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Sample records for adenylation domain sequences

  1. Exploring the adenylation domain repertoire of nonribosomal peptide synthetases using an ensemble of sequence-search methods.

    PubMed

    Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin; Molina-Ruiz, Reinaldo; Maldonado, Emanuel; de la Riva, Gustavo; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of two-dimension (2D) graphs and their numerical characterization for comparative analyses of DNA/RNA and protein sequences without the need of sequence alignments is an active yet recent research topic in bioinformatics. Here, we used a 2D artificial representation (four-color maps) with a simple numerical characterization through topological indices (TIs) to aid the discovering of remote homologous of Adenylation domains (A-domains) from the Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPS) class in the proteome of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Cyanobacteria are a rich source of structurally diverse oligopeptides that are predominantly synthesized by NPRS. Several A-domains share amino acid identities lower than 20 % being a possible source of remote homologous. Therefore, A-domains cannot be easily retrieved by BLASTp searches using a single template. To cope with the sequence diversity of the A-domains we have combined homology-search methods with an alignment-free tool that uses protein four-color-maps. TI2BioP (Topological Indices to BioPolymers) version 2.0, available at http://ti2biop.sourceforge.net/ allowed the calculation of simple TIs from the protein sequences (four-color maps). Such TIs were used as input predictors for the statistical estimations required to build the alignment-free models. We concluded that the use of graphical/numerical approaches in cooperation with other sequence search methods, like multi-templates BLASTp and profile HMM, can give the most complete exploration of the repertoire of highly diverse protein families. PMID:23874386

  2. Analysis of the Linker Region Joining the Adenylation and Carrier Protein Domains of the Modular Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bradley R.; Sundlov, Jesse A.; Drake, Eric J.; Makin, Thomas A.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPSs) are multi-modular proteins capable of producing important peptide natural products. Using an assembly-line process the amino acid substrate and peptide intermediates are passed between the active sites of different catalytic domains of the NRPS while bound covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain. Examination of the linker sequences that join the NRPS adenylation and PCP domains identified several conserved proline residues that are not found in standalone adenylation domains. We examined the roles of these proline residues and neighboring conserved sequences through mutagenesis and biochemical analysis of the reaction catalyzed by the adenylation domain and the fully reconstituted NRPS pathway. In particular, we identified a conserved LPxP motif at the start of the adenylation-PCP linker. The LPxP motif interacts with a region on the adenylation domain to stabilize a critical catalytic lysine residue belonging to the A10 motif that immediately precedes the linker. Further, this interaction with the C-terminal sub-domain of the adenylation domain may coordinate movement of the PCP with the conformational change of the adenylation domain. Through this work, we extend the conserved A10 motif of the adenylation domain and identify residues that enable proper adenylation domain function. PMID:24975514

  3. Modelling the 2-kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase on adenylate kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, L; Vertommen, D; Depiereux, E; Hue, L; Rider, M H; Feytmans, E

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple alignment of available sequences of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase revealed several segments of conserved residues in the 2-kinase domain. The sequence of the kinase domain was also compared with proteins of known three-dimensional structure. No similarity was found between the kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. This questions the modelling of the 2-kinase domain on bacterial 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase that has previously been proposed [Bazan, Fletterick and Pilkis (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9642-9646]. However, sequence similarities were found between the 2-kinase domain and several nucleotide-binding proteins, the most similar being adenylate kinase. A structural model of the 2-kinase domain based on adenylate kinase is proposed. It accommodates all the results of site-directed mutagenesis studies carried out to date on residues in the 2-kinase domain. It also allows residues potentially involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding to be predicted. PMID:9032445

  4. Alignment-Free Methods for the Detection and Specificity Prediction of Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin; Pérez-Machado, Gisselle; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Santos, Miguel Machado; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    Identifying adenylation domains (A-domains) and their substrate specificity can aid the detection of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) at genome/proteome level and allow inferring the structure of oligopeptides with relevant biological activities. However, that is challenging task due to the high sequence diversity of A-domains (~10-40 % of amino acid identity) and their selectivity for 50 different natural/unnatural amino acids. Altogether these characteristics make their detection and the prediction of their substrate specificity a real challenge when using traditional sequence alignment methods, e.g., BLAST searches. In this chapter we describe two workflows based on alignment-free methods intended for the identification and substrate specificity prediction of A-domains. To identify A-domains we introduce a graphical-numerical method, implemented in TI2BioP version 2.0 (topological indices to biopolymers), which in a first step uses protein four-color maps to represent A-domains. In a second step, simple topological indices (TIs), called spectral moments, are derived from the graphical representations of known A-domains (positive dataset) and of unrelated but well-characterized sequences (negative set). Spectral moments are then used as input predictors for statistical classification techniques to build alignment-free models. Finally, the resulting alignment-free models can be used to explore entire proteomes for unannotated A-domains. In addition, this graphical-numerical methodology works as a sequence-search method that can be ensemble with homology-based tools to deeply explore the A-domain signature and cope with the diversity of this class (Aguero-Chapin et al., PLoS One 8(7):e65926, 2013). The second workflow for the prediction of A-domain's substrate specificity is based on alignment-free models constructed by transductive support vector machines (TSVMs) that incorporate information of uncharacterized A-domains. The construction of the models was

  5. Accurate Detection of Adenylation Domain Functions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System Using Active Site-directed Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Miyamoto, Kengo; Konno, Sho; Kasai, Shota; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-18

    A significant gap exists between protein engineering and enzymes used for the biosynthesis of natural products, largely because there is a paucity of strategies that rapidly detect active-site phenotypes of the enzymes with desired activities. Herein, we describe a proof-of-concept study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) using a combination of active site-directed probes coupled to a 5'-O-N-(aminoacyl)sulfamoyladenosine scaffold with a biotin functionality that immobilizes probe molecules onto a streptavidin-coated solid support. The recombinant NRPSs have a C-terminal His-tag motif that is targeted by an anti-6×His mouse antibody as the primary antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-linked goat antimouse antibody as the secondary antibody. These probes can selectively capture the cognate A domains by ligand-directed targeting. In addition, the ELISA technique detected A domains in the crude cell-free homogenates from the Escherichia coli expression systems. When coupled with a chromogenic substrate, the antibody-based ELISA technique can visualize probe-protein binding interactions, which provides accurate readouts of the A-domain functions in NRPS enzymes. To assess the ELISA-based engineering of the A domains of NRPSs, we reprogramed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)-activating enzyme EntE toward salicylic acid (Sal)-activating enzymes and investigated a correlation between binding properties for probe molecules and enzyme catalysts. We generated a mutant of EntE that displayed negligible loss in the kcat/Km value with the noncognate substrate Sal and a corresponding 48-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value with the cognate substrate DHB. The resulting 26-fold switch in substrate specificity was achieved by the replacement of a Ser residue in the active site of EntE with a Cys toward the nonribosomal codes of Sal-activating enzymes. Bringing a laboratory ELISA technique

  6. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD[superscript +]-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S.; Griffor, Matt; Pfizer

    2010-09-17

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3''-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD{sup +}-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  7. The Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Repeat-in-Toxin (RTX) Domain Is Immunodominant and Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianzhe; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a multifunctional virulence factor secreted by Bordetella species. Upon interaction of its C-terminal hemolysin moiety with the cell surface receptor αMβ2 integrin, the N-terminal cyclase domain translocates into the host cell cytosol where it rapidly generates supraphysiological cAMP concentrations, which inhibit host cell anti-bacterial activities. Although ACT has been shown to induce protective immunity in mice, it is not included in any current acellular pertussis vaccines due to protein stability issues and a poor understanding of its role as a protective antigen. Here, we aimed to determine whether any single domain could recapitulate the antibody responses induced by the holo-toxin and to characterize the dominant neutralizing antibody response. We first immunized mice with ACT and screened antibody phage display libraries for binding to purified ACT. The vast majority of unique antibodies identified bound the C-terminal repeat-in-toxin (RTX) domain. Representative antibodies binding two nonoverlapping, neutralizing epitopes in the RTX domain prevented ACT association with J774A.1 macrophages and soluble αMβ2 integrin, suggesting that these antibodies inhibit the ACT-receptor interaction. Sera from mice immunized with the RTX domain showed similar neutralizing activity as ACT-immunized mice, indicating that this domain induced an antibody response similar to that induced by ACT. These data demonstrate that RTX can elicit neutralizing antibodies and suggest it may present an alternative to ACT. PMID:25505186

  8. Affinity Purification Method for the Identification of Nonribosomal Peptide Biosynthetic Enzymes Using a Synthetic Probe for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A series of inhibitors have been designed based on 5'-O-sulfamoyl adenosine (AMS) that display tight binding characteristics towards the inhibition of adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). We recently developed an affinity probe for A domains that could be used to facilitate the specific isolation and identification of NRPS modules. Our synthetic probe, which is a biotinylated variant of L-Phe-AMS (L-Phe-AMS-biotin), selectively targets the A domains in NRPS modules that recognize and convert L-Phe to an aminoacyl adenylate in whole proteomes. In this chapter, we describe the design and synthesis of L-Phe-AMS-biotin and provide a summary of our work towards the development of a series of protocols for the specific enrichment of NRPS modules using this probe. PMID:26831701

  9. Activation of the Pacidamycin PacL Adenylation Domain by MbtH-Like Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjun; Heemstra, John R.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Imker, Heidi J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly lines are major avenues for the biosynthesis of a vast array of peptidyl natural products. Several hundred bacterial NRPS gene clusters contain a small (~70 residue) protein belonging to the MbtH family for which no function has been defined. Here we show that two strictly conserved Trp residues in MbtH-like proteins contribute to stimulation of amino acid adenylation in some NRPS modules. We also demonstrate that adenylation can be stimulated not only by cognate MbtH-like proteins but also by homologues from disparate natural product pathways. PMID:20964365

  10. Activation of the pacidamycin PacL adenylation domain by MbtH-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Heemstra, John R; Walsh, Christopher T; Imker, Heidi J

    2010-11-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly lines are major avenues for the biosynthesis of a vast array of peptidyl natural products. Several hundred bacterial NRPS gene clusters contain a small (∼70-residue) protein belonging to the MbtH family for which no function has been defined. Here we show that two strictly conserved Trp residues in MbtH-like proteins contribute to stimulation of amino acid adenylation in some NRPS modules. We also demonstrate that adenylation can be stimulated not only by cognate MbtH-like proteins but also by homologues from disparate natural product pathways. PMID:20964365

  11. Calpain-Mediated Processing of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Generates a Cytosolic Soluble Catalytically Active N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Ostolaza, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough pathogen, secretes several virulence factors among which adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is essential for establishment of the disease in the respiratory tract. ACT weakens host defenses by suppressing important bactericidal activities of the phagocytic cells. Up to now, it was believed that cell intoxication by ACT was a consequence of the accumulation of abnormally high levels of cAMP, generated exclusively beneath the host plasma membrane by the toxin N-terminal catalytic adenylate cyclase (AC) domain, upon its direct translocation across the lipid bilayer. Here we show that host calpain, a calcium-dependent Cys-protease, is activated into the phagocytes by a toxin-triggered calcium rise, resulting in the proteolytic cleavage of the toxin N-terminal domain that releases a catalytically active “soluble AC”. The calpain-mediated ACT processing allows trafficking of the “soluble AC” domain into subcellular organella. At least two strategic advantages arise from this singular toxin cleavage, enhancing the specificity of action, and simultaneously preventing an indiscriminate activation of cAMP effectors throughout the cell. The present study provides novel insights into the toxin mechanism of action, as the calpain-mediated toxin processing would confer ACT the capacity for a space- and time-coordinated production of different cAMP “pools”, which would play different roles in the cell pathophysiology. PMID:23840759

  12. A Multiple-Labeling Strategy for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Using Active-Site-Directed Proteomic Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    Genetic approaches have greatly contributed to our understanding of nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic machinery; however, proteomic investigations are limited. Here, we developed a highly sensitive detection strategy for multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) by using a multiple-labeling technique with active-site-directed probes for adenylation domains. When applied to gramicidin S-producing and -nonproducing strains of Aneurinibacillus migulanus (DSM 5759 and DSM 2895, respectively), the multiple technique sensitively detected an active multidomain NRPS (GrsB) in lysates obtained from the organisms. This functional proteomics method revealed an unknown inactive precursor (or other inactive form) of GrsB in the nonproducing strain. This method provides a new option for the direct detection, functional analysis, and high-resolution identification of low-abundance active NRPS enzymes in native proteomic environments. PMID:26467472

  13. Characterization and Engineering of the Adenylation Domain of a NRPS-Like Protein: A Potential Biocatalyst for Aldehyde Generation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The adenylation (A) domain acts as the first “gate-keeper” to ensure the activation and thioesterification of the correct monomer to nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Our understanding of the specificity-conferring code and our ability to engineer A domains are critical for increasing the chemical diversity of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). We recently discovered a novel NRPS-like protein (ATEG_03630) that can activate 5-methyl orsellinic acid (5-MOA) and reduce it to 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethyl benzaldehyde. A NRPS-like protein is much smaller than multidomain NRPSs, but it still represents the thioesterification half-reaction, which is otherwise missed from a stand-alone A domain. Therefore, a NRPS-like protein may serve as a better model system for A domain engineering. Here, we characterize the substrate specificity of ATEG_03630 and conclude that the hydrogen-bond donor at the 4-position is crucial for substrate recognition. Next, we show that the substrate specificity of ATEG_03630 can be engineered toward our target substrate anthranilate via bioinformatics analysis and mutagenesis. The resultant mutant H358A increased its activity toward anthranilate by 10.9-fold, which led to a 26-fold improvement in specificity. Finally, we demonstrate one-pot chemoenzymatic synthesis of 4-hydroxybenzaldoxime from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with high yield. PMID:24804152

  14. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Bakal, Tomas; Goo, Kian-Sim; Najmanova, Lucie; Plhackova, Kamila; Kadlcik, Stanislav; Ulanova, Dana

    2015-11-01

    In the biosynthesis of diverse natural bioactive products the adenylation domains (ADs) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases select specific precursors from the cellular pool and activate them for further incorporation into the scaffold of the final compound. Therefore, the drug discovery programs employing PCR-based screening studies of microbial collections or metagenomic libraries often use AD-coding genes as markers of relevant biosynthetic gene clusters. However, due to significant sequence diversity of ADs, the conventional approach using only one primer pair in a single screening experiment could be insufficient for maximal coverage of AD abundance. In this study, the widely used primer pair A3F/A7R was compared with the newly designed aa194F/aa413R one by 454 pyrosequencing of two sets of actinomycete strains from highly dissimilar environments: subseafloor sediments and forest soil. Individually, none of the primer pairs was able to cover the overall diversity of ADs. However, due to slightly shifted specificity of the primer pairs, the total number and diversity of identified ADs were noticeably extended when both primer pairs were used in a single assay. Additionally, the efficiency of AD detection by different primer combinations was confirmed on the model of Salinispora tropica genomic DNA of known sequence. PMID:26296377

  15. REvolver: modeling sequence evolution under domain constraints.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Tina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2012-09-01

    Simulating the change of protein sequences over time in a biologically realistic way is fundamental for a broad range of studies with a focus on evolution. It is, thus, problematic that typically simulators evolve individual sites of a sequence identically and independently. More realistic simulations are possible; however, they are often prohibited by limited knowledge concerning site-specific evolutionary constraints or functional dependencies between amino acids. As a consequence, a protein's functional and structural characteristics are rapidly lost in the course of simulated evolution. Here, we present REvolver (www.cibiv.at/software/revolver), a program that simulates protein sequence alteration such that evolutionarily stable sequence characteristics, like functional domains, are maintained. For this purpose, REvolver recruits profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) for parameterizing site-specific models of sequence evolution in an automated fashion. pHMMs derived from alignments of homologous proteins or protein domains capture information regarding which sequence sites remained conserved over time and where in a sequence insertions or deletions are more likely to occur. Thus, they describe constraints on the evolutionary process acting on these sequences. To demonstrate the performance of REvolver as well as its applicability in large-scale simulation studies, we evolved the entire human proteome up to 1.5 expected substitutions per site. Simultaneously, we analyzed the preservation of Pfam and SMART domains in the simulated sequences over time. REvolver preserved 92% of the Pfam domains originally present in the human sequences. This value drops to 15% when traditional models of amino acid sequence evolution are used. Thus, REvolver represents a significant advance toward a realistic simulation of protein sequence evolution on a proteome-wide scale. Further, REvolver facilitates the simulation of a protein family with a user-defined domain architecture at

  16. Expression and purification of an adenylation domain from a eukaryotic nonribosomal peptide synthetase: using structural genomics tools for a challenging target.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Verne; Lott, J Shaun; Johnson, Richard D; Arcus, Vickery L

    2010-12-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multimodular and multidomain enzymes that are involved in synthesising an array of molecules that are important in human and animal health. NRPSs are found in both bacteria and fungi but most of the research to date has focused on the bacterial enzymes. This is largely due to the technical challenges in producing active fungal NRPSs, which stem from their large size and multidomain nature. In order to target fungal NRPS domains for biochemical and structural characterisation, we tackled this challenge by using the cloning and expression tools of structural genomics to screen the many variables that can influence the expression and purification of proteins. Using these tools we have screened 32 constructs containing 16 different fungal NRPS domains or domain combinations for expression and solubility. Two of these yielded soluble protein with one, the third adenylation domain of the SidN NRPS (SidNA3) from the grass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii, being tractable for purification using Ni-affinity resin. The initial purified protein exhibited poor solution behaviour but optimisation of the expression construct and the buffer conditions used for purification, resulted in stable recombinant protein suitable for biochemical characterisation, crystallisation and structure determination. PMID:20716446

  17. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, R G; Van Haastert, P J

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular or intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a heterodimer and are activated by G-proteins. In contrast, membrane-bound guanylate cyclases have only one transmembrane spanning region and one cyclase domain, and are activated by extracellular ligands to form a homodimer. In the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity is induced after cAMP stimulation; a G-protein-coupled cAMP receptor and G-proteins are essential for this activation. We have cloned a Dictyostelium gene, DdGCA, encoding a protein with 12 transmembrane spanning regions and two cyclase domains. Sequence alignment demonstrates that the two cyclase domains are transposed, relative to these domains in adenylate cyclases. DdGCA expressed in Dictyostelium exhibits high guanylate cyclase activity and no detectable adenylate cyclase activity. Deletion of the gene indicates that DdGCA is not essential for chemotaxis or osmo-regulation. The knock-out strain still exhibits substantial guanylate cyclase activity, demonstrating that Dictyostelium contains at least one other guanylate cyclase. PMID:11237875

  18. Nonribosomal Propeptide Precursor in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis Predicted from Adenylation Domain Specificity Dependent on the MbtH Family Protein NocI

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Jeanne M.; Bartley, David M.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Nocardicin A is a monocyclic β-lactam isolated from the actinomycete Nocardia uniformis that shows moderate antibiotic activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria. The monobactams are of renewed interest due to emerging Gram-negative strains resistant to clinically available penicillins and cephalosporins. Like isopenicillin N, nocardicin A has a tripeptide core of nonribosomal origin. Paradoxically, the nocardicin A gene cluster encodes two nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), NocA and NocB, predicted to encode five modules pointing to a pentapeptide precursor in nocardicin A biosynthesis, unless module skipping or other non-linear reactions are occurring. Previous radiochemical incorporation experiments and bioinformatic analyses predict the incorporation of p-hydroxy-L-phenylglycine (L-pHPG) into positions 1, 3, and 5 and L-serine into position 4. No prediction could be made for position 2. Multi-domain constructs of each module were heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli for determination of the adenylation domain (A-domain) substrate specificity using the ATP/PPi exchange assay. Three of the five A-domains, from modules 1, 2, and 4, required the addition of stoichiometric amounts of MbtH family protein NocI to detect exchange activity. Based on these analyses, the predicted product of the NocA+NocB NRPSs is L-pHPG–L-Arg–D-pHPG–L-Ser–L-pHPG, a pentapeptide. Despite being flanked by nonproteinogenic amino acids, proteolysis of this pentapeptide by trypsin yields two fragments from cleavage at the C-terminus of the L-Arg residue. Thus, a proteolytic step is likely involved in the biosynthesis of nocardicin A, a rare but precedented editing event in the formation of nonribosomal natural products which is supported by the identification of trypsin-encoding genes in N. uniformis. PMID:23330869

  19. Effect of peptides corresponding to extracellular domains of serotonin 1B/1D receptors and melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors on hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shpakova, E A; Derkach, K V; Shpakov, A O

    2014-03-01

    The ligand-recognizing part of G protein-coupled receptors consists of their extracellular loops and N-terminal domain. Identification of these sites is essential for receptor mapping and for the development and testing of new hormone system regulators. The peptides corresponding by their structure to extracellular loop 2 of serotonin 1B/1D receptor (peptide 1), extracellular loop 3 of melanocortin 3 receptor (peptide 2), and N-terminal domain of melanocortin 4 (peptide 3) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. In synaptosomal membranes isolated from rat brain, peptide 1 (10(-5)-10(-4) M) attenuated the effects of 5-nonyloxytryptamine (selective agonist of serotonin 1B/1D receptor) and to a lesser extent serotonin and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine acting on all the subtypes of serotonin receptor 1. Peptide 2 (10(-5)-10(-4) M) significantly reduced the adenylate cyclase-stimulating effect of γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (agonist of melanocortin receptor 3), but had no effect on the adenylate cyclase effect of THIQ (agonist melanocortin receptor 4). Peptide 3 reduced the adenylate cyclase-stimulating effects of THIQ and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (non-selective agonist of melanocortin receptors 3 and 4), but did not modulate the effect of γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The effect of peptide 3 was weaker: it was observed at peptide 3 concentration of 10(-4) M. Peptides 1-3 did no change the adenylate cyclase-modulating effects of hormones acting through non-homologous receptors. Thus, the synthesized peptides specifically inhibited the regulatory effects of hormones acting through homologous receptors. This suggests that the corresponding extracellular domains are involved in ligand recognition and binding and determine functional activity of the receptor. PMID:24770752

  20. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    PubMed

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed. PMID:23947014

  1. Cooperative phenomena in binding and activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Bouhss, A; Krin, E; Munier, H; Gilles, A M; Danchin, A; Glaser, P; Bârzu, O

    1993-01-25

    The catalytic domain of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase located within the first 400 amino acids of the protein can be cleaved by trypsin in two subdomains (T25 and T18) corresponding to ATP-(T25) and calmodulin (CaM)-(T18) binding sites. Reassociation of subdomains by CaM is a cooperative process, which is a unique case among CaM-activated enzymes. To understand better the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we used several approaches such as partial deletions of the adenylate cyclase gene, isolation of peptides of various size, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. We found that a stretch of 72 amino acid residues overlapping the carboxyl terminus of T25 and the amino terminus of T18 accounts for 90% of the binding energy of adenylate cyclase-CaM complex. The hydrophobic "side" of the helical region situated around Trp242 plays a major role in the interaction of adenylate cyclase with CaM, whereas basic residues that alternate with acidic residues in bacterial enzyme play a much less important role. The amino-terminal half of the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase contributes only 10% to the binding energy of CaM, whereas the last 130 amino acid residues are not at all involved in binding. However, these segments of adenylate cyclase might affect protein/protein interaction and catalysis by propagating conformational changes to the CaM-binding sequence which is located in the middle of the catalytic domain of bacterial enzyme. PMID:8420945

  2. The cystathionine-β-synthase domains on the guanosine 5''-monophosphate reductase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase enzymes from Leishmania regulate enzymatic activity in response to guanylate and adenylate nucleotide levels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sabrina; Boitz, Jan; Chidambaram, Ehzilan Subramanian; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Ait-Tihyaty, Maria; Ullman, Buddy; Jardim, Armando

    2016-06-01

    The Leishmania guanosine 5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR) and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) are purine metabolic enzymes that function maintaining the cellular adenylate and guanylate nucleotide. Interestingly, both enzymes contain a cystathionine-β-synthase domain (CBS). To investigate this metabolic regulation, the Leishmania GMPR was cloned and shown to be sufficient to complement the guaC (GMPR), but not the guaB (IMPDH), mutation in Escherichia coli. Kinetic studies confirmed that the Leishmania GMPR catalyzed a strict NADPH-dependent reductive deamination of GMP to produce IMP. Addition of GTP or high levels of GMP induced a marked increase in activity without altering the Km values for the substrates. In contrast, the binding of ATP decreased the GMPR activity and increased the GMP Km value 10-fold. These kinetic changes were correlated with changes in the GMPR quaternary structure, induced by the binding of GMP, GTP, or ATP to the GMPR CBS domain. The capacity of these CBS domains to mediate the catalytic activity of the IMPDH and GMPR provides a regulatory mechanism for balancing the intracellular adenylate and guanylate pools. PMID:26853689

  3. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  4. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  5. A domain sequence approach to pangenomics: applications to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Snipen, Lars-Gustav; Ussery, David W

    2012-01-01

    The study of microbial pangenomes relies on the computation of gene families, i.e. the clustering of coding sequences into groups of essentially similar genes. There is no standard approach to obtain such gene families. Ideally, the gene family computations should be robust against errors in the annotation of genes in various genomes. In an attempt to achieve this robustness, we propose to cluster sequences by their domain sequence, i.e. the ordered sequence of domains in their protein sequence. In a study of 347 genomes from Escherichia coli we find on average around 4500 proteins having hits in Pfam-A in every genome, clustering into around 2500 distinct domain sequence families in each genome. Across all genomes we find a total of 5724 such families. A binomial mixture model approach indicates this is around 95% of all domain sequences we would expect to see in E. coli in the future. A Heaps law analysis indicates the population of domain sequences is larger, but this analysis is also very sensitive to smaller changes in the computation procedure. The resolution between strains is good despite the coarse grouping obtained by domain sequence families. Clustering sequences by their ordered domain content give us domain sequence families, who are robust to errors in the gene prediction step. The computational load of the procedure scales linearly with the number of genomes, which is needed for the future explosion in the number of re-sequenced strains. The use of domain sequence families for a functional classification of strains clearly has some potential to be explored. PMID:24555018

  6. Adenylate-forming enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Stefan; Naismith, James H

    2009-12-01

    Thioesters, amides, and esters are common chemical building blocks in a wide array of natural products. The formation of these bonds can be catalyzed in a variety of ways. For chemists, the use of an activating group is a common strategy and adenylate enzymes are exemplars of this approach. Adenylating enzymes activate the otherwise unreactive carboxylic acid by transforming the normal hydroxyl leaving group into adenosine monophosphate. Recently there have been a number of studies of such enzymes and in this review we suggest a new classification scheme. The review highlights the diversity in enzyme fold, active site architecture, and metal coordination that has evolved to catalyze this particular reaction. PMID:19836944

  7. Uridylation and adenylation of RNAs.

    PubMed

    Song, JianBo; Song, Jun; Mo, BeiXin; Chen, XueMei

    2015-11-01

    The posttranscriptional addition of nontemplated nucleotides to the 3' ends of RNA molecules can have a significant impact on their stability and biological function. It has been recently discovered that nontemplated addition of uridine or adenosine to the 3' ends of RNAs occurs in different organisms ranging from algae to humans, and on different kinds of RNAs, such as histone mRNAs, mRNA fragments, U6 snRNA, mature small RNAs and their precursors etc. These modifications may lead to different outcomes, such as increasing RNA decay, promoting or inhibiting RNA processing, or changing RNA activity. Growing pieces of evidence have revealed that such modifications can be RNA sequence-specific and subjected to temporal or spatial regulation in development. RNA tailing and its outcomes have been associated with human diseases such as cancer. Here, we review recent developments in RNA uridylation and adenylation and discuss the future prospects in this research area. PMID:26563174

  8. Primary structure of maize chloroplast adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, E; Burger, S; Grafmüller, R; Deppert, W R; Haehnel, W; Wagner, E

    1994-06-15

    This paper describes the sequence of adenylate kinase (Mg-ATP+AMP<-->Mg-ADP+ADP) from maize chloroplasts. This light-inducible enzyme is important for efficient CO2 fixation in the C4 cycle, by removing and recycling AMP produced in the reversible pyruvate phosphate dikinase reaction. The complete sequence was determined by analyzing peptides from cleavages with trypsin, AspN protease and CNBr and subcleavage of a major CNBr peptide with chymotrypsin. N-terminal Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion established the terminal residues. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the final sequence of 222 residues (M(r) = 24867) including one cysteine and one tryptophan. The sequence shows this enzyme to be a long-variant-type adenylate kinase, the nearest relatives being adenylate kinases from Enterobacteriaceae. Alignment of the sequence with the adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli reveals 44% identical residues. Since the E. coli structure has been published recently at 0.19-nm resolution with the inhibitor adenosine(5')pentaphospho(5')adenosine (Ap5A) [Müller, C. W. & Schulz, G. E. (1992) J. Mol. Biol. 224, 159-177], catalytically essential residues could be compared and were found to be mostly conserved. Surprisingly, in the nucleotide-binding Gly-rich loop Gly-Xaa-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly-Lys the middle Gly is replaced by Ala. This is, however, compensated by an Ile-->Val exchange in the nearest spatial neighborhood. A Thr-->Ala exchange explains the unusual tolerance of the enzyme for pyrimidine nucleotides in the acceptor site. PMID:8026505

  9. Phosphonate analogues of aminoacyl adenylates.

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, C C; Dixon, H B

    1978-01-01

    Phosphonomethyl analogues of glycyl phosphate and valyl phosphate, i.e. NH2-CHR-CO-CH2-PO(OH)2, were synthesized and esterified with adenosine to give analogues of aminoacyl adenylates. The interaction of these adenylate analogues with valyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli was studied by fluorescence titration. The analogue of valyl phosphate has an affinity for the enzyme comparable with that of valine, but that of valyl adenylate is bound much less tightly than either valyl adenylate or corresponding derivative of valinol. The affinity of the analogue of glycyl adenylate was too low to be measured. We conclude that this enzyme interacts specifically with both the side chain and the anhydride linkage of the adenylate intermediate. PMID:743207

  10. Correlations in DNA sequences across the three domains of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Sabyasachi; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.; White, Owen R.

    2000-11-01

    We report statistical studies of correlation properties of ∼7500 gene sequences, covering coding (exon) and non-coding (intron) sequences for DNA and primary amino acid sequences for proteins, across all three domains of life, namely Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei), Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Archaea (archaebacteria). Mutual information function, power spectrum and Hölder exponent analyses show exons with somewhat greater correlation content than the introns studied. These results are further confirmed with hypothesis testing. While ∼30% of the Eukaryote coding sequences show distinct correlations above noise threshold, this is true for only ∼10% of the Prokaryote and Archaea coding sequences. For protein sequences, we observe correlation lengths similar to that of “random” sequences.

  11. Time domain DNP with the NOVEL sequence.

    PubMed

    Can, T V; Walish, J J; Swager, T M; Griffin, R G

    2015-08-01

    We present results of a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study at 0.35 T (9.7 GHz/14.7 MHz for electron/(1)H Larmor frequency) using a lab frame-rotating frame cross polarization experiment that employs electron spin locking fields that match the (1)H nuclear Larmor frequency, the so called NOVEL (nuclear orientation via electron spin locking) condition. We apply the method to a series of DNP samples including a single crystal of diphenyl nitroxide (DPNO) doped benzophenone (BzP), 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) doped polystyrene (PS), and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) doped glycerol/water glassy matrices. The optimal Hartman-Hahn matching condition is achieved when the nutation frequency of the electron matches the Larmor frequency of the proton, ω(1S) = ω(0I), together with possible higher order matching conditions at lower efficiencies. The magnetization transfer from electron to protons occurs on the time scale of ∼100 ns, consistent with the electron-proton couplings on the order of 1-10 MHz in these samples. In a fully protonated single crystal DPNO/BzP, at 270 K, we obtained a maximum signal enhancement of ε = 165 and the corresponding gain in sensitivity of ε(T1/T(B))(1/2)=230 due to the reduction in the buildup time under DNP. In a sample of partially deuterated PS doped with BDPA, we obtained an enhancement of 323 which is a factor of ∼3.2 higher compared to the protonated version of the same sample and accounts for 49% of the theoretical limit. For the SA-BDPA doped glycerol/water glassy matrix at 80 K, the sample condition used in most applications of DNP in nuclear magnetic resonance, we also observed a significant enhancement. Our findings demonstrate that pulsed DNP via the NOVEL sequence is highly efficient and can potentially surpass continuous wave DNP mechanisms such as the solid effect and cross effect which scale unfavorably with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, pulsed DNP is also a promising avenue for DNP at high

  12. Time domain DNP with the NOVEL sequence

    PubMed Central

    Can, T. V.; Walish, J. J.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    We present results of a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study at 0.35 T (9.7 GHz/14.7 MHz for electron/1H Larmor frequency) using a lab frame-rotating frame cross polarization experiment that employs electron spin locking fields that match the 1H nuclear Larmor frequency, the so called NOVEL (nuclear orientation via electron spin locking) condition. We apply the method to a series of DNP samples including a single crystal of diphenyl nitroxide (DPNO) doped benzophenone (BzP), 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) doped polystyrene (PS), and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) doped glycerol/water glassy matrices. The optimal Hartman-Hahn matching condition is achieved when the nutation frequency of the electron matches the Larmor frequency of the proton, ω1S = ω0I, together with possible higher order matching conditions at lower efficiencies. The magnetization transfer from electron to protons occurs on the time scale of ∼100 ns, consistent with the electron-proton couplings on the order of 1-10 MHz in these samples. In a fully protonated single crystal DPNO/BzP, at 270 K, we obtained a maximum signal enhancement of ε = 165 and the corresponding gain in sensitivity of εT1/TB1/2=230 due to the reduction in the buildup time under DNP. In a sample of partially deuterated PS doped with BDPA, we obtained an enhancement of 323 which is a factor of ∼3.2 higher compared to the protonated version of the same sample and accounts for 49% of the theoretical limit. For the SA-BDPA doped glycerol/water glassy matrix at 80 K, the sample condition used in most applications of DNP in nuclear magnetic resonance, we also observed a significant enhancement. Our findings demonstrate that pulsed DNP via the NOVEL sequence is highly efficient and can potentially surpass continuous wave DNP mechanisms such as the solid effect and cross effect which scale unfavorably with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, pulsed DNP is also a promising avenue for DNP at high temperature

  13. Time domain DNP with the NOVEL sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, T. V.; Walish, J. J.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    We present results of a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study at 0.35 T (9.7 GHz/14.7 MHz for electron/1H Larmor frequency) using a lab frame-rotating frame cross polarization experiment that employs electron spin locking fields that match the 1H nuclear Larmor frequency, the so called NOVEL (nuclear orientation via electron spin locking) condition. We apply the method to a series of DNP samples including a single crystal of diphenyl nitroxide (DPNO) doped benzophenone (BzP), 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) doped polystyrene (PS), and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) doped glycerol/water glassy matrices. The optimal Hartman-Hahn matching condition is achieved when the nutation frequency of the electron matches the Larmor frequency of the proton, ω1S = ω0I, together with possible higher order matching conditions at lower efficiencies. The magnetization transfer from electron to protons occurs on the time scale of ˜100 ns, consistent with the electron-proton couplings on the order of 1-10 MHz in these samples. In a fully protonated single crystal DPNO/BzP, at 270 K, we obtained a maximum signal enhancement of ɛ = 165 and the corresponding gain in sensitivity of ɛ T 1 / T B 1 / 2 = 230 due to the reduction in the buildup time under DNP. In a sample of partially deuterated PS doped with BDPA, we obtained an enhancement of 323 which is a factor of ˜3.2 higher compared to the protonated version of the same sample and accounts for 49% of the theoretical limit. For the SA-BDPA doped glycerol/water glassy matrix at 80 K, the sample condition used in most applications of DNP in nuclear magnetic resonance, we also observed a significant enhancement. Our findings demonstrate that pulsed DNP via the NOVEL sequence is highly efficient and can potentially surpass continuous wave DNP mechanisms such as the solid effect and cross effect which scale unfavorably with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore

  14. Image encryption using random sequence generated from generalized information domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia-Yan, Zhang; Guo-Ji, Zhang; Xuan, Li; Ya-Zhou, Ren; Jie-Hua, Wu

    2016-05-01

    A novel image encryption method based on the random sequence generated from the generalized information domain and permutation–diffusion architecture is proposed. The random sequence is generated by reconstruction from the generalized information file and discrete trajectory extraction from the data stream. The trajectory address sequence is used to generate a P-box to shuffle the plain image while random sequences are treated as keystreams. A new factor called drift factor is employed to accelerate and enhance the performance of the random sequence generator. An initial value is introduced to make the encryption method an approximately one-time pad. Experimental results show that the random sequences pass the NIST statistical test with a high ratio and extensive analysis demonstrates that the new encryption scheme has superior security.

  15. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that non-linguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a three-location spatiotemporal sequence of multi-colored geometric shapes. Early language skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Analyses of children’s reaction times to the stimuli suggest that the extent to which infants demonstrated learning was significantly correlated with their vocabulary comprehension at the time of test and with their gestural comprehension abilities 5 months later. These findings suggest that visual sequence learning may have both domain-general and domain-specific associations with language learning. PMID:22523477

  16. Sequence and structural analysis of BTB domain proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stogios, Peter J; Downs, Gregory S; Jauhal, Jimmy JS; Nandra, Sukhjeen K; Privé, Gilbert G

    2005-01-01

    Background The BTB domain (also known as the POZ domain) is a versatile protein-protein interaction motif that participates in a wide range of cellular functions, including transcriptional regulation, cytoskeleton dynamics, ion channel assembly and gating, and targeting proteins for ubiquitination. Several BTB domain structures have been experimentally determined, revealing a highly conserved core structure. Results We surveyed the protein architecture, genomic distribution and sequence conservation of BTB domain proteins in 17 fully sequenced eukaryotes. The BTB domain is typically found as a single copy in proteins that contain only one or two other types of domain, and this defines the BTB-zinc finger (BTB-ZF), BTB-BACK-kelch (BBK), voltage-gated potassium channel T1 (T1-Kv), MATH-BTB, BTB-NPH3 and BTB-BACK-PHR (BBP) families of proteins, among others. In contrast, the Skp1 and ElonginC proteins consist almost exclusively of the core BTB fold. There are numerous lineage-specific expansions of BTB proteins, as seen by the relatively large number of BTB-ZF and BBK proteins in vertebrates, MATH-BTB proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans, and BTB-NPH3 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the structural homology between Skp1 and the PLZF BTB homodimer, we present a model of a BTB-Cul3 SCF-like E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that shows that the BTB dimer or the T1 tetramer is compatible in this complex. Conclusion Despite widely divergent sequences, the BTB fold is structurally well conserved. The fold has adapted to several different modes of self-association and interactions with non-BTB proteins. PMID:16207353

  17. A two-domain model for the R domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator based on sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Dulhanty, A M; Riordan, J R

    1994-04-25

    CFTR belongs to a group of proteins sharing the structural motif of six transmembrane helices and a nucleotide binding domain. Unique to CFTR is the R domain, a charged cytoplasmic domain. Comparison of R domain sequences from ten species revealed that the N-terminal third is highly conserved, while the C-terminal two-thirds is poorly conserved. The R domain shows no strong sequence similarity to known proteins; however, 14 viral pol proteins show limited similarity to fragments of the R domain. Analysis revealed a relationship between the N- and C-terminal fragments of the R domain and two discontinuous fragments of the pol protein. These observations support a two-domain model for the R domain. PMID:7513286

  18. An intrinsic adenylate kinase activity regulates gating of the ABC transporter CFTR.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph; Welsh, Michael J

    2003-12-26

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Like other ABC transporters, it can hydrolyze ATP. Yet while ATP hydrolysis influences channel gating, it has long seemed puzzling that CFTR would require this reaction because anions flow passively through CFTR. Moreover, no other ion channel is known to require the large energy of ATP hydrolysis to gate. We found that CFTR also has adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP <=> ADP + ADP) that regulates gating. When functioning as an adenylate kinase, CFTR showed positive cooperativity for ATP suggesting its two nucleotide binding domains may dimerize. Thus, channel activity could be regulated by two different enzymatic reactions, ATPase and adenylate kinase, that share a common ATP binding site in the second nucleotide binding domain. At physiologic nucleotide concentrations, adenylate kinase activity, rather than ATPase activity may control gating, and therefore involve little energy consumption. PMID:14697202

  19. Adenylate kinase isozyme 2 is essential for growth and development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Murakami, Ryutaro; Horiguchi, Taigo; Noma, Takafumi

    2009-05-01

    Adenylate kinases are phylogenetically widespread, highly conserved, and involved in energy metabolism and energy transfer. Of these, adenylate kinase (AK) isozyme 2 is uniquely localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and its physiological role remains largely unknown. In this study, we selected Drosophila melanogaster to analyze its role in vivo. AK isozyme cDNAs were cloned and their gene expressions were characterized in D. melanogaster. The deduced amino acid sequences contain highly conserved motifs for P-loop, NMP binding, and LID domains of AKs. In addition, the effects of AK2 gene knockout on phenotype of AK2 mutants were examined using P-element technology. Although homozygous AK2 mutated embryos developed without any visible defects, their growth ceased and they died before reaching the third instar larval stage. Maternally provided AK2 mRNA was detected in fertilized eggs, and weak AK2 activity was observed in first and second instar larvae of the homozygous AK2 mutants, suggesting that maternally provided AK2 is sufficient for embryonic development. Disappearance of AK2 activity during larval stages resulted in growth arrest and eventual death. These results demonstrate that AK2 plays a critical role in adenine nucleotide metabolism in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is essential for growth in D. melanogaster. PMID:19416704

  20. A New Type of Metal-Binding Site in Cobalt- And Zinc-Containing Adenylate Kinases Isolated From Sulfate-Reducers D. Gigas And D. Desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, O.Y.; Bursakov, S.A.; Rocco, G.Di; Trincao, J.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Calvete, J.J.; Brondino, C.; Pereira, A.S.; Lampreia, J.; Tavares, P.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I.

    2009-05-18

    Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterized in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the 'LID' domain. The sequence {sup 129}Cys-X{sub 5}-His-X{sub 15}-Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain.

  1. Consequences of domain insertion on sequence-structure divergence in a superfold.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Chetanya; Brown, Shoshana; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Babbitt, Patricia C; Xia, Yu; Allen, Karen N

    2013-09-01

    Although the universe of protein structures is vast, these innumerable structures can be categorized into a finite number of folds. New functions commonly evolve by elaboration of existing scaffolds, for example, via domain insertions. Thus, understanding structural diversity of a protein fold evolving via domain insertions is a fundamental challenge. The haloalkanoic dehalogenase superfamily serves as an excellent model system wherein a variable cap domain accessorizes the ubiquitous Rossmann-fold core domain. Here, we determine the impact of the cap-domain insertion on the sequence and structure divergence of the core domain. Through quantitative analysis on a unique dataset of 154 core-domain-only and cap-domain-only structures, basic principles of their evolution have been uncovered. The relationship between sequence and structure divergence of the core domain is shown to be monotonic and independent of the corresponding type of domain insert, reflecting the robustness of the Rossmann fold to mutation. However, core domains with the same cap type share greater similarity at the sequence and structure levels, suggesting interplay between the cap and core domains. Notably, results reveal that the variance in structure maps to α-helices flanking the central β-sheet and not to the domain-domain interface. Collectively, these results hint at intramolecular coevolution where the fold diverges differentially in the context of an accessory domain, a feature that might also apply to other multidomain superfamilies. PMID:23959887

  2. MSA-PAD: DNA multiple sequence alignment framework based on PFAM accessed domain information.

    PubMed

    Balech, Bachir; Vicario, Saverio; Donvito, Giacinto; Monaco, Alfonso; Notarangelo, Pasquale; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the MSA-PAD application, a DNA multiple sequence alignment framework that uses PFAM protein domain information to align DNA sequences encoding either single or multiple protein domains. MSA-PAD has two alignment options: gene and genome mode. PMID:25819080

  3. Consequences of domain insertion on sequence-structure divergence in a superfold

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Chetanya; Brown, Shoshana; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Xia, Yu; Allen, Karen N.

    2013-01-01

    Although the universe of protein structures is vast, these innumerable structures can be categorized into a finite number of folds. New functions commonly evolve by elaboration of existing scaffolds, for example, via domain insertions. Thus, understanding structural diversity of a protein fold evolving via domain insertions is a fundamental challenge. The haloalkanoic dehalogenase superfamily serves as an excellent model system wherein a variable cap domain accessorizes the ubiquitous Rossmann-fold core domain. Here, we determine the impact of the cap-domain insertion on the sequence and structure divergence of the core domain. Through quantitative analysis on a unique dataset of 154 core-domain-only and cap-domain-only structures, basic principles of their evolution have been uncovered. The relationship between sequence and structure divergence of the core domain is shown to be monotonic and independent of the corresponding type of domain insert, reflecting the robustness of the Rossmann fold to mutation. However, core domains with the same cap type share greater similarity at the sequence and structure levels, suggesting interplay between the cap and core domains. Notably, results reveal that the variance in structure maps to α-helices flanking the central β-sheet and not to the domain–domain interface. Collectively, these results hint at intramolecular coevolution where the fold diverges differentially in the context of an accessory domain, a feature that might also apply to other multidomain superfamilies. PMID:23959887

  4. Bovine submaxillary mucin contains multiple domains and tandemly repeated non-identical sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, W; Woitach, J T; Keil, R L; Bhavanandan, V P

    1998-01-01

    A number of cDNA fragments coding for bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) were cloned, and the nucleotide sequence of the largest clone, BSM421, was determined. Two peptide sequences determined from the purified apoBSM were found near the N-terminus of the mucin-coding region of BSM421. This clone does not contain a start or stop codon, but its 3' end overlaps with the 5' end of a previously isolated clone, lambdaBSM10. The composite sequence of 1589 amino acid residues consists of five distinct protein domains, which are numbered from the C-terminus. The cysteine-rich domain I can be further divided into a von Willebrand factor type C repeat and a cystine knot. Domains III and V consist of similar repeated peptide sequences with an average of 47 residues. Domains II and IV do not contain such sequences but are similar to domains III and V in being rich in serine and threonine, many of which are predicted to be potential O-glycosylation sites. Domain III also contains two sequences that match the ATP/GTP-binding site motif A (P-loop). Only beta-strands and no alpha-helices are predicted for the partial deduced amino acid sequence. Northern analysis of submaxillary gland RNA with the BSM421 probe detected multiple messages of BSM with sizes from 1.1 to over 10 kb. The tandemly repeated, non-identical peptide sequences of approx. 47 residues in domains III and V of BSM differ from the tandemly repeated, identical 81-residue sequences of pig submaxillary mucin (PSM), although both BSM and PSM contain similar C-terminal domains. In contrast, two peptide sequences of ovine submaxillary mucin are highly similar (86% and 65% identical respectively) to the corresponding sequences in domain V of BSM. PMID:9512479

  5. Different evolutionary patterns of SNPs between domains and unassigned regions in human protein-coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Pang, Erli; Wu, Xiaomei; Lin, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Protein evolution plays an important role in the evolution of each genome. Because of their functional nature, in general, most of their parts or sites are differently constrained selectively, particularly by purifying selection. Most previous studies on protein evolution considered individual proteins in their entirety or compared protein-coding sequences with non-coding sequences. Less attention has been paid to the evolution of different parts within each protein of a given genome. To this end, based on PfamA annotation of all human proteins, each protein sequence can be split into two parts: domains or unassigned regions. Using this rationale, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in protein-coding sequences from the 1000 Genomes Project were mapped according to two classifications: SNPs occurring within protein domains and those within unassigned regions. With these classifications, we found: the density of synonymous SNPs within domains is significantly greater than that of synonymous SNPs within unassigned regions; however, the density of non-synonymous SNPs shows the opposite pattern. We also found there are signatures of purifying selection on both the domain and unassigned regions. Furthermore, the selective strength on domains is significantly greater than that on unassigned regions. In addition, among all of the human protein sequences, there are 117 PfamA domains in which no SNPs are found. Our results highlight an important aspect of protein domains and may contribute to our understanding of protein evolution. PMID:26833483

  6. ADP inhibits function of the ABC transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator via its adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2005-02-01

    ADP interacts with the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to inhibit its Cl- channel activity. Because CFTR NBD2 has reversible adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP<==> ADP + ADP) that gates the channel, we asked whether ADP might inhibit current through this enzymatic activity. In adenylate kinases, binding of the two ADP molecules is cooperative. Consistent with this hypothesis, CFTR current inhibition showed positive cooperativity for ADP. We also found that ADP inhibition of current was attenuated when we prevented adenylate kinase activity with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate. Additional studies suggested that adenylate kinase-dependent inhibition involved phosphotransfer between two nucleotide diphosphates. These data indicate that the adenylate kinase reaction at NBD2 contributed to the inhibitory effect of ADP. Finding that ADP inhibits function via an adenylate kinase activity also helps explain the earlier observation that mutations that disrupt adenylate kinase activity also disrupt ADP inhibition. Thus, the results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which ADP inhibits an ABC transporter. PMID:15684079

  7. ADP inhibits function of the ABC transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator via its adenylate kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    ADP interacts with the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to inhibit its Cl- channel activity. Because CFTR NBD2 has reversible adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ ADP + ADP) that gates the channel, we asked whether ADP might inhibit current through this enzymatic activity. In adenylate kinases, binding of the two ADP molecules is cooperative. Consistent with this hypothesis, CFTR current inhibition showed positive cooperativity for ADP. We also found that ADP inhibition of current was attenuated when we prevented adenylate kinase activity with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate. Additional studies suggested that adenylate kinase-dependent inhibition involved phosphotransfer between two nucleotide diphosphates. These data indicate that the adenylate kinase reaction at NBD2 contributed to the inhibitory effect of ADP. Finding that ADP inhibits function via an adenylate kinase activity also helps explain the earlier observation that mutations that disrupt adenylate kinase activity also disrupt ADP inhibition. Thus, the results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which ADP inhibits an ABC transporter. PMID:15684079

  8. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  9. EVEREST: automatic identification and classification of protein domains in all protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Portugaly, Elon; Harel, Amir; Linial, Nathan; Linial, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Background Proteins are comprised of one or several building blocks, known as domains. Such domains can be classified into families according to their evolutionary origin. Whereas sequencing technologies have advanced immensely in recent years, there are no matching computational methodologies for large-scale determination of protein domains and their boundaries. We provide and rigorously evaluate a novel set of domain families that is automatically generated from sequence data. Our domain family identification process, called EVEREST (EVolutionary Ensembles of REcurrent SegmenTs), begins by constructing a library of protein segments that emerge in an all vs. all pairwise sequence comparison. It then proceeds to cluster these segments into putative domain families. The selection of the best putative families is done using machine learning techniques. A statistical model is then created for each of the chosen families. This procedure is then iterated: the aforementioned statistical models are used to scan all protein sequences, to recreate a library of segments and to cluster them again. Results Processing the Swiss-Prot section of the UniProt Knoledgebase, release 7.2, EVEREST defines 20,230 domains, covering 85% of the amino acids of the Swiss-Prot database. EVEREST annotates 11,852 proteins (6% of the database) that are not annotated by Pfam A. In addition, in 43,086 proteins (20% of the database), EVEREST annotates a part of the protein that is not annotated by Pfam A. Performance tests show that EVEREST recovers 56% of Pfam A families and 63% of SCOP families with high accuracy, and suggests previously unknown domain families with at least 51% fidelity. EVEREST domains are often a combination of domains as defined by Pfam or SCOP and are frequently sub-domains of such domains. Conclusion The EVEREST process and its output domain families provide an exhaustive and validated view of the protein domain world that is automatically generated from sequence data. The

  10. The BEN domain is a novel sequence-specific DNA-binding domain conserved in neural transcriptional repressors

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Ren, Aiming; Westholm, Jakub O.; Serganov, Artem A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Lai, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Drosophila Insensitive (Insv) promotes sensory organ development and has activity as a nuclear corepressor for the Notch transcription factor Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)]. Insv lacks domains of known biochemical function but contains a single BEN domain (i.e., a “BEN-solo” protein). Our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis confirmed binding of Insensitive to Su(H) target genes in the Enhancer of split gene complex [E(spl)-C]; however, de novo motif analysis revealed a novel site strongly enriched in Insv peaks (TCYAATHRGAA). We validate binding of endogenous Insv to genomic regions bearing such sites, whose associated genes are enriched for neural functions and are functionally repressed by Insv. Unexpectedly, we found that the Insv BEN domain binds specifically to this sequence motif and that Insv directly regulates transcription via this motif. We determined the crystal structure of the BEN–DNA target complex, revealing homodimeric binding of the BEN domain and extensive nucleotide contacts via α helices and a C-terminal loop. Point mutations in key DNA-contacting residues severely impair DNA binding in vitro and capacity for transcriptional regulation in vivo. We further demonstrate DNA-binding and repression activities by the mammalian neural BEN-solo protein BEND5. Altogether, we define novel DNA-binding activity in a conserved family of transcriptional repressors, opening a molecular window on this extensive gene family. PMID:23468431

  11. Proline-rich sequences that bind to Src homology 3 domains with individual specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandropoulos, K; Cheng, G; Baltimore, D

    1995-01-01

    To study the binding specificity of Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, we have screened a mouse embryonic expression library for peptide fragments that interact with them. Several clones were identified that express fragments of proteins which, through proline-rich binding sites, exhibit differential binding specificity to various SH3 domains. Src-SH3-specific binding uses a sequence of 7 aa of the consensus RPLPXXP, in which the N-terminal arginine is very important. The SH3 domains of the Src-related kinases Fyn, Lyn, and Hck bind to this sequence with the same affinity as that of the Src SH3. In contrast, a quite different proline-rich sequence from the Btk protein kinase binds to the Fyn, Lyn, and Hck SH3 domains, but not to the Src SH3. Specific binding of the Abl SH3 requires a longer, more proline-rich sequence but no arginine. One clone that binds to both Src and Abl SH3 domains through a common site exhibits reversed binding orientation, in that an arginine indispensable for binding to all tested SH3 domains occurs at the C terminus. Another clone contains overlapping yet distinct Src and Abl SH3 binding sites. Binding to the SH3 domains is mediated by a common PXXP amino acid sequence motif present on all ligands, and specificity comes about from other interactions, often ones involving arginine. The rules governing in vivo usage of particular sites by particular SH3 domains are not clear, but one binding orientation may be more specific than another. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7536925

  12. The Replication Focus Targeting Sequence (RFTS) Domain Is a DNA-competitive Inhibitor of Dnmt1

    SciTech Connect

    Syeda, Farisa; Fagan, Rebecca L.; Wean, Matthew; Avvakumov, George V.; Walker, John R.; Xue, Sheng; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Brenner, Charles

    2015-11-30

    Dnmt1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) is the principal enzyme responsible for maintenance of cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides in the mammalian genome. The N-terminal replication focus targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of Dnmt1 has been implicated in subcellular localization, protein association, and catalytic function. However, progress in understanding its function has been limited by the lack of assays for and a structure of this domain. Here, we show that the naked DNA- and polynucleosome-binding activities of Dnmt1 are inhibited by the RFTS domain, which functions by virtue of binding the catalytic domain to the exclusion of DNA. Kinetic analysis with a fluorogenic DNA substrate established the RFTS domain as a 600-fold inhibitor of Dnmt1 enzymatic activity. The crystal structure of the RFTS domain reveals a novel fold and supports a mechanism in which an RFTS-targeted Dnmt1-binding protein, such as Uhrf1, may activate Dnmt1 for DNA binding.

  13. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies I using single nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase (cyaA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized within adenylate cyclas...

  14. Reverse transcriptase domain sequences from tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) long terminal repeat retrotransposons: sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Da-Long; Hou, Xiao-Gai; Jia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Tree peony is an important horticultural plant worldwide of great ornamental and medicinal value. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-retrotransposons) are the major components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their sequence characteristics, genetic distribution and transcriptional activity; however, no information about them is available in tree peony. Ty1-copia-like reverse transcriptase sequences were amplified from tree peony genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved domains of the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in this study. PCR fragments of roughly 270 bp were isolated and cloned, and 33 sequences were obtained. According to alignment and phylogenetic analysis, all sequences were divided into six families. The observed difference in the degree of nucleotide sequence similarity is an indication for high level of sequence heterogeneity among these clones. Most of these sequences have a frame shift, a stop codon, or both. Dot-blot analysis revealed distribution of these sequences in all the studied tree peony species. However, different hybridization signals were detected among them, which is in agreement with previous systematics studies. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) indicated that Ty1-copia retrotransposons in tree peony were transcriptionally inactive. The results provide basic genetic and evolutionary information of tree peony genome, and will provide valuable information for the further utilization of retrotransposons in tree peony. PMID:26019529

  15. Analysis of electron capture process in charge pumping sequence using time domain measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Masahiro Watanabe, Tokinobu; Ono, Yukinori; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki

    2014-12-29

    A method for analyzing the electron capture process in the charge pumping (CP) sequence is proposed and demonstrated. The method monitors the electron current in the CP sequence in time domain. This time-domain measurements enable us to directly access the process of the electron capture to the interface defects, which are obscured in the conventional CP method. Using the time-domain measurements, the rise time dependence of the capture process is systematically investigated. We formulate the capture process based on the rate equation and derive an analytic form of the current due to the electron capture to the defects. Based on the formula, the experimental data are analyzed and the capture cross section is obtained. In addition, the time-domain data unveil that the electron capture process completes before the electron channel opens, or below the threshold voltage in a low frequency range of the pulse.

  16. Sequence and domain arrangements influence mechanical properties of elastin-like polymeric elastomers.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming; Sitarz, Eva; Bellingham, Catherine M; Won, Emily; Muiznieks, Lisa D; Keeley, Fred W

    2013-06-01

    Elastin is the polymeric, extracellular matrix protein that provides properties of extensibility and elastic recoil to large arteries, lung parenchyma, and other tissues. Elastin assembles by crosslinking through lysine residues of its monomeric precursor, tropoelastin. Tropoelastin, as well as polypeptides based on tropoelastin sequences, undergo a process of self-assembly that aligns lysine residues for crosslinking. As a result, both the full-length monomer as well as elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) can be made into biomaterials whose properties resemble those of native polymeric elastin. Using both full-length human tropoelastin (hTE) as well as ELPs, we and others have previously reported on the influence of sequence and domain arrangements on self-assembly properties. Here we investigate the role of domain sequence and organization on the tensile mechanical properties of crosslinked biomaterials fabricated from ELP variants. In general, substitutions in ELPs involving similiar domain types (hydrophobic or crosslinking) had little effect on mechanical properties. However, modifications altering either the structure or the characteristic sequence style of these domains had significant effects on such properties. In addition, using a series of deletion and replacement constructs for full-length hTE, we provide new insights into the role of conserved domains of tropoelastin in determining mechanical properties. PMID:23529691

  17. Structural basis for the Smad5 MH1 domain to recognize different DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Nan; Li, Wan-Xin; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Shi-Ming; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Smad proteins are important intracellular mediators of TGF-β signalling, which transmit signals directly from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. The MH1 domain of Smad plays a key role in DNA recognition. Two types of DNA sequence were identified as Smad binding motifs: the Smad binding element (SBE) and the GC-rich sequence. Here we report the first crystal structure of the Smad5 MH1 domain in complex with the GC-rich sequence. Compared with the Smad5-MH1/SBE complex structure, the Smad5 MH1 domain contacts the GC-rich site with the same β-hairpin, but the detailed interaction modes are different. Conserved β-hairpin residues make base specific contacts with the minimal GC-rich site, 5′-GGC-3′. The assembly of Smad5-MH1 on the GC-rich DNA also results in distinct DNA conformational changes. Moreover, the crystal structure of Smad5-MH1 in complex with a composite DNA sequence demonstrates that the MH1 domain is targeted to each binding site (GC-rich or SBE) with modular binding modes, and the length of the DNA spacer affects the MH1 assembly. In conclusion, our work provides the structural basis for the recognition and binding specificity of the Smad MH1 domain with the DNA targets. PMID:26304548

  18. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  19. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5′-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl− channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  20. Depositional sequences in a foreland basin (north-western domain of the continental Duero basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Antonio; Alonso-Gavilán, Gaspar; Colmenero, Juan Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The Cenozoic record of the north-western domain of the Duero basin is articulated at the surface through a set of continental depositional sequences called, from base to top, the Vegaquemada sequence, the Candanedo sequence, and the Barrillos sequence. These depositional sequences were deposited in continental sedimentary environments. The deposition of the first sequence occurred through a fluvial system with floodplains cut by low-sinuosity channels. The Vegaquemada sequence was developed between the Middle Eocene and the Early Agenian. The second sequence was formed by a set of highly efficient transport alluvial fans that evolved laterally towards fluvial systems with low-sinuosity fluvial channels and an extensive floodplain, where several types of palaeosols were formed. This sequence developed between the Early Agenian and the Late Vallesian. The third unit-the Barrillos sequence (between the Late Vallesian and the Turolian/Ruscinian transition), was generated by a set of highly efficient transport alluvial fans dominated by low-sinuosity fluvial channels. In subsurface geology, seismic and well data are used to rebuild the stratigraphic architecture. The two basal depositional sequences can be identified with two seismic units: the Palaeogene Seismic Unit (PgSU) and the Neogene Seismic Unit (NgSU), respectively. In the present work, we obtained the isovelocity, isochron, and isobath maps for the top and base of the two Cenozoic units. The Palaeozoic (PzSU) and Mesozoic (MzSU) seismic units are found under these two units. Through study of the logs of the various boreholes, it was only possible to analyse the upper 700 m of the Candanedo Sequence (NgSU), without encompassing the total thickness of the unit. Several middle-order sequences were differentiated, in general showing a sequential fining-upwards evolutionary character. Additionally, for the boreholes analysed two main types of electrofacies were identified, both representing fluvial channels and

  1. The pro-sequence domain of streptopain directs the folding of the mature enzyme.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth T; Winter, Laurie A; Fernsten, Phil; Olmsted, Stephen B; Matsuka, Yury V

    2005-04-15

    The cysteine endopeptidase streptopain, an extracellular enzyme from pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes, is synthesized as a precursor containing an NH2-terminal pro-sequence. The pro-sequence of streptopain was expressed in Escherichia coli and subjected to structural and functional investigation. Heat-induced denaturation of the pro-sequence studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that it forms a compact structure and represents an independently folded domain. The isolated pro-sequence exhibits high affinity towards mature streptopain and associates with its cognate enzyme by forming an equimolar complex. Refolding of denatured streptopain in the presence of pro-sequence in vitro facilitated recovery of active enzyme. Expression of the mature streptopain in E. coli either alone, or in trans with its pro-sequence as an independent polypeptide, led to the formation of insoluble protein aggregates or functionally active enzyme, respectively. These results demonstrate that the pro-sequence domain acts as an intramolecular chaperone that directs the correct folding of the mature streptopain. PMID:15797242

  2. Recent improvements to the SMART domain-based sequence annotation resource.

    PubMed

    Letunic, Ivica; Goodstadt, Leo; Dickens, Nicholas J; Doerks, Tobias; Schultz, Joerg; Mott, Richard; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Copley, Richard R; Ponting, Chris P; Bork, Peer

    2002-01-01

    SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool, http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de) is a web-based resource used for the annotation of protein domains and the analysis of domain architectures, with particular emphasis on mobile eukaryotic domains. Extensive annotation for each domain family is available, providing information relating to function, subcellular localization, phyletic distribution and tertiary structure. The January 2002 release has added more than 200 hand-curated domain models. This brings the total to over 600 domain families that are widely represented among nuclear, signalling and extracellular proteins. Annotation now includes links to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database in cases where a human disease is associated with one or more mutations in a particular domain. We have implemented new analysis methods and updated others. New advanced queries provide direct access to the SMART relational database using SQL. This database now contains information on intrinsic sequence features such as transmembrane regions, coiled-coils, signal peptides and internal repeats. SMART output can now be easily included in users' documents. A SMART mirror has been created at http://smart.ox.ac.uk. PMID:11752305

  3. Recent improvements to the SMART domain-based sequence annotation resource

    PubMed Central

    Letunic, Ivica; Goodstadt, Leo; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Doerks, Tobias; Schultz, Joerg; Mott, Richard; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Copley, Richard R.; Ponting, Chris P.; Bork, Peer

    2002-01-01

    SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool, http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de) is a web-based resource used for the annotation of protein domains and the analysis of domain architectures, with particular emphasis on mobile eukaryotic domains. Extensive annotation for each domain family is available, providing information relating to function, subcellular localization, phyletic distribution and tertiary structure. The January 2002 release has added more than 200 hand-curated domain models. This brings the total to over 600 domain families that are widely represented among nuclear, signalling and extracellular proteins. Annotation now includes links to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database in cases where a human disease is associated with one or more mutations in a particular domain. We have implemented new analysis methods and updated others. New advanced queries provide direct access to the SMART relational database using SQL. This database now contains information on intrinsic sequence features such as transmembrane regions, coiled-coils, signal peptides and internal repeats. SMART output can now be easily included in users’ documents. A SMART mirror has been created at http://smart.ox.ac.uk. PMID:11752305

  4. Insect Stage-Specific Receptor Adenylate Cyclases Are Localized to Distinct Subdomains of the Trypanosoma brucei Flagellar Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saada, Edwin A.; Kabututu, Z. Pius; Lopez, Miguel; Shimogawa, Michelle M.; Langousis, Gerasimos; Oberholzer, Michael; Riestra, Angelica; Jonsson, Zophonias O.; Wohlschlegel, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the Trypanosoma brucei flagellum (synonymous with cilium) plays important roles in host-parasite interactions. Several studies have identified virulence factors and signaling proteins in the flagellar membrane of bloodstream-stage T. brucei, but less is known about flagellar membrane proteins in procyclic, insect-stage parasites. Here we report on the identification of several receptor-type flagellar adenylate cyclases (ACs) that are specifically upregulated in procyclic T. brucei parasites. Identification of insect stage-specific ACs is novel, as previously studied ACs were constitutively expressed or confined to bloodstream-stage parasites. We show that procyclic stage-specific ACs are glycosylated, surface-exposed proteins that dimerize and possess catalytic activity. We used gene-specific tags to examine the distribution of individual AC isoforms. All ACs examined localized to the flagellum. Notably, however, while some ACs were distributed along the length of the flagellum, others specifically localized to the flagellum tip. These are the first transmembrane domain proteins to be localized specifically at the flagellum tip in T. brucei, emphasizing that the flagellum membrane is organized into specific subdomains. Deletion analysis reveals that C-terminal sequences are critical for targeting ACs to the flagellum, and sequence comparisons suggest that differential subflagellar localization might be specified by isoform-specific C termini. Our combined results suggest insect stage-specific roles for a subset of flagellar adenylate cyclases and support a microdomain model for flagellar cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in T. brucei. In this model, cAMP production is compartmentalized through differential localization of individual ACs, thereby allowing diverse cellular responses to be controlled by a common signaling molecule. PMID:24879126

  5. Comparative theoretical study of the binding of luciferyl-adenylate and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate to firefly luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Vieira, João; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a study employing a computational approach to study the binding of (D/L)-luciferyl-adenlyates and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate to firefly luciferase. A semi-empirical/molecular mechanics methodology was used to study the interaction between these ligands and active site molecules. All adenylates are complexed with the enzyme, mostly due to electrostatic interactions with cationic residues. Dehydroluciferyl-adenylate is expected to be a competitive inhibitor of luciferyl-adenylate, as their binding mechanism and affinity to luciferase are very similar. Both luciferyl-adenylates adopt the L-orientation in the active site of luciferase.

