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Sample records for adequate allocation concealment

  1. What is the influence of randomisation sequence generation and allocation concealment on treatment effects of physical therapy trials? A meta-epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Saltaji, Humam; da Costa, Bruno R; Fuentes, Jorge; Ha, Christine; Cummings, Greta G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if adequacy of randomisation and allocation concealment is associated with changes in effect sizes (ES) when comparing physical therapy (PT) trials with and without these methodological characteristics. Design Meta-epidemiological study. Participants A random sample of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses in the PT discipline were identified. Intervention Data extraction including assessments of random sequence generation and allocation concealment was conducted independently by two reviewers. To determine the association between sequence generation, and allocation concealment and ES, a two-level analysis was conducted using a meta-meta-analytic approach. Primary and secondary outcome measures association between random sequence generation and allocation concealment and ES in PT trials. Results 393 trials included in 43 meta-analyses, analysing 44 622 patients contributed to this study. Adequate random sequence generation and appropriate allocation concealment were accomplished in only 39.7% and 11.5% of PT trials, respectively. Although trials with inappropriate allocation concealment tended to have an overestimate treatment effect when compared with trials with adequate concealment of allocation, the difference was non-statistically significant (ES=0.12; 95% CI −0.06 to 0.30). When pooling our results with those of Nuesch et al, we obtained a pooled statistically significant value (ES=0.14; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.26). There was no difference in ES in trials with appropriate or inappropriate random sequence generation (ES=0.02; 95% CI −0.12 to 0.15). Conclusions Our results suggest that when evaluating risk of bias of primary RCTs in PT area, systematic reviewers and clinicians implementing research into practice should pay attention to these biases since they could exaggerate treatment effects. Systematic reviewers should perform sensitivity analysis including trials with low risk of bias in these domains as primary

  2. The Allocation of Resources at the School Level to Improve Learning for Struggling Readers: What Is Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donavan, Franklin E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the Evidence-Based Model developed by Odden and Picus (2008) as a conceptual framework in correlation with the Ten Strategies for Doubling Student Performance (Odden, 2009) for comparison, this study examines the school-level resource allocation strategies used to improve learning for struggling readers in high-minority, high-poverty, urban…

  3. Concealment of sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Sylva, David; Rieger, Gerulf; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael

    2010-02-01

    Sex-atypical behaviors may be used to identify a person as homosexual. To shield themselves from prejudice, homosexual people may attempt to conceal these behaviors. It is not clear how effectively they can do so. In Study 1, we asked homosexual participants to conceal their sex-atypical behaviors while talking about the weather. Raters watched videos of the participants and judged the likelihood that each participant was homosexual. Homosexual participants were able to partially conceal signs of their orientation, but they remained distinguishable from heterosexual participants. In Study 2, we tested the ability to conceal signs of one's sexual orientation in a more demanding situation: a mock job interview. In this scenario, homosexual men were even less effective at concealing their orientation. Higher cognitive demands in this new situation may have interfered with their ability to conceal. PMID:19169803

  4. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  5. Authenticating concealed private data while maintaining concealment

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Draelos, Timothy J.

    2007-06-26

    A method of and system for authenticating concealed and statistically varying multi-dimensional data comprising: acquiring an initial measurement of an item, wherein the initial measurement is subject to measurement error; applying a transformation to the initial measurement to generate reference template data; acquiring a subsequent measurement of an item, wherein the subsequent measurement is subject to measurement error; applying the transformation to the subsequent measurement; and calculating a Euclidean distance metric between the transformed measurements; wherein the calculated Euclidean distance metric is identical to a Euclidean distance metric between the measurement prior to transformation.

  6. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  7. Concealing with Structured Light

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-01-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core. PMID:24522638

  8. Concealing with Structured Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-02-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core.

  9. Self-Concealment and Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Adam; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy; Nadorff, Michael R.; Smith, Merideth D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding self-concealment, the tendency to actively conceal distressing personal information from others, may be important in developing effective ways to help individuals with suicidal ideation. No published study has yet assessed the relation between self-concealment and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, most self-concealment research has…

  10. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  11. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  12. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  13. Standoff detection of concealed handguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, Nacer; Andrews, David; Bowring, Nicholas; Harmer, Stuart; Southgate, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    An active technique for the standoff detection and identification of concealed conducting items such as handguns and knives is presented. This technique entails illuminating an object with wide range stepped millimetre wave radiation and inducing a local electromagnetic field comprised of a superposition of modes. The coupling to these modes from the illuminating and scattered fields is, in general, frequency dependent and this forms the basis for the detection and identification of conducting items. The object needs to be fully illuminated if a full spectrum of modes and therefore a full frequency response are to be excited and collected. The scattered EM power is measured at "stand off" distance of several metres as the illuminating field is frequency swept and patterns in frequency response characteristic to the target item being sought are looked for. This system relies on contributions from the aspect independent late time responses employed by Baum1 together with aspect independent information derived specifically from gun barrels and polarisation from scattering effects. This technique is suitable for a deployable gun and concealed weapons detection system and does not rely on imaging techniques for determining the presence of a gun. Experimental sets of responses from typical metal or partially conducting objects such as keys, mobile phones and concealed handguns are presented at a range of frequencies.

  14. Method for imaging a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Partin, Judy K [Idaho Falls, ID; Sawyers, Robert J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-07-03

    A method for imaging a concealed object is described and which includes a step of providing a heat radiating body, and wherein an object to be detected is concealed on the heat radiating body; imaging the heat radiating body to provide a visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body; and determining if the visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body is masked by the presence of the concealed object.

  15. ISAR for concealed objects imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, A.; Razevig, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Ivashov, S.; Voronin, V.

    2015-03-01

    A new promising architecture of microwave personnel screening system is analyzed in this paper with numerical simulations. This architecture is based on the concept of inverse aperture synthesis applied to a naturally moving person. The extent of the synthetic aperture is formed by a stationary vertical linear antenna array and by a length of subject's trajectory as he moves in the vicinity of this antenna array. The coherent radar signal processing is achieved by a synchronous 3D video-sensor whose data are used to track the subject. The advantages of the proposed system architecture over currently existing systems are analyzed. Synthesized radar images are obtained by numerical simulations with a human torso model with concealed objects. Various aspects of the system architecture are considered, including: advantages of using sparse antenna arrays to decrease the number of antenna elements, the influence of positioning errors of body surface due to outer clothing. It was shown that detailed radar images of concealed objects can be obtained with a narrow-band signal due to the depth information available from the 3D video sensor. The considered ISAR architecture is considered perspective to be used on infrastructure objects owing to its superior qualities: highest throughput, small footprint, simple design of the radar sub-system, non-required co-operation of the subject.

  16. Extracting concealed information from groups.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Smulders, Fren T Y; Merckelbach, Harald L G J

    2010-11-01

    Lie detection procedures are typically aimed at determining guilt or innocence of a single suspect. Serious security threats, however, often involve groups, such as terrorist networks or criminal organizations. In this report, we describe a variant of the skin conductance-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) that allows for the extraction of critical information from such groups. Twelve participants were given information about an upcoming (mock) terrorist attack, with specific instructions not to reveal this information to anyone. Next, each subject was subjected to a CIT, with questions pertaining to the details of the attack. Results showed that for every question, the average skin conductance response to the correct answer option differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those to all other options. These results show that the information about the upcoming attack could be extracted from the group of terror suspects as a whole. PMID:20533975

  17. Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyukov, Alexander M.; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Sengupta, Amartya; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Zimdars, David; Federici, John F.

    2006-10-01

    Experimental results of two-dimensional homodyne terahertz interferometric imaging are presented. The performance of an N element detector array is imitated by only one detector placed at N positions. Continuous waves at 0.25-0.3 THz are used to detect concealed objects: a metal object and an RDX sample. The terahertz interferometric imaging method can be used in defense and security applications to detect concealed weapons, explosives as well as chemical and biological agents.

  18. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  19. Detecting concealed objects at a checkpoint

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine if a concealed object is being carried. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual with a pair of opposed, semi-cylindrical array panels each configured to interrogate the individual with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range.

  20. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  1. Manifest and concealed correlations in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A. C.; Iguain, J. L.

    1998-11-01

    The quantum covariance function is used to study correlations in quantum systems. Besides the obvious correlations due to the conservation of some quantity, the appearance of concealed quantum correlations like non-locality or non-separability is studied. The choice of an appropriate basis allows a complete analysis relating correlations with conservation laws and factorizability.

  2. Automated Human Screening for Detecting Concealed Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Nathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Screening individuals for concealed knowledge has traditionally been the purview of professional interrogators investigating a crime. But the ability to detect when a person is hiding important information would be of high value to many other fields and functions. This dissertation proposes design principles for and reports on an implementation…

  3. College Students' Reasons for Concealing Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton Denmark, Adryon; Hess, Elaine; Becker, Martin Swanbrow

    2012-01-01

    Self-reported reasons for concealing suicidal ideation were explored using data from a national survey of undergraduate and graduate students: 558 students indicated that they seriously considered attempting suicide during the previous year and did not tell anyone about their suicidal thoughts. Content analysis of students' qualitative responses…

  4. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  5. Student Attitudes Toward Concealed Handguns on Campus at 2 Universities

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Wells, William; Nobles, Matt R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined student support for a policy that would allow carrying of concealed handguns on university campuses. Large percentages of students at 2 universities expressed very low levels of comfort with the idea of permitting concealed handgun carrying on campus, suggesting that students may not welcome less restrictive policies. Students held slightly different opinions about concealed handguns on and off campus, suggesting that they view the campus environment as unique with respect to concealed handgun carrying. PMID:22720763

  6. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  7. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  8. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  9. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  10. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  11. Direct recording of concealed ventricular extrasystoles producing pacer inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark; Berger, Marcie

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of concealed extrasystoles recorded from a pacing lead. The concealed extrasystoles were observed with right ventricular pacing, biventricular unipolar, and biventricular bipolar pacing. The simultaneous surface EKG did not show manifest ventricular extrasystoles with the concealed intracardiac potentials. This case highlights a cause of oversensing that has been theoretically reported in the literature but never directly observed. PMID:23600888

  12. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2012-06-01

    The smuggling of bulk cash across borders is a serious issue that has increased in recent years. In an effort to curb the illegal transport of large numbers of paper bills, a detection scheme has been developed, based on the magnetic characteristics of bank notes. The results show that volumes of paper currency can be detected through common concealing materials such as plastics, cardboard, and fabrics making it a possible potential addition to border security methods. The detection scheme holds the potential of also reducing or eliminating false positives caused by metallic materials found in the vicinity, by observing the stark difference in received signals caused by metal and currency. The detection scheme holds the potential to detect for both the presence and number of concealed bulk notes, while maintaining the ability to reduce false positives caused by metal objects.

  13. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  14. A modified surgical procedure for concealed penis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Bianjiang; Guan, Zhaolong; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Chao; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We described a modified surgical procedure for repairing a concealed penis and compared the efficacy and feasibility of modified repair with traditional repair. Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 96 patients with a concealed penis were recruited to undergo penile repair at our centre. Modified repair and traditional repair were performed respectively on 46 and 50 cases. We compared operative time, intraoperative blood loss, cosmetic result of operative scars, postoperative penile retraction, and complications. Results: All operations were completed successfully without serious complications. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and cosmetic result of the operative scar between the two surgical methods were similar. However, the postoperative penile retraction rate in patients undergoing modified repair decreased significantly than in the traditional repair. Conclusions: Our modified surgical procedure is effective and feasible for a concealed penis. Although extra procedures were needed for the modified repair, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and cosmetic result of operative scar between the two procedures were similar. Compared with traditional repair, modified repair has better clinical outcomes. PMID:26664507

  15. Internally concealed cocaine: analytical and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Althoff, H; Erkens, M; Maier, R D; Hofmann, R

    1995-09-01

    Thirty persons arrested at Frankfurt airport for smuggling internally concealed cocaine in 1993/1994 were investigated. An X-ray examination (in all 30 cases), immunochemical examination of urine (in 27 cases) and of saliva (in 20 cases) was performed in parallel. An X-ray examination gave positive results in all examined persons. EMIT cocaine metabolite assay (cut off 300 ng benzoylecgonine (BE)/mL) was positive in eight urine samples. After reducing the cut off to 150 ng BE/mL urine, eleven samples were classified as positive. The results were confirmed by means of chromatographic determinations. These findings showed limited role of immunological examination of urine as a screening test in suspected smuggling of internally concealed drugs. All saliva samples showed negative immunochemical results. The number of concealed containers ranged from 44 to 135 per person. The amount of cocaine hydrochloride found in particular cases ranged from 242 to 1050 g net weight, divided into containers weighing from 5.7 to 13.8 g. Drug packages were obviously machine-made. The packages smuggled by a particular person were uniform. However, a distinct interpersonal variability in drug packages was observed, in regard to the number of protective layers (4-7), size, weight, and cocaine purity. This may be helpful for the identification of production site. The leaching of cocaine from selected containers was investigated in a stirring bath and was independent of the conditions applied. PMID:7595327

  16. Imaging sensor fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.; Zyga, Kathleen

    1997-02-01

    Sensors are needed for concealed weapon detection which perform better with regard to weapon classification, identification, probability of detection and false alarm rate than the magnetic sensors commonly used in airports. We have concluded that no single sensor will meet the requirements for a reliable concealed weapon detector and thus that sensor fusion is required to optimize detection probability and false alarm rate by combining sensor outputs in a synergistic fashion. This paper describes microwave, millimeter wave, far infrared, infrared, x-ray, acoustic, and magnetic sensors which have some promise in the field of concealed weapon detection. The strengths and weaknesses of these devices are discussed, and examples of the outputs of most of them are given. Various approaches to fusion of these sensors are also described, from simple cuing of one sensor by another to improvement of image quality by using multiple systems. It is further concluded that none of the sensors described herein will ever replace entirely the airport metal detector, but that many of them meet needs imposed by applications requiring a higher detection probability and lower false alarm rate.

  17. Detecting persons concealed in a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Jr., Raymond W.

    2005-03-29

    An improved method for detecting the presence of humans or animals concealed within in a vehicle uses a combination of the continuous wavelet transform and a ratio-based energy calculation to determine whether the motion detected using seismic sensors placed on the vehicle is due to the presence of a heartbeat within the vehicle or is the result of motion caused by external factors such as the wind. The method performs well in the presence of light to moderate ambient wind levels, producing far fewer false alarm indications. The new method significantly improves the range of ambient environmental conditions under which human presence detection systems can reliably operate.

  18. Video Error Concealment Using Fidelity Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Takishima, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Hatori, Yoshinori

    We propose a method to prevent the degradation of decoded MPEG pictures caused by video transmission over error-prone networks. In this paper, we focus on the error concealment that is processed at the decoder without using any backchannels. Though there have been various approaches to this problem, they generally focus on minimizing the degradation measured frame by frame. Although this frame-level approach is effective in evaluating individual frame quality, in the sense of human perception, the most noticeable feature is the spatio-temporal discontinuity of the image feature in the decoded video image. We propose a novel error concealment algorithm comprising the combination of i) A spatio-temporal error recovery function with low processing cost, ii) A MB-based image fidelity tracking scheme, and iii) An adaptive post-filter using the fidelity information. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the subjective degradation of corrupted MPEG video quality with about 30% of additional decoding processing power.

  19. New Hybrid Error Concealment for Digital Compressed Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadar, Ofer; Huber, Merav; Huber, Revital; Greenberg, Shlomo

    2005-12-01

    Transmission of a compressed video signal over a lossy communication network exposes the information to losses and errors, which leads to significant visible errors in the reconstructed frames at the decoder side. In this paper we present a new hybrid error concealment algorithm for compressed video sequences, based on temporal and spatial concealment methods. We describe spatial and temporal techniques for the recovery of lost blocks. In particular, we develop postprocessing techniques for the reconstruction of missing or damaged macroblocks. A new decision support tree is developed to efficiently choose the best appropriate error concealment method, according to the spatial and temporal characteristics of the sequence. The proposed algorithm is compared to three error concealment methods: spatial, temporal, and a previous hybrid approach using different noise levels. The results are evaluated using four quality measures. We show that our error concealment scheme outperforms all the other three methods for all the tested video sequences.

  20. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2011-10-01

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects.

  1. Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Wen; Juhola, Markku; Grainger, William; Wang, Beining; Manahan, Brian

    1997-02-01

    Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential both for remote sensing and full-body fixed site scanner applications. Although only raw image data was obtained in Phase I, we propose to apply super-resolution image enhancements and target recognition software algorithms to provide more reliable detection. Endorsement from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, to provide operational input and testing and evaluation, and the hiring of a consultant to plan for future program financing (including venture capital investment) make the project very attractive for commercialization.

  2. Prime number variant of concealed trigeminy.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, C M; Medeiros, N P; de Nonohay, N C; Rodrigues, R

    1985-10-01

    A 53-year-old man with myocardial infarction was found to have frequent premature ventricular beats. The predominant pattern was classical concealed trigeminy; i.e., the number of conducted sinus beats, S, between extrasystoles satisfied the equation S = 3n + 2, where "n" is zero or any positive integer. Two other transient patterns also occurred. The first one was characterized by exceptional values of S, which satisfied the equation S = 3n + 3. In the second transient pattern, all values of S fitted the classical equation, but there were singularly absent values; i.e., the "n" in the equation was exclusively an odd number, giving rise to only prime numbers of interectopic conducted sinus beats. It is proposed in this last form that there are two sites of fixed block proximal to a variable distal block in a re-entry loop responsible for the ventricular extrasystoles. PMID:2415650

  3. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  4. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  5. Concealing their communication: exploring psychosocial predictors of young drivers' intentions and engagement in concealed texting.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Making a conscious effort to hide the fact that you are texting while driving (i.e., concealed texting) is a deliberate and risky behaviour involving attention diverted away from the road. As the most frequent users of text messaging services and mobile phones while driving, young people appear at heightened risk of crashing from engaging in this behaviour. This study investigated the phenomenon of concealed texting while driving, and utilised an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including the additional predictors of moral norm, mobile phone involvement, and anticipated regret to predict young drivers' intentions and subsequent behaviour. Participants (n=171) were aged 17-25 years, owned a mobile phone, and had a current driver's licence. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their intention to conceal texting while driving, and a follow-up questionnaire a week later to report their behavioural engagement. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB with the standard constructs accounting for 69% of variance in drivers' intentions, and the extended predictors contributing an additional 6% of variance in intentions over and above the standard constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, PBC, moral norm, and mobile phone involvement emerged as significant predictors of intentions; and intention was the only significant predictor of drivers' self-reported behaviour. These constructs can provide insight into key focal points for countermeasures including advertising and other public education strategies aimed at influencing young drivers to reconsider their engagement in this risky behaviour. PMID:24211560

  6. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed. PMID:26322654

  7. Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Diane M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive information – and magnitude – centrality and salience. Research has shown that negatively valenced content is related to increased psychological distress. However, smaller identity magnitude may buffer this distress. We review the research available and discuss important areas for future work. PMID:23730326

  8. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  9. Covert respiration measures for the detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2008-03-01

    A mock-theft experiment was designed to assess the efficiency of two covert respiration measures in detection of concealed information. The covert measures were further compared with three standard measures typically used for the detection of concealed knowledge (electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse measures). Results revealed that the covert respiration measures produced good discrimination between "guilty" (participants possessing concealed knowledge) and "innocent" participants. One of the covert measures produced detection efficiency that was similar to that of the standard respiration and finger pulse measures, but less than the electrodermal measure. PMID:18093718

  10. Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, David N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.

  11. Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2003-07-01

    Full body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited for the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel, since millimeter waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging techniques and a full-body, planar, millimeter-wave imaging system are described.

  12. Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2003-07-16

    Full-body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited for the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel, since millimeter waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging techniques and a full-body, planar, millimeter-wave imaging system are described.

  13. Pigmented concealing powders for the hair loss patient.

    PubMed

    Cossman, Jack P; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu C

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from alopecia may experience low self-esteem, low self-image, and other psychological consequences. While medical and surgical options for treating hair loss exist, these may be prohibitively expensive or have an unpredictable outcome. In lieu of or in addition to therapeutic approaches, cosmetic options have long been an approach to hair loss. However, patients and clinicians alike often regard cosmetic options to be limited to hairstyling and hairpieces, unaware that newer options, namely pigmented concealing powders, may offer a more practical and seemingly natural camouflage. This article introduces the clinician to concealing powders as a viable option for the hair loss patient. PMID:24305431

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  15. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  16. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1998-03-01

    A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

  17. Cycles of abuse nurtured by concealment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Wijma, Barbro; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Hammarström, Nevija Cah; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2007-09-01

    At present, health care staff do not seem to have sufficient knowledge about their patients' abusive experiences. The aim of the present study is to analyze and discuss what the implications might be for the encounter between patients and health care professionals, when experiences of abuse are concealed. The methodology of this article is varied: a personal narrative, medical records, sociological theoretical literature and empirical evidence. From the narrative we learn that concealment of abuse was devastating for the patient. She was "treated" in vain as a correct diagnosis was not made, while abuse by her father continued. Health care staff also violated her, which she told her therapist, but her protests were not acknowledged. Ten years of treatment thus made her even more sick. This case story focuses on the mechanisms which nurture concealment of a patient's history of abuse, such as structural and symbolic violence. We also suggest ways to break "cycles of abuse". Help the patient to stop concealing also means that she/he leaves a victim role, gets in charge of the situation and takes a first step towards empowerment. In this way, health care settings can become enabling and empowering environments. PMID:17577758

  18. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  19. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  20. Adolescent disclosure and concealment: longitudinal and concurrent associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Chelom E; Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Hart, Craig H

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls. PMID:23720152

  1. Detecting concealed information using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Zhou, Xiaomei; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Sang, Biao

    2014-09-01

    The present study focused on the potential application of fNIRS in the detection of concealed information. Participants either committed a mock crime or not and then were presented with a randomized series of probes (crime-related information) and irrelevants (crime-irrelevant information) in a standard concealed information test (CIT). Participants in the guilty group were instructed to conceal crime-related information they obtained from the mock crime, thus making deceptive response to the probes. Meanwhile, their brain activity to probes and irrelevants was recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). At the group level, we found that probe items were associated with longer reaction times and greater activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex than irrelevant items in the guilty group, but not in the innocent group. These findings provided evidence on neural correlates of recognition during a CIT. Finally, on the basis of the activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex, the correct classification of guilty versus innocent participants was approximately 75 % and the combination of fNIRS and reaction time measures yielded a better classification rate of 83.3 %. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using fNIRS to detect concealed information. PMID:24514911

  2. Quantum Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based On LSQu-Blocks Image Information Concealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng

    2016-04-01

    Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.

