectively, weakening immune responses and facilitating bacterial proliferation. A cell-permeable cCMP analog inhibits human neutrophil superoxide production. Here, we report that EF and CyaA also possess cytidylyl cyclase (CC) and uridylyl cyclase (UC) activity. CC- and UC activity was determined by a radiometric assay, using [α-32P]CTP and [α-32P]UTP as substrates, respectively, and by an HPLC method. The identity of cNMPs was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Based on available crystal structures, we developed a model illustrating conversion of CTP to cCMP by bacterial toxins. In conclusion, we have shown both EF and CyaA have a rather broad substrate-specificity and exhibit cytidylyl- and uridylyl cyclase activity. Both cCMP and cUMP may contribute to toxin actions. PMID:20521845

  14. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is involved in PDT-induced injury of crayfish glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential tool for selective destruction of malignant brain tumors. However, not only malignant but also healthy neurons and glial cells may be damaged during PDT. Nitric oxide is an important modulator of cell viability and intercellular neuroglial communications. NO have been already shown to participate in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells. As soluble guanylyl cyclase is the only known receptor for NO, we have studied the possible role of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Using inhibitory analysis we have shown that during PDT soluble guanylyl cyclase, probably, has proapoptotic and antinecrotic effect on the glial cells of the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. Proapoptotic effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase could be mediated by protein kinase G (PKG). Thus, the involvement of NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells was indirectly demonstrated.

  15. Regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthase in cardiac pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Long, Qinqiang; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is paramount to energy homeostasis, metabolism, signaling, and apoptosis in cells. Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase), a molecular motor, is the ultimate ATP generator and a key determinant of mitochondrial function. ATP synthase catalyzes the final coupling step of oxidative phosphorylation to supply energy in the form of ATP. Alterations at this step will crucially impact mitochondrial respiration and hence cardiac performance. It is well established that cardiac contractility is strongly dependent on the mitochondria, and that myocardial ATP depletion is a key feature of heart failure. ATP synthase dysfunction can cause and exacerbate human diseases, such as cardiomyopathy and heart failure. While ATP synthase has been extensively studied, essential questions related to how the regulation of ATP synthase determines energy metabolism in the heart linger and therapies targeting this important mechanism remain scarce. This review will visit the main findings, identify unsolved issues and provide insights into potential future perspectives related to the regulation of ATP synthase and cardiac pathophysiology.

  16. Dynein ATPase pathway: ATP analogs and regulation by phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Three biochemical aspects of 22S dynein from Tetrahymena cilia have been investigated: its ATP binding polypeptides and the manner in which they bind ATP, its AMPPNP-induced dissociation from microtubules, and its phosphorylation. We have attempted to identify the polypeptides of dynein that bind ATP, i.e., the active site polypeptides, with the photoaffinity ATP analog 8-N{sub 3}ATP. The 8-N{sub 3}ATP has been shown to bind to dyneins active sites and in a manner similar to that of ATP. Upon irradiation, (2-{sup 3}H)8-N{sub 3}ATP covalently labels the three heavy chains, i.e., heads, which is detected by autoradiography of SDS PAG's. Thus, the three heads are considered to be the three active sites of dynein. AMPPNP is a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog which we have assayed for the ability to induce dynein dissociation from microtubules.

  17. ATP overflow in skeletal muscle 1A arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Kluess, Heidi A; Stone, Audrey J; Evanson, Kirk W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sources of ATP in the 1A arteriole, and to investigate age-related changes in ATP overflow. Arterioles (1A) from the red portion of the gastrocnemius muscle were isolated, cannulated and pressurized in a microvessel chamber with field stimulation electrodes. ATP overflow was determined using probes specific for ATP and null probes that were constructed similar to the ATP probes, but did not contain the enzyme coating. ATP concentrations were determined using a normal curve (0.78 to 25 μmol l−1 ATP). ATP overflow occurred in two phases. Phase one began in the first 20 s following stimulation and phase two started 35 s after field sti