  6. Variable sequences in a mosaic-like domain of meningococcal tbp2 encode immunoreactive epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rokbi, B; Maitre-Wilmotte, G; Mazarin, V; Fourrichon, L; Lissolo, L; Quentin-Millet, M J

    1995-10-15

    Transferrin-binding proteins from Neisseria meningitidis vary among different isolates. We have identified and studied a hypervariable region adjacent to the carboxyl-end of the transferrin-binding domain of the Tbp2 molecule. The tbp2 genes from six strains of N. meningitidis were cloned and sequenced in this particular region. Sequence analysis of these regions along with five other sequences available from pathogenic Neisseria showed a common organisation of seven highly variable nucleotide stretches interspersed with six conserved nucleotide stretches. The variable regions correlated with the location of immunoreactive epitopes in polyclonal antisera raised to transferrin-binding proteins identified by peptide pin technology. Sequence analysis suggested a mosaic-like organisation of the tbp2 genes. Taken together, these data suggest that the antigenic variation in this part of the protein may result from a strong host immune pressure. PMID:7590185

  7. Sequence Analysis and Domain Motifs in the Porcine Skin Decorin Glycosaminoglycan Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Bo; Solakylidirim, Kemal; Joo, Eun Ji; Toida, Toshihiko; Higashi, Kyohei; Linhardt, Robert J.; Li, Lingyun

    2013-01-01

    Decorin proteoglycan is comprised of a core protein containing a single O-linked dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Although the sequence of the decorin core protein is determined by the gene encoding its structure, the structure of its GAG chain is determined in the Golgi. The recent application of modern MS to bikunin, a far simpler chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, suggests that it has a single or small number of defined sequences. On this basis, a similar approach to sequence the decorin of porcine skin much larger and more structurally complex dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate GAG chain was undertaken. This approach resulted in information on the consistency/variability of its linkage region at the reducing end of the GAG chain, its iduronic acid-rich domain, glucuronic acid-rich domain, and non-reducing end. A general motif for the porcine skin decorin GAG chain was established. A single small decorin GAG chain was sequenced using MS/MS analysis. The data obtained in the study suggest that the decorin GAG chain has a small or a limited number of sequences. PMID:23423381

  8. Role of CFTR's intrinsic adenylate kinase activity in gating of the Cl(-) channel.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-)channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. CFTR features the modular design characteristic of ABC transporters, which includes two membrane-spanning domains forming the channel pore, and two ABC nucleotide-binding domains that interact with ATP and contain the enzymatic activity coupled to normal gating. Like other ABC transporters CFTR is an ATPase (ATP + H(2)O --> ADP + Pi). Recent work has shown that CFTR also possesses intrinsic adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP left arrow over right arrow ADP + ADP). This finding raises important questions: How does AMP influence CFTR gating? Why does ADP inhibit CFTR current? Which enzymatic activity gates CFTR in vivo? Are there implications for other ABC transporters? This minireview attempts to shed light on these questions by summarizing recent advances in our understanding of the role of the CFTR adenylate kinase activity for channel gating. PMID:17965924

  9. Redox state of p63 and p73 core domains regulates sequence-specific DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Tichý, Vlastimil; Navrátilová, Lucie; Adámik, Matej; Fojta, Miroslav; Brázdová, Marie

    2013-04-19

    Cysteine oxidation and covalent modification of redox sensitive transcription factors including p53 are known, among others, as important events in cell response to oxidative stress. All p53 family proteins p53, p63 and p73 act as stress-responsive transcription factors. Oxidation of p53 central DNA binding domain destroys its structure and abolishes its sequence-specific binding by affecting zinc ion coordination at the protein-DNA interface. Proteins p63 and p73 can bind the same response elements as p53 but exhibit distinct functions. Moreover, all three proteins contain highly conserved cysteines in central DNA binding domain suitable for possible redox modulation. In this work we report for the first time the redox sensitivity of p63 and p73 core domains to a thiol oxidizing agent azodicarboxylic acid bis[dimethylamide] (diamide). Oxidation of both p63 and p73 abolished sequence-specific binding to p53 consensus sequence, depending on the agent concentration. In the presence of specific DNA all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to diamide treatment. Furthermore, we detected conditional reversibility of core domain oxidation for all p53 family members and a role of zinc ions in this process. We showed that p63 and p73 proteins had greater ability to resist the diamide oxidation in comparison with p53. Our results show p63 and p73 as redox sensitive proteins with possible functionality in response of p53 family proteins to oxidative stress. PMID:23501101

  10. PDP-CON: prediction of domain/linker residues in protein sequences using a consensus approach.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Basu, Subhadip; Zubek, Julian; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of domain/linker residues in protein sequences is a crucial task in the functional classification of proteins, homology-based protein structure prediction, and high-throughput structural genomics. In this work, a novel consensus-based machine-learning technique was applied for residue-level prediction of the domain/linker annotations in protein sequences using ordered/disordered regions along protein chains and a set of physicochemical properties. Six different classifiers-decision tree, Gaussian naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, random forest, and multilayer perceptron-were exhaustively explored for the residue-level prediction of domain/linker regions. The protein sequences from the curated CATH database were used for training and cross-validation experiments. Test results obtained by applying the developed PDP-CON tool to the mutually exclusive, independent proteins of the CASP-8, CASP-9, and CASP-10 databases are reported. An n-star quality consensus approach was used to combine the results yielded by different classifiers. The average PDP-CON accuracy and F-measure values for the CASP targets were found to be 0.86 and 0.91, respectively. The dataset, source code, and all supplementary materials for this work are available at https://cmaterju.org/cmaterbioinfo/ for noncommercial use. PMID:26969678

  11. Discovering putative prion sequences in complete proteomes using probabilistic representations of Q/N-rich domains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prion proteins conform a special class among amyloids due to their ability to transmit aggregative folds. Prions are known to act as infectious agents in neurodegenerative diseases in animals, or as key elements in transcription and translation processes in yeast. It has been suggested that prions contain specific sequential domains with distinctive amino acid composition and physicochemical properties that allow them to control the switch between soluble and β-sheet aggregated states. Those prion-forming domains are low complexity segments enriched in glutamine/asparagine and depleted in charged residues and prolines. Different predictive methods have been developed to discover novel prions by either assessing the compositional bias of these stretches or estimating the propensity of protein sequences to form amyloid aggregates. However, the available algorithms hitherto lack a thorough statistical calibration against large sequence databases, which makes them unable to accurately predict prions without retrieving a large number of false positives. Results Here we present a computational strategy to predict putative prion-forming proteins in complete proteomes using probabilistic representations of prionogenic glutamine/asparagine rich regions. After benchmarking our predictive model against large sets of non-prionic sequences, we were able to filter out known prions with high precision and accuracy, generating prediction sets with few false positives. The algorithm was used to scan all the proteomes annotated in public databases for the presence of putative prion proteins. We analyzed the presence of putative prion proteins in all taxa, from viruses and archaea to plants and higher eukaryotes, and found that most organisms encode evolutionarily unrelated proteins with susceptibility to behave as prions. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first wide-ranging study aiming to predict prion domains in complete proteomes. Approaches of this kind could

  12. Genome-Wide Prediction and Analysis of 3D-Domain Swapped Proteins in the Human Genome from Sequence Information

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Atul Kumar; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    3D-domain swapping is one of the mechanisms of protein oligomerization and the proteins exhibiting this phenomenon have many biological functions. These proteins, which undergo domain swapping, have acquired much attention owing to their involvement in human diseases, such as conformational diseases, amyloidosis, serpinopathies, proteionopathies etc. Early realisation of proteins in the whole human genome that retain tendency to domain swap will enable many aspects of disease control management. Predictive models were developed by using machine learning approaches with an average accuracy of 78% (85.6% of sensitivity, 87.5% of specificity and an MCC value of 0.72) to predict putative domain swapping in protein sequences. These models were applied to many complete genomes with special emphasis on the human genome. Nearly 44% of the protein sequences in the human genome were predicted positive for domain swapping. Enrichment analysis was performed on the positively predicted sequences from human genome for their domain distribution, disease association and functional importance based on Gene Ontology (GO). Enrichment analysis was also performed to infer a better understanding of the functional importance of these sequences. Finally, we developed hinge region prediction, in the given putative domain swapped sequence, by using important physicochemical properties of amino acids. PMID:27467780

  13. Regulation by the quorum sensor from Vibrio indicates a receptor function for the membrane anchors of adenylate cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Stephanie; Bassler, Jens; Schultz, Joachim E

    2016-01-01

    Adenylate cyclases convert intra- and extracellular stimuli into a second messenger cAMP signal. Many bacterial and most eukaryotic ACs possess membrane anchors with six transmembrane spans. We replaced the anchor of the AC Rv1625c by the quorum-sensing receptor from Vibrio harveyi which has an identical 6TM design and obtained an active, membrane-anchored AC. We show that a canonical class III AC is ligand-regulated in vitro and in vivo. At 10 µM, the cholera-autoinducer CAI-1 stimulates activity 4.8-fold. A sequence based clustering of membrane domains of class III ACs and quorum-sensing receptors established six groups of potential structural and functional similarities. The data support the notion that 6TM AC membrane domains may operate as receptors which directly regulate AC activity as opposed and in addition to the indirect regulation by GPCRs in eukaryotic congeners. This adds a completely novel dimension of potential AC regulation in bacteria and vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13098.001 PMID:26920221

  14. Crystal structure of histidyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli complexed with histidyl-adenylate.

    PubMed Central

    Arnez, J G; Harris, D C; Mitschler, A; Rees, B; Francklyn, C S; Moras, D

    1995-01-01

    The crystal structure at 2.6 A of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli complexed with histidyl-adenylate has been determined. The enzyme is a homodimer with a molecular weight of 94 kDa and belongs to the class II of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). The asymmetric unit is composed of two homodimers. Each monomer consists of two domains. The N-terminal catalytic core domain contains a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet sitting on two alpha-helices, which can be superposed with the catalytic domains of yeast AspRS, and GlyRS and SerRS from Thermus thermophilus with a root-mean-square difference on the C alpha atoms of 1.7-1.9 A. The active sites of all four monomers are occupied by histidyl-adenylate, which apparently forms during crystallization. The 100 residue C-terminal alpha/beta domain resembles half of a beta-barrel, and provides an independent domain oriented to contact the anticodon stem and part of the anticodon loop of tRNA(His). The modular domain organization of histidyl-tRNA synthetase reiterates a repeated theme in aaRS, and its structure should provide insight into the ability of certain aaRS to aminoacylate minihelices and other non-tRNA molecules. Images PMID:7556055

  15. Structure of the FoxM1 DNA-recognition domain bound to a promoter sequence

    PubMed Central

    Littler, D. R.; Alvarez-Fernández, M.; Stein, A.; Hibbert, R. G.; Heidebrecht, T.; Aloy, P.; Medema, R. H.; Perrakis, A.

    2010-01-01

    FoxM1 is a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors and is implicated in inducing cell proliferation and some forms of tumorigenesis. It binds promoter regions with a preference for tandem repeats of a consensus ‘TAAACA’ recognition sequence. The affinity of the isolated FoxM1 DNA-binding domain for this site is in the micromolar range, lower than observed for other Forkhead proteins. To explain these FoxM1 features, we determined the crystal structure of its DNA-binding domain in complex with a tandem recognition sequence. FoxM1 adopts the winged-helix fold, typical of the Forkhead family. Neither ‘wing’ of the fold however, makes significant contacts with the DNA, while the second, C-terminal, wing adopts an unusual ordered conformation across the back of the molecule. The lack of standard DNA–‘wing’ interactions may be a reason for FoxM1’s relatively low affinity. The role of the ‘wings’ is possibly undertaken by other FoxM1 regions outside the DBD, that could interact with the target DNA directly or mediate interactions with other binding partners. Finally, we were unable to show a clear preference for tandem consensus site recognition in DNA-binding, transcription activation or bioinformatics analysis; FoxM1's moniker, ‘Trident’, is not supported by our data. PMID:20360045

  16. New monoclonal antibodies to the Ebola virus glycoprotein: Identification and analysis of the amino acid sequence of the variable domains.

    PubMed

    Panina, A A; Aliev, T K; Shemchukova, O B; Dement'yeva, I G; Varlamov, N E; Pozdnyakova, L P; Bokov, M N; Dolgikh, D A; Sveshnikov, P G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-03-01

    We determined the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of variable domains of three new monoclonal antibodies to the glycoprotein of Ebola virus capsid. The framework and hypervariable regions of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains were identified. The primary structures were confirmed using massspectrometry analysis. Immunoglobulin database search showed the uniqueness of the sequences obtained. PMID:27193713

  17. DNA methylation profiling of primary neuroblastoma tumors using methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Van Criekinge, Wim; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation studies in neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, are scarce. Recently, we profiled the DNA methylome of 102 well-annotated primary NB tumors by methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing, in order to identify prognostic biomarker candidates. In this data descriptor, we give details on how this data set was generated and which bioinformatics analyses were applied during data processing. Through a series of technical validations, we illustrate that the data are of high quality and that the sequenced fragments represent methylated genomic regions. Furthermore, genes previously described to be methylated in NB are confirmed. As such, these MBD sequencing data are a valuable resource to further study the association of NB risk factors with the NB methylome, and offer the opportunity to integrate methylome data with other -omic data sets on the same tumor samples such as gene copy number and gene expression, also publically available. PMID:26836295

  18. Sequence-specific DNA recognition by the Myb-like domain of plant telomeric protein RTBP1.

    PubMed

    Yu, E Y; Kim, S E; Kim, J H; Ko, J H; Cho, M H; Chung, I K

    2000-08-01

    We have identified a rice gene encoding a DNA-binding protein that specifically recognizes the telomeric repeat sequence TTTAGGG found in plants. This gene, which we refer to as RTBP1 (rice telomere-binding protein 1), encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 70 kDa. RTBP1 is ubiquitously expressed in various organs and binds DNA with two or more duplex TTTAGGG repeats. The predicted protein sequence includes a single domain at the C terminus with extensive homology to Myb-like DNA binding motif. The Myb-like domain of RTBP1 is very closely related to that of other telomere-binding proteins, including TRF1, TRF2, Taz1p, and Tbf1p, indicating that DNA-binding domains of telomere-binding proteins are well conserved among evolutionarily distant species. To obtain precise information on the sequence of the DNA binding site recognized by RTBP1, we analyzed the sequence-specific binding properties of the isolated Myb-like domain of RTBP1. The isolated Myb-like domain was capable of sequence-specific DNA binding as a homodimer. Gel retardation analysis with a series of mutated telomere probes revealed that the internal GGGTTT sequence in the two-telomere repeats is critical for binding of Myb-like domain of RTBP1, which is consistent with the model of the TRF1.DNA complex showing that base-specific contacts are made within the sequence GGGTTA. To the best of our knowledge, RTBP1 is the first cloned gene in which the product is able to bind double-stranded telomeric DNA in plants. Because the Myb-like domain appears to be a significant motif for a large class of proteins that bind the duplex telomeric DNA, RTBP1 may play important roles in plant telomere function in vivo. PMID:10811811

  19. Terabit Nyquist PDM-32QAM signal transmission with training sequence based time domain channel estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Dan; Ding, Rui; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2014-09-22

    We propose a time domain structure of channel estimation for coherent optical communication systems, which employs training sequence based equalizer and is transparent to arbitrary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats. Enabled with this methodology, 1.02 Tb/s polarization division multiplexed 32 QAM Nyquist pulse shaping signal with a net spectral efficiency of 7.46 b/s/Hz is transmitted over standard single-mode fiber link with Erbium-doped fiber amplifier only amplification. After 1190 km transmission, the average bit-error rate is lower than the 20% hard-decision forward error correction threshold of 1.5 × 10(-2). The transmission distance can be extended to 1428 km by employing intra-subchannel nonlinear compensation with the digital back-propagation method. PMID:25321810

  20. Fast time-domain diffuse optical tomography using pseudorandom bit sequences.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weirong; Chen, Nanguang

    2008-09-01

    We report a novel time-domain diffuse optical tomography to determine the optical properties in a faster speed than the conventional ones. Instead of using the ultrashort pulse laser, a 2.5 Gbps pseudorandom bit sequence is used to modulate the near-infrared light for tissue-like phantom illumination. The time-resolved signal can be retrieved very quickly by demodulation with the reference signal. The system impulse response has a full width at half maximum around 800 picoseconds and the 2-dimentional maps of optical properties can be obtained within a few seconds. The high signal-to-noise ratio and the environmental illumination insensitivity warrant a great potential for applications in clinical noninvasive breast cancer detection. PMID:18772975

  1. Using a Solver Over the String Pattern Domain to Analyze Gene Promoter Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigotti, Christophe; Mitašiūnaitė, Ieva; Besson, Jérémy; Meyniel, Laurène; Boulicaut, Jean-François; Gandrillon, Olivier

    This chapter illustrates how inductive querying techniques can be used to support knowledge discovery from genomic data. More precisely, it presents a data mining scenario to discover putative transcription factor binding sites in gene promoter sequences. We do not provide technical details about the used constraintbased data mining algorithms that have been previously described. Our contribution is to provide an abstract description of the scenario, its concrete instantiation and also a typical execution on real data. Our main extraction algorithm is a complete solver dedicated to the string pattern domain: it computes string patterns that satisfy a given conjunction of primitive constraints. We also discuss the processing steps necessary to turn it into a useful tool. In particular, we introduce a parameter tuning strategy, an appropriate measure to rank the patterns, and the post-processing approaches that can be and have been applied.

  2. Simple and fast classification of non-LTR retrotransposons based on phylogeny of their RT domain protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Tempel, Sébastien; Jurka, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Rapidly growing number of sequenced genomes requires fast and accurate computational tools for analysis of different transposable elements (TEs). In this paper we focus on rapid and reliable procedure for classification of autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons based on alignment and clustering of their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains. Typically, the RT domain protein sequences encoded by different non-LTR retrotransposons are similar to each other in terms of significant BLASTP E-values. Therefore, they can be easily detected by the routine BLASTP searches of genomic DNA sequences coding for proteins similar to the RT domains of known non-LTR retrotransposons. However, detailed classification of non-LTR retrotransposons, i.e. their assignment to specific clades, is a slow and complex procedure that is not formalized or integrated as a standard set of computational methods and data. Here we describe a tool (RTclass1) designed for the fast and accurate automated assignment of novel non-LTR retrotransposons to known or novel clades using phylogenetic analysis of the RT domain protein sequences. RTclass1 classifies a particular non-LTR retrotransposon based on its RT domain in less than 10 minutes on a standard desktop computer and achieves 99.5% accuracy. RT1class1 works either as a standalone program installed locally or as a web-server that can be accessed distantly by uploading sequence data through the internet (http://www.girinst.org/RTphylogeny/RTclass1). PMID:19651192

  3. Adenylation of maternally inherited microRNAs by Wispy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihye; Choi, Yeon; Kim, Kijun; Jin, Hua; Lim, Jaechul; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Yang, Jihye; Jeong, Minsun; Giraldez, Antonio J; Yang, Hui; Patel, Dinshaw J; Kim, V Narry

    2014-12-01

    Early development depends heavily on accurate control of maternally inherited mRNAs, and yet it remains unknown how maternal microRNAs are regulated during maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We here find that maternal microRNAs are highly adenylated at their 3' ends in mature oocytes and early embryos. Maternal microRNA adenylation is widely conserved in fly, sea urchin, and mouse. We identify Wispy, a noncanonical poly(A) polymerase, as the enzyme responsible for microRNA adenylation in flies. Knockout of wispy abrogates adenylation and results in microRNA accumulation in eggs, whereas overexpression of Wispy increases adenylation and reduces microRNA levels in S2 cells. Wispy interacts with Ago1 through protein-protein interaction, which may allow the effective and selective adenylation of microRNAs. Thus, adenylation may contribute to the clearance of maternally deposited microRNAs during MZT. Our work provides mechanistic insights into the regulation of maternal microRNAs and illustrates the importance of RNA tailing in development. PMID:25454948

  4. Eliciting neutralizing antibodies with gp120 outer domain constructs based on M-group consensus sequence.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yali; Banasik, Marisa; Kim, SoonJeung; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Habte, Habtom H; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Wang, Chong; Cho, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    One strategy being evaluated for HIV-1 vaccine development is focusing immune responses towards neutralizing epitopes on the gp120 outer domain (OD) by removing the immunodominant, but non-neutralizing, inner domain. Previous OD constructs have not elicited strong neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). We constructed two immunogens, a monomeric gp120-OD and a trimeric gp120-OD×3, based on an M group consensus sequence (MCON6). Their biochemical and immunological properties were compared with intact gp120. Results indicated better preservation of critical neutralizing epitopes on gp120-OD×3. In contrast to previous studies, our immunogens induced potent, cross-reactive nAbs in rabbits. Although nAbs primarily targeted Tier 1 viruses, they exhibited significant breadth. Epitope mapping analyses indicated that nAbs primarily targeted conserved V3 loop elements. Although the potency and breadth of nAbs were similar for all three immunogens, nAb induction kinetics indicated that gp120-OD×3 was superior to gp120-OD, suggesting that gp120-OD×3 is a promising prototype for further gp120 OD-based immunogen development. PMID:25046154

  5. Eliciting Neutralizing Antibodies with gp120 Outer Domain Constructs Based on M-Group Consensus Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yali; Banasik, Marisa; Kim, SoonJeung; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Habte, Habtom H; Labranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Wang, Chong; Cho, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    One strategy being evaluated for HIV-1 vaccine development is focusing immune responses towards neutralizing epitopes on the gp120 outer domain (OD) by removing the immunodominant, but non-neutralizing, inner domain. Previous OD constructs have not elicited strong neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). We constructed two immunogens, a monomeric gp120-OD and a trimeric gp120-OD×3, based on an M group consensus sequence (MCON6). Their biochemical and immunological properties were compared with intact gp120. Results indicated better preservation of critical neutralizing epitopes on gp120-OD×3. In contrast to previous studies, our immunogens induced potent, cross-reactive nAbs in rabbits. Although nAbs primarily targeted Tier 1 viruses, they exhibited significant breadth. Epitope mapping analyses indicated that nAbs primarily targeted conserved V3 loop elements. Although the potency and breadth of nAbs were similar for all three immunogens, nAb induction kinetics indicated that gp120-OD×3 was superior to gp120-OD, suggesting that gp120-OD×3 is a promising prototype for further gp120 OD-based immunogen development. PMID:25046154

  6. Degradation of C-terminal tag sequences on domain antibodies purified from E. coli supernatant.

    PubMed

    Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Friis, Niels Anton; Kristensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Expression of recombinant proteins often takes advantage of peptide tags expressed in fusion to allow easy detection and purification of the expressed proteins. However, as the fusion peptides most often are flexible appendages at the N- or C-terminal, proteolytic cleavage may result in removal of the tag sequence. Here, we evaluated the functionality and stability of 14 different combinations of commonly used tags for purification and detection of recombinant antibody fragments. The tag sequences were inserted in fusion with the c-terminal end of a domain antibody based on the HEL4 scaffold in a phagemid vector. This particular antibody fragment was able to refold on the membrane after blotting, allowing us to detect c-terminal tag breakdown by use of protein A in combination with detection of the tags in the specific constructs. The degradation of the c-terminal tags suggested specific sites to be particularly prone to proteolytic cleavage, leaving some of the tag combinations partially or completely degraded. This specific work illustrates the importance of tag design with regard to recombinant antibody expression in E. coli, but also aids the more general understanding of protein expression. PMID:25426869

  7. Characterization of PA-N terminal domain of Influenza A polymerase reveals sequence specific RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausiki; Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Szolar, Oliver H J; Cusack, Stephen; Klumpp, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Influenza virus uses a unique cap-snatching mechanism characterized by hijacking and cleavage of host capped pre-mRNAs, resulting in short capped RNAs, which are used as primers for viral mRNA synthesis. The PA subunit of influenza polymerase carries the endonuclease activity that catalyzes the host mRNA cleavage reaction. Here, we show that PA is a sequence selective endonuclease with distinct preference to cleave at the 3' end of a guanine (G) base in RNA. The G specificity is exhibited by the native influenza polymerase complex associated with viral ribonucleoprotein particles and is conferred by an intrinsic G specificity of the isolated PA endonuclease domain PA-Nter. In addition, RNA cleavage site choice by the full polymerase is also guided by cap binding to the PB2 subunit, from which RNA cleavage preferentially occurs at the 12th nt downstream of the cap. However, if a G residue is present in the region of 10-13 nucleotides from the cap, cleavage preferentially occurs at G. This is the first biochemical evidence of influenza polymerase PA showing intrinsic sequence selective endonuclease activity. PMID:23847103

  8. Degradation of C-terminal tag sequences on domain antibodies purified from E. coli supernatant

    PubMed Central

    Lykkemark, Simon; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Friis, Niels Anton; Kristensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Expression of recombinant proteins often takes advantage of peptide tags expressed in fusion to allow easy detection and purification of the expressed proteins. However, as the fusion peptides most often are flexible appendages at the N- or C-terminal, proteolytic cleavage may result in removal of the tag sequence. Here, we evaluated the functionality and stability of 14 different combinations of commonly used tags for purification and detection of recombinant antibody fragments. The tag sequences were inserted in fusion with the c-terminal end of a domain antibody based on the HEL4 scaffold in a phagemid vector. This particular antibody fragment was able to refold on the membrane after blotting, allowing us to detect c-terminal tag breakdown by use of protein A in combination with detection of the tags in the specific constructs. The degradation of the c-terminal tags suggested specific sites to be particularly prone to proteolytic cleavage, leaving some of the tag combinations partially or completely degraded. This specific work illustrates the importance of tag design with regard to recombinant antibody expression in E. coli, but also aids the more general understanding of protein expression. PMID:25426869

  9. A mutation in CFTR modifies the effects of the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A on channel gating.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2008-12-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The CFTR anion channel is controlled by ATP binding and enzymatic activity at the two nucleotide-binding domains. CFTR exhibits two types of enzymatic activity: 1), ATPase activity in the presence of ATP and 2), adenylate kinase activity in the presence of ATP plus physiologic concentrations of AMP or ADP. Previous work showed that P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A), a specific adenylate kinases inhibitor, inhibited wild-type CFTR. In this study, we report that Ap(5)A increased activity of CFTR with an L1254A mutation. This mutation increased the EC50 for ATP by >10-fold and reduced channel activity by prolonging the closed state. Ap(5)A did not elicit current on its own nor did it alter ATP EC50 or maximal current. However, it changed the relationship between ATP concentration and current. At submaximal ATP concentrations, Ap(5)A stimulated current by stabilizing the channel open state. Whereas previous work indicated that adenylate kinase activity regulated channel opening, our data suggest that Ap(5)A binding may also influence channel closing. These results also suggest that a better understanding of the adenylate kinase activity of CFTR may be of value in developing new therapeutic strategies for cystic fibrosis. PMID:18805924

  10. A Mutation in CFTR Modifies the Effects of the Adenylate Kinase Inhibitor Ap5A on Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The CFTR anion channel is controlled by ATP binding and enzymatic activity at the two nucleotide-binding domains. CFTR exhibits two types of enzymatic activity: 1), ATPase activity in the presence of ATP and 2), adenylate kinase activity in the presence of ATP plus physiologic concentrations of AMP or ADP. Previous work showed that P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′)pentaphosphate (Ap5A), a specific adenylate kinases inhibitor, inhibited wild-type CFTR. In this study, we report that Ap5A increased activity of CFTR with an L1254A mutation. This mutation increased the EC50 for ATP by >10-fold and reduced channel activity by prolonging the closed state. Ap5A did not elicit current on its own nor did it alter ATP EC50 or maximal current. However, it changed the relationship between ATP concentration and current. At submaximal ATP concentrations, Ap5A stimulated current by stabilizing the channel open state. Whereas previous work indicated that adenylate kinase activity regulated channel opening, our data suggest that Ap5A binding may also influence channel closing. These results also suggest that a better understanding of the adenylate kinase activity of CFTR may be of value in developing new therapeutic strategies for cystic fibrosis. PMID:18805924

  11. Sequence and nitrate regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA encoding nitrate reductase, a metalloflavoprotein with three functional domains

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, N.M.; Smith, M.; Bellissimo, D.; Davis, R.W. )

    1988-07-01

    The sequence of nitrate reductase mRNA from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been determined. A 3.0-kilobase-long cDNA was isolated from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library of Arabidopsis leaf poly(A){sup +} RNA. The cDNA hybridized to a 3.2-kilobase mRNA whose level increased 15-fold in response to treatment of the plant with nitrate. An open reading frame encoding a 917 amino acid protein was found in the sequence. This protein is very similar to tobacco nitrate reductase, being >80% identical within a section of 450 amino acids. By comparing the Arabidopsis protein sequence with other protein sequences, three functional domains were deduced: (i) a molybdenum-pterin-binding domain that is similar to the molybdenum-pterin-binding domain of rat liver sulfite oxidase, (ii) a heme-binding domain that is similar to proteins in the cytochrome b{sub 5} superfamily, and (iii) an FAD-binding domain that is similar to NADH-cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase.

  12. Sequence and nitrate regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA encoding nitrate reductase, a metalloflavoprotein with three functional domains.

    PubMed

    Crawford, N M; Smith, M; Bellissimo, D; Davis, R W

    1988-07-01

    The sequence of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) mRNA from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been determined. A 3.0-kilobase-long cDNA was isolated from a lambda gt10 cDNA library of Arabidopsis leaf poly(A)+ RNA. The cDNA hybridized to a 3.2-kilobase mRNA whose level increased 15-fold in response to treatment of the plant with nitrate. An open reading frame encoding a 917 amino acid protein was found in the sequence. This protein is very similar to tobacco nitrate reductase, being greater than 80% identical within a section of 450 amino acids. By comparing the Arabidopsis protein sequence with other protein sequences, three functional domains were deduced: (i) a molybdenum-pterin-binding domain that is similar to the molybdenum-pterin-binding domain of rat liver sulfite oxidase, (ii) a heme-binding domain that is similar to proteins in the cytochrome b5 superfamily, and (iii) an FAD-binding domain that is similar to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. PMID:3393528

  13. Domain and genomic sequence analysis of bdellin-KL, a leech-derived trypsin-plasmin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, G M; Kang, K W

    2001-09-01

    Bdellin-KL is a trypsin-plasmin inhibitor from Hirudo nipponia, whose N-terminal sequence was identified as a non-classical Kazal-type. A cDNA clone encoding the inhibitor was isolated by reverse transcription-PCR and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA showed an open reading frame of 155 amino acids comprising one signal peptide and two separated domains. The C-terminal domain consists of distinct internal repeats, including HHEE and HHDD. The bdellin-KL sequence, from the constructed genomic library of Korean leech, was determined for the 2109 bases comprising the open reading frame and flanking regions (3' and 5'). The promoter region contains potential regulatory sequence motifs, including TATA, CAAT, and GC boxes. To characterize the properties of each domain, an N-terminal fragment was prepared by limited proteolysis of the intact protein. The inhibitory activity of the region was as potent as that of the intact protein. This suggests that the compact domain plays an important part in the inhibitory action of bdellin-KL. The C-terminal domain was revealed to have binding affinity to ions such as Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), and Fe(2+) without an influence on the inhibitory activity. This study demonstrates that bdellin-KL may be a novel bifunctional protein with two distinct domains. PMID:11530020

  14. Natural disordered sequences in the amino terminal domain of nuclear receptors: lessons from the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Iain J; Lavery, Derek; Fischer, Katharina; Watt, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormones are a diverse class of structurally related molecules, derived from cholesterol, that include androgens, estrogens, progesterone and corticosteroids. They represent an important group of physiologically active signalling molecules that bind intracellular receptor proteins and regulate genes involved in developmental, reproductive and metabolic processes. The receptor proteins share structurally and functionally related ligand binding and DNA-binding domains, but possess distinct N-terminal domains (NTD) of unique length and amino acids sequence. The NTD contains sequences important for gene regulation, exhibit structure plasticity and are likely to contribute to the specificity of the steroid hormone/receptor response. PMID:17464357

  15. Natural disordered sequences in the amino terminal domain of nuclear receptors: lessons from the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Iain J.; Lavery, Derek; Fischer, Katharina; Watt, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormones are a diverse class of structurally related molecules, derived from cholesterol, that include androgens, estrogens, progesterone and corticosteroids. They represent an important group of physiologically active signalling molecules that bind intracellular receptor proteins and regulate genes involved in developmental, reproductive and metabolic processes. The receptor proteins share structurally and functionally related ligand binding and DNA-binding domains, but possess distinct N-terminal domains (NTD) of unique length and amino acids sequence. The NTD contains sequences important for gene regulation, exhibit structure plasticity and are likely to contribute to the specificity of the steroid hormone/receptor response. PMID:17464357

  16. Nucleic acid sequences encoding D1 and D1/D2 domains of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2010-04-06

    The invention provides recombinant human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) polypeptides which bind adenovirus. Specifically, polypeptides corresponding to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2 are provided. In another aspect, the invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains and expression vectors for producing the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. The invention also includes an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide fused to a polypeptide which facilitates folding of D1 when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a CAR D1-binding virus, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. The invention also provides a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  17. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  18. Cellulase Linkers Are Optimized Based on Domain Type and Function: Insights from Sequence Analysis, Biophysical Measurements, and Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Sammond, Deanne W.; Payne, Christina M.; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.; Crowley, Michael F.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2012-01-01

    Cellulase enzymes deconstruct cellulose to glucose, and are often comprised of glycosylated linkers connecting glycoside hydrolases (GHs) to carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Although linker modifications can alter cellulase activity, the functional role of linkers beyond domain connectivity remains unknown. Here we investigate cellulase linkers connecting GH Family 6 or 7 catalytic domains to Family 1 or 2 CBMs, from both bacterial and eukaryotic cellulases to identify conserved characteristics potentially related to function. Sequence analysis suggests that the linker lengths between structured domains are optimized based on the GH domain and CBM type, such that linker length may be important for activity. Longer linkers are observed in eukaryotic GH Family 6 cellulases compared to GH Family 7 cellulases. Bacterial GH Family 6 cellulases are found with structured domains in either N to C terminal order, and similar linker lengths suggest there is no effect of domain order on length. O-glycosylation is uniformly distributed across linkers, suggesting that glycans are required along entire linker lengths for proteolysis protection and, as suggested by simulation, for extension. Sequence comparisons show that proline content for bacterial linkers is more than double that observed in eukaryotic linkers, but with fewer putative O-glycan sites, suggesting alternative methods for extension. Conversely, near linker termini where linkers connect to structured domains, O-glycosylation sites are observed less frequently, whereas glycines are more prevalent, suggesting the need for flexibility to achieve proper domain orientations. Putative N-glycosylation sites are quite rare in cellulase linkers, while an N-P motif, which strongly disfavors the attachment of N-glycans, is commonly observed. These results suggest that linkers exhibit features that are likely tailored for optimal function, despite possessing low sequence identity. This study suggests that cellulase

  19. Methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing reveals a prognostic methylation signature in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Cannoodt, Robrecht; Verniers, Kimberly; De Wilde, Bram; Laureys, Geneviève; Van Roy, Nadine; Berbegall, Ana P.; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bown, Nick; Clément, Nathalie; Combaret, Valérie; Haber, Michelle; Hoyoux, Claire; Murray, Jayne; Noguera, Rosa; Pierron, Gaelle; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Schulte, Johannes H.; Stallings, Ray L.; Tweddle, Deborah A.; De Preter, Katleen; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of neuroblastoma outcome prediction remains challenging. Therefore, this study aims at establishing novel prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. In total, 396 low- and high-risk primary tumors were analyzed, of which 87 were profiled using methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing for differential methylation analysis between prognostic patient groups. Subsequently, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays were developed for 78 top-ranking differentially methylated regions and tested on two independent cohorts of 132 and 177 samples, respectively. Further, a new statistical framework was used to identify a robust set of MSP assays of which the methylation score (i.e. the percentage of methylated assays) allows accurate outcome prediction. Survival analyses were performed on the individual target level, as well as on the combined multimarker signature. As a result of the differential DNA methylation assessment by MBD sequencing, 58 of the 78 MSP assays were designed in regions previously unexplored in neuroblastoma, and 36 are located in non-promoter or non-coding regions. In total, 5 individual MSP assays (located in CCDC177, NXPH1, lnc-MRPL3-2, lnc-TREX1-1 and one on a region from chromosome 8 with no further annotation) predict event-free survival and 4 additional assays (located in SPRED3, TNFAIP2, NPM2 and CYYR1) also predict overall survival. Furthermore, a robust 58-marker methylation signature predicting overall and event-free survival was established. In conclusion, this study encompasses the largest DNA methylation biomarker study in neuroblastoma so far. We identified and independently validated several novel prognostic biomarkers, as well as a prognostic 58-marker methylation signature. PMID:26646589

  20. Role of cardiac troponin I carboxy terminal mobile domain and linker sequence in regulating cardiac contraction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nancy L; Chase, P Bryant

    2016-07-01

    Inhibition of striated muscle contraction at resting Ca(2+) depends on the C-terminal half of troponin I (TnI) in thin filaments. Much focus has been on a short inhibitory peptide (Ip) sequence within TnI, but structural studies and identification of disease-associated mutations broadened emphasis to include a larger mobile domain (Md) sequence at the C-terminus of TnI. For Md to function effectively in muscle relaxation, tight mechanical coupling to troponin's core-and thus tropomyosin-is presumably needed. We generated recombinant, human cardiac troponins containing one of two TnI constructs: either an 8-amino acid linker between Md and the rest of troponin (cTnILink8), or an Md deletion (cTnI1-163). Motility assays revealed that Ca(2+)-sensitivity of reconstituted thin filament sliding was markedly increased with cTnILink8 (∼0.9 pCa unit leftward shift of speed-pCa relation compared to WT), and increased further when Md was missing entirely (∼1.4 pCa unit shift). Cardiac Tn's ability to turn off filament sliding at diastolic Ca(2+) was mostly (61%), but not completely eliminated with cTnI1-163. TnI's Md is required for full inhibition of unloaded filament sliding, although other portions of troponin-presumably including Ip-are also necessary. We also confirm that TnI's Md is not responsible for superactivation of actomyosin cycling by troponin. PMID:26971468

  1. Expression of extra domain A fibronectin sequence in vascular smooth muscle cells is phenotype dependent.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, M A; Frid, M G; Shekhonin, B V; Vasilevskaya, T D; Grunwald, J; Saginati, M; Koteliansky, V E

    1989-07-01

    Different fibronectin (FN) variants arise from the single gene transcript alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner (Hynes, R. O. 1985. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 1:67-90; Owens, R. J., A. R. Kornblihtt, and F. E. Baralle. 1986. Oxf. Surv. Eurcaryotic Genes. 3:141-160). We used mAb IST-9, specific for extra domain A (ED-A) FN sequence, and cDNA probe to ED-A exon to determine whether ED-A is present in FN synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and, if so, whether expression of ED-A is SMC phenotype dependent. ED-A-containing FN (A-FN) was not revealed in tunica media of human arteries and normal rat aorta by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting techniques. A cDNA probe to ED-A exon did not hybridize with RNA isolated from human aortic media. A positive reaction with IST-9 was observed in (a) diffuse intimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque from human arteries; (b) experimentally induced intimal thickening in rat aorta; and (c) cultured vascular SMCs. A-FN mRNA was present in the RNA preparation from human aortic intima as judged by hybridization with cDNA probe to ED-A. On the other hand, an mAb interacting with an epitope common for all FN variants revealed FN in both intima and media of human arteries and in the normal rat aorta. A cDNA probe to a sequence shared by all FN variants hybridized with RNA from both intima and media of human aorta, though the level of expression was higher in intima. The data suggest that ED-A exon is omitted during splicing of the FN mRNA precursor in medial SMCs while the expression of A-FN is characteristic of "modulated" SMCs--those of intimal thickenings, of atherosclerotic lesions, and growing in culture. PMID:2663879

  2. Methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing reveals a prognostic methylation signature in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Cannoodt, Robrecht; Verniers, Kimberly; De Wilde, Bram; Laureys, Geneviève; Van Roy, Nadine; Berbegall, Ana P; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bown, Nick; Clément, Nathalie; Combaret, Valérie; Haber, Michelle; Hoyoux, Claire; Murray, Jayne; Noguera, Rosa; Pierron, Gaelle; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Schulte, Johannes H; Stallings, Ray L; Tweddle, Deborah A; De Preter, Katleen; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-12

    Accurate assessment of neuroblastoma outcome prediction remains challenging. Therefore, this study aims at establishing novel prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. In total, 396 low- and high-risk primary tumors were analyzed, of which 87 were profiled using methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing for differential methylation analysis between prognostic patient groups. Subsequently, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays were developed for 78 top-ranking differentially methylated regions and tested on two independent cohorts of 132 and 177 samples, respectively. Further, a new statistical framework was used to identify a robust set of MSP assays of which the methylation score (i.e. the percentage of methylated assays) allows accurate outcome prediction. Survival analyses were performed on the individual target level, as well as on the combined multimarker signature. As a result of the differential DNA methylation assessment by MBD sequencing, 58 of the 78 MSP assays were designed in regions previously unexplored in neuroblastoma, and 36 are located in non-promoter or non-coding regions. In total, 5 individual MSP assays (located in CCDC177, NXPH1, lnc-MRPL3-2, lnc-TREX1-1 and one on a region from chromosome 8 with no further annotation) predict event-free survival and 4 additional assays (located in SPRED3, TNFAIP2, NPM2 and CYYR1) also predict overall survival. Furthermore, a robust 58-marker methylation signature predicting overall and event-free survival was established. In conclusion, this study encompasses the largest DNA methylation biomarker study in neuroblastoma so far. We identified and independently validated several novel prognostic biomarkers, as well as a prognostic 58-marker methylation signature. PMID:26646589

  3. Minimum Free Energy Path of Ligand-Induced Transition in Adenylate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Terada, Tohru; Furuta, Tadaomi; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale conformational changes in proteins involve barrier-crossing transitions on the complex free energy surfaces of high-dimensional space. Such rare events cannot be efficiently captured by conventional molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that, by combining the on-the-fly string method and the multi-state Bennett acceptance ratio (MBAR) method, the free energy profile of a conformational transition pathway in Escherichia coli adenylate kinase can be characterized in a high-dimensional space. The minimum free energy paths of the conformational transitions in adenylate kinase were explored by the on-the-fly string method in 20-dimensional space spanned by the 20 largest-amplitude principal modes, and the free energy and various kinds of average physical quantities along the pathways were successfully evaluated by the MBAR method. The influence of ligand binding on the pathways was characterized in terms of rigid-body motions of the lid-shaped ATP-binding domain (LID) and the AMP-binding (AMPbd) domains. It was found that the LID domain was able to partially close without the ligand, while the closure of the AMPbd domain required the ligand binding. The transition state ensemble of the ligand bound form was identified as those structures characterized by highly specific binding of the ligand to the AMPbd domain, and was validated by unrestrained MD simulations. It was also found that complete closure of the LID domain required the dehydration of solvents around the P-loop. These findings suggest that the interplay of the two different types of domain motion is an essential feature in the conformational transition of the enzyme. PMID:22685395

  4. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    SciTech Connect

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  5. Reconstructing photorealistic 3D models from image sequence using domain decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2009-11-01

    In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some 3D scanning methods. Structured light and photogrammetry are two main methods to acquire 3D information, and both are expensive. Even if these expensive instruments are used, photorealistic 3D models are seldom available. In this paper, a new method to reconstruction photorealistic 3D models using a single camera is proposed. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the objects, and a sequence of about 20 images is taken. From the coded marks, the images are calibrated, and a snake algorithm is used to segment object from the background. A rough 3d model is obtained using shape from silhouettes algorithm. The silhouettes are decomposed into a combination of convex curves, which are used to partition the rough 3d model into some convex mesh patches. For each patch, the multi-view photo consistency constraints and smooth regulations are expressed as a finite element formulation, which can be resolved locally, and the information can be exchanged along the patches boundaries. The rough model is deformed into a fine 3d model through such a domain decomposition finite element method. The textures are assigned to each element mesh, and a photorealistic 3D model is got finally. A toy pig is used to verify the algorithm, and the result is exciting.

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing of a Single Domain Antibody Repertoire Reveals Quality of Phage Display Selected Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kendrick B.; Naciri, Jennifer; Liu, Jinny L.; Anderson, George P.; Goldman, Ellen R.; Zabetakis, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing and bioinformatics are powerful tools for analyzing the large number of DNA sequences present in an immune library. In this work, we constructed a cDNA library of single domain antibodies from a llama immunized with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The resulting library was sequenced, resulting in approximately 8.5 million sequences with 5.4 million representing intact, useful sequences. The sequenced library was interrogated using sequences of known SEB-binding single domain antibodies from the library obtained through phage display panning methods in a previous study. New antibodies were identified, produced, and characterized, and were shown to have affinities and melting temperatures comparable to those obtained by traditional panning methods. This demonstrates the utility of using NGS as a complementary tool to phage-displayed biopanning as a means for rapidly obtaining additional antibodies from an immune library. It also shows that phage display, using a library of high diversity, is able to select high quality antibodies even when they are low in frequency. PMID:26895405

  7. Analysis of the chromatin domain organisation around the plastocyanin gene reveals an MAR-specific sequence element in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    van Drunen, C M; Oosterling, R W; Keultjes, G M; Weisbeek, P J; van Driel, R; Smeekens, S C

    1997-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome is currently being sequenced, eventually leading towards the unravelling of all potential genes. We wanted to gain more insight into the way this genome might be organized at the ultrastructural level. To this extent we identified matrix attachment regions demarking potential chromatin domains, in a 16 kb region around the plastocyanin gene. The region was cloned and sequenced revealing six genes in addition to the plastocyanin gene. Using an heterologous in vitro nuclear matrix binding assay, to search for evolutionary conserved matrix attachment regions (MARs), we identified three such MARs. These three MARs divide the region into two small chromatin domains of 5 kb, each containing two genes. Comparison of the sequence of the three MARs revealed a degenerated 21 bp sequence that is shared between these MARs and that is not found elsewhere in the region. A similar sequence element is also present in four other MARs of Arabidopsis.Therefore, this sequence may constitute a landmark for the position of MARs in the genome of this plant. In a genomic sequence database of Arabidopsis the 21 bp element is found approximately once every 10 kb. The compactness of the Arabidopsis genome could account for the high incidence of MARs and MRSs we observed. PMID:9380515

  8. Adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) mutations cause recessive hearing impairment in humans and defects in hair cell function and hearing in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Giese, Arnaud P.; Ansar, Muhammad; Amin-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Rehn, Kira; Wang, Xin; Aziz, Abdul; Chiu, Ilene; Hussain Ali, Raja; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Ahmad, Wasim; Riazuddin, Saima; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, which is important for mechanotransduction within the inner ear, is catalyzed by adenylate cyclases (AC). However, knowledge of the role of ACs in hearing is limited. Previously, a novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus DFNB44 was mapped to chromosome 7p14.1-q11.22 in a consanguineous family from Pakistan. Through whole-exome sequencing of DNA samples from hearing-impaired family members, a nonsense mutation c.3112C>T (p.Arg1038*) within adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was identified. This stop-gained mutation segregated with hearing impairment within the family and was not identified in ethnically matched controls or within variant databases. This mutation is predicted to cause the loss of 82 amino acids from the carboxyl tail, including highly conserved residues within the catalytic domain, plus a calmodulin-stimulation defect, both of which are expected to decrease enzymatic efficiency. Individuals who are homozygous for this mutation had symmetric, mild-to-moderate mixed hearing impairment. Zebrafish adcy1b morphants had no FM1-43 dye uptake and lacked startle response, indicating hair cell dysfunction and gross hearing impairment. In the mouse, Adcy1 expression was observed throughout inner ear development and maturation. ADCY1 was localized to the cytoplasm of supporting cells and hair cells of the cochlea and vestibule and also to cochlear hair cell nuclei and stereocilia. Ex vivo studies in COS-7 cells suggest that the carboxyl tail of ADCY1 is essential for localization to actin-based microvilli. These results demonstrate that ADCY1 has an evolutionarily conserved role in hearing and that cAMP signaling is important to hair cell function within the inner ear. PMID:24482543

  9. Kohonen map as a visualization tool for the analysis of protein sequences: multiple alignments, domains and segments of secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Hanke, J; Reich, J G

    1996-12-01

    The method of Kohonen maps, a special form of neural networks, was applied as a visualization tool for the analysis of protein sequence similarity. The procedure converts sequence (domains, aligned sequences, segments of secondary structure) into a characteristic signal matrix. This conversion depends on the property or replacement score vector selected by the user. Similar sequences have small distance in the signal space. The trained Kohonen network is functionally equivalent to an unsupervised non-linear cluster analyzer. Protein families, or aligned sequences, or segments of similar secondary structure, aggregate as clusters, and their proximity may be inspected on a color screen or on paper. Pull-down menus permit access to background information in the established text-oriented way. PMID:9021261

  10. Domain structure and functional analysis of the carboxyl-terminal polyacidic sequence of the RAD6 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, A; Miller, E J; Prakash, L

    1988-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for normal tolerance of DNA damage and for sporulation, encodes a 172-residue protein whose 23 carboxyl-terminal residues are almost all acidic. We show that this polyacidic sequence appends to RAD6 protein as a polyanionic tail and that its function in vivo does not require stoichiometry of length. RAD6 protein was purified to near homogeneity from a yeast strain carrying a RAD6 overproducing plasmid. Approximately the first 150 residues of RAD6 protein composed a structural domain that was resistant to proteinase K and had a Stokes radius typical of a globular protein of its calculated mass. The carboxyl-terminal polyacidic sequence was sensitive to proteinase K, and it endowed RAD6 protein with an aberrantly large Stokes radius that indicates an asymmetric shape. We deduce that RAD6 protein is monomeric and comprises a globular domain with a freely extending polyacidic tail. We tested the phenotypic effects of partial or complete deletion of the polyacidic sequence, demonstrating the presence of the shortened proteins in the cell by using antibody to RAD6 protein. Removal of the entire polyacidic sequence severely reduced sporulation but only slightly affected survival after UV irradiation or UV-induced mutagenesis. Strains with deletions of all but the first 4 or 15 residues of the polyacidic sequence were phenotypically almost wild type or wild type, respectively. We conclude that the intrinsic activity of RAD6 protein resides in the globular domain, that the polyacidic sequence has a stimulatory or modifying role evident primarily in sporulation, and that only a short section apparently functions as effectively as the entire polyacidic sequence. Images PMID:3285176

  11. Nonmyofilament-Associated Troponin T3 Nuclear and Nucleolar Localization Sequence and Leucine Zipper Domain Mediate Muscle Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Troponin T (TnT) plays a major role in striated muscle contraction. We recently demonstrated that the fast skeletal muscle TnT3 isoform is localized in the muscle nucleus, and either its full-length or COOH-terminus leads to muscle cell apoptosis. Here, we further explored the mechanism by which it enters the nucleus and promotes cytotoxicity. Amino acid truncation and substitution showed that its COOH-terminus contains a dominant nuclear/nucleolar localization sequence (KLKRQK) and the basic lysine and arginine residues might play an important role in the nuclear retention and nucleolar enrichment of KLKRQK-DsRed fusion proteins. Deleting this domain or substituting lysine and arginine residues (KLAAQK) resulted in a dramatic loss of TnT3 nuclear and nucleolar localization. In contrast, the GATAKGKVGGRWK domain-DsRed construct localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, indicating that a nuclear exporting sequence is possibly localized in this region. Additionally, we identified a classical DNA-binding Leucine Zipper Domain (LZD) which is conserved among TnT isoforms and species. Deletion of LZD or KLKRQK sequence significantly reduced cell apoptosis compared to full-length TnT3. We conclude that TnT3 contains both a nuclear localization signal and a DNA binding domain, which may mediate nuclear/nucleolar signaling and muscle cell apoptosis. PMID:23378072

  12. Structure and DNA-Binding Sites of the SWI1 AT-rich Interaction Domain (ARID) Suggest Determinants for Sequence-Specific DNA Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhkmann; Zhang, Ziming; Upchurch, Sean; Isern, Nancy G.; Chen, Yuan

    2004-04-16

    2 ARID is a homologous family of DNA-binding domains that occur in DNA binding proteins from a wide variety of species, ranging from yeast to nematodes, insects, mammals and plants. SWI1, a member of the SWI/SNF protein complex that is involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription, contains the ARID motif. The ARID domain of human SWI1 (also known as p270) does not select for a specific DNA sequence from a random sequence pool. The lack of sequence specificity shown by the SWI1 ARID domain stands in contrast to the other characterized ARID domains, which recognize specific AT-rich sequences. We have solved the three-dimensional structure of human SWI1 ARID using solution NMR methods. In addition, we have characterized non-specific DNA-binding by the SWI1 ARID domain. Results from this study indicate that a flexible long internal loop in ARID motif is likely to be important for sequence specific DNA-recognition. The structure of human SWI1 ARID domain also represents a distinct structural subfamily. Studies of ARID indicate that boundary of the DNA binding structural and functional domains can extend beyond the sequence homologous region in a homologous family of proteins. Structural studies of homologous domains such as ARID family of DNA-binding domains should provide information to better predict the boundary of structural and functional domains in structural genomic studies. Key Words: ARID, SWI1, NMR, structural genomics, protein-DNA interaction.