  3. Quantum Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based On LSQu-Blocks Image Information Concealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng

    2016-08-01

    Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.

  4. Campaign for Right to Carry Concealed Guns on Campuses Gains Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Five years after the Virginia Tech massacre prompted a student in Texas to start a Facebook page in favor of the right to carry concealed weapons on college campuses, the resulting group, Students for Concealed Carry, has advanced its cause. In more than a dozen states, legislation has been introduced to allow the carrying of concealed firearms on…

  5. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  6. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  7. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  8. Could plate tectonics on Venus be concealed by volcanic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.; Muradian, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is supplementary to a study reported by Kaula and Phillips (1981). From an analysis of Pioneer Venus altimetry, Kaula and Phillips had inferred that any heat loss from the planet by plate tectonics must be small compared to that from the earth. However, it has been suggested by others that plate tectonic may exist on Venus, but that the expected 'square root of s' dependence of the topographic drop off is not observed because it is concealed by lava flows. The present investigation has the objective to conduct an examination whether this suggestion of concealment by lava flow is correct. On the basis of the performed analysis, it is concluded that the results obtained by Kaula and Phillips appear to be well justified.

  9. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. PMID:26390033

  10. Sufficiency of Reward and Allocation Behavior. A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, R. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study reaffirmed past findings which indicated that although no single norm could adequately explain children's reward allocation behavior, the norm of equity is the most important determinant. (SDH)

  11. Content-based retransmission with error concealment for astronomical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienphrapa, Paul; Boussalis, Helen; Liu, Charles; Rad, Khosrow; Dong, Jane

    2005-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to produce a vast amount of images that are valuable for astronomical research and education. To support research activities related to JWST mission, NASA has provided funds to establish the Structures Pointing and Control Engineering (SPACE) Laboratory at the California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA). One of the research activities in SPACE lab is to design an effective and efficient transmission system to disseminate JWST images across the Internet. This paper presents a prioritized transmission method to provide the best quality of the transferred image based on the joint-optimization of content-based retransmission and error concealment. First, the astronomical image is compressed using a scalable wavelet-based approach, then packetized into independently decodable packets. To facilitate the joint-optimization of two mutually dependent error control methods, a novel content index is declared to represent the significance of the packet content as well as its importance in error concealment. Based on the defined content index, the optimal retransmission schedule is determined to maximize the quality of the received image under delay constraint with the given error concealment method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very effective to combat the packet loss during transmission to achieve a desirable quality of the received astronomical images.

  12. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors. PMID:24308254

  13. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  14. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  15. Millimeter-wave concealed weapons detection and through-the-wall imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguenin, G. Richard

    1997-02-01

    Millimetrix' millimeter wave passive imaging technology offers the opportunity for rapid and remote detection of metallic and non-metallic weapons, plastic explosives, drugs, and other contraband concealed under multiple layers of clothing without the necessity of a direct physical search. The purely passive imaging technique relies solely on the existing natural emissions from the scene objects, does not expose the person to any man-made radiation, and is therefore completely harmless to the person being observed and to all others in the area. Screening can be done remotely and with as much discretion as the situation requires. The passive imaging approach to the detection of concealed weapons and contraband hidden under people's clothing works well at millimeter wavelengths because of a fortunate convergence of a number of key factors: (1) adequate resolution in a reasonable sensor size; (2) high transparency of virtually all clothing; and (3) the extraordinarily high emissivity of human flesh compared to the vast majority of other materials. Longer (microwave) wavelengths are impractical because of sensor size and resolution issues, and shorter (infrared) wavelengths are impractical because of the poor transparency of most clothing. The ability of millimeter wave emissions to penetrate many common building materials permits the remote observation, using active millimeter wave sensors, of people and other objects within a room from outside of that room. The resulting through-the-wall 'live' video images of people and furnishings will indicate their location, posture, and activity within a room which should be valuable knowledge to Special Operations, SWAT, and other military and law enforcement personnel prior to their entering that room. Millimeter wave radar imaging systems based on passive MillivisionR camera technology are being developed by Millimetrix (and other members of the MIRTAC TRP consortium) for through-the-wall imaging system (TWIS) applications.

  16. 'I am doing fine only because I have not told anyone': the necessity of concealment in the lives of people living with HIV in India.

    PubMed

    George, Mathew Sunil; Lambert, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In HIV prevention and care programmes, disclosure of status by HIV-positive individuals is generally encouraged to contain the infection and provide adequate support to the person concerned. Lack of disclosure is generally framed as a barrier to preventive behaviours and accessing support. The assumption that disclosure is beneficial is also reflected in studies that aim to identify determinants of disclosure and recommend individual-level measures to promote disclosure. However, in contexts where HIV infection is stigmatised and there is fear of rejection and discrimination among those living with HIV, concealment of status becomes a way to try and regain as much as possible the life that was disrupted by the discovery of HIV infection. In this study of HIV-positive women and children in India, concealment was considered essential by individuals and families of those living with HIV to re-establish and maintain their normal lives in an environment where stigma and discrimination were prevalent. This paper describes why women and care givers of children felt the need to conceal HIV status, the various ways in which people tried to do so and the implications for treatment of people living with HIV. We found that while women were generally willing to disclose their status to their husband or partner, they were very keen to conceal their status from all others, including family members. Parents and carers with an HIV-positive child were not willing to disclose this status to the child or to others. Understanding the different rationales for concealment would help policy makers and programme managers to develop more appropriate care management strategies and train care providers to assist clients in accessing care and support without disrupting their lives. PMID:25706959

  17. ‘I am doing fine only because I have not told anyone’: the necessity of concealment in the lives of people living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    George, Mathew Sunil; Lambert, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In HIV prevention and care programmes, disclosure of status by HIV-positive individuals is generally encouraged to contain the infection and provide adequate support to the person concerned. Lack of disclosure is generally framed as a barrier to preventive behaviours and accessing support. The assumption that disclosure is beneficial is also reflected in studies that aim to identify determinants of disclosure and recommend individual-level measures to promote disclosure. However, in contexts where HIV infection is stigmatised and there is fear of rejection and discrimination among those living with HIV, concealment of status becomes a way to try and regain as much as possible the life that was disrupted by the discovery of HIV infection. In this study of HIV-positive women and children in India, concealment was considered essential by individuals and families of those living with HIV to re-establish and maintain their normal lives in an environment where stigma and discrimination were prevalent. This paper describes why women and care givers of children felt the need to conceal HIV status, the various ways in which people tried to do so and the implications for treatment of people living with HIV. We found that while women were generally willing to disclose their status to their husband or partner, they were very keen to conceal their status from all others, including family members. Parents and carers with an HIV-positive child were not willing to disclose this status to the child or to others. Understanding the different rationales for concealment would help policy makers and programme managers to develop more appropriate care management strategies and train care providers to assist clients in accessing care and support without disrupting their lives. PMID:25706959

  18. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  19. Computer Processor Allocator

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  20. Concealed weapons detection using low-frequency magnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollars, Byron G.; Sallee, Bradley; Durrett, Michael G.; Cruce, Clay; Hallidy, William

    1997-02-01

    Military personnel, law-enforcement officers, and civilians face ever-increasing dangers from persons carrying concealed handguns and other weapons. In direct correspondence with this danger is a need for more sophisticated means of detecting concealed weapons. We have developed a novel concealed-weapons detector based on the principle of low- frequency magnetic imaging. The detector is configured as a portal, and constructs an image of electrically conductive objects transported through it with a potential spatial resolution of approximately 1 inch. Measurements on a breadboard version of the weapons detector have, to date, yielded a resolution of 2 inches. In operation, magnetic dipole radiation, emitted by transmitting antennas in the perimeter of the portal, is scattered from conductive objects and is picked up by receive antennas, also positioned around the portal. With sufficient measurements, each with a different geometry, a solution to the inverse scattering problem can be found. The result is an image of conductive objects in the detector. The detector is sensitive to all metals, semiconductors, and conductive composites. The measured conductivity image formed by the detector is combined with the video signal from a visible CCD camera to form a composite image of persons transiting the detector portal and the conductive objects they are carrying. Accompanying image recognition software could be used to determine the threat level of objects based upon shape, conductivity, and placement on the person of the carrier, and provide cueing, logging, or alarm functions to the operator if suspect weapons are identified. The low- power, low-frequency emissions from the detector are at levels considered safe to humans and medical implants..

  1. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  2. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  3. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  4. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

  5. Advanced terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Redman, Brian; Espinola, Richard L.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Griffin, Steven T.; Halford, Carl E.; Reynolds, Joe

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of this MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security and Defence Symposium. The focus of this paper is to report on recent advances to the base model which have been designed to more realistically account for the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system. The advanced terahertz-band imaging system performance model now also accounts for target and background thermal emission, and has been recast into a user-friendly, Windows-executable tool. This advanced THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will describe the advanced THz model and its new radiometric sub-model in detail, and provide modeling and experimental results on target observability as a function of target and background orientation.

  6. Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moyer, Steven K.; Halford, Carl E.; Griffin, Steven T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; Franck, Charmaine C.

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz (THz) -band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance modeling technology that couples system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance by using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program and is currently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active-passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to calibrate and validate the model through human perception testing.

  7. Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Murrill, Steven R; Jacobs, Eddie L; Moyer, Steven K; Halford, Carl E; Griffin, Steven T; De Lucia, Frank C; Petkie, Douglas T; Franck, Charmaine C

    2008-03-20

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz (THz) -band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance modeling technology that couples system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance by using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program and is currently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active-passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to calibrate and validate the model through human perception testing. PMID:18709076

  8. Separating deceptive and orienting components in a Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Stark, Rudolf; Peper, Martin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) requires the examinee to deceptively deny recognition of known stimuli and to truthfully deny recognition of unknown stimuli. Because deception and orienting are typically coupled, it is unclear how exactly these sub-processes affect the physiological responses measured in the CIT. The present study aimed at separating the effects of deception from those of orienting. In a mock-crime study, using a modified CIT, thirty-six of seventy-two subjects answered truthfully ('truth group'), whereas the other thirty-six concealed their knowledge ('lie group'). Answering was delayed for 4 s after item presentation. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration (RLL), and phasic heart rate (HR) were recorded. A decomposition of EDA responses revealed two response components; the response in the first interval was expected to indicate orienting, stimulus evaluation, and answer preparation, whereas the response in the second interval was assumed to reflect answer-related processes. Inconclusively, both EDA components differentiated between 'probe' and 'irrelevant' items in both groups. Phasic HR and RLL differed between item classes only in the 'lie' group, thus reflecting answer-related processes, possibly deception, rather than merely orienting responses. The findings further support the notion that psychophysiological measures elicited by a modified CIT may reflect different mental processes involved in orienting and deception. PMID:18674573

  9. Skin conductance as an indicator of anticipated concealed knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Senqi; Huang, Hsin-Yu; McGovern, Jamie L; Jacobs, David A

    2008-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anticipation on skin conductance while participants were answering a set of questions which included one of concealed knowledge. Two experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, 26 participants completed one experimental session. Each participant was asked to choose one two-digit number from 10 to 99 and was presented 19 other randomly generated two-digit numbers. The list of numbers was then presented to the participant on a computer screen, with a 60-sec. interval occurring every two questions. The participant-selected number was defined as the target question which was randomly placed within the 4th to 17th item of 20 questions stated as follows: "Is your selected number?" The participant was asked to answer "No" to all questions. The skin-conductance response to each question was measured. In Exp. 2, the experimental procedure was the same as that in Exp. 1 except each participant first answered 10 nontarget questions, then answered a target question with the participant's selected number, and then answered another 10 nontarget questions. There were a total of 21 questions. Analysis indicated participants in both experiments generated the highest mean skin conductance while answering the target questions, followed by lower amplitudes to questions prior to and after the target question. The skin-conductance response pattern can be used to identify the psychological process of anticipation of concealed information. PMID:18763466

  10. Concealed target detection using augmented reality with SIRE radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Philip; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Ranney, Kenneth; Sullivan, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) forward-looking radar, developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), can detect concealed targets using ultra-wideband synthetic aperture technology. The SIRE radar has been mounted on a Ford Expedition and combined with other sensors, including a pan/tilt/zoom camera, to test its capabilities of concealed target detection in a realistic environment. Augmented Reality (AR) can be used to combine the SIRE radar image with the live camera stream into one view, which provides the user with information that is quicker to assess and easier to understand than each separated. In this paper we present an AR system which utilizes a global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) to overlay a SIRE radar image onto a live video stream. We describe a method for transforming 3D world points in the UTM coordinate system onto the video stream by calibrating for the intrinsic parameters of the camera. This calibration is performed offline to save computation time and achieve real time performance. Since the intrinsic parameters are affected by the zoom of the camera, we calibrate at eleven different zooms and interpolate. We show the results of a real time transformation of the SAR imagery onto the video stream. Finally, we quantify both the 2D error and 3D residue associated with our transformation and show that the amount of error is reasonable for our application.

  11. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  12. Active millimeter wave detection of concealed layers of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, N. J.; Baker, J. G.; Rezgui, N. D.; Southgate, M.; Alder, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    Extensive work has been published on millimetre wave active and passive detection and imaging of metallic objects concealed under clothing. We propose and demonstrate a technique for revealing the depth as well as the outline of partially transparent objects, which is especially suited to imaging layer materials such as explosives and drugs. The technique uses a focussed and scanned FMCW source, swept through many GHz to reveal this structure. The principle involved is that a parallel sided dielectric slab produces reflections at both its upper and lower surfaces, acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This produces a pattern of alternating reflected peaks and troughs in frequency space. Fourier or Burg transforming this pattern into z-space generates a peak at the thickness of the irradiated sample. It could be argued that though such a technique may work for single uniform slabs of dielectric material, it will give results of little or no significance when the sample both scatters the incident radiation and gives erratic reflectivities due to its non-uniform thickness and permittivity . We show results for a variety of materials such as explosive simulants, powder and drugs, both alone and concealed under clothing or in a rucksack, which display strongly directional reflectivities at millimeter wavelengths, and whose location is well displayed by a varying thickness parameter as the millimetre beam is scanned across the target. With this system we find that samples can easily be detected at standoff distances of at least 4.6m.

  13. Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moyer, Steven K.; Halford, Carl E.; Griffin, Steven T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; Franck, Charmaine C.

    2005-11-01

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance models that couple system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane-Array Technology (TIFT) program and is presently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active/passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to validate and calibrate the model through human perception testing.

  14. JPEG2000-coded image error concealment exploiting convex sets projections.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Luigi; Ginesu, Giaime; Raccis, Alessio

    2005-04-01

    Transmission errors in JPEG2000 can be grouped into three main classes, depending on the affected area: LL, high frequencies at the lower decomposition levels, and high frequencies at the higher decomposition levels. The first type of errors are the most annoying but can be concealed exploiting the signal spatial correlation like in a number of techniques proposed in the past; the second are less annoying but more difficult to address; the latter are often imperceptible. In this paper, we address the problem of concealing the second class or errors when high bit-planes are damaged by proposing a new approach based on the theory of projections onto convex sets. Accordingly, the error effects are masked by iteratively applying two procedures: low-pass (LP) filtering in the spatial domain and restoration of the uncorrupted wavelet coefficients in the transform domain. It has been observed that a uniform LP filtering brought to some undesired side effects that negatively compensated the advantages. This problem has been overcome by applying an adaptive solution, which exploits an edge map to choose the optimal filter mask size. Simulation results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:15825483

  15. Pulsed neutron interrogation for detection of concealed special nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddy, Frank; Seidel, John; Flammang, Robert; Petrović, Bojan; Dulloo, Abdul; Congedo, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    A new neutron interrogation technique for detection of concealed Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is described. This technique is a combination of timing techniques from pulsed prompt gamma neutron activation analysis with silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor fast neutron detector technology. SiC detectors are a new class of radiation detectors that are ultra-fast and capable of processing high count rates. SiC detectors can operate during and within nanoseconds of the end of an intense neutron pulse, providing the ability to detect the prompt neutron emissions from fission events produced by the neutrons in concealed SNM on a much faster pulsing time scale than has been achieved by other techniques. Neutron-induced fission neutrons in 235U have been observed in the time intervals between pulses of 14-MeV neutrons from a deuterium-tritium electronic neutron generator. Initial measurements have emphasized the detection of SNM using thermal-neutron induced fission. Neutron pulsing and time-sequenced neutron counts were carried out on a hundreds of microseconds time scale, enabling the observation of prompt fission neutrons induced by the die-away of thermal neutrons following the 14-MeV pulse. A discussion of pulsed prompt-neutron measurements and of SiC detectors as well as initial measurement results will be presented.

  16. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  17. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  18. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for concealed article detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovberg, John A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.; Clark, Stuart E.

    1997-02-01

    Passive-millimeter-wave imaging (PMI) provides a powerful sensing tool for law enforcement, allowing an unobtrusive means for detecting concealed weapons, explosives, or contraband on persons or in baggage. Natural thermal emissions at millimeter wavelengths from bodies, guns, explosives, and other articles pass easily through clothing or other concealment materials, where they can be detected and converted into conventional 2-dimensional images. A new implementation of PMI has demonstrated a large-area, near- real-time staring capability for personnel inspection at standoff ranges of greater than 10 meters. In this form, PMI does not require operator cuing based on subjective 'profiles' of suspicious appearance or behaviors, which may otherwise be construed as violations of civil rights. To the contrary, PMI detects and images heat generated by any object with no predisposition as to its nature or function (e.g. race or gender of humans). As a totally passive imaging tool, it generates no radio-frequency or other radiation which might raise public health concerns. Specifics of the new PMI architecture are presented along with a host of imaging data representing the current state- of-the-art.

  19. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  20. Mobile TNA system to detect explosives and drugs concealed in cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendahan, Joseph; Gozani, Tsahi

    1998-12-01

    The drug problem in the U.S. is serious and efforts to fight it are constrained by the lack of adequate means to curb the inflow of smuggled narcotics into the country through cargo containers. Also, events such as the disastrous explosion in Oklahoma City, the IRA bombing in London, and the bombing of the U.S. military residence in Dharan make the development of new tools for the detection of explosives and drugs in vehicles imperative. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology, developed for the detection of explosives in suitcases, and detection of landmines and unexploded ordnance is presently being applied to the nonintrusive detection of significant amounts of explosives and drugs concealed in cars, trucks and large cargo containers. TNA technology is based on the analysis of characteristic gamma rays emitted following thermal neutron capture. A TNA system can be used in a variety of operational scenarios, such as inspection before an unloaded cargo container from a spit is moved to temporary storage, inspection of trucks unloaded from a ferry, or inspection of vehicles parked close to Federal building or military bases. This paper will discuss the detection process and operational scenarios, and will present results from recent simulations and measurements.

  1. When Concealed Handgun Licensees Break Bad: Criminal Convictions of Concealed Handgun Licensees in Texas, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Nwaiwu, Obioma; McMaughan Moudouni, Darcy K.; Edwards, Rachel; Lin, Szu-hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We explored differences in criminal convictions between holders and nonholders of a concealed handgun license (CHL) in Texas. Methods. The Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) provides annual data on criminal convictions of holders and nonholders of CHLs. We used 2001 to 2009 DPS data to investigate the differences in the distribution of convictions for these 2 groups across 9 types of criminal offenses. We calculated z scores for the differences in the types of crimes for which CHL holders and nonholders were convicted. Results. CHL holders were much less likely than nonlicensees to be convicted of crimes. Most nonholder convictions involved higher-prevalence crimes (burglary, robbery, or simple assault). CHL holders’ convictions were more likely to involve lower-prevalence crimes, such as sexual offenses, gun offenses, or offenses involving a death. Conclusions. Our results imply that expanding the settings in which concealed carry is permitted may increase the risk of specific types of crimes, some quite serious in those settings. These increased risks may be relatively small. Nonetheless, policymakers should consider these risks when contemplating reducing the scope of gun-free zones. PMID:23153139

  2. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  3. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  4. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  5. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  6. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  7. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information. PMID:24531833

  8. Regulatory focus moderates the social performance of individuals who conceal a stigmatized identity.

    PubMed

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Scheepers, Daan

    2015-12-01

    People often choose to hide a stigmatized identity to avoid bias. However, hiding stigma can disrupt social interactions. We considered whether regulatory focus qualifies the social effects of hiding stigma by examining interactions in which stigmatized participants concealed a devalued identity from non-stigmatized partners. In the Prevention Focus condition, stigmatized participants were instructed to prevent a negative impression by concealing the identity; in the Promotion Focus condition, they were instructed to promote a positive impression by concealing the identity; in the Control condition, they were simply asked to conceal the identity. Both non-stigmatized partners and independent raters rated the interactions more positively in the Promotion Focus condition. Thus, promotion focus is interpersonally beneficial for individuals who conceal a devalued identity. PMID:25780853

  9. Multi-channel millimeter wave image registration and segmentation for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Son, Jung-Young; Kim, Shin-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    We address an image registration and segmentation method to detect concealed objects captured by passive millimeter wave (MMW) imaging. Passive MMW imaging can create interpretable imagery on the objects concealed under clothing. Due to the penetrating property of the MMW imaging, the MMW imaging system is often employed for the security and defense system. In this paper, we utilize a multi-channel PMMW imaging system operating at the 8 mm regime with linear polarization. Image registration and segmentation are performed to detect concealed objects under clothing. The registration is preceded to align different channel images by means of geometric feature extraction and a matching process. The Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) vector quantization with multi-channel information is adopted to segment the concealed object from the body area. In the experiment, the automated image registration and segmentation are performed with various concealed objects including a metal axe and a liquid container.