  13. Glucagon and adenylate cyclase: binding studies and requirements for activation.

    PubMed

    Levey, G S; Fletcher, M A; Klein, I

    1975-01-01

    Solubilization of myocardial adenylate cyclase abolished responsiveness to glucagon and catecholamines, two of the hormones which activate the membrane-bound enzyme. Adenylate cyclase freed of detergent by DEAE-cellulose chromatography continues to remain unresponsive to hormone stimulation. However, adding purified bovine brain phospholipids--phosphotidylserine and monophosphatidylinositol--restored responsiveness to glucagon and catecholamines, respectively. 125-i-glucagon binding appeared to be independent of phospholipid, since equal binding was observed in the presence or absence of detergent and in the presence or absence of phospholipids. Chromatography of the solubilized preparation on Sephadex G-100 WAS CHARACTERIZED BY 125-I-glucagon binding and fluoride-stimulatable adenylate cyclase activity appearing in the fractions consistent with the void volume, suggesting a molecular weight greater than 100,000 for the receptor-adenylate cyclase complex. Prior incubation of the binding peak with 125-I-glucagon and rechromatography of the bound glucagon on Sephadex G-100 shifted its elution to a later fraction consistent with a smaller-molecular-weight peak. The molecular weight of this material was 24,000 to 28,000, as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The latter findings are consistent with a dissociable receptor site for glucagon on myocardial adenylate cyclase. PMID:165684

  14. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Frings, S

    1993-02-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  15. Identification of sea urchin sperm adenylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of sea urchin sperm yielded approximately 20 major proteins. One of these proteins, of Mr 190,000, was purified and used to immunize rabbits. After absorption with living sperm, the serum reacted monospecifically on one- and two-dimensional Western immunoblots with the Mr 190,000 protein. The anti-190-kD serum inhibited 94% of the adenylate cyclase (AC) activity of the CaM eluate. An immunoaffinity column removed 95% of the AC activity, and the purified (but inactive) Mr 190,000 protein was eluted from the column. The antiserum also inhibited 23% of the activity of bovine brain CaM-sensitive AC and 90% of the activity of horse sperm CaM-sensitive AC. These data support the hypothesis that the Mr 190,000 protein is sea urchin sperm AC. Although this AC bound to CaM, it was not possible to demonstrate directly a Ca2+ or CaM sensitivity. However, two CaM antagonists, calmidazolium and chlorpromazine, both inhibited AC activity, and the inhibition was released by added CaM, suggesting the possibility of regulation of this AC by CaM. Indirect immunofluorescence showed the Mr 190,000 protein to be highly concentrated on only the proximal half of the sea urchin sperm flagellum. This asymmetric localization of AC may be important to its function in flagellar motility. This is the first report of the identification of an AC from animal spermatozoa. PMID:2121742

  16. Antagonist activities of mecamylamine and nicotine show reciprocal dependence on beta subunit sequence in the second transmembrane domain

    PubMed Central

    Webster, J Christopher; Francis, Michael M; Porter, Julia K; Robinson, Gillian; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Ben; Papke, Roger L

    1999-01-01

    We show that a portion of the TM2 domain regulates the sensitivity of beta subunit-containing rat neuronal nicotinic AChR to the ganglionic blocker mecamylamine, such that the substitution of 4 amino acids of the muscle beta subunit sequence into the neuronal beta4 sequence decreases the potency of mecamylamine by a factor of 200 and eliminates any long-term effects of this drug on receptor function.The same exchange of sequence that decreases inhibition by mecamylamine produces a comparable potentiation of long-term inhibition by nicotine.Inhibition by mecamylamine is voltage-dependent, suggesting a direct interaction of mecamylamine with sequence elements within the membrane field. We have previously shown that sensitivity to TMP (tetramethylpiperidine) inhibitors is controlled by the same sequence elements that determine mecamylamine sensitivity. However, inhibition by bis-TMP compounds is independent of voltage.Our experiments did not show any influence of voltage on the inhibition of chimeric receptors by nicotine, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of nicotine are mediated by binding to a site outside the membrane's electric field.An analysis of point mutations indicates that the residues at the 6′ position within the beta subunit TM2 domain may be important for determining the effects of both mecamylamine and nicotine in a reciprocal manner. Single mutations at the 10′ position are not sufficient to produce effects, but 6′ 10′ double mutants show more effect than do the 6′ single mutants. PMID:10455283

  17. Insect Stage-Specific Adenylate Cyclases Regulate Social Motility in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Saada, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated systems for cell-cell communication enable unicellular microbes to act as multicellular entities capable of group-level behaviors that are not evident in individuals. These group behaviors influence microbe physiology, and the underlying signaling pathways are considered potential drug targets in microbial pathogens. Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes substantial human suffering and economic hardship in some of the most impoverished regions of the world. T. brucei lives on host tissue surfaces during transmission through its tsetse fly vector, and cultivation on surfaces causes the parasites to assemble into multicellular communities in which individual cells coordinate their movements in response to external signals. This behavior is termed “social motility,” based on its similarities with surface-induced social motility in bacteria, and it demonstrates that trypanosomes are capable of group-level behavior. Mechanisms governing T. brucei social motility are unknown. Here we report that a subset of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the trypanosome flagellum regulate social motility. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6), or dual knockdown of AC1 and AC2, causes a hypersocial phenotype but has no discernible effect on individual cells in suspension culture. Mutation of the AC6 catalytic domain phenocopies AC6 knockdown, demonstrating that loss of adenylate cyclase activity is responsible for the phenotype. Notably, knockdown of other ACs did not affect social motility, indicating segregation of AC functions. These studies reveal interesting parallels in systems that control social behavior in trypanosomes and bacteria and provide insight into a feature of parasite biology that may be exploited for novel intervention strategies. PMID:25416239

  18. The methionine-rich domain of the 54 kDa subunit of signal recognition particle is sufficient for the interaction with signal sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lütcke, H; High, S; Römisch, K; Ashford, A J; Dobberstein, B

    1992-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to signal sequences when they emerge from a translating ribosome and targets the complex of ribosome, nascent chain and SRP to the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) allowing the co-translational translocation of the nascent chain. By photo-crosslinking it has been shown that the signal sequence of preprolactin (PPL) only interacts with the methionine-rich (M) domain of the 54 kDa protein subunit (SRP54) of SRP. Here we show that (i) a signal-anchor sequence is likewise crosslinked only to the methionine-rich domain of SRP54, (ii) free SRP54 can interact with signal sequences independently of the other components of SRP, (iii) its M domain suffices to perform this function, and (iv) an essentially intact M domain is required for signal sequence recognition. Alkylation of the N+G domain in intact SRP54 with N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), but not after cleavage with V8 protease, prevents the binding of a signal sequence to the M domain. This suggests a proximity between the N+G and M domains of SRP54 and raises the possibility that the role of the N+G domain may be to regulate the binding and/or the release of signal sequences. Images PMID:1314169

  19. Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes: sequence of the binding domain involved in adherence of streptococci to epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Talay, S R; Valentin-Weigand, P; Jerlström, P G; Timmis, K N; Chhatwal, G S

    1992-01-01

    The sequence of the fibronectin-binding domain of the fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes (Sfb protein) was determined, and its role in streptococcal adherence was investigated by use of an Sfb fusion protein in adherence studies. A 1-kb DNA fragment coding for the binding domain of Sfb protein was cloned into the expression vector pEX31 to produce an Sfb fusion protein consisting of the N-terminal part of MS2 polymerase and a C-terminal fragment of the streptococcal protein. Induction of the vector promoter resulted in hyperexpression of fibronectin-binding fusion protein in the cytoplasm of the recombinant Escherichia coli cells. Sequence determination of the cloned 1-kb fragment revealed an in-frame reading frame for a 268-amino-acid peptide composed of a 37-amino-acid sequence which is completely repeated three times and incompletely repeated a fourth time. Cloning of one repeat into pEX31 resulted in expression of small fusion peptides that show fibronectin-binding activity, indicating that one repeat contains at least one binding domain. Each repeat exhibits two charged domains and shows high homology with the 38-amino-acid D3 repeat of the fibronectin-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus. Sequence comparison with other streptococcal ligand-binding surface proteins, including M protein, failed to reveal significant homology, which suggests that Sfb protein represents a novel type of functional protein in S. pyogenes. The Sfb fusion protein isolated from the cytoplasm of recombinant cells was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography. It showed a strong competitive inhibition of fibronectin binding to S. pyogenes and of the adherence of bacteria to cultured epithelial cells. In contrast, purified streptococcal lipoteichoic acid showed only a weak inhibition of fibronectin binding and streptococcal adherence. These results demonstrate that Sfb protein is directly involved in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of S. pyogenes to

  20. The binding of TIA-1 to RNA C-rich sequences is driven by its C-terminal RRM domain.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Angulo, Jesús; Persson, Cecilia; Gorospe, Myriam; Karlsson, B Göran; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key DNA/RNA binding protein that regulates translation by sequestering target mRNAs in stress granules (SG) in response to stress conditions. TIA-1 possesses three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) along with a glutamine-rich domain, with the central domains (RRM2 and RRM3) acting as RNA binding platforms. While the RRM2 domain, which displays high affinity for U-rich RNA sequences, is primarily responsible for interaction with RNA, the contribution of RRM3 to bind RNA as well as the target RNA sequences that it binds preferentially are still unknown. Here we combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to elucidate the sequence specificity of TIA-1 RRM3. With a novel approach using saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) to quantify protein-nucleic acids interactions, we demonstrate that isolated RRM3 binds to both C- and U-rich stretches with micromolar affinity. In combination with RRM2 and in the context of full-length TIA-1, RRM3 significantly enhanced the binding to RNA, particularly to cytosine-rich RNA oligos, as assessed by biotinylated RNA pull-down analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the role of RRM3 in regulating TIA-1 binding to C-rich stretches, that are abundant at the 5' TOPs (5' terminal oligopyrimidine tracts) of mRNAs whose translation is repressed under stress situations. PMID:24824036

  1. The binding of TIA-1 to RNA C-rich sequences is driven by its C-terminal RRM domain

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Angulo, Jesús; Persson, Cecilia; Gorospe, Myriam; Karlsson, B Göran; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key DNA/RNA binding protein that regulates translation by sequestering target mRNAs in stress granules (SG) in response to stress conditions. TIA-1 possesses three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) along with a glutamine-rich domain, with the central domains (RRM2 and RRM3) acting as RNA binding platforms. While the RRM2 domain, which displays high affinity for U-rich RNA sequences, is primarily responsible for interaction with RNA, the contribution of RRM3 to bind RNA as well as the target RNA sequences that it binds preferentially are still unknown. Here we combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to elucidate the sequence specificity of TIA-1 RRM3. With a novel approach using saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) to quantify protein–nucleic acids interactions, we demonstrate that isolated RRM3 binds to both C- and U-rich stretches with micromolar affinity. In combination with RRM2 and in the context of full-length TIA-1, RRM3 significantly enhanced the binding to RNA, particularly to cytosine-rich RNA oligos, as assessed by biotinylated RNA pull-down analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the role of RRM3 in regulating TIA-1 binding to C-rich stretches, that are abundant at the 5′ TOPs (5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tracts) of mRNAs whose translation is repressed under stress situations. PMID:24824036

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. PMID:21334357

  3. Structural Studies of Geosmin Synthase, a Bifunctional Sesquiterpene Synthase with αα Domain Architecture That Catalyzes a Unique Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Harris, Golda G; Lombardi, Patrick M; Pemberton, Travis A; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Cole, Kathryn E; Köksal, Mustafa; Murphy, Frank V; Vedula, L Sangeetha; Chou, Wayne K W; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2015-12-01

    Geosmin synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScGS) catalyzes an unusual, metal-dependent terpenoid cyclization and fragmentation reaction sequence. Two distinct active sites are required for catalysis: the N-terminal domain catalyzes the ionization and cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form germacradienol and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the protonation, cyclization, and fragmentation of germacradienol to form geosmin and acetone through a retro-Prins reaction. A unique αα domain architecture is predicted for ScGS based on amino acid sequence: each domain contains the metal-binding motifs typical of a class I terpenoid cyclase, and each domain requires Mg(2+) for catalysis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the unliganded N-terminal domain of ScGS and the structure of its complex with three Mg(2+) ions and alendronate. These structures highlight conformational changes required for active site closure and catalysis. Although neither full-length ScGS nor constructs of the C-terminal domain could be crystallized, homology models of the C-terminal domain were constructed on the basis of ∼36% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments yield low-resolution molecular envelopes into which the N-terminal domain crystal structure and the C-terminal domain homology model were fit, suggesting possible αα domain architectures as frameworks for bifunctional catalysis. PMID:26598179

  4. GT-2: a transcription factor with twin autonomous DNA-binding domains of closely related but different target sequence specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Dehesh, K; Hung, H; Tepperman, J M; Quail, P H

    1992-01-01

    A triplet of adjacent, highly similar GT motifs in the phyA promoter of rice functions to support maximal expression of this gene. We have obtained a recombinant clone that encodes a full-length nuclear protein, designated GT-2, which binds specifically to these target sequences. This novel protein contains acidic, basic and proline- + glutamine-rich regions, as well as two autonomous DNA-binding domains, one NH2-terminal and the other COOH-terminal, that discriminate with high resolution between the three GT motifs. A duplicated sequence of 75 amino acids, present once in each DNA-binding domain, appears likely to mediate DNA target element recognition. Each copy of this duplicated protein sequence is predicted to form three amphipathic alpha-helices separated from each other by two short loops. The absence of sequence similarity to other known proteins suggests that this predicted structural unit, which we term the trihelix motif, might be representative of a new class of DNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:1396594

  5. Functional domains of an ATP-dependent DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Doherty, A J; Wigley, D B

    1999-01-01

    The crystal structure of an ATP-dependent DNA ligase from bacteriophage T7 revealed that the protein comprised two structural domains. In order to investigate the biochemical activities of these domains, we have overexpressed them separately and purified them to homogeneity. The larger N-terminal domain retains adenylation and ligase activities, though both at a reduced level. The adenylation activity of the large domain is stimulated by the presence of the smaller domain, suggesting that a conformational change is required for adenylation in the full length protein. The DNA binding properties of the two fragments have also been studied. The larger domain is able to band shift both single and double-stranded DNA, while the smaller fragment is only able to bind to double-stranded DNA. These data suggest that the specificity of DNA ligases for nick sites in DNA is produced by a combination of these different DNA binding activities in the intact enzyme. PMID:9878388

  6. Studying Students' Learning Processes Used during Physics Teaching Sequence about Gas with Networks of Ideas and Their Domain of Applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givry, Damien; Tiberghien, Andree

    2012-01-01

    In literature, several processes have been suggested to describe conceptual changes being undertaken. However, a few parts of studies analyse in great detail which students' learning processes are involved in physics classes during teaching, and how they are used. Following a socio-constructivist approach using tools coming from discourse analysis, we suggest studying three processes of students' learning: (1) establishing links between ideas, (2) increasing the domain of applicability of ideas, or (3) decreasing the domain of applicability of ideas. Our database consists of video data and written worksheets of two students at the upper-secondary school level (Grade 10 [15-year-old students]) during a one-month teaching sequence about gas. Based on semiotic resources contained in oral and written language, we reconstruct in great detail all the ideas about gas expressed by both students during the entire teaching sequence. Our analysis deals with (1) how learning processes are identified based on the ideas expressed by students, and (2) how the three learning processes are used by the two students during teaching. Our results show that during the teaching sequence: (1) the emergence of the networks of three ideas is supported by networks of two ideas expressed previously by students; (2) both students express more networks of two ideas than networks of three ideas; (3) the process 'increasing the domain of applicability' of an idea or a network of ideas is very often involved; and (4) the process 'decreasing the domain of applicability' of an idea or network of ideas is rarely used by them.

  7. Structure-Based Sequence Alignment of the Transmembrane Domains of All Human GPCRs: Phylogenetic, Structural and Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cvicek, Vaclav; Goddard, William A.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is undergoing a revolution due to increased information about their signaling and the experimental determination of structures for more than 25 receptors. The availability of at least one receptor structure for each of the GPCR classes, well separated in sequence space, enables an integrated superfamily-wide analysis to identify signatures involving the role of conserved residues, conserved contacts, and downstream signaling in the context of receptor structures. In this study, we align the transmembrane (TM) domains of all experimental GPCR structures to maximize the conserved inter-helical contacts. The resulting superfamily-wide GpcR Sequence-Structure (GRoSS) alignment of the TM domains for all human GPCR sequences is sufficient to generate a phylogenetic tree that correctly distinguishes all different GPCR classes, suggesting that the class-level differences in the GPCR superfamily are encoded at least partly in the TM domains. The inter-helical contacts conserved across all GPCR classes describe the evolutionarily conserved GPCR structural fold. The corresponding structural alignment of the inactive and active conformations, available for a few GPCRs, identifies activation hot-spot residues in the TM domains that get rewired upon activation. Many GPCR mutations, known to alter receptor signaling and cause disease, are located at these conserved contact and activation hot-spot residue positions. The GRoSS alignment places the chemosensory receptor subfamilies for bitter taste (TAS2R) and pheromones (Vomeronasal, VN1R) in the rhodopsin family, known to contain the chemosensory olfactory receptor subfamily. The GRoSS alignment also enables the quantification of the structural variability in the TM regions of experimental structures, useful for homology modeling and structure prediction of receptors. Furthermore, this alignment identifies structurally and functionally important residues in all human GPCRs

  8. Structure-Based Sequence Alignment of the Transmembrane Domains of All Human GPCRs: Phylogenetic, Structural and Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Cvicek, Vaclav; Goddard, William A; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is undergoing a revolution due to increased information about their signaling and the experimental determination of structures for more than 25 receptors. The availability of at least one receptor structure for each of the GPCR classes, well separated in sequence space, enables an integrated superfamily-wide analysis to identify signatures involving the role of conserved residues, conserved contacts, and downstream signaling in the context of receptor structures. In this study, we align the transmembrane (TM) domains of all experimental GPCR structures to maximize the conserved inter-helical contacts. The resulting superfamily-wide GpcR Sequence-Structure (GRoSS) alignment of the TM domains for all human GPCR sequences is sufficient to generate a phylogenetic tree that correctly distinguishes all different GPCR classes, suggesting that the class-level differences in the GPCR superfamily are encoded at least partly in the TM domains. The inter-helical contacts conserved across all GPCR classes describe the evolutionarily conserved GPCR structural fold. The corresponding structural alignment of the inactive and active conformations, available for a few GPCRs, identifies activation hot-spot residues in the TM domains that get rewired upon activation. Many GPCR mutations, known to alter receptor signaling and cause disease, are located at these conserved contact and activation hot-spot residue positions. The GRoSS alignment places the chemosensory receptor subfamilies for bitter taste (TAS2R) and pheromones (Vomeronasal, VN1R) in the rhodopsin family, known to contain the chemosensory olfactory receptor subfamily. The GRoSS alignment also enables the quantification of the structural variability in the TM regions of experimental structures, useful for homology modeling and structure prediction of receptors. Furthermore, this alignment identifies structurally and functionally important residues in all human GPCRs

  9. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  10. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F.; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  11. RNA Mimicry by the Fap7 Adenylate Kinase in Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Réty, Stéphane; Lebaron, Simon; Deschamps, Patrick; Bareille, Joseph; Jombart, Julie; Robert-Paganin, Julien; Delbos, Lila; Chardon, Florian; Zhang, Elodie; Charenton, Clément; Tollervey, David; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    During biogenesis of the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, the pre-40S particles are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA to mature 18S rRNA. Amongst the factors involved in this maturation step, Fap7 is unusual, as it both interacts with ribosomal protein Rps14 and harbors adenylate kinase activity, a function not usually associated with ribonucleoprotein assembly. Human hFap7 also regulates Cajal body assembly and cell cycle progression via the p53–MDM2 pathway. This work presents the functional and structural characterization of the Fap7–Rps14 complex. We report that Fap7 association blocks the RNA binding surface of Rps14 and, conversely, Rps14 binding inhibits adenylate kinase activity of Fap7. In addition, the affinity of Fap7 for Rps14 is higher with bound ADP, whereas ATP hydrolysis dissociates the complex. These results suggest that Fap7 chaperones Rps14 assembly into pre-40S particles via RNA mimicry in an ATP-dependent manner. Incorporation of Rps14 by Fap7 leads to a structural rearrangement of the platform domain necessary for the pre-rRNA to acquire a cleavage competent conformation. PMID:24823650

  12. Comparative sequence analysis of domain I of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 from Saudi Arabia and worldwide isolates.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Bin Dajem, Saad M; AlSheikh, Adel Ali H; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2016-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1) plays a crucial role in erythrocyte invasion and is a target of protective antibodies. Although domain I of PfAMA1 has been considered a promising vaccine component, extensive sequence diversity in this domain could compromise an effective vaccine design. To explore the extent of sequence diversity in domain I of PfAMA1, P. falciparum-infected blood samples from Saudi Arabia collected between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed and compared with those from worldwide parasite populations. Forty-six haplotypes and a novel codon change (M190V) were found among Saudi Arabian isolates. The haplotype diversity (0.948±0.004) and nucleotide diversity (0.0191±0.0008) were comparable to those from African hyperendemic countries. Positive selection in domain I of PfAMA1 among Saudi Arabian parasite population was observed because nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) significantly exceeded synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and Tajima's D and its related statistics significantly deviated from neutrality in the positive direction. Despite a relatively low prevalence of malaria in Saudi Arabia, a minimum of 17 recombination events occurred in domain I. Genetic differentiation was significant between P. falciparum in Saudi Arabia and parasites from other geographic origins. Several shared or closely related haplotypes were found among parasites from different geographic areas, suggesting that vaccine derived from multiple shared epitopes could be effective across endemic countries. PMID:26867816

  13. DNA binding regulates the self-association of the ETS domain of PU.1 in a sequence-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Poon, Gregory M K

    2012-05-22

    The current paradigm of ETS transcription factors holds that their DNA-binding (ETS) domain binds to a single sequence-specific site with strict 1:1 stoichiometry. PU.1 (Spi-1) is a lineage-restricted member of the ETS family that is essential in normal hematopoietic development. Characterization of the binding properties of the ETS domain of PU.1 by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that it binds a single sequence-specific binding site with 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometry in a discrete, sequential, and negatively cooperative manner. While both high-affinity- and low-affinity-specific sites exhibit this behavior, the thermodynamics for each complex are highly differentiated. In the unbound state, the PU.1 ETS domain exists as a weak noncovalent homodimer that dissociates and unfolds cooperatively. Thus, the PU.1 ETS domain exists as a monomeric and dimeric species in both DNA-bound and free states. Structural characterization of the protein-DNA interface by quantitative DNA footprinting revealed new minor groove contacts and changes in the core consensus suggestive of increased DNA distortion in the 2:1 complex. Together, the structural and thermodynamic data support a model in which DNA binding dissociates a PU.1 ETS dimer to a 1:1 protein-DNA complex followed by, at higher concentrations, an asymmetric 2:1 complex. The implications of distinct monomeric and dimeric states on the known structural biology of ETS domains as well as potential ETS-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:22533913

  14. Structure of the RNA 30-Phosphate Cyclase-Adenylate Intermediate Illuminates Nucleotide Specificity and Covalent Nucleotidyl Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Smith, P; Shuman, S

    2010-01-01

    RNA 3-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) synthesizes RNA 2,3 cyclic phosphate ends via three steps: reaction with ATP to form a covalent RtcA-AMP intermediate; transfer of adenylate to an RNA 3-phosphate to form RNA(3)pp(5)A; and attack of the vicinal O2 on the 3-phosphorus to form a 2,3 cyclic phosphate. Here we report the 1.7 {angstrom} crystal structure of the RtcA-AMP intermediate, which reveals the mechanism of nucleotidyl transfer. Adenylate is linked via a phosphoamide bond to the His309 N{var_epsilon} atom. A network of hydrogen bonds to the ribose O2 and O3 accounts for the stringent ribonucleotide preference. Adenine is sandwiched in a hydrophobic pocket between Tyr284 and Pro131 and the preference for adenine is enforced by Phe135, which packs against the purine C2 edge. Two sulfates bound near the adenylate plausibly mimic the 3-terminal and penultimate phosphates of RNA. The structure illuminates how the four {alpha}2/{beta}4 domains contribute to substrate binding and catalysis.

  15. Neurohypophyseal Hormone-Responsive Adenylate Cyclase from Mammalian Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Douša, Thomas; Hechter, Oscar; Schwartz, Irving L.; Walter, Roderich

    1971-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the direct stimulatory effects of neurohypophyseal hormones upon adenylate cyclase activity in a cell-free, particulate fraction derived from the kidney medulla of various mammalian species. The relative affinity of neurohypophyseal hormones for the receptor component of the adenylate cyclase system (as defined by the concentration of hormone required for half-maximal stimulation) had the order [8-arginine]-vasopressin > [8-lysine]-vasopressin ≫ oxytocin (AVP > LVP ≫ OT) for rat, mouse, rabbit, and ox; in the pig, the order was LVP > AVP ≫ OT. The relative affinities of the three hormones in rat and pig cyclase systems were found to correspond with the relative antidiuretic potencies of these hormones in the intact rat and pig. These findings show that the renal receptor for neurohypophyseal hormones in a particular species exhibits the highest affinity for the specific antidiuretic hormone that occurs naturally in that species. Some of the molecular requirements for the stimulation of rabbit adenylate cyclase were defined by studies of several neurohypophyseal analogs possessing structural changes in positions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9. This investigation introduces the particulate preparation of renal medullary adenylate cyclase as a tool for the analysis of neurohypophyseal hormone-receptor interactions and indicates that this preparation can be adapted to serve as an in vitro bioassay system for antidiuretic hormonal activity. PMID:4331557

  16. Mapping the DNA-binding domain and target sequences of the Streptomyces peucetius daunorubicin biosynthesis regulatory protein, DnrI.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Paul J; Busarow, Sara B; Hutchinson, C Richard

    2002-04-01

    Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins (SARPs) constitute a novel family of transcriptional activators that control the expression of several diverse anti-biotic biosynthetic gene clusters. The Streptomyces peucetius DnrI protein, one of only a handful of these proteins yet discovered, controls the biosynthesis of the polyketide antitumour antibiotics daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Recently, comparative analyses have revealed significant similarities among the predicted DNA-binding domains of the SARPs and the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of the OmpR family of regulatory proteins. Using the crystal structure of the OmpR-binding domain as a template, DnrI was mapped by truncation and site-directed mutagenesis. Several highly conserved residues within the N-terminus are crucial for DNA binding and protein function. Tandemly arranged heptameric imperfect repeat sequences are found within the -35 promoter regions of target genes. Substitutions for each nucleotide within the repeats of the dnrG-dpsABCD promoter were performed by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant promoter fragments were found to have modified binding characteristics in gel mobility shift assays. The spacing between the repeat target sequences is also critical for successful occupation by DnrI and, therefore, competent transcriptional activation of the dnrG-dpsABCD operon. PMID:11972782

  17. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein. PMID:25725151

  18. Polyglutamine domain flexibility mediates the proximity between flanking sequences in huntingtin

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Nicholas Stephane; Desmond, Carly Robyn; Xia, Jianrun; Truant, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion within the huntingtin gene that encodes a polymorphic glutamine tract at the amino terminus of the huntingtin protein. HD is one of nine polyglutamine expansion diseases. The clinical threshold of polyglutamine expansion for HD is near 37 repeats, but the mechanism of this pathogenic length is poorly understood. Using Förster resonance energy transfer, we describe an intramolecular proximity between the N17 domain and the downstream polyproline region that flanks the polyglutamine tract of huntingtin. Our data support the hypothesis that the polyglutamine tract can act as a flexible domain, allowing the flanking domains to come into close spatial proximity. This flexibility is impaired with expanded polyglutamine tracts, and we can detect changes in huntingtin conformation at the pathogenic threshold for HD. Altering the structure of N17, either via phosphomimicry or with small molecules, also affects the proximity between the flanking domains. The structural capacity of N17 to fold back toward distal regions within huntingtin requires an interacting protein, protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons 1 (PACSIN1). This protein has the ability to bind both N17 and the polyproline region, stabilizing the interaction between these two domains. We also developed an antibody-based FRET assay that can detect conformational changes within endogenous huntingtin in wild-type versus HD fibroblasts. Therefore, we hypothesize that wild-type length polyglutamine tracts within huntingtin can form a flexible domain that is essential for proper functional intramolecular proximity, conformations, and dynamics. PMID:23898200

  19. Cooperative DNA Binding and Sequence-Selective Recognition Conferred by the STAT Amino-Terminal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang; Sun, Ya-Lin; Hoey, Timothy

    1996-08-01

    STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription) activate distinct target genes despite having similar DNA binding preferences. The transcriptional specificity of STAT proteins was investigated on natural STAT binding sites near the interferon-gamma gene. These sites are arranged in multiple copies and required cooperative interactions for STAT binding. The conserved amino-terminal domain of STAT proteins was required for cooperative DNA binding, although this domain was not essential for dimerization or binding to a single site. Cooperative binding interactions enabled the STAT proteins to recognize variations of the consensus site. These sites can be specific for the different STAT proteins and may function to direct selective transcriptional activation.

  20. Modeling and analysis of MH1 domain of Smads and their interaction with promoter DNA sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Pooja; Metpally, Raghu Prasad R; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B

    2009-04-01

    The Smads are a group of related intracellular proteins critical for transmitting the signals to the nucleus from the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins at the cell surface. The prototypic members of the Smad family, Mad and Sma, were first described in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. Related proteins in Xenopus, Humans, Mice and Rats were subsequently identified, and are now known as Smads. Smad protein family members act downstream in the TGF-beta signaling pathway mediating various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, matrix production, apoptosis and development. Smads range from about 400-500 amino acids in length and are grouped into the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), the common Smads (Co-Smads) and the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads). There are eight Smads in mammals, Smad1/5/8 (bone morphogenetic protein regulated) and Smad2/3 (TGF-beta/activin regulated) are termed R-Smads, Smad4 is denoted as Co-Smad and Smad6/7 are inhibitory Smads. A typical Smad consists of a conserved N-terminal Mad Homology 1 (MH1) domain and a C-terminal Mad Homology 2 (MH2) domain connected by a proline rich linker. The MH1 domain plays key role in DNA recognition and also facilitates the binding of Smad4 to the phosphorylated C-terminus of R-Smads to form activated complex. The MH2 domain exhibits transcriptional activation properties. In order to understand the structural basis of interaction of various Smads with their target proteins and the promoter DNA, we modeled MH1 domain of the remaining mammalian Smads based on known crystal structures of Smad3-MH1 domain bound to GTCT Smad box DNA sequence (1OZJ). We generated a B-DNA structure using average base-pair parameters of Twist, Tilt, Roll and base Slide angles. We then modeled interaction pose of the MH1 domain of Smad1/5/8 to their corresponding DNA sequence motif GCCG. These models provide the structural basis towards understanding functional

  1. Rapid and simple determination of T1 relaxation times in time-domain NMR by Continuous Wave Free Precession sequence.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Monaretto, Tatiana; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times have been widely used in time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) to determine several physicochemical properties of petroleum, polymers, and food products. The measurement of T2 through the CPMG pulse sequence has been used in most of these applications because it denotes a rapid, robust method. On the other hand, T1 has been occasionally used in TD-NMR due to the long measurement time required to collect multiple points along the T1 relaxation curve. Recently, several rapid methods to measure T1 have been proposed. Those methods based upon single shot, known as Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) pulse sequences, have been employed in the simultaneous measurement of T1 and T2 in a rapid fashion. However, these sequences can be used exclusively in instrument featuring short dead time because the magnitude of the signal at thermal equilibrium is required. In this paper, we demonstrate that a special CWFP sequence with a low flip angle can be a simple and rapid method to measure T1 regardless of instruments dead time. Experimental results confirmed that the method called CWFP-T1 may be used to measure both single T1 value and T1 distribution in heterogeneous samples. Therefore, CWFP-T1 sequence can be a feasible alternative to CPMG in the determination of physicochemical properties, particularly in processes where fast protocols are requested such as industrial applications. PMID:27376553

  2. High-Resolution Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals That Specific Chromatin Domains from Most Human Chromosomes Associate with Nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    van Koningsbruggen, Silvana; Gierliński, Marek; Schofield, Pietá; Martin, David; Barton, Geoffey J.; Ariyurek, Yavuz; den Dunnen, Johan T.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear space is mostly occupied by chromosome territories and nuclear bodies. Although this organization of chromosomes affects gene function, relatively little is known about the role of nuclear bodies in the organization of chromosomal regions. The nucleolus is the best-studied subnuclear structure and forms around the rRNA repeat gene clusters on the acrocentric chromosomes. In addition to rDNA, other chromatin sequences also surround the nucleolar surface and may even loop into the nucleolus. These additional nucleolar-associated domains (NADs) have not been well characterized. We present here a whole-genome, high-resolution analysis of chromatin endogenously associated with nucleoli. We have used a combination of three complementary approaches, namely fluorescence comparative genome hybridization, high-throughput deep DNA sequencing and photoactivation combined with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The data show that specific sequences from most human chromosomes, in addition to the rDNA repeat units, associate with nucleoli in a reproducible and heritable manner. NADs have in common a high density of AT-rich sequence elements, low gene density and a statistically significant enrichment in transcriptionally repressed genes. Unexpectedly, both the direct DNA sequencing and fluorescence photoactivation data show that certain chromatin loci can specifically associate with either the nucleolus, or the nuclear envelope. PMID:20826608

  3. Rapid and simple determination of T1 relaxation times in time-domain NMR by Continuous Wave Free Precession sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Monaretto, Tatiana; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times have been widely used in time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) to determine several physicochemical properties of petroleum, polymers, and food products. The measurement of T2 through the CPMG pulse sequence has been used in most of these applications because it denotes a rapid, robust method. On the other hand, T1 has been occasionally used in TD-NMR due to the long measurement time required to collect multiple points along the T1 relaxation curve. Recently, several rapid methods to measure T1 have been proposed. Those methods based upon single shot, known as Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) pulse sequences, have been employed in the simultaneous measurement of T1 and T2 in a rapid fashion. However, these sequences can be used exclusively in instrument featuring short dead time because the magnitude of the signal at thermal equilibrium is required. In this paper, we demonstrate that a special CWFP sequence with a low flip angle can be a simple and rapid method to measure T1 regardless of instruments dead time. Experimental results confirmed that the method called CWFP-T1 may be used to measure both single T1 value and T1 distribution in heterogeneous samples. Therefore, CWFP-T1 sequence can be a feasible alternative to CPMG in the determination of physicochemical properties, particularly in processes where fast protocols are requested such as industrial applications.

  4. Dynamic behavior of an intrinsically unstructured linker domain is conserved in the face of negligible amino acid sequence conservation.

    PubMed

    Daughdrill, Gary W; Narayanaswami, Pranesh; Gilmore, Sara H; Belczyk, Agniezka; Brown, Celeste J

    2007-09-01

    Proteins or regions of proteins that do not form compact globular structures are classified as intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). IUPs are common in nature and have essential molecular functions, but even a limited understanding of the evolution of their dynamic behavior is lacking. The primary objective of this work was to test the evolutionary conservation of dynamic behavior for a particular class of IUPs that form intrinsically unstructured linker domains (IULD) that tether flanking folded domains. This objective was accomplished by measuring the backbone flexibility of several IULD homologues using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The backbone flexibility of five IULDs, representing three kingdoms, was measured and analyzed. Two IULDs from animals, one IULD from fungi, and two IULDs from plants showed similar levels of backbone flexibility that were consistent with the absence of a compact globular structure. In contrast, the amino acid sequences of the IULDs from these three taxa showed no significant similarity. To investigate how the dynamic behavior of the IULDs could be conserved in the absence of detectable sequence conservation, evolutionary rate studies were performed on a set of nine mammalian IULDs. The results of this analysis showed that many sites in the IULD are evolving neutrally, suggesting that dynamic behavior can be maintained in the absence of natural selection. This work represents the first experimental test of the evolutionary conservation of dynamic behavior and demonstrates that amino acid sequence conservation is not required for the conservation of dynamic behavior and presumably molecular function. PMID:17721672

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Upwelling-Affected Brazilian Coastal Seawater Reveals Sequence Domains of Type I PKS and Modular NRPS.

    PubMed

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Cury, Juliano C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2015-01-01

    Marine environments harbor a wide range of microorganisms from the three domains of life. These microorganisms have great potential to enable discovery of new enzymes and bioactive compounds for industrial use. However, only ~1% of microorganisms from the environment can currently be identified through cultured isolates, limiting the discovery of new compounds. To overcome this limitation, a metagenomics approach has been widely adopted for biodiversity studies on samples from marine environments. In this study, we screened metagenomes in order to estimate the potential for new natural compound synthesis mediated by diversity in the Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) genes. The samples were collected from the Praia dos Anjos (Angel's Beach) surface water-Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), an environment affected by upwelling. In order to evaluate the potential for screening natural products in Arraial do Cabo samples, we used KS (keto-synthase) and C (condensation) domains (from PKS and NRPS, respectively) to build Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models. From both samples, a total of 84 KS and 46 C novel domain sequences were obtained, showing the potential of this environment for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest. These domains were classified by phylogenetic analysis and this was the first study conducted to screen PKS and NRPS genes in an upwelling affected sample. PMID:26633360

  6. Metagenomic Analysis of Upwelling-Affected Brazilian Coastal Seawater Reveals Sequence Domains of Type I PKS and Modular NRPS

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; Cury, Juliano C.; Dávila, Alberto M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine environments harbor a wide range of microorganisms from the three domains of life. These microorganisms have great potential to enable discovery of new enzymes and bioactive compounds for industrial use. However, only ~1% of microorganisms from the environment can currently be identified through cultured isolates, limiting the discovery of new compounds. To overcome this limitation, a metagenomics approach has been widely adopted for biodiversity studies on samples from marine environments. In this study, we screened metagenomes in order to estimate the potential for new natural compound synthesis mediated by diversity in the Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) genes. The samples were collected from the Praia dos Anjos (Angel’s Beach) surface water—Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), an environment affected by upwelling. In order to evaluate the potential for screening natural products in Arraial do Cabo samples, we used KS (keto-synthase) and C (condensation) domains (from PKS and NRPS, respectively) to build Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models. From both samples, a total of 84 KS and 46 C novel domain sequences were obtained, showing the potential of this environment for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest. These domains were classified by phylogenetic analysis and this was the first study conducted to screen PKS and NRPS genes in an upwelling affected sample PMID:26633360

  7. Sequence analysis of MHC class I alpha 2 domain exon variants in one diploid and two haploid Atlantic salmon pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Grimholt, U; Olsaker, I; Lingaas, F; Lie, O

    1997-12-01

    Genetic diversity in the second domain exon of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class I was investigated in two dams and nine of their haploid offspring by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis. A similar study was also performed on nine diploid offspring from one of these dams. The complex segregation patterns and sequence similarities between variants make definitive allele, haplotype and locus assignments difficult. There are, however, indications of six Mhc-Sasa class I loci and a fairly well-defined haplotype of four variants. One non-polymorphic variant present in most specimens could be a salmon analogue to the human non-classical loci. PMID:9589580

  8. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of beta-4 cDNA: an integrin subunit that contains a unique 118 kd cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, F; Kuikman, I; von dem Borne, A E; Sonnenberg, A

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 6 beta 4 complex is a member of the integrin superfamily of adhesion receptors. A human keratinocyte lambda gt11 cDNA library was screened using a monoclonal antibody directed against the beta 4 subunit. Two cDNAs were selected and subsequently used to isolate a complete set of overlapping cDNA clones. The beta 4 subunit consists of 1778 amino acids with a 683 amino acid extracellular domain, a 23 amino acid transmembrane domain and an exceptionally long cytoplasmic domain of 1072 residues. The deduced amino-terminal sequence is in good agreement with the published amino-terminal sequence of purified beta 4. The extracellular domain contains five potential N-linked glycosylation sites and four cysteine-rich homologous repeat sequences. The extracellular part of the beta 4 subunit sequence shows 35% identify with other integrin beta subunits, but is the most different among this class of molecules. The transmembrane region is poorly conserved, whereas the cytoplasmic domain shows no substantial identity in any region to the cytoplasmic tails of the known beta sequences or to other protein sequences. The exceptionally long cytoplasmic domain suggests distinct interactions of the beta 4 subunit with cytoplasmic proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2311578

  10. Crystal Structure of Human Soluble Adenylate Cyclase Reveals a Distinct, Highly Flexible Allosteric Bicarbonate Binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Saalau-Bethell, Susanne M; Berdini, Valerio; Cleasby, Anne; Congreve, Miles; Coyle, Joseph E; Lock, Victoria; Murray, Christopher W; O'Brien, M Alistair; Rich, Sharna J; Sambrook, Tracey; Vinkovic, Mladen; Yon, Jeff R; Jhoti, Harren

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein. PMID:24616449

  11. Geographically Distinct and Domain-Specific Sequence Variations in the Alleles of Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pib

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Kumar; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, which is the most destructive fungal pathogen affecting rice growing regions worldwide. The rice blast resistance gene Pib confers broad-spectrum resistance against Southeast Asian M. oryzae races. We investigated the allelic diversity of Pib in rice germplasm originating from 12 major rice growing countries. Twenty-five new Pib alleles were identified that have unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions and/or deletions, in addition to the polymorphic nucleotides that are shared between the different alleles. These partially or completely shared polymorphic nucleotides indicate frequent sequence exchange events between the Pib alleles. In some of the new Pib alleles, nucleotide diversity is high in the LRR domain, whereas, in others it is distributed among the NB-ARC and LRR domains. Most of the polymorphic amino acids in LRR and NB-ARC2 domains are predicted as solvent-exposed. Several of the alleles and the unique SNPs are country specific, suggesting a diversifying selection of alleles in various geographical locations in response to the locally prevalent M. oryzae population. Together, the new Pib alleles are an important genetic resource for rice blast resistance breeding programs and provide new information on rice-M. oryzae interactions at the molecular level. PMID:27446145

  12. OB-fold domains: a snapshot of the evolution of sequence, structure and function.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery

    2002-12-01

    The OB-fold is found in all three kingdoms and is well represented in both sequence and structural databases. The OB-fold is a five-stranded closed beta barrel and the majority of OB-fold proteins use the same face for ligand binding or as an active site. Different OB-fold proteins use this 'fold-related binding face' to, variously, bind oligosaccharides, oligonucleotides, proteins, metal ions and catalytic substrates. Recently, a number of new structures with OB-folds have been reported that augment the variation seen for this set of proteins whilst conserving the characteristic fold and binding face. The conservation of fold and a functional binding face amongst many structures provides a model for investigating the evolutionary trajectory of sequence, structure and function. PMID:12504685

  13. Domain General Sequence Operations Contribute to Pre-SMA Involvement in Visuo-spatial Processing.

    PubMed

    Leek, E Charles; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Johnston, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA) in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed Mental Rotation (MR) in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation (GN) in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow) cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement. PMID:26858623

  14. Domain General Sequence Operations Contribute to Pre-SMA Involvement in Visuo-spatial Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leek, E. Charles; Yuen, Kenneth S. L; Johnston, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA) in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed Mental Rotation (MR) in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation (GN) in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow) cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement. PMID:26858623

  15. The energy landscape of adenylate kinase during catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, S. Jordan; Agafonov, Roman V.; Cho, Young-Jin; Pontiggia, Francesco; Otten, Renee; Pachov, Dimitar V.; Kutter, Steffen; Phung, Lien A.; Murphy, Padraig N.; Thai, Vu; Alber, Tom; Hagan, Michael F.; Kern, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    Kinases perform phosphoryl-transfer reactions in milliseconds; without enzymes, these reactions would take about 8000 years under physiological conditions. Despite extensive studies, a comprehensive understanding of kinase energy landscapes, including both chemical and conformational steps, is lacking. Here we scrutinize the microscopic steps in the catalytic cycle of adenylate kinase, through a combination of NMR measurements during catalysis, pre-steady-state kinetics, MD simulations, and crystallography of active complexes. We find that the Mg2+ cofactor activates two distinct molecular events, phosphoryl transfer (>105-fold) and lid-opening (103-fold). In contrast, mutation of an essential active-site arginine decelerates phosphoryl transfer 103-fold without substantially affecting lid-opening. Our results highlight the importance of the entire energy landscape in catalysis and suggest that adenylate kinases have evolved to activate key processes simultaneously by precise placement of a single, charged and very abundant cofactor in a pre-organized active site. PMID:25580578

  16. Aminoacyl transfer from an adenylate anhydride to polyribonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Imidazole catalysis of phenylalanyl transfer from phenylalanine adenylate to hydroxyl groups of homopolyribonucleotides is studied as a possible chemical model of biochemical aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA). The effect of pH on imidazole-catalyzed transfer of phenylalanyl residues to poly(U) and poly(A) double helix strands, the number of peptide linkages and their lability to base and neutral hydroxylamine, and the nature of adenylate condensation products are investigated. The chemical model entertained exhibits a constraint by not acylating the hydroxyl groups of polyribonucleotides in a double helix. The constraint is consistent with selective biochemical aminoacylation at the tRNA terminus. Interest in imidazole as a model of histidine residue in protoenzymes participating in prebiotic aminoacyl transfer to polyribonucleotides, and in rendering the tRNA a more efficient adaptor, is indicated.

  17. Mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase by Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Bennett, V; Cuatrecasas, P

    1975-06-01

    The kinetics and properties of the activation of adenylate cyclase by cholera enterotoxin have been examined primarily in toad erythrocytes, but also in avian erythrocytes, rat fat cells and cultured melanoma cells. When cholera toxin is incubated with intact cells it stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, as measured in the subsequently isolated plasma membranes, according to a triphasic time course. This consists of a true lag period of about 30 min, followed by a stage of exponentially increasing adenylate cyclase activity which continues for 110 to 130 min, and finally a period of slow activation which may extend as long as 30 hr in cultured melanoma cells. The progressive activation of adenylate cyclase activity by cholera toxin is interrupted by cell lysis; continued incubation of the isolated membranes under nearly identical conditions does not lead to further activation of the enzyme. The delay in the action of the toxin is not grossly dependent of the number of toxin-receptor (GM1 ganglioside) complexes, and is still seen upon adding a second dose of toxin to partially stimulated cells. Direct measurements indicate negligible intracellular levels of biologically active radioiodinated toxin in either a soluble or a nuclear-bound form. The effects are not prevented by Actinomycin D (20 mug/ml), uromycin (30 mug/ml), cycloheximide (30 mug/ml), sodium fluoride (10 mM) or sodium azide (1 mM); KCN, however, almost completely prevents the action of cholera toxin. The action of the toxin is temperature dependent, occurring at very slow or negligible rates below certain critical temperatures, the values of which depend on the specific animal species. Thetransition for toad erythrocytes occurs at 15 to 17 degrees C, while rat adipocytes and turkey erythrocytes demonstrate a discontinuity at 26 to 30 degrees C. The temperature effects are evident during the lag period as well as during the exponential phase of activation. The rate of decay of the stimulated adenylate

  18. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  19. Subcellular localization of adenylate kinases in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jipeng; Rahlfs, Stefan; Jortzik, Esther; Schirmer, R Heiner; Przyborski, Jude M; Becker, Katja

    2012-09-21

    Adenylate kinases (AK) play a key role in nucleotide signaling processes and energy metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of ATP and AMP to 2 ADP. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum this reaction is mediated by AK1, AK2, and a GTP:AMP phosphotransferase (GAK). Here, we describe two additional adenylate kinase-like proteins: PfAKLP1, which is homologous to human AK6, and PfAKLP2. Using GFP-fusion proteins and life cell imaging, we demonstrate a cytosolic localization for PfAK1, PfAKLP1, and PfAKLP2, whereas PfGAK is located in the mitochondrion. PfAK2 is located at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, and this localization is driven by N-myristoylation. PMID:22819813

  20. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explain observed abnormalities of phosphorylase activation and sarcoplasmic reticulum function. PMID:6271806

  1. Modification of adenylate cyclase by photoaffinity analogs of forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L.T.; Nie, Z.M.; Mende, T.J.; Richardson, S.; Chavan, A.; Kolaczkowska, E.; Watt, D.S.; Haley, B.E.; Ho, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling analogs of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (PF) have been synthesized, purified and tested for their effect on preparations of membrane-bound, Lubrol solubilized and forskolin affinity-purified adenylate cyclase (AC). All analogs of forskolin significantly activated AC. However, in the presence of 0.1 to 0.3 microM forskolin, the less active forskolin photoaffinity probes at 100 microM caused inhibition. This inhibition was dose-dependent for PF, suggesting that PF may complete with F for the same binding site(s). After cross-linking (125I)PF-M to either membrane or Lubrol-solubilized AC preparations by photolysis, a radiolabeled 100-110 kDa protein band was observed after autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. F at 100 microM blocked the photoradiolabeling of this protein. Radioiodination of forskolin-affinity purified AC showed several protein bands on autoradiogram, however, only one band (Mr = 100-110 kDa) was specifically labeled by (125I)PF-M following photolysis. The photoaffinity-labeled protein of 100-110 kDa of AC preparation of rat adipocyte may be the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase of rat adipocyte itself as supported by the facts that (a) no other AC-regulatory proteins are known to be of this size, (b) the catalytic unit of bovine brain enzyme is in the same range and (c) this PF specifically stimulates AC activity when assayed alone, and weekly inhibits forskolin-activation of cyclase. These studies indicate that radiolabeled PF probes may be useful for photolabeling and detecting the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  2. Energetics and Structural Characterization of the large-scale Functional Motion of Adenylate Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formoso, Elena; Limongelli, Vittorio; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Adenylate Kinase (AK) is a signal transducing protein that regulates cellular energy homeostasis balancing between different conformations. An alteration of its activity can lead to severe pathologies such as heart failure, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A comprehensive elucidation of the large-scale conformational motions that rule the functional mechanism of this enzyme is of great value to guide rationally the development of new medications. Here using a metadynamics-based computational protocol we elucidate the thermodynamics and structural properties underlying the AK functional transitions. The free energy estimation of the conformational motions of the enzyme allows characterizing the sequence of events that regulate its action. We reveal the atomistic details of the most relevant enzyme states, identifying residues such as Arg119 and Lys13, which play a key role during the conformational transitions and represent druggable spots to design enzyme inhibitors. Our study offers tools that open new areas of investigation on large-scale motion in proteins.

  3. Adenylate cyclase mediates olfactory transduction for a wide variety of odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, G; Nakamura, T; Gold, G H

    1989-01-01

    An odor-stimulated adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] is thought to mediate olfactory transduction in vertebrates. However, it is not known whether the adenylate cyclase serves this function for all odorants or for only certain classes of odorants. To investigate this question, we have compared the abilities of 35 odorants to stimulate the adenylate cyclase and to elicit an electrophysiological response. We report a strong positive correlation between the magnitude of adenylate cyclase stimulation and the summated electrical response of the olfactory epithelium (electro-olfactogram) evoked by individual odorants. We also show that the adenylate cyclase stimulator forskolin equally attenuates the electro-olfactogram response for all odorants tested. These data provide evidence that the adenylate cyclase mediates transduction for a wide variety of odorants. PMID:2787513

  4. Yeast mating pheromone alpha factor inhibits adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, H; Thorner, J

    1980-01-01

    The pheromone alpha factor, secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of the alpha mating type, serves to synchronize the opposite mating type (a cells) at G1 as a prelude to fusion of the two cell types. We found that, in vitro, alpha factor inhibited the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, one class (ste5) of a cell mutants that grow normally at either 23 degrees or 34 degrees C but that are unable to respond to alpha factor or to mate at the higher temperature possessed an adenylate cyclase activity that was not inhibited by alpha factor at 34 degrees C but was fully sensitive to inhibition at 23 degrees C. Furthermore, addition of cyclic AMP to a cell culture medium shortened the period of pheromone-induced G1 arrest. We conclude that inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by alpha factor may constitute, at least in part, the biochemical mode of action of the pheromone in vivo. PMID:6246513

  5. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  6. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Adenylate Cyclase.

    PubMed

    Guard, Jean; Abdo, Zaid; Byers, Sara Overstreet; Kriebel, Patrick; Rothrock, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaA). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database had 378 cyaA sequences from S. enterica subspecies I, which included 42 unique DNA sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. Five representative isolates, namely serotypes Typhimurium, Kentucky, Enteritidis phage type PT4, and two variants of Enteritidis phage type PT13a, were differentiated within a microsphere-based fluidics system in cyaA by allele-specific primer extension. Validation against 25 poultry-related environmental Salmonella isolates representing 11 serotypes yielded a ∼89% success rate at identifying the serotype of the isolate, and a different region could be targeted to achieve 100%. When coupled with ISR, all serotypes were differentiated. Phage lineages of serotype Enteritidis 13a and 4 were identified, and a biofilm-forming strain of PT13a was differentiated from a smooth phenotype within phage type. Comparative ranking of mutation indices to genes such as the tRNA transferases, the diguanylate cyclases, and genes used for multilocus sequence typing indicated that cyaA is an appropriate gene for assessing epidemiological trends of Salmonella because of its relative stability in nucleotide composition. PMID:27035032

  7. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Adenylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Zaid; Byers, Sara Overstreet; Kriebel, Patrick; Rothrock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaA). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database had 378 cyaA sequences from S. enterica subspecies I, which included 42 unique DNA sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. Five representative isolates, namely serotypes Typhimurium, Kentucky, Enteritidis phage type PT4, and two variants of Enteritidis phage type PT13a, were differentiated within a microsphere-based fluidics system in cyaA by allele-specific primer extension. Validation against 25 poultry-related environmental Salmonella isolates representing 11 serotypes yielded a ∼89% success rate at identifying the serotype of the isolate, and a different region could be targeted to achieve 100%. When coupled with ISR, all serotypes were differentiated. Phage lineages of serotype Enteritidis 13a and 4 were identified, and a biofilm-forming strain of PT13a was differentiated from a smooth phenotype within phage type. Comparative ranking of mutation indices to genes such as the tRNA transferases, the diguanylate cyclases, and genes used for multilocus sequence typing indicated that cyaA is an appropriate gene for assessing epidemiological trends of Salmonella because of its relative stability in nucleotide composition. PMID:27035032

  8. Ultrafast differential flexibility of Cro-protein binding domains of two operator DNAs with different sequences.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Susobhan; Ghosh, Basusree; Singh, Priya; Ghosh, Raka; Roy, Siddhartha; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-07-21

    The nature of the interface of specific protein-DNA complexes has attracted immense interest in contemporary molecular biology. Although extensive studies on the role of flexibility of DNA in the specific interaction in the genetic regulatory activity of lambda Cro (Cro-protein) have been performed, the exploration of quantitative features remains deficient. In this study, we have mutated (site directed mutagenesis: SDM) Cro-protein at the 37th position with a cysteine residue (G37C) retaining the functional integrity of the protein and labelled the cysteine residue, which is close to the interface, with a fluorescent probe (AEDANS), for the investigation of its interface with operator DNAs (OR3 and OR2). We have employed picosecond resolved polarization gated fluorescence spectroscopy and the well known strategy of solvation dynamics for the exploration of physical motions of the fluorescent probes and associated environments, respectively. Even though this particular probe on the protein (AEDANS) shows marginal changes in its structural flexibility upon interaction with the DNAs, a non-covalent DNA bound probe (DAPI), which binds to the minor groove, shows a major differential alteration in the dynamical flexibility in the OR3-Cro complex when compared to that of the OR2 complex with the Cro-protein. We attempt to correlate the observed significant structural fluctuation of the Cro-protein binding domain of OR3 for the specificity of the protein to the operator DNA. PMID:27326896

  9. CONSERVED SEQUENCE IN THE AGGRECAN INTERGLOBULAR DOMAIN MODULATES CLEAVAGE BY ADAMTS-4 AND ADAMTS-5

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Gerken, Thomas A; Huynh, Tru D; Duesler, Lori R; Cotter, Meghan; Hering, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cleavage of aggrecan by ADAMTS proteinases at specific sites within highly conserved regions may be important to normal physiological enzyme functions, as well as pathological degradation. Methods To examine ADAMTS selectivity, we assayed ADAMTS-4 and -5 cleavage of recombinant bovine aggrecan mutated at amino acids N-terminal or C-terminal to the interglobular domain cleavage site. Results Mutations of conserved amino acids from P18 to P12 to increase hydrophilicity resulted in ADAMTS-4 cleavage inhibition. Mutation of Thr, but not Asn within the conserved N-glycosylation motif Asn-Ile-Thr from P6 to P4 enhanced cleavage. Mutation of conserved Thr residues from P22 to P17 to increase hydrophobicity enhanced ADAMTS-4 cleavage. A P4′ Ser377Gln mutant inhibited cleavage by ADAMTS-4 and -5, while a neutral Ser377Ala mutant and species mimicking mutants Ser377Thr, Ser377Asn, and Arg375Leu were cleaved normally by ADAMTS-4. The Ser377Thr mutant, however, was resistant to cleavage by ADAMTS-5. Conclusion We have identified multiple conserved amino acids within regions N- and C-terminal to the site of scission that may influence enzyme-substrate recognition, and may interact with exosites on ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5. General Significance Inhibition of the binding of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 exosites to aggrecan should be explored as a therapeutic intervention for osteoarthritis. PMID:19101611

  10. Identification of cross-reactive single-domain antibodies against serum albumin using next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Tanha, Jamshid; Hussack, Greg

    2015-10-01

    Antibodies that cross-react with multiple isoforms or homologue of a given protein are often desirable, especially in therapeutic applications. Here, we report the identification of several unique, clonally unrelated, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind to multiple serum albumin orthologues (human, rhesus, rat and mouse) with low-to-medium nanomolar affinity from a llama immunized only with human serum albumin. Using single-round panning of a phage-displayed sdAb library against serum albumins and next-generation DNA sequencing, we were able to predict patterns of sdAb reactivity to the albumins of different species with ∼90% accuracy. We expect this strategy to be generally applicable for identifying cross-reactive sdAbs, particularly when these exist at low frequency and/or are poorly enriched by panning. Moreover, the sdAbs identified here are of potential interest for serum half-life extension of biologics. PMID:26319004

  11. Ultra-broadband phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry with a temporally sequenced multi-frequency source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyong; Pan, Zhengqing; Fang, Zujie; Ye, Qing; Lu, Bin; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-11-15

    A phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) with a temporally sequenced multi-frequency (TSMF) source is proposed. This technique can improve the system detection bandwidth without the sensing range decreasing. Up to 0.5 MHz detection bandwidth over 9.6 km is experimentally demonstrated as an example. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a high detection bandwidth over such a long sensing range is reported in Φ-OTDR-based distributed vibration sensing. The technical issues of TSMF Φ-OTDR are discussed in this Letter. This technique will help Φ-OTDR find new important foreground in long-haul distributed broadband-detection applications, such as structural-health monitoring and partial-discharge online monitoring of high voltage power cables. PMID:26565832

  12. HMMerThread: Detecting Remote, Functional Conserved Domains in Entire Genomes by Combining Relaxed Sequence-Database Searches with Fold Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Charles Richard; Surendranath, Vineeth; Henschel, Robert; Mueller, Matthias Stefan; Habermann, Bianca Hermine

    2011-01-01

    Conserved domains in proteins are one of the major sources of functional information for experimental design and genome-level annotation. Though search tools for conserved domain databases such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are sensitive in detecting conserved domains in proteins when they share sufficient sequence similarity, they tend to miss more divergent family members, as they lack a reliable statistical framework for the detection of low sequence similarity. We have developed a greatly improved HMMerThread algorithm that can detect remotely conserved domains in highly divergent sequences. HMMerThread combines relaxed conserved domain searches with fold recognition to eliminate false positive, sequence-based identifications. With an accuracy of 90%, our software is able to automatically predict highly divergent members of conserved domain families with an associated 3-dimensional structure. We give additional confidence to our predictions by validation across species. We have run HMMerThread searches on eight proteomes including human and present a rich resource of remotely conserved domains, which adds significantly to the functional annotation of entire proteomes. We find ∼4500 cross-species validated, remotely conserved domain predictions in the human proteome alone. As an example, we find a DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal part of the A-kinase anchor protein 10 (AKAP10), a PKA adaptor that has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and premature cardiac death, which upon stress likely translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus/nucleolus. Based on our prediction, we propose that with this HLH-domain, AKAP10 is involved in the transcriptional control of stress response. Further remotely conserved domains we discuss are examples from areas such as sporulation, chromosome segregation and signalling during immune response. The HMMerThread algorithm is able to automatically detect the presence of remotely conserved domains in proteins based on weak

  13. Genetic analysis of sequences in maltoporin that contribute to binding domains and pore structure.

    PubMed Central

    Heine, H G; Francis, G; Lee, K S; Ferenci, T

    1988-01-01

    Maltoporin (LamB protein) is a maltodextrin transport protein in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli with binding sites for bacteriophage lambda and maltosaccharides. Binding of starch by bacteria was found to inhibit swarming of Escherichia coli in soft agar plates; the inhibition was dependent on the maltodextrin affinity of maltoporin. On the basis of this observation, chemotactic cell-sorting techniques were developed for the isolation and analysis of mutants with an altered starch-binding phenotype. Fifteen lamB mutations generated by hydroxylamine and linker mutagenesis, as well as spontaneous mutations, were analyzed. The effects of the mutations on starch and lambda-binding, as well as transport specificity, were assayed. Mutations that affect residues near 8 to 18, 74 to 82, and 118 to 121 were found to affect starch binding and maltodextrin-selective functions strongly, confirming and extending previous results with substitutions at these regions. Substitutions and insertions in two previously undefined regions in the protein, in or near residues 194 and 360, also resulted in defects in maltodextrin-specific functions and indicate that C-terminal parts of the protein also contribute to the discontinuous binding and pore domains. There was a detectable transport defect in all binding-affected mutants, and one mutation caused near-total pore blocking towards both maltose and nonmaltoside. The highly discontinuous phage lambda-binding site was affected by mutations near residues 9 and 10 and 194, as well as previously established regions near residues 18, 148 to 165, 245 to 259, and 380 to 400. The significance of these mutations is discussed in the context of a model of the functional topology of maltoporin. The additional role of regions near residues 10 and 120 in maltoporin assembly, as well as starch binding, was suggested by the temperature-sensitive biogenesis of maltoporin in strains with one- or two-codon insertion at these sites. Images PMID

  14. Does Variation of the Inter-Domain Linker Sequence Modulate the Metal Binding Behaviour of Helix pomatia Cd-Metallothionein?

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Moreno, Selene; Jiménez-Martí, Elena; Palacios, Òscar; Zerbe, Oliver; Dallinger, Reinhard; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Snail metallothioneins (MTs) constitute an ideal model to study structure/function relationships in these metal-binding polypeptides. Helix pomatia harbours three MT isoforms: the highly specific CdMT and CuMT, and an unspecific Cd/CuMT, which represent paralogous proteins with extremely different metal binding preferences while sharing high sequence similarity. Preceding work allowed assessing that, although, the Cys residues are responsible for metal ion coordination, metal specificity or preference is achieved by diversification of the amino acids interspersed between them. The metal-specific MT polypeptides fold into unique, energetically-optimized complexes of defined metal content, when binding their cognate metal ions, while they produce a mixture of complexes, none of them representing a clear energy minimum, with non-cognate metal ions. Another critical, and so far mostly unexplored, region is the stretch linking the individual MT domains, each of which represents an independent metal cluster. In this work, we have designed and analyzed two HpCdMT constructs with substituted linker segments, and determined their coordination behavior when exposed to both cognate and non-cognate metal ions. Results unequivocally show that neither length nor composition of the inter-domain linker alter the features of the Zn(II)- and Cd(II)-complexes, but surprisingly that they influence their ability to bind Cu(I), the non-cognate metal ion. PMID:26703589

  15. The N-terminal fingers of chicken GATA-2 and GATA-3 are independent sequence-specific DNA binding domains.

    PubMed

    Pedone, P V; Omichinski, J G; Nony, P; Trainor, C; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1997-05-15

    The GATA family of vertebrate DNA binding regulatory proteins are expressed in diverse tissues and at different times of development. However, the DNA binding regions of these proteins possess considerable homology and recognize a rather similar range of DNA sequence motifs. DNA binding is mediated through two domains, each containing a zinc finger. Previous results have led to the conclusion that although in some cases the N-terminal finger can contribute to specificity and strength of binding, it does not bind independently, whereas the C-terminal finger is both necessary and sufficient for binding. Here we show that although this is true for the N-terminal finger of GATA-1, those of GATA-2 and GATA-3 are capable of strong independent binding with a preference for the motif GATC. Binding requires the presence of two basic regions located on either side of the N-terminal finger. The absence of one of these near the GATA-1 N-terminal finger probably accounts for its inability to bind. The combination of a single finger and two basic regions is a new variant of a motif that has been previously found in the binding domains of other finger proteins. Our results suggest that the DNA binding properties of the N-terminal finger may help distinguish GATA-2 and GATA-3 from GATA-1 and the other GATA family members in their selective regulatory roles in vivo. PMID:9184231

  16. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10766.001 PMID:26650353

  17. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. PMID:26650353

  18. Can template-based protein models guide the design of sequence fitness for enhanced thermal stability of single domain antibodies?

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark A; Zabetakis, Dan; Legler, Patricia M; Turner, Kendrick B; Anderson, George P; Goldman, Ellen R

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the practical use of comparative (template-based) protein models in replica-exchange simulations of single-domain antibody (sdAb) chains to evaluate if the models can correctly predict in rank order the thermal susceptibility to unfold relative to experimental melting temperatures. The baseline model system is the recently determined crystallographic structure of a llama sdAb (denoted as A3), which exhibits an unusually high thermal stability. An evaluation of the simulation results for the A3 comparative model and crystal structure shows that, despite the overall low Cα root-mean-square deviation between the two structures, the model contains misfolded regions that yields a thermal profile of unraveling at a lower temperature. Yet comparison of the simulations of four different comparative models for sdAb A3, C8, A3C8 and E9, where A3C8 is a design of swapping the sequence of the complementarity determining regions of C8 onto the A3 framework, discriminated among the sequences to detect the highest and lowest experimental melting transition temperatures. Further structural analysis of A3 for selected alanine substitutions by a combined computational and experimental study found unexpectedly that the comparative model performed admirably in recognizing substitution 'hot spots' when using a support-vector machine algorithm. PMID:26374895

  19. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream of SOX9 and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Attanasio, Catia; Bhatia, Shipra; Benko, Sabina; Ansari, Morad; Tan, Tiong Y.; Munnich, Arnold; Pennacchio, Len A.; Abadie, Véronique; Temple, I. Karen; Goldenberg, Alice; van Heyningen, Veronica; Amiel, Jeanne; FitzPatrick, David; Kleinjan, Dirk A.; Visel, Axel; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions and duplications within a ~2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus for isolated PRS at ~1.2-1.5 Mb upstream of SOX9 has been previously reported. The craniofacial regulatory potential within this locus, and within the greater genomic domain surrounding SOX9, remains poorly defined. We report two novel deletions upstream of SOX9 in families with PRS, allowing refinement of the regions harbouring candidate craniofacial regulatory elements. In parallel, ChIP-Seq for p300 binding sites in mouse craniofacial tissue led to the identification of several novel craniofacial enhancers at the SOX9 locus, which were validated in transgenic reporter mice and zebrafish. Notably, some of the functionally validated elements fall within the PRS deletions. These studies suggest that multiple non-coding elements contribute to the craniofacial regulation of SOX9 expression, and that their disruption results in PRS. PMID:24934569

  20. Structural insight into photoactivation of an adenylate cyclase from a photosynthetic cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Mio; Sugiyama, Kanako; Kawai, Fumihiro; Tanaka, Hitomi; Nihei, Yuuki; Unzai, Satoru; Takebe, Masumi; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Shibayama, Naoya; Zhou, Zhiwen; Koyama, Ryuta; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tame, Jeremy R. H.; Iseki, Mineo; Park, Sam-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic-AMP is one of the most important second messengers, regulating many crucial cellular events in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and precise spatial and temporal control of cAMP levels by light shows great promise as a simple means of manipulating and studying numerous cell pathways and processes. The photoactivated adenylate cyclase (PAC) from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) is a small homodimer eminently suitable for this task, requiring only a simple flavin chromophore within a blue light using flavin (BLUF) domain. These domains, one of the most studied types of biological photoreceptor, respond to blue light and either regulate the activity of an attached enzyme domain or change its affinity for a repressor protein. BLUF domains were discovered through studies of photo-induced movements of Euglena gracilis, a unicellular flagellate, and gene expression in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, but the precise details of light activation remain unknown. Here, we describe crystal structures and the light regulation mechanism of the previously undescribed OaPAC, showing a central coiled coil transmits changes from the light-sensing domains to the active sites with minimal structural rearrangement. Site-directed mutants show residues essential for signal transduction over 45 Å across the protein. The use of the protein in living human cells is demonstrated with cAMP-dependent luciferase, showing a rapid and stable response to light over many hours and activation cycles. The structures determined in this study will assist future efforts to create artificial light-regulated control modules as part of a general optogenetic toolkit. PMID:27247413

  1. Structural insight into photoactivation of an adenylate cyclase from a photosynthetic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Mio; Sugiyama, Kanako; Kawai, Fumihiro; Tanaka, Hitomi; Nihei, Yuuki; Unzai, Satoru; Takebe, Masumi; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Adachi, Shin-Ichi; Shibayama, Naoya; Zhou, Zhiwen; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tame, Jeremy R H; Iseki, Mineo; Park, Sam-Yong

    2016-06-14

    Cyclic-AMP is one of the most important second messengers, regulating many crucial cellular events in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and precise spatial and temporal control of cAMP levels by light shows great promise as a simple means of manipulating and studying numerous cell pathways and processes. The photoactivated adenylate cyclase (PAC) from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) is a small homodimer eminently suitable for this task, requiring only a simple flavin chromophore within a blue light using flavin (BLUF) domain. These domains, one of the most studied types of biological photoreceptor, respond to blue light and either regulate the activity of an attached enzyme domain or change its affinity for a repressor protein. BLUF domains were discovered through studies of photo-induced movements of Euglena gracilis, a unicellular flagellate, and gene expression in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, but the precise details of light activation remain unknown. Here, we describe crystal structures and the light regulation mechanism of the previously undescribed OaPAC, showing a central coiled coil transmits changes from the light-sensing domains to the active sites with minimal structural rearrangement. Site-directed mutants show residues essential for signal transduction over 45 Å across the protein. The use of the protein in living human cells is demonstrated with cAMP-dependent luciferase, showing a rapid and stable response to light over many hours and activation cycles. The structures determined in this study will assist future efforts to create artificial light-regulated control modules as part of a general optogenetic toolkit. PMID:27247413

  2. Coordinated changes of adenylate energy charge and ATP/ADP: use in ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Thébault, M T; Raffin, J P; Picado, A M; Mendonça, E; Skorkowski, E F; Le Gal, Y

    2000-05-01

    The coordinated variations of the adenylate energy charge and ATP/ADP ratio were modeled and a function that depends on the numerical value of the adenylate kinase-catalyzed reaction has been derived. The model allows sensitive detection of the effects of xenobiotics on adenylate kinase and its cellular environment and offers a robust estimation of the direct or indirect effects of pollutants on the adenylate kinase system: data obtained in laboratory studies on shrimp exposed to cadmium and in field studies on oysters either exposed to polychloro-biphenyl compounds or located in a heavily polluted area indicate that xenobiotics affect the adenylate kinase reaction directly or by changing its cellular environment. These results demonstrate that application of the model to the treatment of ecotoxicological data allows detection of energetic changes that would have been missed by simple analysis of the usual energetic parameters, and should overcome problems encountered in using energetic parameters during assessment of pollution monitoring. PMID:10805989

  3. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh; Finley, Natosha L.

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken

  4. Chirally selective, intramolecular interaction observed in an aminoacyl adenylate anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, James C.; Hall, Leo M.; Mullins, Dail W.; Watkins, Charles L.

    1985-06-01

    All earthly creatures use only L-amino acids in template directed protein synthesis. The reason for this exclusive use of the L-isomer is not yet apparent, although recent experiments by Usher and his colleagues have shown some stereoselctivity in the aminoacylation of di- and polynucleotides [1 3]. We have separately reported on intramolecular interactions between hydrophobic amino acid side chains and the adenine ring in aminoacyl adenylates [4]. There was a preferential association of Phe > Leu = Ile > Val with the adenine in these studies, but we made no attempts to address the question of D, L selectivity. Recently, in1H NMR studies of N-acetylphenylalanyl adenylate anhydride, we noticed evidence that both D- and L-isomers of the amino acid were present and, furthermore, that one isomer seemed to be associating with the adenine ring more strongly than the other. Using HPLC, we have separated the two diastereoisomers and have enzymatically determined that the isomer which associates more strongly is the biologically important one, the L-isomer. We present those studies here and discuss the evolutionary significance of this finding.

  5. Adenylate Energy Charge in Escherichia coli During Growth and Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Astrid G.; Fall, Lana; Atkinson, Daniel E.

    1971-01-01

    The value of the adenylate energy charge, [(adenosine triphosphate) + ½ (adenosine diphosphate)]/[(adenosine triphosphate) + (adenosine diphosphate) + (adenosine monophosphate)], in Escherichia coli cells during growth is about 0.8. During the stationary phase after cessation of growth, or during starvation in carbon-limited cultures, the energy charge declines slowly to a value of about 0.5, and then falls more rapidly. During the slow decline in energy charge, all the cells are capable of forming colonies, but a rapid fall in viability coincides with the steep drop in energy charge. These results suggest that growth can occur only at energy charge values above about 0.8, that viability is maintained at values between 0.8 and 0.5, and that cells die at values below 0.5. Tabulation of adenylate concentrations previously reported for various organisms and tissues supports the prediction, based on enzyme kinetic observations in vitro, that the energy charge is stabilized near 0.85 in intact metabolizing cells of a wide variety of types. PMID:4333317

  6. Adenylate cyclase in Arthrospira platensis responds to light through transcription.

    PubMed

    Kashith, M; Keerthana, B; Sriram, S; Ramamurthy, V

    2016-08-19

    Cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule, but its role in higher plants was in doubt due to its very low concentration. In this study we wanted to look at the flux of cAMP in response to light in algae, considered to be the more primitive form of photosynthetic organisms. While it did not fluctuate very much in the tested green algae, in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis its level was closely linked to exposure to light. The expression from cyaC, the major isoform of adenylate cyclase was strongly influenced by exposure of the cells to light. There was about 300 fold enhancement of cyaC transcripts in cells exposed to light compared to the transcripts in cells in the dark. Although post-translational regulation of adenylate cyclase activity has been widely known, our studies suggest that transcriptional control could also be an important aspect of its regulation in A. platensis. PMID:27311855

  7. Crystal structure of the magnetobacterial protein MtxA C-terminal domain reveals a new sequence-structure relationship

    PubMed Central

    Davidov, Geula; Müller, Frank D.; Baumgartner, Jens; Bitton, Ronit; Faivre, Damien; Schüler, Dirk; Zarivach, Raz

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of aquatic bacteria that have the magnetotaxis ability to align themselves along the geomagnetic field lines and to navigate to a microoxic zone at the bottom of chemically stratified natural water. This special navigation is the result of a unique linear assembly of a specialized organelle, the magnetosome, which contains a biomineralized magnetic nanocrystal enveloped by a cytoplasmic membrane. The Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MtxA protein (MGR_0208) was suggested to play a role in bacterial magnetotaxis due to its gene location in an operon together with putative signal transduction genes. Since no homology is found for MtxA, and to better understand the role and function of MtxA in MTBés magnetotaxis, we initiated structural and functional studies of MtxA via X-ray crystallography and deletion mutagenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of the MtxA C-terminal domain and provide new insights into its sequence-structure relationship. PMID:26052516

  8. Aniridia-associated translocations, DNase hypersensitivity, sequence comparison and transgenic analysis redefine the functional domain of PAX6.

    PubMed

    Kleinjan, D A; Seawright, A; Schedl, A; Quinlan, R A; Danes, S; van Heyningen, V

    2001-09-15

    The transcription factor PAX6 plays a critical, evolutionarily conserved role in eye, brain and olfactory development. Homozygous loss of PAX6 function affects all expressing tissues and is neonatally lethal; heterozygous null mutations cause aniridia in humans and the Small eye (Sey) phenotype in mice. Several upstream and intragenic PAX6 control elements have been defined, generally through transgenesis. However, aniridia cases with chromosomal rearrangements far downstream of an intact PAX6 gene suggested a requirement for additional cis-acting control for correct gene expression. The likely location of such elements is pinpointed through YAC transgenic studies. A 420 kb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone, extending well beyond the most distant patient breakpoint, was previously shown to rescue homozygous Small eye lethality and correct the heterozygous eye phenotype. We now show that a 310 kb YAC clone, terminating just 5' of the breakpoint, fails to influence the Sey phenotypes. Using evolutionary sequence comparison, DNaseI hypersensitivity analysis and transgenic reporter studies, we have identified a region, >150 kb distal to the major PAX6 promoter P1, containing regulatory elements. Components of this downstream regulatory region drive reporter expression in distinct partial PAX6 patterns, indicating that the functional PAX6 gene domain extends far beyond the transcription unit. PMID:11590122

  9. Identification of the binding domain for NADP sup + of human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by sequence analysis of mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, A.; Kuhl, W.; Gelbart, T.; Forman, L.; Beutler, E. ); Fairbanks, V.F. )

    1989-12-01

    Human erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate is normally quite stable in the presence of 10 {mu}M NADP{sup +}. Certain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants lose virtually all their activity at this concentration of NADP{sup +} but are reactivated by 200 {mu}M NADP{sup +}. Such variants presumably have a defect in their NADP{sup +}-binding site. The authors analyzed the sequence of cDNA or genomic DNA from seven unrelated patients with hemolytic anemia due to the inheritance of variants that are reactivated by NADP{sup +}. Six patients had substitutions of one of three adjacent amino acids, and the seventh patient had another amino acid substitution 23 residues downstream. These amino acids are highly conserved, all being present in rat and all but one being found also in Drosophila. The anomalous electrophoretic behavior of some of the variants can be explained by their loss of ability to bind NADP{sup +}. The conclude that the region in which these mutations occur defines the binding domain for NADP{sup +} and that binding NADP{sup +} that has been designated as structural and as catalytic probably occurs at the same site.

  10. A survey of HK, HPt, and RR domains and their organization in two-component systems and phosphorelay proteins of organisms with fully sequenced genomes

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, Baldiri; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Two Component Systems and Phosphorelays (TCS/PR) are environmental signal transduction cascades in prokaryotes and, less frequently, in eukaryotes. The internal domain organization of proteins and the topology of TCS/PR cascades play an important role in shaping the responses of the circuits. It is thus important to maintain updated censuses of TCS/PR proteins in order to identify the various topologies used by nature and enable a systematic study of the dynamics associated with those topologies. To create such a census, we analyzed the proteomes of 7,609 organisms from all domains of life with fully sequenced and annotated genomes. To begin, we survey each proteome searching for proteins containing domains that are associated with internal signal transmission within TCS/PR: Histidine Kinase (HK), Response Regulator (RR) and Histidine Phosphotranfer (HPt) domains, and analyze how these domains are arranged in the individual proteins. Then, we find all types of operon organization and calculate how much more likely are proteins that contain TCS/PR domains to be coded by neighboring genes than one would expect from the genome background of each organism. Finally, we analyze if the fusion of domains into single TCS/PR proteins is more frequently observed than one might expect from the background of each proteome. We find 50 alternative ways in which the HK, HPt, and RR domains are observed to organize into single proteins. In prokaryotes, TCS/PR coding genes tend to be clustered in operons. 90% of all proteins identified in this study contain just one of the three domains, while 8% of the remaining proteins combine one copy of an HK, a RR, and/or an HPt domain. In eukaryotes, 25% of all TCS/PR proteins have more than one domain. These results might have implications for how signals are internally transmitted within TCS/PR cascades. These implications could explain the selection of the various designs in alternative circumstances. PMID:26339559

  11. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Conformational Transitions of Adenylate Kinase: A Computational Evidence for the Conformational Selection Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jie; Hao, Pei; Li, Yi-Xue; Wang, Jing-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (ADK) is a monomeric phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes reversible transfer of phosphoryl group from ATP to AMP with a large-scale domain motion. The detailed mechanism for this conformational transition remains unknown. In the current study, we performed long time-scale molecular dynamics simulations on both open and closed states of ADK. Based on the structural analyses of the simulation trajectories, we detected over 20 times conformational transitions between the open and closed states of ADK and identified two novel conformations as intermediate states in the catalytic processes. With these findings, we proposed a possible mechanism for the large-scale domain motion of Escherichia coli ADK and its catalytic process: (1) the substrate free ADK adopted an open conformation; (2) ATP bound with LID domain closure; (3) AMP bound with NMP domain closure; (4) phosphoryl transfer occurred with ATP, and AMP converted into two ADPs, and no conformational transition was detected in the enzyme; (5) LID domain opened with one ADP released; (6) another ADP released with NMP domain open. As both open and closed states sampled a wide range of conformation transitions, our simulation strongly supported the conformational selection mechanism for Escherichia coli ADK. PMID:23936827

  12. The cell attachment and spreading activity of vitronectin is dependent on the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Analysis by construction of RGD and domain deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Sane, D C

    1993-04-30

    The cell attachment activity of vitronectin has been ascribed to an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence near the amino terminus. To verify the importance of the RGD sequence for cell binding, we created RAD and RGE vitronectin mutants and also deleted either the somatomedin B (delta S-rVN) or heparin (delta H-rVN) binding domains. These mutants were expressed as fusion proteins, purified using Ni+2 affinity chromatography, and assayed for cell attachment. EAhy.926 cells bound equally well to wild-type, delta S-rVN, and to delta H-rVN, but binding to RAD-rVN and RGE-rVN was inhibited by more than 90%. We therefore conclude that the RGD sequence of vitronectin is the most important cell recognition site and that neither the somatomedin B nor heparin domains contribute significantly to the cell adhesive activity of vitronectin. PMID:7683462

  13. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K.; Zhang, Yang; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, S. oneidensis MR-1 uses the cAMP receptor protein, CRP, for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an E. coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, DMSO, or Fe(III), whereas the deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III), and to a lesser extent with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and the cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagella biosynthesis, and electron transport, were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant, but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration, and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  14. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  15. Selective anticancer activity of a hexapeptide with sequence homology to a non-kinase domain of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6 (Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6) are closely structurally homologous proteins which are classically understood to control the transition from the G1 to the S-phases of the cell cycle by combining with their appropriate cyclin D or cyclin E partners to form kinase-active holoenzymes. Deregulation of Cdk4 is widespread in human cancer, CDK4 gene knockout is highly protective against chemical and oncogene-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis, despite the continued presence of CDK2 and CDK6; and overexpresssion of Cdk4 promotes skin carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, however, Cdk4 kinase inhibitors have not yet fulfilled their expectation as 'blockbuster' anticancer agents. Resistance to inhibition of Cdk4 kinase in some cases could potentially be due to a non-kinase activity, as recently reported with epidermal growth factor receptor. Results A search for a potential functional site of non-kinase activity present in Cdk4 but not Cdk2 or Cdk6 revealed a previously-unidentified loop on the outside of the C'-terminal non-kinase domain of Cdk4, containing a central amino-acid sequence, Pro-Arg-Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (PRGPRP). An isolated hexapeptide with this sequence and its cyclic amphiphilic congeners are selectively lethal at high doses to a wide range of human cancer cell lines whilst sparing normal diploid keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Treated cancer cells do not exhibit the wide variability of dose response typically seen with other anticancer agents. Cancer cell killing by PRGPRP, in a cyclic amphiphilic cassette, requires cells to be in cycle but does not perturb cell cycle distribution and is accompanied by altered relative Cdk4/Cdk1 expression and selective decrease in ATP levels. Morphological features of apoptosis are absent and cancer cell death does not appear to involve autophagy. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential new paradigm for the development of broad-spectrum cancer specific therapeutics with a companion diagnostic

  16. Cooperative binding of the yeast Spt10p activator to the histone upstream activating sequences is mediated through an N-terminal dimerization domain

    PubMed Central

    Mendiratta, Geetu; Eriksson, Peter R.; Clark, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The yeast Spt10p activator is a putative histone acetyltransferase (HAT) possessing a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain (DBD) which binds to the upstream activation sequences (UAS elements) in the histone gene promoters. Spt10p binds to a pair of histone UAS elements with extreme positive cooperativity. The molecular basis of this cooperativity was addressed. Spt10p (640 residues) is an elongated dimer, but the isolated DBD (residues 283–396) is a monomer and binds non-cooperatively to DNA. A Spt10p fragment comprising the N-terminal domain (NTD), HAT domain and DBD (residues 1–396) binds cooperatively and is a dimer, whereas an overlapping Spt10p fragment comprising the DBD and C-terminal domains (residues 283–640) binds non-cooperatively and is a monomer. These observations imply that cooperative binding requires dimerization. The isolated NTD (residues 1–98) is a dimer and is responsible for dimerization. We propose that cooperativity involves a conformational change in the Spt10p dimer which facilitates the simultaneous recognition of two UAS elements. In vivo, deletion of the NTD results in poor growth, but does not prevent the binding at the HTA1 promoter, suggesting that dimerization is biologically important. Residues 1–396 are sufficient for normal growth, indicating that the critical functions of Spt10p reside in the N-terminal domains. PMID:17202156

  17. The turkey erythrocyte beta-adrenergic receptor couples to both adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C via distinct G-protein alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    James, S R; Vaziri, C; Walker, T R; Milligan, G; Downes, C P

    1994-01-01

    By contrast with mammalian beta-adrenergic receptors, the avian isoform elicits two distinct effector responses, activation of adenylate cyclase and polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) leading to the accumulation of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and inositol phosphates. We have investigated the mechanisms of beta-adrenergic receptor signalling in turkey erythrocytes. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase by the beta-adrenergic-receptor agonist isoprenaline exhibits a 30-fold lower EC50 than that for PLC activation, which may indicate a marked receptor reserve for the former effector. Similar Ki values were obtained for the inhibition of both responses by four beta-adrenergic antagonists, arguing that a single receptor population is responsible for both effects. Antibodies raised against G-protein peptide sequences were used to show that the identity of the G-protein mediating the PLC response was an avian homologue of G11, the level of expression of which was very similar to that of the stimulatory G-protein of adenylate cyclase, Gs. Thus a single population of beta-adrenergic receptors apparently interacts with distinct G-proteins to activate different effectors. The stoichiometries of the receptor-G-protein-effector interactions are therefore similar for both second-messenger responses and the data are discussed in terms of the different efficacies observed for each response. Images Figure 4 PMID:7998968

  18. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  19. Inhibition of protein kinase C catalytic activity by additional regions within the human protein kinase Calpha-regulatory domain lying outside of the pseudosubstrate sequence.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Angie F; Bibby, Ashley C; Mvilongo, Thierry; Riedel, Heimo; Burke, Thomas; Millis, Sherri Z; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2003-07-15

    The N-terminal pseudosubstrate site within the protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha)-regulatory domain has long been regarded as the major determinant for autoinhibition of catalytic domain activity. Previously, we observed that the PKC-inhibitory capacity of the human PKCalpha-regulatory domain was only reduced partially on removal of the pseudosubstrate sequence [Parissenti, Kirwan, Kim, Colantonio and Schimmer (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8940-8945]. This finding suggested that one or more additional region(s) contributes to the inhibition of catalytic domain activity. To assess this hypothesis, we first examined the PKC-inhibitory capacity of a smaller fragment of the PKCalpha-regulatory domain consisting of the C1a, C1b and V2 regions [GST-Ralpha(39-177): this protein contained the full regulatory domain of human PKCalpha fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST), but lacked amino acids 1-38 (including the pseudosubstrate sequence) and amino acids 178-270 (including the C2 region)]. GST-Ralpha(39-177) significantly inhibited PKC in a phorbol-independent manner and could not bind the peptide substrate used in our assays. These results suggested that a region within C1/V2 directly inhibits catalytic domain activity. Providing further in vivo support for this hypothesis, we found that expression of N-terminally truncated pseudosubstrate-less bovine PKCalpha holoenzymes in yeast was capable of inhibiting cell growth in a phorbol-dependent manner. This suggested that additional autoinhibitory force(s) remained within the truncated holoenzymes that could be relieved by phorbol ester. Using tandem PCR-mediated mutagenesis, we observed that mutation of amino acids 33-86 within GST-Ralpha(39-177) dramatically reduced its PKC-inhibitory capacity when protamine was used as substrate. Mutagenesis of a broad range of sequences within C2 (amino acids 159-242) also significantly reduced PKC-inhibitory capacity. Taken together, these observations support strongly the existence of

  20. The DUSP26 phosphatase activator adenylate kinase 2 regulates FADD phosphorylation and cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ho-June; Oh, Yumin; Choi, Seon-Guk; Hong, Se-Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Song-Yi; Choi, Ji-Woo; Su Hwang, Deog; Kim, Key-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Zhang, Jianke; Youn, Hyun-Jo; Noh, Dong-Young; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2014-02-01

    Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), which balances adenine nucleotide pool, is a multi-functional protein. Here we show that AK2 negatively regulates tumour cell growth. AK2 forms a complex with dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) phosphatase and stimulates DUSP26 activity independently of its AK activity. AK2/DUSP26 phosphatase protein complex dephosphorylates fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) and regulates cell growth. AK2 deficiency enhances cell proliferation and induces tumour formation in a xenograft assay. This anti-growth function of AK2 is associated with its DUSP26-stimulating activity. Downregulation of AK2 is frequently found in tumour cells and human cancer tissues showing high levels of phospho-FADDSer194. Moreover, reconstitution of AK2 in AK2-deficient tumour cells retards both cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. Consistent with this, AK2+/- mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit enhanced cell proliferation with a significant alteration in phospho-FADDSer191. These results suggest that AK2 is an associated activator of DUSP26 and suppresses cell proliferation by FADD dephosphorylation, postulating AK2 as a negative regulator of tumour growth.

  1. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen β and α chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both β and α) gene products, respectively, all of which being ˜90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to β2-microglobulin (β2M). The membraneembedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II α chains than to class II β chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a β2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  2. Sequence comparison of new prokaryotic and mitochondrial members of the polypeptide chain release factor family predicts a five-domain model for release factor structure.

    PubMed Central

    Pel, H J; Rep, M; Grivell, L A

    1992-01-01

    We have recently reported the cloning and sequencing of the gene for the mitochondrial release factor mRF-1. mRF-1 displays high sequence similarity to the bacterial release factors RF-1 and RF-2. A database search for proteins resembling these three factors revealed high similarities to two amino acid sequences deduced from unassigned genomic reading frames in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The amino acid sequence derived from the Bacillus reading frame is 47% identical to E.coli and Salmonella typhimurium RF-2, strongly suggesting that it represents B.subtilis RF-2. Our comparison suggests that the expression of the B.subtilis gene is, like that of the E.coli and S. typhimurium RF-2 genes, autoregulated by a stop codon dependent +1 frameshift. A comparison of prokaryotic and mitochondrial release factor sequences, including the putative B.subtilis RF-2, leads us to propose a five-domain model for release factor structure. Possible functions of the various domains are discussed. PMID:1408743

  3. Identification of a Novel Calcium Binding Motif Based on the Detection of Sequence Insertions in the Animal Peroxidase Domain of Bacterial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Hernando, Saray

    2012-01-01

    Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP) superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20), where it was found to be involved in Ca2+ coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33–79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca2+ binding with a KD of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821) is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of life. PMID

  4. Identification of a novel calcium binding motif based on the detection of sequence insertions in the animal peroxidase domain of bacterial proteins.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Hernando, Saray; Krell, Tino; Ramos-González, María-Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP) superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20), where it was found to be involved in Ca(2+) coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33-79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca(2+) binding with a K(D) of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821) is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of life. PMID

  5. Sequence-Based Appraisal of the Genes Encoding Neck and Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Conglutinin in Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Sasmita; Sidappa, Chandra Mohan; Saini, Mohini; Doreswamy, Ramesh; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K.; Gupta, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    Conglutinin, a collagenous C-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in recognition of pathogens. In the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD) of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The obtained 488 bp ORFs encoding NCRD were submitted to NCBI with accession numbers KC505182 and KC505183. Both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved from NCBI GenBank using DNAstar and Megalign5.2 software. Sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity of blackbuck sequence with wild ruminants like nilgai and buffalo, whereas goat sequence displayed maximum similarity with sheep sequence at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated clear divergence of wild ruminants from the domestic ruminants in separate clusters. The predicted secondary structures of NCRD protein in goat and blackbuck using SWISSMODEL ProtParam online software were found to possess 6 beta-sheets and 3 alpha-helices which are identical to the result obtained in case of sheep, cattle, buffalo, and nilgai. However, quaternary structure in goat, sheep, and cattle was found to differ from that of buffalo, nilgai, and blackbuck, suggesting a probable variation in the efficiency of antimicrobial activity among wild and domestic ruminants. PMID:25028649

  6. The PNT domain from Drosophila pointed-P2 contains a dynamic N-terminal helix preceded by a disordered phosphoacceptor sequence.

    PubMed

    Lau, Desmond K W; Okon, Mark; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2012-11-01

    Pointed-P2, the Drosophila ortholog of human ETS1 and ETS2, is a transcription factor involved in Ras/MAP kinase-regulated gene expression. In addition to a DNA-binding ETS domain, Pointed-P2 contains a PNT (or SAM) domain that serves as a docking module to enhance phosphorylation of an adjacent phosphoacceptor threonine by the ERK2 MAP kinase Rolled. Using NMR chemical shift, ¹⁵N relaxation, and amide hydrogen exchange measurements, we demonstrate that the Pointed-P2 PNT domain contains a dynamic N-terminal helix H0 appended to a core conserved five-helix bundle diagnostic of the SAM domain fold. Neither the secondary structure nor dynamics of the PNT domain is perturbed significantly upon in vitro ERK2 phosphorylation of three threonine residues in a disordered sequence immediately preceding this domain. These data thus confirm that the Drosophila Pointed-P2 PNT domain and phosphoacceptors are highly similar to those of the well-characterized human ETS1 transcription factor. NMR-monitored titrations also revealed that the phosphoacceptors and helix H0, as well as region of the core helical bundle identified previously by mutational analyses as a kinase docking site, are selectively perturbed upon ERK2 binding by Pointed-P2. Based on a homology model derived from the ETS1 PNT domain, helix H0 is predicted to partially occlude the docking interface. Therefore, this dynamic helix must be displaced to allow both docking of the kinase, as well as binding of Mae, a Drosophila protein that negatively regulates Pointed-P2 by competing with the kinase for its docking site. PMID:22936607

  7. 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenylate cyclase in phototransduction by limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J E; Kaupp, U B; Malbon, C C

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological measurements were made on photoreceptor cells from Limulus ventral eyes to investigate the possible role of cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase in the visual transduction mechanism. Cyclic AMP content in a photoreceptor-enriched fraction (the end organs) of Limulus ventral eyes was approximately 15 pmol/mg protein. The cyclic AMP content was increased by bathing eyes in 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine or forskolin and was increased almost 100-fold when bathed in both. Illumination did not change cyclic AMP content significantly in any of these conditions. Discrete events that can be recorded electrophysiologically occur spontaneously in darkness. An increase in the frequency of discrete events is evoked by dim illumination. The discrete events are a sign of excitation of Limulus photoreceptor cells. Drug-induced changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness were not correlated with changes in cyclic AMP content. Adenylate cyclase activity measured from a small number of pooled photoreceptor clusters was stimulated by fluoride and vanadate ions, hydrolysis-resistant analogues of GTP, cholera toxin and forskolin. The Limulus enzyme is similar pharmacologically to mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Activation of adenylate cyclase by drugs was not correlated with changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness. A heat-treated Lubrol extract of membranes from Limulus ventral eyes reconstituted the adenylate cyclase activity of membranes from S49 mouse lymphoma cyc- mutant cells which lack a functional regulatory protein. These findings suggest that Limulus ventral eye photoreceptors contain a regulatory protein that mediates the activation of adenylate cyclase by guanine nucleotides, fluoride or cholera toxin. This regulatory protein is homologous with that found in mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Our findings suggest that

  8. PASS2 database for the structure-based sequence alignment of distantly related SCOP domain superfamilies: update to version 5 and added features.

    PubMed

    Gandhimathi, Arumugam; Ghosh, Pritha; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Mathew, Oommen K; Sowdhamini, R

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based sequence alignment is an essential step in assessing and analysing the relationship of distantly related proteins. PASS2 is a database that records such alignments for protein domain superfamilies and has been constantly updated periodically. This update of the PASS2 version, named as PASS2.5, directly corresponds to the SCOPe 2.04 release. All SCOPe structural domains that share less than 40% sequence identity, as defined by the ASTRAL compendium of protein structures, are included. The current version includes 1977 superfamilies and has been assembled utilizing the structure-based sequence alignment protocol. Such an alignment is obtained initially through MATT, followed by a refinement through the COMPARER program. The JOY program has been used for structural annotations of such alignments. In this update, we have automated the protocol and focused on inclusion of new features such as mapping of GO terms, absolutely conserved residues among the domains in a superfamily and inclusion of PDBs, that are absent in SCOPe 2.04, using the HMM profiles from the alignments of the superfamily members and are provided as a separate list. We have also implemented a more user-friendly manner of data presentation and options for downloading more features. PASS2.5 version is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pass2/. PMID:26553811

  9. PASS2 database for the structure-based sequence alignment of distantly related SCOP domain superfamilies: update to version 5 and added features

    PubMed Central

    Gandhimathi, Arumugam; Ghosh, Pritha; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Mathew, Oommen K.; Sowdhamini, R.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based sequence alignment is an essential step in assessing and analysing the relationship of distantly related proteins. PASS2 is a database that records such alignments for protein domain superfamilies and has been constantly updated periodically. This update of the PASS2 version, named as PASS2.5, directly corresponds to the SCOPe 2.04 release. All SCOPe structural domains that share less than 40% sequence identity, as defined by the ASTRAL compendium of protein structures, are included. The current version includes 1977 superfamilies and has been assembled utilizing the structure-based sequence alignment protocol. Such an alignment is obtained initially through MATT, followed by a refinement through the COMPARER program. The JOY program has been used for structural annotations of such alignments. In this update, we have automated the protocol and focused on inclusion of new features such as mapping of GO terms, absolutely conserved residues among the domains in a superfamily and inclusion of PDBs, that are absent in SCOPe 2.04, using the HMM profiles from the alignments of the superfamily members and are provided as a separate list. We have also implemented a more user-friendly manner of data presentation and options for downloading more features. PASS2.5 version is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pass2/. PMID:26553811

  10. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in the Entactin Domain of the Known Deafness Gene TECTA

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Juyong; Kim, Ah Reum; Mun, Sue Jean; Kang, Seong Il; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Namshin; Oh, Seung-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Postlingual progressive hearing loss, affecting primarily the high frequencies, is the clinical finding in most cases of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). The molecular genetic etiology of ADNSHL is extremely heterogeneous. We applied whole-exome sequencing to reveal the genetic etiology of high-frequency hearing loss in a mid-sized Korean family without any prior linkage data. Whole-exome sequencing of four family members (two affected and two unaffected), together with our filtering strategy based on comprehensive bioinformatics analyses, identified 21 potential pathogenic candidates. Sanger validation of an additional five family members excluded 20 variants, leaving only one novel variant, TECTA c.710C>T (p.T237I), as the strongest candidate. This variant resides in the entactin (ENT) domain and co-segregated perfectly with non-progressive high-frequency hearing loss in the family. It was absent among 700 ethnically matched control chromosomes, and the T237 residue is conserved among species, which supports its pathogenicity. Interestingly, this finding contrasted with a previously proposed genotype-phenotype correlation in which variants of the ENT domain of TECTA were associated with mid-frequency hearing loss. Based upon what we observed, we propose a novel “genotype to phenotype” correlation in the ENT domain of TECTA. Our results shed light on another important application of whole-exome sequencing: the establishment of a novel genotype-phenotype in the molecular genetic diagnosis of autosomal dominant hearing loss. PMID:24816743

  11. Single Point Mutation in Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) Sequence of Endophilin Impairs Dimerization, Membrane Shaping, and Src Homology 3 Domain-mediated Partnership*

    PubMed Central

    Gortat, Anna; San-Roman, Mabel Jouve; Vannier, Christian; Schmidt, Anne A.

    2012-01-01

    Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain-containing proteins are essential players in the dynamics of intracellular compartments. The BAR domain is an evolutionarily conserved dimeric module characterized by a crescent-shaped structure whose intrinsic curvature, flexibility, and ability to assemble into highly ordered oligomers contribute to inducing the curvature of target membranes. Endophilins, diverging into A and B subgroups, are BAR and SH3 domain-containing proteins. They exert activities in membrane dynamic processes such as endocytosis, autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and permeabilization during apoptosis. Here, we report on the involvement of the third α-helix of the endophilin A BAR sequence in dimerization and identify leucine 215 as a key residue within a network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the entire BAR dimer interface. With the combination of N-terminal truncation retaining the high dimerization capacity of the third α-helices of endophilin A and leucine 215 substitution by aspartate (L215D), we demonstrate the essential role of BAR sequence-mediated dimerization on SH3 domain partnership. In comparison with wild type, full-length endophilin A2 heterodimers with one protomer bearing the L215D substitution exhibit very significant changes in membrane binding and shaping activities as well as a dramatic decrease of SH3 domain partnership. This suggests that subtle changes in the conformation and/or rigidity of the BAR domain impact both the control of membrane curvature and downstream binding to effectors. Finally, we show that expression, in mammalian cells, of endophilin A2 bearing the L215D substitution impairs the endocytic recycling of transferrin receptors. PMID:22167186

  12. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding Halobacterium halobium adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Inouye, S; Kawai, M; Fukami-Kobayashi, K; Gõ, M; Nakazawa, A

    1996-10-10

    The gene (AK) encoding adenylate kinase (AK) of Halobacterium halobium was cloned. AK consisted of 648 bp and coded for 216 amino acids (aa). S1 mapping and primer extension experiments indicated that the transcription start point (tsp) was located immediately upstream from the start codon. The TAT-like promoter sequence was found at a position 20-24 bp upstream from tsp. The most striking property of the enzyme was a putative Zn finger-like structure with four cysteines. It might contribute to the structural stability of the molecule in high-salt conditions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated two lineages of the AK family, the short and long types which diverged a long time ago, possibly before the separation of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the H. halobium AK belongs to the long-type AK lineage, it is located in an intermediary position between the two lineages of the phylogenetic tree, indicating early divergence of the gene along the long-type lineage. PMID:8917077

  13. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The 'AC to Hly-linking segment' thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  14. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    PubMed Central

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The ‘AC to Hly-linking segment’ thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  15. Characterization of novel wheat NBS domain-containing sequences and their utilization, in silico, for genome-scale R-gene mining.

    PubMed

    Bouktila, Dhia; Habachi-Houimli, Yosra; Khalfallah, Yosra; Mezghani-Khemakhem, Maha; Makni, Mohamed; Makni, Hanem

    2014-08-01

    In crop improvement, the isolation, cloning and transfer of disease resistance genes (R-genes) is an ultimate goal usually starting from tentative R-gene analogs (RGAs) that are identified on the basis of their structure. For bread wheat, recent advances in genome sequencing are supporting the efforts of wheat geneticists worldwide. Among wheat R-genes, nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-encoding ones represent a major class. In this study, we have used a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to amplify and clone NBS-type RGAs from a bread wheat cultivar, 'Salambo 80.' Four novel complete ORF sequences showing similarities to previously reported R-genes/RGAs were used for in silico analyses. In a first step, where analyses were focused on the NBS domain, these sequences were phylogenetically assigned to two distinct groups: a first group close to leaf rust Lr21 resistance proteins; and a second one similar to cyst nematode resistance proteins. In a second step, sequences were used as initial seeds to walk up and downstream the NBS domain. This procedure enabled identifying 8 loci ranging in size between 2,115 and 7,653 bp. Ab initio gene prediction identified 8 gene models, among which two had complete ORFs. While GenBank survey confirmed the belonging of sequences to two groups, subsequent characterization using IWGSC genomic and proteomic data showed that the 8 gene models, reported in this study, were unique and their loci matched scaffolds on chromosome arms 1AS, 1BS, 4BS and 1DS. The gene model located on 1DS is a pseudo-Lr21 that was shown to have an NBS-LRR domain structure, while the potential association of the RGAs, here reported, is discussed. This study has produced novel R-gene-like loci and models in the wheat genome and provides the first steps toward further elucidation of their role in wheat disease resistance. PMID:24638930

  16. Characterization of metal and nucleotide liganded forms of adenylate kinase by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Briand, G; Perrier, V; Kouach, M; Takahashi, M; Gilles, A M; Bârzu, O

    1997-03-15

    Complexes of adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus stearothermophilus with the bisubstrate nucleotide analog P1,P5-di(adenosine 5')-pentaphosphate and with metal ions (Zn2+ and/or Mg2+) were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. P1,P5-di(adenosine 5')-pentaphosphate. adenylate kinase complex was detected in the positive mode at pH as low as 3.8. Binding of nucleotide to adenylate kinase stabilizes the overall structure of the protein and preserves the Zn2+ chelated form of the enzyme from the gram-positive organisms. In this way, it is possible in a single mass spectrometry experiment to screen metal-chelating adenylate kinases, without use of radioactively labeled compounds. Binding of Mg2+ to enzyme via P1,P5-di(adenosine 5')-pentaphosphate was also demonstrated by mass spectrometry. Although no amino acid side chain in adenylate kinase is supposed to interact with Mg2+, Asp93 in porcine muscle cytosolic enzyme, equivalent to Asp84 in the E. coli adenylate kinase, was proposed to stabilize the nucleotide.Mg2+ complex via water molecules. PMID:9056261

  17. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbale, Percy; Williams, Jessica S.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  18. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding Clostridium paraputrificum chitinase ChiB and analysis of the functions of novel cadherin-like domains and a chitin-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, K; Karita, S; Kimura, T; Sakka, K; Ohmiya, K

    1997-01-01

    The Clostridium paraputrificum chiB gene, encoding chitinase B (ChiB), consists of an open reading frame of 2,493 nucleotides and encodes 831 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 90,020. The deduced ChiB is a modular enzyme composed of a family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, two reiterated domains of unknown function, and a chitin-binding domain (CBD). The reiterated domains are similar to the repeating units of cadherin proteins but not to fibronectin type III domains, and therefore they are referred to as cadherin-like domains. ChiB was purified from the periplasm fraction of Escherichia coli harboring the chiB gene. The molecular weight of the purified ChiB (87,000) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, was in good agreement with the value (86,578) calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence excluding the signal peptide. ChiB was active toward chitin from crab shells, colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-N,N'-diacetylchitobioside [4-MU-(GlcNAc)2]. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 6.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The Km and Vmax values for 4-MU-(GlcNAc)2 were estimated to be 6.3 microM and 46 micromol/min/mg, respectively. SDS-PAGE, zymogram, and Western blot analyses using antiserum raised against purified ChiB suggested that ChiB was one of the major chitinase species in the culture supernatant of C. paraputrificum. Deletion analysis showed clearly that the CBD of ChiB plays an important role in hydrolysis of native chitin but not processed chitin such as colloidal chitin. PMID:9393694

  19. Strategies for Development of Functionally Equivalent Promoters with Minimum Sequence Homology for Transgene Expression in Plants: cis-Elements in a Novel DNA Context versus Domain Swapping1

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Simran; Chakravarthy, Suma; Advani, Sonia; Datta, Sudipta; Pental, Deepak; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (35S) promoter has been extensively used for the constitutive expression of transgenes in dicotyledonous plants. The repetitive use of the same promoter is known to induce transgene inactivation due to promoter homology. As a way to circumvent this problem, we tested two different strategies for the development of synthetic promoters that are functionally equivalent but have a minimum sequence homology. Such promoters can be generated by (a) introducing known cis-elements in a novel or synthetic stretch of DNA or (b) “domain swapping,” wherein domains of one promoter can be replaced with functionally equivalent domains from other heterologous promoters. We evaluated the two strategies for promoter modifications using domain A (consisting of minimal promoter and subdomain A1) of the 35S promoter as a model. A set of modified 35S promoters were developed whose strength was compared with the 35S promoter per se using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Analysis of the expression of the reporter gene in transient assay system showed that domain swapping led to a significant fall in promoter activity. In contrast, promoters developed by placing cis-elements in a novel DNA context showed levels of expression comparable with that of the 35S. Two promoter constructs Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were then designed by placing the core sequences of minimal promoter and subdomain A1 in divergent DNA sequences. Transgenics developed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with the two constructs and with 35S as control were used to assess the promoter activity in different tissues of primary transformants. Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were found to be active in all of the tissues tested, at levels comparable with that of 35S. Further, the expression of the Mod2A1T promoter in the seedlings of the T1 generation was also similar to that of the 35S promoter. The present strategy opens up the possibility of creating a set of synthetic promoters with minimum sequence

  20. Functional domains within the a sequence involved in the cleavage-packaging of herpes simplex virus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, L P; Chou, J; Frenkel, N

    1986-01-01

    Newly replicated herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA consists of head-to-tail concatemers which are cleaved to generate unit-length genomes bounded by the terminally reiterated a sequence. Constructed defective HSV vectors (amplicons) containing a viral DNA replication origin and the a sequence are similarly replicated into large concatemers which are cleaved at a sequences punctuating the junctions between adjacent repeat units, concurrent with the packaging of viral DNA into nucleocapsids. In the present study we tested the ability of seed amplicons containing specific deletions in the a sequence to become cleaved and packaged and hence be propagated in virus stocks. These studies revealed that two separate signals, located within the Ub and Uc elements of the a sequence, were essential for amplicon propagation. No derivative defective genomes were recovered from seed constructs which lacked the Uc signal. In contrast, propagation of seed constructs lacking the Ub signal resulted in the selection of defective genomes with novel junctions, containing specific insertions of a sequences derived from the helper virus DNA. Comparison of published sequences of concatemeric junctions of several herpesviruses supported a uniform mechanism for the cleavage-packaging process, involving the measurement from two highly conserved blocks of sequences (pac-1 and pac-2) which were homologous to the required Uc and Ub sequences. These results form the basis for general models for the mechanism of cleavage-packaging of herpesvirus DNA. Images PMID:3016323

  1. Altering Hydrophobic Sequence Lengths Shows That Hydrophobic Mismatch Controls Affinity for Ordered Lipid Domains (Rafts) in the Multitransmembrane Strand Protein Perfringolysin O*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that mismatch between transmembrane (TM) length and bilayer width controls TM protein affinity for ordered lipid domains (rafts) was tested using perfringolysin O (PFO), a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin. PFO forms a multimeric barrel with many TM segments. The properties of PFO mutants with lengthened or shortened TM segments were compared with that of PFO with wild type TM sequences. Both mutant and wild type length PFO exhibited cholesterol-dependent membrane insertion. Maximal PFO-induced pore formation occurred in vesicles with wider bilayers for lengthened TM segments and in thinner bilayers for shortened TM segments. In diC18:0 phosphatidylcholine (PC)/diC14:1 PC/cholesterol vesicles, which form ordered domains with a relatively thick bilayer and disordered domains with a relatively thin bilayer, affinity for ordered domains was greatest with lengthened TM segments and least with shortened TM segments as judged by FRET. Similar results were observed by microscopy in giant vesicles containing sphingomyelin in place of diC18:0 PC. In contrast, in diC16:0 PC/diC14:0 PC/diC20:1 PC/cholesterol vesicles, which should form ordered domains with a relatively thin bilayer and disordered domains with a relatively thick bilayer, relative affinity for ordered domains was greatest with shortened TM segments and least with lengthened TM segments. The inability of multi-TM segment proteins (unlike single TM segment proteins) to adapt to mismatch by tilting may explain the sensitivity of raft affinity to mismatch. The difference in width sensitivity for single and multi-TM helix proteins may link raft affinity to multimeric state and thus control the assembly of multimeric TM complexes in rafts. PMID:23150664

  2. The DPY-30 Domain and Its Flanking Sequence Mediate the Assembly and Modulation of Flagellar Radial Spoke Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Radhika; Foster, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    RIIa is known as the dimerization and docking (D/D) domain of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase. However, numerous molecules, including radial spoke protein 2 (RSP2) in Chlamydomonas flagella, also contain an RIIa or a similar DPY-30 domain. To elucidate new roles of D/D domain-containing proteins, we investigated a panel of RSP2 mutants. An RSP2 mutant had paralyzed flagella defective in RSP2 and multiple subunits near the spokehead. New transgenic strains lacking only the DPY-30 domain in RSP2 were also paralyzed. In contrast, motility was restored in strains that lacked only RSP2's calmodulin-binding C-terminal region. These cells swam normally in dim light but could not maintain typical swimming trajectories under bright illumination. In both deletion transgenic strains, the subunits near the spokehead were restored, but their firm attachment to the spokestalk required the DPY-30 domain. We postulate that the DPY-30–helix dimer is a conserved two-prong linker, required for normal motility, organizing duplicated subunits in the radial spoke stalk and formation of a symmetrical spokehead. Further, the dispensable calmodulin-binding region appears to fine-tune the spokehead for regulation of “steering” motility in the green algae. Thus, in general, D/D domains may function to localize molecular modules for both the assembly and modulation of macromolecular complexes. PMID:22851692

  3. Identification of a Novel Sequence Motif Recognized by the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of zDHHC17/13 S-Acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Lemonidis, Kimon; Sanchez-Perez, Maria C; Chamberlain, Luke H

    2015-09-01

    S-Acylation is a major post-translational modification affecting several cellular processes. It is particularly important for neuronal functions. This modification is catalyzed by a family of transmembrane S-acyltransferases that contain a conserved zinc finger DHHC (zDHHC) domain. Typically, eukaryote genomes encode for 7-24 distinct zDHHC enzymes, with two members also harboring an ankyrin repeat (AR) domain at their cytosolic N termini. The AR domain of zDHHC enzymes is predicted to engage in numerous interactions and facilitates both substrate recruitment and S-acylation-independent functions; however, the sequence/structural features recognized by this module remain unknown. The two mammalian AR-containing S-acyltransferases are the Golgi-localized zDHHC17 and zDHHC13, also known as Huntingtin-interacting proteins 14 and 14-like, respectively; they are highly expressed in brain, and their loss in mice leads to neuropathological deficits that are reminiscent of Huntington's disease. Here, we report that zDHHC17 and zDHHC13 recognize, via their AR domain, evolutionary conserved and closely related sequences of a [VIAP][VIT]XXQP consensus in SNAP25, SNAP23, cysteine string protein, Huntingtin, cytoplasmic linker protein 3, and microtubule-associated protein 6. This novel AR-binding sequence motif is found in regions predicted to be unstructured and is present in a number of zDHHC17 substrates and zDHHC17/13-interacting S-acylated proteins. This is the first study to identify a motif recognized by AR-containing zDHHCs. PMID:26198635

  4. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  5. Chirally selective, intramolecular interaction observed in an aminoacyl adenylate anhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Watkins, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between amino acids and nucleotide bases is studied. The proton NMR spectrum of N-acetylphenylalanyl-AMP-anhydride is analyzed H8 and H2 signals, two upfield signals of equal size, and five phenylalanine ring proton signals are observed in the spectrum; the upfield movement of the proton and the racemization of the N-acetyl L-phenylalanine material are examined. The differences in the position of the signals due to the diastereoisomers are investigated. The separation of the D and L amino acyl adenylates using HPLC is described. H-1 NMR spectra of the isomers are examined in order to determine which isomer displays the strongest interaction between the phenyl ring and the adenine ring. The spectra reveal that the L isomer shows the highest upfield change of both H8 and H2 signals. It is noted that the phenyl ring lies over C2 of the adenine ring with the phenyl meta and para protons extended past the adenine ring and the phenyl ortho protons.

  6. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase inactivation by the host cell.

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa-Ron, A; Rogel, A; Hanski, E

    1989-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis produces a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) which acts as a toxin capable of penetrating eukaryotic cells and generating high levels of intracellular cyclic AMP. Transfer of target cells into B. pertussis AC-free medium leads to a rapid decay in the intracellular AC activity, implying that the invasive enzyme is unstable in the host cytoplasm. We report here that treatment of human lymphocytes with a glycolysis inhibitor and an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation completely blocked the intracellular inactivation of B. pertussis AC. Lymphocyte lysates inactivated all forms of B. pertussis AC in the presence of exogenous ATP. This inactivation was associated with degradation of an 125I-labelled 200 kDa form of B. pertussis AC. It appears that ATP is required for the proteolytic pathway, but not as an energy source, since non-hydrolysable ATP analogues supported inactivation and complete degradation of the enzyme. The possibility that binding of ATP to B. pertussis AC renders it susceptible to degradation by the host cell protease is discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2554887

  7. Snapshots of tRNA sulphuration via an adenylated intermediate.

    PubMed

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Fukai, Shuya; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nureki, Osamu

    2006-07-27

    Uridine at the first anticodon position (U34) of glutamate, lysine and glutamine transfer RNAs is universally modified by thiouridylase into 2-thiouridine (s2U34), which is crucial for precise translation by restricting codon-anticodon wobble during protein synthesis on the ribosome. However, it remains unclear how the enzyme incorporates reactive sulphur into the correct position of the uridine base. Here we present the crystal structures of the MnmA thiouridylase-tRNA complex in three discrete forms, which provide snapshots of the sequential chemical reactions during RNA sulphuration. On enzyme activation, an alpha-helix overhanging the active site is restructured into an idiosyncratic beta-hairpin-containing loop, which packs the flipped-out U34 deeply into the catalytic pocket and triggers the activation of the catalytic cysteine residues. The adenylated RNA intermediate is trapped. Thus, the active closed-conformation of the complex ensures accurate sulphur incorporation into the activated uridine carbon by forming a catalytic chamber to prevent solvent from accessing the catalytic site. The structures of the complex with glutamate tRNA further reveal how MnmA specifically recognizes its three different tRNA substrates. These findings provide the structural basis for a general mechanism whereby an enzyme incorporates a reactive atom at a precise position in a biological molecule. PMID:16871210

  8. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin promotes bacterial internalisation into non phagocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    Martín, César; Etxaniz, Asier; Uribe, Kepa B.; Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Arlucea, Jon; Goñi, Félix M.; Aréchaga, Juan; Ostolaza, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a respiratory infectious disease that is the fifth largest cause of vaccine-preventable death in infants. Though historically considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been detected both in vitro and in vivo inside phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. However the precise mechanism used by B. pertussis for cell entry, or the putative bacterial factors involved, are not fully elucidated. Here we find that adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), one of the important toxins of B. pertussis, is sufficient to promote bacterial internalisation into non-phagocytic cells. After characterization of the entry route we show that uptake of “toxin-coated bacteria” proceeds via a clathrin-independent, caveolae-dependent entry pathway, allowing the internalised bacteria to survive within the cells. Intracellular bacteria were found inside non-acidic endosomes with high sphingomyelin and cholesterol content, or “free” in the cytosol of the invaded cells, suggesting that the ACT-induced bacterial uptake may not proceed through formation of late endolysosomes. Activation of Tyr kinases and toxin-induced Ca2+-influx are essential for the entry process. We hypothesize that B. pertussis might use ACT to activate the endocytic machinery of non-phagocytic cells and gain entry into these cells, in this way evading the host immune system. PMID:26346097

  9. The adenylate cyclase receptor complex and aqueous humor formation.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J.; Sears, M.

    1984-01-01

    The secretory tissue of the eye, the ciliary processes, contains an enzyme receptor complex, composed of membrane proteins, the catalytic moiety of the enzyme adenylate cyclase, a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein (or N protein), and other features. The enzyme can be activated by well-known neurohumoral or humoral agents, catecholamines, glycoprotein hormones produced by the hypothalamic pituitary axis, and other related compounds, including placental gonadotropin, organic fluorides, and forskolin, a diterpene. These compounds cause the ciliary epithelia to produce cyclic AMP at an accelerated rate. Cyclic AMP, as a second messenger, causes, either directly or indirectly, a decrease in the net rate of aqueous humor inflow that may be modulated by cofactors. Clinical syndromes fit the experimental data so that an integrated explanation can be given for the reduced intraocular pressure witnessed under certain central nervous system and adrenergic influences. The molecular biology of this concept provides important leads for future investigations that bear directly both upon the regulation of intraocular pressure and upon glaucoma. Images FIG. 11 PMID:6093393

  10. A boundary of long-range G+C% mosaic domains in the human MHC locus: Pseudoautosomal boundary-like sequence exists near the boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Sugaya, Kimihiko; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    1995-01-01

    The human genome is composed of long-range G+C% (GC%) mosaic structures related to chromosome bands. We found the human MHC locus to be an example of megabase-level GC% mosaic structures and predicted a possible boundary of the megabase-level domains within an undercharacterized 450-kb region harboring the junction of MHC classes II and III. Chromosome walking of the 450-kb region and base-compositional analysis precisely located the boundary of the mosaic domains, disclosing a sharp GC% transition. Near the transition point there was a 20-kb dense Alu cluster, a 30-kb dense LINE-1 cluster, and a sequence highly homologous with the pseudoautosomal boundary of the short arms of human sex chromosomes (PAB1X and PAB1Y); PAB1X and PAB1Y are the interface between sex-specific and pseudoautosomal regions. Many PAB1XY-like sequences (PABLs) were detected by hybridization against genomic DNA, and the new sequences defined the complete form of PABLs to be about 650 nt. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The amino-acid sequence of the glucose/mannose-specific lectin isolated from Parkia platycephala seeds reveals three tandemly arranged jacalin-related domains.

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Farias, C M; Del Sol, F G; Santos, C F; Grangeiro, T B; Nagano, C S; Cavada, B S; Calvete, J J

    2001-08-01

    A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from seeds of Parkia platycephala, the most primitive subfamily of Leguminosae plants. The molecular mass of the purified lectin determined by mass spectrometry was 47 946 +/- 6 Da (by electrospray ionization) and 47 951 +/- 9 Da (by matrix-assisted laser-desoption ionization). The apparent molecular mass of the lectin in solutions of pH in the range 4.5-8.5 determined by analytical ultracentrifugation equilibrium sedimentation was 94 +/- 3 kDa, showing that the protein behaved as a non-pH-dependent dimer. The amino-acid sequence of the Parkia lectin was determined by Edman degradation of overlapping peptides. This is the first report of the primary structure of a Mimosoideae lectin. The protein contained a blocked N-terminus and a single, nonglycosylated polypeptide chain composed of three tandemly arranged homologous domains. Each of these domains shares sequence similarity with jacalin-related lectin monomers from Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Musaceae, Gramineae, and Fagaceae plant families. Based on this homology, we predict that each Parkia lectin repeat may display a beta prism fold similar to that observed in the crystal structure of the lectin from Helianthus tuberosus. The P. platycephala lectin also shows sequence similarity with stress- and pathogen-upregulated defence genes of a number of different plants, suggesting a common ancestry for jacalin-related lectins and inducible defence proteins. PMID:11502201

  12. An alternative domain containing a leucine-rich sequence regulates nuclear cytoplasmic localization of protein 4.1R.

    PubMed

    Luque, Carlos M; Pérez-Ferreiro, Carmen M; Pérez-Gonzalez, Alicia; Englmeier, Ludwig; Koffa, Maria D; Correas, Isabel

    2003-01-24

    In red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80-kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane. The picture is more complex in nucleated cells, in which many 4.1R isoforms, varying in size and intracellular location, have been identified. To contribute to the characterization of signals involved in differential intracellular localization of 4.1R, we have analyzed the role the exon 5-encoded sequence plays in 4.1R distribution. We show that exon 5 encodes a leucine-rich sequence that shares key features with nuclear export signals (NESs). This sequence adopts the topology employed for NESs of other proteins and conserves two hydrophobic residues that are shown to be critical for NES function. A 4.1R isoform expressing the leucine-rich sequence binds to the export receptor CRM1 in a RanGTP-dependent fashion, whereas this does not occur in a mutant whose two conserved hydrophobic residues are substituted. These two residues are also essential for 4.1R intracellular distribution, because the 4.1R protein containing the leucine-rich sequence localizes in the cytoplasm, whereas the mutant protein predominantly accumulates in the nucleus. We hypothesize that the leucine-rich sequence in 4.1R controls distribution and concomitantly function of a specific set of 4.1R isoforms. PMID:12427749

  13. Transmembrane segments of complement receptor 3 do not participate in cytotoxic activities but determine receptor structure required for action of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed

    Wald, Tomas; Osickova, Adriana; Masin, Jiri; Liskova, Petra M; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Matousek, Tomas; Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis penetrates phagocytes expressing the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, α(M)β(2) or Mac-1). CyaA translocates its adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme domain into cell cytosol and catalyzes unregulated conversion of ATP to cAMP, thereby subverting cellular signaling. In parallel, CyaA forms small cation-selective membrane pores that permeabilize cells for potassium efflux, contributing to cytotoxicity of CyaA and eventually provoking colloid-osmotic cell lysis. To investigate whether the single-pass α-helical transmembrane segments of CR3 subunits CD11b and CD18 do directly participate in AC domain translocation and/or pore formation by the toxin, we expressed in CHO cells variants of CR3 that contained artificial transmembrane segments, or lacked the transmembrane segment(s) at all. The results demonstrate that the transmembrane segments of CR3 are not directly involved in the cytotoxic activities of CyaA but serve for maintaining CR3 in a conformation that is required for efficient toxin binding and action. PMID:26802078

  14. Probing the C-terminal domain of lipid-free apoA-I demonstrates the vital role of the H10B sequence repeat in HDL formation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiaohu; Liu, Mingjing; Herscovitz, Haya; Atkinson, David

    2016-08-01

    apoA-I plays important structural and functional roles in reverse cholesterol transport. We have described the molecular structure of the N-terminal domain, Δ(185-243) by X-ray crystallography. To understand the role of the C-terminal domain, constructs with sequential elongation of Δ(185-243), by increments of 11-residue sequence repeats were studied and compared with Δ(185-243) and WT apoA-I. Constructs up to residue 230 showed progressively decreased percent α-helix with similar numbers of helical residues, similar detergent and lipid binding affinity, and exposed hydrophobic surface. These observations suggest that the C-terminal domain is unstructured with the exception of the last 11-residue repeat (H10B). Similar monomer-dimer equilibrium suggests that the H10B region is responsible for nonspecific aggregation. Cholesterol efflux progressively increased with elongation up to ∼60% of full-length apoA-I in the absence of the H10B. In summary, the sequential repeats in the C-terminal domain are probably unstructured with the exception of H10B. This segment appears to be responsible for initiation of lipid binding and aggregation, as well as cholesterol efflux, and thus plays a vital role during HDL formation. Based on these observations and the Δ(185-243) crystal structure, we propose a lipid-free apoA-I structural model in solution and update the mechanism of HDL biogenesis. PMID:27317763

  15. Structural investigations of the p53/p73 homologs from the tunicate species Ciona intestinalis reveal the sequence requirements for the formation of a tetramerization domain.

    PubMed

    Heering, Jan; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Löhr, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald; Dötsch, Volker

    2016-02-01

    Most members of the p53 family of transcription factors form tetramers. Responsible for determining the oligomeric state is a short oligomerization domain consisting of one β-strand and one α-helix. With the exception of human p53 all other family members investigated so far contain a second α-helix as part of their tetramerization domain. Here we have used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the oligomerization domains of the two p53-like proteins from the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, representing the closest living relative of vertebrates. Structure determination reveals for one of the two proteins a new type of packing of this second α-helix on the core domain that was not predicted based on the sequence, while the other protein does not form a second helix despite the presence of crucial residues that are conserved in all other family members that form a second helix. By mutational analysis, we identify a proline as well as large hydrophobic residues in the hinge region between both helices as the crucial determinant for the formation of a second helix. PMID:26473758

  16. Localization of sequences within the C-terminal domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator which impact maturation and stability.

    PubMed

    Gentzsch, M; Riordan, J R

    2001-01-12

    Some disease-associated truncations within the 100-residue domain C-terminal of the second nucleotide-binding domain destabilize the mature protein (Haardt, M., Benharouga, M., Lechardeur, D., Kartner, N., and Lukacs, G. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 21873-21877). We now have identified three short oligopeptide regions in the C-terminal domain which impact cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) maturation and stability in different ways. A highly conserved hydrophobic patch (region I) formed by residues 1413-1416 (FLVI) was found to be crucial for the stability of the mature protein. Nascent chain stability was severely decreased by shortening the protein by 81 amino acids (1400X). This accelerated degradation was sensitive to proteasome inhibitors but not influenced by brefeldin A, indicating that it occurred at the endoplasmic reticulum. The five residues at positions 1400 to 1404 (region II) normally maintain nascent CFTR stability in a positional rather than a sequence-specific manner. A third modulating region (III) constituted by residues 1390 to 1394 destabilizes the protein. Hence the nascent form regains stability on further truncation back to residues 1390 or 1380, permitting some degree of maturation and a low level of cyclic AMP-stimulated chloride channel activity at the cell surface. Thus while not absolutely essential, the C-terminal domain strongly modulates the biogenesis and maturation of CFTR. PMID:11022033

  17. A unique transactivation sequence motif is found in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the single-strand-binding protein FBP.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R; Collins, I; Tomonaga, T; Zhang, T; Levens, D

    1996-01-01

    The far-upstream element-binding protein (FBP) is one of several recently described factors which bind to a single strand of DNA in the 5' region of the c-myc gene. Although cotransfection of FBP increases expression from a far-upstream element-bearing c-myc promoter reporter, the mechanism of this stimulation is heretofore unknown. Can a single-strand-binding protein function as a classical transactivator, or are these proteins restricted to stabilizing or altering the conformation of DNA in an architectural role? Using chimeric GAL4-FBP fusion proteins we have shown that the carboxyl-terminal region (residues 448 to 644) is a potent transcriptional activation domain. This region contains three copies of a unique amino acid sequence motif containing tyrosine diads. Analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that a single tyrosine motif alone (residues 609 to 644) was capable of activating transcription. The activation property of the C-terminal domain is repressed by the N-terminal 107 amino acids of FBP. These results show that FBP contains a transactivation domain which can function alone, suggesting that FBP contributes directly to c-myc transcription while bound to a single-strand site. Furthermore, activation is mediated by a new motif which can be negatively regulated by a repression domain of FBP. PMID:8628294

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN CYTOPLASMIC DOMAIN SEQUENCE AND AUTOPHOSPHORYLATION AMONG ARABIDOPSIS LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are implicated in signaling roles during plant growth, development and defense. A paradigm for receptor kinase activation involves dimerization and auto- or trans-phosphorylation within the cytoplasmic domain. Our goals are to identify intrace...