  10. Selection of food patches by sympatric herbivores in response to concealment and distance from a refuge.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Miranda M; Shipley, Lisa A; Camp, Meghan J; Rachlow, Janet L; Forbey, Jennifer S; Johnson, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Small herbivores face risks of predation while foraging and are often forced to trade off food quality for safety. Life history, behaviour, and habitat of predator and prey can influence these trade-offs. We compared how two sympatric rabbits (pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis; mountain cottontail, Sylvilagus nuttallii) that differ in size, use of burrows, and habitat specialization in the sagebrush-steppe of western North America respond to amount and orientation of concealment cover and proximity to burrow refuges when selecting food patches. We predicted that both rabbit species would prefer food patches that offered greater concealment and food patches that were closer to burrow refuges. However, because pygmy rabbits are small, obligate burrowers that are restricted to sagebrush habitats, we predicted that they would show stronger preferences for greater cover, orientation of concealment, and patches closer to burrow refuges. We offered two food patches to individuals of each species during three experiments that either varied in the amount of concealment cover, orientation of concealment cover, or distance from a burrow refuge. Both species preferred food patches that offered greater concealment, but pygmy rabbits generally preferred terrestrial and mountain cottontails preferred aerial concealment. Only pygmy rabbits preferred food patches closer to their burrow refuge. Different responses to concealment and proximity to burrow refuges by the two species likely reflect differences in perceived predation risks. Because terrestrial predators are able to dig for prey in burrows, animals like pygmy rabbits that rely on burrow refuges might select food patches based more on terrestrial concealment. In contrast, larger habitat generalists that do not rely on burrow refuges, like mountain cottontails, might trade off terrestrial concealment for visibility to detect approaching terrestrial predators. This study suggests that body size and evolutionary adaptations

  11. Incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Mavinapalla, Seema; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Abd Rahim, Muhammad Furqon Bin; Khan, Aftab Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Susuk, or charm needles, are small, metallic needles inserted under the skin, considered to enhance beauty, health and luck. This hidden secret of inserting susuk is a traditional superstitious ritual, widely practiced among women of Southeast Asia. Here, we present an interesting case of incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk, which was exposed on a panoramic radiograph taken on a routine basis as a part of diagnostic work up at our centre. An orthopantomogram revealed bilateral metallic foreign bodies in the maxillo-facial region. Anamnestic data affirmed the practice of the body art of susuk. The charm needles were present in the orofacial region without the patient experiencing any pathological signs or symptoms. PMID:26271077

  12. Pathways Between Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Littlefield, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with concealable stigmatized identities often possess no obviously devalued attributes, yet are at greater risk for problematic substance use compared to their privileged counterparts. We present a conceptual model, which proposes that identity-relevant content and characteristics have important implications for cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of stigma-related stress. In doing so, we synthesize stigma-related models from the extant literature and attempt to integrate these concepts with previous work detailing potential contributors to substance use behaviors specifically. Finally, we ask readers to consider the various ways in which the content and characteristics of an individual’s stigmatized identity might combine with situational and additional individual difference factors to influence the likelihood of substance misuse. PMID:26379766

  13. Temperature effects on polygraph detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T

    2016-02-01

    Thermoregulatory influences on electrodermal and cardiovascular activity may interfere with the detection of concealed information using a polygraph. This possibility was assessed by means of a mock terrorism scenario. Seventy-two participants were assigned to either a guilty or an innocent role. They were given a polygraph test at one of three ambient temperatures: 10°C, 22°C, or 34°C. Among guilty participants, electrodermal and cardiovascular measures were least effective at 10°C. Electrodermal results were optimal at 22°C, whereas cardiovascular results were optimal at 34°C. Among innocent participants, the effectiveness of these same measures was not affected by ambient temperature. Temperature had no significant impact on respiration results within the guilty or the innocent groups. Taken together, these findings have implications for those who use polygraphs in uncontrolled testing environments. PMID:26435532

  14. Digital key for chaos communication performing time delay concealment.

    PubMed

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Colet, Pere; Larger, Laurent; Pesquera, Luís

    2011-07-15

    We introduce a scheme that integrates a digital key in a phase-chaos electro-optical delay system for optical chaos communications. A pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) is mixed within the chaotic dynamics in a way that a mutual concealment is performed; e.g., the time delay is hidden by the binary sequence, and the PRBS is also masked by the chaos. In addition to bridging the gap between algorithmic symmetric key cryptography and chaos-based analog encoding, the proposed approach is intended to benefit from the complex algebra mixing between a (pseudorandom) Boolean variable, and another continuous time (chaotic) variable. The scheme also provides a large flexibility allowing for easy reconfigurations to communicate securely at a high bit rate between different systems. PMID:21838363

  15. Digital Key for Chaos Communication Performing Time Delay Concealment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Colet, Pere; Larger, Laurent; Pesquera, Luís

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a scheme that integrates a digital key in a phase-chaos electro-optical delay system for optical chaos communications. A pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) is mixed within the chaotic dynamics in a way that a mutual concealment is performed; e.g., the time delay is hidden by the binary sequence, and the PRBS is also masked by the chaos. In addition to bridging the gap between algorithmic symmetric key cryptography and chaos-based analog encoding, the proposed approach is intended to benefit from the complex algebra mixing between a (pseudorandom) Boolean variable, and another continuous time (chaotic) variable. The scheme also provides a large flexibility allowing for easy reconfigurations to communicate securely at a high bit rate between different systems.

  16. Microwave-Spectral Signatures Would Reveal Concealed Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G.; Ngo, P.; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, K.; Stolarcyzk, L.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed technique for locating concealed objects (especially small antipersonnel land mines) involves the acquisition and processing of spectral signatures over broad microwave frequency bands. This technique was conceived to overcome the weaknesses of older narrow- band electromagnetic techniques like ground-probing radar and low-frequency electromagnetic induction. Ground-probing radar is susceptible to false detections and/or interference caused by rocks, roots, air pockets, soil inhomogeneities, ice, liquid water, and miscellaneous buried objects other than those sought. Moreover, if the radar frequency happens to be one for which the permittivity of a sought object matches the permittivity of the surrounding soil or there is an unfavorable complex-amplitude addition of the radar reflection at the receiver, then the object is not detected. Low-frequency electromagnetic induction works well for detecting metallic objects, but the amounts of metal in plastic mines are often too small to be detectable. The potential advantage of the proposed technique arises from the fact that wideband spectral signatures generally contain more relevant information than do narrow-band signals. Consequently, spectral signatures could be used to make better decisions regarding whether concealed objects are present and whether they are the ones sought. In some cases, spectral signatures could provide information on the depths, sizes, shapes, and compositions of objects. An apparatus to implement the proposed technique (see Figure 1) could be assembled from equipment already in common use. Typically, such an apparatus would include a radio-frequency (RF) transmitter/receiver, a broad-band microwave antenna, and a fast personal computer loaded with appropriate software. In operation, the counter would be turned on, the antenna would be aimed at the ground or other mass suspected to contain a mine or other sought object, and the operating frequency would be swept over the band of

  17. Allocation without locking

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    In a programming environment with both concurrency and automatic garbage collection, the allocation and initialization of a new record is a sensitive matter: if it is interrupted halfway through, the allocating process may be in a state that the garbage collector can't understand. In particular, the collector won't know which words of the new record have been initialized and which are meaningless (and unsafe to transverse). For this reason, parallel implementations usually use a locking or semaphore mechanism to ensure that allocation is an atomic operation. The locking significantly adds to the cost of allocation. This paper shows that allocation can run extremely quickly even in a multi-thread environment: open-coded, without locking.

  18. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations. PMID:26590193

  19. A Concealed Barcode Identification System Using Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu; Yamamoto, Manabu; Kitazawa, Toshiyuki; Tripathi, Saroj R.; Takeya, Kei; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    We present a concealed terahertz barcode/chipless tag to achieve remote identification through an obstructing material using terahertz radiation. We show scanned terahertz reflection spectral images of barcodes concealed by a thick obstacle. A concealed and double- side printed terahertz barcode structure is proposed, and we demonstrate that our design has better performance in definition than a single-side printed barcode using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This technique combines the benefits of a chipless tag to read encoded information covered by an optically opaque material with low cost and a simple fabrication process. Simulations are also described, along with an explanation of the principle of the terahertz barcode identification system.

  20. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  1. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  2. CW THz scanning transmission imaging for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Yao, Rui; Yin, Qiguo; Ding, Shenghui; Wang, Qi

    2009-07-01

    In the paper, the two-dimensional THz imaging methods are described. The SIFIR-50 FPL Far-Infrared Laser is used as the THz source. The output frequency is 2.5THz in the experiment, because the THz laser operates steadily at this frequency. The P4-42 detector works at room temperature and offers relatively high sensitivity. The software of THz imaging system is self-designed, and it plays a crucial role in this imaging system because it controls nearly all the operations of this system, including the two-dimensional scanning, image data collection, image data storage, image display and image processing. Utilizing this setup, THz transmission images of concealed objects are obtained. In the experiment, a bottle cap and a plastic board covered by reflective materials are chosen as the imaging objects; paper and Teflon are placed before the object to test the transmission imaging effect. The experimental results show that this imaging system can generate clear images.

  3. Concealed Utility Route Planning: Guidelines for Indian Residential Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumana

    2015-09-01

    Utility lines, particularly in Indian residential buildings, are networked in a haphazard manner to economize and expedite the process of laying conduits. They remain concealed behind the wall finish exposing problems later. The conventional method adopted while laying the routes does not economize the process rather it damages the newly constructed building. After an investigation of the practiced methods through reconnaissance, a construction vocabulary in form of guidelines is recommended for brick residential construction. Taking advantage of the versatility of a brick and considering it as an indigenous construction material of the Indian plains, a judicious way of brick laying can create horizontal and vertical chase at specified heights to receive the utility conduits. The method will simplify, expedite, and organize the utility routes and provide a seamless connection of major utility lines in a residential building. It will aid in future augmentation, easy maintenance, cost reduction and time involved in construction. Practical training of masons and awareness of relevant contractors at site is required through trained site supervisors. The proposed method merits further investigation for inclusion in academic curriculums of the trade.

  4. Countermeasure mechanisms in a P300-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Meixner, John B; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2010-01-01

    We recently introduced an accurate and countermeasure (CM)-resistant P300-based deception detection test (J.P. Rosenfeld et al., 2008). When subjects use CMs to all irrelevant items in the test, the probe P300 is increased rather than reduced, as in previous P300-based deception protocols, allowing detection of CM users. Evidence herein suggests this is partly due to an omit effect; the probe was the only uncountered item. Three groups were tested: a guilty omit probe group performed an explicit response to each irrelevant item but not to the probe, an innocent omit irrelevant group saw only irrelevant items and omitted a response to one item, and a guilty no omit group had a concealed information item as probe and performed an explicit response to each. We found a greater P300 amplitude to probes in the guilty omit probe condition as compared with the other two conditions, indicating a P300 enhancing effect of omitting a response to a single stimulus. PMID:19761523

  5. Severe forms of concealed penis without hypospadias: Surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Concealed penis (CP) may vary in severity and includes megaprepuce (MP) as a variant. Many different surgical strategies have been described in order to maximize penile exposure and to deal with skin deficiency. We describe the strategies that we use to overcome technical problems in severe cases of CP. Materials and Methods: Six consecutive cases of severe CP (including 3 with MP) were treated in a 2-year period between January 2011 and April 2013. These patients were treated using extensive degloving, removal of dysplastic dartos, Alexander's preputial flap, scrotal flaps and skin grafts. Three patients had been previously circumcised. Cases associated with hypospadias, obesity, disorders of sexual differentiation and micropenises were excluded. Results: All six patients attained good results, with good exposure of the penis, ability to void standing with a well-directed flow and reasonable esthetic results. A technical algorithm for the treatment of primary or recurring cases of CP is proposed. Conclusion: Alexander’ s distally based ventral preputial flap is a useful technical resource to treat MP cases. Free skin grafts and/or laterally based scrotal flaps may be used to cover the penis after release in severe cases of CP. PMID:26604447

  6. The neural correlates of identity faking and concealment: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Du, Xiaoxia; Lei, Du; Hu, Chao Super; Fu, Genyue; Chen, Guopeng

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of self and identity has received extensive research. However, most of these existing studies have focused on situations where the internal representation of the self is consistent with the external one. The present study used fMRI methodology to examine the neural correlates of two different types of identity conflict: identity faking and concealment. Participants were presented with a sequence of names and asked to either conceal their own identity or fake another one. The results revealed that the right insular cortex and bilaterally inferior frontal gyrus were more active for identity concealment compared to the control condition, whereas identity faking elicited a significantly larger percentage signal increase than the control condition in the right superior frontal gyrus, left calcarine, and right caudate. These results suggest that different neural systems associated with both identity processing and deception were involved in identity concealment and faking. PMID:23144915

  7. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-06-01

    This two-part series explores the phenomenon of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. In Part 1 we focus on defining concealed pregnancy as a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, that can lead to tragic consequences such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be presented (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016). PMID:27451485

  8. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  9. Robust identification of concealed dangerous substances using THz imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nystad, Helle E.; Haakestad, Magnus W.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2015-05-01

    False alarm rates must be kept sufficiently low if a method to detect and identify objects or substances is to be implemented in real life applications. This is also true when trying to detect and identify dangerous substances such as explosives and drugs that are concealed in packaging materials. THz technology may be suited to detect these substances, especially when imaging and spectroscopy are combined. To achieve reasonable throughput, the detection and identification process must be automated and this implies reliance on algorithms to perform this task, rather than human beings. The identification part of the algorithm must compare spectral features of the unknown substance with those in a library of features and determining the distance, in some sense, between these features. If the distance is less than some defined threshold a match is declared. In this paper we consider two types of spectral characteristic that are derived from measured time-domain signals measured in the THz regime: the absorbance and its derivative. Also, we consider two schemes to measure the distance between the unknown and library characteristics: Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the effect of windowing of the measured time-domain signal on the performance of the algorithms is studied, by varying the Blackman-Harris (B-H) window width. Algorithm performance is quantified by studying the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). For the data considered in this study we conclude that the best performance is obtained when the derivative of the absorbance is used in combination with a narrow B-H window and SAM. SAM is a more straight-forward method and requires no large training data sets and tweaking.

  10. Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

  11. Drug Use and Spatial Dynamics of Household Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Brown, Emma J

    2016-01-01

    Household space allocation by women who consume drugs in New York and North Florida is depicted to demonstrate the complex character of household space and social relations. Some parents attempt to hide their drug consumption through the allocation space in the household for drug use. Women allocation of space for drug use within their households and the impact of this on the household are relevant issues with implications for therapy and prevention. Objective The use of household space has not been a focus of social scientists. Middle class households have been used by decoration literature to specify space utilization. Modest literature pay attention to the utilization of household space among drug focused households. Analysis herein looks at the lived social relations of drug users to their children through controlling household space. Methods Data presented comes from two studies, New York and Florida. The studies involved a total of 158 participants in 72 families from New York and 26 participants in 23 families in North Florida. Both researches used an ethnographic methodology focusing on a variety of behavior patterns and conduct norms occurring within drug abusing households. Repeated interviews and observations took place in households which were visited at different times and days of the week. Florida study was conducted over a 2-year period; New York study took place over a 5-year period. Results Data suggest parents attempted to conceal their drug use from their offspring by using various strategies. Mental, social, and physical were tied together in space allocation. Household space acquired a different meaning and arose from use practice. Conclusion In urban and rural settings a pattern of household allocation space and drug consumption is emerging. Although drug consumption is still prominent, it is not all consuming or the primary focus in the lives of women who use drugs. These women may have learned to integrate their consumption into their daily

  12. Fund Allocations for Information Resources in China's Key Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jin-Chuan

    1999-01-01

    Allocating adequate materials funds from the university operation budget is essential if libraries in China's key universities are to successfully support their learning and research communities. This article examines funding problems, and suggests proposals for change: establish a deducting-percentage system; enhance integrated resources…

  13. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS Restrictions and Criteria for... CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103 programs, will include... to adequately service CCC guaranteed debt; (c) Financial status of participating banks in...

  14. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS Restrictions and Criteria for... CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103 programs, will include... to adequately service CCC guaranteed debt; (c) Financial status of participating banks in...

  15. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS Restrictions and Criteria for... CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103 programs, will include... to adequately service CCC guaranteed debt; (c) Financial status of participating banks in...

  16. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103... importing country to adequately service CCC guaranteed debt; (c) Financial status of participating banks...

  17. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103... importing country to adequately service CCC guaranteed debt; (c) Financial status of participating banks...

  18. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  19. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  20. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  3. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  4. EZBC video streaming with channel coding and error concealment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajic, Ivan V.; Woods, John W.

    2003-06-01

    In this text we present a system for streaming video content encoded using the motion-compensated Embedded Zero Block Coder (EZBC). The system incorporates unequal loss protection in the form of multiple description FEC (MD-FEC) coding, which provides adequate protection for the embedded video bitstream when the loss process is not very bursty. The adverse effects of burst losses are reduced using a novel motion-compensated error concealmet method.

  5. How many more guns?: Estimating the effect of allowing licensed concealed handguns on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Nobles, Matt R; Wells, William; Cavanaugh, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Among other arguments, advocates for lifting bans on carrying concealed handguns on campus propose that this would increase the prevalence of legitimately carried handguns, which might then deter crimes or be used to intervene in campus shooting incidents like the one that took place at Virginia Tech in 2007. Opponents suggest that increased prevalence of concealed handguns would lead to increases in other negative consequences, such as accidental shootings. Little empirical research has examined the potential outcomes of such a policy change, nor has existing research examined the prerequisite issue of whether lifting these bans would result in substantial increases in the prevalence of concealed handguns among students. Using a sample of undergraduate classrooms selected from five academic buildings at a public university in Texas, this study examines the potential impact of lifting the concealed handgun ban on the likelihood that a given classroom would contain at least one legally carried handgun. Results reveal that the impact of potential policy changes in this area vary based on the building under consideration and the measure of potential handgun prevalence. Limitations of the study and implications for future research on the issue of concealed handgun carrying on college campuses are discussed. PMID:21810786

  6. Biomimetic Concealing of PLGA Microspheres in a 3D Scaffold to Prevent Macrophage Uptake.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Sandri, Monica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Powell, Sebastian T; Tampieri, Anna; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Scaffolds functionalized with delivery systems for the release of growth factors is a robust strategy to enhance tissue regeneration. However, after implantation, macrophages infiltrate the scaffold, eventually initiating the degradation and clearance of the delivery systems. Herein, it is hypothesized that fully embedding the poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) microspheres (MS) in a highly structured collagen-based scaffold (concealing) can prevent their detection, preserving the integrity of the payload. Confocal laser microscopy reveals that non-embedded MS are easily internalized; when concealed, J774 and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) cannot detect them. This is further demonstrated by flow cytometry, as a tenfold decrease is found in the number of MS engulfed by the cells, suggesting that collagen can cloak the MS. This correlates with the amount of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α produced by J774 and BMDM in response to the concealed MS, comparable to that found for non-functionalized collagen scaffolds. Finally, the release kinetics of a reporter protein is preserved in the presence of macrophages, only when MS are concealed. The data provide detailed strategies for fabricating three dimensional (3D) biomimetic scaffolds able to conceal delivery systems and preserve the therapeutic molecules for release. PMID:26797709

  7. Exploring the characteristics of the attentional blink paradigm when used to discover concealed knowledge.

    PubMed

    Niziurski, Julie; Andre, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Ganis and Patnaik (Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:189-196, 2009) reported that the attentional blink paradigm using faces could be used to detect the presence of concealed knowledge. The attentional blink is defined as the inability to successfully detect the second of two target items presented within a short inter-stimulus interval. The present study tested the use of the attentional blink paradigm in a concealed knowledge test by investigating the effect that familiar faces may have on the attentional blink. Participants completed 200 trials where they were told to look for the same familiar target (Target 2; actor Brad Pitt) that was intermixed with neutral face stimuli and one other familiar face (Target 1; actor George Clooney). Target 1 was to act as the concealed knowledge as participants familiar with Target 1 would be distracted by his unannounced presence and report not seeing Target 2 thereby showing an attentional blink. Despite all participants being familiar with Target 2, an attentional blink still occurred, but with higher than normal Target 2 accuracy rates. Overall, we found support for using the AB paradigm with the concealed knowledge test; however, a possible countermeasure to the attentional blink is familiarity with Target 2 as eight of 21 participants who recognized Target 1 (the concealed knowledge) were also able to detect Target 2 on 100 % of the trials where Target 1's presence should have created an attentional blink. PMID:26162299

  8. A multifaceted active swept millimetre-wave approach to the detection of concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Southgate, Matthew; Guest, Elizabeth; Harmer, Stuart; Atiah, Ali

    2008-10-01

    The effective detection of concealed handguns and knives in open spaces is a major challenge for police and security services round the world. Here an automated technique for the detection of concealed handguns that relies on active swept illumination of the target to induce both scattered fields and aspect independent responses from the concealed object is presented. The broad frequency sweep permits information about the object's size to be deduced from transformations into the time/distance domain. In our experiments we collect multiple sweeps across the frequency range at very high speed, which produces a time evolved response from the target, from both normal and cross polarized detectors. From this we extract characteristic signatures from the responses that allow those from innocent objects (e.g. mobile phones, keys etc) to be distinguished from handguns. Information about the optical depth separation of the scattering corners and the degree and shape of cross polarization allows a neural network to successfully concealed handguns. Finally this system utilizes a range of signal processing techniques ranging from correlation between cross and normally polarized scattering through to a neural network classifier to deduce whether a concealed weapon is present.

  9. Spectrum allocations above 40 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenstein, W. E.; Moore, R. P.; Kimball, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-79) revised the International Table of Frequency Allocations to reflect increased interest and activity in the region of the EM spectrum above 40 GHz. The total width of the spectrum allocated (235 GHz) in the region above 40 GHz indicates the extent of this new spectrum resource, made accessible by advances in the state-of-the-art of telecommunications equipment. There are some striking differences between the approach to allocation above and below 40 GHz. For example, there are not bands allocated exclusively. This reflects the characteristics of propagation and the small antenna beamwidths achievable at these frequencies. Attention is given to atmospheric window and absorption band limits, allocations to satellite services, allocations to scientific services, allocations to terrestrial services, the future refinement of the radio regulations above 40 GHz, and allocations of WARC-79 and frequency management.

  10. The role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between self-concealment and disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S; Timko, C Alix

    2011-04-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated whether psychological flexibility mediates the association between self-concealment and disordered eating (DE) symptoms among non-clinical college students. Data of 209 male and female participants (nfemale =165), aged 18-22 years old, were used for analyses. Self-concealment was found to be positively associated with DE symptoms (i.e., general eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related cognitions) and negatively associated with psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility was inversely associated with DE symptoms. Finally, psychological flexibility was found to mediate the association between self-concealment and DE symptoms after accounting for gender, ethnic background, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:21385643

  11. Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Chang, YuShin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) readily penetrates fabrics, thus it can be used to detect objects concealed under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people both indoors and outdoors. However, because of the diffraction limit and low signal level, the imaging system often suffers from low image quality. Therefore, suitable computational processing would be required for automatic analysis of the images. The authors present statistical and computational algorithms and their implementations for real-time concealed object detection. The histogram of the image is modeled as a Gaussian mixture distribution, and hidden object areas are segmented by a multilevel scheme involving the expectation-maximization algorithm. The complete algorithm has been implemented in both MATLAB and C++. Experimental and simulation results confirm that the implemented system can achieve real-time detection of concealed objects.

  12. Real-time detection of concealed chemical hazards under ambient light conditions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa; Izake, Emad L

    2013-07-01

    Current concerns regarding terrorism and international crime highlight the need for new techniques for detecting unknown and hazardous substances. A novel Raman spectroscopy-based technique, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), was recently devised for noninvasively probing the contents of diffusely scattering and opaque containers. Here, we demonstrate a modified portable SORS sensor for detecting concealed substances in-field under different background lighting conditions. Samples including explosive precursors, drugs, and an organophosphate insecticide (chemical warfare agent surrogate) were concealed inside diffusely scattering packaging including plastic, paper, and cloth. Measurements were carried out under incandescent and fluorescent light as well as under daylight to assess the suitability of the probe for different real-life conditions. In each case, it was possible to identify the substances against their reference Raman spectra in less than 1 min. The developed sensor has potential for rapid detection of concealed hazardous substances in airports, mail distribution centers, and customs checkpoints. PMID:23692353

  13. Economics of spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melody, W. H.

    The effective and efficient allocation and use of the spectrum can be ensured only by a set of sharing rules that will reflect the interests, values, and power of all affected parties. What is now happening is that the new interests and different values of the developing countries are pressing to change the international sharing rules established by a small group of high-technology nations. It is noted that the latter have established a massive telecommunications infrastructure on the basis of inherited sharing rules that reflect only their interests and a much simplified scarcity problem. Once long-term goals and underlying principles of allocation are established, communication technologies and markets can be directed, through a series of adjustment policies, to achieve them. A crucial first step in the creation of an international information environment in which 'free' flows will be balanced flows is the establishment of a balanced and equitable set of sharing rules for the radio spectrum.

  14. Combining the P300-complex trial-based concealed information test and the reaction time-based autobiographical implicit association test in concealed memory detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2012-08-01

    Despite the P300-concealed information test's validity in detecting concealed memory when it is conducted immediately after the mock crime, whether the P300-CIT's detection efficiency is moderated by time delay remains unknown. Here, we conducted a mock crime study in which guilty participants were tested immediately after the mock crime or 1 month later. An innocent group was also tested. Assuming that the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) and the P300-CIT rely on nonoverlapping mechanisms for memory detection, participants were tested using both the P300-CIT and the reaction time (RT)-based aIAT. Results suggested that the sensitivity of both tests remains even after the 1-month delay. The indicators from the RT-aIAT and P300-CIT were uncorrelated, thus combining P300-CIT and aIAT data further increased the efficiency of memory detection. PMID:22681260

  15. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  16. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  17. The association between concealing emotions at work and medical utilization in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the association between concealing emotions at work and medical utilization. Methods Data from the 2007–2009 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) was used, 7,094 participants (3,837 males, 3,257 females) aged between 20 and 54 who were economically active and completed all necessary questionnaire items were included. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for differences in hospitalization, outpatient visits, and pharmaceutical drug use between those who concealed their emotions and those who did not were investigated using logistic regression models with and without gender stratification. Results Among those who concealed their emotions (n = 2,763), 47.4% were females, and 50.1% had chronic disease. In addition, 9.7% of the concealing emotions group had been hospitalized within the last year, 24.8% had been outpatients in the last two weeks, and 28.3% had used pharmaceutical drugs in the last two weeks. All ORs represent the odds of belonging to the concealing emotions group over the non-concealing emotions group. After adjustment for individual, occupational, socioeconomic and disease factors, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) in hospitalization are 1.29 (1.08 ~ 1.53) in the total population, 1.25 (0.98 ~ 1.60) in males and 1.30 (1.02 ~ 1.66) in females, in outpatient visits are 1.15 (1.02 ~ 1.29) in the total population, 1.05 (0.88 ~ 1.24) in males and 1.25 (1.06 ~ 1.47) in females and in pharmaceutical drug use are 1.12 (1.01 ~ 1.25) in the total population, 1.08 (0.92 ~ 1.27) in males and 1.14 (0.98 ~ 1.33) in females. Conclusions Those who concealed their emotions at work were more likely to use medical services. Moreover, the health effects of concealing emotions at work might be more detrimental in women than in men. PMID:25852941

  18. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  19. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations... amounts that will be harvested, or a combination of the two. Estimates of the amount of Pacific...

  20. The Role of Stigma Concealment in the Retrospective High School Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David M.; Bastone, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    High school is a time when most gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths experience a great deal of distress related to the stigma attached to being gay. Many try to avoid stigmatization by concealing the fact that they are GLB. This brief report presents a descriptive, multidimensional approach to understanding GLB stigma concealment as a…

  1. Productive and Inclusive? How Documentation Concealed Racialising Practices in a Diversity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how documentation concealed racialising practices in a diversity project that was seen to be productive and inclusive. Documentation examples are taken from a doctoral study about embedding Indigenous perspectives in early childhood education curricula in two Australian urban childcare centres. In place of reporting examples…

  2. University Presidents' Perceptions and Practice Regarding the Carrying of Concealed Handguns on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dake, Joseph; Payton, Erica; Teeple, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions and practices of a national sample of college and university presidents regarding their support for concealed handguns being carried on college campuses. Participants: The sample for this study consisted of a national random sample of 900 college or university presidents. Methods: In the spring of 2013, a…

  3. Digital image processing in the SECURE concealed-object detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1993-04-01

    A new technology has been developed for detecting explosives and other dangerous objects concealed under persons' clothing. The 'Subambient Exposure, Computer Utilized Reflected Energy' (SECURE) method uses a very low level of back-scattered x-rays in conjunction with digital image processing to produce an image of the person and any concealed objects. Image processing algorithms, used in the system are directed at presenting information to a human operator in the best possible manner for foreign object detection. These algorithms are viewed as being near optimum, and additional development is probably not justified. Algorithm development is needed in the area of automatic threat detection. This has the potential of reducing the invasion of privacy associated with having a security operator view each image. It also has the potential of reducing the serious problem of operator complacency. In one approach, the new algorithm must (1) recognize and isolate objects in the image, (2) discriminate between concealed objects and human anatomy, and (3) discriminate between dangerous and benign concealed objects. The images produced with the SECURE technology are extremely noisy due to the low levels of radiation used. Any algorithm developed must perform well in this noisy environment. Execution of the algorithm must be accomplished in less than a few seconds. Hardware to implement the algorithm must be of a complexity and cost compatible with the commercial SECURE system.

  4. Orienting versus inhibition in the Concealed Information Test: Different cognitive processes drive different physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Selle, Nathalie Klein; Verschuere, Bruno; Kindt, Merel; Meijer, Ewout; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2016-04-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) provides a valid tool for psychophysiological detection of concealed knowledge. However, its precise theoretical underpinnings remain a matter of debate. The differential physiological responses elicited by concealed, relevant items, relative to control items, were traditionally explained as reflecting an orienting response (OR). According to an alternative account, these responses reflect attempts to inhibit arousal. The present study examined whether and to what extent CIT detection efficiency is affected by instructions aimed at manipulating arousal inhibition (AI). One hundred and forty-eight undergraduate students completed a CIT, while electrodermal, cardiac, and respiratory measures were recorded. Half of the participants were requested to imagine that they are suspected of committing a crime and were motivated to avoid detection (presumably eliciting both OR and AI), while the other half were requested to imagine that they are witnesses of a crime and were motivated to be detected (presumably eliciting OR only). All participants were further requested to remain silent throughout the test. In both conditions, concealed items led to a similar increase in skin conductance as compared to the control items. However, the typically observed heart rate deceleration and respiratory suppression were found in suspects, but not in witnesses. These data imply that different mechanisms drive the responding of different psychophysiological measures used in the CIT, with skin conductance reflecting OR, and heart rate and respiration primarily reflecting AI. PMID:26615984

  5. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  6. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. PMID:26763500

  7. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  8. Shape-descriptor-based detection of concealed weapons in millimeter-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamani, Mohamed-Adel; Ferris, David D., Jr.

    2001-03-01

    Shape parameters based on circularity, Fourier descriptors, and invariant moments are studied for the automatic detection of weapons in millimeter-wave data. The data is collected by a 30-frames-per-second millimeter-wave (MMW) imager manufactured by Trex Enterprises for the detection of weapons concealed underneath a person's clothing. Results are illustrated through processing real MMW data.

  9. Detecting concealed information using feedback related event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Lin, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-10-01

    Employing an event-related potential (ERP)-based concealed information test (CIT), the present study investigated (1) the neurocognitive processes when people received feedbacks regarding their deceptive/truthful responses and (2) whether such feedback-related ERP activities can be used to detect concealed information above and beyond the recognition-related P300. During the CIT, participants were presented with rare, meaningful probes (their own names) embedded within a series of frequent yet meaningless irrelevants (others' names). Participants were instructed to deny their recognition of the probes. Critically, following participants' responses, they were provided with feedbacks regarding whether they succeeded or failed in the CIT. Replicating previous ERP-based CITs, we found a larger P300 elicited by probe compared to irrelevant. Regarding feedback-related ERPs, a temporospatial Principle Component Analyses found two ERP components that were not only sensitive to feedback manipulations but also can discriminate probe from irrelevant: an earlier, central-distributed positivity that was elicited by "success" feedbacks peaked around 219ms; and a later, right central-distributed positivity that was also elicited by "success" feedbacks, peaked around 400ms. Importantly, the feedback ERPs were not correlated with P300 that was elicited by probe/irrelevant, suggesting that these two ERPs reflect independent processes underlying memory concealment. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using feedback-related ERPs to detect concealed memory and thus deception. PMID:25058495

  10. Fear Perceptions in Public Parks: Interactions of Environmental Concealment, the Presence of People Recreating, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear…

  11. A non-imaging polarized terahertz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Meyer, Doug

    2011-06-01

    Existing terahertz THz systems for detecting concealed explosives are not capable of identifying explosive type which leads to higher false alarm rates. Moreover, some of those systems are imaging systems that invade personal privacy, and require more processing and computational resources. Other systems have no polarization preference which makes them incapable of capturing the geometric features of an explosive. In this study a non-imaging polarized THz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives overcoming the forgoing shortcomings is developed. The system employs a polarized passive THz sensor in acquiring emitted data from a scene that may have concealed explosives. The acquired data are decomposed into their natural resonance frequencies, and the number of those frequencies is used as criteria in detecting the explosive presence. If the presence of an explosive is confirmed, a set of physically based retrieval algorithms is used in extracting the explosive dielectric constant/refractive index value from natural resonance frequencies and amplitudes of associated signals. Comparing the refractive index value against a database of refractive indexes of known explosives identifies the explosive type. As an application, a system having a dual polarized radiometer operating within the frequency band of 0.62- 0.82 THz is presented and used in detecting and identifying person borne C-4 explosive concealed under a cotton garment. The system showed higher efficiencies in detecting and identifying the explosive.

  12. How Many More Guns?: Estimating the Effect of Allowing Licensed Concealed Handguns on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Nobles, Matt R.; Wells, William; Cavanaugh, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Among other arguments, advocates for lifting bans on carrying concealed handguns on campus propose that this would increase the prevalence of legitimately carried handguns, which might then deter crimes or be used to intervene in campus shooting incidents like the one that took place at Virginia Tech in 2007. Opponents suggest that increased…

  13. The Cost of Question Concealment: Eye-Tracking and MEG Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jesse; Pylkkanen, Liina; McElree, Brian; Frisson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Although natural language appears to be largely compositional, the meanings of certain expressions cannot be straightforwardly recovered from the meanings of their parts. This study examined the online processing of one such class of expressions: "concealed questions", in which the meaning of a complex noun phrase ("the proof of the theorem")…

  14. 36-Month-Olds Conceal Visual and Auditory Information from Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By three years of age, children are skilled at assessing under which circumstances others can see things. However, nothing is known about whether they can use this knowledge to guide their own deceptive behaviour. Here we investigated 3-year-olds' ability to strategically inhibit or conceal forbidden actions that a nearby adult experimenter could…

  15. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  16. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  17. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  18. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  19. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  20. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  3. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  13. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  14. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  17. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  18. Concealed explosive detection on personnel using a wideband holographic millimeter-wave imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1996-06-01

    A novel wideband millimeter-wave imaging system is presently being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that will allow rapid inspection of personnel for concealed explosives, handguns, or other threats. Millimeter-wavelength electromagnetic waves are effective for this application since they readily penetrate common clothing materials, while being partially reflected from the person under surveillance as well as any concealed items. To form an image rapidly, a linear array of 128 antennas is used to electronically scan over a horizontal aperture of 0.75 meters, while the linear array is mechanically swept over a vertical aperture of 2 meters. At each point over this 2-D aperture, coherent wideband data reflected from the target is gathered using wide-beamwidth antennas. The data is recorded coherently, and reconstructed (focused) using an efficient image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. This algorithm works in the near-field of both the target and the scanned aperture and preserves the diffraction limited resolution of less than one-wavelength. The wide frequency bandwidth is used to provide depth resolution, which allows the image to be fully focused over a wide range of depths, resulting in a full 3-D image. This is not possible in a normal optical (or quasi-optical) imaging system. This system has been extensively tested using concealed metal and plastic weapons, and has recently been tested using real plastic explosives (C-4 and RDX) and simulated liquid explosives concealed on personnel. Millimeter-waves do not penetrate the human body, so it is necessary to view the subject from several angles in order to fully inspect for concealed weapons. Full animations containing 36 - 72 frames recorded from subjects rotated by 5 - 10 degrees, have been found to be extremely useful for rapid, effective inspection of personnel.

  19. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  20. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  1. Concealed threat detection with the IRAD sub-millimeter wave 3D imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Cassidy, Scott L.; Jones, Ben; Clark, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Sub-millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is a promising technology for the stand-off detection of threats concealed on people. The IRAD 340 GHz 3D imaging radar uses polarization intensity information to identify signatures associated with concealed threats. We report on an extensive trials program which has been carried out involving dozens of individual subjects wearing a variety of different clothing to evaluate the detection of a wide range of threat and benign items. We have developed an automatic algorithm to run on the radar which yields a level of anomaly indication in real time. Statistical analysis of the large volume of recorded data has enabled performance metrics for the radar system to be evaluated.

  2. Time-delay concealment and complexity enhancement of an external-cavity laser through optical injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianqiang; Pan, Wei; Locquet, A; Citrin, D S

    2015-10-01

    The concealment of the time-delay signature (TDS) of chaotic external-cavity lasers is necessary to ensure the security of optical chaos-based cryptosystems. We show that this signature can be removed simply by optically injecting an external-cavity laser with a large linewidth-enhancement factor into a second, noninjection-locked, semiconductor laser. Concealment is ensured both in the amplitude and in the phase of the optical field, satisfying a sought-after property of optical chaos-based communications. Meanwhile, enhancement of the dynamical complexity, characterized by permutation entropy, coincides with strong TDS suppression over a wide range of parameters, the area for which depends sensitively on the linewidth-enhancement factor. PMID:26421545

  3. Terahertz absorbance spectrum fitting method for quantitative detection of concealed contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang; Kang, Kejun; Feng, Bing; Zhang, Yan

    2007-12-01

    We present a quantitative method for the nondestructive detection of concealed contraband based on terahertz transmission spectroscopy. Without knowing the prior information of barrier materials, the amount of concealed contraband can be extracted by approximating the terahertz absorbance spectrum of the barrier material with a low-order polynomial and then fitting the measured absorbance spectrum of the inspected object with the polynomial and the known standard spectrum of this kind of contraband. We verify the validity of this method using a sample of explosive 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) covered with several different barrier materials which are commonly encountered in actual inspection, and good agreement between the calculated and actual value of the amount of RDX is obtained for the experiments performed under both nitrogen and air atmospheres. This indicates that the presented method can achieve quantitative detection of hidden contraband, which is important for security inspection applications.

  4. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed. PMID:25904879

  5. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed. PMID:25904879

  6. Unsupervised image segmentation for passive THz broadband images for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Mabel D.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Grossman, Erich; Popović, Zoya

    2007-04-01

    This work presents the application of a basic unsupervised classification algorithm for the segmentation of indoor passive Terahertz images. The 30,000 pixel broadband images of a person with concealed weapons under clothing are taken at a range of 0.8-2m over a frequency range of 0.1-1.2THz using single-pixel row-based raster scanning. The spiral-antenna coupled 36x1x0.02μm Nb bridge cryogenic micro-bolometers are developed at NIST-Optoelectronics Division. The antenna is evaporated on a 250μm thick Si substrate with a 4mm diameter hyper-hemispherical Si lens. The NETD of the microbolometer is 125mK at an integration time of 30 ms. The background temperature calibration is performed with a known 25 pixel source above 330 K, and a measured background fluctuation of 200-500mK. Several weapons were concealed under different fabrics: cotton, polyester, windblocker jacket and thermal sweater. Measured temperature contrasts ranged from 0.5-1K for wrinkles in clothing to 5K for a zipper and 8K for the concealed weapon. In order to automate feature detection in the images, some image processing and pattern recognition techniques have been applied and the results are presented here. We show that even simple algorithms, that can potentially be performed in real time, are capable of differentiating between a metal and a dielectric object concealed under clothing. Additionally, we show that pre-processing can reveal low temperature contrast features, such as folds in clothing.

  7. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia. PMID:26920167

  8. ARPA/NIJ/Rome Laboratory concealed weapon detection program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1996-06-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging and non- imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed beneath a person's clothing. Sensors that are discussed in this paper are characterized as either non-imaging or imaging. Non-imaging sensors include wide band radar and portal devices such as metal detectors. In general the strength of non-imaging sensors rest with the fact that they are generally inexpensive and can rapidly perform bulk separation between regions where persons are likely to be carrying concealed weapons and those regions that are likely to contain persons who are unarmed. The bulk process is typically accomplished at the expense of false alarm rate. Millimeter-wave (MMW), microwave, x-ray, acoustic, magnetic, and infrared (IR) imaging sensor technologies provide with greater certainty the means to isolate persons within a crowd that are carrying concealed weapons and to identify the weapon type. The increased certainty associated with imaging sensors is accomplished at the expense of cost and bulk surveillance of the crowd. CWD technologies have a variety of military and civilian applications. This technology focus area addresses specific military needs under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) operations other than war/law enforcement (OOTW/LE). Additionally, this technology has numerous civilian law enforcement applications that are being investigated under the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ) Concealed Weapons Detection program. This paper discusses the wide variety of sensors that might be employed in support of a typical scenario, the strengths and weaknesses of each of the sensors relative to the given scenario, and how CWD breadboards will be tested to determine the optimal CWD application. It rapidly becomes apparent that no single sensor will completely satisfy the CWD mission necessitating the fusion of two or more of these sensors.

  9. Tracheal tube obstruction in a case of concealed tracheomalacia--a case report.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, L; Charissi, N

    2005-06-01

    We report on the successful mangement of airway obstruction, immediately after tracheal intubation for elective operation, in a patient with concealed tracheomalacia. We discuss the issues posed in patients with mild or undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are relevant to tracheomalacia. We underline the link between tracheomalacia and COPD and emphasize the high level of awareness needed, in order to avoid or manage promptly adverse events during airway management for anesthesia in these patients. PMID:16438015

  10. Three-Dimensional Millimeter-wave Imaging for Concealed Weapon Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M. ); McMakin, Douglas L. ); Hall, Thomas E. )

    2000-12-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging techniques and systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the detection of concealed weapons and contraband at airports and other secure locations. These techniques were derived from microwave holography techniques which utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited to the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel since millimeter-waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, a wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging technique is described. Practical weapon detection systems for airport, or other high-throughput applications, require high-speed scanning on the order of 3 to 10 seconds. To achieve this goal, a prototype imaging system utilizing a 2 7-33 GHz linear sequentially switched array and a high-speed linear scanner has been developed and tested. This system is described in detail along with numerous imaging results.