  19. Sequencing of two alternatively spliced mRNAs corresponding to the extracellular domain of the rat receptor for advanced glycosylation end products (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Girón, M D; Vargas, A M; Suárez, M D; Salto, R

    1998-10-01

    The receptor for advanced glycosylation end products (RAGE) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the recognition and internalization of those extensively modified proteins. The receptor has an extracellular domain that binds to the advanced glycosylation end products. By reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification, we have identified in rat liver and kidney two amplified products that correspond to cDNA coding for a part of the extracellular domain of the receptor. Sequencing of these products showed that these amplified molecules were similar except for a 27-bp fragment that was absent in the smaller product. This spliced region is located close to the transmembrane region of the receptor. We have confirmed the possibility of the alternative splicing in the generation of these mRNA isoforms by cloning a fragment of the rat gene for RAGE. This fragment has a distribution of introns and exons fully compatible with the proposed alternative splicing. PMID:9790936

  20. Slowing Translation between Protein Domains by Increasing Affinity between mRNAs and the Ribosomal Anti-Shine-Dalgarno Sequence Improves Solubility.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Kevin A; Hatridge, Taylor A; Curtis, Nicholas C; Contreras, Lydia M

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that effective protein production requires coordination of multiple cotranslational cellular processes, which are heavily affected by translation timing. Until recently, protein engineering has focused on codon optimization to maximize protein production rates, mostly considering the effect of tRNA abundance. However, as it relates to complex multidomain proteins, it has been hypothesized that strategic translational pauses between domains and between distinct individual structural motifs can prevent interactions between nascent chain fragments that generate kinetically trapped misfolded peptides and thereby enhance protein yields. In this study, we introduce synthetic transient pauses between structural domains in a heterologous model protein based on designed patterns of affinity between the mRNA and the anti-Shine-Dalgarno (aSD) sequence on the ribosome. We demonstrate that optimizing translation attenuation at domain boundaries can predictably affect solubility patterns in bacteria. Exploration of the affinity space showed that modifying less than 1% of the nucleotides (on a small 12 amino acid linker) can vary soluble protein yields up to ∼7-fold without altering the primary sequence of the protein. In the context of longer linkers, where a larger number of distinct structural motifs can fold outside the ribosome, optimal synonymous codon variations resulted in an additional 2.1-fold increase in solubility, relative to that of nonoptimized linkers of the same length. While rational construction of 54 linkers of various affinities showed a significant correlation between protein solubility and predicted affinity, only weaker correlations were observed between tRNA abundance and protein solubility. We also demonstrate that naturally occurring high-affinity clusters are present between structural domains of β-galactosidase, one of Escherichia coli's largest native proteins. Interdomain ribosomal affinity is an important factor

  1. Different Variants in Reverse Transcriptase Domain Determined by Ultra-deep Sequencing in Treatment-naïve and Treated Indonesian Patients Infected with Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Wasityastuti, Widya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Widasari, Dewiyani Indah; Yamani, Laura Navika; Ratnasari, Neneng; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Okada, Rina; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murakami, Yoshiki; Azuma, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2016-01-01

    A nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) is the common antiviral drug available for directly treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, its application has led to the emergence of NA-resistant mutations mostly in a conserved region of the reverse transcriptase domain of HBV polymerase. Harboring NA-resistant mutations decreases drug effectiveness and increases the frequency of end-stage liver disease. The invention of next-generation sequencing that can generate thousands of sequences from viral complex mixtures provides opportunities to detect minor changes and early viral evolution under drug stress. The present study used ultra-deep sequencing to evaluate discrepant quasispecies in the reverse transcriptase domain of HBV including NA-resistant hotspots between seven treatment-naïve Indonesian patients infected with HBV and five at the early phase of treatment. The most common sub-genotype was HBV B3 (83.34%). The substitution rate of variants determined among amino acids with a ratio of ≥ 1% changes was higher among the population in conserved regions (23.19% vs. 4.59%, P = 0.001) and in the inter-reverse transcriptase domain (23.95% vs. 2.94%, P = 0.002) in treatment naïve, than in treated patients. Nine hotspots of antiviral resistance were identified in both groups, and the mean frequency of changes in all patients was < 1%. The known rtM204I mutation was the most frequent in both groups. The lower rate of variants in HBV quasispecies in patients undergoing treatment could be associated with virus elimination and the extinction of sensitive species by NA therapy. The present findings imply that HBV quasispecies dynamically change during treatment. PMID:27492206

  2. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

  3. Adenylate cyclase in prothoracic glands during the last larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Gu, S H; Chow, Y S

    2001-04-27

    We have previously reported that the absence of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) signal transduction during the early last larval instar of Bombyx mori plays a role in leading to very low ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph, inactivation of the corpora allata, as well as larval-pupal transformation. In the present study, adenylate cyclase was characterized in crude preparations of prothoracic gland cell membranes in an effort to localize the cause of refractoriness to PTTH. It was found that cyclase activity of the prothoracic glands from the day 6 last instar showed activation responses to fluoride, a guanine nucleotide analogue, as well as calmodulin (CaM) in dose-dependent fashions. The additive effects of day 5 prothoracic gland adenylate cyclase stimulation by fluoride and CaM imply that there may exist Gs protein-dependent and CaM-dependent forms of adenylate cyclase. For day 1 last instar prothoracic glands, which showed no response to stimulation by PTTH in either cAMP generation or ecdysteroidogenesis, adenylate cyclase activity exhibited far less responsiveness to Ca(2+)/CaM than did that from day 5 glands. These findings suggest that day 1 prothoracic glands may possess some lesions in the receptor-Ca(2+) influx-adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathway and these impairments in PTTH signal transduction may be, at least in part, responsible for decreased ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:11267904

  4. Stimulation of hormone-responsive adenylate cyclase activity by a factor present in the cell cytosol.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, S; Crawford, A; Amirrasooli, H; Johnson, S; Pollock, A; Ollis, C; Tomlinson, S

    1980-01-01

    1. Homogenates of whole tissues were shown to contain both intracellular and extracellular factors that affected particulate adenylate cyclase activity in vitro. Factors present in the extracellular fluids produced an inhibition of basal, hormone- and fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity but factors present in the cell cytosol increased hormone-stimulated activity with relatively little effect on basal or fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity. 2. The existence of this cytosol factor or factors was investigated using freshly isolated human platelets, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, and cultured cells derived from rat osteogenic sarcoma, rat calvaria, mouse melanoma, pig aortic endothelium, human articular cartilage chondrocytes and human bronchial carcinoma (BEN) cells. 3. The stimulation of the hormone response by the cytosol factor ranged from 60 to 890% depending on the tissue of origin of the adenylate cyclase. 4. In each case the behaviour of the factor was similar to the action of GTP on that particular adenylate cyclase preparation. 5. No evidence of tissue or species specificity was found, as cytosols stimulated adenylate cyclase from their own and unrelated tissues to the same degree. 6. In the human platelet, the inclusion of the cytosol in the assay of adenylate cyclase increased the rate of enzyme activity in response to stimulation by prostaglandin E1 without affecting the amount of prostaglandin E1 required for half-maximal stimulation or the characteristics of enzyme activation by prostaglandin E. PMID:7396869

  5. Mapping the Dynamics Landscape of Conformational Transitions in Enzyme: The Adenylate Kinase Case

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dechang; Liu, Ming S.; Ji, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Conformational transition describes the essential dynamics and mechanism of enzymes in pursuing their various functions. The fundamental and practical challenge to researchers is to quantitatively describe the roles of large-scale dynamic transitions for regulating the catalytic processes. In this study, we tackled this challenge by exploring the pathways and free energy landscape of conformational changes in adenylate kinase (AdK), a key ubiquitous enzyme for cellular energy homeostasis. Using explicit long-timescale (up to microseconds) molecular dynamics and bias-exchange metadynamics simulations, we determined at the atomistic level the intermediate conformational states and mapped the transition pathways of AdK in the presence and absence of ligands. There is clearly chronological operation of the functional domains of AdK. Specifically in the ligand-free AdK, there is no significant energy barrier in the free energy landscape separating the open and closed states. Instead there are multiple intermediate conformational states, which facilitate the rapid transitions of AdK. In the ligand-bound AdK, the closed conformation is energetically most favored with a large energy barrier to open it up, and the conformational population prefers to shift to the closed form coupled with transitions. The results suggest a perspective for a hybrid of conformational selection and induced fit operations of ligand binding to AdK. These observations, depicted in the most comprehensive and quantitative way to date, to our knowledge, emphasize the underlying intrinsic dynamics of AdK and reveal the sophisticated conformational transitions of AdK in fulfilling its enzymatic functions. The developed methodology can also apply to other proteins and biomolecular systems. PMID:26244746

  6. Biological activities of a synthetic peptide composed of two unlinked domains from a retroviral transmembrane protein sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Wegemer, D E; Kabat, K G; Kloetzer, W S

    1990-01-01

    We report several biological activities of a synthetic peptide whose sequence contains the highly conserved region of feline leukemia virus transmembrane protein (TM) synthetically linked to another short TM-derived sequence particularly rich in polar positive residues. This 29-amino-acid peptide blocked [3H]thymidine uptake 30 to 50% by concanavalin A-stimulated CD4(+)--but not CD8(+)-enriched murine splenocytes. Maximal suppression was detected at 12.5 micrograms (3 microM) to 75 micrograms (19 microM) per ml of growth medium; stimulation of [3H]thymidine uptake was observed at higher peptide concentrations. The synthetic peptide inhibited but did not stimulate [3H]thymidine uptake by mitogen-activated thymocytes and antibody production by splenocytes as determined in a liquid hemolytic plaque assay. Similarities are reported between a consensus sequence of diverse retroviral TMs and a region of alpha interferons shown by others to be important for antiviral and cytostatic properties. The TM sequence-derived synthetic peptide blocked in a nontoxic and sequence-specific manner the release of murine leukemia virus from two chronically infected cell lines. We suggest that some of the biological effects of retroviral TM are mediated through a common pathway shared with alpha interferons. Images PMID:1969500

  7. ADENYLATE ENERGY CHARGE AND ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE MEASUREMENTS AS INDICATORS OF STRESS IN THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, TREATED WITH DREDGED MATERIAL UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adenylate energy charge is an indication of the amount of energy available to an organism from the adenylate pool. t is calculated from measured concentrations of three adenine nucleotides, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP...

  8. Localization of nigrostriatal dopamine receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride and (/sup 3/H)-forskolin was used to assess the effects of single and combined neurotoxin lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain on dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase (AC), respectively. Ibotenic acid (IA) lesions of the caudate-putamen (CPu) resulted in near total loss of both (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and of (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding in the ipsilateral CPu and substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu was only partially removed by this same lesion, and nigral (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding was virtually unchanged. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and IA lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC) did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 or (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding, but largely removed (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the SNC. A 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway followed by an ipsilateral IA injection of the CPu failed to further reduce (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic DA receptors in the CPu are of both the D1 and D2 variety; however, a portion of D2 receptors in the CPu may be presynaptic on afferent nerve terminals to this structure. D1 receptors in the SNR are presynaptic on striatonigral terminals, whereas the D2 receptors of the SNC are autoreceptors on nigral DA neurons. The existence of presynaptic D2 receptors on nigrostriatal DA-ergic terminals could not be confirmed by this study. Co-localization of D1 receptors and AC occurs in both the CPu and SNR.

  9. Role of Adenylate Cyclase 1 in Retinofugal Map Development

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C.; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1−/−) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1−/− mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1−/− mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1−/−;β2−/− double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only β2−/−, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in β2−/− mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

  10. Dynamics of adenylate cyclase regulation via heterotrimeric G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Milde, Markus; Werthmann, Ruth C; von Hayn, Kathrin; Bünemann, Moritz

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of G-protein-coupled receptors either activate or inhibit ACs (adenylate cyclases), thereby regulating cellular cAMP levels and consequently inducing proper physiological responses. Stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins interact directly with ACs, whereas G(q)-coupled receptors exert their effects primarily via Ca2+. Using the FRET-based cAMP sensor Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1)-cAMPS (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate), we studied cAMP levels in single living VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) or HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) with subsecond temporal resolution. Stimulation of purinergic (VSMCs) or thrombin (HUVECs) receptors rapidly decreased cAMP levels in the presence of the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline via a rise in Ca2+ and subsequent inhibition of AC5 and AC6. Specifically in HUVECs, we observed that, in the continuous presence of thrombin, cAMP levels climbed slowly after the initial decline with a delay of a little less than 1 min. The underlying mechanism includes phospholipase A2 activity and cyclo-oxygenase-mediated synthesis of prostaglandins. We studied further the dynamics of the inhibition of ACs via G(i)-proteins utilizing FRET imaging to resolve interactions between fluorescently labelled G(i)-proteins and AC5. FRET between Gα(i1) and AC5 developed at much lower concentration of agonist compared with the overall G(i)-protein activity. We found the dissociation of Gα(i1) subunits and AC5 to occur slower than the G(i)-protein deactivation. This led us to the conclusion that AC5, by binding active Gα(i1), interferes with G-protein deactivation and reassembly and thereby might sensitize its own regulation. PMID:24646224

  11. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  12. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Are the essential lysines essential?

    PubMed

    Tian, G C; Yan, H G; Jiang, R T; Kishi, F; Nakazawa, A; Tsai, M D

    1990-05-01

    Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have probed the structural and functional roles of lysine-21 and lysine-27 of adenylate kinase (AK) from chicken muscle expressed in Escherichia coli. The two residues were chosen since according to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) model [Mildvan, A. S., & Fry, D. C. (1987) Adv. Enzymol. 58, 241-313], they are located near the alpha- and the gamma-phosphates, respectively, of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the AK-MgATP complex. In addition, a lysine residue (Lys-21 in the case of AK) along with a glycine-rich loop is considered "essential" in the catalysis of kinases and other nucleotide binding proteins. The Lys-27 to methionine (K27M) mutant showed only slight increases in kcat and Km, but a substantial increase (1.8 kcal/mol) in the free energy of unfolding, relative to the WT AK. For proper interpretation of the steady-state kinetic data, viscosity-dependent kinetics was used to show that the chemical step is partially rate-limiting in the catalysis of AK. Computer modeling suggested that the folded form of K27M could gain stability (relative to the wild type) via hydrophobic interactions of Met-27 with Val-179 and Phe-183 and/or formation of a charge-transfer complex between Met-27 and Phe-183. The latter was supported by an upfield shift of the methyl protons of Met-27 in 1H NMR. Other than this, the 1H NMR spectrum of K27M is very similar to that of WT, suggesting little perturbation in the global or even local conformations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2161682

  13. ADENYLATE CYCLASE REGULATES ELONGATION OF MAMMALIAN PRIMARY CILIA

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1–2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:19576885

  14. Can identification of a fourth domain of life be made from sequence data alone, and could it be done on Mars?

    PubMed

    Poole, Anthony M; Willerslev, Eske

    2007-10-01

    A central question in astrobiology is whether life exists elsewhere in the universe. If so, is it related to Earth life? Technologies exist that enable identification of DNA- or RNA-based microbial life directly from environmental samples here on Earth. Such technologies could, in principle, be applied to the search for life elsewhere; indeed, efforts are underway to initiate such a search. However, surveying for nucleic acid-based life on other planets, if attempted, must be carried out with caution, owing to the risk of contamination by Earth-based life. Here we argue that the null hypothesis must be that any DNA discovered and sequenced from samples taken elsewhere in the universe are Earth-based contaminants. Experience from studies of low-biomass ancient DNA demonstrates that some results, by their very nature, will not enable complete rejection of the null hypothesis. In terms of eliminating contamination as an explanation of the data, there may be value in identification of sequences that lie outside the known diversity of the three domains of life. We therefore have examined whether a fourth domain could be readily identified from environmental DNA sequence data alone. We concluded that, even on Earth, this would be far from trivial, and we illustrate this point by way of examples drawn from the literature. Overall, our conclusions do not bode well for planned PCR-based surveys for life on Mars, and we argue that other independent biosignatures will be essential in corroborating any claims for the presence of life based on nucleic acid sequences. PMID:17963478

  15. Can Identification of a Fourth Domain of Life Be Made from Sequence Data Alone, and Could It Be Done on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Anthony M.; Willerslev, Eske

    2007-10-01

    A central question in astrobiology is whether life exists elsewhere in the universe. If so, is it related to Earth life? Technologies exist that enable identification of DNA- or RNA-based microbial life directly from environmental samples here on Earth. Such technologies could, in principle, be applied to the search for life elsewhere; indeed, efforts are underway to initiate such a search. However, surveying for nucleic acid-based life on other planets, if attempted, must be carried out with caution, owing to the risk of contamination by Earth-based life. Here we argue that the null hypothesis must be that any DNA discovered and sequenced from samples taken elsewhere in the universe are Earth-based contaminants. Experience from studies of low-biomass ancient DNA demonstrates that some results, by their very nature, will not enable complete rejection of the null hypothesis. In terms of eliminating contamination as an explanation of the data, there may be value in identification of sequences that lie outside the known diversity of the three domains of life. We therefore have examined whether a fourth domain could be readily identified from environmental DNA sequence data alone. We concluded that, even on Earth, this would be far from trivial, and we illustrate this point by way of examples drawn from the literature. Overall, our conclusions do not bode well for planned PCR-based surveys for life on Mars, and we argue that other independent biosignatures will be essential in corroborating any claims for the presence of life based on nucleic acid sequences.

  16. Dominant negative suppression of arabidopsis photoresponses by mutant phytochrome A sequences identifies spatially discrete regulatory domains in the photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, M; Douglas, N; Quail, P H

    1994-01-01

    We used the exaggerated short hypocotyl phenotype induced by oat phytochrome A overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis to monitor the biological activity of mutant phytochrome A derivatives. Three different mutations, which were generated by removing 52 amino acids from the N terminus (delta N52), the entire C-terminal domain (delta C617), or amino acids 617-686 (delta 617-686) of the oat molecule, each caused striking dominant negative interference with the ability of endogenous Arabidopsis phytochrome A to inhibit hypocotyl growth in continuous far-red light ("far-red high irradiance response" conditions). By contrast, in continuous white or red light, delta N52 was as active as the unmutagenized oat phytochrome A protein in suppressing hypocotyl elongation, while delta C617 and delta 617-686 continued to exhibit dominant negative behavior under these conditions. These data suggest that at least three spatially discrete molecular domains coordinate the photoregulatory activities of phytochrome A in Arabidopsis seedlings. The first is the chromophore-bearing N-terminal domain between residues 53 and 616 that is apparently sufficient for the light-induced initiation but not the completion of productive interactions with transduction chain components. The second is the C-terminal domain between residues 617 and 1129 that is apparently necessary for completion of productive interactions under all irradiation conditions. The third is the N-terminal 52 amino acids that are apparently necessary for completion of productive interactions only under far-red high irradiance conditions and are completely dispensable under white and red light regimes. PMID:8180501

  17. The V(D)J recombination activating protein RAG2 consists of a six-bladed propeller and a PHD fingerlike domain, as revealed by sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Callebaut, I; Mornon, J P

    1998-08-01

    The RAG1 and RAG2 proteins play a crucial role in V(D)J recombination by cooperating to make specific double-stranded DNA breaks at a pair of recombination signal sequences (RSSs). However, the exact function they perform has heretofore remained elusive. Using a combination of sensitive methods of sequence analysis, we show here that the active core region of the RAG2 protein, confined to the first three quarters of its sequence, is in fact composed of a six-fold repeat of a 50-residue motif which is related to the kelch/mipp motif. This motif, which forms a four-stranded twisted antiparallel beta sheet, is arranged in a circular formation like blades of a propeller or turbine. Given the known properties of the beta-propeller fold in mediating protein-protein interactions, it is proposed that this six-laded propeller structure of the RAG2 active core would play a crucial role in the tight complex formed by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins and RSSs. Moreover, the presence of a plant homeodomain finger-like motif in the last quarter of the RAG2 sequence suggests a potential interaction of this domain with chromatin components. PMID:9760994

  18. Functional Consequences of Exchanging Domains Between LacI and PurR are Mediated by the Intervening Linker Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Tungtur, Sudheer; Egan, Susan M.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2007-01-01

    Homologue function can be differentiated by changing residues that affect binding sites or long-range interactions. LacI and PurR are two proteins that represent the LacI/GalR family (>500 members) of bacterial transcription regulators. All members have distinct DNA-binding and regulatory domains linked by ~18 amino acids. Each homologue has specificity for different DNA and regulatory effector ligands; LacI and PurR also exhibit differences in allosteric communication between DNA and effector binding sites. A comparative study of LacI and PurR suggested that alterations in the interface between the regulatory domain and linker are important for differentiating their functions. Four residues (equivalent to LacI positions 48, 55, 58, and 61) appear particularly important for creating a unique interface and were predicted to be necessary for allosteric regulation. However, nearby residues in the linker interact with DNA ligand. Thus, differences observed in interactions between linker and regulatory domain may be the cause of altered function or an effect of the two proteins binding different DNA ligands. To separate these possibilities, we created a chimeric protein with the LacI DNA-binding domain/linker and the PurR regulatory domain (LLhP). If the interface requires homologue-specific interactions in order to propagate the signal from effector binding, then LLhP repression should not be allosterically regulated by effector binding. Experiments show that LLhP is capable of repression from lacO1 and, contrary to expectation, allosteric response is intact. Further, restoring the potential for PurR-like interactions via substitutions in the LLhP linker tends to diminish repression. These effects are especially pronounced for residues 58 and 61. Clearly, binding affinity of LLhP for the lacO1 DNA site is sensitive to long-range changes in the linker. This result also raises the possibility that mutations at positions 58 and 61 co-evolved with changes in the DNA

  19. The La-related protein 1-specific domain repurposes HEAT-like repeats to directly bind a 5'TOP sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Lahr, Roni M.; Mack, Seshat M.; Heroux, Annie; Blagden, Sarah P.; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cecile; Deragon, Jean -Marc; Berman, Andrea J.

    2015-07-22

    La-related protein 1 (LARP1) regulates the stability of many mRNAs. These include 5'TOPs, mTOR-kinase responsive mRNAs with pyrimidine-rich 5' UTRs, which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. We determined that the highly conserved LARP1-specific C-terminal DM15 region of human LARP1 directly binds a 5'TOP sequence. The crystal structure of this DM15 region refined to 1.86 Å resolution has three structurally related and evolutionarily conserved helix-turn-helix modules within each monomer. These motifs resemble HEAT repeats, ubiquitous helical protein-binding structures, but their sequences are inconsistent with consensus sequences of known HEAT modules, suggesting this structure has been repurposed for RNA interactions. A putative mTORC1-recognition sequence sits within a flexible loop C-terminal to these repeats. We also present modelling of pyrimidine-rich single-stranded RNA onto the highly conserved surface of the DM15 region. Ultimately, these studies lay the foundation necessary for proceeding toward a structural mechanism by which LARP1 links mTOR signalling to ribosome biogenesis.

  20. The La-related protein 1-specific domain repurposes HEAT-like repeats to directly bind a 5'TOP sequence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lahr, Roni M.; Mack, Seshat M.; Heroux, Annie; Blagden, Sarah P.; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cecile; Deragon, Jean -Marc; Berman, Andrea J.

    2015-07-22

    La-related protein 1 (LARP1) regulates the stability of many mRNAs. These include 5'TOPs, mTOR-kinase responsive mRNAs with pyrimidine-rich 5' UTRs, which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. We determined that the highly conserved LARP1-specific C-terminal DM15 region of human LARP1 directly binds a 5'TOP sequence. The crystal structure of this DM15 region refined to 1.86 Å resolution has three structurally related and evolutionarily conserved helix-turn-helix modules within each monomer. These motifs resemble HEAT repeats, ubiquitous helical protein-binding structures, but their sequences are inconsistent with consensus sequences of known HEAT modules, suggesting this structure has been repurposed for RNA interactions. Amore » putative mTORC1-recognition sequence sits within a flexible loop C-terminal to these repeats. We also present modelling of pyrimidine-rich single-stranded RNA onto the highly conserved surface of the DM15 region. Ultimately, these studies lay the foundation necessary for proceeding toward a structural mechanism by which LARP1 links mTOR signalling to ribosome biogenesis.« less

  1. Evidence for a dissociable protein subunit required for calmodulin stimulation of brain adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, W A; Westcott, K R; LaPorte, D C; Storm, D R

    1979-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphatelyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] preparation that is not stimulated by NaF,5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate, or Ca2+.calmodulin has been isolated from bovine cerebral cortex by Affi-Gel Blue chromatography and calmodulin-Sepharose chromatography. Sensitivity to these effectors was restored by incubation of the adenylate cyclase preparation with detergent-solubilized protein from bovine cerebral cortex. Reconstitution of of Ca2+.calmodulin activation required the presence of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate. The factor required for restoration of Ca2+.calmodulin stimulation was sensitive to heat, trypsin digestion, and N-ethylmaleimide. These observations suggest that this adenylate cyclase activity requires the presence of one or more guanyl nucleotide binding subunits for calmodulin sensitivity. PMID:293663

  2. Structure of the DNA Ligase-Adenylate Intermediate: Lysine (ε-amino)-Linked Adenosine Monophosphoramidate*

    PubMed Central

    Gumport, Richard I.; Lehman, I. R.

    1971-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the Escherichia coli DNA ligase-adenylate intermediate releases adenosine 5′-monophosphate linked to the ε-amino group of lysine by a phosphoamide bond. Measurements of the rate of hydroxylaminolysis of the ligase-adenylate provide further support for a phosphoamide linkage in the native enzyme. Lysine (ε-amino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate has also been isolated from the T4 phage-induced ligase-adenylate intermediate. These results indicate that an initial step of the DNA ligase reaction consists of the nucleophilic attack of the ε-amino group of a lysine residue of the enzyme on the adenylyl phosphorus of DPN or ATP that leads to the formation of enzyme-bound lysine (εamino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate. PMID:4944632

  3. Sequence Requirements for the Assembly of Simian Virus 40 T Antigen and the T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain on the Viral Core Origin of Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Henry Y.; Barbaro, Brett A.; Joo, Woo S.; Prack, Andrea E.; Sreekumar, K. R.; Bullock, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The regions of the simian virus 40 (SV40) core origin that are required for stable assembly of virally encoded T antigen (T-ag) and the T-ag origin binding domain (T-ag-obd131–260) have been determined. Binding of the purified T-ag-obd131–260 is mediated by interactions with the central region of the core origin, site II. In contrast, T-ag binding and hexamer assembly requires a larger region of the core origin that includes both site II and an additional fragment of DNA that may be positioned on either side of site II. These studies indicate that in the context of T-ag, the origin binding domain can engage the pentanucleotides in site II only if a second region of T-ag interacts with one of the flanking sequences. The requirements for T-ag double-hexamer assembly are complex; the nucleotide cofactor present in the reaction modulates the sequence requirements for oligomerization. Nevertheless, these experiments provide additional evidence that only a subset of the SV40 core origin is required for assembly of T-ag double hexamers. PMID:10438844

  4. Evolution of paired domains: Isolation and sequencing of jellyfish and hydra Pax genes related to Pax-5 and Pax-6

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongmin; Rodin, Andrei; Zhou, Yihong; Dickinson, Douglas P.; Harper, Donald E.; Hewett-Emmett, David; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    1997-01-01

    Pax proteins are a family of transcription factors with a highly conserved paired domain; many members also contain a paired-type homeodomain and/or an octapeptide. Nine mammalian Pax genes are known and classified into four subgroups: Pax-1/9, Pax-2/5/8, Pax-3/7, and Pax-4/6. Most of these genes are involved in nervous system development. In particular, Pax-6 is a key regulator that controls eye development in vertebrates and Drosophila. Although the Pax-4/6 subgroup seems to be more closely related to Pax-2/5/8 than to Pax-3/7 or Pax-1/9, its evolutionary origin is unknown. We therefore searched for a Pax-6 homolog and related genes in Cnidaria, which is the lowest phylum of animals that possess a nervous system and eyes. A sea nettle (a jellyfish) genomic library was constructed and two pax genes (Pax-A and -B) were isolated and partially sequenced. Surprisingly, unlike most known Pax genes, the paired box in these two genes contains no intron. In addition, the complete cDNA sequences of hydra Pax-A and -B were obtained. Hydra Pax-B contains both the homeodomain and the octapeptide, whereas hydra Pax-A contains neither. DNA binding assays showed that sea nettle Pax-A and -B and hydra Pax-A paired domains bound to a Pax-5/6 site and a Pax-5 site, although hydra Pax-B paired domain bound neither. An alignment of all available paired domain sequences revealed two highly conserved regions, which cover the DNA binding contact positions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pax-A and especially Pax-B were more closely related to Pax-2/5/8 and Pax-4/6 than to Pax-1/9 or Pax-3/7 and that the Pax genes can be classified into two supergroups: Pax-A/Pax-B/Pax-2/5/8/4/6 and Pax-1/9/3/7. From this analysis and the gene structure, we propose that modern Pax-4/6 and Pax-2/5/8 genes evolved from an ancestral gene similar to cnidarian Pax-B, having both the homeodomain and the octapeptide. PMID:9144207

  5. Effectiveness and limitations of local structural entropy optimization in the thermal stabilization of mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sojin; Bannen, Ryan M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Phillips, George N; Bae, Euiyoung

    2014-10-01

    Local structural entropy (LSE) is a descriptor for the extent of conformational heterogeneity in short protein sequences that is computed from structural information derived from the Protein Data Bank. Reducing the LSE of a protein sequence by introducing amino acid mutations can result in fewer conformational states and thus a more stable structure, indicating that LSE optimization can be used as a protein stabilization method. Here, we describe a series of LSE optimization experiments designed to stabilize mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases (AKs) and report crystal structures of LSE-optimized AK variants. In the mesophilic AK, thermal stabilization by LSE reduction was effective but limited. Structural analyses of the LSE-optimized mesophilic AK variants revealed a strong correlation between LSE and the apolar buried surface area. Additional mutations designed to introduce noncovalent interactions between distant regions of the polypeptide resulted in further stabilization. Unexpectedly, optimizing the LSE of the thermophilic AK resulted in a decrease in thermal stability. This destabilization was reduced when charged residues were excluded from the possible substitutions during LSE optimization. These observations suggest that stabilization by LSE reduction may result from the optimization of local hydrophobic contacts. The limitations of this process are likely due to ignorance of other interactions that bridge distant regions in a given amino acid sequence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and limitations of LSE optimization as a protein stabilization strategy and highlight the importance and complementarity of local conformational stability and global interactions in protein thermal stability. PMID:24931334

  6. Tertiary structure prediction of the KIX domain of CBP using Monte Carlo simulations driven by restraints derived from multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, A R; Kolinski, A; Skolnick, J

    1998-02-15

    Using a recently developed protein folding algorithm, a prediction of the tertiary structure of the KIX domain of the CREB binding protein is described. The method incorporates predicted secondary and tertiary restraints derived from multiple sequence alignments in a reduced protein model whose conformational space is explored by Monte Carlo dynamics. Secondary structure restraints are provided by the PHD secondary structure prediction algorithm that was modified for the presence of predicted U-turns, i.e., regions where the chain reverses global direction. Tertiary restraints are obtained via a two-step process: First, seed side-chain contacts are identified from a correlated mutation analysis, and then, a threading-based algorithm expands the number of these seed contacts. Blind predictions indicate that the KIX domain is a putative three-helix bundle, although the chirality of the bundle could not be uniquely determined. The expected root-mean-square deviation for the correct chirality of the KIX domain is between 5.0 and 6.2 A. This is to be compared with the estimate of 12.9 A that would be expected by a random prediction, using the model of F. Cohen and M. Sternberg (J. Mol. Biol. 138:321-333, 1980). PMID:9517544

  7. Clay catalyzed polymerization of amino acid adenylates and its relationship to biochemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption and polymerization of alanine adenylate on montmorillonite at pH 7 when either its interspacial faces or its edger are blocked by an excess of histidine or sodium hexametaphosphate was investigated. Results indicate that alanine adenylate can be adsorbed any place on the interspacial spaces of the clay; however, adsorption of its phosphate part, which is limited to the edges of the clay, is necessary for polymerization to occur. As a result, polymerization takes place only at sites on the interspacial faces bordering the edges.

  8. The polymerization of amino acid adenylates on sodium-montmorillonite with preadsorbed polypeptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, Mella; Eirich, Frederick R.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous polymerization of amino acid adenylates on Na-montmorillonite in dilute, neutral suspension, after polypeptides were adsorbed on the clay, is studied. It is found that the degrees of polymerization of the oligopeptides and polypeptides obtained is dependent on the amounts of polypeptides that were preadsorbed. It is concluded that a catalytic activity may derive from c-spacings that offer adsorption sites for the reagent amino acid adenylate within the peripheral recesses of irregularly stacked clay platelets by bringing the anhydride bonds and neutral amino groups into favorable reaction distances.

  9. Blue light-induced LOV domain dimerization enhances the affinity of Aureochrome 1a for its target DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Udo; Schlichting, Ilme

    2016-01-01

    The design of synthetic optogenetic tools that allow precise spatiotemporal control of biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic control has developed rapidly over the last years. Rational design of such tools requires detailed knowledge of allosteric light signaling in natural photoreceptors. To understand allosteric communication between sensor and effector domains, characterization of all relevant signaling states is required. Here, we describe the mechanism of light-dependent DNA binding of the light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) transcription factor Aureochrome 1a from Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtAu1a) and present crystal structures of a dark state LOV monomer and a fully light-adapted LOV dimer. In combination with hydrogen/deuterium-exchange, solution scattering data and DNA-binding experiments, our studies reveal a light-sensitive interaction between the LOV and basic region leucine zipper DNA-binding domain that together with LOV dimerization results in modulation of the DNA affinity of PtAu1a. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of synthetic LOV-based photosensors with application in optogenetics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11860.001 PMID:26754770

  10. The basic domain/leucine zipper protein hXBP-1 preferentially binds to and transactivates CRE-like sequences containing an ACGT core.

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, I M; Chu, M; Zhao, J L; Glimcher, L H

    1996-01-01

    The transcription factor hXBP-1 belongs to the family of basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins and interacts with the cAMP responsive element (CRE) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II A alpha, DR alpha and DP beta genes. However, the developmental expression of hXBP-1 as revealed by in situ hybridization in mouse embryos, has suggested that it interacts with the promoter of additional genes. To identify other potential target genes of this factor, we performed binding site selection experiments with recombinant hXBP-1 protein. The results indicated that hXBP-1 binds preferably to the CRE-like element GAT-GACGTG(T/G)NNN(A/T)T, wherein the core sequence ACGT is highly conserved, and that it also binds to some TPA response elements (TRE). hXBP-1 can transactivate multimers of the target sequences to which it binds in COS cells, and the level of transactivation directly correlates with the extent of binding as observed in gel retardation experiments. One target sequence that is strongly bound by hXBP-1 is the 21 bp repeat in the HTLV-1 LTR, and we demonstrate here that hXBP-1 can transactivate the HTLV-1 LTR. Further, the transactivation domain of hXBP-1 encompasses a large C-terminal region of the protein, containing domains rich in glutamine, serine and threonine, and proline and glutamine residues, as shown in transient transfection experiments using hXBP-1-GAL4 fusion proteins and a reporter gene under the control of GAL4-binding sites. PMID:8657566

  11. Site-directed mutagenesis of Lys-174, Asp-179 and Asp-191 in the 2-kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, L; Deprez, J; Vertommen, D; Di Pietro, A; Hue, L; Rider, M H

    1997-01-01

    In a structural model of the 2-kinase domain of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase based on the analogy with adenylate kinase, Lys-174, Asp-179 and Asp-191 residues are located in the putative active site. Asp-179 and Asp-191 are conserved in all known 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase sequences. In contrast, Lys-174 is conserved except in a yeast isoenzyme, fbp26, where it is replaced by glycine. Yeast fbp26 possesses fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity, but is devoid of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity. Mutation of Asp-179 and Asp-191 of the rat liver isoenzyme to alanine increased the Km of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase for fructose 6-phosphate 2000- and 1000-fold respectively, whereas mutation of Lys-174 to glycine decreased the Vmax of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase more than 4000-fold. In contrast, none of the mutations affected the kinetic parameters of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. CD and fluorescence measurements indicated that the mutations had no effect on the structure and stability of the recombinant proteins. The results show that Asp-179 and Asp-191 participate in fructose 6-phosphate binding, whereas Lys-174 is important for catalysis. Therefore the natural mutation of Lys-174 to glycine in the fbp26 yeast isoenzyme could explain the lack of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity. These results support a novel 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase structure model based on adenylate kinase. PMID:9032446

  12. Molecular cloning of the goose ACSL3 and ACSL5 coding domain sequences and their expression characteristics during goose fatty liver development.

    PubMed

    He, H; Liu, H H; Wang, J W; Lv, J; Li, L; Pan, Z X

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that ACSL3 and ACSL5 play important roles in fat metabolism. To investigate the primary functions of ACSL3 and ACSL5 and to evaluate their expression levels during goose fatty liver development, we cloned the ACSL3 and ACSL5 coding domain sequences (CDSs) of geese using RT-PCR and analyzed their expression characteristics under different conditions using qRT-PCR. The results showed that the goose ACSL3 (JX511975) and ACSL5 (JX511976) sequences have high similarities with the chicken sequences both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Both ACSL3 and ACSL5 have high expression levels in goose liver. The expression levels of ACSL3 and ACSL5 in goose liver and hepatocytes can be changed by overfeeding geese and by treatment with unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ACSL3 and ACSL5 play important roles during fatty liver development. The different expression characteristics of goose ACSL3 and ACSL5 suggest that these two genes may be responsible for specific functions. PMID:24469710

  13. Structure of the D-alanylgriseoluteic acid biosynthetic protein EhpF, an atypical member of the ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, A.K.; Robinson, H.; Atanasova, V.; Gamage, S.; Parsons, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of EhpF, a 41 kDa protein that functions in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound D-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA), is reported. A cluster of approximately 16 genes, including ehpF, located on a 200 kbp plasmid native to certain strains of Pantoea agglomerans encodes the proteins that are required for the conversion of chorismic acid to AGA. Phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate has been identified as an intermediate in AGA biosynthesis and deletion of ehpF results in accumulation of this compound in vivo. The crystallographic data presented here reveal that EhpF is an atypical member of the acyl-CoA synthase or ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes. These enzymes typically catalyze two-step reactions involving adenylation of a carboxylate substrate followed by transfer of the substrate from AMP to coenzyme A or another phosphopantetheine. EhpF is distinguished by the absence of the C-terminal domain that is characteristic of enzymes from this family and is involved in phosphopantetheine binding and in the second half of the canonical two-step reaction that is typically observed. Based on the structure of EhpF and a bioinformatic analysis, it is proposed that EhpF and EhpG convert phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate to 6-formylphenazine-1-carboxylate via an adenylyl intermediate.

  14. Structure in the channel forming domain of colicin E1 bound to membranes: the 402-424 sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Salwiński, L.; Hubbell, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    To explore the structure of the pore-forming fragment of colicin E1 in membranes, a series of 23 consecutive single cysteine substitution mutants was prepared in the sequence 402-424. Each mutant was reacted with a sulfhydryl-specific reagent to generate a nitroxide labeled side chain, and the mobility of the side chain and its accessibility to collision with paramagnetic reagents was determined from the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. Individual values of these quantities were used to identify tertiary contact sites and the nature of the surrounding solvent, while their periodic dependence on sequence position was used to identify secondary structure. In solution, the data revealed a regular helix of 11 residues in the region 406-416, consistent with helix IV of the crystal structure. Upon binding to negatively charged membranes at pH 4.0, helix IV apparently grows to a length of 19 residues, extending from 402-420. One face of the helix is solvated by the lipid bilayer, and the other by an environment of a polar nature. Surprisingly, a conserved charged pair, D408-R409, is located on the lipid-exposed face. Evidence is presented to suggest a transmembrane orientation of this new helix, although other topographies may exist in equilibrium. PMID:10091659

  15. Structure determination of the functional domain interaction of a chimeric nonribosomal peptide synthetase from a challenging crystal with noncrystallographic translational symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sundlov, Jesse A.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2013-08-01

    The structure of the functional interaction of NRPS adenylation and carrier protein domains, trapped with a mechanism-based inhibitor, is described. Crystals exhibit translational non-crystallographic symmetry, which challenged structure determination and refinement. The nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are a family of modular proteins that contain multiple catalytic domains joined in a single protein. Together, these domains work to produce chemically diverse peptides, including compounds with antibiotic activity or that play a role in iron acquisition. Understanding the structural mechanisms that govern the domain interactions has been a long-standing goal. During NRPS synthesis, amino-acid substrates are loaded onto integrated carrier protein domains through the activity of NRPS adenylation domains. The structures of two adenylation domain–carrier protein domain complexes have recently been determined in an effort that required the use of a mechanism-based inhibitor to trap the domain interaction. Here, the continued analysis of these proteins is presented, including a higher resolution structure of an engineered di-domain protein containing the EntE adenylation domain fused with the carrier protein domain of its partner EntB. The protein crystallized in a novel space group in which molecular replacement and refinement were challenged by noncrystallographic pseudo-translational symmetry. The structure determination and how the molecular packing impacted the diffraction intensities are reported. Importantly, the structure illustrates that in this new crystal form the functional interface between the adenylation domain and the carrier protein domain remains the same as that observed previously. At a resolution that allows inclusion of water molecules, additional interactions are observed between the two protein domains and between the protein and its ligands. In particular, a highly solvated region that surrounds the carrier protein cofactor is described.

  16. Amino acid sequence of the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 predicts sensitivity of wild birds to effects of dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Manning, Gillian E; Crump, Doug; Wu, Dongmei; Mundy, Lukas J; Jones, Stephanie P; Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of avian species to the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) varies up to 1000-fold among species, and this variability has been associated with interspecies differences in aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 ligand-binding domain (AHR1 LBD) sequence. We previously showed that LD(50) values, based on in ovo exposures to DLCs, were significantly correlated with in vitro EC(50) values obtained with a luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay that measures AHR1-mediated induction of cytochrome P4501A in COS-7 cells transfected with avian AHR1 constructs. Those findings suggest that the AHR1 LBD sequence and the LRG assay can be used to predict avian species sensitivity to DLCs. In the present study, the AHR1 LBD sequences of 86 avian species were studied, and differences at amino acid sites 256, 257, 297, 324, 337, and 380 were identified. Site-directed mutagenesis, the LRG assay, and homology modeling highlighted the importance of each amino acid site in AHR1 sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other DLCs. The results of the study revealed that (1) only amino acids at sites 324 and 380 affect the sensitivity of AHR1 expression constructs of the 86 avian species to DLCs and (2) in vitro luciferase activity of AHR1 constructs containing only the LBD of the species of interest is significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.93, p < 0.0001) with in ovo toxicity data for those species. These results indicate promise for the use of AHR1 LBD amino acid sequences independently, or combined with the LRG assay, to predict avian species sensitivity to DLCs. PMID:22923492

  17. Cytochemical localization of adenylate cyclase in the various tissues of Locusta migratoria (migratorioides R.F.).

    PubMed

    Benedeczky, I; Rózsa, K S

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural cytochemical procedure to demonstrate adenyl cyclase in mammalian organs was used in insects. After several modifications, an utilizable method was applied for the detection of the enzyme in the various tissues. Adenylate cyclase which can be stimulated with octopamine was localized on the membrane of the glial cells and the axolemma of certain large axons in the insect brain. Adenylate cyclase which could be activated by NaF and isoproterenol was also demonstrated in the lipid droplets of glial cells of the brain. With the simultaneous application of NaF and isoproterenol, rather strong adenylate cyclase activity could be detected on the surface of the corpora allata cells both in the cells situated on the glandular surface and the central part of the gland. In contrast in the corpus cardiacum enzyme activity was only observable on the basal lamina of the glandular surface. An appreciable amount of reaction product, indicating the presence of the enzyme, could be found on the surface of the lipid droplets in the fat body situated near the glandular tissues. In the heart muscle, reaction product referring to enzyme activation could not be demonstrated with the help of the methods applied. PMID:7216835

  18. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  19. The glaucoma-associated olfactomedin domain of myocilin forms polymorphic fibrils that are constrained by partial unfolding and peptide sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shannon E.; Donegan, Rebecca K.; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2014-01-01

    The glaucoma-associated olfactomedin domain of myocilin (myoc-OLF) is a recent addition to the growing list of disease-associated amyloidogenic proteins. Inherited, diseasecausing myocilin variants aggregate intracellularly instead of being secreted to the trabecular meshwork (TM), which is a scenario toxic to TM cells and leads to early onset of ocular hypertension, the major risk factor for glaucoma. Here we systematically structurally and biophysically dissected myoc-OLF to better understand its amyloidogenesis. Under mildly destabilizing conditions, wild-type myoc-OLF adopts non-native structures that readily fibrillize when incubated at a temperature just below the transition for tertiary unfolding. With buffers at physiological pH, two main end-point fibril morphologies are observed: (a) straight fibrils common to many amyloids and (b) unique micron-length, ~300 nm or larger diameter species that lasso oligomers, which also exhibit classical spectroscopic amyloid signatures. Three disease-causing variants investigated herein exhibit non-native tertiary structures under physiological conditions, leading to accelerated growth rates and a variety of fibril morphologies. In particular, the well-documented D380A variant, which lacks calcium, forms large circular fibrils. Two amyloid forming peptide stretches have been identified, one for each of the main fibril morphologies observed. Our study places myoc-OLF within the larger landscape of the amylome and provides insight into the diversity of myoc-OLF aggregation that plays a role in glaucoma pathogenesis. PMID:24333014

  20. Features of Two New Proteins with OmpA-Like Domains Identified in the Genome Sequences of Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Aline F.; de Morais, Zenaide M.; Kirchgatter, Karin; Romero, Eliete C.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute febrile disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. It is considered an important re-emerging infectious disease that affects humans worldwide. The knowledge about the mechanisms by which pathogenic leptospires invade and colonize the host remains limited since very few virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease have been identified. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two new leptospiral proteins with OmpA-like domains. The recombinant proteins, which exhibit extracellular matrix-binding properties, are called Lsa46 - LIC13479 and Lsa77 - LIC10050 (Leptospiral surface adhesins of 46 and 77 kDa, respectively). Attachment of Lsa46 and Lsa77 to laminin was specific, dose dependent and saturable, with KD values of 24.3 ± 17.0 and 53.0 ± 17.5 nM, respectively. Lsa46 and Lsa77 also bind plasma fibronectin, and both adhesins are plasminogen (PLG)-interacting proteins, capable of generating plasmin (PLA) and as such, increase the proteolytic ability of leptospires. The proteins corresponding to Lsa46 and Lsa77 are present in virulent L. interrogans L1-130 and in saprophyte L. biflexa Patoc 1 strains, as detected by immunofluorescence. The adhesins are recognized by human leptospirosis serum samples at the onset and convalescent phases of the disease, suggesting that they are expressed during infection. Taken together, our data could offer valuable information to the understanding of leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:25849456

  1. The poly(adenylic acid)-protein complex is restricted to the nonpolysomal messenger ribonucleoprotein of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Adams, D S; Noonan, D; Jeffery, W R

    1980-04-29

    The distribution of poly(adenylic acid) [poly(A)]-protein complexes in the polysomal and nonpolysomal messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) fractions of Physarum polycephalum was examined in the present study. Poly-(A)-containing components released from the nonpolysomal mRNP by ribonuclease (RNase) digestion were quantitatively adsorbed to nitrocellulose filters at low ionic strength, were highly resistant to micrococcal nuclease under conditions in which free poly(A) was completely degraded, and sedimented as a 10-15S particle which was disrupted by sodium dodecyl sulfate and protease treatment. These are characteristics of the poly(A)-protein complex. In contrast,poly(A)-containing molecules released from the polysomes by RNase were refractive to nitrocellulose, were completely sensitive to micrococcal nuclease, and sedimented at 2-4 S, identical with the sedimentation exhibited by protein-free poly(A). Examination of the poly(A) sequences present in polysomal and nonpolysomal mRNP by polyacylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the former contained only very short sequences, averaging approximately 15 nucleotides, while the latter exhibited only much longer segments, averaging approximately 65 nucleotides. It is concluded that poly(A)-protein complexes are restricted to the nonpolysomal mRNP of Physarum and that the limiting factor in complex formation may be the length of the available poly(A) binding site. PMID:7378386

  2. The Adenylate-Forming Enzymes AfeA and TmpB Are Involved in Aspergillus nidulans Self-Communication during Asexual Development.

    PubMed

    Soid-Raggi, Gabriela; Sánchez, Olivia; Ramos-Balderas, Jose L; Aguirre, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. The elimination of genes flbA-E, fluG, and tmpA results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brlA. While flbA-E encode regulatory proteins, fluG and tmpA encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals needed for normal conidiation. Here we identify afeA and tmpB as new genes encoding members the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily, whose inactivation cause different fluffy phenotypes and decreased conidiation and brlA expression. AfeA is most similar to unknown function coumarate ligase-like (4CL-Lk) enzymes and consistent with this, a K544N active site modification eliminates AfeA function. TmpB, identified previously as a larger homolog of the oxidoreductase TmpA, contains a NRPS-type adenylation domain. A high degree of synteny in the afeA-tmpA and tmpB regions in the Aspergilli suggests that these genes are part of conserved gene clusters. afeA, tmpA, and tmpB double and triple mutant analysis as well as afeA overexpression experiments indicate that TmpA and AfeA act in the same conidiation pathway, with TmpB acting in a different pathway. Fluorescent protein tagging shows that functional versions of AfeA are localized in lipid bodies and the plasma membrane, while TmpA and TmpB are localized at the plasma membrane. We propose that AfeA participates in the biosynthesis of an acylated compound, either a p-cuomaryl type or a fatty acid compound, which might be oxidized by TmpA and/or TmpB, while TmpB adenylation domain would be involved in the activation of a hydrophobic amino acid, which in turn would be oxidized by the TmpB oxidoreductase domain. Both, AfeA-TmpA and TmpB signals are involved in self-communication and reproduction in A. nidulans. PMID:27047469

  3. The Adenylate-Forming Enzymes AfeA and TmpB Are Involved in Aspergillus nidulans Self-Communication during Asexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Soid-Raggi, Gabriela; Sánchez, Olivia; Ramos-Balderas, Jose L.; Aguirre, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. The elimination of genes flbA-E, fluG, and tmpA results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brlA. While flbA-E encode regulatory proteins, fluG and tmpA encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals needed for normal conidiation. Here we identify afeA and tmpB as new genes encoding members the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily, whose inactivation cause different fluffy phenotypes and decreased conidiation and brlA expression. AfeA is most similar to unknown function coumarate ligase-like (4CL-Lk) enzymes and consistent with this, a K544N active site modification eliminates AfeA function. TmpB, identified previously as a larger homolog of the oxidoreductase TmpA, contains a NRPS-type adenylation domain. A high degree of synteny in the afeA-tmpA and tmpB regions in the Aspergilli suggests that these genes are part of conserved gene clusters. afeA, tmpA, and tmpB double and triple mutant analysis as well as afeA overexpression experiments indicate that TmpA and AfeA act in the same conidiation pathway, with TmpB acting in a different pathway. Fluorescent protein tagging shows that functional versions of AfeA are localized in lipid bodies and the plasma membrane, while TmpA and TmpB are localized at the plasma membrane. We propose that AfeA participates in the biosynthesis of an acylated compound, either a p-cuomaryl type or a fatty acid compound, which might be oxidized by TmpA and/or TmpB, while TmpB adenylation domain would be involved in the activation of a hydrophobic amino acid, which in turn would be oxidized by the TmpB oxidoreductase domain. Both, AfeA-TmpA and TmpB signals are involved in self-communication and reproduction in A. nidulans. PMID:27047469

  4. Efficient synthesis of stably adenylated DNA and RNA adapters for microRNA capture using T4 RNA ligase 1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunke; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA profiling methods have become increasingly important due to the rapid rise of microRNA in both basic and translational sciences. A critical step in many microRNA profiling assays is adapter ligation using pre-adenylated adapters. While pre-adenylated adapters can be chemically or enzymatically prepared, enzymatic adenylation is preferred due to its ease and high yield. However, previously reported enzymatic methods either require tedious purification steps or use thermostable ligases that can generate side products during the subsequent ligation step. We have developed a highly efficient, template- and purification-free, adapter adenylation method using T4 RNA ligase 1. This method is capable of adenylating large amounts of adapter at ~100% efficiency and can efficiently adenylate both DNA and RNA bases. We find that the adenylation reaction speed can differ between DNA and RNA and between terminal nucleotides, leading to bias if reactions are not allowed to run to completion. We further find that the addition of high PEG levels can effectively suppress these differences. PMID:26500066

  5. Mechanisms of nonhormonal activation of adenylate cyclase based on target analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Ausiello, D.A.; Jung, C.Y.; Skorecki, K.L.

    1986-08-12

    Radiation inactivation was used to examine the mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase in the cultured renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 with hormonal (vasopressin) and nonhormonal (GTP, forskolin, fluoride, and chloride) activating ligands. Intact cells were frozen, irradiated at -70 degrees C (0-14 Mrad), thawed, and assayed for adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of activating ligands. The ln (adenylate cyclase activity) vs. radiation dose relation was linear (target size 162 kDa) for vasopressin- (2 microM) stimulated activity and concave downward for unstimulated (10 mM Mn/sup 2 +/), NaF- (10 mM) stimulated, and NaCl- (100 mM) stimulated activities. Addition of 2 microM vasopressin did not alter the ln activity vs. dose relation for NaF- (10 mM) stimulated activity. The dose-response relations for adenylate cyclase activation and for transition in the ln activity vs. dose curve shape were measured for vasopressin and NaF. On the basis of our model for adenylate cyclase subunit interactions reported previously (Verkman, A. S., Skorecki, K. L., and Ausiello, D. A. (1986) Am. J. Physiol. 260, C103-C123) and of new mathematical analyses, activation mechanisms for each ligand are proposed. In the unstimulated state, equilibrium between alpha beta and alpha + beta favors alpha beta; dissociated alpha binds to GTP (rate-limiting step), which then combines with the catalytic (C) subunit to form active enzyme. Vasopressin binding to receptor provides a rapid pathway for GTP binding to alpha. GTP and its analogues accelerate the rate of alpha GTP formation. Forskolin inhibits the spontaneous deactivation of activated C. Activation by fluoride may occur without alpha beta dissociation or GTP addition through activation of C by an alpha beta-F complex.

  6. Site-Selective Monitoring of the Interaction of the SRA Domain of UHRF1 with Target DNA Sequences Labeled with 2-Aminopurine.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Vanille J; Kovalenko, Lesia; Humbert, Nicolas; Richert, Ludovic; Birck, Catherine; Ruff, Marc; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Bronner, Christian; Mély, Yves

    2015-10-01

    UHRF1 plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic modifications by recruiting DNMT1 to hemimethylated CpG sites via its SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain, ensuring error-free duplication of methylation profiles. To characterize SRA-induced changes in the conformation and dynamics of a target 12 bp DNA duplex as a function of the methylation status, we labeled duplexes by the environment-sensitive probe 2-aminopurine (2-Ap) at various positions near or far from the central CpG recognition site containing either a nonmodified cytosine (NM duplex), a methylated cytosine (HM duplex), or methylated cytosines on both strands (BM duplex). Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that binding of SRA induced modest conformational and dynamical changes in NM, HM, and BM duplexes, with only slight destabilization of base pairs, restriction of global duplex flexibility, and diminution of local nucleobase mobility. Moreover, significant restriction of the local motion of residues flanking the methylcytosine in the HM duplex suggested that these residues are more rigidly bound to SRA, in line with a slightly higher affinity of the HM duplex as compared to that of the NM or BM duplex. Our results are consistent with a "reader" role, in which the SRA domain scans DNA sequences for hemimethylated CpG sites without perturbation of the structure of contacted nucleotides. PMID:26368281

  7. The NHERF2 sequence adjacent and upstream of the ERM-binding domain affects NHERF2-ezrin binding and dexamethasone stimulated NHE3 activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianbo; Sarker, Rafiquel; Singh, Varsha; Sarker, Prateeti; Yin, Jianyi; Chen, Tian-E; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Li, Xuhang; Tse, C Ming; Donowitz, Mark

    2015-08-15

    In the brush border of intestinal and kidney epithelial cells, scaffolding proteins ezrin, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)1 and NHERF2 play important roles in linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton and assembling signalling regulatory complexes. The last 30 carboxyl residues of NHERF1 and NHERF2 form the EBDs [ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM)-binding domain]. The current study found that NHERF1/2 contain an ERM-binding regulatory sequence (EBRS), which facilitates the interaction between the EBD and ezrin. The EBRSs are located within 24 and 19 residues immediately upstream of EBDs for NHERF1 and NHERF2 respectively. In OK (opossum kidney) epithelial cells, EBRSs are necessary along with the EBD to distribute NHERF1 and NHERF2 exclusively to the apical domain. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Ser(303) located in the EBRS of NHERF2, decreases the binding affinity for ezrin, dislocates apical NHERF2 into the cytosol and increases the NHERF2 microvillar mobility rate. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of Ser(303) was functionally significant preventing acute stimulation of NHE3 (Na(+)-H(+) exchanger 3) activity by dexamethasone. PMID:26251448

  8. A/T Run Geometry of B-form DNA Is Independent of Bound Methyl-CpG Binding Domain, Cytosine Methylation and Flanking Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jyh Yea; Tan, Wen Siang; Ng, Chyan Leong; Hu, Nien-Jen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Ho, Kok Lian

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation in a CpG context can be recognised by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) via its methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). An A/T run next to a methyl-CpG maximises the binding of MeCP2 to the methylated DNA. The A/T run characteristics are reported here with an X-ray structure of MBD A140V in complex with methylated DNA. The A/T run geometry was found to be strongly stabilised by a string of conserved water molecules regardless of its flanking nucleotide sequences, DNA methylation and bound MBD. New water molecules were found to stabilise the Rett syndrome-related E137, whose carboxylate group is salt bridged to R133. A structural comparison showed no difference between the wild type and MBD A140V. However, differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting temperature of A140V constructs in complex with methylated DNA was reduced by ~7 °C, although circular dichroism showed no changes in the secondary structure content for A140V. A band shift analysis demonstrated that the larger fragment of MeCP2 (A140V) containing the transcriptional repression domain (TRD) destabilises the DNA binding. These results suggest that the solution structure of MBD A140V may differ from the wild-type MBD although no changes in the biochemical properties of X-ray A140V were observed. PMID:27502833

  9. A/T Run Geometry of B-form DNA Is Independent of Bound Methyl-CpG Binding Domain, Cytosine Methylation and Flanking Sequence.

    PubMed

    Chia, Jyh Yea; Tan, Wen Siang; Ng, Chyan Leong; Hu, Nien-Jen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Ho, Kok Lian

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation in a CpG context can be recognised by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) via its methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). An A/T run next to a methyl-CpG maximises the binding of MeCP2 to the methylated DNA. The A/T run characteristics are reported here with an X-ray structure of MBD A140V in complex with methylated DNA. The A/T run geometry was found to be strongly stabilised by a string of conserved water molecules regardless of its flanking nucleotide sequences, DNA methylation and bound MBD. New water molecules were found to stabilise the Rett syndrome-related E137, whose carboxylate group is salt bridged to R133. A structural comparison showed no difference between the wild type and MBD A140V. However, differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting temperature of A140V constructs in complex with methylated DNA was reduced by ~7 °C, although circular dichroism showed no changes in the secondary structure content for A140V. A band shift analysis demonstrated that the larger fragment of MeCP2 (A140V) containing the transcriptional repression domain (TRD) destabilises the DNA binding. These results suggest that the solution structure of MBD A140V may differ from the wild-type MBD although no changes in the biochemical properties of X-ray A140V were observed. PMID:27502833

  10. The NHERF2 sequence adjacent and upstream of the ERM-binding domain affects NHERF2–ezrin binding and dexamethasone stimulated NHE3 activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianbo; Sarker, Rafiquel; Singh, Varsha; Sarker, Prateeti; Yin, Jianyi; Chen, Tian-E; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Li, Xuhang; Tse, C. Ming; Donowitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In the brush border of intestinal and kidney epithelial cells, scaffolding proteins ezrin, Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)1 and NHERF2 play important roles in linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton and assembling signalling regulatory complexes. The last 30 carboxyl residues of NHERF1 and NHERF2 form the EBDs [ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM)-binding domain]. The current study found that NHERF1/2 contain an ERM-binding regulatory sequence (EBRS), which facilitates the interaction between the EBD and ezrin. The EBRSs are located within 24 and 19 residues immediately upstream of EBDs for NHERF1 and NHERF2 respectively. In OK (opossum kidney) epithelial cells, EBRSs are necessary along with the EBD to distribute NHERF1 and NHERF2 exclusively to the apical domain. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Ser303 located in the EBRS of NHERF2, decreases the binding affinity for ezrin, dislocates apical NHERF2 into the cytosol and increases the NHERF2 microvillar mobility rate. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of Ser303 was functionally significant preventing acute stimulation of NHE3 (Na+-H+ exchanger 3) activity by dexamethasone. PMID:26251448

  11. An N-terminal nuclear localization sequence but not the calmodulin-binding domain mediates nuclear localization of nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates nuclear number in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2005-06-24

    Nucleomorphin is a novel nuclear calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) containing an extensive DEED (glu/asp repeat) domain that regulates nuclear number. GFP-constructs of the 38 kDa NumA1 isoform localize as intranuclear patches adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The translocation of CaMBPs into nuclei has previously been shown by others to be mediated by both classic nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) and CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs). Here we show that NumA1 possesses a CaMBD (171EDVSRFIKGKLLQKQQKIYKDLERF195) containing both calcium-dependent-binding motifs and an IQ-like motif for calcium-independent binding. GFP-constructs containing only NumA1 residues 1-129, lacking the DEED and CaMBDs, still localized as patches at the internal periphery of nuclei thus ruling out a direct role for the CaMBD in nuclear import. These constructs contained the amino acid residues 48KKSYQDPEIIAHSRPRK64 that include both a putative bipartite and classical NLS. GFP-bipartite NLS constructs localized uniformly within nuclei but not as patches. As with previous work, removal of the DEED domain resulted in highly multinucleate cells. However as shown here, multinuclearity only occurred when the NLS was present allowing the protein to enter nuclei. Site-directed mutation analysis in which the NLS was changed to 48EF49 abolished the stability of the GFP fusion at the protein but not RNA level preventing subcellular analyses. Cells transfected with the 48EF49 construct exhibited slowed growth when compared to parental AX3 cells and other GFP-NumA1 deletion mutants. In addition to identifying an NLS that is sufficient for nuclear translocation of nucleomorphin and ruling out CaM-binding in this event, this work shows that the nuclear localization of NumA1 is crucial to its ability to regulate nuclear number in Dictyostelium. PMID:15896312

  12. Nuclear Trafficking of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist P-Protein Is Regulated by an Importin-Binding Nuclear Localization Sequence in the C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Caitlin L.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Oksayan, Sibil; Glover, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus P-protein is expressed as five isoforms (P1-P5) which undergo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking important to roles in immune evasion. Although nuclear import of P3 is known to be mediated by an importin (IMP)-recognised nuclear localization sequence in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), the mechanisms underlying nuclear import of other P isoforms in which the N-NLS is inactive or has been deleted have remained unresolved. Based on the previous observation that mutation of basic residues K214/R260 of the P-protein C-terminal domain (P-CTD) can result in nuclear exclusion of P3, we used live cell imaging, protein interaction analysis and in vitro nuclear transport assays to examine in detail the nuclear trafficking properties of this domain. We find that the effect of mutation of K214/R260 on P3 is largely dependent on nuclear export, suggesting that nuclear exclusion of mutated P3 involves the P-CTD-localized nuclear export sequence (C-NES). However, assays using cells in which nuclear export is pharmacologically inhibited indicate that these mutations significantly inhibit P3 nuclear accumulation and, importantly, prevent nuclear accumulation of P1, suggestive of effects on NLS-mediated import activity in these isoforms. Consistent with this, molecular binding and transport assays indicate that the P-CTD mediates IMPα2/IMPβ1-dependent nuclear import by conferring direct binding to the IMPα2/IMPβ1 heterodimer, as well as to a truncated form of IMPα2 lacking the IMPβ-binding autoinhibitory domain (ΔIBB-IMPα2), and IMPβ1 alone. These properties are all dependent on K214 and R260. This provides the first evidence that P-CTD contains a genuine IMP-binding NLS, and establishes the mechanism by which P-protein isoforms other than P3 can be imported to the nucleus. These data underpin a refined model for P-protein trafficking that involves the concerted action of multiple NESs and IMP-binding NLSs, and highlight the intricate regulation of P

  13. Nuclear Trafficking of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist P-Protein Is Regulated by an Importin-Binding Nuclear Localization Sequence in the C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Caitlin L; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Oksayan, Sibil; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A; Moseley, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus P-protein is expressed as five isoforms (P1-P5) which undergo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking important to roles in immune evasion. Although nuclear import of P3 is known to be mediated by an importin (IMP)-recognised nuclear localization sequence in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), the mechanisms underlying nuclear import of other P isoforms in which the N-NLS is inactive or has been deleted have remained unresolved. Based on the previous observation that mutation of basic residues K214/R260 of the P-protein C-terminal domain (P-CTD) can result in nuclear exclusion of P3, we used live cell imaging, protein interaction analysis and in vitro nuclear transport assays to examine in detail the nuclear trafficking properties of this domain. We find that the effect of mutation of K214/R260 on P3 is largely dependent on nuclear export, suggesting that nuclear exclusion of mutated P3 involves the P-CTD-localized nuclear export sequence (C-NES). However, assays using cells in which nuclear export is pharmacologically inhibited indicate that these mutations significantly inhibit P3 nuclear accumulation and, importantly, prevent nuclear accumulation of P1, suggestive of effects on NLS-mediated import activity in these isoforms. Consistent with this, molecular binding and transport assays indicate that the P-CTD mediates IMPα2/IMPβ1-dependent nuclear import by conferring direct binding to the IMPα2/IMPβ1 heterodimer, as well as to a truncated form of IMPα2 lacking the IMPβ-binding autoinhibitory domain (ΔIBB-IMPα2), and IMPβ1 alone. These properties are all dependent on K214 and R260. This provides the first evidence that P-CTD contains a genuine IMP-binding NLS, and establishes the mechanism by which P-protein isoforms other than P3 can be imported to the nucleus. These data underpin a refined model for P-protein trafficking that involves the concerted action of multiple NESs and IMP-binding NLSs, and highlight the intricate regulation of P

  14. Use of the amicyanin signal sequence for efficient periplasmic expression in E. coli of a human antibody light chain variable domain.

    PubMed

    Dow, Brian A; Tatulian, Suren A; Davidson, Victor L

    2015-04-01

    Periplasmic localization of recombinant proteins offers advantages over cytoplasmic protein expression. In this study signal sequence of amicyanin, which is encoded by the mauC gene of Paracoccus denitrificans, was used to express the light chain variable domain of the human κIO8/O18 germline antibody in the periplasm of Escherichiacoli. The expressed protein was purified in good yield (70mg/L of culture) in one step from the periplasmic fraction by affinity chromatography using an engineered hexahistidine tag. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to determine if the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein and its thermal stability corresponded to those of the native folded protein. The expressed and purified protein was indeed properly folded and exhibited a reasonable thermal transition temperature of 53°C. These results indicate that the amicyanin signal sequence may be particularly useful for prokaryotic expression of proteins which are prone to mis-folding, aggregation or formation of inclusion bodies, all of which were circumvented in this study. PMID:25573388

  15. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. II. Cellular Components, Domains, Technical Terms, Developmental Processes and Coding Sequence Diversities Correlated with Long Disordered Regions

    PubMed Central

    Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., intrinsically disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with intrinsic disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with long intrinsically disordered regions. This paper describes ~90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions. PMID:17391015

  16. Animal Protection and Structural Studies of a Consensus Sequence VaccineTargeting the Receptor Binding Domain of the Type IV Pilus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Daniel J.; Churchill, Mair E. A.; Irvin, Randall T.; Hodges, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in the development of a vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the requirement that it is protective against a wide range of virulent strains. We have developed a synthetic-peptide consensus-sequence vaccine (Cs1) that targets the host receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the type IV pilus of P. aeruginosa. Here, we show that this vaccine provides increased protection against challenge by the four piliated strains that we have examined (PAK, PAO, KB7 and P1) in the A.BY/SnJ mouse model of acute P. aeruginosa infection. To further characterize the consensus sequence, we engineered Cs1 into the PAK monomeric pilin protein and determined the crystal structure of the chimeric Cs1 pilin to 1.35 Å resolution. The substitutions (T130K and E135P) used to create Cs1 do not disrupt the conserved backbone conformation of the pilin RBD. In fact, based on the Cs1 pilin structure, we hypothesize that the E135P substitution bolsters the conserved backbone conformation and may partially explain the immunological activity of Cs1. Structural analysis of Cs1, PAK and K122-4 pilins reveal substitutions of non-conserved residues in the RBD are compensated for by complementary changes in the rest of the pilin monomer. Thus, the interactions between the RBD and the rest of the pilin can either be mediated by polar interactions of a hydrogen bond network in some strains or by hydrophobic interactions in others. Both configurations maintain a conserved backbone conformation of the RBD. Thus, the backbone conformation is critical in our consensus-sequence vaccine design and that cross-reactivity of the antibody response may be modulated by the composition of exposed side-chains on the surface of the RBD. This structure will guide our future vaccine design by focusing our investigation on the four variable residue positions that are exposed on the RBD surface. PMID:17936788

  17. Animal Protection and Structural Studies of a Consensus Sequence Vaccine Targeting the Receptor Binding Domain of the Type IV Pilus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Daniel J.; Churchill, Mair E.A.; Irvin, Randall T.; Hodges, Robert S.

    2008-09-23

    One of the main obstacles in the development of a vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the requirement that it is protective against a wide range of virulent strains. We have developed a synthetic-peptide consensus-sequence vaccine (Cs1) that targets the host receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the type IV pilus of P. aeruginosa. Here, we show that this vaccine provides increased protection against challenge by the four piliated strains that we have examined (PAK, PAO, KB7 and P1) in the A.BY/SnJ mouse model of acute P. aeruginosa infection. To further characterize the consensus sequence, we engineered Cs1 into the PAK monomeric pilin protein and determined the crystal structure of the chimeric Cs1 pilin to 1.35 {angstrom} resolution. The substitutions (T130K and E135P) used to create Cs1 do not disrupt the conserved backbone conformation of the pilin RBD. In fact, based on the Cs1 pilin structure, we hypothesize that the E135P substitution bolsters the conserved backbone conformation and may partially explain the immunological activity of Cs1. Structural analysis of Cs1, PAK and K122-4 pilins reveal substitutions of non-conserved residues in the RBD are compensated for by complementary changes in the rest of the pilin monomer. Thus, the interactions between the RBD and the rest of the pilin can either be mediated by polar interactions of a hydrogen bond network in some strains or by hydrophobic interactions in others. Both configurations maintain a conserved backbone conformation of the RBD. Thus, the backbone conformation is critical in our consensus-sequence vaccine design and that cross-reactivity of the antibody response may be modulated by the composition of exposed side-chains on the surface of the RBD. This structure will guide our future vaccine design by focusing our investigation on the four variable residue positions that are exposed on the RBD surface.

  18. Sequence Analysis of Scaffolding Protein CipC and ORFXp, a New Cohesin-Containing Protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum: Comparison of Various Cohesin Domains and Subcellular Localization of ORFXp

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, Sandrine; Bélaïch, Anne; Fierobe, Henri-Pierre; Tardif, Chantal; Gaudin, Christian; Bélaïch, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the scaffolding protein of the cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum, whose partial sequence was published earlier (S. Pagès, A. Bélaïch, C. Tardif, C. Reverbel-Leroy, C. Gaudin, and J.-P. Bélaïch, J. Bacteriol. 178:2279–2286, 1996; C. Reverbel-Leroy, A. Bélaïch, A. Bernadac, C. Gaudin, J. P. Bélaïch, and C. Tardif, Microbiology 142:1013–1023, 1996), was completely sequenced. The corresponding protein, CipC, is composed of a cellulose binding domain at the N terminus followed by one hydrophilic domain (HD1), seven highly homologous cohesin domains (cohesin domains 1 to 7), a second hydrophilic domain, and a final cohesin domain (cohesin domain 8) which is only 57 to 60% identical to the seven other cohesin domains. In addition, a second gene located 8.89 kb downstream of cipC was found to encode a three-domain protein, called ORFXp, which includes a cohesin domain. By using antiserum raised against the latter, it was observed that ORFXp is associated with the membrane of C. cellulolyticum and is not detected in the cellulosome fraction. Western blot and BIAcore experiments indicate that cohesin domains 1 and 8 from CipC recognize the same dockerins and have similar affinity for CelA (Ka = 4.8 × 109 M−1) whereas the cohesin from ORFXp, although it is also able to bind all cellulosome components containing a dockerin, has a 19-fold lower Ka for CelA (2.6 × 108 M−1). Taken together, these data suggest that ORFXp may play a role in cellulosome assembly. PMID:10074072

  19. Substrate specificity of the adenylation enzyme SgcC1 involved in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027.

    PubMed

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Lin, Shuangjun; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Kelleher, Neil L; Shen, Ben

    2006-10-01

    C-1027 is an enediyne antitumor antibiotic composed of a chromophore with four distinct chemical moieties, including an (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety that is derived from l-alpha-tyrosine. SgcC4, a novel aminomutase requiring no added co-factor that catalyzes the formation of the first intermediate (S)-beta-tyrosine and subsequently SgcC1 homologous to adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was identified as specific for the SgcC4 product and did not recognize any alpha-amino acids. To definitively establish the substrate for SgcC1, a full kinetic characterization of the enzyme was performed using amino acid-dependent ATP-[(32)P]PP(i) exchange assay to monitor amino acid activation and electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass spectroscopy to follow the loading of the activated beta-amino acid substrate to the peptidyl carrier protein SgcC2. The data establish (S)-beta-tyrosine as the preferred substrate, although SgcC1 shows promiscuous activity toward aromatic beta-amino acids such as beta-phenylalanine, 3-chloro-beta-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine, but all were <50-fold efficient. A putative active site mutant P571A adjacent to the invariant aspartic acid residue of all alpha-amino acid-specific adenylation domains known to date was prepared as a preliminary attempt to probe the substrate specificity of SgcC1; however the mutation resulted in a loss of activity with all substrates except (S)-beta-tyrosine, which was 142-fold less efficient relative to the wild-type enzyme. In total, SgcC1 is now confirmed to catalyze the second step in the biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety of C-1027, presenting downstream enzymes with an (S)-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 thioester substrate, and represents the first beta-amino acid-specific adenylation enzyme characterized biochemically. PMID:16887797

  20. Key Role of the Adenylate Moiety and Integrity of the Adenylate-Binding Site for the NAD(+)/H Binding to Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Inducing Factor.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Luca; Calogero, Alessandra Maria; Pandini, Vittorio; Vanoni, Maria Antonietta; Sevrioukova, Irina F; Aliverti, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein with pro-life and pro-death activities, which plays critical roles in mitochondrial energy metabolism and caspase-independent apoptosis. Defects in AIF structure or expression can cause mitochondrial abnormalities leading to mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration. The mechanism of AIF-induced apoptosis was extensively investigated, whereas the mitochondrial function of AIF is poorly understood. A unique feature of AIF is the ability to form a tight, air-stable charge-transfer (CT) complex upon reaction with NADH and to undergo a conformational switch leading to dimerization, proposed to be important for its vital and lethal functions. Although some aspects of interaction of AIF with NAD(+)/H have been analyzed, its precise mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated how the oxidized and photoreduced wild-type and G307A and -E variants of murine AIF associate with NAD(+)/H and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN(+)/H) to determine the role of the adenylate moiety in the binding process. Our results indicate that (i) the adenylate moiety of NAD(+)/H is crucial for the association with AIF and for the subsequent structural reorganization of the complex, but not for protein dimerization, (ii) FAD reduction rather than binding of NAD(+)/H to AIF initiates conformational rearrangement, and (iii) alteration of the adenylate-binding site by the G307E (equivalent to a pathological G308E mutation in human AIF) or G307A replacements decrease the affinity and association rate of NAD(+)/H, which, in turn, perturbs CT complex formation and protein dimerization but has no influence on the conformational switch in the regulatory peptide. PMID:26535916

  1. Inhibition of vaccinia mRNA methylation by 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acid) triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, O.K.; Goswami, B.B.

    1981-04-01

    Extracts of interferon-treated cells synthesize unique 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acid) 5'-phosphates in the presence of ATP and double-stranded RNA. 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acid) 5'-triphosphate inhibits protein synthesis at nanomolar concentrations by activating RNase. We have observed that oligo(adenylic acid) 5'-monophosphate and 5'-triphosphate are potent inhibitors of vaccinia mRNA methylation in vitro. Both the methylation of the 5'-terminal guanine at the 7 position and the 2'-O-ribose methylation of the penultimate nucleoside are inhibited. Such inhibition of mRNA methylation is not due to degradation of the mRNA. Inhibition of the requisite modification of the 5' terminus of mRNA by 2',5'-linked oligo(adenylic acids) may be a mechanism of interferon action against both DNA and RNA viruses in which mRNAs derived from them are capped.

  2. Sequence-specific sup 1 H NMR assignments, secondary structure, and location of the calcium binding site in the first epidermal growth factor like domain of blood coagulation factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.H.; Cheng, H.; Sweeney, W.V. ); Pardi, A. ); Tam, J.P. )

    1991-07-30

    Factor IX is a blood clotting protein that contains three regions, including a {gamma}-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two tandemly connected epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, and a serine protease region. The protein exhibits a high-affinity calcium binding site in the first EGF0like domain, in addition to calcium binding in the Gla domain. The first EGF-like domain, factor IX (45-87), has been synthesized. Sequence-specific resonance assignment of the peptide has been made by using 2D NMR techniques, and its secondary structure has been determined. The protein is found to have two antiparallel {beta}-sheets, and preliminary distance geometry calculations indicate that the protein has two domains, separated by Trp{sup 28}, with the overall structure being similar to that of EGF. An NMR investigation of the calcium-bound first EGF-like domain indicates the presence and location of a calcium binding site involving residues on both strands of one of the {beta}-sheets as well as the N-terminal region of the peptide. These results suggest that calcium binding in the first EGF-like domain could induce long-range (possibly interdomain) conformational changes in factor IX, rather than causing structural alterations in the EGF-like domain itself.

  3. The Crystal Structure of the Adenylation Enzyme VinN Reveals a Unique β-Amino Acid Recognition Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Cieślak, Jolanta; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Adenylation enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and degradation of primary and secondary metabolites. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of α-amino acid substrates have been obtained for α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. The Asp residue is invariant and is essential for the stabilization of the α-amino group of the substrate. In contrast, the β-amino acid recognition mechanism of adenylation enzymes is still unclear despite the importance of β-amino acid activation for the biosynthesis of various natural products. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the stand-alone adenylation enzyme VinN, which specifically activates (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate (3-MeAsp) in vicenistatin biosynthesis. VinN has an overall structure similar to that of other adenylation enzymes. The structure of the complex with 3-MeAsp revealed that a conserved Asp230 residue is used in the recognition of the β-amino group of 3-MeAsp similar to α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. A mutational analysis and structural comparison with α-amino acid adenylation enzymes showed that the substrate-binding pocket of VinN has a unique architecture to accommodate 3-MeAsp as a β-amino acid substrate. Thus, the VinN structure allows the first visualization of the interaction of an adenylation enzyme with a β-amino acid and provides new mechanistic insights into the selective recognition of β-amino acids in this family of enzymes. PMID:25246523

  4. The crystal structure of the adenylation enzyme VinN reveals a unique β-amino acid recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Cieślak, Jolanta; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Adenylation enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and degradation of primary and secondary metabolites. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of α-amino acid substrates have been obtained for α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. The Asp residue is invariant and is essential for the stabilization of the α-amino group of the substrate. In contrast, the β-amino acid recognition mechanism of adenylation enzymes is still unclear despite the importance of β-amino acid activation for the biosynthesis of various natural products. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the stand-alone adenylation enzyme VinN, which specifically activates (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate (3-MeAsp) in vicenistatin biosynthesis. VinN has an overall structure similar to that of other adenylation enzymes. The structure of the complex with 3-MeAsp revealed that a conserved Asp(230) residue is used in the recognition of the β-amino group of 3-MeAsp similar to α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. A mutational analysis and structural comparison with α-amino acid adenylation enzymes showed that the substrate-binding pocket of VinN has a unique architecture to accommodate 3-MeAsp as a β-amino acid substrate. Thus, the VinN structure allows the first visualization of the interaction of an adenylation enzyme with a β-amino acid and provides new mechanistic insights into the selective recognition of β-amino acids in this family of enzymes. PMID:25246523

  5. [3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1

    SciTech Connect

    Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome

    2002-06-14

    Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

  6. Fiber knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a coiled coil is a candidate subunit vaccine against egg-drop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harakuni, Tetsuya; Andoh, Kiyohiko; Sakamoto, Ryu-Ichi; Tamaki, Yukihiro; Miyata, Takeshi; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Yamazaki, Ken-Ichi; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Egg-drop syndrome (EDS) virus is an avian adenovirus that causes a sudden drop in egg production and in the quality of the eggs when it infects chickens, leading to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Inactivated EDS vaccines produced in embryonated duck eggs or cell culture systems are available for the prophylaxis of EDS. However, recombinant subunit vaccines that are efficacious and inexpensive are a desirable alternative. In this study, we engineered chimeric fusion proteins in which the trimeric fiber knob domain lacking the triple β-spiral motif in the fiber shaft region was genetically fused to trimeric coiled coils, such as those of the engineered form of the GCN4 leucine zipper peptide or chicken cartilage matrix protein (CMP). The fusion proteins were expressed predominantly as soluble trimeric proteins in Escherichia coli at levels of 15-80mg/L of bacterial culture. The single immunization of chickens with the purified fusion proteins, at a dose equivalent to 10μg of the knob moiety, elicited serum antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activities, similar to those induced by an inactivated EDS vaccine. A dose-response analysis indicated that a single immunization with as little as 1μg of the knob moiety of the CMP-knob fusion protein was as effective as the inactivated vaccine in inducing antibodies with HI activity. The immunization of laying hens had no apparent adverse effects on egg production and effectively prevented clinical symptoms of EDS when the chickens were challenged with pathogenic EDS virus. This study demonstrates that the knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a trimeric coiled coil is a promising candidate subunit vaccine for the prophylaxis of EDS in chickens. PMID:27105561

  7. Studies on properties of the xylan‑binding domain and linker sequence of xylanase XynG1‑1 from Paenibacillus campinasensis G1‑1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihan; Huang, Lin; Li, Weiguo; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Hongchen; Wang, Jianling; Lu, Fuping

    2015-12-01

    Xylanase XynG1-1 from Paenibacillus campinasensis G1-1 consists of a catalytic domain (CD), a family 6_36 carbohydrate-binding module which is a xylan-binding domain (XBD), and a linker sequence (LS)between them. The structure of XynG1-3 from Bacillus pumilus G1-3 consists only of a CD. To investigate the functions and properties of the XBD and LS of XynG1-1, two truncated forms (XynG1-1CDL, XynG1-1CD) and three fusion derivatives (XynG1-3CDL, XynG1-3CDX and XynG1-3CDLX) were constructed and biochemically characterized. The optimum conditions for the catalytic activity of mutants of XynG1-1 and XynG1-3 were 60 °C and pH 7.0, and 55 °C and pH 8.0, respectively, the same as for the corresponding wild-type enzymes. XynGs with an XBD were stable over a broad temperature (30-80 °C)and pH range (4.0-11.0), respectively, on incubation for 3 h. Kinetic parameters (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) of XynGs were determined with soluble birchwood xylan and insoluble oat spelt xylan as substrates. XynGs with the XBD showed better affinities toward, and more efficient catalysis of hydrolysis of the insoluble substrate. The XBD had positive effects on thermostability and pH stability and a crucial function in the ability of the enzyme to bind and hydrolyze insoluble substrate. The LS had little effect on the overall stability of the xylanase and no relationship with affinities for soluble and insoluble substrates or catalytic efficiency. PMID:26467249

  8. Relationship between bacterial virulence and nucleotide metabolism: a mutation in the adenylate kinase gene renders Yersinia pestis avirulent.

    PubMed Central

    Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ionescu, Mihaela; Chrisova, Petya; Foulon, Jeannine; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bârzu, Octavian

    2003-01-01

    Nucleoside monophosphate kinases (NMPKs) are essential catalysts for bacterial growth and multiplication. These enzymes display high primary sequence identities among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, belongs to this family. However, it was previously shown that its thymidylate kinase (TMPKyp) exhibits biochemical properties significantly different from those of its Escherichia coli counterpart [Chenal-Francisque, Tourneux, Carniel, Christova, Li de la Sierra, Barzu and Gilles (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 265, 112-119]. In this work, the adenylate kinase (AK) of Y. pestis (AKyp) was characterized. As with TMPKyp, AKyp displayed a lower thermodynamic stability than other studied AKs. Two mutations in AK (Ser129Phe and Pro87Ser), previously shown to induce a thermosensitive growth defect in E. coli, were introduced into AKyp. The recombinant variants had a lower stability than wild-type AKyp and a higher susceptibility to proteolytic digestion. When the Pro87Ser substitution was introduced into the chromosomal adk gene of Y. pestis, growth of the mutant strain was altered at the non-permissive temperature of 37 degree C. In virulence testings, less than 50 colony forming units (CFU) of wild-type Y. pestis killed 100% of the mice upon subcutaneous infection, whereas bacterial loads as high as 1.5 x 10(4) CFU of the adk mutant were unable to kill any animals. PMID:12879903

  9. Poly(adenylic acid) in small amounts, free or covalently linked to substrate, protects RNA from hydrolysis by ribonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Karpetsky, T P; Shriver, K K; Levy, C C

    1981-01-01

    Short lengths (18 residues) of poly(A), covalently linked to the 3'-termini of Escherichia coli 5 S rRNA, induce powerful inhibitions (38-87%) of the activities of RNAases (ribonucleases) from Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter sp., bovine pancreas, human spleen and human plasma. As the polypurine chain length is extended, enzyme activity declines. Furthermore, poly(A) sequences, present only on a small subpopulation of RNA, and accounting for less than 1% of total RNA, serve to protect all RNA, polyadenylated or not, from enzyme-catalysed degradation. The quantity of 3'-terminal adenylic acid residues, relative to the amount of substrate, determines enzyme activity. The exact distribution of a fixed amount of poly(A) residues on the 3'-termini of substrate molecules is unimportant in this respect. Comparison of the efficacies of inhibition of RNAase activity, by using linked poly(A) and similar quantities of free poly(A), revealed that although the free polypurine inhibits RNAase activity, covalent linkage of poly(A) to RNA is more advantageous to the stability of an RNA substrate. However, the ratio of inhibited activities obtained by using linked or free poly(A) may change considerably with alterations in either substrate concentration or polyadenylic acid segment length. PMID:6171250

  10. Hyperexpression and purification of Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase using a vector designed for expression of lethal gene products.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P; Peterkofsky, A; McKenney, K

    1989-12-25

    We describe the construction of a new generation of vectors (pRE) for the hyperexpression of lethal gene products such as adenylate cyclase in Escherichia coli. The pRE vectors are based on the lambda PL promoter and lambda cII ribosome binding site described by Shimatake and Rosenberg (Nature, 292, 128-132, 1981). They have a unique NdeI restriction endonuclease site 3' of the lambda cII ribosome binding site that includes the ATG initiation codon, multilinker cloning sites 3' to the NdeI site, and two lambda transcription terminators 5' and 3' of the lambda PL promoter to eliminate nonspecific transcription and reduce leaky PL transcription, respectively. For hyperexpression of adenylate cyclase, tight control of transcription was necessary since elevation of cAMP levels above the physiological range is lethal to E. coli. Lethality associated with the overproduction of adenylate cyclase was shown to be mediated through the cAMP receptor protein. We used this expression system to overproduce adenylate cyclase 7500 fold, corresponding to 30% of the total cellular protein. Under these conditions the enzyme precipitated with significant loss of activity. Reducing the rate and amount of adenylate cyclase expression to 16% of the total cell protein produced one fourth of the enzyme in a soluble form with high specific activity. The soluble adenylate cyclase was purified to near homogeneity. PMID:2557591

  11. Alkaline phosphatase relieves desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1987-05-01

    Desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes results in 40-65% decrease in agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and correlates with increased phosphorylation of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors. To assess the role of phosphorylation in desensitization, membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized turkey erythrocytes were incubated with alkaline phosphatase for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C, pH = 8.0. In both cases alkaline phosphatase treatment significantly reduced desensitization of agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by 40-60%. Similar results were obtained following alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized duck erythrocytes. In addition, alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from duck erythrocytes desensitized with phorbol 12-mystrate 13-acetate returned adenylate cyclase activity to near control values. In all experiments inclusion of 20 mM NaPO/sub 4/ to inhibit alkaline phosphatase during treatment of membranes blocked the enzyme's effect on agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes.

  12. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    adjustment for multiple-testing, significant association (q ≤ 0.05) remained between the rs41694646 SNP and four traits (animal stature, body depth, direct calving difficulty and milk yield) only. Notably, the single SNP in the bovine NESP55 gene (rs41694656) was associated (P ≤ 0.01) with somatic cell count--an often-cited indicator of resistance to mastitis and overall health status of the mammary system--and previous studies have demonstrated that the chromosomal region to where the GNAS domain maps underlies an important quantitative trait locus for this trait. This association, however, was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. The three remaining SNPs assayed were not associated with any of the performance traits analysed in this study. Analysis of all pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r2) values suggests that most allele substitution effects for the assayed SNPs observed are independent. Finally, the polymorphic coding SNP in the putative bovine NESP55 gene was used to test the imprinting status of this gene across a range of foetal bovine tissues. Conclusions Previous studies in other mammalian species have shown that DNA sequence variation within the imprinted GNAS gene cluster contributes to several physiological and metabolic disorders, including obesity in humans and mice. Similarly, the results presented here indicate an important role for the imprinted GNAS cluster in underlying complex performance traits in cattle such as animal growth, calving, fertility and health. These findings suggest that GNAS domain-associated polymorphisms may serve as important genetic markers for future livestock breeding programs and support previous studies that candidate imprinted loci may act as molecular targets for the genetic improvement of agricultural populations. In addition, we present new evidence that the bovine NESP55 gene is epigenetically regulated as a maternally expressed imprinted gene in placental and intestinal tissues from 8-10 week old

  13. Adenylate cyclase responsiveness to hormones in various portions of the human nephron.

    PubMed Central

    Chabardès, D; Gagnan-Brunette, M; Imbert-Teboul, M; Gontcharevskaia, O; Montégut, M; Clique, A; Morel, F

    1980-01-01

    The action sites for parathyroid hormone (PTH), salmon calcitonin (SCT), and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) were investigated along the human nephron by measuring adenylate cyclase activity, using a single tubule in vitro microassay. Well-localized segments of tubule were isolated by microdissection from five human kidneys unsuitable for transplantation. PTH (10 IU/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the convoluted and the straight proximal tubule, in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, and in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule (corresponding stimulated:basal activity ratios were 64, 19, 10, 18, and 22, respectively). SCT (10 ng/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule, and, to a lesser extent, in the cortical and the medullay collecting tubule (activity ratios were 7, 14, 15, 3, and 3, respectively). AVP (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the terminal nephron segments only, i.e., the late portion of the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary portions of the collecting tubule (activity ratios 81, 51, and 97, respectively). As measured in one experiment, nearly one-half maximal responses were obtained with 0.1 IU/ml PTH or 0.3 ng/ml SCT in thick ascending limbs and with 1 nM AVP in collecting tubules, suggesting that enzyme sensitivity to hormones as well preserved under the conditions used in this study. PMID:7356689

  14. Non-co-ordinate development of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase in chick heart.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R W; Galper, J B; Neer, E J; Smith, T W

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the properties of beta-adrenergic receptors and of their interaction with adenylate cyclase in the chick myocardium during embryogenesis. Between 4.5 and 7.5 days in ovo the number of receptors determined by (-)-[3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA) binding is constant at approx. 0.36 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. By day 9 the density decreases significantly to 0.22 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. At day 12.5--13.5 the number was 0.14--0.18 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. This number did not change further up to day 16. The same results were obtained with guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) added to the assay mixtures. There was no significant change in receptor affinity for the antagonist [3H]DHA between days 5.5 and 13. Despite the decrease in numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors, there was no change in basal, p[NH]ppG-, isoprenaline- or isoprenaline-plus-p[NH]ppG-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity between days 3 and 12 of development. We conclude that beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase are not co-ordinately regulated during early embryonic development of the chick heart. Some of the beta-adrenergic receptors present very early in the ontogeny of cardiac tissue appear not to be coupled to adenylate cyclase since their loss is not reflected in decreased activation of the enzyme. PMID:6289805

  15. XLF-Cernunnos promotes DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 re-adenylation following ligation.

    PubMed

    Riballo, Enriqueta; Woodbine, Lisa; Stiff, Thomas; Walker, Sarah A; Goodarzi, Aaron A; Jeggo, Penny A

    2009-02-01

    XLF-Cernunnos (XLF) is a component of the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 (LX) complex, which functions during DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here, we use biochemical and cellular approaches to probe the impact of XLF on LX activities. We show that XLF stimulates adenylation of LX complexes de-adenylated by pyrophosphate or following LX decharging during ligation. XLF enhances LX ligation activity in an ATP-independent and dependent manner. ATP-independent stimulation can be attributed to enhanced end-bridging. Whilst ATP alone fails to stimulate LX ligation activity, addition of XLF and ATP promotes ligation in a manner consistent with XLF-stimulated readenylation linked to ligation. We show that XLF is a weakly bound partner of the tightly associated LX complex and, unlike XRCC4, is dispensable for LX stability. 2BN cells, which have little, if any, residual XLF activity, show a 3-fold decreased ability to repair DNA double strand breaks covering a range of complexity. These findings strongly suggest that XLF is not essential for NHEJ but promotes LX adenylation and hence ligation. We propose a model in which XLF, by in situ recharging DNA ligase IV after the first ligation event, promotes double stranded ligation by a single LX complex. PMID:19056826

  16. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F. )

    1990-12-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30{degree}C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus.

  17. Modulation of ischemic-induced damage to cerebral adenylate cyclase in gerbils by calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Christie-Pope, B C; Palmer, G C

    1986-12-01

    It has been previously established that prolonged bilateral carotid occlusion followed by recirculation produces damage to the synaptic enzyme adenylate cyclase in the frontal cortex of the gerbil. Since calcium entrance into the brain may account in part for the deleterious consequences of stroke, the present study examined whether pretreatment with calcium channel blockers would modify the effects of 60 min of bilateral ischemia plus 40 min of reflow on various parameters of cortical adenylate cyclase activation. In this context activation of cerebral homogenates by norepinephrine with or without 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate was preserved by pretreatment of ischemic gerbils with verapamil but worsened by flunarizine. In contrast, in particulate fractions (treated with EGTA to reduce metallic ion levels) the damage to the Mn2+-sensitive catalytic site of adenylate cyclase was prevented only by flunarizine. Pretreatment with the two calcium channel blockers resulted in an elevated basal activity of the enzyme, thereby reducing the response in the homogenate preparation to forskolin. Gerbils pretreated with verapamil tended to have an increased ability for survival resulting from the ischemic episode. Under in vitro conditions the enzyme preparations were not markedly influenced by either drug. PMID:3508245

  18. Persistent stimulation of adenylate cyclase and urea transport by an AVP photolabel

    SciTech Connect

    Eggena, P.; Ma, C.L.; Fahrenholz, F.; Schwartz, I.L.

    1985-07-01

    The effects of a photoaffinity label for arginine vasopressin receptors, (Phe2, Phe(p-N3)3)AVP (N3-AVP), on urea permeability and adenylate cyclase activity have been investigated in the toad urinary bladder. This compound, when activated by ultraviolet light, induced a maximal and persistent increase in the urea permeability of the intact bladder and a persistent increase in the adenylate cyclase activity of toad bladder epithelial cell homogenates. Covalent attachment of the analogue to target tissue during photolysis was equivalent at 4 and 20 degrees C. Bladders exposed to N3-AVP in the presence of AVP during photolysis were substantially less permeable to urea than controls that had been exposed to N3-AVP alone. These findings constitute further evidence in support of the previous suggestion that N3-AVP binds covalently to AVP receptors and, in addition, demonstrates that N3-AVP evokes a persistent increase in adenylate cyclase activity which, in turn, triggers a persistent increase in bladder permeability to urea.

  19. Opioid inhibition of adenylate cyclase in the striatum and vas deferens of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bhoola, K. D.; Pay, S.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of adenylate cyclase in striatal membrane-enriched fractions (25,000 g) was inhibited by morphine, beta-endorphin, [D-Ala2-D-Leu5] enkephalin (DADLenk), fentanyl and bremazocine. Whereas guanosine triphosphate (GTP) appeared essential for the expression of this effect, sodium chloride seemed to enhance the degree of inhibition. Dopamine stimulation and sodium fluoride activation of the enzyme was also suppressed by morphine, beta-endorphin and DADLenk. beta-Endorphin and DADLenk inhibited adenylate cyclase activity in vasa deferentia membrane-enriched fractions (25,000 g); both opioids required GTP and NaCl and were inhibited by a delta-opioid receptor antagonist and by naloxone. Morphine, bremazocine and tifluadom did not significantly alter the activity of the vas deferens enzyme. Basal cyclic AMP values of striatal slices were not significantly altered by morphine, beta-endorphin or DADLenk. However, dopamine-induced elevation of cyclic AMP was reduced by morphine and this effect of the opiate was suppressed by naloxone. Only beta-endorphin lowered the basal cyclic AMP values in the vas deferens. The physiological relevance of adenylate cyclase coupling to opioid receptor subtypes is considered. PMID:3026542

  20. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Israeli, Ma’ayan; Rotem, Shahar; Elia, Uri; Bar-Haim, Erez; Cohen, Ofer; Chitlaru, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Edema Factor (EF), the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a) determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b) evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c) rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules. PMID:27548219

  1. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant affected in the regulation of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Guidi-Rontani, C; Danchin, A; Ullmann, A

    1981-01-01

    A mutant, cyaR1, affecting regulation of adenylate cyclase expression or activity is described. It was obtained as a thermoresistant revertant of a strain harboring a thermosensitive transcription termination factor, rho (rho-15). This mutant failed to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate and exhibited a carbohydrate-negative phenotype. A secondary mutation at the crp locus (crpC) restored the ability of the mutant to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate, enabled the expression of catabolite-sensitive operons, and conferred on the strain an extreme sensitivity to catabolite repression. In addition, we showed that the crpC mutation restored the pleiotropic carbohydrate-positive phenotype even in a delta cya background. We interpret this to mean that the adenosine 3',5'-phosphate receptor protein regulates negatively either the activity or synthesis of adenylate cyclase and that the cyaR1 mutation is either in a regulatory protein or a regulatory site of adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:6273380

  2. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity.

    PubMed

    Israeli, Ma'ayan; Rotem, Shahar; Elia, Uri; Bar-Haim, Erez; Cohen, Ofer; Chitlaru, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Edema Factor (EF), the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a) determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b) evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c) rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules. PMID:27548219

  3. Sequence Polymorphism, Segmental Recombination and Toggling Amino Acid Residues within the DBL3X Domain of the VAR2CSA Placental Malaria Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Talundzic, Eldin; Shah, Sheel; Fawole, Ope; Owino, Simon; Moore, Julie M.; Peterson, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the world's foremost health problems, primarily in highly endemic regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is responsible for substantial morbidity, mortality and economic losses. Malaria is a significant cause of severe disease and death in pregnant women and newborns, with pathogenesis being associated with expression of a unique variant of the multidomain Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) called VAR2CSA. Here, we characterize the polymorphism of the DBL3X domain of VAR2CSA and identify regions under selective pressure among placental parasites from women living in endemic western Kenya. In addition to significant levels of polymorphism, our analysis reveals evidence for diversification through intra-segmental recombination and novel mutations that likely contributed to the high number of unique VAR2CSA sequence types identified in this study. Interestingly, we also identified a number of critical residues that may be implicated in immune evasion through switching (or toggling) to alternative amino acids, including an arginine residue within the predicted binding pocket in subdomain III, which was previously implicated in binding to placental CSA. Overall, these findings are important for understanding parasite diversity in pregnant women and will be useful for identifying epitopes and variants of DBL3X to be included in a vaccine against placental malaria. PMID:22347496

  4. Mutagenesis of charged residues in a conserved sequence in the 2-kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, L; Vertommen, D; Feytmans, E; Di Pietro, A; Rider, M H; Hue, L

    1997-01-01

    Arg-136, Glu-137, Arg-138 and Arg-139 are conserved in all sequences of the 2-kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Their role was studied by site-directed mutagenesis. All the mutations had little, if any, effect on fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity. Mutations of Arg-136 and Glu-137 into Ala caused only minor modifications of phosphofructo-2-kinase activity. In contrast, mutation of Arg138 into Ala increased 280-fold the Km for fructose 6-phosphate of phosphofructo-2-kinase. Mutation of Arg-139 into Ala resulted in decreases in phosphofructo-2-kinase Vmax/Km for MgATP and fructose 6-phosphate 600-fold and 5000-fold respectively. Mutation of Arg-139 into Lys and Gln increased the Km of phosphofructo-2-kinase for MgATP (20-fold and 25-fold respectively) and for fructose 6-phosphate (8-fold and 13-fold), and the IC50 for MgADP (30-fold and 50-fold) and for magnesium citrate (7-fold and 25-fold). However, these two mutations did not affect nucleotide binding, as measured by quenching of intrinsic fluorescence. The changes in kinetic properties induced by mutations could not be attributed to structural changes. It is proposed that Arg-138 is involved in fructose 6-phosphate binding and that Arg-139 is probably involved in the stabilization of the transition state and so participates in catalysis. PMID:9032444

  5. The replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) of DNMT1 functions as a potent histone H3 binding domain regulated by autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Misaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Luna; Sun, Jia; Orii, Minami; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-02-12

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) plays an essential role in propagation of the DNA methylation pattern to daughter cells. The replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) of DNMT1 is required for the recruitment of DNMT1 to DNA methylation sites through direct binding to ubiquitylated histone H3 mediated by UHRF1 (Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1). Recently, it has been reported that the RFTS plugs the catalytic pocket of DNMT1 in an intermediated manner and inhibits its DNA methyltransferase activity. However, it is unclear whether this binding affects RFTS function in terms of recruitment to DNA methylation sites. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we demonstrate here that abrogation of the interaction between the RFTS and the catalytic center of DNMT1, by deletion of the C-terminal portion or disruption of the hydrogen bond, results in non-ubiquitylated histone H3 binding and abnormal accumulation of DNMT1 on the chromatin. Interestingly, DNMT1 mutants identified in patients with a neurodegenerative disease, ADCA-DN, bound to non-ubiquitylated histone H3 and accumulated on chromatin during S phase in Xenopus egg extracts. These results suggest that the interaction between the RFTS and the catalytic center of DNMT1 serves as an autoinhibitory mechanism for suppressing the histone H3 binding of DNMT1 and ensuring the accurate recruitment of DNMT1 to sites of DNA methylation. The autoinhibitory mechanism may play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in neurogenesis. PMID:26774338

  6. Structure of the Trichomonas vaginalis Myb3 DNA-binding domain bound to a promoter sequence reveals a unique C-terminal β-hairpin conformation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Yi; Lou, Yuan-Chao; Tsai, Jia-Yin; Ho, Meng-Ru; Chou, Chun-Chi; Rajasekaran, M; Hsu, Hong-Ming; Tai, Jung-Hsiang; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Chen, Chinpan

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis Myb3 transcription factor (tvMyb3) recognizes the MRE-1 promoter sequence and regulates ap65-1 gene, which encodes a hydrogenosomal malic enzyme that may play a role in the cytoadherence of the parasite. Here, we identified tvMyb3(53-180) as the essential fragment for DNA recognition and report the crystal structure of tvMyb3(53-180) bound to MRE-1 DNA. The N-terminal fragment adopts the classical conformation of an Myb DNA-binding domain, with the third helices of R2 and R3 motifs intercalating in the major groove of DNA. The C-terminal extension forms a β-hairpin followed by a flexible tail, which is stabilized by several interactions with the R3 motif and is not observed in other Myb proteins. Interestingly, this unique C-terminal fragment does not stably connect with DNA in the complex structure but is involved in DNA binding, as demonstrated by NMR chemical shift perturbation, (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear-nuclear Overhauser effect and intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. Site-directed mutagenesis also revealed that this C-terminal fragment is crucial for DNA binding, especially the residue Arg(153) and the fragment K(170)KRK(173). We provide a structural basis for MRE-1 DNA recognition and suggest a possible post-translational regulation of tvMyb3 protein. PMID:21908401

  7. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of fasting on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in largemouth bass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengjie; Han, Linqiang; Bai, Junjie; Ma, Dongmei; Quan, Yingchun; Fan, Jiajia; Jiang, Peng; Yu, Lingyun

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a wide range of biological functions. We cloned the full-length cDNAs encoding PACAP and PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from the brain of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) and used real-time quantitative PCR to detect PRP-PACAP mRNA expression. The PRP-PACAP cDNA has two variants expressed via alternative splicing: a long form, which encodes both PRP and PACAP, and a short form, which encodes only PACAP. Sequence analysis results are consistent with a higher conservation of PACAP than PRP peptide sequences. The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts was highest in the forebrain, followed by the medulla, midbrain, pituitary, stomach, cerebellum, intestine, and kidney; however, these transcripts were either absent or were weakly expressed in the muscle, spleen, gill, heart, fatty tissue, and liver. The level of PACAP-short transcript expression was significantly higher than expression of the long transcript in the forebrain, cerebella, pituitary and intestine, but lower than that of the long transcript in the stomach. PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts were first detected at the blastula stage of embryogenesis, and the level of expression increased markedly between the muscular contraction stage and 3 d post hatch (dph). The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts decreased significantly in the brain following 4 d fasting compared with the control diet group. The down-regulation effect was enhanced as fasting continued. Conversely, expression levels increased significantly after 3 d of re-feeding. Our results suggest that PRP-PACAP acts as an important factor in appetite regulation in largemouth bass.

  8. Effect of 3' terminal adenylic acid residue on the uridylation of human small RNAs in vitro and in frog oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Sinha, K; Perumal, K; Reddy, R

    2000-01-01

    It is known that several small RNAs including human and Xenopus signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and 7SK RNAs are posttranscriptionally adenylated, whereas U6 snRNA and ribosomal 5S RNA are posttranscriptionally uridylated on their 3' ends. In this study, we provide evidence that a small fraction of U6 snRNA and 5S ribosomal RNA molecules from human as well as Xenopus oocytes contain a single posttranscriptionally added adenylic acid residue on their 3' ends. These data show that U6 snRNA and 5S rRNAs are posttranscriptionally modified on their 3' ends by both uridylation and adenylation. Although the SRP RNA, 7SK RNA, 5S RNA, and U6 snRNA with the uridylic acid residue on their 3' ends were readily uridylated, all these RNAs with posttranscriptionally added adenylic acid residue on their 3' ends were not uridylated in vitro, or when U6 snRNA with 3' A(OH) was injected into Xenopus oocytes. These results show that the presence of a single posttranscriptionally added adenylic acid residue on the 3' end of SRP RNA, U6 snRNA, 5S rRNA, or 7SK RNA prevents 3' uridylation. These data also show that adenylation and uridylation are two competing processes that add nucleotides on the 3' end of some small RNAs and suggest that one of the functions of the 3' adenylation may be to negatively affect the 3' uridylation of small RNAs. PMID:10999605

  9. Structure of the d-alanylgriseoluteic acid biosynthetic protein EhpF, an atypical member of the ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Gamage, Swarna; Robinson, Howard; Parsons, James F.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of EhpF from P. agglomerans has been solved alone and in complex with phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate. Apo EhpF was solved and refined in two different space groups at 1.95 and 2.3 Å resolution and the EhpF–phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate complex structure was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure of EhpF, a 41 kDa protein that functions in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA), is reported. A cluster of approximately 16 genes, including ehpF, located on a 200 kbp plasmid native to certain strains of Pantoea agglomerans encodes the proteins that are required for the conversion of chorismic acid to AGA. Phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate has been identified as an intermediate in AGA biosynthesis and deletion of ehpF results in accumulation of this compound in vivo. The crystallographic data presented here reveal that EhpF is an atypical member of the acyl-CoA synthase or ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes. These enzymes typically catalyze two-step reactions involving adenylation of a carboxylate substrate followed by transfer of the substrate from AMP to coenzyme A or another phosphopantetheine. EhpF is distinguished by the absence of the C-terminal domain that is characteristic of enzymes from this family and is involved in phosphopantetheine binding and in the second half of the canonical two-step reaction that is typically observed. Based on the structure of EhpF and a bioinformatic analysis, it is proposed that EhpF and EhpG convert phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate to 6-formylphenazine-1-carboxylate via an adenylyl intermediate.

  10. Structure-function studies of the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica by heterologous C protein activation and construction of hybrid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Westrop, G; Hormozi, K; da Costa, N; Parton, R; Coote, J

    1997-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis and the leukotoxin (LktA) from Pasteurella haemolytica are members of the RTX (stands for repeats in toxin) family of cytolytic toxins. They have pore-forming activity and share significant amino acid homology but show marked differences in biological activity. CyaA is an invasive adenylate cyclase and a weak hemolysin which is active on a wide range of mammalian cells. LktA is a cytolytic protein with a high target cell specificity and is able to lyse only leukocytes and platelets from ruminants. Each toxin is synthesized as an inactive protoxin encoded by the A gene, and the product of the accessory C gene is required for posttranslational activation. Heterologous activation of LktA by CyaC did not result in a change in its specificity for nucleated cells, although the toxin showed a greater hemolytic-to-cytotoxic ratio. LktC was unable to activate CyaA. A hybrid toxin (Hyb1), which contained the N-terminal enzymic domain and the pore-forming domain from CyaA (amino acids [aa] 1 to 687), with the remainder of the protein derived from the C-terminal end of LktA (aa 379 to 953), showed no toxic activity. Replacement of part of the LktA C-terminal domain of Hyb1 by the CyaA C-terminal domain (aa 919 to 1706) to create hybrid toxin 2 (Hyb2) partially restored toxic activity. In contrast to CyaA, Hyb2 was activated more efficiently by LktC than by CyaC, showing the importance of the region between aa 379 and 616 of LktA for activation by LktC. LktC-activated Hyb2 was more active against ruminant than murine nucleated cells, whereas CyaC-activated Hyb2 displayed a similar, but lower, activity against both cell types. These data indicate that LktC and the region with which it interacts have an influence on the target cell specificity of the mature toxin. PMID:9006045

  11. Modulation of the human cardiac sodium channel alpha-subunit by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the responsible sequence domain.

    PubMed Central

    Frohnwieser, B; Chen, L Q; Schreibmayer, W; Kallen, R G

    1997-01-01

    1. In order to investigate the modulation of human hH1 sodium channel alpha-subunits by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), the channel was expressed in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. 2. Cytosolic injection of cAMP, as well as of SP-cyclic 3',5'-hydrogen phosphorothioate adenosine triethylammonium salt (SP-cAMPS, the S-diastereoisomeric configuration of the compound with respect to the phosphorus atom), resulted in a marked and significant increase in peak sodium current (INa,p). Cytosolic injections of RP-cyclic 3',5'-hydrogen phosphorothioate adenosine triethylammonium salt (RP-cAMPS; a compound inhibitory to PKA) had no effect on peak current. 3. Kinetic parameters of steady-state activation, inactivation and recovery from inactivation were unchanged following stimulation of PKA activity, but a 42 +/- 5% (mean +/- S.E.M.) increase in maximal sodium conductance (delta gmax) could account for the observed increase in INa,p. 4. A set of chimerical sodium channels made from portions of the human cardiac hH1 alpha-subunit and the rat skeletal muscle SkM1 alpha-subunit (which is not affected by PKA stimulation) was generated. These were used to localize the structural determinant in the hH1 sequence responsible for PKA modulation of hH1. From our data we conclude that the effects of PKA on hH1 are conferred by the large cytosolic loop interconnecting transmembrane domains I and II, which is not conserved among sodium channel subtypes. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9032680

  12. Amino acid sequence of the AhR1 ligand-binding domain predicts avian sensitivity to dioxin like compounds: in vivo verification in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Eng, Margaret L; Elliott, John E; Jones, Stephanie P; Williams, Tony D; Drouillard, Ken G; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that the sensitivity of avian species to the embyrotoxic effects of dioxin-like compounds can be predicted by the amino acid identities at two key sites within the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AhR1). The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been established as a highly sensitive species to the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds. Results from genotyping and in vitro assays predict that the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is also highly sensitive to dioxin-like compound toxicity. The objective of the present study was to test that prediction in vivo. To do this, we used egg injections in field nesting starlings with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl. Eggs were dosed with either the vehicle control or 1 of 5 doses (1.4, 7.1, 15.9, 32.1, and 52.9 ng PCB-126/g egg). A dose-dependent increase in embryo mortality occurred, and the median lethal dose (LD50; 95% confidence interval [CI]) was 5.61 (2.33-9.08) ng/g. Hepatic CYP1A4/5 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hatchlings also increased in a dose-dependent manner, with CYP1A4 being more induced than CYP1A5. No effect of dose on morphological measures was seen, and we did not observe any overt malformations. These results indicate that, other than the chicken, the European starling is the most sensitive species to the effects of PCB-126 on avian embryo mortality reported to date, which supports the prediction of relative sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds based on amino acid sequence of the AhR1. PMID:25209921

  13. DNA-binding and transactivation properties of Pax-6: three amino acids in the paired domain are responsible for the different sequence recognition of Pax-6 and BSAP (Pax-5).

    PubMed Central

    Czerny, T; Busslinger, M

    1995-01-01

    Pax-6 is known to be a key regulator of vertebrate eye development. We have now isolated cDNA for an invertebrate Pax-6 protein from sea urchin embryos. Transcripts of this gene first appear during development at the gastrula stage and are later expressed at high levels in the tube foot of the adult sea urchin. The sea urchin Pax-6 protein is highly homologous throughout the whole protein to its vertebrate counterpart with the paired domain and homeodomain being virtually identical. Consequently, we found that the DNA-binding and transactivation properties of the sea urchin and mouse Pax-6 proteins are very similar, if not identical. A potent activation domain capable of stimulating transcription from proximal promoter and distal enhancer positions was localized within the C-terminal sequences of both the sea urchin and mouse Pax-6 proteins. The homeodomain of Pax-6 was shown to cooperatively dimerize on DNA sequences consisting of an inverted repeat of the TAAT motif with a preferred spacing of 3 nucleotides. The consensus recognition sequence of the Pax-6 paired domain deviates primarily only at one position from that of BSAP (Pax-5), and yet the two proteins exhibit largely different binding specificities for individual, naturally occurring sites. By creating Pax-6-BSAP fusion proteins, we were able to identify a short amino acid stretch in the N-terminal part of the paired domain which is responsible for these differences in DNA-binding specificity. Mutation of three Pax-6-specific residues in this region (at positions 42, 44, and 47 of the paired domain) to the corresponding amino acids of BSAP resulted in a complete switch of the DNA-binding specificity from Pax-6 to BSAP. These three amino acids were furthermore shown to discriminate between the Pax-6- and BSAP-specific nucleotide at the divergent position of the two consensus recognition sequences. PMID:7739566

  14. Targeting of glycoprotein I (gE) of varicella-zoster virus to the trans-Golgi network by an AYRV sequence and an acidic amino acid-rich patch in the cytosolic domain of the molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Hao, Y; Gershon, M D; Ambron, R T; Gershon, A A

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that varicella-zoster virus (VZV) envelope glycoproteins (gps) are selectively transported to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and that the cytosolic domain of gpI (gE) targets it to the TGN. To identify targeting signals in the gpI cytosolic domain, intracellular protein trafficking was studied in transfected cells expressing chimeric proteins in which a full-length or mutated gpI cytosolic domain was fused to the gpI transmembrane domain and interleukin-2 receptor (tac) ectodomain. Expressed protein was visualized with antibodies to tac. A targeting sequence (AYRV) and a second, acidic amino acid-rich region of the gpI cytosolic domain (putative signal patch) were each sufficient to cause expressed protein to colocalize with TGN markers. This targeting was lost when the tyrosine of the AYRV sequence was replaced with glycine or lysine, when arginine was replaced with glutamic acid, or when valine was substituted with lysine. In contrast, tyrosine could be replaced by phenylalanine and valine could be substituted with leucine. Mutation of alanine to aspartic acid or deletion of alanine abolished TGN targeting. Exposure of transfected cells to antibodies to the tac ectodomain revealed that the TCN targeting of expressed tac-gpI chimeric proteins occurred as a result of selective retrieval from the plasmalemma. These data suggest that the AYRV sequence and a second signaling patch in the cytosolic domain of gpI are responsible for its targeting to the TGN. The observations also support the hypothesis that the TGN plays a critical role in the envelopment of VZV. PMID:8794291

  15. Investigation and characterization of receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in human brain by radioligand binding and chemical cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.; Smith, D.M.; Ghatei, M.A.; Murphy, J.K.; Bloom, S.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a novel peptide of hypothalamic origin which increases adenylate cyclase activity in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures. The 38-amino acid peptide shows a close sequence homology to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Binding sites for PACAP in membranes from postmortem human brain tissue were studied using ({sup 125}I)PACAP27 as the radioligand. High specific binding sites (amount of specific binding measured at 0.25 nM ({sup 125}I)PACAP27 in femtomoles per mg protein +/- SEM; n = 4) were present in hypothalamus (344.5 +/- 13.0), brain stem (343.0 +/- 29.3), cerebellum (292.0 +/- 21.1), cortex (259.6 +/- 19.8), and basal ganglia (259.2 +/- 50.3). Specific binding sites in pituitary, although present, were less abundant (35.0 +/- 8.9). Binding of ({sup 125}I)PACAP27 was reversible and time, pH, and temperature dependent. Despite the homology with VIP, VIP was a poor inhibitor of ({sup 125}I)PACAP27 binding (IC50, greater than 1 microM) compared with PACAP27 (IC50, 0.5-1.3 nM) and PACAP38 (IC50, 0.2-1.3 nM). Scatchard plots of ({sup 125}I)PACAP27 binding showed the presence of both high and lower affinity sites. Chemical cross-linking of PACAP-binding sites revealed that ({sup 125}I)PACAP27 was bound to polypeptide chains of 67,000 and 48,000 mol wt. Thus, we have demonstrated the presence of PACAP-specific receptors in human brain which are not VIP receptors. This opens the possibility of PACAP functioning as a novel neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in human brain.

  16. Direct interaction between the catalytic subunit of the calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase from bovine brain with /sup 125/I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin and /sup 125/I-labeled calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Minocherhomjee, A.M.; Selfe, S.; Flowers, N.J.; Storm, D.R.

    1987-07-14

    A calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from bovine cerebral cortex using calmodulin-Sepharose followed by forskolin-Sepharose and wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose. The final product appeared as one major polypeptide of approximately 135,000 daltons on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This polypeptide was a major component of the protein purified through calmodulin-Sepharose. The catalytic subunit was stimulated 3-4-fold by calmodulin (CaM) with a turnover number greater than 1000 min/sup -1/ and was directly inhibited by adenosine. The catalytic subunit of the enzyme interacted directly with /sup 125/I-CaM on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel overlay system, and this interaction was Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration dependent. In addition, the catalytic subunit was shown to directly bind /sup 125/I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin using a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel overlay technique, and N-acetylglucosamine inhibited binding of the lectin to the catalytic subunit. Calmodulin did not inhibit binding of wheat germ agglutinin to the catalytic subunit, and the binding of calmodulin was unaffected by wheat germ agglutinin. These data illustrate that the catalytic subunit of the calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase is a glycoprotein which interacts directly with calmodulin and that adenosine can inhibit the enzyme without intervening receptors or G coupling proteins. It is concluded that the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase is a transmembrane protein with a domain accessible from the outer surface of the cell.

  17. Sequencing of cDNA from 50 unrelated patients reveals that mutations in the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen are an infrequent cause of aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Tromp, G; Wu, Y; Prockop, D J; Madhatheri, S L; Kleinert, C; Earley, J J; Zhuang, J; Norrgård, O; Darling, R C; Abbott, W M

    1993-01-01

    Detailed DNA sequencing of the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen was carried out on cDNA prepared from 54 patients with aortic aneurysms. The 43 male and 11 female patients originated from 50 different families and five different nationalities. 43 patients had at least one additional blood relative who had aneurysms. Five overlapping asymmetric PCR products, covering all the coding sequences of the triple-helical domain of type III procollagen, were sequenced with 28 specific sequencing primers. Analysis of the sequencing gels revealed only two nucleotide changes that altered the structure of the protein. One was a substitution of threonine for proline at amino acid position 501 and its functional importance was not clearly established. The other was a substitution of arginine for an obligatory glycine at amino acid position 136. In 40 of the 54 patients, detection of a polymorphism in the mRNA established that both alleles were expressed. The results indicate that mutations in type III procollagen are the cause of only about 2% of aortic aneurysms. Images PMID:8514866

  18. Cellular levels of feedback regulator of adenylate cyclase and the effect of epinephrine and insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, R j; Russell, T R; Asakawa, T; Sutherland, E W

    1975-01-01

    We have obtained direct evidence that shows the cellular formation and subsequent release of a potent inhibitor (feedback regulator) of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] by adipocytes, upon stimulation with epinephrine. The appearance of such a feedback regulator in adipocytes preceded its release into the medium. During a 30 min incubation, intracellular regulator levels rose rapidly and reached 39-61 units/g of adipocyte at 10 min. Release of inhibitor into the medium increased slowly and was 11-16 units/g of adipocyte at 10 min. Upon continued incubation, the cells at 30 min contained 30-41 units/g of ingibitor, slightly less than the content at 30 min; meanwhile, the medium content rose more than 3-fold. The inhibitor from both locations appeared to have the same characteristics, judging from the purification procedures and the biological activities on hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase was inhibited by the feedback regulator in vitro when either epinephrine, corticotropin (ACTH), or glucagon was used as activator. The site of action of this inhibitor is therefore most likely beyond the specific hormone receptors. A new in vitro action of insulin has been found. Insulin, 50-500 microunits/ml, inhibited the formation and release of this factor from isolated rat or hamster adipocytes by 29-81% after these cells were stimulated by hormones that raise intracellular adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. This factor enhaced the effect of insulin in lowering the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in fresh rat adipocytes. A reduced formation of such a factor may modify the metabolic events in adipocytes, and some as yet unexplained effects of insulin could therefore be linked to the metabolic effects of this factor. PMID:174073

  19. On the Dynamics of the Adenylate Energy System: Homeorhesis vs Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Valero, Edelmira; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim; Malaina, Iker; Martínez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical energy is the fundamental element that maintains both the adequate turnover of the biomolecular structures and the functional metabolic viability of unicellular organisms. The levels of ATP, ADP and AMP reflect roughly the energetic status of the cell, and a precise ratio relating them was proposed by Atkinson as the adenylate energy charge (AEC). Under growth-phase conditions, cells maintain the AEC within narrow physiological values, despite extremely large fluctuations in the adenine nucleotides concentration. Intensive experimental studies have shown that these AEC values are preserved in a wide variety of organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here, to understand some of the functional elements involved in the cellular energy status, we present a computational model conformed by some key essential parts of the adenylate energy system. Specifically, we have considered (I) the main synthesis process of ATP from ADP, (II) the main catalyzed phosphotransfer reaction for interconversion of ATP, ADP and AMP, (III) the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP yielding ADP, and (IV) the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP providing AMP. This leads to a dynamic metabolic model (with the form of a delayed differential system) in which the enzymatic rate equations and all the physiological kinetic parameters have been explicitly considered and experimentally tested in vitro. Our central hypothesis is that cells are characterized by changing energy dynamics (homeorhesis). The results show that the AEC presents stable transitions between steady states and periodic oscillations and, in agreement with experimental data these oscillations range within the narrow AEC window. Furthermore, the model shows sustained oscillations in the Gibbs free energy and in the total nucleotide pool. The present study provides a step forward towards the understanding of the fundamental principles and quantitative laws governing the adenylate energy system, which is a fundamental element for

  20. Reconstitution of beta 1-adrenoceptor-dependent adenylate cyclase from purified components.

    PubMed Central

    Feder, D; Im, M J; Klein, H W; Hekman, M; Holzhöfer, A; Dees, C; Levitzki, A; Helmreich, E J; Pfeuffer, T

    1986-01-01

    In continuation of our efforts to reconstitute from purified components into lipid vesicles the signal transmission chain from beta 1-adrenoceptors to adenylate cyclase, we now report on the total reconstitution of the hormone-dependent adenylate cyclase. In these reconstitution experiments we have employed the purified adenylate cyclase (C) from bovine brain and rabbit heart, the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (GS) purified from turkey erythrocytes and rabbit liver and the beta 1-adrenoceptor (R) from turkey erythrocytes. Several detergents were compared with respect to their suitability to allow reconstitution of subunits into phospholipid vesicles. While octyl-polyoxyethylene (octyl-POE) was almost as potent as lauroyl-sucrose for preparation of vesicles containing GS.C, the latter detergent was clearly superior for vesicles enabling productive R.GS and R.GS.C coupling. The catalytic subunit from either bovine brain or rabbit heart was equally efficient in reconstitution. However, GS from turkey erythrocytes and rabbit liver revealed significant differences in RGS and RGS.C containing vesicles. While isoproterenol-induced activation of GS by GTP gamma S was first order in both instances, kon with turkey GS was 0.12 min-1, whereas kon with rabbit liver GS was 0.6 min-1. Moreover, GTP gamma S activation of erythrocyte GS was significantly more dependent on the presence of hormone than that of liver GS, confirming observations made on the native membrane-bound system. Compared with stimulation by isoproterenol (GTP gamma S) (4-fold), stimulation by isoproterenol/GTP was modest (1.3- to 1.6-fold).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:3017696

  1. Aluminum: a requirement for activation of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by fluoride.

    PubMed Central

    Sternweis, P C; Gilman, A G

    1982-01-01

    Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-. PMID:6289322

  2. Adenylate Energy Pool and Energy Charge in Maturing Rape Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Crane, Jim M.; Stamp, David L.

    1974-01-01

    A study of energy state and chemical composition of pod walls and seeds of maturing rape (Brassica napus L.) was conducted on two varieties, Victor and Gorczanski. Total adenosine phosphates, ATP, and adenylate energy charge increased with increasing cell number and cellular synthesis during the early stages, remained high at maximum dry weight accumulation and maximum substrate influx time, and decreased with ripening. A temporal control of energy supply and ATP concentration is evident in developing tissues with determined functions; whereas the association of a high energy charge and active cellular biosynthesis occurs only in tissues with a stabilized cell number. PMID:16658964

  3. Clinico-pathological correlation in adenylate kinase 5 autoimmune limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline S L; Kramer, Joel; Centurion, Alejandro; Dalmau, Josep; Huang, Eric; Cotter, Jennifer A; Geschwind, Michael D

    2015-10-15

    Autoantibodies associated with autoimmune limbic encephalitis (ALE) have been well-characterized, with intracellular neuronal antibodies being less responsive to immunotherapy than antibodies to cell surface antigens. Adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) is a nucleoside monophosphate kinase vital for neuronal-specific metabolism and is located intracellularly in the cytosol and expressed exclusively in the brain. Antibodies to AK5 had been previously identified but were not known to be associated with human disease prior to the report of two patients with AK5-related ALE (Tuzun et al., 2007). We present the complete clinical picture for one of these patients and the first reported neuropathology for AK5 ALE. PMID:26439959

  4. Effect of serum lipoproteins on the adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, G; Sirtori, C R; Nicosia, S

    1981-01-01

    Four rat lipoprotein classes [lymph chylomicrons, VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins] were tested for their ability to affect basal adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity of rat liver plasma membranes. All the lipoproteins, with the exception of lymph chylomicrons, effectively increase the enzyme activity. VLD lipoproteins are the most active class (67% maximal increase), followed by HD lipoproteins (33%) and LD lipoproteins (23%). The effect of VLD lipoproteins is additive to that elicited by GTP or GTP plus glucagon (at least within a certain concentration range). VLD lipoproteins affect only the Vmax. of the enzyme, not the Km. PMID:7317023

  5. Primer ID Informs Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms and Reveals Preexisting Drug Resistance Mutations in the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Coding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Keys, Jessica R.; Zhou, Shuntai; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Eron, Joseph J.; Rackoff, Lauren A.; Jabara, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sequencing of a bulk polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product to identify drug resistance mutations informs antiretroviral therapy selection but has limited sensitivity for minority variants. Alternatively, deep sequencing is capable of detecting minority variants but is subject to sequencing errors and PCR resampling due to low input templates. We screened for resistance mutations among 184 HIV-1-infected, therapy-naive subjects using the 454 sequencing platform to sequence two amplicons spanning HIV-1 reverse transcriptase codons 34–245. Samples from 19 subjects were also analyzed using the MiSeq sequencing platform for comparison. Errors and PCR resampling were addressed by tagging each HIV-1 RNA template copy (i.e., cDNA) with a unique sequence tag (Primer ID), allowing a consensus sequence to be constructed for each original template from resampled sequences. In control reactions, Primer ID reduced 454 and MiSeq errors from 71 to 2.6 and from 24 to 1.2 errors/10,000 nucleotides, respectively. MiSeq also allowed accurate sequencing of codon 65, an important drug resistance position embedded in a homopolymeric run that is poorly resolved by the 454 platform. Excluding homopolymeric positions, 14% of subjects had evidence of ≥1 resistance mutation among Primer ID consensus sequences, compared to 2.7% by bulk population sequencing. When calls were restricted to mutations that appeared twice among consensus sequence populations, 6% of subjects had detectable resistance mutations. The use of Primer ID revealed 5–15% template utilization on average, limiting the depth of deep sequencing sampling and revealing sampling variation due to low template utilization. Primer ID addresses important limitations of deep sequencing and produces less biased estimates of low-level resistance mutations in the viral population. PMID:25748056

  6. Primer ID Informs Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms and Reveals Preexisting Drug Resistance Mutations in the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Coding Domain.