  11. Image fusion based on millimeter-wave for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuejin; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Yalin; Zhang, Jingshui

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a novel multi sensors image fusion technology which is presented for concealed weapon detection (CWD). It is known to all, because of the good transparency of the clothes at millimeter wave band, a millimeter wave radiometer can be used to image and distinguish concealed contraband beneath clothes, for example guns, knives, detonator and so on. As a result, we adopt the passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging technology for airport security. However, in consideration of the wavelength of millimeter wave and the single channel mechanical scanning, the millimeter wave image has law optical resolution, which can't meet the need of practical application. Therefore, visible image (VI), which has higher resolution, is proposed for the image fusion with the millimeter wave image to enhance the readability. Before the image fusion, a novel image pre-processing which specifics to the fusion of millimeter wave imaging and visible image is adopted. And in the process of image fusion, multi resolution analysis (MRA) based on Wavelet Transform (WT) is adopted. In this way, the experiment result shows that this method has advantages in concealed weapon detection and has practical significance.

  12. Preventing shoulder-surfing attack with the concept of concealing the password objects' information.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin; Chong, Yu Nam; Por, Lip Yee

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to "shoulder-surfing" attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack. PMID:24991649

  13. Stepped-frequency CW radar for concealed weapon detection and through-the-wall surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas

    2002-08-01

    Both concealed weapons detection and through the wall surveillance are significant problems for both law enforcement and military personnel. While on the surface it would appear that these two problems are unrelated technologically, they do, in fact, share some common ground. A concealed weapon acts as resonant object, exhibiting electromagnetic resonance peaks at frequencies characteristic of the weapon's major dimensions. For handguns the frequency range of interest lies approximately between 450 MHz and 2 GHz. As it turns out, this is also a region over which many common building materials are largely transparent. As part of grant 97-IJ-CX-K013 from the National Institute of Justice, AKELA, Inc. has developed a stepped-frequency, CW radar that covers this frequency range. The radar is digitally synthesized and controlled and has a range resolution of approximately 4'. Digital waveform control gives the radar the ability to avoid interference with other electronic devices, to tailor data collection for signal processing requirements, and to change its sweep time in response to operational requirements. AKELA has developed a brassboard concealed weapons detector that uses this radar. A through the wall imaging system that uses the radar is currently in development under AFRL Contract F30602-00-C-0205.

  14. Concealed neuroanatomy in Michelangelo's Separation of Light From Darkness in the Sistine Chapel.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ian; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-05-01

    Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) was a master anatomist as well as an artistic genius. He dissected cadavers numerous times and developed a profound understanding of human anatomy. From 1508 to 1512, Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. His Sistine Chapel frescoes are considered one of the monumental achievements of Renaissance art. In the winter of 1511, Michelangelo entered the final stages of the Sistine Chapel project and painted 4 frescoes along the longitudinal apex of the vault, which completed a series of 9 central panels depicting scenes from the Book of Genesis. It is reported that Michelangelo concealed an image of the brain in the first of these last 4 panels, namely, the Creation of Adam. Here we present evidence that he concealed another neuronanatomic structure in the final panel of this series, the Separation of Light From Darkness, specifically a ventral view of the brainstem. The Separation of Light From Darkness is an important panel in the Sistine Chapel iconography because it depicts the beginning of Creation and is located directly above the altar. We propose that Michelangelo, a deeply religious man and an accomplished anatomist, intended to enhance the meaning of this iconographically critical panel and possibly document his anatomic accomplishments by concealing this sophisticated neuroanatomic rendering within the image of God. PMID:20404688

  15. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects' Information

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack. PMID:24991649

  16. Video inpainting with short-term windows: application to object removal and error concealment.

    PubMed

    Ebdelli, Mounira; Le Meur, Olivier; Guillemot, Christine

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). More specifically, to inpaint a frame, the method starts by aligning all the frames of the GoP. This is achieved by a region-based homography computation method which allows us to strengthen the spatial consistency of aligned frames. Then, from the stack of aligned frames, an energy function based on both spatial and temporal coherency terms is globally minimized. This energy function is efficient enough to provide high quality results even when the number of pictures in the GoP is rather small, e.g. 20 neighboring frames. This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context. PMID:26011884

  17. Active wideband 350GHz imaging system for concealed-weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick L. J.

    2009-05-01

    A prototype active wideband 350 GHz imaging system has been developed to address the urgent need for standoff concealed-weapon detection. This system is based on a wideband, heterodyne, frequency-multiplier-based transceiver system coupled to a quasi-optical focusing system and high-speed conical scanner. This system is able to quickly scan personnel for concealed weapons. Additionally, due to the wideband operation, this system provides accurate ranging information, and the images obtained are fully three-dimensional. Waves in the microwave, millimeter-wave, and terahertz (3 GHz to 1 THz) frequency bands are able to penetrate many optical obscurants, and can be used to form the basis of high-resolution imaging systems. Waves in the sub-millimeter-wave band (300 GHz to 1 THz) are particularly interesting for standoff concealed-weapon detection at ranges of 5 - 20+ meters, due to their unique combination of high resolution and clothing penetration. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has previously developed portal screening systems that operate at the lower end of the millimeter-wave frequency range around 30 GHz. These systems are well suited for screening within portals; however, increasing the range of these systems would dramatically reduce the resolution due to diffraction at their relatively long wavelength. In this paper, the standoff 350 GHz imaging system is described in detail and numerous imaging results are presented.

  18. Fixations and eye-blinks allow for detecting concealed crime related memories.

    PubMed

    Peth, Judith; Kim, Johann S C; Gamer, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a method of forensic psychophysiology that allows for revealing concealed crime related knowledge. Such detection is usually based on autonomic responses but there is a huge interest in other measures that can be acquired unobtrusively. Eye movements and blinks might be such measures but their validity is unclear. Using a mock crime procedure with a manipulation of the arousal during the crime as well as the delay between crime and CIT, we tested whether eye tracking measures allow for detecting concealed knowledge. Guilty participants showed fewer but longer fixations on central crime details and this effect was even present after stimulus offset and accompanied by a reduced blink rate. These ocular measures were partly sensitive for induction of emotional arousal and time of testing. Validity estimates were moderate but indicate that a significant differentiation between guilty and innocent subjects is possible. Future research should further investigate validity differences between gaze measures during a CIT and explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23511446

  19. On the sensitivity of terahertz gyrotron based systems for remote detection of concealed radioactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Sprangle, P.; Semenov, V. E.; Dorozhkina, D. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu

    2012-06-01

    This paper analyzes some features of systems intended to remotely detect concealed radioactive materials by using a focused THz radiation. This concept is based on possibility to focus high-power THz radiation in a small spot where the wave field exceeds the breakdown threshold. However, in the absence of any sources of ionization, the probability to have in this breakdown-prone volume any seed electrons is very low. Thus, high breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses will indicate the presence of concealed radioactive materials in the vicinity of a focused wave beam. The goal of the present paper is to determine by using the statistical theory THz pulse duration required for reliable initiation of the discharge. Then, the detectable mass of the radioactive material is determined as the function of distance and of the THz wave power and pulse duration. Lastly, possible benefits from using pulse compressors, which shorten the pulse duration but increase the wave power and, hence, the breakdown-prone volume, are analyzed. It is shown that the use of pulse compressors can significantly improve the sensitivity of THz gyrotron based systems for remote detection of concealed radioactive materials.

  20. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally-Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men’s mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may adversely impact their mental health. This report examined the factors associated with disclosure and with concealment of sexual orientation, the association of disclosure and concealment with mental health, and the potential mediators (i.e., internalized homophobia, social support) of this association with mental health. Method An ethnically-diverse sample of 203 non-gay-identified, behaviorally-bisexual men who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to their female partners were recruited in New York City to complete a single set of self-report measures. Results Concealment was associated with higher income, a heterosexual identification, living with a wife or girlfriend, more frequent sex with women, and less frequent sex with men. Greater concealment, but not disclosure to friends and family, was significantly associated with lower levels of mental health. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that both internalized homophobia and general emotional support significantly mediated the association between concealment and mental health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that concealment and disclosure are independent constructs among bisexual men. Further, they suggest that interventions addressing concerns about concealment, emotional support, and internalized homophobia may be more beneficial for increasing the mental health of bisexual men than those focused on promoting disclosure. PMID:23276123

  1. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  2. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  3. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  4. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  6. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  7. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  8. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  9. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  10. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  11. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  12. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  13. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  14. Ultra-wide-band 3D microwave imaging scanner for the detection of concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas J.

    2015-10-01

    The threat of concealed weapons, explosives and contraband in footwear, bags and suitcases has led to the development of new devices, which can be deployed for security screening. To address known deficiencies of metal detectors and x-rays, an UWB 3D microwave imaging scanning apparatus using FMCW stepped frequency working in the K and Q bands and with a planar scanning geometry based on an x y stage, has been developed to screen suspicious luggage and footwear. To obtain microwave images of the concealed weapons, the targets are placed above the platform and the single transceiver horn antenna attached to the x y stage is moved mechanically to perform a raster scan to create a 2D synthetic aperture array. The S11 reflection signal of the transmitted sweep frequency from the target is acquired by a VNA in synchronism with each position step. To enhance and filter from clutter and noise the raw data and to obtain the 2D and 3D microwave images of the concealed weapons or explosives, data processing techniques are applied to the acquired signals. These techniques include background subtraction, Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT), thresholding, filtering by gating and windowing and deconvolving with the transfer function of the system using a reference target. To focus the 3D reconstructed microwave image of the target in range and across the x y aperture without using focusing elements, 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques are applied to the post-processed data. The K and Q bands, between 15 to 40 GHz, show good transmission through clothing and dielectric materials found in luggage and footwear. A description of the system, algorithms and some results with replica guns and a comparison of microwave images obtained by IFFT, 2D and 3D SAR techniques are presented.

  15. Electromagnetic induction imaging of concealed metallic objects by means of resonating circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, R.; Watson, J. C.; Bartlett, P. A.; Renzoni, F.

    2016-05-01

    An electromagnetic induction system, suitable for 2D imaging of metallic samples of different electrical conductivities, has been developed. The system is based on a parallel LCR circuit comprising a ferrite-cored coil (7.8 mm x 9.5 mm, L=680 μH at 1 KHz), a variable resistor and capacitor. The working principle of the system is based on eddy current induction inside a metallic sample when this is introduced into the AC magnetic field created by the coil. The inductance of the LCR circuit is modified due to the presence of the sample, to an extent that depends on its conductivity. Such modification is known to increase when the system is operated at its resonant frequency. Characterizing different metals based on their values of conductivity is therefore possible by utilizing a suitable system operated at resonance. Both imaging and material characterization were demonstrated by means of the proposed electromagnetic induction technique. Furthermore, the choice of using a system with an adjustable resonant frequency made it possible to select resonances that allow magnetic-field penetration through conductive screens. Investigations on the possibility of imaging concealed metals by penetrating such shields have been carried out. A penetration depth of δ~3 mm through aluminium (Al) was achieved. This allowed concealed metallic samples- having conductivities ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm-1 and hidden behind 1.5-mm-thick Al shields- to be imaged. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the concealed metallic objects can be revealed. The technique was thus shown to be a promising detection tool for security applications.

  16. TDCS Guided using fMRI Significantly Accelerates Learning to Identify Concealed Objects

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Vincent P.; Coffman, Brian A.; Mayer, Andy R.; Weisend, Michael P.; Lane, Terran D.R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Raybourn, Elaine M.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Wassermann, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    The accurate identification of obscured and concealed objects in complex environments was an important skill required for survival during human evolution, and is required today for many forms of expertise. Here we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) guided using neuroimaging to increase learning rate in a novel, minimally guided discovery-learning paradigm. Ninety-six subjects identified threat-related objects concealed in naturalistic virtual surroundings used in real-world training. A variety of brain networks were found using fMRI data collected at different stages of learning, with two of these networks focused in right inferior frontal and right parietal cortex. Anodal 2.0 mA tDCS performed for 30 minutes over these regions in a series of single-blind, randomized studies resulted in significant improvements in learning and performance compared with 0.1 mA tDCS. This difference in performance increased to a factor of two after a one-hour delay. A dose-response effect of current strength on learning was also found. Taken together, these brain imaging and stimulation studies suggest that right frontal and parietal cortex are involved in learning to identify concealed objects in naturalistic surroundings. Furthermore, they suggest that the application of anodal tDCS over these regions can greatly increase learning, resulting in one of the largest effects on learning yet reported. The methods developed here may be useful to decrease the time required to attain expertise in a variety of settings. PMID:21094258

  17. Face and Voice as Social Stimuli Enhance Differential Physiological Responding in a Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Assmann, Birthe; Krieg, Bennet; Vaitl, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT). Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT. Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter’s uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration line length (RLL), phasic heart rate (pHR), and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL) were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory – Revised (PPI-R) was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found. The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants’ motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT. PMID:23293613

  18. TDCS guided using fMRI significantly accelerates learning to identify concealed objects.

    PubMed

    Clark, Vincent P; Coffman, Brian A; Mayer, Andy R; Weisend, Michael P; Lane, Terran D R; Calhoun, Vince D; Raybourn, Elaine M; Garcia, Christopher M; Wassermann, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    The accurate identification of obscured and concealed objects in complex environments was an important skill required for survival during human evolution, and is required today for many forms of expertise. Here we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) guided using neuroimaging to increase learning rate in a novel, minimally guided discovery-learning paradigm. Ninety-six subjects identified threat-related objects concealed in naturalistic virtual surroundings used in real-world training. A variety of brain networks were found using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected at different stages of learning, with two of these networks focused in right inferior frontal and right parietal cortex. Anodal 2.0 mA tDCS performed for 30 min over these regions in a series of single-blind, randomized studies resulted in significant improvements in learning and performance compared with 0.1 mA tDCS. This difference in performance increased to a factor of two after a one-hour delay. A dose-response effect of current strength on learning was also found. Taken together, these brain imaging and stimulation studies suggest that right frontal and parietal cortex are involved in learning to identify concealed objects in naturalistic surroundings. Furthermore, they suggest that the application of anodal tDCS over these regions can greatly increase learning, resulting in one of the largest effects on learning yet reported. The methods developed here may be useful to decrease the time required to attain expertise in a variety of settings. PMID:21094258

  19. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  20. Exploiting synthetic aperture radar imagery for retrieving vibration signatures of concealed machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco; Campbell, Justin B.; Jaramillo, Monica; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the instantaneous acceleration associated with vibrating objects that are directly imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be estimated through the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) using the information contained in the complex SAR image. In general, vibration signatures may include, for example, the number of chirped sinusoids as well as their respective base frequencies and chirp rates. By further processing the DFrFT-processed data for clutter-noise rejection by means of pseudo- subspace methods, has been shown that the SAR-vibrometry method can be reliable as long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the slow-time SAR signal at the range-line of interest exceeds 15dB. Meanwhile, the Nyquist theorem dictates that the maximum measurable vibration frequency is limited by half of the pulse-repetition frequency. This paper focuses on the detection and estimation of vibrations generated by machinery concealed within buildings and other structures. This is a challenging task in general because the vibration signatures of the source are typically altered by their housing structure; moreover, the SNR at the surface of the housing structure tends to be reduced. Here, experimental results for three different vibrating targets, including one concealed target, are reported using complex SAR images acquired by the General Atomics Lynx radar at resolutions of 1-ft and 4-in. The concealed vibrating target is actuated by a gear motor with an off-balance weight attached to it, which is enclosed by a wooden housing. The vibrations of the motor are transmitted to a chimney that extends above the housing structure. Using the SAR vibrometry approach, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish among the three vibrating objects based upon their vibration signatures.

  1. Shaeer’s Technique: A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Monsplasty and Revealing the Concealed Penis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: A concealed penis is a condition where part of the penis is invisible below the surface of the prepubic skin. Dermolipectomy can correct this condition, although it involves a long abdominal crease incision, or infrapubic incision around the base of the penis, and a possibility for genital lymphedema. This study describes Shaeer’s technique, a minimally invasive method for revealing the concealed penis. Methods: A 1- to 2-cm-long incision was cut over the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) on either side. A long curved blunt forceps was inserted from one incision, down to the base of the penis and then up to the contralateral ASIS. A 5-mm wide nonabsorbable tape was picked up by the forceps from 1 incision and pulled through to emerge from the other. Pulling on the tape cephalad pulled the mons pubis and revealed the penis. The tape was sutured to the periosteum overlying the ASIS on either side. Patients were followed up for 18 months for penile length, complications, and overall satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients were operated upon. Preoperatively, flaccid visible length was 3 ± 0.9 cm, and erect visible length was 8 ± 4.6 cm. Postoperatively, the flaccid visible length was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm, with a 57.9% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Erect visible length was 11.8 ± 2.1 cm, with a 32% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Length gain was maintained for 18 months. Conclusion: Shaeer’s technique is a minimally invasive, short, and simple procedure for monsplasty and revealing the concealed penis. PMID:27622092

  2. Standoff concealed weapon detection using a 350 GHz radar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2010-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a 350 GHz, active, wideband, three-dimensional, radar imaging system to evaluate the feasibility of active sub-mm imaging for standoff concealed weapon detection. The prototype radar imaging system is based on a wideband, heterodyne, frequency-multiplier-based transceiver system coupled to a quasi-optical focusing system and high-speed rotating conical scanner. The wideband operation of this system provides accurate ranging information, and the images obtained are fully three-dimensional. Recent improvements to the system include increased imaging speed using improved balancing techniques, wider bandwidth, and image display techniques.

  3. Concealed long QT syndrome and intractable partial epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jason H; Bos, Johan Martijn; Meyer, Fredric B; Cascino, Gregory D; Ackerman, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Herein, we describe a patient with concealed type 2 long QT syndrome with concomitant electroencephalogram-documented epilepsy. Although syncope in patients with long QT syndrome is common and often secondary to cerebral hypoxia after a protracted ventricular arrhythmia, this article demonstrates the importance of avoiding "tunnel vision" as patients with long QT syndrome could also have a primary seizure disorder. Identification of the etiology underlying seizurelike activity is paramount in instituting effective therapy. Furthermore, we theorize that abnormal KCHN2-encoded potassium channel repolarization in the brain could result in epilepsy and arrhythmias in long QT syndrome. PMID:23058853

  4. Millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed threats: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Michael C.

    2006-09-01

    There has been intense interest in the use of millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed weapons, explosives and other threats. Electromagnetic waves at these frequencies are safe, penetrate barriers and have short enough wavelengths to allow discrimination between objects. In addition, many solids including explosives have characteristic spectroscopic signatures at terahertz wavelengths which can be used to identify them. This paper reviews the progress which has been made in recent years and identifies the achievements, challenges and prospects for these technologies in checkpoint people screening, stand off detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and suicide bombers as well as more specialized screening tasks.

  5. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain

  6. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  7. Parasitism rate, parasitoid community composition and host specificity on exposed and semi-concealed caterpillars from a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Whitfield, James B; Shima, Hiroshi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in a highly diverse caterpillar-parasitoid food web encompassing 266 species of lepidopteran hosts and 172 species of hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids from a lowland tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. We found that semi-concealed hosts (leaf rollers and leaf tiers) represented 84% of all caterpillars, suffered a higher parasitism rate than exposed caterpillars (12 vs. 5%) and their parasitoids were also more host specific. Semi-concealed hosts may therefore be generally more amenable to biological control by parasitoids than exposed ones. Parasitoid host specificity was highest in Braconidae, lower in Diptera: Tachinidae, and, unexpectedly, the lowest in Ichneumonidae. This result challenges the long-standing view of low host specificity in caterpillar-attacking Tachinidae and suggests higher suitability of Braconidae and lower suitability of Ichneumonidae for biological control of caterpillars. Semi-concealed hosts and their parasitoids are the largest, yet understudied component of caterpillar-parasitoid food webs. However, they still remain much closer in parasitism patterns to exposed hosts than to what literature reports on fully concealed leaf miners. Specifically, semi-concealed hosts keep an equally low share of idiobionts (2%) as exposed caterpillars. PMID:23463243

  8. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  9. Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging for concealed object detection on a naturally walking person

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Andrey; Ivashov, Sergey; Razevig, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Igor; Bechtel, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the architecture of a microwave radar system intended for imaging concealed objects under clothing as a subject walks through the inspection area. The system uses the principle of inverse aperture which is achieved by a person's movement past a stationary microwave sensor array. In the system, the vertical resolution is achieved by arranging microwave sensors vertically while the horizontal resolution is due to the subject's horizontal motion. The positioning of the objects is achieved by employing a synchronous video sensor that allows coherent radar signal processing. A possible radar signal processing technique based on signal accumulation is described. Numerical experiments are conducted with the described object trajectory model. The influence of positioning errors attributed to the video positioning system is also modeled numerically. An experimental setup is designed and proposed to evaluate the suggested signal processing techniques on real data with an electro-mechanical scanner and single transceiver. It is suggested that the signal acquisition with the system can be accomplished using the stop motion technique, in which a series of changing stationary scenes is sampled and processed. Experimental radar images are demonstrated for stationary objects with concealed items and considered as reference images. Further development of the system is suggested.

  10. Combined illumination cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-07-01

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30 - 300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution 3D image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operate will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration.