    PubMed

    Keys, Jessica R; Zhou, Shuntai; Anderson, Jeffrey A; Eron, Joseph J; Rackoff, Lauren A; Jabara, Cassandra; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    Sequencing of a bulk polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product to identify drug resistance mutations informs antiretroviral therapy selection but has limited sensitivity for minority variants. Alternatively, deep sequencing is capable of detecting minority variants but is subject to sequencing errors and PCR resampling due to low input templates. We screened for resistance mutations among 184 HIV-1-infected, therapy-naive subjects using the 454 sequencing platform to sequence two amplicons spanning HIV-1 reverse transcriptase codons 34-245. Samples from 19 subjects were also analyzed using the MiSeq sequencing platform for comparison. Errors and PCR resampling were addressed by tagging each HIV-1 RNA template copy (i.e., cDNA) with a unique sequence tag (Primer ID), allowing a consensus sequence to be constructed for each original template from resampled sequences. In control reactions, Primer ID reduced 454 and MiSeq errors from 71 to 2.6 and from 24 to 1.2 errors/10,000 nucleotides, respectively. MiSeq also allowed accurate sequencing of codon 65, an important drug resistance position embedded in a homopolymeric run that is poorly resolved by the 454 platform. Excluding homopolymeric positions, 14% of subjects had evidence of ≥1 resistance mutation among Primer ID consensus sequences, compared to 2.7% by bulk population sequencing. When calls were restricted to mutations that appeared twice among consensus sequence populations, 6% of subjects had detectable resistance mutations. The use of Primer ID revealed 5-15% template utilization on average, limiting the depth of deep sequencing sampling and revealing sampling variation due to low template utilization. Primer ID addresses important limitations of deep sequencing and produces less biased estimates of low-level resistance mutations in the viral population. PMID:25748056

  7. Functional characterization of neural-restrictive silencer element in mouse pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hideki; Tominaga, Aiko; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamada, Katsushi; Miyata, Atsuro

    2014-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is predominantly localized in the nervous system, but the underlying mechanism in its neuron-specific expression remains unclear. In addition to two neural-restrictive silencer-like element (NRSLE1 and 2), as reported previously, we have identified the third element in -1,601 to -1,581 bp from the translational initiation site of mouse PACAP gene and termed it as NRSLE3, of which, the sequence and location were highly conserved among mouse, rat, and human PACAP genes. In luciferase reporter assay, the deletion or site-directed mutagenesis of NRSLE3 in the reporter gene construct, driven by heterologous SV40 promoter, cancelled the repression of luciferase activity in non-neuronal Swiss-3T3 cells. Furthermore, its promoter activity was significantly repressed in Swiss-3T3 cells, but not in neuronal-differentiated PC12 cells. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with nuclear extracts of Swiss-3T3 cells demonstrated a specific complex with NRSLE3 probe that exhibited the same migration with the neural-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) probe of rat type II sodium channel gene. During neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, the increment of PACAP mRNA exhibited the correlation with that of REST4 mRNA, which is a neuron-specific variant form of neural-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF). In undifferentiated PC12 cells, trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which indirectly inhibits NRSF-mediated gene silencing, increased PACAP mRNA level and attenuated the repression of promoter activity of 5' flanking region of mouse PACAP gene containing NRSLEs. These suggest that the NRSE-NRSF system implicates in the regulatory mechanism of neuron-specific expression of PACAP gene. PMID:24939248

  8. Molecular cloning and mRNA distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide in the lungfish.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T O; Tam, J K V; Chan, D W; Chow, B K C

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we report the isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from lungfish Protopterus dolloi. When comparing the deduced amino acid sequences, the lungfish PACAP was found to be highly conserved with other vertebrates; however, the PRP shares only lower levels of sequence identity with known PRP sequences. Consistently in phylogenetic analysis, the lungfish PRP, similar to sturgeon PRP, fails to cluster with other PRPs. In addition to the full-length clone, another cDNA encoding a short precursor that lacks the first 32 amino acids of the PRP was also isolated. Interestingly, similar isoforms were also identified in several nonmammalian vertebrates, and it was suggested that exon skipping of PRP/PACAP transcripts was a mechanism that regulated the expression ratio of PACAP to PRP in nonmammalian vertebrates. By real-time PCR, both long and short PRP/PACAP transcripts were found almost exclusively in the brain, and the short isoform is the more abundant transcript (3.7 times more), indicating that PACAP is the major product produced in lungfish brain. The expression patterns of lungfish and previously studied frog PRP/PACAP suggest that the PRP/PACAP gene in the tetrapod lineage may first express in the central nervous system; in the process of evolution, the functions of these peptides diversified and were later found in other tissues. PMID:19456341

  9. Sequence-specific and general transcriptional activation by the bovine papillomavirus-1 E2 trans-activator require an N-terminal amphipathic helix-containing E2 domain.

    PubMed

    Haugen, T H; Turek, L P; Mercurio, F M; Cripe, T P; Olson, B J; Anderson, R D; Seidl, D; Karin, M; Schiller, J

    1988-12-20

    The sequence-specific trans-activator protein of bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-1, E2, strongly increases transcription at promoters containing papillomaviral ACCG(N)4CGGT (E2P) cis motifs, but can also activate a wide range of co-transfected promoters without E2P cores to a lower extent. Analysis of multiple E2 mutants in transfected cells revealed that the C-terminal DNA binding E2 domain binds to the E2P cis sequences in the form of pre-existing nuclear dimers. The DNA binding function of E2 was required for specific trans-activation of the E2P elements, as well as for the function of the previously described C-terminal 'short E2' transrepressor. In addition to the C terminus, specific trans-activation also required an intact N-terminal half of the E2 protein. When expressed alone, the N-terminal E2 domain was found to activate heterologous promoters without E2P elements to an extent comparable to wild-type E2, and therefore represents the functional transcription activation domain of the E2 factor. In contrast to other DNA-binding activator proteins described to date, the transcriptional activation by the E2 factor can occur without specific DNA binding. Its mechanism may thus involve protein--protein interactions between common transcription factors and the N-terminal E2 domain which contains amphipathic helix motifs. PMID:2854060

  10. cDNA cloning of a mouse mammary epithelial cell surface protein reveals the existence of epidermal growth factor-like domains linked to factor VIII-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.D.; Bui, A. San Francisco State Univ., CA ); Lekutis, C.; Singer, K.L.; Srinivasan, U.; Parry, G. ); Yuzuki, D. )

    1990-11-01

    A 2.1-kilobase cDNA coding for a surface protein of mammary epithelial cells has been isolated from a mouse mammary gland {lambda}gt11 cDNA library. Sequence analysis of this cDNA reveals an open reading frame of 1,389 base pairs that defines a protein with a molecular mass of 51.5 dKa. Structural analysis of the predicted sequence identifies two putative functional domains of the protein: (i) an N-terminal cysteine-rich region that is similar to epidermal growth factor-like domains of Drosophila Notch-1 protein and (ii) a large segment of the sequence that exhibited 54.5% identify with C-terminal domains of human coagulation factors VIII and V. These similarities in structure are used to predict the possible functions of the protein and its means of interaction with the cell surface. mRNA expression was detectable in mammary tissue from nonpregnant animals but was maximal in the lactating gland. In cultured cells, mRNA levels also correlated with the degree of cellular differentiation.

  11. Adenovirus type 5 E4 Orf3 protein targets promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein nuclear domains for disruption via a sequence in PML isoform II that is predicted as a protein interaction site by bioinformatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Leppard, Keith N; Emmott, Edward; Cortese, Marc S; Rich, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 5 infection causes the disruption of structures in the cell nucleus termed promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein nuclear domains or ND10, which contain the PML protein as a critical component. This disruption is achieved through the action of the viral E4 Orf3 protein, which forms track-like nuclear structures that associate with the PML protein. This association is mediated by a direct interaction of Orf3 with a specific PML isoform, PMLII. We show here that the Orf3 interaction properties of PMLII are conferred by a 40 aa residue segment of the unique C-terminal domain of the protein. This segment was sufficient to confer interaction on a heterologous protein. The analysis was informed by prior application of a bioinformatic tool for the prediction of potential protein interaction sites within unstructured protein sequences (predictors of naturally disordered region analysis; PONDR). This tool predicted three potential molecular recognition elements (MoRE) within the C-terminal domain of PMLII, one of which was found to form the core of the Orf3 interaction site, thus demonstrating the utility of this approach. The sequence of the mapped Orf3-binding site on PML protein was found to be relatively poorly conserved across other species; however, the overall organization of MoREs within unstructured sequence was retained, suggesting the potential for conservation of functional interactions. PMID:19088278

  12. The Streptomyces coelicolor Lipoate-protein Ligase Is a Circularly Permuted Version of the Escherichia coli Enzyme Composed of Discrete Interacting Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xinyun; Cronan, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Lipoate-protein ligases are used to scavenge lipoic acid from the environment and attach the coenzyme to its cognate proteins, which are generally the E2 components of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The enzymes use ATP to activate lipoate to its adenylate, lipoyl-AMP, which remains tightly bound in the active site. This mixed anhydride is attacked by the ϵ-amino group of a specific lysine present on a highly conserved acceptor protein domain, resulting in the amide-linked coenzyme. The Streptomyces coelicolor genome encodes only a single putative lipoate ligase. However, this protein had only low sequence identity (<25%) to the lipoate ligases of demonstrated activity and appears to be a circularly permuted version of the known lipoate ligase proteins in that the canonical C-terminal domain seems to have been transposed to the N terminus. We tested the activity of this protein both by in vivo complementation of an Escherichia coli ligase-deficient strain and by in vitro assays. Moreover, when the domains were rearranged into a protein that mimicked the arrangement found in the canonical lipoate ligases, the enzyme retained complementation activity. Finally, when the two domains were separated into two proteins, both domain-containing proteins were required for complementation and catalysis of the overall ligase reaction in vitro. However, only the large domain-containing protein was required for transfer of lipoate from the lipoyl-AMP intermediate to the acceptor proteins, whereas both domain-containing proteins were required to form lipoyl-AMP. PMID:25631049

  13. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1. PMID:24616728

  14. The zinc fingers of the SR-like protein ZRANB2 are single-stranded RNA-binding domains that recognize 5′ splice site-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Loughlin, Fionna E.; Mansfield, Robyn E.; Vaz, Paula M.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Setiyaputra, Surya; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Chen, Eva S.; Morris, Brian J.; Guss, J. Mitchell; Mackay, Joel P.

    2009-09-02

    The alternative splicing of mRNA is a critical process in higher eukaryotes that generates substantial proteomic diversity. Many of the proteins that are essential to this process contain arginine/serine-rich (RS) domains. ZRANB2 is a widely-expressed and highly-conserved RS-domain protein that can regulate alternative splicing but lacks canonical RNA-binding domains. Instead, it contains 2 RanBP2-type zinc finger (ZnF) domains. We demonstrate that these ZnFs recognize ssRNA with high affinity and specificity. Each ZnF binds to a single AGGUAA motif and the 2 domains combine to recognize AGGUAA(N{sub x})AGGUAA double sites, suggesting that ZRANB2 regulates alternative splicing via a direct interaction with pre-mRNA at sites that resemble the consensus 5{prime} splice site. We show using X-ray crystallography that recognition of an AGGUAA motif by a single ZnF is dominated by side-chain hydrogen bonds to the bases and formation of a guanine-tryptophan-guanine 'ladder.' A number of other human proteins that function in RNA processing also contain RanBP2 ZnFs in which the RNA-binding residues of ZRANB2 are conserved. The ZnFs of ZRANB2 therefore define another class of RNA-binding domain, advancing our understanding of RNA recognition and emphasizing the versatility of ZnF domains in molecular recognition.

  15. Sequence-specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone resonance assignments of the plakin repeat domain of human envoplakin.

    PubMed

    Jeeves, Mark; Fogl, Claudia; Al-Jassar, Caezar; Chidgey, Martyn; Overduin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The plakin repeat domain is a distinctive hallmark of the plakin superfamily of proteins, which are found within all epithelial tissues. Plakin repeat domains mediate the interactions of these proteins with the cell cytoskeleton and are critical for the maintenance of tissue integrity. Despite their biological importance, no solution state resonance assignments are available for any homologue. Here we report the essentially complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone chemical shift assignments of the singular 22 kDa plakin repeat domain of human envoplakin, providing the means to investigate its interactions with ligands including intermediate filaments. PMID:26590577

  16. Binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin to solubilized preparations of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.; Seamon, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin to proteins solubilized from bovine brain membranes was studied by precipitating proteins with polyethylene glycol and separating (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to protein from free (/sup 3/H)forskolin by rapid filtration. The K/sub d/ for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding to solubilized proteins was 14 nM which was similar to that for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites in membranes from rat brain and human platelets. Forskolin analogs competed for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites with the same rank potency in both brain membranes and in proteins solubilized from brain membranes. (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to proteins solubilized from membranes with a Bmax of 38 fmolmg protein which increased to 94 fmolmg protein when GppNHp was included in the binding assay. In contrast, GppNHp had no effect on (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding to proteins solubilized from membranes preactivated with GppNHp. Solubilized adenylate cyclase from non-preactivated membranes had a basal activity of 130 pmolmgmin which was increased 7-fold by GppNHp. In contrast, adenylate cyclase from preactivated membranes had a basal activity of 850 pmolmgmin which was not stimulated by GppNHp or forskolin

  17. Influence of the beta-adrenergic receptor concentration on functional coupling to the adenylate cyclase system.

    PubMed Central

    Severne, Y; Coppens, D; Bottari, S; Riviere, M; Kram, R; Vauquelin, G

    1984-01-01

    Only part of the beta-adrenergic receptors can undergo functional coupling to the adenylate cyclase regulatory unit. This receptor subpopulation shows an increased affinity for agonists in the presence of Mg2+ and undergoes rapid "inactivation" (locking-in of the agonist) by the alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of agonists. Several experimental conditions, known to modify the total receptor concentration without alteration of the other components of the adenylate cyclase system, do not affect the percentage of receptors that can undergo functional coupling: (i) homologous regulation of beta 1 receptors in rat brain by noradrenaline (through antidepressive drug or reserpine injections); (ii) up- and down-regulation of the beta 2 receptors in Friend erythroleukemia cells by, respectively, sodium butyrate and cinnarizine treatment; and (iii) dithiothreitol-mediated inactivation of receptors in turkey erythrocytes, Friend erythroleukemia cells, and rat brain. Our findings argue against a stoichiometric limitation in the number of regulatory components, genetically different receptor subpopulations, bound guanine nucleotides, or reduced accessibility of part of the receptors to the agonists as the cause for functional receptor heterogeneity. Differences in either the receptor conformation or its membrane microenvironment are more plausible explanations. PMID:6087337

  18. Adenylate cyclase regulation in the spermatogenic cell plasma membrane: Modulating effects of TPA and TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    This research was designed to compare the effects of TPA, a phorbol ester, and TCDD in a spermatogenic cell population, a target of TCDD toxicity. Membrane-bound adenylate cyclase activity was used an index of membrane function, and was quantified by the amount of {sup 32}P-cAMP formed from {sup 32}P-ATP following chromatographic separation. Exposure to male germ cells in-vitro to TPA and TCDD followed by direct measurement of enzyme activity was used to investigate the potential of each agent to perturb membrane function. TPA and TCDD consistently inhibited adenylate cyclase activity at the levels of G{sub s}-catalytic unit coupling and hormone-receptor activation, as measured by the stimulation of enzyme activity by concomitant addition of forskolin and GTP and FSH and GTP, respectively. The effect on coupling required at least 60 minutes of exposure to TPA or TCDD. Concentration-response curves demonstrated a progressive desensitization with increasing TPA concentration, while TCDD exhibited consistent inhibition over the same concentration range.

  19. Regulation of Plant Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase by Adenylate Nucleotides 1

    PubMed Central

    Eastwell, Kenneth C.; Stumpf, Paul K.

    1983-01-01

    The assay of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) does not follow ideal zero-order kinetics when assayed in a crude extract from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ. Our results show that the lack of ideality is the consequence of contamination by ATPase and adenylate kinase. These enzyme activities generate significant amounts of ADP and AMP in the assay mixture, thus limiting the availability of ATP for the carboxylase reaction. Moreover, ADP and AMP are competitive inhibitors, with respect to ATP, of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Similar relationships between adenylate nucleotides and acetyl-CoA carboxylase are found in isolated chloroplasts. There is no evidence that acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in the extracts of the plant systems examined is altered by covalent modification, such as a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. A scheme is presented that illustrates the dependency of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthesis on the energy demands of the chloroplasts in vivo. PMID:16662980

  20. Leveraging the Mechanism of Oxidative Decay for Adenylate Kinase to Design Structural and Functional Resistances

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Stanley C.; Richards, David H.; Mitch, William A.; Wilson, Corey J.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of the mechanisms underlying hypohalous acid (i.e., hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid) degradation of proteins is important for understanding how the immune system deactivates pathogens during infections, and damages human tissues during inflammatory diseases. Proteins are particularly important hypohalous acid reaction targets in pathogens and in host tissues, as evidenced by the detection of chlorinated and brominated oxidizable residues. While a significant amount of work has been conducted for reactions of hypohalous acids with a range of individual amino acids and small peptides, the assessment of oxidative decay in full-length proteins has lagged in comparison. The most rigorous test of our understanding of oxidative decay of proteins is the rational redesign of proteins with conferred resistances to the decay of structure and function. Toward this end, in this study we experimentally determined a putative mechanism of oxidative decay using adenylate kinase as the model system. In turn, we leveraged this mechanism to rationally design new proteins and experimentally test each system for oxidative resistance to loss of structure and function. From our extensive assessment of secondary-structure, protein hydrodynamics and enzyme activity upon hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid challenge, we have identified two key strategies for conferring structural and functional resistance. Namely, the design of proteins (adenylate kinase enzymes) that are resistant to oxidation requires complementary consideration of protein stability and the modification (elimination) of certain oxidizable residues proximal to catalytic sites. PMID:26266833

  1. Leveraging the Mechanism of Oxidative Decay for Adenylate Kinase to Design Structural and Functional Resistances.

    PubMed

    Howell, Stanley C; Richards, David H; Mitch, William A; Wilson, Corey J

    2015-10-16

    Characterization of the mechanisms underlying hypohalous acid (i.e., hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid) degradation of proteins is important for understanding how the immune system deactivates pathogens during infections and damages human tissues during inflammatory diseases. Proteins are particularly important hypohalous acid reaction targets in pathogens and in host tissues, as evidenced by the detection of chlorinated and brominated oxidizable residues. While a significant amount of work has been conducted for reactions of hypohalous acids with a range of individual amino acids and small peptides, the assessment of oxidative decay in full-length proteins has lagged in comparison. The most rigorous test of our understanding of oxidative decay of proteins is the rational redesign of proteins with conferred resistances to the decay of structure and function. Toward this end, in this study, we experimentally determined a putative mechanism of oxidative decay using adenylate kinase as the model system. In turn, we leveraged this mechanism to rationally design new proteins and experimentally test each system for oxidative resistance to loss of structure and function. From our extensive assessment of secondary structure, protein hydrodynamics, and enzyme activity upon hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid challenge, we have identified two key strategies for conferring structural and functional resistance, namely, the design of proteins (adenylate kinase enzymes) that are resistant to oxidation requires complementary consideration of protein stability and the modification (elimination) of certain oxidizable residues proximal to catalytic sites. PMID:26266833

  2. Learning our ABCs: Rad50 directs MRN repair functions via adenylate kinase activity from the conserved ATP binding cassette.

    PubMed

    Williams, R Scott; Tainer, John A

    2007-03-23

    In groundbreaking work, Bhaskara et al. (2007) demonstrate in a recent issue of Molecular Cell that the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex harbors distinct, yet chemically related, ATPase and adenylate kinase catalytic activities that together orchestrate multiple requisite MRN functional and conformational states in dsDNA break repair sensing and signaling with general implications for ABC ATPases. PMID:17386254

  3. Specific disulfide cross-linking to constrict the mobile carrier domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Tarry, Michael J.; Schmeing, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large, multi-domain enzymes that produce peptide molecules with important biological activity such as antibiotic, antiviral, anti-tumor, siderophore and immunosuppressant action. The adenylation (A) domain catalyzes two reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. In the first reaction, it activates the substrate amino acid by adenylation and in the second reaction it transfers the amino acid onto the phosphopantetheine arm of the adjacent peptide carrier protein (PCP) domain. The conformation of the A domain differs significantly depending on which of these two reactions it is catalyzing. Recently, several structures of A–PCP di-domains have been solved using mechanism-based inhibitors to trap the PCP domain in the A domain active site. Here, we present an alternative strategy to stall the A–PCP di-domain, by engineering a disulfide bond between the native amino acid substrate and the A domain. Size exclusion studies showed a significant shift in apparent size when the mutant A–PCP was provided with cross-linking reagents, and this shift was reversible in the presence of high concentrations of reducing agent. The cross-linked protein crystallized readily in several of the conditions screened and the best crystals diffracted to ≈8 Å. PMID:25713404

  4. Recombinant novel pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) authenticates its biological function as a growth-promoting factor in low vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Juana Maria; Rodriguez, Alina; Helguera, Yusmila; Morales, Reynold; Gonzalez, Osmany; Acosta, Jannel; Besada, Vladimir; Sanchez, Aniel; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2008-06-01

    Nowadays, the studies of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-related peptide (PRP) and PACAP in non-mammalian vertebrates, especially in fish, have paid attention mainly to the localization, cloning, and structural evolution of the peptides, but very little is known about its biological functions as growth-promoting factors in low vertebrates. In this work, we have cloned and characterized the PRP/PACAP cDNA from the commercially important North African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The sequence obtained agrees with the higher conservation of PACAP than of PRP peptide sequences. We have reported for the first time the recombinant expression of fish PRP and PACAP in mammalian cells and bacteria and also demonstrated that the growth rate of fish is enhanced by both PRP and PACAP recombinant peptides. The results obtained in vivo in three different fish species, catfish (C. gariepinus), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and carp (Cyprinus carpio) support the finding that PACAP rather than PRP plays a primordial role in growth control in teleost fish. This finding could help to elucidate the neuroendocrine axis proposed to explain the hypothalamic regulation of growth in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:18492822

  5. Domain structure sequence in ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film on MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janolin, Pierre-Eymeric; Fraisse, Bernard; Dkhil, Brahim; Le Marrec, Françoise; Ringgaard, Erling

    2007-04-01

    The structural evolution of a polydomain ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 film was studied by temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction. Two critical temperatures were evidenced: T*=740K, corresponding to a change in the domain structure (a /c/a/c to a1/a2/a1/a2), and TCfilm=825K, where the film undergoes a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. The film remains tetragonal on the whole range of temperature investigated. The evolutions of the domain structure and lattice parameters were found to be in very good agreement with the calculated domain stability map and theoretical temperature-misfit strain phase diagram, respectively.

  6. ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  7. ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) adenylate kinase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at separate binding sites.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Elcock, Adrian H; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-09-20

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP &lrarr2; 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

  8. Complex Structure of the DNA-binding Domain of AdpA, the Global Transcription Factor in Streptomyces griseus, and a Target Duplex DNA Reveals the Structural Basis of Its Tolerant DNA Sequence Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ming Dong; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Zhi, Yuehua; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    AdpA serves as the global transcription factor in the A-factor regulatory cascade, controlling the secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation of the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces griseus. AdpA binds to over 500 operator regions with the consensus sequence 5′-TGGCSNGWWY-3′ (where S is G or C, W is A or T, Y is T or C, and N is any nucleotide). However, it is still obscure how AdpA can control hundreds of genes. To elucidate the structural basis of this tolerant DNA recognition by AdpA, we focused on the interaction between the DNA-binding domain of AdpA (AdpA-DBD), which consists of two helix-turn-helix motifs, and a target duplex DNA containing the consensus sequence 5′-TGGCGGGTTC-3′. The crystal structure of the AdpA-DBD-DNA complex and the mutant analysis of AdpA-DBD revealed its unique manner of DNA recognition, whereby only two arginine residues directly recognize the consensus sequence, explaining the strict recognition of G and C at positions 2 and 4, respectively, and the tolerant recognition of other positions of the consensus sequence. AdpA-DBD confers tolerant DNA sequence specificity to AdpA, allowing it to control hundreds of genes as a global transcription factor. PMID:24019524

  9. Structural Characterization of a 140° Domain Movement in the Two-Step Reaction Catalyzed by 4-Chlorobenzoate:CoA Ligase#

    PubMed Central

    Reger, Albert S.; Wu, Rui; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the adenylate-forming family of enzymes play a role in the metabolism of halogenated aromatics and of short, medium, and long chain fatty acids, as well as in the biosynthesis of menaquinone, peptide antibiotics, and peptide siderophores. This family includes a subfamily of acyl- and aryl-CoA ligases that catalyze thioester synthesis through two half-reactions. A carboxylate substrate first reacts with ATP to form an acyl-adenylate. Subsequent to the release of the product PPi, the enzyme binds CoA, which attacks the activated acyl group to displace AMP. Structural and functional studies on different family members suggest that these enzymes alternate between two conformations during catalysis of the two half-reactions. Specifically, after the initial adenylation step, the C-terminal domain rotates by ~140° to adopt a second conformation for thioester formation. Previously, we determined the structure of 4-chlorobenzoate:CoA ligase (CBL) in the adenylate forming conformation bound to 4-chlorobenzoate. We have determined two new crystal structures. We have determined the structure of CBL in the original adenylate-forming conformation, bound to the adenylate intermediate. Additionally, we have used a novel product analog, 4-chlorophenacyl-CoA, to trap the enzyme in the thioester-forming conformation and determined this structure in a new crystal form. This work identifies a novel binding pocket for the CoA nucleotide. The structures presented herein provide the foundation for biochemical analyses presented in the accompanying manuscript (Wu et al.). The complete characterization of this enzyme allows us to provide an explanation for the use of the domain alternation strategy by these enzymes. PMID:18620418

  10. The influence of various cations on the catalytic properties of clays. [polymerization of alanine adenylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1978-01-01

    The polymerization of alanine adenylate in the presence of the sodium form of various clays was studied, and hectorite was found to cause more polymerization than nontronite and montmorillonite (in that order) although the differences were not great. The effect on polymerization of presaturating montmorillonite with different cations was determined. Hectorite, with increased basicity of the interspatial planes, allows polymerization of lysine, which montmorillonite does not. The general trend is that, for the same amino acid, higher degrees of polymerization are obtained when the cation in the octahedral lattice of the clay is divalent rather than trivalent. With the exchangeable cations the order is reversed, for a reason that is explained. The main role of clays in the polymerization mechanism of amino acids is concentration and neutralization of charges.

  11. Alterations in adenylate ratios in plant cells after accelerated ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, A; Sidorenko, P G

    1996-01-01

    Levels of adenylate metabolism have been studied in cells of Nicotiana tabacum growing in vitro, and in root apex extracts of Pisum sativum irradiated at the 95-in. isochronous cyclotron U-240, Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv. Particle beams of accelerated helium ions with energy 9.34 keV/micrometer were used. Replacement and rapid freezing of the irradiated plants samples in liquid nitrogen were carried out with a manipulator and a remote control system. After doses of 5, 20, 50, and 100 Gy of gamma-irradiation, as well as 50 and 100 Gy 4He irradiation, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio increased during early stages of the response. This effect was absent at higher doses and after exposure to sparesly-ionizing radiation, when a rapid decline in the cellular ATP concentration and the ATP/ADP ratio occurred. PMID:11538989

  12. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  13. Fast collapse but slow formation of secondary structure elements in the refolding transition of E. coli adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Ratner, V; Amir, D; Kahana, E; Haas, E

    2005-09-23

    The various models proposed for protein folding transition differ in their order of appearance of the basic steps during this process. In this study, steady state and time-resolved dynamic non-radiative excitation energy transfer (FRET and trFRET) combined with site specific labeling experiments were applied in order to characterize the initial transient ensemble of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (AK) molecules upon shifting conditions from those favoring denaturation to refolding and from folding to denaturing. Three sets of labeled AK mutants were prepared, which were designed to probe the equilibrium and transient distributions of intramolecular segmental end-to-end distances. A 176 residue section (residues 28-203), which spans most of the 214 residue molecule, and two short secondary structure chain segments including an alpha-helix (residues 169-188) and a predominantly beta-strand region (residues 188-203), were labeled. Upon fast change of conditions from denaturing to folding, the end-to-end distance of the 176 residue chain section showed an immediate collapse to a mean value of 26 A. Under the same conditions, the two short secondary structure elements did not respond to this shift within the first ten milliseconds, and retained the characteristics of a fully unfolded state. Within the first 10 ms after changes of the solvent from folding to denaturing, only minor changes were observed at the local environments of residues 203 and 169. The response of these same local environments to the shift of conditions from denaturing to folding occurred within the dead time of the mixing device. Thus, the response of the CORE domain of AK to fast transfer from folding to unfolding conditions is slow at all three conformational levels that were probed, and for at least a few milliseconds the ensemble of folded molecules is maintained under unfolding conditions. A different order of the changes was observed upon initiation of refolding. The AK molecules undergo

  14. Tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 after inhibition of NO synthesis: a loss of adenylate cyclase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27) are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This study examined whether this tachyphylaxis is due to the loss of vasodilator potency of cAMP generated by activation of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptors. Five successive treatments with PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats that were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME (50 micromol/kg iv)-treated rats produced vasodilator responses of similar magnitude to those in saline-treated rats, whereas four subsequent injections produced progressively and markedly smaller responses. The hemodynamic effects of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP; 5-15 micromol/kg iv) were similar in L-NAME-treated rats and in L-NAME-treated rats that had received the five injections of PACAP-27. In addition, five injections of 8-CPT-cAMP (10 micromol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline- and L-NAME-treated rats that were not subject to the development of tachyphylaxis. These results suggest that a loss of biological potency of cAMP is not responsible for tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 in L-NAME-treated rats. This tachyphylaxis may be due to the inability of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptor to activate adenylate cyclase.

  15. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    SciTech Connect

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/)Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10/sup -5/ M) suggesting predominate beta/sub 2/-type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-/sub 2/-type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat.

  16. Couplings between hierarchical conformational dynamics from multi-time correlation functions and two-dimensional lifetime spectra: Application to adenylate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Junichi; Takada, Shoji; Saito, Shinji

    2015-06-07

    An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.

  17. Fast closure of N-terminal long loops but slow formation of β strands precedes the folding transition state of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Orevi, Tomer; Ben Ishay, Eldad; Gershanov, Sivan Levin; Dalak, Mayan Ben; Amir, Dan; Haas, Elisha

    2014-05-20

    The nature of the earliest steps of the initiation of the folding pathway of globular proteins is still controversial. To elucidate the role of early closure of long loop structures in the folding transition, we studied the folding kinetics of subdomain structures in Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (AK) using Förster type resonance excitation energy transfer (FRET)-based methods. The overall folding rate of the AK molecule and of several segments that form native β strands is 0.5 ± 0.3 s(-1), in sharp contrast to the 1000-fold faster closure of three long loop structures in the CORE domain. A FRET-based "double kinetics" analysis revealed complex transient changes in the initially closed N-terminal loop structure that then opens and closes again at the end of the folding pathway. The study of subdomain folding in situ suggests a hierarchic ordered folding mechanism, in which early and rapid cross-linking by hydrophobic loop closure provides structural stabilization at the initiation of the folding pathway. PMID:24787383

  18. Couplings between hierarchical conformational dynamics from multi-time correlation functions and two-dimensional lifetime spectra: Application to adenylate kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Junichi; Takada, Shoji; Saito, Shinji

    2015-06-01

    An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.

  19. The La-related protein 1-specific domain repurposes HEAT-like repeats to directly bind a 5′TOP sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Roni M.; Mack, Seshat M.; Héroux, Annie; Blagden, Sarah P.; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cécile; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Berman, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    La-related protein 1 (LARP1) regulates the stability of many mRNAs. These include 5′TOPs, mTOR-kinase responsive mRNAs with pyrimidine-rich 5′ UTRs, which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. We determined that the highly conserved LARP1-specific C-terminal DM15 region of human LARP1 directly binds a 5′TOP sequence. The crystal structure of this DM15 region refined to 1.86 Å resolution has three structurally related and evolutionarily conserved helix-turn-helix modules within each monomer. These motifs resemble HEAT repeats, ubiquitous helical protein-binding structures, but their sequences are inconsistent with consensus sequences of known HEAT modules, suggesting this structure has been repurposed for RNA interactions. A putative mTORC1-recognition sequence sits within a flexible loop C-terminal to these repeats. We also present modelling of pyrimidine-rich single-stranded RNA onto the highly conserved surface of the DM15 region. These studies lay the foundation necessary for proceeding toward a structural mechanism by which LARP1 links mTOR signalling to ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26206669

  20. Demonstration of phosphoryl group transfer indicates that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exhibits adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J

    2012-10-19

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane-spanning adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. ABC transporters and other nuclear and cytoplasmic ABC proteins have ATPase activity that is coupled to their biological function. Recent studies with CFTR and two nonmembrane-bound ABC proteins, the DNA repair enzyme Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, challenge the model that the function of all ABC proteins depends solely on their associated ATPase activity. Patch clamp studies indicated that in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), CFTR Cl(-) channel function is coupled to adenylate kinase activity (ATP+AMP <==> 2 ADP). Work with Rad50 and SMC showed that these enzymes catalyze both ATPase and adenylate kinase reactions. However, despite the supportive electrophysiological results with CFTR, there are no biochemical data demonstrating intrinsic adenylate kinase activity of a membrane-bound ABC transporter. We developed a biochemical assay for adenylate kinase activity, in which the radioactive γ-phosphate of a nucleotide triphosphate could transfer to a photoactivatable AMP analog. UV irradiation could then trap the (32)P on the adenylate kinase. With this assay, we discovered phosphoryl group transfer that labeled CFTR, thereby demonstrating its adenylate kinase activity. Our results also suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for adenylate kinase activity. These biochemical data complement earlier biophysical studies of CFTR and indicate that the ABC transporter CFTR can function as an adenylate kinase. PMID:22948143

  1. Demonstration of Phosphoryl Group Transfer Indicates That the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Exhibits Adenylate Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane-spanning adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. ABC transporters and other nuclear and cytoplasmic ABC proteins have ATPase activity that is coupled to their biological function. Recent studies with CFTR and two nonmembrane-bound ABC proteins, the DNA repair enzyme Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, challenge the model that the function of all ABC proteins depends solely on their associated ATPase activity. Patch clamp studies indicated that in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), CFTR Cl− channel function is coupled to adenylate kinase activity (ATP+AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Work with Rad50 and SMC showed that these enzymes catalyze both ATPase and adenylate kinase reactions. However, despite the supportive electrophysiological results with CFTR, there are no biochemical data demonstrating intrinsic adenylate kinase activity of a membrane-bound ABC transporter. We developed a biochemical assay for adenylate kinase activity, in which the radioactive γ-phosphate of a nucleotide triphosphate could transfer to a photoactivatable AMP analog. UV irradiation could then trap the 32P on the adenylate kinase. With this assay, we discovered phosphoryl group transfer that labeled CFTR, thereby demonstrating its adenylate kinase activity. Our results also suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for adenylate kinase activity. These biochemical data complement earlier biophysical studies of CFTR and indicate that the ABC transporter CFTR can function as an adenylate kinase. PMID:22948143

  2. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3) of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, for DARC binding and contained a consensus heparin binding site essential for DARC binding. Both HIV-1 and P. vivax can be blocked from binding to their chemokine receptors by the chemokine, RANTES and its analog AOP-RANTES. Site directed mutagenesis of the heparin binding motif in members of the DBP family, the P. knowlesi alpha, beta and gamma proteins abrogated their binding to erythrocytes. Positively charged residues within domain 1 are required for binding of P. vivax and P. knowlesi erythrocyte binding proteins. Conclusion A heparin binding site motif in members of the DBP family may form part of a conserved erythrocyte receptor binding pocket. PMID:21281498

  3. Two TIR-like domain containing proteins in a newly emerging zoonotic Staphylococcus aureus strain sequence type 398 are potential virulence factors by impacting on the host innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Nicholas J.; Günther, Juliane; Gibson, Amanda J.; Offord, Victoria; Coffey, Tracey J.; Splitter, Gary; Monk, Ian; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Werling, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, sequence type (ST) 398, is an emerging pathogen and the leading cause of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections in Europe and North America. This strain is characterized by high promiscuity in terms of host-species and also lacks several traditional S. aureus virulence factors. This does not, however, explain the apparent ease with which it crosses species-barriers. Recently, TIR-domain containing proteins (Tcps) which inhibit the innate immune response were identified in some Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report the presence of two proteins, S. aureus TIR-like Protein 1 (SaTlp1) and S. aureus TIR-like Protein 2 (SaTlp2), expressed by ST398 which contain domain of unknown function 1863 (DUF1863), similar to the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. In contrast to the Tcps in Gram-negative bacteria, our data suggest that SaTlp1 and SaTlp2 increase activation of the transcription factor NF-κB as well as downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune effectors. To assess the role of both proteins as potential virulence factors knock-out mutants were created. These showed a slightly enhanced survival rate in a murine infectious model compared to the wild-type strain at one dose. Our data suggest that both proteins may act as factors contributing to the enhanced ability of ST398 to cross species-barriers. PMID:25538689

  4. Effects of Particle Size, Electronic Connectivity, and Incoherent Nanoscale Domains on the Sequence of Lithiation in LiFePO₄ Porous Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiyang; Meyer, Sophie; Lim, Jongwoo; Lee, Sang Chul; Gent, William E; Marchesini, Stefano; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Shapiro, David; Kilcoyne, Arthur L David; Chueh, William C

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution X-ray microscopy is used to investigate the sequence of lithiation in LiFePO4 porous electrodes. For electrodes with homogeneous interparticle electronic connectivity via the carbon black network, the smaller particles lithiate first. For electrodes with heterogeneous connectivity, the better-connected particles preferentially lithiate. Correlative electron and X-ray microscopy also reveal the presence of incoherent nanodomains that lithiate as if they are separate particles. PMID:26423560

  5. Differential reaction kinetics, cleavage complex formation, and nonamer binding domain dependence dictate the structure-specific and sequence-specific nuclease activity of RAGs.

    PubMed

    Naik, Abani Kanta; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2012-01-20

    During V(D)J recombination, RAG (recombination-activating gene) complex cleaves DNA based on sequence specificity. Besides its physiological function, RAG has been shown to act as a structure-specific nuclease. Recently, we showed that the presence of cytosine within the single-stranded region of heteroduplex DNA is important when RAGs cleave on DNA structures. In the present study, we report that heteroduplex DNA containing a bubble region can be cleaved efficiently when present along with a recombination signal sequence (RSS) in cis or trans configuration. The sequence of the bubble region influences RAG cleavage at RSS when present in cis. We also find that the kinetics of RAG cleavage differs between RSS and bubble, wherein RSS cleavage reaches maximum efficiency faster than bubble cleavage. In addition, unlike RSS, RAG cleavage at bubbles does not lead to cleavage complex formation. Finally, we show that the "nonamer binding region," which regulates RAG cleavage on RSS, is not important during RAG activity in non-B DNA structures. Therefore, in the current study, we identify the possible mechanism by which RAG cleavage is regulated when it acts as a structure-specific nuclease. PMID:22119487

  6. STAS Domain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok K.; Rigby, Alan C.; Alper, Seth L.

    2011-01-01

    Pendrin shares with nearly all SLC26/SulP anion transporters a carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic segment organized around a Sulfate Transporter and Anti-Sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain. STAS domains of divergent amino acid sequence exhibit a conserved fold of 4 β strands interspersed among 5 α helices. The first STAS domain proteins studied were single-domain anti-sigma factor antagonists (anti-anti-σ). These anti-anti-σ indirectly stimulate bacterial RNA polymerase by inactivating inhibitory anti-σ kinases, liberating σ factors to direct specific transcription of target genes or operons. Some STAS domains are nucleotide-binding phosphoproteins or nucleotidases. Others are interaction/transduction modules within multidomain sensors of light, oxygen and other gasotransmitters, cyclic nucleotides, inositol phosphates, and G proteins. Additional multidomain STAS protein sequences suggest functions in sensing, metabolism, or transport of nutrients such as sugars, amino acids, lipids, anions, vitamins, or hydrocarbons. Still other multidomain STAS polypeptides include histidine and serine/threonine kinase domains and ligand-activated transcription factor domains. SulP/SLC26 STAS domains and adjacent sequences interact with other transporters, cytoskeletal scaffolds, and with enzymes metabolizing transported anion substrates, forming putative metabolons. STAS domains are central to membrane targeting of many SulP/SLC26 anion transporters, and STAS domain mutations are associated with at least three human recessive diseases. This review summarizes STAS domain structure and function. PMID:22116355

  7. Protein structural domains: definition and prediction.

    PubMed

    Ezkurdia, Iakes; Tress, Michael L

    2011-11-01

    Recognition and prediction of structural domains in proteins is an important part of structure and function prediction. This unit lists the range of tools available for domain prediction, and describes sequence and structural analysis tools that complement domain prediction methods. Also detailed are the basic domain prediction steps, along with suggested strategies for different protein sequences and potential pitfalls in domain boundary prediction. The difficult problem of domain orientation prediction is also discussed. All the resources necessary for domain boundary prediction are accessible via publicly available Web servers and databases and do not require computational expertise. PMID:22045561

  8. Effects of the oncogenic V(664)E mutation on membrane insertion, structure, and sequence-dependent interactions of the Neu transmembrane domain in micelles and model membranes: an integrated biophysical and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Andrew J; Nash, Anthony; Salazar-Cancino, Martha; Scott, David J; Notman, Rebecca; Dixon, Ann M

    2012-03-27

    Receptor tyrosine kinases bind ligands such as cytokines, hormones, and growth factors and regulate key cellular processes, including cell division. They are also implicated in the development of many types of cancer. One such example is the Neu receptor tyrosine kinase found in rats (homologous to the human ErbB2 protein), which can undergo a valine to glutamic acid (V(664)E) mutation at the center of its α-helical transmembrane domain. This substitution results in receptor activation and oncogenesis. The molecular basis of this dramatic change in behavior upon introduction of the V(664)E mutation has been difficult to pin down, with conflicting results reported in the literature. Here we report the first quantitative, thermodynamic analysis of dimerization and biophysical characterization of the rat Neu transmembrane domain and several mutants in a range of chemical environments. These data have allowed us to identify the effects of the V(664)E mutation in the isolated TM domain with respect to protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions, membrane insertion, and secondary structure. We also report the results from a 100 ns atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of the Neu transmembrane domain in a model membrane bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine). The results from simulation and experiment are in close agreement and suggest that, in the model systems investigated, the V(664)E mutation leads to a weakening of the TM dimer and a change in sequence-dependent interactions. These results are contrary to recent results obtained in mammalian membranes, and the implications of this are discussed. PMID:22385253

  9. Cross-species sequence analysis reveals multiple charged residue-rich domains that regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning and membrane localization of a kinase anchoring protein 12 (SSeCKS/Gravin).

    PubMed

    Streb, Jeffrey W; Miano, Joseph M

    2005-07-29

    A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) assemble and compartmentalize multiprotein signaling complexes at discrete subcellular locales and thus confer specificity to transduction cascades using ubiquitous signaling enzymes, such as protein kinase A. Intrinsic targeting domains in each AKAP determine the subcellular localization of these complexes and, along with protein-protein interaction domains, form the core of AKAP function. As a foundational step toward elucidating the relationship between location and function, we have used cross-species sequence analysis and deletion mapping to facilitate the identification of the targeting determinants of AKAP12 (also known as SSeCKS or Gravin). Three charged residue-rich regions were identified that regulate two aspects of AKAP12 localization, nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning and perinuclear/cell periphery targeting. Using deletion mapping and green fluorescent protein chimeras, we uncovered a heretofore unrecognized nuclear localization potential. Five nuclear localization signals, including a novel class of this type of signal termed X2-NLS, are found in the central region of AKAP12 and are important for nuclear targeting. However, this nuclear localization is suppressed by the negatively charged C terminus that mediates nuclear exclusion. In this condition, the distribution of AKAP12 is regulated by an N-terminal targeting domain that simultaneously directs perinuclear and peripheral AKAP12 localization. Three basic residue-rich regions in the N-terminal targeting region have similarity to the MARCKS proteins and were found to control AKAP12 localization to ganglioside-rich regions at the cell periphery. Our data suggest that AKAP12 localization is regulated by a hierarchy of targeting domains and that the localization of AKAP12-assembled signaling complexes may be dynamically regulated. PMID:15923193

  10. Antitubercular Nucleosides that Inhibit Siderophore Biosynthesis: SAR of the Glycosyl Domain

    PubMed Central

    Somu, Ravindranadh V.; Wilson, Daniel; Bennett, Eric M.; Boshoff, Helena; Celia, Laura; Beck, Brian; Barry, Clifton E.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality in the world by a bacterial pathogen. We previously demonstrated that a bisubstrate inhibitor of the adenylation enzyme MbtA, which is responsible for the second step of mycobactin biosynthesis, exhibited potent antitubercular activity. Here we systematically investigate the structure activity relationships of the bisubstrate inhibitor glycosyl domain resulting in the identification of a carbocyclic analogue that possesses a KIapp value of 2.3 nM and MIC99 values of 1.56 μM against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The SAR data suggest the intriguing possibility that the bisubstrate inhibitors utilize a transporter for entry across the mycobacterial cell-envelope. Additionally, we report improved conditions for the expression of MbtA and biochemical analysis demonstrating that MbtA follows a random sequential enzyme mechanism for the adenylation half-reaction. PMID:17181146

  11. Analysis of the functional domains of biosynthetic threonine deaminase by comparison of the amino acid sequences of three wild-type alleles to the amino acid sequence of biodegradative threonine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Taillon, B E; Little, R; Lawther, R P

    1988-03-31

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene, ilvA, for biosynthetic threonine deaminase (Tda) from Salmonella typhimurium was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared with the deduced amino acid sequences of the biosynthetic Tda from Escherichia coli K-12 (ilvA) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ILV1) and the biodegradative Tda from E. coli K-12 (tdc). The comparison indicated the presence of two types of blocks of homologous amino acids. The first type of homology is in the N-terminal portion of all four isozymes of Tda and probably indicates amino acids involved in catalysis. The second type of homology is found in the C-terminal portion of the three biosynthetic isozymes and presumably is involved in either (i) the binding or interaction of the allosteric effector isoleucine with the enzyme, or (ii) subunit interactions. The sites of amino acid changes of two E. coli K-12 ilvA alleles with altered response to isoleucine are consistent with the conclusion that the C-terminal portion of biosynthetic Tda is involved in allosteric regulation. PMID:3290055

  12. Mechanism of activation of light-activated phosphodiesterase and evidence for homology with hormone-activated adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yamazaki, A.; Wheeler, M.A.; George, J.S.; Rasenick, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    Light-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is one of the effector proteins in the rod outer segments in vertebrate retina. The hydrolysis of cGMP in rod occurs with a speed and light sensitivity which suggests a role for this hydrolysis in visual transduction. In fact, there is electrophysiological data which supports the possibility that cGMP could regulate rod membrane voltage. PDE shows very rapid activation in the presence of photons and GTP. We have called attention to the intriguing analogy between light activated rod phosphodiesterase and hormone activated adenylate cyclase. A number of studies have implicated the binding of GTP to a GTP binding protein as a factor in the hormone dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. Moreover, Cassel and Selinger have shown that hydrolysis of GTP is a component in the inactivation of the hormone dependent adenylate cyclase. We review here recent additional data which provide specific molecular details of the mechanism of light activation of rod PDE as well as demonstrate the exchange of components between light activated PDE and hormone activated cyclase.

  13. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT{sub 1C} receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing ({sup 3}H)serotonin, ({sup 3}H)lysergic acid diethylamide or ({sup 3}H)dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor.

  14. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  15. High throughput synthetic lethality screen reveals a tumorigenic role of adenylate cyclase in fumarate hydratase-deficient cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality is an appealing technique for selectively targeting cancer cells which have acquired molecular changes that distinguish them from normal cells. High-throughput RNAi-based screens have been successfully used to identify synthetic lethal pathways with well-characterized tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The recent identification of metabolic tumor suppressors suggests that the concept of synthetic lethality can be applied to selectively target cancer metabolism as well. Results Here, we perform a high-throughput RNAi screen to identify synthetic lethal genes with fumarate hydratase (FH), a metabolic tumor suppressor whose loss-of-function has been associated with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). Our unbiased screen identified synthetic lethality between FH and several genes in heme metabolism, in accordance with recent findings. Furthermore, we identified an enrichment of synthetic lethality with adenylate cyclases. The effects were validated in an embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T) and in HLRCC-patient derived cells (UOK262) via both genetic and pharmacological inhibition. The reliance on adenylate cyclases in FH-deficient cells is consistent with increased cyclic-AMP levels, which may act to regulate cellular energy metabolism. Conclusions The identified synthetic lethality of FH with adenylate cyclases suggests a new potential target for treating HLRCC patients. PMID:24568598

  16. Primary structure of human nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle C proteins: conservation of sequence and domain structures in heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, and pre-rRNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, M S; Nakagawa, T Y; LeVan, K; Dreyfuss, G

    1987-01-01

    In the eucaryotic nucleus, heterogeneous nuclear RNAs exist in a complex with a specific set of proteins to form heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (hnRNPs). The C proteins, C1 and C2, are major constituents of hnRNPs and appear to play a role in RNA splicing as suggested by antibody inhibition and immunodepletion experiments. With the use of a previously described partial cDNA clone as a hybridization probe, full-length cDNAs for the human C proteins were isolated. All of the cDNAs isolated hybridized to two poly(A)+ RNAs of 1.9 and 1.4 kilobases (kb). DNA sequencing of a cDNA clone for the 1.9-kb mRNA (pHC12) revealed a single open reading frame of 290 amino acids coding for a protein of 31,931 daltons and two polyadenylation signals, AAUAAA, approximately 400 base pairs apart in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. DNA sequencing of a clone corresponding to the 1.4-kb mRNA (pHC5) indicated that the sequence of this mRNA is identical to that of the 1.9-kb mRNA up to the first polyadenylation signal which it uses. Both mRNAs therefore have the same coding capacity and are probably transcribed from a single gene. Translation in vitro of the 1.9-kb mRNA selected by hybridization with a 3'-end subfragment of pHC12 demonstrated that it by itself can direct the synthesis of both C1 and C2. The difference between the C1 and C2 proteins which results in their electrophoretic separation is not known, but most likely one of them is generated from the other posttranslationally. Since several hnRNP proteins appeared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as multiple antigenically related polypeptides, this raises the possibility that some of these other groups of hnRNP proteins are also each produced from a single mRNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein indicates that it is composed of two distinct domains: an amino terminus that contains what we have recently described as a RNP consensus sequence, which is the putative

  17. Logistic regression models to predict solvent accessible residues using sequence- and homology-based qualitative and quantitative descriptors applied to a domain-complete X-ray structure learning set

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Reecha; Spencer, Joanna; Bhogal, Guneet; Nedunuri, Amulya; Poelman, Thomas; Kamath, Thejas; Chung, Edwin; Kantardjieff, Katherine; Gottlieb, Andrea; Lustig, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    A working example of relative solvent accessibility (RSA) prediction for proteins is presented. Novel logistic regression models with various qualitative descriptors that include amino acid type and quantitative descriptors that include 20- and six-term sequence entropy have been built and validated. A domain-complete learning set of over 1300 proteins is used to fit initial models with various sequence homology descriptors as well as query residue qualitative descriptors. Homology descriptors are derived from BLASTp sequence alignments, whereas the RSA values are determined directly from the crystal structure. The logistic regression models are fitted using dichotomous responses indicating buried or accessible solvent, with binary classifications obtained from the RSA values. The fitted models determine binary predictions of residue solvent accessibility with accuracies comparable to other less computationally intensive methods using the standard RSA threshold criteria 20 and 25% as solvent accessible. When an additional non-homology descriptor describing Lobanov–Galzitskaya residue disorder propensity is included, incremental improvements in accuracy are achieved with 25% threshold accuracies of 76.12 and 74.79% for the Manesh-215 and CASP(8+9) test sets, respectively. Moreover, the described software and the accompanying learning and validation sets allow students and researchers to explore the utility of RSA prediction with simple, physically intuitive models in any number of related applications. PMID:26664348

  18. Domain Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  19. Identification of a Key Target Sequence To Block Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication within the gag-pol Transframe Domain

    PubMed Central

    Sei, Shizuko; Yang, Quan-en; O'Neill, Dennis; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Nagashima, Kunio; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2000-01-01

    Although the full sequence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome has been known for more than a decade, effective genetic antivirals have yet to be developed. Here we show that, of 22 regions examined, one highly conserved sequence (ACTCTTTGGCAACGA) near the 3′ end of the HIV-1 gag-pol transframe region, encoding viral protease residues 4 to 8 and a C-terminal Vpr-binding motif of p6Gag protein in two different reading frames, can be successfully targeted by an antisense peptide nucleic acid oligomer named PNAPR2. A disrupted translation of gag-pol mRNA induced at the PNAPR2-annealing site resulted in a decreased synthesis of Pr160Gag-Pol polyprotein, hence the viral protease, a predominant expression of Pr55Gag devoid of a fully functional p6Gag protein, and the excessive intracellular cleavage of Gag precursor proteins, hindering the processes of virion assembly. Treatment with PNAPR2 abolished virion production by up to 99% in chronically HIV-1-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates with the multidrug-resistant phenotype. This particular segment of the gag-pol transframe gene appears to offer a distinctive advantage over other regions in invading viral structural genes and restraining HIV-1 replication in infected cells and may potentially be exploited as a novel antiviral genetic target. PMID:10775598

  20. Analysis of separate isolates of Bordetella pertussis repeated DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    McPheat, W L; Hanson, J H; Livey, I; Robertson, J S

    1989-06-01

    Two independent isolates of a Bordetella pertussis repeated DNA unit were sequenced and shown to be an insertion sequence element with five nucleotide differences between the two copies. The sequences were 1053 bp in length with near-perfect terminal inverted repeats of 28 bp, had three open reading frames, and were each flanked by short direct repeats. The two insertion sequences showed considerable homology to two other B. pertussis repeated DNA sequences reported recently: IS481 and a 530 bp repeated DNA unit. The B. pertussis insertion sequence would appear to comprise a group of closely related sequences differing mainly in flanking direct repeats and the terminal inverted repeats. The two isolates reported here, which were from the adenylate cyclase and agglutinogen 2 regions of the genome, were numbered IS48lvl and IS48lv2 respectively. PMID:2559151

  1. Characterization of the thermoregulatory response to pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in rodents.

    PubMed

    Banki, Eszter; Pakai, Eszter; Gaszner, Balazs; Zsiboras, Csaba; Czett, Andras; Bhuddi, Paras Rahul Parkash; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Toth, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Garami, Andras

    2014-11-01

    Administration of the long form (38 amino acids) of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) into the central nervous system causes hyperthermia, suggesting that PACAP38 plays a role in the regulation of deep body temperature (T b). In this study, we investigated the thermoregulatory role of PACAP38 in details. First, we infused PACAP38 intracerebroventricularly to rats and measured their T b and autonomic thermoeffector responses. We found that central PACAP38 infusion caused dose-dependent hyperthermia, which was brought about by increased thermogenesis and tail skin vasoconstriction. Compared to intracerebroventricular administration, systemic (intravenous) infusion of the same dose of PACAP38 caused significantly smaller hyperthermia, indicating a central site of action. We then investigated the thermoregulatory phenotype of mice lacking the Pacap gene (Pacap (-/-)). Freely moving Pacap (-/-) mice had higher locomotor activity throughout the day and elevated deep T b during the light phase. When the Pacap (-/-) mice were loosely restrained, their metabolic rate and T b were lower compared to their wild-type littermates. We conclude that PACAP38 causes hyperthermia via activation of the autonomic cold-defense thermoeffectors through central targets. Pacap (-/-) mice express hyperkinesis, which is presumably a compensatory mechanism, because under restrained conditions, these mice are hypometabolic and hypothermic compared to controls. PMID:24994541

  2. A Conserved Glutamate Controls the Commitment to Acyl-adenylate Formation in Asparagine Synthetase†

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Megan E.; Gutierrez, Jemy A.; Raushel, Frank M.; Richards, Nigel G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitor docking studies have implicated a conserved glutamate residue (Glu-348) as a general base in the synthetase active site of the enzyme asparagine synthetase B from Escherichia coli (AS-B). We now report steady-state kinetic, isotope transfer and positional isotope exchange experiments for a series of site-directed AS-B mutants in which Glu-348 is substituted by conservative amino acid replacements. We find that formation of the β-aspartyl-AMP intermediate, and therefore the eventual production of asparagine, is dependent on the presence of a carboxylate side chain at this position in the synthetase active site. In addition, Glu-348 may also play a role in mediating the conformational changes needed to (i) coordinate, albeit weakly, the glutaminase and synthetase activities of the enzyme, and (ii) establish the structural integrity of the intramolecular tunnel along which ammonia is translocated. The importance of Glu-348 in mediating acyl-adenylate formation contrasts with the functional role of the cognate residues in β-lactam synthetase (BLS) and carbapenam synthetase (CPS) (Tyr-348 and Tyr-345, respectively), which both likely evolved from asparagine synthetase. Given the similarity of the chemistry catalyzed by AS-B, BLS and CPS, our work highlights the difficulty of predicting the functional outcome of single site mutations on enzymes that catalyze almost identical chemical transformations. PMID:20853825

  3. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-11-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine.

  4. Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2013-07-01

    Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64 µg ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

  5. Adenylate cyclase 3: a new target for anti-obesity drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Shen, C; Seed Ahmed, M; Östenson, C-G; Gu, H F

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide, and abdominal obesity has a negative impact on health. Current treatment options on obesity, however, still remain limited. It is then of importance to find a new target for anti-obesity drug development based upon recent molecular studies in obesity. Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is the third member of adenylyl cyclase family and catalyses the synthesis of cAMP from ATP. Genetic studies with candidate gene and genome-wide association study approaches have demonstrated that ADCY3 genetic polymorphisms are associated with obesity in European and Chinese populations. Epigenetic studies have indicated that increased DNA methylation levels in the ADCY3 gene are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Furthermore, biological analyses with animal models have implicated that ADCY3 dysfunction resulted in increased body weight and fat mass, while reduction of body weight is partially explained by ADCY3 activation. In this review, we describe genomic and biological features of ADCY3, summarize genetic and epigenetic association studies of the ADCY3 gene with obesity and discuss dysfunction and activation of ADCY3. Based upon all data, we suggest that ADCY3 is a new target for anti-obesity drug development. Further investigation on the effectiveness of ADCY3 activator and its delivery approach to treat abdominal obesity has been taken into our consideration. PMID:27256589

  6. Energy landscape and multiroute folding of topologically complex proteins adenylate kinase and 2ouf-knot.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfei; Terakawa, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Wei; Takada, Shoji

    2012-10-30

    While fast folding of small proteins has been relatively well characterized by experiments and theories, much less is known for slow folding of larger proteins, for which recent experiments suggested quite complex and rich folding behaviors. Here, we address how the energy landscape theory can be applied to these slow folding reactions. Combining the perfect-funnel approximation with a multiscale method, we first extended our previous atomic-interaction based coarse grained (AICG) model to take into account local flexibility of protein molecules. Using this model, we then investigated the energy landscapes and folding routes of two proteins with complex topologies: a multidomain protein adenylate kinase (AKE) and a knotted protein 2ouf-knot. In the AKE folding, consistent with experimental results, the kinetic free energy surface showed several substates between the fully unfolded and native states. We characterized the structural features of these substates and transitions among them, finding temperature-dependent multiroute folding. For protein 2ouf-knot, we found that the improved atomic-interaction based coarse-grained model can spontaneously tie a knot and fold the protein with a probability up to 96%. The computed folding rate of the knotted protein was much slower than that of its unknotted counterpart, in agreement with experimental findings. Similar to the AKE case, the 2ouf-knot folding exhibited several substates and transitions among them. Interestingly, we found a dead-end substate that lacks the knot, thus suggesting backtracking mechanisms. PMID:22753508

  7. Homology modeling and molecular docking of human pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide I receptor

    PubMed Central

    WU, LUSHENG; GUANG, WENHUA; CHEN, XIAOJIA; HONG, AN

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide I receptor (PAC1R) is member of the B class of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors, with molecular functions associated with neural cell differentiation, regeneration and the inhibition of apoptosis. However, the integrity of the protein structure is difficult to be determined in vitro. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of PAC1R were analyzed, the extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular regions were constructed and a three-dimensional structure model of PAC1R was produced using extracellular loop region optimization and the energy minimization homology modeling method. Preliminary studies on the PAC1R protein and ligand interactions used a molecular docking method. The results indicated that the interaction sites of PAC1R were at Ile63, Ser100 and Gln105. These were the sites where the PAC1R combined with a hydrazide small molecule inhibitor. This study provides a theoretical basis for further studies on the model for the development of PAC1R target drugs. PMID:25069645

  8. The adenylate energy charge as a new and useful indicator of capture stress in chondrichthyans.

    PubMed

    Guida, Leonardo; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    Quantifying the physiological stress response of chondrichthyans to capture has assisted the development of fishing practices conducive to their survival. However, currently used indicators of stress show significant interspecific and intraspecific variation in species' physiological responses and tolerances to capture. To improve our understanding of chondrichthyan stress physiology and potentially reduce variation when quantifying the stress response, we investigated the use of the adenylate energy charge (AEC); a measure of available metabolic energy. To determine tissues sensitive to metabolic stress, we extracted samples of the brain, heart, liver, white muscle and blood from gummy sharks (Mustelus antarcticus) immediately following gillnet capture and after 3 h recovery under laboratory conditions. Capture caused significant declines in liver, white muscle and blood AEC, whereas no decline was detected in the heart and brain AEC. Following 3 h of recovery from capture, the AEC of the liver and blood returned to "unstressed" levels (control values) whereas white muscle AEC was not significantly different to that immediately after capture. Our results show that the liver is most sensitive to metabolic stress and white muscle offers a practical method to sample animals non-lethally for determination of the AEC. The AEC is a highly informative indicator of stress and unlike current indicators, it can directly measure the change in available energy and thus the metabolic stress experienced by a given tissue. Cellular metabolism is highly conserved across organisms and, therefore, we think the AEC can also provide a standardised form of measuring capture stress in many chondrichthyan species. PMID:26660290

  9. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Reverses Ammonium Metavanadate-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tlili, Mounira; Rouatbi, Sonia; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Vaudry, David; Wurtz, Olivier; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    The rate of atmospheric vanadium is constantly increasing due to fossil fuel combustion. This environmental pollution favours vanadium exposure in particular to its vanadate form, causing occupational bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Based on the well admitted bronchodilator properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), we investigated the ability of this neuropeptide to reverse the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. Exposure to ammonium metavanadate aerosols (5 mg/m3/h) for 15 minutes induced 4 hours later an array of pathophysiological events, including increase of bronchial resistance and histological alterations, activation of proinflammatory alveolar macrophages, and increased oxidative stress status. Powerfully, PACAP inhalation (0.1 mM) for 10 minutes alleviated many of these deleterious effects as demonstrated by a decrease of bronchial resistance and histological restoration. PACAP reduced the level of expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, and KC) and cytokines (IL-1α and TNF-α) in alveolar macrophages and improved the antioxidant status. PACAP reverses the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness not only through its bronchodilator activity but also by counteracting the proinflammatory and prooxidative effects of the metal. Then, the development of stable analogs of PACAP could represent a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disorders. PMID:26199679

  10. Effects of Temperature on Infected Cell O2 Concentration and Adenylate Levels in Attached Soybean Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, M. M.; Topunov, A. F.; Layzell, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the role of O2 in the regulation of nodule metabolism following a decrease or an increase in temperature, the fractional oxygenation of leghemoglobin (FOL) was measured in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) nodules during rapid and gradual changes in temperature from 20[deg]C to either 15 or 25[deg]C. The affinity of leghemoglobin for O2 was also measured at each temperature and the values were used to calculate the infected cell O2 concentration (Oi). After nodules were transferred to 15[deg]C, FOL and Oi increased and adenylate energy charge (AEC = [ATP + 0.5ADP]/[ATP + ADP + AMP]) increased from 0.70 to 0.78. The temperature increase was associated with a decrease in FOL and Oi. We concluded that changes in nodule temperature alter the respiratory demand of the nodules for O2, resulting in a change in Oi and a shift in the balance between ATP consumption and ATP production within the nodule tissue. PMID:12228427

  11. Down-regulation of adenylate kinase 5 in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and rat model.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yujie; Hu, Xiaotong; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Binglin

    2016-07-15

    Adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) is one member of the AK family and plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Different from the other AKs, AK5 is almost exclusively expressed in the brain. However, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of AK5 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic rat model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that AK5 protein was mainly expressed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2, which were similar to the corresponding controls. However, the expression of AK5 decreased remarkably in epileptic patients and experimental rats. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the interaction of AK5 with copine VI (CPNE6, a brain specific protein) increased in epileptic patients and rat models. Our results are the first to indicate that the expression of AK5 in epileptic brain tissue may play important roles in epilepsy, especially refractory epilepsy. PMID:27288770

  12. Posttraumatic administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in central fluid percussion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kövesdi, Erzsébet; Tamás, Andrea; Reglodi, Dóra; Farkas, Orsolya; Pál, József; Tóth, Gábor; Bukovics, Péter; Dóczi, Tamás; Büki, András

    2008-04-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in focal cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PACAP administration on diffuse axonal injury (DAI), an important contributor to morbidity and mortality associated with TBI, in a central fluid percussion (CFP) model of TBI. Rats were subjected to moderate (2 Atm) CFP injury. Thirty min after injury, 100 microg PACAP was administered intracerebroventricularly. DAI was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of beta-amyloid precursor protein, indicating impaired axoplasmic transport, and RMO-14 antibody, representing foci of cytoskeletal alterations (neurofilament compaction), both considered classical markers of axonal damage. Analysis of damaged, immunoreactive axonal profiles revealed significant axonal protection in the PACAP-treated versus vehicle-treated animals in the corticospinal tract, as far as traumatically induced disturbance of axoplasmic transport and cytoskeletal alteration were considered. Similarly to our former observations in an impact acceleration model of diffuse TBI, the present study demonstrated that PACAP also inhibits DAI in the CFP injury model. The finding indicates that PACAP and derivates can be considered potential candidates for further experimental studies, or purportedly for clinical trials in the therapy of TBI. PMID:18515209

  13. Genomic analysis of 16 Colorado human NL63 coronaviruses identifies a new genotype, high sequence diversity in the N-terminal domain of the spike gene and evidence of recombination

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Gregory E.; Wentworth, David E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Robinson, Christine C.; Town, Christopher D.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the complete genome sequences of 16 NL63 strain human coronaviruses (hCoVs) from respiratory specimens of paediatric patients with respiratory disease in Colorado, USA, and characterized the epidemiology and clinical characteristics associated with circulating NL63 viruses over a 3-year period. From 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011, 92 of 9380 respiratory specimens were found to be positive for NL63 RNA by PCR, an overall prevalence of 1 %. NL63 viruses were circulating during all 3 years, but there was considerable yearly variation in prevalence and the month of peak incidence. Phylogenetic analysis comparing the genome sequences of the 16 Colorado NL63 viruses with those of the prototypical hCoV-NL63 and three other NL63 viruses from the Netherlands demonstrated that there were three genotypes (A, B and C) circulating in Colorado from 2005 to 2010, and evidence of recombination between virus strains was found. Genotypes B and C co-circulated in Colorado in 2005, 2009 and 2010, but genotype A circulated only in 2005 when it was the predominant NL63 strain. Genotype C represents a new lineage that has not been described previously. The greatest variability in the NL63 virus genomes was found in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike gene (nt 1–600, aa 1–200). Ten different amino acid sequences were found in the NTD of the spike protein among these NL63 strains and the 75 partial published sequences of NTDs from strains found at different times throughout the world. PMID:22837419

  14. [Differentially expressed genes identified in the main olfactory epithelium of mice with deficiency of adenylate cyclase 3 by using suppression subtractive hybridization approach].

    PubMed

    Zhenlong, Cao; Jiangye, Hao; Yanfen, Zhou; Zhe, Zhang; Zhihua, Ni; Yuanxiang, Hu; Weili, Liu; Yongchao, Li; Daniel, R Storm; Runlin, Z Ma; Zhenshan, Wang

    2014-06-01

    Adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is one of the major players in the olfactory signaling within the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice. However, we are not ascertained whether deficiency of AC3 will lead to the differential expression of related genes in the MOE. Forward and reverse subtractive libraries were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, with MOEs from AC3(-/-) and AC3(+/+) mice. These two libraries were primarily screened by Dot blot, differential expressed clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics, and differential expressed genes were verified by qRT-PCR. A total of 386 differentially expressed clones were picked out after Dot blot. The DNA sequences of 80 clones randomly selected were determined, and 62 clones were identified by blasting in GenBank. We found that 24 up-regulated clones were corresponded to genes of kcnk3, mapk7, megf11, and 38 down-regulated clones were corresponded to tmem88b, c-mip, skp1a, mlycd, etc. Their functions were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and found to be mainly focused on molecular binding, cell cycle, processes of biology and cells. Five genes (kcnk3, c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5) were verified by qRT-PCR with individuals of AC3(+/+) and AC3(-/-) mice. The data indicate that kcnk3 gene is up-regulated significantly, increasing 1.27 folds compared to control mice, whereas c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5 are down-regulated significantly, decreasing 20%, 7%, 32% and 29% compared to the AC3(+/+)mice. The functions of these genes are closely related with K(+) channels, cell differentiation, metabolism of fats, membrane transportation, and so on. It is tempting to speculate that these genes might work together with AC3 to orchestrate the olfactory transduction signaling in the MOE. PMID:24929516

  15. Methylation of histone H4 lysine 20 by PR-Set7 ensures the integrity of late replicating sequence domains in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulong; Armstrong, Robin L.; Duronio, Robert J.; MacAlpine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The methylation state of lysine 20 on histone H4 (H4K20) has been linked to chromatin compaction, transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. Monomethylation of H4K20 (H4K20me1) is mediated by the cell cycle-regulated histone methyltransferase PR-Set7. PR-Set7 depletion in mammalian cells results in defective S phase progression and the accumulation of DNA damage, which has been partially attributed to defects in origin selection and activation. However, these studies were limited to only a handful of mammalian origins, and it remains unclear how PR-Set7 and H4K20 methylation impact the replication program on a genomic scale. We employed genetic, cytological, and genomic approaches to better understand the role of PR-Set7 and H4K20 methylation in regulating DNA replication and genome stability in Drosophila cells. We find that deregulation of H4K20 methylation had no impact on origin activation throughout the genome. Instead, depletion of PR-Set7 and loss of H4K20me1 results in the accumulation of DNA damage and an ATR-dependent cell cycle arrest. Coincident with the ATR-dependent cell cycle arrest, we find increased DNA damage that is specifically limited to late replicating regions of the Drosophila genome, suggesting that PR-Set7-mediated monomethylation of H4K20 is critical for maintaining the genomic integrity of late replicating domains. PMID:27131378

  16. Delivery of Large Heterologous Polypeptides across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Antigen-Presenting Cells by the Bordetella RTX Hemolysin Moiety Lacking the Adenylyl Cyclase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Jana; Jelinek, Jiri; Tomala, Jakub; Masin, Jiri; Kosova, Martina; Stanek, Ondrej; Bumba, Ladislav; Michalek, Jaroslav; Kovar, Marek; Sebo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA; also called ACT or AC-Hly) targets CD11b-expressing phagocytes and translocates into their cytosol an adenylyl cyclase (AC) that hijacks cellular signaling by conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Intriguingly, insertion of large passenger peptides removes the enzymatic activity but not the cell-invasive capacity of the AC domain. This has repeatedly been exploited for delivery of heterologous antigens into the cytosolic pathway of CD11b-expressing dendritic cells by CyaA/AC− toxoids, thus enabling their processing and presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs). We produced a set of toxoids with overlapping deletions within the first 371 residues of CyaA and showed that the structure of the AC enzyme does not contain any sequences indispensable for its translocation across target cell membrane. Moreover, replacement of the AC domain (residues 1 to 371) with heterologous polypeptides of 40, 146, or 203 residues yielded CyaAΔAC constructs that delivered passenger CTL epitopes into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and induced strong antigen-specific CD8+ CTL responses in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. This shows that the RTX (repeats in toxin) hemolysin moiety, consisting of residues 374 to 1706 of CyaA, harbors all structural information involved in translocation of the N-terminal AC domain across target cell membranes. These results decipher the extraordinary capacity of the AC domain of CyaA to transport large heterologous cargo polypeptides into the cytosol of CD11b+ target cells and pave the way for the construction of CyaAΔAC-based polyvalent immunotherapeutic T cell vaccines. PMID:22215742

  17. The DNA-binding domain of the transcriptional activator protein NifA resides in its carboxy terminus, recognises the upstream activator sequences of nif promoters and can be separated from the positive control function of NifA.

    PubMed Central

    Morett, E; Cannon, W; Buck, M

    1988-01-01

    The positive control protein NifA activates transcription of nitrogen fixation promoters in Klebsiella pneumoniae. NifA is believed to bind to specific sites, the upstream activator sequences (UAS's), of the nif promoters which it activates. We have now shown by mutation of the carboxy terminus of NifA that this is the DNA-binding domain and that the DNA-binding and positive activator functions of NifA can be separated. Mutational analysis of the nifH UAS and in vivo methylation protection analysis of the interaction of NifA with the nifH promoter demonstrates that the UAS is recognised by the carboxy terminus of NifA. The UAS's of K. pneumoniae nif promoters are also required for activation by the Rhizobium meliloti NifA indicating that this activator also possesses DNA-binding activity. Images PMID:3062575

  18. Removing N-terminal sequences in pre-S1 domain enhanced antibody and B-cell responses by an HBV large surface antigen DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ge, Guohong; Wang, Shixia; Han, Yaping; Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Shan; Huang, Zuhu

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of recombinant hepatitis B virus surface (HBsAg) protein vaccine has successfully reduced global hepatitis B infection, there are still a number of vaccine recipients who do not develop detectable antibody responses. Various novel vaccination approaches, including DNA vaccines, have been used to further improve the coverage of vaccine protection. Our previous studies demonstrated that HBsAg-based DNA vaccines could induce both humoral and CMI responses in experimental animal models. However, one form of the the HBsAg antigen, the large S antigen (HBs-L), expressed by DNA vaccine, was not sufficiently immunogenic in eliciting antibody responses. In the current study, we produced a modified large S antigen DNA vaccine, HBs-L(T), which has a truncated N-terminal sequence in the pre-S1 region. Compared to the original HBs-L DNA vaccine, the HBs-L(T) DNA vaccine improved secretion in cultured mammalian cells and generated significantly enhanced HBsAg-specific antibody and B cell responses. Furthermore, this improved HBsL DNA vaccine, along with other HBsAg-expressing DNA vaccines, was able to maintain predominantly Th1 type antibody responses while recombinant HBsAg protein vaccines produced in either yeast or CHO cells elicited mostly Th2 type antibody responses. Our data indicate that HBsAg DNA vaccines with improved immunogenicity offer a useful alternative choice to recombinant protein-based HBV vaccines, particularly for therapeutic purposes against chronic hepatitis infection where immune tolerance led to poor antibody responses to S antigens. PMID:22844502

  19. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Feiguin, Fabian; Cragnaz, Lucia; Romano, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability) that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the

  20. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects.

    PubMed

    Langellotti, Simona; Romano, Valentina; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Feiguin, Fabian; Cragnaz, Lucia; Romano, Maurizio; Baralle, Francisco E

    2016-06-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability) that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the molecular

  1. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-09-20

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 ..mu..M isoproterenol and 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of ..beta..-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes.

  2. Dopamine inhibition of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase is mediated through the high-affinity state of the D/sub 2/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Borgundvaag, B.; George, S.R.

    1985-07-29

    The diterpinoid forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of (/sup 3/H)-ATP to (/sup 3/H)-cAMP) in anterior pituitary from male and female rats. Inhibition of stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by potent dopaminergic agonists was demonstrable only in female anterior pituitary. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity displayed a typically dopaminergic rank order of agonist potencies and could be completely reversed by a specific dopamine receptor antagonist. The IC/sub 50/ values of dopamine agonist inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity correlated with equal molarity with the dissociation constant of the high-affinity dopamine agonist-detected receptor binding site and with the IC/sub 50/ values for inhibition of prolactin secretion. These findings support the hypothesis that it is the high-affinity form of the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor in anterior pituitary which is responsible for mediating the dopaminergic function of attenuating adenylate cyclase activity. 12 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Event Detection and Sub-state Discovery from Bio-molecular Simulations Using Higher-Order Statistics: Application To Enzyme Adenylate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Savol, Andrej J.; Agarwal, Pratul K.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular simulations at milli-second and longer timescales can provide vital insights into functional mechanisms. Since post-simulation analyses of such large trajectory data-sets can be a limiting factor in obtaining biological insights, there is an emerging need to identify key dynamical events and relating these events to the biological function online, that is, as simulations are progressing. Recently, we have introduced a novel computational technique, quasi-anharmonic analysis (QAA) (PLoS One 6(1): e15827), for partitioning the conformational landscape into a hierarchy of functionally relevant sub-states. The unique capabilities of QAA are enabled by exploiting anharmonicity in the form of fourth-order statistics for characterizing atomic fluctuations. In this paper, we extend QAA for analyzing long time-scale simulations online. In particular, we present HOST4MD - a higher-order statistical toolbox for molecular dynamics simulations, which (1) identifies key dynamical events as simulations are in progress, (2) explores potential sub-states and (3) identifies conformational transitions that enable the protein to access those sub-states. We demonstrate HOST4MD on micro-second time-scale simulations of the enzyme adenylate kinase in its apo state. HOST4MD identifies several conformational events in these simulations, revealing how the intrinsic coupling between the three sub-domains (LID, CORE and NMP) changes during the simulations. Further, it also identifies an inherent asymmetry in the opening/closing of the two binding sites. We anticipate HOST4MD will provide a powerful and extensible framework for detecting biophysically relevant conformational coordinates from long time-scale simulations. PMID:22733562

  4. Diversity in protein recognition by PTB domains.

    PubMed

    Forman-Kay, J D; Pawson, T

    1999-12-01

    Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains were originally identified as modular domains that recognize phosphorylated Asn-Pro-Xxx-p Tyr-containing proteins. Recent binding and structural studies of PTB domain complexes with target peptides have revealed a number of deviations from the previously described mode of interaction, with respect to both the sequences of possible targets and their structures within the complexes. This diversity of recognition by PTB domains extends and strengthens our general understanding of modular binding domain recognition. PMID:10607674

  5. Sequence-dependent nucleosome structural and dynamic polymorphism. Potential involvement of histone H2B N-terminal tail proximal domain.

    PubMed

    Sivolob, Andrei; Lavelle, Christophe; Prunell, Ariel

    2003-02-01

    Relaxation of nucleosomes on an homologous series (pBR) of ca 350-370 bp DNA minicircles originating from plasmid pBR322 was recently used as a tool to study their structure and dynamics. These nucleosomes thermally fluctuated between three distinct DNA conformations within a histone N-terminal tail-modulated equilibrium: one conformation was canonical, with 1.75 turn wrapping and negatively crossed entering and exiting DNAs; another was also "closed", but with these DNAs positively crossed; and the third was "open", with a lower than 1.5 turn wrapping and uncrossed DNAs. In this work, a new minicircle series (5S) of similar size was used, which contained the 5S nucleosome positioning sequence. Results showed that DNA in pBR nucleosomes was untwisted by approximately 0.2 turn relative to 5S nucleosomes, which DNase I footprinting confirmed in revealing a approximately 1 bp untwisting at each of the two dyad-distal sites where H2B N-terminal tails pass between the two gyres. In contrast, both nucleosomes showed untwistings at the dyad-proximal sites, i.e. on the other gyre, which were also observed in the high-resolution crystal structure. 5S nucleosomes also differ with respect to their dynamics: they hardly accessed the positively crossed conformation, but had an easier access to the negatively crossed conformation. Simulation showed that such reverse effects on the conformational free energies could be simply achieved by slightly altering the trajectories of entering and exiting DNAs. We propose that this is accomplished by H2B tail untwisting at the distal sites through action at a distance ( approximately 20 bp) on H3-tail interactions with the small groove at the nucleosome entry-exit. These results may help to gain a first glimpse into the two perhaps most intriguing features of the high-resolution structure: the alignment of the grooves on the two gyres and the passage of H2B and H3 N-terminal tails between them. PMID:12547190

  6. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Matthew M.; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E.; Frenkel, Mogen M.; Reilly, Michael J.; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A.; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  7. Region-Specific Disruption of Adenylate Cyclase Type 1 Gene Differentially Affects Somatosensorimotor Behaviors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase type I (AC1) is primarily, and, abundantly, expressed in the brain. Intracellular calcium/ calmodulin increases regulate AC1 in an activity-dependent manner. Upon stimulation, AC1 produces cAMP and it is involved in the patterning and the refinement of neural circuits. In mice, spontaneous mutations or targeted deletion of the Adcy1 gene, which encodes AC1, resulted in neuronal pattern formation defects. Neural modules in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, the barrels, which represent the topographic distribution of the whiskers on the snout, failed to form (Welker et al., 1996; Abdel-Majid et al., 1998). Cortex- or thalamus-specific Adcy1 deletions led to different cortical pattern phenotypes, with thalamus-specific disruption phenotype being more severe (Iwasato et al., 2008; Suzuki et al., 2013). Despite the absence of barrels in the “barrelless”/Adcy1 null mice, thalamocortical terminal bouton density and activation of cortical zones following whisker stimulation were roughly topographic (Abdel-Majid et al., 1998; Gheorghita et al., 2006). To what extent does patterning of the cortical somatosensory body map play a role in sensorimotor behaviors? In this study, we tested mice with global, cortical, or thalamic loss of AC1 function in a battery of sensorimotor and social behavior tests and compared them to mice with all of the whiskers clipped. Contrary to intuitive expectations that any region-specific or global disruption of the AC1 function would lead to similar behavioral phenotypes, we found significant differences in the degree of impairment between these strains. PMID:26023682

  8. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  9. Hemodynamic actions of systemically injected pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to characterize the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27 0.1-2.0 nmol/kg, i.v.) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (2) to determine the roles of the autonomic nervous system, adrenal catecholamines and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of PACAP-27-mediated effects on hemodynamic function. PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and hindquarter and mesenteric vascular resistances in saline-treated rats. PACAP-27 also produced pronounced falls in mean arterial blood pressure in rats treated with the ganglion blocker, chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive and vasodilator actions of PACAP-27 were not attenuated by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.), or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 50 micromol/kg, i.v.). PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate whereas the hypotensive response produced by the nitrovasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg, i.v.), was associated with a minimal tachycardia. The PACAP-27-induced tachycardia was unaffected by chlorisondamine, but was virtually abolished by propranolol. These results suggest that the vasodilator effects of PACAP-27 are due to actions in the microcirculation rather than to the release of adrenal catecholamines and that this vasodilation may not involve the release of endothelium-derived NO. These results also suggest that PACAP-27 produces tachycardia by directly releasing norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals rather than by direct or baroreceptor reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  10. Reconstitution of beta-adrenergic receptor with components of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, M; Feder, D; Keenan, A K; Gal, A; Klein, H W; Pfeuffer, T; Levitzki, A; Helmreich, E J

    1984-01-01

    Beta 1-Adrenergic receptor proteins were extracted from turkey erythrocyte membranes with lauroyl sucrose and digitonin and purified by affinity chromatography on a column of alprenolol agarose Affi-gel 10 or 15. The 5000-fold purified receptor is able to couple functionally with the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (GS) from either turkey or duck erythrocytes. Functional coupling was achieved by three different approaches. (i) Purified beta-receptor polypeptides were coupled in phospholipid (asolectin) vesicles with GS from a crude cholate or lauroyl sucrose extract of turkey erythrocyte membranes. The detergent was removed and vesicles were formed with SM-2 beads. (ii) Purified beta-receptor was reconstituted with pure, homogeneous GS in asolectin vesicles. (iii) Purified beta-receptors were either coupled in asolectin vesicles with a mixture of pure, homogeneous Gpp(NH)p-activated GS and a lauroyl sucrose extract of turkey erythrocyte membranes, or with pure, homogeneous Gpp(NH)p-activated GS alone. The decay of activity was measured on addition of GTP and hormone. In (ii) and (iii), the detergent was removed and vesicles were formed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 columns. In each of the three different experimental conditions, the beta-receptor was activated with l-isoproterenol and activation was blocked with d,l-propranolol. Activated GS were measured separately by means of their capacity to activate a crude Lubrol PX-solubilized adenylate cyclase preparation from rabbit myocardial membrane. The kinetics of GS activation by purified beta-receptors occupied by l-isoproterenol was first order and activation was linearly dependent on receptor concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:6098472

  11. Quantification of the Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis In Vitro and during Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Joshua C.; Gray, Mary C.; Warfel, Jason M.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Jones, Tara F.; Day, Shandra R.; Bowden, James; Poulter, Melinda D.; Donato, Gina M.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2013-01-01

    Whooping cough results from infection of the respiratory tract with Bordetella pertussis, and the secreted adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is essential for the bacterium to establish infection. Despite extensive study of the mechanism of ACT cytotoxicity and its effects over a range of concentrations in vitro, ACT has not been observed or quantified in vivo, and thus the concentration of ACT at the site of infection is unknown. The recently developed baboon model of infection mimics the prolonged cough and transmissibility of pertussis, and we hypothesized that measurement of ACT in nasopharyngeal washes (NPW) from baboons, combined with human and in vitro data, would provide an estimate of the ACT concentration in the airway during infection. NPW contained up to ∼108 CFU/ml B. pertussis and 1 to 5 ng/ml ACT at the peak of infection. Nasal aspirate specimens from two human infants with pertussis contained bacterial concentrations similar to those in the baboons, with 12 to 20 ng/ml ACT. When ∼108 CFU/ml of a laboratory strain of B. pertussis was cultured in vitro, ACT production was detected in 60 min and reached a plateau of ∼60 ng/ml in 6 h. Furthermore, when bacteria were brought into close proximity to target cells by centrifugation, intoxication was increased 4-fold. Collectively, these data suggest that at the bacterium-target cell interface during infection of the respiratory tract, the concentration of ACT can exceed 100 ng/ml, providing a reference point for future studies of ACT and pertussis pathogenesis. PMID:23429530

  12. Structural and functional identification of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor VPAC2 from the frog Rana tigrina rugulosa.

    PubMed

    Hoo, R L; Alexandre, D; Chan, S M; Anouar, Y; Pang, R T; Vaudry, H; Chow, B K

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a frog pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor (fPVR) has been characterized, and interestingly, this receptor exhibits characteristics of both mammalian PACAP type II receptors VPAC(1)R and VPAC(2)R. In order to investigate the receptors responsible for mediating the actions of VIP and PACAP in amphibians, in this report, a frog VPAC(2) receptor (fVPAC(2)R) cDNA was isolated. fVPAC(2)R shares 47.7, 46.9 and 62.5% amino acid sequence identity with fPVR, human VPAC(1)R and human VPAC(2)R respectively. Functionally, fVPAC(2)R, when expressed in CHO cells, was responsive to both frog peptides including VIP, PACAP38 and PACAP27 where the EC(50) values of these peptides in intracellular cAMP production were 0.15, 0.18 and 0.16 microM respectively. The pharmacological profiles of human peptides (VIP, PACAP38 and peptide histidine methionine) to stimulate frog and human VPAC(2)Rs were compared, and it was found that these peptides could only activate the frog receptor at micromolar concentrations. fVPAC(2)R was found to be widely distributed in various peripheral tissues as well as several regions of the brain. The presence of the receptor transcripts suggests the functional roles of the receptor in mediating the actions of PACAP and/or VIP in these tissues. As VIP and particularly PACAP27 are highly conserved peptides in vertebrate evolution, comparative studies of these peptides and their receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates should provide clues to better understand the physiology of these important peptides in human and other vertebrates. PMID:11564605

  13. Tandem BRCT Domains

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rafael D.; Woods, Nicholas T.; Seabra-Junior, Eloy S.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The cell’s ability to sense and respond to specific stimuli is a complex system derived from precisely regulated protein-protein interactions. Some of these protein-protein interactions are mediated by the recognition of linear peptide motifs by protein modular domains. BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains and their linear motif counterparts, which contain phosphoserines, are one such pair-wise interaction system that seems to have evolved to serve as a surveillance system to monitor threats to the cell’s genetic integrity. Evidence indicates that BRCT domains found in tandem can cooperate to provide sequence-specific binding of phosphorylated peptides as is the case for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 and the PAX transcription factor–interacting protein PAXIP1. Particular interest has been paid to tandem BRCT domains as “readers” of signaling events in the form of phosphorylated serine moieties induced by the activation of DNA damage response kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK. However, given the diversity of tandem BRCT-containing proteins, questions remain as to the origin and evolution of this domain. Here, we discuss emerging views of the origin and evolving roles of tandem BRCT domain repeats in the DNA damage response. PMID:21533002

  14. Free energy of hydrolysis of tyrosyl adenylate and its binding to wild-type and engineered mutant tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, T.N.C.; Ho, C.K.; Fersht, A.R.

    1986-10-21

    The equilibrium constant for the formation of tyrosyl adenylate and pyrophosphate from ATP and tyrosine in solution has been measured by applying the Haldane relationship to wild-type and three mutant tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases from Bacillus stearothermophilus. The formation constant (=(Tyr-AMP)(PP/sub i/)/(ATP)(Tyr)) at pH 7.78, 25/sup 0/C, and 10 mM MgCl/sub 2/ (3.5 +/- 0.5) x 10/sup -7/. This corresponds to a free energy of hydrolysis of tyrosyl adenylate at pH 7.0 and 25/sup 0/C of -16.7 kcal mol/sup -1/. All necessary rate constants had been determined previously for the calculations apart from the dissociation constant of tyrosyl adenylate from its enzyme-bound complex. This was measured by taking advantage of the 100-fold difference in hydrolysis rates of the tyrosyl adenylate when sequestered by the enzyme and when free in solution. These are technically difficult measurements because the dissociation constants are so low and the complexes unstable. The task was simplified by using mutants prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. These were designed to have different rate and equilibrium constants for dissociation of tyrosyl adenylate from the enzyme-bound complexes. The dissociation constants were in the range (3.5-38) x 10/sup -12/ M, with that for wild type at 13 x 10/sup -12/ M. The four enzymes all gave consistent data for the formation constant of tyrosyl adenylate in solution. This not only improves the reliability of the measurement but also provides confirmation of the reliability of the measured kinetic constants for the series of enzymes.

  15. Activities of human RRP6 and structure of the human RRP6 catalytic domain

    SciTech Connect

    Januszyk, Kurt; Liu, Quansheng; Lima, Christopher D.

    2011-08-29

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a highly conserved multi-subunit complex that catalyzes degradation and processing of coding and noncoding RNA. A noncatalytic nine-subunit exosome core interacts with Rrp44 and Rrp6, two subunits that possess processive and distributive 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity, respectively. While both Rrp6 and Rrp44 are responsible for RNA processing in budding yeast, Rrp6 may play a more prominent role in processing, as it has been demonstrated to be inhibited by stable RNA secondary structure in vitro and because the null allele in budding yeast leads to the buildup of specific structured RNA substrates. Human RRP6, otherwise known as PM/SCL-100 or EXOSC10, shares sequence similarity to budding yeast Rrp6 and is proposed to catalyze 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity on a variety of nuclear transcripts including ribosomal RNA subunits, RNA that has been poly-adenylated by TRAMP, as well as other nuclear RNA transcripts destined for processing and/or destruction. To characterize human RRP6, we expressed the full-length enzyme as well as truncation mutants that retain catalytic activity, compared their activities to analogous constructs for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrp6, and determined the X-ray structure of a human construct containing the exoribonuclease and HRDC domains that retains catalytic activity. Structural data show that the human active site is more exposed when compared to the yeast structure, and biochemical data suggest that this feature may play a role in the ability of human RRP6 to productively engage and degrade structured RNA substrates more effectively than the analogous budding yeast enzyme.

  16. The DNA-binding domain of two bZIP transcription factors, the Epstein-Barr virus switch gene product EB1 and Jun, is a bipartite nuclear targeting sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Mikaélian, I; Drouet, E; Marechal, V; Denoyel, G; Nicolas, J C; Sergeant, A

    1993-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 gene product EB1 (also called ZEBRA and Zta), is a transcription factor belonging to the bZIP (basic domain leucine zipper) family of nuclear proteins. Translocation to the nucleus of EB1 (J. Becker, U. Leser, M. Marschall, A. Langford, W. Jilg, H. Gelderblom, P. Reichart, and H. Wolf, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8332-8336, 1991) and of two other bZIP proteins, c-Jun and c-Fos (P. Roux, J.-M. Blanchard, A. Fernandez, N. Lamb, P. Jeanteur, and M. Piechaczyk, Cell 63:341-351, 1990), has been shown to be subject to regulation. We show here that for both EB1 and Jun the nuclear targeting signals (NTS) in the proteins' primary sequences are two clusters of positively charged amino acids. These clusters, called BRA and BRB, are necessary and sufficient to direct beta-galactosidase to the nuclear compartment and act as a bipartite NTS. They are conserved among all the bZIP proteins, and although they are not identical, they probably share the same function. Site-directed mutagenesis studies made on these basic clusters suggest that they also act as a bipartite NTS in the EB1 protein. Our results also demonstrate that in EB1 and Jun, these bipartite NTS are superimposed with bipartite DNA-binding domains, since BRA and BRB are required in vitro for direct and specific contact between these proteins and their DNA-binding sites. Images PMID:8380464

  17. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120) and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM). Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infection of erythrocytes and DBP binding to the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC). A peptide including the HBM of PvDBP had similar affinity for heparin as RANTES and V3 loop peptides, and could be specifically inhibited from heparin binding by the same polyanions that inhibit DBP binding to DARC. However, some V3 peptides can competitively inhibit RANTES binding to heparin, but not the PvDBP HBM peptide. Three other members of the DBP family have an HBM sequence that is necessary for erythrocyte binding, however only the protein which binds to DARC, the P. knowlesi alpha protein, is inhibited by heparin from binding to erythrocytes. Heparitinase digestion does not affect the binding of DBP to erythrocytes. Conclusion The HBMs of DBPs that bind to DARC have similar heparin binding affinities as some V3 loop peptides and chemokines, are responsible for specific sulfated polysaccharide inhibition of parasite binding and invasion of red blood cells, and are more likely to bind to negative charges on the receptor than cell surface glycosaminoglycans. PMID:22122911

  18. Adrenalectomy mediated alterations in adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refai, M.; Chan, T.

    1986-05-01

    Adrenalectomy caused a large increase in the number of ..beta..-adrenergic binding sites on liver plasma membranes as measured by /sup 125/I-iodocyanopindolol (22 and 102 fmol/mg protein for control and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats). Concomitantly an increase in the number of binding sites for /sup 3/H-yohimbine was also observed (104 and 175 fmol/mg protein for control and adx membranes). Epinephrine-stimulated increase in cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated hepatocytes were greater in cells from ADX rats. This increase in ..beta..-adrenergic mediated action was much less than what may be expected as a result of the increase in the ..beta..-adrenergic binding in ADX membranes. In addition phenoxybenzamine (10 ..mu..M) further augmented this action of epinephrine in both control and ADX cells. To test the hypothesis that the increase in the number of the inhibitory ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in adrenalectomy is responsible for the muted ..beta..-adrenergic response, the authors injected rats with pertussis toxin (PT). This treatment may cause the in vivo ribosylation of the inhibitory binding protein (Ni). Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in liver plasma membranes prepared from treated and untreated animals was measured. In contrast with control rats, treatment of ADX rats with PT resulted in a significant increase in the basal activity of AC (5.5 and 7.7 pmol/mg protein/min for untreated and treated rats respectively). Isoproterenol (10 ..mu..M), caused AC activity to increase to 6.5 and 8.4 pmol/mg protein/min for membranes obtained from ADX untreated and ADX treated rats respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists had no significant effect on the ..beta..-adrenergic-mediated activation of AC in liver plasma membranes from PT treated control and ADX rats. The authors conclude that the ..beta..-adrenergic activation of AC is attenuated by Ni protein both directly and as a result of activation of ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors.

  19. Adenylate cyclase 1 promotes strengthening and experience-dependent plasticity of whisker relay synapses in the thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Storm, Daniel R; Zhang, Zhong-wei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Synaptic refinement, a process that involves elimination and strengthening of immature synapses, is critical for the development of neural circuits and behaviour. The present study investigates the role of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) in developmental refinement of excitatory synapses in the thalamus at the single-cell level. In the mouse, thalamic relay synapses of the lemniscal pathway undergo extensive remodelling during the second week after birth, and AC1 is highly expressed in both pre- and postsynaptic neurons during this period. Synaptic connectivity was analysed by patch-clamp recording in acute slices obtained from mice carrying a targeted null mutation of the adenylate cyclase 1 gene (AC1-KO) and wild-type littermates. We found that deletion of AC1 had no effect on the number of relay inputs received by thalamic neurons during development. In contrast, there was a selective reduction of AMPA-receptor-mediated synaptic responses in mutant thalamic neurons, and the effect increased with age. Furthermore, experience-dependent plasticity was impaired in thalamic neurons of AC1-KO mice. Whisker deprivation during early life altered the number and properties of relay inputs received by thalamic neurons in wild-type mice, but had no effects in AC1-KO mice. Our findings underline a role for AC1 in experience-dependent plasticity of excitatory synapses. PMID:21930601

  20. Signal-transduction protein P(II) from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 senses low adenylate energy charge in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Herrmann, Christina; Forchhammer, Karl

    2011-11-15

    P(II) proteins belong to a family of highly conserved signal-transduction proteins that occurs widely in bacteria, archaea and plants. They respond to the central metabolites ATP, ADP and 2-OG (2-oxoglutarate), and control enzymes, transcription factors and transport proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of ADP on in vitro P(II)-signalling properties for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, a model for oxygenic phototrophic organisms. Different ADP/ATP ratios strongly affected the properties of P(II) signalling. Increasing ADP antagonized the binding of 2-OG and directly affected the interactions of P(II) with its target proteins. The resulting P(II)-signalling properties indicate that, in mixtures of ADP and ATP, P(II) trimers are occupied by mixtures of adenylate nucleotides. Binding and kinetic activation of NAGK (N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase), the controlling enzyme of arginine biosynthesis, by P(II) was weakened by ADP, but relief from arginine inhibition remained unaffected. On the other hand, ADP enhanced the binding of P(II) to PipX, a co-activator of the transcription factor NtcA and, furthermore, antagonized the inhibitory effect of 2-OG on P(II)-PipX interaction. These results indicate that S. elongatus P(II) directly senses the adenylate energy charge, resulting in target-dependent differential modification of the P(II)-signalling properties. PMID:21774788

  1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide requires parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C to entrain circadian rhythms to a predictable phase

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungwon; Irwin, Robert P.; Allen, Charles N.; Tsai, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Circadian oscillations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) depend on transcriptional repression by Period (PER)1 and PER2 proteins within single cells and on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling between cells. Because VIP is released by SCN neurons in a circadian pattern, and, after photic stimulation, it has been suggested to play a role in the synchronization to environmental light cycles. It is not known, however, if or how VIP entrains circadian gene expression or behavior. Here, we tested candidate signaling pathways required for VIP-mediated entrainment of SCN rhythms. We found that single applications of VIP reset PER2 rhythms in a time- and dose-dependent manner that differed from light. Unlike VIP-mediated signaling in other cell types, simultaneous antagonism of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities was required to block the VIP-induced phase shifts of SCN rhythms. Consistent with this, VIP rapidly increased intracellular cAMP in most SCN neurons. Critically, daily VIP treatment entrained PER2 rhythms to a predicted phase angle within several days, depending on the concentration of VIP and the interval between VIP applications. We conclude that VIP entrains circadian timing among SCN neurons through rapid and parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities. PMID:21389307

  2. Regulation of follitropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by stimulatory and inhibitory forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in immature rat Sertoli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies have been designed to examine the role of guanine nucleotides in mediating FSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in Sertoli cell plasma membranes. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)GDP binding to plasma membranes suggested a single high affinity site with a K{sub d} = 0.24 uM. Competition studies indicated that GTP{sub {gamma}}S was 7-fold more potent than GDP{sub {beta}}S. Bound GDP could be released by FSH in the presence of GTP{sub {gamma}}S, but not by FSH alone. Adenylate cyclase activity was enhanced 5-fold by FSH in the presence of GTP. Addition of GDP{sub {beta}}S to the activated enzyme (FSH plus GTP) resulted in a time-dependent decay to basal activity within 20 sec. GDP{sub {beta}}S competitively inhibited GTP{sub {gamma}}S-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a K{sub i} = 0.18 uM. Adenylate cyclase activity was also demonstrated to be sensitive to the nucleotide bound state. In the presence of FSH, only the GTP{sub {gamma}}S-bound form persisted even if GDP{sub {beta}}S previously occupied all available binding sites. Two membrane proteins, M{sub r} = 43,000 and 48,000, were ADP{centered dot}ribosylated using cholera toxin and labeling was enhanced 2 to 4-fold by GTP{sub {gamma}}S but not by GDP{sub {beta}}S. The M{sub r} = 43,000 and 48,000 proteins represented variant forms of G{sub S}. A single protein of M{sub r} = 40,000 (G{sub i}) was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in vitro. GTP inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with an IC{sub 50} = 0.1 uM. The adenosine analog, N{sup 6}{centered dot}phenylisopropyl adenosine enhanced GTP inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by an additional 15%. GTP-dependent inhibition of forskolin-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity was abolished in membranes prepared from Sertoli cells treated in culture with pertussis toxin.

  3. Analysis of the chromosomal location of two copies of a Bordetella pertussis insertion sequence.

    PubMed

    McPheat, W L; Hanson, J H; Livey, I; Robertson, J S

    1989-07-01

    IS481v1 and IS481v2 are two copies of a Bordetella pertussis insertion sequence element. We have shown that IS481v1 is located within 3 kbp of the start of the adenylate cyclase gene whilst IS481v2 is immediately adjacent to the end of the agglutinogen 2 gene and provides the stop codon for that gene. In addition, IS481v1 and IS481v2 were present at these two specific sites in nine strains of B. pertussis, including two Phase IV strains which expressed neither adenylate cyclase nor agglutinogen 2 and three Phase I strains which did not express agglutinogen 2. The loss of expression in these strains is not the result of DNA rearrangements at the sites of IS481v1 or IS481v2. PMID:2552259

  4. Kinetic Evidence for the Presence of Two Postaglandin Receptor Sites Regulating the Activity of Intestinal Adenylate Cyclase Sensitive to Escherichia coli Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Harvey S.; Tao, Pearl; Kiefer, Helen Chilton

    1974-01-01

    Kinetic behavior most consistent with the presence of two independent, but simultaneously acting, regulatory effector sites for prostaglandins has been presented for adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. One site regulates activation of the catalytic site, while the other site regulates inhibition. A synthetic prostaglandin analogue, 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid, is recognized at both sites in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations of 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid less than 45 μg/ml, activation is seen, while at higher concentrations, inhibition is seen. Different naturally occurring prostaglandins appear to be site-specific. Prostaglandin E1 gives only activation of the cyclase, while prostaglandin A1 gives only inhibition of the activated cyclase. When saturating concentrations of prostaglandin E1 are used to activate adenylate cyclase, no further activation by 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid can be elicited, indicating that both molecules activate at the same site. The similarity of inhibition constants for both 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid and prostaglandin A1 suggests that the mode of binding is the same for both compounds and that they probably inhibit by acting at the same site. The inhibition by 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid and by prostaglandin A1 overrides enzyme activation produced by either Escherichia coli enterotoxin, prostaglandin E1, or sodium fluoride, suggesting that in intestinal adenylate cyclase this site is the primary regulatory site (i.e., primary allosteric effector site) for enzyme activity. These data suggest that sites exist on adenylate cyclase which would allow prostaglandins to serve as the intracellular messengers by which the cell controls its adenylate-cyclase-mediated response to extracellular stimulation, as with hormones. PMID:4208548

  5. Sequence analysis and structure prediction of 23S rRNA:m1G methyltransferases reveals a conserved core augmented with a putative Zn-binding domain in the N-terminus and family-specific elaborations in the C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Bujnicki, Janusz M; Blumenthal, Robert M; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2002-01-01

    N1-methylation of G748 within 23S ribosomal RNA results in resistance to the macrolide tylosin in Streptomyces. In contrast, the Escherichia coli mutant lacking N1-methylation of G745 exhibits increased resistance to viomycin, in addition to severe defects of growth characteristics. Both methylated guanines are located in hairpin 35, in domain II of prokaryotic 23S rRNA. G748 and G745 are modified by related S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), TlrB and RrmA respectively. Earlier sequence comparisons allowed identification of the AdoMet-binding site, however the catalytic site and the target-recognition region of these enzymes could not be delineated unambiguously. In this work, we carried out sequence-to-structure threading of the rRNA:m1G MTase family against the database of known structures to Identify those "missing regions". Our analysis confirms the earlier prediction of the AdoMet-binding site, but suggests a different location of the putative catalytic center than was previously postulated. We predict that RrmA and TlrB possess two regions that may be responsible for specific interactions with their target nucleic acid sequences: a putative Zn-finger domain in the N-terminus and the variable domain close to the C-terminus, which indicates that 23S rRNA MTases exhibit the primary structural organization distinct from other nucleic acid MTases, despite sharing the common catalytic domain. PMID:11763974

  6. An intact sequence-specific DNA-binding domain is required for human cytomegalovirus-mediated sequestration of p53 and may promote in vivo binding to the viral genome during infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenke, Kyle; Samuel, Melanie A.; McDowell, Eric T.; Toerne, Melissa A.; Fortunato, Elizabeth A. . E-mail: lfort@uidaho.edu

    2006-04-25

    The p53 protein is stabilized during infection of primary human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). However, the p53 in HCMV-infected cells is unable to activate its downstream targets. HCMV accomplishes this inactivation, at least in part, by sequestering p53 into viral replication centers within the cell's nucleus soon after they are established. In order to better understand the interplay between HCMV and p53 and the mechanism of sequestration, we constructed a panel of mutant p53-GFP fusion constructs for use in transfection/infection experiments. These mutants affected several post-translational modification sites and several sites within the central sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of the protein. Two categories of p53 sequestration were observed when the mutant constructs were transfected into primary fibroblasts and then infected at either high or low multiplicity. The first category, including all of the post-translational modification mutants, showed sequestration comparable to a wild-type (wt) control, while the second category, mutants affecting the DNA-binding core, were not specifically sequestered above control GFP levels. This suggested that the DNA-binding ability of the protein was required for sequestration. When the HCMV genome was analyzed for p53 consensus binding sites, 21 matches were found, which localized either to the promoters or the coding regions of viral proteins involved in DNA replication and processing as well as structural proteins. An analysis of in vivo binding to these identified sites via chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed differential binding to several of the sites over the course of infection.

  7. On the binding of aminoalkyl adenylates to isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli MRE 600.

    PubMed Central

    Flossdorf, J; Marutzky, R; Messer, K; Kula, M R

    1977-01-01

    The binding of nine aminoalkyl adenylates to isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli MRE 600 was measured and compared with the binding of the cognate amino acids. It was found that they bind rather tightly to the enzyme, the Kd's ranging from 3.1.10(-4) M with glycinol-AMP ester to 3.7.10(-9) M with L-isoleucinol-AMP ester. The binding is not affected by magnesium. It is shown that the free energies of binding of the esters can be calculated adding a constant contribution of the AMP-moiety of about - 4.1 (- 17) kcal/mole (kJ/mole) to the free energies of binding of the cognate amino acids, which we have reported earlier (19, 25, 26). PMID:325520

  8. Structural characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei adenylate kinase (Adk): Profound asymmetry in the crystal structure of the 'open' state

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, G.W.; Robinson, H.; Abendroth, J.; Staker, B. L.; Myler, P. J.

    2010-04-16

    In all organisms adenylate kinases (Adks) play a vital role in cellular energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. Due to differences in catalytic properties between the Adks found in prokaryotes and in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes, there is interest in targeting this enzyme for new drug therapies against infectious bacterial agents. Here we report the 2.1 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure for the 220-residue Adk from Burkholderia pseudomallei (BpAdk), the etiological agent responsible for the infectious disease melioidosis. The general structure of apo BpAdk is similar to other Adk structures, composed of a CORE subdomain with peripheral ATP-binding (ATP{sub bd}) and LID subdomains. The two molecules in the asymmetric unit have significantly different conformations, with a backbone RMSD of 1.46 {angstrom}. These two BpAdk conformations may represent 'open' Adk sub-states along the preferential pathway to the 'closed' substrate-bound state.

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-like compounds could modulate the activity of coelomocytes in the earthworm.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Ildiko; Boros, Akos; Engelmann, Peter; Varhalmi, Eszter; Nemeth, Jozsef; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Kiss, Peter; Reglodi, Dora; Pollak, Edit; Molnar, Laszlo

    2009-04-01

    By means of radioimmunoassay, we studied the concentration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-like proteins in intact and regenerating earthworms. Transection of animals increased the concentration of PACAP-like compounds in coelomocytes, and a decreasing rostrocaudal gradient was detected in the regenerating animals. Western blot analysis revealed a range of PAC1-receptor proteins with molecular weights from 40 to 80 kDa. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry showed that PAC1 receptors were located on distinct sets of coelomocytes (mainly on amebocytes and on some granulocytes). Based on our results we hypothesize a link between PACAP and coelomocytes, suggesting that PACAP modulates the function of amebocytes and certain granulocytes that play a role in tissue remodeling of regenerating earthworms. PMID:19456404

  10. A mitochondrial RNAi screen defines cellular bioenergetic determinants and identifies an adenylate kinase as a key regulator of ATP levels

    PubMed Central

    Lanning, Nathan J.; Looyenga, Brendan D.; Kauffman, Audra L.; Niemi, Natalie M.; Sudderth, Jessica; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Altered cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial function are major features of several diseases including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Given this important link to human health, we sought to define proteins within mitochondria that are critical for maintaining homeostatic ATP levels. We screened an RNAi library targeting >1,000 nuclear-encoded genes whose protein products localize to the mitochondria in multiple metabolic conditions to examine their effect on cellular ATP levels. We identified a mechanism by which electron transport chain perturbation under glycolytic conditions increased ATP production through enhanced glycolytic flux; thereby highlighting the cellular potential for metabolic plasticity. Additionally, we identified a mitochondrial adenylate kinase (AK4) that regulates cellular ATP levels, AMPK signaling, and whose expression significantly correlates with glioma patient survival. As a result, this study maps the bioenergetic landscape of >1,000 mitochondrial proteins in the context of varied metabolic substrates and begins to link key metabolic genes with clinical outcome. PMID:24767988

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in stress-related disorders: data convergence from animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The maladaptive expression and function of several stress-associated hormones have been implicated in pathological stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Among these, recent evidence has suggested that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has critical roles in central neurocircuits mediating stress-related emotional behaviors. We describe the PACAPergic systems, the data implicating PACAP in stress biology and how altered PACAP expression and signaling may result in psychopathologies. We include our work implicating PACAP signaling within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure and relatedly, describe more recent studies suggesting that PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) may impact the emotional aspects of chronic pain states. In aggregate, these results are consistent with data suggesting that PACAP dysregulation is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. PMID:25636177

  12. Associative mechanism for phosphoryl transfer: a molecular dynamics simulation of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase complexed with its substrates.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Harini; Lou, Hongfeng; Kimple, Adam; Vieille, Claire; Cukier, Robert I

    2005-01-01

    The ternary complex of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (ECAK) with its substrates adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and Mg-ATP, which catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and AMP, was studied using molecular dynamics. The starting structure for the simulation was assembled from the crystal structures of ECAK complexed with the bisubstrate analog diadenosine pentaphosphate (AP(5)A) and of Bacillus stearothermophilus adenylate kinase complexed with AP(5)A, Mg(2+), and 4 coordinated water molecules, and by deleting 1 phosphate group from AP(5)A. The interactions of ECAK residues with the various moieties of ATP and AMP were compared to those inferred from NMR, X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and enzyme kinetic studies. The simulation supports the hypothesis that hydrogen bonds between AMP's adenine and the protein are at the origin of the high nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) specificity of AK. The ATP adenine and ribose moieties are only loosely bound to the protein, while the ATP phosphates are strongly bound to surrounding residues. The coordination sphere of Mg(2+), consisting of 4 waters and oxygens of the ATP beta- and gamma-phosphates, stays approximately octahedral during the simulation. The important role of the conserved Lys13 in the P loop in stabilizing the active site by bridging the ATP and AMP phosphates is evident. The influence of Mg(2+), of its coordination waters, and of surrounding charged residues in maintaining the geometry and distances of the AMP alpha-phosphate and ATP beta- and gamma-phosphates is sufficient to support an associative reaction mechanism for phosphoryl transfer. PMID:15521058

  13. Provenance and tectonic setting of Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences of the São Roque Domain, Ribeira Fold Belt, Brazil: a combination of whole-rock geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopic systematics and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Pinto, Renato; Janasi, Valdecir de A.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Borges Carvalho, Bruna; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Basei, Miguel A. S.

    2014-05-01

    to those of 2.2 Ga granitic clasts from the Boturuna Formation metaconglomerates. The age spectra of detrital zircons from five samples of quartzite from the São Roque Domain show a wide range (1.7-3.4 Ga). The youngest detrital crystals, although subordinate, place a minimum limit for the depositional age of the São Roque metasedimentary sequences at ~1.8-1.7 Ga, which is consistent with U-Pb dating of interlayered metavolcanic rocks. The coincident age peaks of Nd TDM and U-Pb detrital zircons at 2.1-2.2 Ga and 2.4-2.5 Ga, combined with the presence of a small amount of zircons derived from mafic (gabbroid) sources with the same ages, are suggestive that these were major periods of crustal growth in the sources involving not only crust recycling but also juvenile additions. A similar geochemical behavior, consistent with sediments deposited in a passive margin basin for both Formations (Piragibu and Boturuna), suggests that these were coeval, probably with lateral correlation. However, the mudstones (Piragibu Formation) have Ce-depleted REE patterns compatible with clays from open sea, suggesting a more complex paleo-environment, probably with interaction between passive margin basin and volcanogenic sources related to oceanic island arc.

  14. Distribution, characterization, and growth hormone-releasing activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Montero, M; Yon, L; Rousseau, K; Arimura, A; Fournier, A; Dufour, S; Vaudry, H

    1998-10-01

    The complementary DNA encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been cloned from two species of teleost fishes, the Sockeye salmon and the Thai catfish, and the amino acid sequence of PACAP has been determined in another teleost, the stargazer. However, to date, the detailed distribution of PACAP immunoreactivity has never been investigated in the fish brain. In the present study, we have determined the localization of PACAP-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of a primitive teleost fish, the European eel Anguilla anguilla, using an antiserum raised against PACAP27. PACAP-positive perikarya were exclusively observed in the diencephalon, i.e. in the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the dorsal and ventral nuclei of the thalamus. PACAP-immunoreactive fibers were detected in various areas of the brain, notably in the ventral telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the cerebellar valvula, and the medulla oblongata. In addition, a dense accumulation of PACAP-containing nerve terminals was found in the pars distalis of the pituitary. The PACAP-like immunoreactivity contained in the eel brain was characterized by HPLC analysis combined with RIA quantification. The major form of PACAP-immunoreactive material coeluted with mammalian PACAP38. Molecular cloning of the PACAP precursor has previously shown that in fish, PACAP and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) originate from the same precursor. We have thus investigated the effects of PACAP and GHRH on GH secretion from eel pituitary cells in primary culture. Dose-response experiments revealed that PACAP27 and PACAP38 possessed the same efficacy, but PACAP38 was 12 times more potent than PACAP27 in stimulating GH release (ED50 = 4.3 x 10(-10) and 3.5 x 10(-9) M, respectively). In contrast, GHRH, even at a high concentration (10(-6) M), had no effect on GH release. Taken together, these data indicate that in the eel, PACAP may play a significant role in the

  15. A new recombinant pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-derived peptide efficiently promotes glucose uptake and glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Luo, Tianjie; Xu, Wenna; Ye, Zulu; Hong, An

    2012-11-01

    The recombinant peptide, DBAYL, a promising therapeutic peptide for type 2 diabetes, is a new, potent, and highly selective agonist for VPAC2 generated through site-directed mutagenesis based on sequence alignments of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and related analogs. The recombinant DBAYL was used to evaluate its effect and mechanism in blood glucose metabolism and utilization. As much as 28.9 mg recombinant DBAYL peptide with purity over 98% can be obtained from 1 l of Luria-Bertani medium culture by the method established in this study and the prepared DBAYL with four mutations (N10Q, V18L, N29Q, and M added to the N-terminal) were much more stable than BAY55-9837. The half-life of recombinant DBAYL was about 25 folds compared with that of BAY55-9837 in vitro. The bioactivity assay of DBAYL showed that it displaced [(125)I]PACAP38 and [(125)I]VIP from VPAC2 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 48.4 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 4.9 nM, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of BAY55-9837, one established VPAC2 agonists. DBAYL enhances the cAMP accumulation in CHO cells expressing human VPAC2 with a half-maximal stimulatory concentration (EC(50)) of 0.68 nM, whereas the receptor potency of DBAYL at human VPAC1 (EC(50) of 737 nM) was only 1/1083 of that at human VPAC2, and DBAYL had no activity toward human PAC1 receptor. Western blot analysis of the key proteins of insulin receptor signaling pathway: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) indicated that the DBAYL could significantly induce the insulin-stimulated IRS-1 and GLUT4 expression more efficiently than BAY55-9837 and VIP in adipocytes. Compared with BAY55-9837 and PACAP38, the recombinant peptide DBAYL can more efficiently promote insulin release and decrease plasma glucose level in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. These results suggested that DBAYL could efficiently improve glucose

  16. A vision for ubiquitous sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Genomics has recently celebrated reaching the $1000 genome milestone, making affordable DNA sequencing a reality. With this goal successfully completed, the next goal of the sequencing revolution can be sequencing sensors—miniaturized sequencing devices that are manufactured for real-time applications and deployed in large quantities at low costs. The first part of this manuscript envisions applications that will benefit from moving the sequencers to the samples in a range of domains. In the second part, the manuscript outlines the critical barriers that need to be addressed in order to reach the goal of ubiquitous sequencing sensors. PMID:26430149

  17. Adenylate cyclase toxin is critical for colonization and pertussis toxin is critical for lethal infection by Bordetella pertussis in infant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, M S; Weiss, A A

    1990-01-01

    Proliferation of Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of infant mice challenged by the intranasal route was examined. The bacteria rapidly proliferated in the lungs of mice challenged with a sublethal dose of a wild-type strain (BP338) or a filamentous hemagglutinin mutant (BPM409) from 500 at day 0 to 10(7) at day 15. The infection cleared in about 40 days. Pertussis toxin-deficient mutant BP357 gave a similar profile; however, the number of bacteria recovered was slightly reduced, suggesting that pertussis toxin is not essential for bacterial growth in the lungs. In contrast, adenylate cyclase toxin mutant BP348 was rapidly cleared from the lungs, with no viable bacteria remaining 10 days postchallenge, suggesting that the adenylate cyclase toxin is a colonization factor required for the bacteria to initiate infection. PMID:2401570

  18. Enhanced protein domain discovery using taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Coin, Lachlan; Bateman, Alex; Durbin, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Background It is well known that different species have different protein domain repertoires, and indeed that some protein domains are kingdom specific. This information has not yet been incorporated into statistical methods for finding domains in sequences of amino acids. Results We show that by incorporating our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of specific protein domains, we can enhance domain recognition in protein sequences. We identify 4447 new instances of Pfam domains in the SP-TREMBL database using this technique, equivalent to the coverage increase given by the last 8.3% of Pfam families and to a 0.7% increase in the number of domain predictions. We use PSI-BLAST to cross-validate our new predictions. We also benchmark our approach using a SCOP test set of proteins of known structure, and demonstrate improvements relative to standard Hidden Markov model techniques. Conclusions Explicitly including knowledge about the taxonomic distribution of protein domains can enhance protein domain recognition. Our method can also incorporate other context-specific domain distributions – such as domain co-occurrence and protein localisation. PMID:15137915

  19. (/sup 3/H)forskolin- and (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1988-03-01

    The characteristics of the cardiac adenylate cyclase system were studied in rats fed diets containing fish oil (menhaden oil) and other oils. Adenylate cyclase activity generally was higher in cardiac homogenates and membranes of rats fed diet containing 10% menhaden oil than in the other oils. The increase in enzyme activity, especially in forskolin-stimulated activity, was associated with an increase in the concentration of the (/sup 3/H) forskolin-binding sites in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The beta-adrenergic receptor concentration was not significantly altered although the affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding was lower in membranes of rats fed menhaden oil than those fed the other oils. omega-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil were incorporated into the cardiac membrane phospholipids. The results suggest that the observed increase in myocardial adenylate cyclase activity of rats fed menhaden oil may be due to an increase in the number of the catalytic subunits of the enzyme or due to a greater availability of the forskolin-binding sites.

  20. Corticotropin-releasing factor binding to peripheral tissue and activation of the adenylate cyclase-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate system

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, J.R.; Eiden, L.E.; Eskay, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    Specific binding sites for rat corticotropin-releasing factor (rCRF) are present in rat adrenal medulla, ventral prostate, spleen, liver, kidney, and testis and bovine chromaffin cells in culture. Maximal binding of (/sup 125/I)rCRF occurred within 25 min at 4 C and was saturable. Scatchard analysis of rCRF binding to rat adrenal membranes and bovine chromaffin cells revealed the existence of two classes of binding sites. One class had a relatively higher apparent affinity and lower number of binding sites, whereas the other class had a relatively lower affinity and higher number of binding sites. CRF induced a dose-related increase in rat adrenal membrane adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells. Nanomolar concentrations of rCRF maximally stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in rat adrenal membranes and maximally increased cAMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells to 86% and 130% above control values, respectively. The demonstration of specific CRF-binding sites in a variety of peripheral tissues and the finding that activation of specific CRF-binding sites in adrenal tissue stimulates the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system suggest that CRF may have an important regulatory role in various peripheral tissues.

  1. Selective stabilization of mammalian microRNAs by 3′ adenylation mediated by the cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase GLD-2

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Takayuki; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Suzuki, Takeo; Kashiwabara, Shin-ichi; Baba, Tadashi; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their activities are regulated by the post-transcriptional processes. It is known that 3′ ends of several miRNAs undergo post-dicing adenylation or uridylation. We isolated the liver-specific miR-122 from human hepatocytes and mouse livers. Direct analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that one variant of miR-122 has a 3′-terminal adenosine that is introduced after processing by Dicer. We identified GLD-2, which is a regulatory cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase, as responsible for the 3′-terminal adenylation of miR-122 after unwinding of the miR-122/miR-122* duplex. In livers from GLD-2-null mice, the steady-state level of the mature form of miR-122 was specifically lower than in heterozygous mice, whereas no reduction of pre-miR-122 was observed, demonstrating that 3′-terminal adenylation by GLD-2 is required for the selective stabilization of miR-122 in the liver. PMID:19240131

  2. Oda5p, a Novel Axonemal Protein Required for Assembly of the Outer Dynein Arm and an Associated Adenylate KinaseD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wirschell, Maureen; Pazour, Gregory; Yoda, Akinori; Hirono, Masafumi; Kamiya, Ritsu; Witman, George B.

    2004-01-01

    Of the uncloned ODA genes required for outer dynein arm assembly in Chlamydomonas, ODA5 and ODA10 are of particular interest because they do not encode known subunits of the outer arm or the outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC), and because genetic studies suggest their products interact. Beginning with a tagged oda5 allele, we isolated genomic and cDNA clones of the wild-type gene. ODA5 predicts a novel, 66-kDa coiled-coil protein. Immunoblotting indicates Oda5p is an axonemal component that assembles onto the axoneme independently of the outer arm and ODA-DC and is uniquely missing in oda5 and oda10 axonemes. Oda5p is released from the axoneme by extraction with 0.6 M KCl, but the soluble Oda5p does not cosediment with the outer dynein arm/ODA-DC in sucrose gradients. Quantitative mass spectrometry by using isotope coded affinity tagging revealed that a previously unidentified adenylate kinase is reduced 35–50% in oda5 flagella. Direct enzymatic assays demonstrated a comparable reduction in adenylate kinase activity in oda5 flagella, and also in oda10 flagella, but not in flagella of other oda mutants. We propose that Oda5p is part of a novel axonemal complex that is required for outer arm assembly and anchors adenylate kinase in proximity to the arm. PMID:15064350

  3. Desensitization of adenylate cyclase in a human keratinocyte cell line by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, E.J.; Young, M.J.; Toscano, D.L.; Greenlee, W.F.; Toscano, W.A. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of adenylate cyclase in hum