  11. Combined Illumination Cylindrical Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technique for Concealed Weapon Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-04-01

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30-300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3-D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution three-dimensional image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3-D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operator will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  12. Exposed and concealed antigens as vaccine targets for controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, P A; Trimnell, A R; Kazimirova, M; Labuda, M

    2006-04-01

    Tick vaccines derived from Bm86, a midgut membrane-bound protein of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are currently the only commercially available ectoparasite vaccines. Despite its introduction to the market in 1994, and the recognized need for alternatives to chemical pesticides, progress in developing effective antitick vaccines (and ectoparasite vaccines in general) is slow. The primary rate-limiting step is the identification of suitable antigenic targets for vaccine development. Two sources of candidate vaccine antigens have been identified: 'exposed' antigens that are secreted in tick saliva during attachment and feeding on a host and 'concealed' antigens that are normally hidden from the host. Recently, a third group of antigens has been distinguished that combines the properties of both exposed and concealed antigens. This latter group offers the prospect of a broad-spectrum vaccine effective against both adults and immature stages of a wide variety of tick species. It also shows transmission-blocking and protective activity against a tick-borne pathogen. With the proliferation of molecular techniques and their application to vaccine development, there are high hopes for new and effective antitick vaccines that also control tick-borne diseases. PMID:16542317

  13. An edge-based temporal error concealment for MPEG-coded video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Len; Lien, Hsiu-Yi

    2005-07-01

    When transmitted over unreliable channels, the compressed video can suffer severe degradation. Some strategies were employed to make an acceptable quality of the decoded image sequence. Error concealment (EC) technique is one of effective approaches to diminish the quality degradation. A number of EC algorithms have been developed to combat the transmission errors for MPEG-coded video. These methods always work well to reconstruct the smooth or regular damaged macroblocks. However, for damaged macroblocks were irregular or high-detail, the reconstruction may follow noticeable blurring consequence or not match well with the surrounding macroblocks. This paper proposes an edgebased temporal EC model to conceal the errors. In the proposed method, both the spatial and the temporal contextual features in compressed video are measured by using an edge detector, i.e. Sobel operator. The edge information surrounding a damaged macroblock is utilized to estimate the lost motion vectors based on the boundary matching technique. Next, the estimated motion vectors are used to reconstruct the damaged macroblock by exploiting the information in reference frames. In comparison with traditional EC algorithms, the proposed method provides a significant improvement on both objective peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) measurement and subjective visual quality of MPEG-coded video.

  14. Development of a longer range standoff millimetre wave radar concealed threat detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; Southgate, Matthew J.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Harmer, Stuart W.; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-05-01

    A millimeter wave (75 - 110 GHz) polarimetric radar system (MiRTLE) has been developed for the detection of threat objects, such as guns, knives, or explosive devices, which have been concealed under clothing upon the human body. The system uses a Gaussian lens antenna to enable operation at stand-off ranges up to 25 meters. By utilizing ultra-wideband Swept Frequency Continuous Wave Radar very high range resolution (~ 10mm) is realized. The system is capable of detecting objects positioned in front of the body and of measuring the range of a target. By interpretation of the scattered waveform, the presence of a wide spectrum of threat items concealed on the human body may be detected. Threat detection is autonomously rendered by application of a neural network to the scattered time domain, polarimetric radar returns and the system may be taught to alarm or reject certain classes of objects; this allows for highly specific or broad spectrum threat detection. The radar system is portable and operator steerable allowing standoff monitoring of moving human targets in real time. Rapid (1ms) sweep times and fast signal acquisition and processing allow decisions to be made at video frame rates (30 fps) and integrated directly to a video feed providing the operator with a field of view and facilitating aiming. Performance parameters for detection of guns and simulated explosive devices are presented for ranges up to 25 meters.

  15. Concealed weapons detection with an improved passive millimeter-wave imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

    2004-08-01

    Trex Enterprises has developed a second-generation passive millimeter-wave imaging system for detection of concealed weapons and explosives at standoff ranges. Passive millimeter-wave sensors form an image from naturally emitted blackbody radiation in the millimeter-wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radiation at this wavelength passes through most types of clothing, allowing the user to acquire an image of any articles on a suspect"s person that differ significantly from the human body in their reflectivity or radiometric temperature at millimeter-wave wavelengths. Trex Enterprises previously demonstrated a first-generation concealed weapon detection system with the ability to detect handguns and knives under heavy clothing at a range of 27". The second-generation imager, while similar in concept, has an improved field-of-view and a much reduced size and weight. The imager is to be put through a battery of tests by both Trex Enterprises and the National Institute Of Justice to determine its ability to detect both metallic and non-metallic knives and handguns as well as various types of explosive devices. The tests will be conducted indoors and outdoors at various ranges.

  16. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  17. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields. PMID:21967622

  18. Survey of state-of-the-art technology in remote concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1995-09-01

    Recent advances in millimeter-wave (MMV), microwave, and infrared (IR) technologies provide the means to detect concealed weapons remotely through clothing and is some cases through walls. Since the developemnt of forward-looking infrared instruments, work has been ongoing in attempting to use these devices for concealed weapon detection based on temperatrue differences between metallic weapons and in the infrared has led to the development of techniques based on lower frequencies. Focal plane arrays operating MMW frequencies are becoming available which eliminate the need for a costly and slow mechanical scanner for generating images. These radiometric sensors also detect temperature differences between weapons and the human body background. Holographic imaging systems operating at both microwave and MMW frequencies have been developed which generate images of near photographic quality through clothing and through thin, nonmetallic walls. Finally, a real- aperture radar is useful for observing people and detecting weapons through walls and in the field under reduced visibility conditions. This paper will review all of these technologies and give examples of images generated by each type of sensor. An assessment of the future of this technology with regard to law enforcement applications will also be given.

  19. The successively temporal error concealment algorithm using error-adaptive block matching principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsai-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Chyun

    2014-09-01

    Generally, the temporal error concealment (TEC) adopts the blocks around the corrupted block (CB) as the search pattern to find the best-match block in previous frame. Once the CB is recovered, it is referred to as the recovered block (RB). Although RB can be the search pattern to find the best-match block of another CB, RB is not the same as its original block (OB). The error between the RB and its OB limits the performance of TEC. The successively temporal error concealment (STEC) algorithm is proposed to alleviate this error. The STEC procedure consists of tier-1 and tier-2. The tier-1 divides a corrupted macroblock into four corrupted 8 × 8 blocks and generates a recovering order for them. The corrupted 8 × 8 block with the first place of recovering order is recovered in tier-1, and remaining 8 × 8 CBs are recovered in tier-2 along the recovering order. In tier-2, the error-adaptive block matching principle (EA-BMP) is proposed for the RB as the search pattern to recover remaining corrupted 8 × 8 blocks. The proposed STEC outperforms sophisticated TEC algorithms on average PSNR by 0.3 dB on the packet error rate of 20% at least.

  20. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Travis L.; Baker, Christopher A.; Gaunt, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    The response time (RT) based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT) has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime-related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil-size and blink-rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms and subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed. PMID:23382718

  1. Specific NIST projects in support of the NIJ Concealed Weapon Detection and Imaging Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulter, Nicholas G.

    1998-12-01

    The Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing revised performance standards for hand-held (HH) and walk-through (WT) metal weapon detectors, test procedures and systems for these detectors, and a detection/imaging system for finding concealed weapons. The revised standards will replace the existing National Institute of Justice (NIJ) standards for HH and WT devices and will include detection performance specifications as well as system specifications (environmental conditions, mechanical strength and safety, response reproducibility and repeatability, quality assurance, test reporting, etc.). These system requirements were obtained from the Law Enforcement and corrections Technology Advisory Council, an advisory council for the NIJ. Reproducible and repeatable test procedures and appropriate measurement systems will be developed for evaluating HH and WT detection performance. A guide to the technology and application of non- eddy-current-based detection/imaging methods (such as acoustic, passive millimeter-wave and microwave, active millimeter-wave and terahertz-wave, x-ray, etc.) Will be developed. The Electricity Division is also researching the development of a high- frequency/high-speed (300 GH to 1 THz) pulse-illuminated, stand- off, video-rate, concealed weapons/contraband imaging system.

  2. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention. PMID:24770588

  3. Partner choice through concealed floral sugar rewards evolved with the specialization of ant-plant mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Staedler, Yannick M; Schönenberger, Jürg; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-09-01

    Obligate mutualisms require filtering mechanisms to prevent their exploitation by opportunists, but ecological contexts and traits facilitating the evolution of such mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated the evolution of filtering mechanisms in an epiphytic ant-plant symbiotic system in Fiji involving Rubiaceae and dolichoderine ants, using field experiments, metabolomics, X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and phylogenetics. We discovered a novel plant reward consisting of sugary sap concealed in post-anthetic flowers only accessible to Philidris nagasau workers that bite through the thick epidermis. In five of the six species of Rubiaceae obligately inhabited by this ant, the nectar glands functioned for 10 d after a flower's sexual function was over. Sugar metabolomics and field experiments showed that ant foraging tracks sucrose levels, which only drop at the onset of fruit development. Ontogenetic analyses of our focal species and their relatives revealed a 25-fold increase in nectary size and delayed fruit development in the ant-rewarding species, and Bayesian analyses of several traits showed the correlated evolution of sugar rewards and symbiosis specialization. Concealed floral nectar forestalls exploitation by opportunists (generalist ants) and stabilizes these obligate mutualisms. Our study pinpoints the importance of partner choice mechanisms in transitions from facultative to obligate mutualisms. PMID:27159681

  4. When Interference Helps: Increasing Executive Load to Facilitate Deception Detection in the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Visu-Petra, George; Varga, Mihai; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem), and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift). The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift) was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants). The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior. PMID:23543918

  5. Development of THz-range Gyrotrons for Detection of Concealed Radioactive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Pu, Ruifeng; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.; Rodgers, John; Mohamed, Ali; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Dimant, Yakov S.; Milikh, Gennady M.; Glyavin, Michael Yu.; Luchinin, Alexei G.; Kopelovich, Eugene A.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2011-03-01

    The Center for Applied Electromagnetics (AppEl) at the University of Maryland had started development of a sub-THz gyrotron for detecting concealed radioactive materials. The concept is based on the use of a high-power gyrotron whose power being focused in a small spot with dimensions on the order of a wavelength exceeds the threshold level required for initiating a freely localized microwave breakdown in air. However, in the absence of radioactive materials, the ambient electron density is so small that there is a very small probability to find a free electron in this small volume to trigger the avalanche breakdown process. Therefore the fact that the breakdown was observed would indicate that there is a hidden radioactive material in the vicinity of a focused wave beam. We present the design data for a 200-300 kW, 670 GHz gyrotron operating with a pulsed solenoid and describe a single-shot pulsed solenoid producing 27-28 T magnetic fields. Also numerous issues in this specific application are discussed, viz. threshold conditions for initiating the breakdown, production of gamma rays by concealed radioactive materials and their role in producing low energy electrons outside a container, wave beam focusing in a small spot by a limited-size antenna, random walk of energetic electrons which may result in appearance of free electrons in a given volume during the RF pulse and comparison of diffusion time with the time required for competing processes, such as ionization and three-body attachment.

  6. Portable concealed weapon detection using millimeter-wave FMCW radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Chang, Yu-Wen

    2001-02-01

    Unobtrusive detection of concealed weapons on persons or in abandoned bags would provide law enforcement a powerful tool to focus resources and increase traffic throughput in high- risk situations. We have developed a fast image scanning 94 GHz radar system that is suitable for portable operation and remote viewing of radar data. This system includes a novel fast image-scanning antenna that allows for the acquisition of medium resolution 3D millimeter wave images of stationary targets with frame times on order of one second. The 3D radar data allows for potential isolation of concealed weapons from body and environmental clutter such as nearby furniture or other people. The radar is an active system so image quality is not affected indoors, emitted power is however very low so there are no health concerns for operator or targets. The low power operation is still sufficient to penetrate heavy clothing or material. Small system size allows for easy transport and rapid deployment of the system as well as an easy migration path to future hand held systems.

  7. Decision Makers Use Norms, Not Cost-Benefit Analysis, When Choosing to Conceal or Reveal Unfair Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Marco; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Conceal or Reveal Dilemma, in which individuals receive unfair benefits, and must decide whether to conceal or to reveal this unfair advantage. This dilemma has two important characteristics: it does not lend itself easily to cost-benefit analysis, neither to the application of any strong universal norm. As a consequence, it is ideally suited to the study of interindividual and intercultural variations in moral-economic norms. In this paper we focus on interindividual variations, and we report four studies showing that individuals cannot be swayed by financial incentives to conceal or to reveal, and follow instead fixed, idiosyncratic strategies. We discuss how this result can be extended to individual and cultural variations in the tendency to display or to hide unfair rewards. PMID:24066040

  8. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Pursuant to the requirements in 7 CFR part 1735, if loan funds are proposed for facilities to... a nonrural community will have an extended area of service (EAS) with other exchanges of the... all exchanges connected by EAS. (b) If RUS determines that costs cannot be adequately allocated...

  9. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) Pursuant to the requirements in 7 CFR part 1735, if loan funds are proposed for facilities to... a nonrural community will have an extended area of service (EAS) with other exchanges of the... all exchanges connected by EAS. (b) If RUS determines that costs cannot be adequately allocated...

  10. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) Pursuant to the requirements in 7 CFR part 1735, if loan funds are proposed for facilities to... a nonrural community will have an extended area of service (EAS) with other exchanges of the... all exchanges connected by EAS. (b) If RUS determines that costs cannot be adequately allocated...

  11. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) Pursuant to the requirements in 7 CFR part 1735, if loan funds are proposed for facilities to... a nonrural community will have an extended area of service (EAS) with other exchanges of the... all exchanges connected by EAS. (b) If RUS determines that costs cannot be adequately allocated...

  12. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) Pursuant to the requirements in 7 CFR part 1735, if loan funds are proposed for facilities to... a nonrural community will have an extended area of service (EAS) with other exchanges of the... all exchanges connected by EAS. (b) If RUS determines that costs cannot be adequately allocated...

  13. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  14. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  15. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  16. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  17. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  18. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  19. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  20. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  1. External validity of Concealed Information Test experiment: Comparison of respiration, skin conductance, and heart rate between experimental and field card tests.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a memory detection method based on an examinee's physiological responses to crime-relevant items (critical items) in comparison with crime-irrelevant items (noncritical items). I examined the external validity of CIT laboratory experiments by comparing respiratory speed (RS), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate (HR) between a laboratory experiment (n = 30) and a field test (n = 30) in a card test. A linear mixed models analysis showed that the critical items in both CIT contexts elicited CIT effects: RS repression, SCR increase, and HR deceleration. Additionally, the critical items in the field elicited a larger RS suppression than those in the laboratory; however, SCR and HR on the critical items showed no statistical differences between the laboratory and field CITs. Moreover, the tonic HRs in the field tests were higher than in the CIT experiments, but there were no significant correlations between the tonic HR and each CIT effect in RS, SCR, and HR. These results suggested that CIT detection efficiency was not affected by arousal levels and may imply that the CIT effects observed with RS, SCR, and HR in the CIT laboratory experiments has adequate external validity and can be generalized to the CIT field. PMID:27031043

  2. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  3. Brief Report: How Do They Manage Social Interaction? The Influence of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Self-Monitoring by Adolescents with Low Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Zhao, Jun-Yan; Yu, Guoliang

    2010-01-01

    During social interactions people self-monitor their behavior at least partially to conceal socially devalued characteristics. This study examined the influences of concealing academic achievement on self-monitoring in an academically-relevant social interaction. An interview paradigm called for school-aged adolescent participants (total N = 86)…

  4. Image enhancement and denoising by wavelet transform for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuveer, M. R.

    1997-02-01

    Wavelet transform based techniques were developed and investigated for isolation and enhancement of objects in images. The primary motivation is the development of image processing algorithms as part of an automatic system for the detection of concealed weapons under a person's clothing; a problem of considerable potential utility to the military in certain common types of deployment in the post cold war environment such as small unit operations. The issue has potential for other dual use purposes such as law enforcement applications. Wavelet decompositions of the currently available images in the Rome Laboratory database, namely, noisy, low contrast, infrared images, were studied in space-scale-amplitude space. An isolation technique for separating potential suspicious regions/objects from surrounding clutter has been proposed. Based on the images available, the study indicates that the technique is promising in providing the image enhancement necessary for further pattern detection and classification.

  5. Remote concealed weapon detection in millimeter-wave region: active and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Stephan; Klöppel, Frank; Huck, Johann; Nötel, Denis; Hägelen, Manfred; Briese, Gunnar; Gregor, Alexander; Erukulla, Sreenivas; Fuchs, Hans-Hellmuth; Essen, Helmut; Pagels, Anke

    2006-09-01

    Sensors used for Security purposes have to cover the non-invasive inspection of persons, baggage and letters with the aim to detect weapons, explosives and chemical or biological threat material. Currently, emphasis is placed on system concepts and technologies for this type of applications, employing millimeterwave-, submillimeterwave- and terahertz sensors. This is based on the capability of these frequency bands to look through textiles and the possibility to achieve a geometric resolution which is sufficient to resolve critical items within the necessary range. Using multiple frequencies promises to give more detailed information about the structure of the observed objects. Furthermore, to overcome the limitations of passive millimeter- and submillimeterwave sensors which depend on indirect illumination, systems using miniaturized mmw-radar modules are applied as well. This paper describes two approaches for the detection of concealed weapons, the first using a millimeterwave radiometer on a scanner and the second employing a miniaturized radar module based on a synthetic aperture method.

  6. Temporal spying and concealing process in fibre-optic data transmission systems through polarization bypass

    PubMed Central

    Bony, P.Y.; Guasoni, M.; Morin, P.; Sugny, D.; Picozzi, A.; Jauslin, H.R.; Pitois, S.; Fatome, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has been focused on the ability to manipulate a light beam in such a way to hide, namely to cloak, an event over a finite time or localization in space. The main idea is to create a hole or a gap in the spatial or time domain so as to allow for an object or data to be kept hidden for a while and then to be restored. By enlarging the field of applications of this concept to telecommunications, researchers have recently reported the possibility to hide transmitted data in an optical fibre. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of perpetual temporal spying and blinding process of optical data in fibre-optic transmission line based on polarization bypass. We successfully characterize the performance of our system by alternatively copying and then concealing 100% of a 10-Gb s−1 transmitted signal. PMID:25135759

  7. Intentional retrieval suppression can conceal guilty knowledge in ERP memory detection tests.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Zara M; Anderson, Michael C; Buda, Marie; Simons, Jon S; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Brain-activity markers of guilty knowledge have been promoted as accurate and reliable measures for establishing criminal culpability. Tests based on these markers interpret the presence or absence of memory-related neural activity as diagnostic of whether or not incriminating information is stored in a suspect's brain. This conclusion critically relies on the untested assumption that reminders of a crime uncontrollably elicit memory-related brain activity. However, recent research indicates that, in some circumstances, humans can control whether they remember a previous experience by intentionally suppressing retrieval. We examined whether people could use retrieval suppression to conceal neural evidence of incriminating memories as indexed by Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). When people were motivated to suppress crime retrieval, their memory-related ERP effects were significantly decreased, allowing guilty individuals to evade detection. Our findings indicate that brain measures of guilty knowledge may be under criminals' intentional control and place limits on their use in legal settings. PMID:23664804

  8. A concealed small bowel perforation in an adult secondary to bicycle handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, GJ; Simpson, RR

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) secondary to bicycle handlebar is a rare injury. The majority of the literature describes abdominal wall herniation in children. We present a rare case of TAWH in an adult with a concealed small bowel perforation. Although clinical examination in conjunction with computed tomography can exclude the majority of solid organ injuries, small bowel injuries can often be missed. Our case initially revealed a serosal tear in the small bowel but, on close inspection, a separate 3mm perforation was identified, hidden in the small bowel mesentery. We strongly support a low threshold for operative intervention if there is any suspicion. Moreover, we stress the importance of meticulous examination during laparotomy as this injury could have been easily missed, resulting in potential morbidity or mortality in a patient sustaining such an injury. PMID:23676803

  9. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

  10. 220GHz wideband 3D imaging radar for concealed object detection technology development and phenomenology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Macfarlane, David G.; Bryllert, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    We present a 220 GHz 3D imaging `Pathfinder' radar developed within the EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) which has been built to address two objectives: (i) to de-risk the radar hardware development and (ii) to enable the collection of phenomenology data with ~1 cm3 volumetric resolution. The radar combines a DDS-based chirp generator and self-mixing multiplier technology to achieve a 30 GHz bandwidth chirp with such high linearity that the raw point response is close to ideal and only requires minor nonlinearity compensation. The single transceiver is focused with a 30 cm lens mounted on a gimbal to acquire 3D volumetric images of static test targets and materials.

  11. Intentional retrieval suppression can conceal guilty knowledge in ERP memory detection tests☆

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Zara M.; Anderson, Michael C.; Buda, Marie; Simons, Jon S.; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Brain-activity markers of guilty knowledge have been promoted as accurate and reliable measures for establishing criminal culpability. Tests based on these markers interpret the presence or absence of memory-related neural activity as diagnostic of whether or not incriminating information is stored in a suspect's brain. This conclusion critically relies on the untested assumption that reminders of a crime uncontrollably elicit memory-related brain activity. However, recent research indicates that, in some circumstances, humans can control whether they remember a previous experience by intentionally suppressing retrieval. We examined whether people could use retrieval suppression to conceal neural evidence of incriminating memories as indexed by Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). When people were motivated to suppress crime retrieval, their memory-related ERP effects were significantly decreased, allowing guilty individuals to evade detection. Our findings indicate that brain measures of guilty knowledge may be under criminals’ intentional control and place limits on their use in legal settings. PMID:23664804

  12. A novel Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol for detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Labkovsky, Elena; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-11-01

    In simply guilty (SG), countermeasure-using guilty (CM), and innocent (IN) subjects, a new concealed information test, the P300-based Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol was tested in a mock crime scenario. It combines an oddball protocol with two stimuli (probe, irrelevant) and another with three stimuli (probe, irrelevant, target) into one trial, doubling detected mock crime information per unit time, compared to previous protocols. Probe-irrelevant amplitude differences were significant in SG and CM, but not IN subjects. On a measure from both two and three stimulus protocol parts of the Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol trial, accuracy was 94.7% (based on a .9 bootstrap criterion). The criterion-independent area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic (from signal detection theory) measuring SG and CM versus IN discriminability averaged .92 (in a range of 0.5-1.0). Countermeasures enhanced irrelevant (not probe) P300s in CM groups. PMID:24981064

  13. Effects of coping and cooperative instructions on guilty and informed innocents' physiological responses to concealed information.

    PubMed

    Zvi, Liza; Nachson, Israel; Elaad, Eitan

    2012-05-01

    Previous research on the Concealed Information Test indicates that knowledge of the critical information of a given event is sufficient for the elicitation of strong physiological reactions, thus facilitating detection by the test. Other factors that affect the test's efficacy are deceptive verbal responses to the test's questions and motivation of guilty examinees to avoid detection. In the present study effects of coping and cooperative instructions - delivered to guilty and innocent participants - on detection were examined. In a mock-theft experiment guilty participants who actually committed a mock-crime, and informed innocent participants who handled the critical items of the crime in an innocent context, were instructed to adopt either a coping or a cooperative attitude toward the polygraph test. Results indicated that both, guilt and coping behavior, were associated with enhanced physiological responses to the critical information, whereas innocence and cooperative behavior attenuated physiological responses. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22330977

  14. Memory instructions, vocalization, mock crimes, and concealed information tests with a polygraph.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Malik, F J; Cullen, M C

    2011-12-01

    Accuracy rates with polygraphs using concealed information tests (CITs) depend on memory for crime details. Some participants read instructions on murdering a dummy victim that specified exact crime details asked on the subsequent CIT. Others read instructions not stating details, but still requiring interaction with the exact same details for the crime. For example, the murder weapon was under four heavy boxes. Instructions stated either "... remove the 4 boxes ..." or "... remove the boxes ..." Thus, each group removed four boxes, but only one group was primed with the number "4" beforehand. In addition, the victim unexpectedly shouted at some participants during the crime. An innocent group was not exposed to either manipulation. Memory, detection scores, and detection rates were lower for guilty participants not primed with details. Sound affected detection scores but not memory, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Information tests are limited by how crime information is received. PMID:22403929

  15. Event-related potentials increase the discrimination performance of the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2011-12-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) assesses an examinee's crime-relevant memory on the basis of physiological differences between crime-relevant and irrelevant items. The CIT based on autonomic measures has been used for criminal investigations, while the CIT based on event-related potentials (ERPs) has been suggested as a useful alternative. To combine these two methods, we developed a quantification method of ERPs measured in the autonomic-based CIT where each item was repeated only 5 times. Results showed that the peak amplitude of the ERP difference wave between crime-relevant and irrelevant items could discriminate between guilty and innocent participants effectively even when only 5 trials were used for averaging. This ERP measure could detect some participants who were missed by the autonomic measures. Combining the ERP and autonomic measures significantly improved the discrimination performance of the autonomic-based CIT. PMID:21806637

  16. Psychophysiological and behavioral measures for detecting concealed information: the role of memory for crime details.

    PubMed

    Nahari, Galit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the role of memory for crime details in detecting concealed information using the electrodermal measure, Symptom Validity Test, and Number Guessing Test. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: guilty, who committed a mock theft; informed-innocents, who were exposed to crime-relevant items; and uninformed-innocents, who had no crime-relevant information. Participants were tested immediately or 1 week later. Results showed (a) all tests detected the guilty in the immediate condition, and combining the tests improved detection efficiency; (b) tests' efficiency declined in the delayed condition, mainly for peripheral details; (c) no distinction between guilty and informed innocents was possible in the immediate, yet some distinction emerged in the delayed condition. These findings suggest that, while time delay may somewhat reduce the ability to detect the guilty, it also diminishes the danger of accusing informed-innocents. PMID:20958308

  17. Combining skin conductance and forced choice in the detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Smulders, Fren T Y; Johnston, James E; Merckelbach, Harald L G J

    2007-09-01

    An advantage of the concealed information polygraph test (CIT) is that its false positive rate is determined on statistical grounds, and can be set a priori at arbitrary low levels (i.e., few innocents declared guilty). This criterion, however, inevitably leads to a loss of sensitivity (i.e., more guilty suspects declared innocent). We explored whether the sensitivity of a CIT procedure could be increased by adding an independent measure that is based on an entirely different psychological mechanism. In two experiments, we explored whether the accuracy of a CIT procedure could be increased by adding Symptom Validity Testing (SVT), a relatively simple, forced-choice, self-report procedure that has previously been used to detect malingering in various contexts. Results of a feigned amnesia experiment but not from a mock crime experiment showed that a combination measure of both tests yielded better detection than either test alone. PMID:17584188

  18. Deception awareness improves P300-based deception detection in concealed information tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Pederson, Kristine

    2012-10-01

    We asked if increased awareness of deception enhanced P300-based detection of concealed information with two groups: 1) Control subjects saw a randomized series of either rare probes (subject home towns), frequent irrelevants (other towns), and rare targets, which are irrelevant stimuli but requiring Button 1 responses. Probes and non-target irrelevants required Button 2 responses. Controls were told to be sure they performed target/non-target discrimination correctly, and were so reminded throughout the run. 2) Deception subjects received an identical stimulus series and response instructions, but were also alerted about their deception (pressing a non-recognition button to probes) before and throughout the run. The deception group had significantly greater differences between probe and irrelevant P300s than controls, as well as significantly greater individual detections (10/10) than did controls (5/10), suggesting that the deception awareness manipulation enhances test sensitivity. PMID:22750420

  19. Relationships among Self-Concealment, Mindfulness and Negative Psychological Outcomes in Asian American and European American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Feinstein, Amanda B.

    2010-01-01

    Research on Asian Americans and their psychological adjustment is limited. Consisting of two cross-sectional studies, the present investigation examined the relationships among self-concealment, mindfulness, emotional distress in stressful interpersonal situations, and general psychological ill-health in Asian American college students, and in…

  20. [Cardioversion for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia during lung surgery in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Hirofumi; Inoda, Ayako; Miura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Yoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) that occurred during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. A 59-year-old man with lung cancer was scheduled for VATS lobectomy under general anesthesia. After inserting a thoracic epidural catheter, general anesthesia was induced with intravenous administration of propofol. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of desfurane in an air/oxygen mixture and intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Recurrent PSVT occurred three times, and the last episode of PSVT continued for 50 minutes regardless of administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Synchronized electric shock via adhesive electrode pads on the patient's chest successfully converted PSVT back to normal sinus rhythm. The remaining course and postoperative period were uneventful. An electrophysiological study performed after hospital discharge detected concealed WPW syndrome, which had contributed to the development of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Concealed WPW syndrome is a rare, but critical complication that could possibly cause lethal atrial tachyarrhythmias during the perioperative period. In the present case, cardioversion using adhesive electrode pads briefly terminated PSVT in a patient with concealed WPW syndrome. PMID:25693338

  1. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  2. Manipulating item proportion and deception reveals crucial dissociation between behavioral, autonomic, and neural indices of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Suchotzki, Kristina; Verschuere, Bruno; Peth, Judith; Crombez, Geert; Gamer, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Developed as an alternative to traditional deception detection methods, the concealed information test (CIT) assesses recognition of critical (e.g., crime-relevant) "probes." Most often, recognition has been measured as enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to probes compared to irrelevant foils (CIT effect). More recently, also differentially enlarged reaction times (RTs) and increased neural activity in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, the right middle frontal gyrus, and the right temporo-parietal junction have been observed. The aims of the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study were to (1) investigate the boundary conditions of the CIT effects in all three measures and thereby (2) gain more insight into the relative contribution of two mechanisms underlying enhanced responding to concealed information (i.e., orienting versus response inhibition). Therefore, we manipulated the proportion of probe versus irrelevant items, and whether suspects were instructed to actively deny recognition of probe knowledge (i.e., deceive) during the test. Results revealed that whereas overt deception was not necessary for the SCR CIT effect, it was crucial for the RT and the fMRI-based CIT effects. The proportion manipulation enhanced the CIT effect in all three measures. The results indicate that different mental processes might underlie the response pattern in the CIT. While skin conductance responding to concealed information may best be explained by orienting theory, it seems that response inhibition drives RT and blood oxygen level dependent responding to concealed information. PMID:25277495

  3. Tissue Engineering: Biomimetic Concealing of PLGA Microspheres in a 3D Scaffold to Prevent Macrophage Uptake (Small 11/2016).

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Sandri, Monica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Powell, Sebastian T; Tampieri, Anna; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Avoiding the clearance of drug delivery systems from 3D scaffolds is crucial to preserve the bioactivity of their therapeutic payload. This is accomplished on page 1479, by E. Tasciotti and co-workers, through a "concealing" strategy: cloaking PLGA microspheres with the type I collagen matrix of a biomimetic scaffold, which enables the control of the production of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26970527

  4. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J., Jr.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men's mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may…

  5. P300 amplitudes in the concealed information test are less affected by depth of processing than electrodermal responses

    PubMed Central

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) has been used in the laboratory as well as in field applications to detect concealed crime related memories. The presentation of crime relevant details to guilty suspects has been shown to elicit enhanced N200 and P300 amplitudes of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as well as greater skin conductance responses (SCRs) as compared to neutral test items. These electrophysiological and electrodermal responses were found to incrementally contribute to the validity of the test, thereby suggesting that these response systems are sensitive to different psychological processes. In the current study, we tested whether depth of processing differentially affects N200, P300, and SCR amplitudes in the CIT. Twenty participants carried out a mock crime and became familiar with central and peripheral crime details. A CIT that was conducted 1 week later revealed that SCR amplitudes were larger for central details although central and peripheral items were remembered equally well in a subsequent explicit memory test. By contrast, P300 amplitudes elicited by crime related details were larger but did not differ significantly between question types. N200 amplitudes did not allow for detecting concealed knowledge in this study. These results indicate that depth of processing might be one factor that differentially affects central and autonomic nervous system responses to concealed information. Such differentiation might be highly relevant for field applications of the CIT. PMID:23162454

  6. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands...

  7. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  8. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

  9. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  10. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  11. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  12. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  13. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  14. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  15. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  16. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  17. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  18. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  19. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a...) Cost allocation and distribution for the planning, design, development, installation and operation...

  20. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  1. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  2. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  3. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Drew C.; Richardson, Graham M.; Furedy, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the “brain fingerprinting” method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  4. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Lawrence A; Richardson, Drew C; Richardson, Graham M; Furedy, John J

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the "brain fingerprinting" method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  5. Enhanced terahertz imaging system performance analysis and design tool for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Espinola, Richard L.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model/tool for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of the MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security & Defence Symposium (Brugge). An advanced version of the base model that accounts for both the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system, and for the impact of target and background thermal emission, was reported on at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium (Orlando). This paper will provide a comprehensive review of an enhanced, user-friendly, Windows-executable, terahertz-band imaging system performance analysis and design tool that now includes additional features such as a MODTRAN-based atmospheric attenuation calculator and advanced system architecture configuration inputs that allow for straightforward performance analysis of active or passive systems based on scanning (single- or line-array detector element(s)) or staring (focal-plane-array detector elements) imaging architectures. This newly enhanced THz imaging system design tool is an extension of the advanced THz imaging system performance model that was developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will also provide example system component (active-illumination source and detector) trade-study analyses using the new features of this user-friendly THz imaging system performance analysis and design tool.

  6. Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Ojah, Rani C. I.; Welch, Jo M.

    2012-01-01

    Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p= 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p= 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p= 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements. PMID:22690323

  7. Vitamin D and musculoskeletal status in Nova Scotian women who wear concealing clothing.

    PubMed

    Ojah, Rani C I; Welch, Jo M

    2012-05-01

    Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p= 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p= 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p= 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements. PMID:22690323

  8. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  9. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  10. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  11. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  12. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  13. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  14. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  15. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  16. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  17. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  18. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  19. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  20. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  1. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  2. Allocating Railway Platforms Using A Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Hinde, C. J.; Withall, M. S.; Jackson, T. W.; Phillips, I. W.; Brown, S.; Watson, R.

    This paper describes an approach to automating railway station platform allocation. The system uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find how a station’s resources should be allocated. Real data is used which needs to be transformed to be suitable for the automated system. Successful or ‘fit’ allocations provide a solution that meets the needs of the station schedule including platform re-occupation and various other constraints. The system associates the train data to derive the station requirements. The Genetic Algorithm is used to derive platform allocations. Finally, the system may be extended to take into account how further parameters that are external to the station have an effect on how an allocation should be applied. The system successfully allocates around 1000 trains to platforms in around 30 seconds requiring a genome of around 1000 genes to achieve this.

  3. Effects of perceived reliability and generalization of crime-related information on detection in the concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2010-03-01

    The accuracy of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) in detecting information concealed by informed innocent participants was assessed under varying levels of probability that the obtained information is related to the crime and is therefore correct. For this purpose, 64 participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions that were formed by probability levels that the gathered information is correct and is related to the crime. Either absolutely correct (100% correct), highly correct (80%, correct), highly incorrect (20% correct) or totally incorrect (0%, correct) conditions were created. Response generalization was manipulated by replacing 3 of 6 correct items with related stimuli. The replaced stimuli were related to the correct items either semantically, phonetically, or numerically. Informed innocent participants showed larger electrodermal responses to items with a higher probability of being correct. It was further found that participants elicited stronger responses to correct than to replaced items. Theoretical and practical implications of the present results are discussed. PMID:20093151

  4. Task relevance and recognition of concealed information have different influences on electrodermal activity and event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at differentiating between memory- and task-related processes and their correlates on the electrodermal and electrocortical level during information concealment. Variations of the Guilty Knowledge Test were implemented in two experiments while we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and event-related brain potentials. P300 amplitudes were specifically enhanced for items requiring a deviant behavioral response but they were not sensitive to concealed knowledge. In contrast, N200 amplitudes differed between memorized and irrelevant items in both experiments. SCR measures reflected a combined influence of task relevance and probe recognition, and they provided incremental validity above N200 amplitudes. These results suggest that the P300 mainly reflects task relevance in the given experimental setting whereas the N200 amplitude is sensitive to previously encoded information and potentially linked to response monitoring processes. PMID:20003148

  5. The compassion of concealment: silence between older caregivers and dying patients in the AIDS era, northwest Tanzania.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Josien

    2012-01-01

    In northwest Tanzania, where AIDS has been present for 25 years, AIDS-related illness is a trigger through which community members discuss personal experiences of loss and assess social relationships. The terminal phase of AIDS demands intimate social relations between patients and caretakers. In this final phase of illness, caretakers are scrutinised for their behaviour towards the patient. In the moral world in which caregiving takes place, the act of concealing is considered an intrinsic part of proper care. Current debates on morality, stigma and secrecy inform my argument that acts of concealment around dying are not so much related to the exclusion and ostracism of patients but to inclusion and compassionate care. PMID:22092190

  6. Grossly calcified choroid plexus concealing foramen of Monro meningiomas as an unusual cause of obstructive hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Various intraventricular tumors can present with calcifications; however, the choroid plexus can also have physiological calcifications. This is the first case report of meningiomas located at the bilateral foramen of Monro (FOM), concealed by a grossly calcified choroid plexus, presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. A 60-year-old woman with disturbed consciousness was admitted by ambulance. Head computed tomography revealed significantly high-density lesions that smoothly extended from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. They occupied both sides of the FOM, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnostic endoscopic biopsy was performed using a flexible neuroendoscopic system, and an egg shell-like grossly calcified choroid plexus was found to smoothly extend toward the FOM. Resection was not selected because the calcified lesions had tightly adhered to the veins and fornix; therefore, the patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The lesions were histologically identified as psammomatous meningiomas with low proliferation potential (the Ki-67 labeling index was lower than 1%). She was discharged 10 days after surgery without neurological deficits. As calcifications can have tumoral and nontumoral origins, we considered neuroendoscopic exploration to be essential in order to achieve an accurate diagnosis and select optimal management. PMID:26889294

  7. Hiding true emotions: micro-expressions in eyes retrospectively concealed by mouth movements

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Miho; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    When we encounter someone we dislike, we may momentarily display a reflexive disgust expression, only to follow-up with a forced smile and greeting. Our daily lives are replete with a mixture of true and fake expressions. Nevertheless, are these fake expressions really effective at hiding our true emotions? Here we show that brief emotional changes in the eyes (micro-expressions, thought to reflect true emotions) can be successfully concealed by follow-up mouth movements (e.g. a smile). In the same manner as backward masking, mouth movements of a face inhibited conscious detection of all types of micro-expressions in that face, even when viewers paid full attention to the eye region. This masking works only in a backward direction, however, because no disrupting effect was observed when the mouth change preceded the eye change. These results provide scientific evidence for everyday behaviours like smiling to dissemble, and further clarify a major reason for the difficulty we face in discriminating genuine from fake emotional expressions. PMID:26915796

  8. Detection of contraband concealed on the body using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to avoid detection, smugglers and terrorists are increasingly using the body as a vehicle for transporting illicit drugs, weapons, and explosives. This trend illustrates the natural tendency of traffickers to seek the path of least resistance, as improved interdiction technology and operational effectiveness have been brought to bear on other trafficking avenues such as luggage, cargo, and parcels. In response, improved technology for human inspection is being developed using a variety of techniques. ASE's BodySearch X-ray Inspection Systems uses backscatter x-ray imaging of the human body to quickly, safely, and effectively screen for drugs, weapons, and explosives concealed on the body. This paper reviews the law enforcement and social issues involved in human inspections, and briefly describes the ASE BodySearch systems. Operator training, x-ray image interpretation, and maximizing systems effectiveness are also discussed. Finally, data collected from operation of the BodySearch system in the field is presented, and new law enforcement initiatives which have come about due to recent events are reviewed.

  9. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  10. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  11. Grossly calcified choroid plexus concealing foramen of Monro meningiomas as an unusual cause of obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Various intraventricular tumors can present with calcifications; however, the choroid plexus can also have physiological calcifications. This is the first case report of meningiomas located at the bilateral foramen of Monro (FOM), concealed by a grossly calcified choroid plexus, presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. A 60-year-old woman with disturbed consciousness was admitted by ambulance. Head computed tomography revealed significantly high-density lesions that smoothly extended from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. They occupied both sides of the FOM, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnostic endoscopic biopsy was performed using a flexible neuroendoscopic system, and an egg shell-like grossly calcified choroid plexus was found to smoothly extend toward the FOM. Resection was not selected because the calcified lesions had tightly adhered to the veins and fornix; therefore, the patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The lesions were histologically identified as psammomatous meningiomas with low proliferation potential (the Ki-67 labeling index was lower than 1%). She was discharged 10 days after surgery without neurological deficits. As calcifications can have tumoral and nontumoral origins, we considered neuroendoscopic exploration to be essential in order to achieve an accurate diagnosis and select optimal management. PMID:26889294

  12. Finding concealed active faults: Extending the southern Whidbey Island fault across the Puget Lowland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Weaver, Craig S.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Liberty, Lee; Meagher, Karen L.; Pape, Kristin

    2008-05-01

    The southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF), as previously mapped using borehole data, potential field anomalies, and marine seismic reflection surveys, consists of three subparallel, northwest trending strands extending ˜100 km from near Vancouver Island to the northern Puget Lowland. East of Puget Sound, the SWIF makes landfall between the cities of Seattle and Everett but is concealed beneath a thick mantle of young glacial deposits and vegetation. A ˜20-km-wide, northwest trending swath of subparallel, low-amplitude aeromagnetic anomalies crosses this region of the Puget Lowland and is on strike with the SWIF. The most prominent aeromagnetic anomaly, the Cottage Lake lineament, extends at least 18 km and lies approximately on strike with the SWIF on Whidbey Island. Subtle scarps and topographic lineaments on Pleistocene surfaces, visible on high-resolution lidar topography at a number of locations along the SWIF, lie on or near these magnetic anomalies. In the field, scarps exhibit northeast-side-up and vertical relief of 1 to 5 m. Excavations across several lidar scarps lying on or near magnetic anomalies show evidence for multiple folding and faulting events since deglaciation, most likely above buried reverse/oblique faults. Excavations in areas away from magnetic anomalies do not show evidence of tectonic deformation. In total, paleoseismological evidence suggests that the SWIF produced at least four earthquakes since deglaciation about 16,400 years ago, the most recent less than 2700 years ago.

  13. Children's Lie-Telling to Conceal a Parent's Transgression: Legal Implications

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, R. C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children's lie-telling behavior to conceal the transgression of a parent was examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1 (N = 137), parents broke a puppet and told their children (3–11-year-olds) not to tell anyone. Children answered questions about the event. Children's moral understanding of truth- and lie-telling was assessed by a second interviewer and the children then promised to tell the truth (simulating court competence examination procedures). Children were again questioned about what happened to the puppet. Regardless of whether the interview was conducted with their parent absent or present, most children told the truth about their parents' transgression. When the likelihood of the child being blamed for the transgression was reduced, significantly more children lied. There was a significant, yet limited, relation between children's lie-telling behavior and their moral understanding of lie- or truth-telling. Further, after children were questioned about issues concerning truth- and lie-telling and asked to promise to tell the truth, significantly more children told the truth about their parents' transgression. Experiment 2 (N = 64) replicated these findings, with children who were questioned about lies and who then promised to tell the truth more likely to tell the truth in a second interview than children who did not participate in this procedure before questioning. Implications for the justice system are discussed. PMID:15499823

  14. Using self-authentication and recovery images for error concealment in wireless environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Yung; Sow, Daby; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2001-11-01

    Handling packet loss or delay in the mobile and/or Internet environment is usually a challenging problem for multimedia transmission. Using connection-oriented protocol such as TCP may introduce intolerable time delay in re-transmission. Using datagram-oriented protocols such as UDP may cause partial representation in case of packet loss. In this paper, we propose a new method of using our self-authentication-and-recovery images (SARI) to do the error detection and concealment in the UDP environment. The lost information in a SARI image can be approximately recovered based on the embedded watermark, which includes the content-based authentication information and recovery information. Images or video frames are watermarked in a priori such that no additional mechanism is needed in the networking or the encoding process. Because the recovery is not based on adjacent blocks, the proposed method can recover the corrupted area even though the information loss happen in large areas or high variant areas. Our experiments show the advantages of such technique in both transmission time saving and broad application potentials.

  15. Fourier transform infared spectroscopic imaging for the identification of concealed drug residue particles and fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Camilla; Chan, K. L. Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    Conventional FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy has been widely used in forensic science. New opportunities exist to obtain rapid chemical images and to enhance the sensitivity of detection of trace materials using attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with a focal-plane array (FPA) detector. In this work, the sensitivity of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging using three different kinds of ATR crystals (Ge coupled with an infrared microscope, ZnSe and diamond) and resulting in three different optical arrangements for the detection of model drug particles is discussed. Model systems of ibuprofen and paracetamol particles having a size below 32 micrometers have been prepared by sieving. The sensitivity level in the three different approaches has been compared and it has been found that both micro and macro-ATR imaging methods have proven to be a promising techniques for the identification of concealed drug particles. To demonstrate the power and applicability of FTIR chemical imaging to forensic research, various examples are discussed. This includes investigation of the changes of chemical nature of latent fingerprint residue under controlled conditions of humidity and temperature studied by ATR-FTIR imaging. This study demonstrates the potential of spectroscopic imaging for visualizing the chemical changes of fingerprints.

  16. Detection and classification of concealed weapons using a magnetometer-based portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Polk, Robert E.

    2002-08-01

    A concealed weapons detection technology was developed through the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide a non intrusive means for rapid detection, location, and archiving of data (including visual) of potential suspects and weapon threats. This technology, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), has been applied in a portal style weapons detection system using passive magnetic sensors as its basis. This paper will report on enhancements to the weapon detection system to enable weapon classification and to discriminate threats from non-threats. Advanced signal processing algorithms were used to analyze the magnetic spectrum generated when a person passes through a portal. These algorithms analyzed multiple variables including variance in the magnetic signature from random weapon placement and/or orientation. They perform pattern recognition and calculate the probability that the collected magnetic signature correlates to a known database of weapon versus non-weapon responses. Neural networks were used to further discriminate weapon type and identify controlled electronic items such as cell phones and pagers. False alarms were further reduced by analyzing the magnetic detector response by using a Joint Time Frequency Analysis digital signal processing technique. The frequency components and power spectrum for a given sensor response were derived. This unique fingerprint provided additional information to aid in signal analysis. This technology has the potential to produce major improvements in weapon detection and classification.

  17. Hiding true emotions: micro-expressions in eyes retrospectively concealed by mouth movements.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Miho; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    When we encounter someone we dislike, we may momentarily display a reflexive disgust expression, only to follow-up with a forced smile and greeting. Our daily lives are replete with a mixture of true and fake expressions. Nevertheless, are these fake expressions really effective at hiding our true emotions? Here we show that brief emotional changes in the eyes (micro-expressions, thought to reflect true emotions) can be successfully concealed by follow-up mouth movements (e.g. a smile). In the same manner as backward masking, mouth movements of a face inhibited conscious detection of all types of micro-expressions in that face, even when viewers paid full attention to the eye region. This masking works only in a backward direction, however, because no disrupting effect was observed when the mouth change preceded the eye change. These results provide scientific evidence for everyday behaviours like smiling to dissemble, and further clarify a major reason for the difficulty we face in discriminating genuine from fake emotional expressions. PMID:26915796

  18. The caregiving bind: concealing the demands of informal care can undermine the caregiving identity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen; Gillespie, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Disagreements and misunderstandings between informal caregivers and care-receivers have been widely reported, but the causes are unclear. The present article compares the views of people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (28 dyads, n = 56). First, we report a quantitative analysis finding that the majority of disagreements were about caregivers' identity. Caregivers saw themselves as less confident, less intelligent, more embarrassed, more independent and more overprotective than care-receivers rated them to be. Caregivers understood the care-receivers' ratings but disagreed with them' Second, we report a qualitative analysis focussing on how caregivers felt themselves to be perceived by significant others. Caregivers felt that the care-receiver, family members, the general public, health services and even friends often have negative views of them. The 'caregiving bind' is proposed as a cause of caregivers' negative identity. It arises when caregivers try to protect the care-receiver's identity by concealing the extent of informal care provision, with the unintended consequence of undermining the prospects of the caregiver receiving positive social recognition for the challenging work of caregiving. The caregiving bind has implications for therapy and points to the potential of friends and health services to provide caregivers with positive social recognition. PMID:24996218

  19. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature. PMID:26320359

  20. Systematic changes in tonic physiological activities during the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25152172

  1. Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: an empirical study of the searching CIT.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Zaidenberg, Daphna; Gronau, Nurit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to situations in which the crime-related information is shared by a group of suspects but is not available to the investigators (a method known as the "searching CIT," or SCIT). Twenty-two groups, each comprising 4 to 7 participants (115 in total), planned 1 of 2 mock crimes (kidnapping or bank robbery). While planning the crime, each group decided on 5 crime-related critical items (e.g., the city in which the bank was located). Each critical item was chosen from a predefined set of 4 alternatives. At a second stage, the SCIT was administered individually and each participant was tested on the 2 crimes-the actual planned crime, in which the participant was "guilty," and the unplanned crime, in which the participant was "innocent." Two algorithms, adopted from Breska, Ben-Shakhar, and Gronau (2012), were applied to detect the critical items and to differentiate between "guilty" and "innocent" participants. Findings revealed that differentiation efficiency based on electrodermal and respiration measures was identical to that obtained with the standard CIT when applied to large groups, but lower, although significantly greater than chance, when applied to differentiate between small groups. PMID:24564513

  2. Improved method for calculating the respiratory line length in the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2011-08-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) assesses an examinee's knowledge about a crime based on response differences between crime-relevant and crime-irrelevant items. One effective measure in the CIT is the respiration line length, which is the average of the moving distances of the respiration curve in a specified time interval after the item onset. However, the moving distance differs between parts of a respiratory cycle. As a result, the calculated respiration line length is biased by how the parts of the respiratory cycles are included in the time interval. To resolve this problem, we propose a weighted average method, which calculates the respiration line length per cycle and weights it with the proportion that the cycle occupies in the time interval. Simulation results indicated that the weighted average method removes the bias of respiration line lengths compared to the original method. The results of experimental CIT data demonstrated that the weighted average method significantly increased the discrimination performance as compared with the original method. The weighted average method is a promising method for assessing respiration changes in response to question items more accurately, which improves the respiration-based discrimination performance of the CIT. PMID:21689693

  3. A possible concealed pluton in Beaverhead and Madison Counties, Montana, and Clark County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, Irving Jerome

    1974-01-01

    A northeast-trending magnetic anomaly in parts of Beaverhead and Madison Counties, Mont., and Clark County, Idaho, may reflect the trend, shape, and size of a concealed pluton. The type of rock that forms the pluton(?) is unknown. A small volcanic pipe, possibly a diatreme, is at the southeast end of the high. The pipe, about 92 m (300 ft) in diameter, consists of a rubbly basalt-like matrix through which are scattered xenoliths of Precambrian crystalline rocks and of various Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. It is uncertain whether the juxtaposition of the pipe and the magnetic high is meaningful or is merely fortuitous. Although no mineralized rock was found in the area underlain by the anomaly, placer gold has been found nearby. Some 113 km (70 mi) to the west, in Custer and Lemhi Counties, Idaho, a similar northeast-trending magnetic high marks the site of the Gilmore mining district. The similarities in trend, shape, and magnitude between the two anomalies suggest that the high in Beaverhead and Madison Counties should be investigated for undetected mineral deposits, possibly by a geochemical survey.

  4. Current Research and Potential Applications of the Concealed Information Test: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2012-01-01

    Research interest in psychophysiological detection of deception has significantly increased since the September 11 terror attack in the USA. In particular, the concealed information test (CIT), designed to detect memory traces that can connect suspects to a certain crime, has been extensively studied. In this paper I will briefly review several psychophysiological detection paradigms that have been studied, with a focus on the CIT. The theoretical background of the CIT, its strength and weaknesses, its potential applications as well as research finings related to its validity (based on a recent meta-analytic study), will be discussed. Several novel research directions, with a focus on factors that may affect CIT detection in realistic settings (e.g., memory for crime details; the effect of emotional stress during crime execution) will be described. Additionally, research focusing on mal-intentions and attempts to detect terror networks using information gathered from groups of suspects using both the standard CIT and the searching CIT will be reviewed. Finally, implications of current research to the actual application of the CIT will be discussed and several recommendations that can enhance the use of the CIT will be made. PMID:23060826

  5. New way for concealed object detection using passive THz images without their viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-10-01

    We developed new real-time algorithm, based on the correlation function, for concealed object detection using computer processing of the passive THz images without their viewing. This algorithm allows us to make a conclusion about presence of forbidden objects on the human body. To increase the THz image quality we propose a new algorithm in comparison with algorithms which have developed by us early. It allows to increase a temperature resolution of the passive THz camera at least 20 times. This approach is based on a correlation function application for computer processing of the raw THz image. The correlation computing occurs between characteristics of the raw THz image, produced by the passive THz camera, and characteristics of a standard image corresponding to one of the detecting objects (knife, gun,…). The standard image moves in two directions along a image under analysis. As a result, 2 D correlation function is obtained. Multiplying this function by color number belonging to a grey scale, we restore the image under the analysis. This allows to suppress a noise on a new image. This algorithm is very convenient for using and has a high performance. Developed approach opens also new type of algorithms for the passive THz image quality enhancing.

  6. Influence of countermeasures on the validity of the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Peth, Judith; Suchotzki, Kristina; Gamer, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a psychophysiological technique that allows for detecting crime-related knowledge. Usually, autonomic response measures are used for this purpose, but ocular measures have also been proposed recently. Prior studies reported heterogeneous results for the usage of countermeasures (CM) to corrupt the CIT's validity, depending on the CM technique and the dependent measure. The current study systematically compared the application of physical and mental CM on autonomic and ocular measures during the CIT. Sixty participants committed a mock crime and were assigned to one of three guilty conditions: standard guilty (without CM), physical CM, or mental CM. An additional group of 20 innocents was investigated with the same CIT to calculate validity estimates. Electrodermal responses were more vulnerable for CM usage compared to heart rate and respiration, and physical CM were more effective than mental CM. Independent of CM usage, a combined score of autonomic responses enabled a valid differentiation between guilty and innocent examinees. Fixations and blinks also allowed for detecting crime-related knowledge, but these measures were more affected by CM application than autonomic responses. The current study delivered further evidence that CM differentially impact physiological and ocular responses in the CIT. Whereas individual data channels were strongly affected by CM usage, a combination of different response measures yielded a relatively stable differentiation of guilty and innocent examinees when mental CM were used. These findings are especially relevant for field applications and might inspire future studies to detect or prevent CM usage in CIT examinations. PMID:27338719

  7. The Invisible Work of Closeting: A Qualitative Study About Strategies Used by Lesbian and Gay Persons to Conceal Their Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Malterud, Kirsti; Bjorkman, Mari

    2016-10-01

    The last decades have offered substantial improvement regarding human rights for lesbian and gay (LG) persons. Yet LG persons are often in the closet, concealing their sexual orientation. We present a qualitative study based on 182 histories submitted from 161 LG individuals to a Web site. The aim was to explore experiences of closeting among LG persons in Norway. A broad range of strategies was used for closeting, even among individuals who generally considered themselves to be out of the closet. Concealment was enacted by blunt denial, clever avoidance, or subtle vagueness. Other strategies included changing or eliminating the pronoun or name of the partner in ongoing conversations. Context-dependent concealment, differentiating between persons, situations, or arenas, was repeatedly applied for security or convenience. We propose a shift from "being in the closet" to "situated concealment of sexual orientation." PMID:26914706

  8. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  9. Error concealment and early resynchronization techniques for MPEG-2 video streams damaged by transmission over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Carlos L.; Basso, Andrea; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present some error concealment techniques for MPEG-2 video coded and multiplexed streams damaged by ATM cell losses. Decoder early resynchronization limits the effects of transmission errors by decoding some information that is normally discarded from the damaged MPEG-2 video bitstreams. A part of this information cannot be completely decoded due to its differential coding among macroblocks (DC levels, motion vectors). Three different techniques are presented for the case of DC level recovery in Intra pictures. Two of them are predictive techniques, one operating in the frequency domain and the other in the spatial domain. The third technique provides an exact reconstruction of DC values using special data coded into the user data area of the MPEG-2 video bitstream. For not resynchronized areas classical temporal and spatial concealment techniques are used. These techniques have been tested on a simulated environment which includes an implementation of MPEG-2 elementary video coding and decoding and MPEG-2 system standards. The ATM transmission part has been simulated by means of specialized simulation software. Results relative to the presented concealment techniques are included.

  10. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  11. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  12. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...

  13. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  14. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  15. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  16. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units based on information provided by: (A) The needs assessment prepared in accordance with 24 CFR 8.25... dwelling units in the project for the year preceding the date of submission of the allocation plan to HUD... available for occupancy during the two-year period following the date of submission of the allocation...

  17. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  18. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  19. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limited entry gear is open. When the fishery for a vessel's limited entry gear has closed, groundfish caught by that vessel with open access gear will be counted against the open access allocation. All... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for...

  20. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  1. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  2. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  3. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  4. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  5. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  6. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  7. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  8. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  9. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  10. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  11. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  12. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... halibut regulations) is managed under regulations at 50 CFR part 300, subpart E. Beginning with the 2011..., the OY is reduced by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal harvest (allocations, set-asides, and...: recreational estimates are not deducted here). (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations,...

  13. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  14. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  15. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  16. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  17. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for...

  18. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  19. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  20. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  1. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  2. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  3. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  4. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  5. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  6. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  7. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  8. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  9. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.55 Allocations. (a) General. An...

  10. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  11. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  12. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  13. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  14. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  16. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  2. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  5. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  6. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research. PMID:25649106

  7. Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation.

    PubMed

    McKneally, M F; Dickens, B M; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1997-07-15

    Questions of resource allocation can pose practical and ethical dilemmas for clinicians. In the Aristotelian conception of distributive justice, the unequal allocation of a scarce resource may be justified by morally relevant factors such as need or likelihood of benefit. Even using these criteria, it can be difficult to reconcile completing claims to determine which patients should be given priority. To what extent the physician's fiduciary duty toward a patient should supersede the interests of other patients and society as a whole is also a matter of controversy. Although the courts have been reluctant to become involved in allocation decisions in health care, they expect physicians to show allegiance to their patients regardless of budgetary concerns. The allocation of resources on the basis of clinically irrelevant factors such as religion or sexual orientation is prohibited. Clear, fair and publicly acceptable institutional and professional policies can help to ensure that resource allocation decisions are transparent and defensible. PMID:9238146

  8. Design of spectrally versatile forward-looking ground-penetrating radar for detection of concealed targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2013-05-01

    The design of high-resolution radars which can operate in theater involves a careful consideration of the radar's radiated spectrum. While a wide bandwidth yields better target detectability and classification, it can also interfere with other devices and/or violate federal and international communication laws. Under the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Partnerships in Research Transition (PIRT) program, we are developing a Stepped-Frequency Radar (SFR) which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum, while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth for achieving good range resolution. The SFR is a forward-looking, ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging radar capable of detecting concealed targets. This paper presents the research and analysis undertaken during the design of the SFR which will eventually complement an existing ARL system, the Synchronous Impulse REconstruction (SIRE) radar. The SFR is capable of excising prohibited frequency bands, while maintaining the down-range resolution capability of the original SIRE radar. The SFR has two transmit antennas and a 16-element receive antenna array, and this configuration achieves suitable cross-range resolution for target detection. The SFR, like the SIRE radar, is a vehicle mounted, forward-looking, ground penetrating radar (GPR) capable of using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for the detection of subsurface targets via 3D imaging. Many contradicting design considerations are analyzed in this paper. The selection of system bandwidth, antenna types, number of antennas, frequency synthesizers, digitizers, receive amplifiers, wideband splitters, and many other components are critical to the design of the SFR. Leveraging commercial components and SIRE sub-systems were design factors offering an expedited time to the initial implementation of the radar while reducing overall costs. This SFR design will result in an ARL asset to support obscured target detection such as improvised explosive devices

  9. Remote Detection of Concealed Radioactive Materials by Using Focused Powerful Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of studies of a novel concept of the remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by using focused high-power terahertz (THz) radiation. The concept is based on the known fact that the ambient electron density in air is low (one to three free electrons per cubic centimeter). These electrons can serve as seed electrons from which an avalanche breakdown in strong electromagnetic fields starts. When a powerful THz radiation is focused in a small spot, the breakdown-prone volume can be much smaller than a cubic centimeter. So, the probability of having some free electrons in this volume and, hence, the probability of breakdown are low in the absence of additional sources of air ionization. However, in the vicinity of radioactive materials (10-20 m), the electron density can be higher, and, hence, there are always some seed free electrons from which the avalanche ionization will start. Thus, the breakdown rate in this case can be close to 100 %. Realization of this concept requires studies of various physical and technical issues. First, it is necessary to develop a high-power source of (sub-) THz radiation whose power, frequency, and pulse duration are sufficient for realizing this goal. Second, it is necessary to analyze numerous issues important for realizing this concept. Among these issues are (a) enhancement of the ionization level of air molecules in the presence of hidden radioactive materials, (b) estimating the minimum detectable mass of radioactive material, (c) formation of breakdown-prone volumes in focused THz wave beams, and (d) effect of atmospheric conditions on the propagation and focusing of THz wave beams and on the optimal location of the breakdown-prone volume between a container with hidden radioactive material and a THz antenna. The results of these studies are described below.

  10. Concealed d-wave pairs in the s± condensate of iron-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Ong, Tzen; Coleman, Piers; Schmalian, Jörg

    2016-05-17

    A central question in iron-based superconductivity is the mechanism by which the paired electrons minimize their strong mutual Coulomb repulsion. In most unconventional superconductors, Coulomb repulsion is minimized through the formation of higher angular momentum Cooper pairs, with Fermi surface nodes in the pair wavefunction. The apparent absence of such nodes in the iron-based superconductors has led to a belief they form an s-wave ([Formula: see text]) singlet state, which changes sign between the electron and hole pockets. However, the multiorbital nature of these systems opens an alternative possibility. Here, we propose a new class of [Formula: see text] state containing a condensate of d-wave Cooper pairs, concealed by their entanglement with the iron orbitals. By combining the d-wave ([Formula: see text]) motion of the pairs with the internal angular momenta [Formula: see text] of the iron orbitals to make a singlet ([Formula: see text]), an [Formula: see text] superconductor with a nontrivial topology is formed. This scenario allows us to understand the development of octet nodes in potassium-doped Ba1-x KXFe2As2 as a reconfiguration of the orbital and internal angular momentum into a high spin ([Formula: see text]) state; the reverse transition under pressure into a fully gapped state can then be interpreted as a return to the low-spin singlet. The formation of orbitally entangled pairs is predicted to give rise to a shift in the orbital content at the Fermi surface, which can be tested via laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. PMID:27140626

  11. Expanded opportunities of THz passive camera for the detection of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2013-10-01

    Among the security problems, the detection of object implanted into either the human body or animal body is the urgent problem. At the present time the main tool for the detection of such object is X-raying only. However, X-ray is the ionized radiation and therefore can not be used often. Other way for the problem solving is passive THz imaging using. In our opinion, using of the passive THz camera may help to detect the object implanted into the human body under certain conditions. The physical reason of such possibility arises from temperature trace on the human skin as a result of the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body. Modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the passive THz camera resolution for this application. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4, developed by ThruVision Systems Ltd., we may see the pronounced temperature trace on the human body skin from the water, which is drunk by person, or other food eaten by person. Nevertheless, there are many difficulties on the way of full soution of this problem. We illustrate also an improvement of quality of the image captured by comercially available passive THz cameras using computer processing. In some cases, one can fully supress a noise on the image without loss of its quality. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts.

  12. Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Zirui; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Dai, Rui; Northoff, Georg; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions--namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus--exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think

  13. Using brain MERMER testing to detect knowledge despite efforts to conceal.

    PubMed

    Farwell, L A; Smith, S S

    2001-01-01

    This experiment examined the accuracy and reliability of the memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response (MERMER) technique for detecting information related to events subjects have experienced, despite subjects' efforts to conceal that knowledge. Information obtained through interviews was used to develop stimulus sets consisting of words and phrases presented to subjects visually by computer. Sets were composed of three types of stimuli: life experience-related (Probes), stimuli the subject was asked to memorize and respond to (Targets), and irrelevant information (Irrelevants). Each set of stimuli was tested on two individuals: (1) one individual who had participated in the event in question--and thus had the relevant information stored in his/her brain, and (2) one who had not. Six subjects were tested. Electrical brain responses to the stimuli were recorded non-invasively from the scalp and analyzed. MERMERs, (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic responses), of which the P300 is a sub-component, were used to determine whether the subject had the relevant information stored in his brain (information present) or not (information absent), thus indicating whether or not each subject had participated in the real-life event in question. Bootstrapping was used to analyze and compare the responses to the three types of stimuli. As predicted, MERMERs were elicited by Probe stimuli only in the subjects who had participated in the investigated event, by Target stimuli in all subjects, and in no case by Irrelevant stimuli. For each of the six subjects, brain MERMER testing correctly determined whether the subject had participated in and consequently knew about the event in question (information present) or had not participated (information absent). The statistical confidence for this determination was 99.9% in five cases and 90.0% in one case. The article concludes with a discussion of areas of future research and

  14. A novel concealed information test method based on independent component analysis and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Lu, Liang; Yang, Yong; Yu, Gang; Na, Liantao; Rao, NiNi

    2012-01-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) has drawn much attention and has been widely investigated in recent years. In this study, a novel CIT method based on denoised P3 and machine learning was proposed to improve the accuracy of lie detection. Thirty participants were chosen as the guilty and innocent participants to perform the paradigms of 3 types of stimuli. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded and separated into many single trials. In order to enhance the signal noise ratio (SNR) of P3 components, the independent component analysis (ICA) method was adopted to separate non-P3 components (i.e., artifacts) from every single trial. In order to automatically identify the P3 independent components (ICs), a new method based on topography template was proposed to automatically identify the P3 ICs. Then the P3 waveforms with high SNR were reconstructed on Pz electrodes. Second, the 3 groups of features based on time,frequency, and wavelets were extracted from the reconstructed P3 waveforms. Finally, 2 classes of feature samples were used to train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier because it has higher performance compared with several other classifiers. Meanwhile, the optimal number of P3 ICs and some other parameter values in the classifiers were determined by the cross-validation procedures. The presented method achieved a balance test accuracy of 84.29% on detecting P3 components for the guilty and innocent participants. The presented method improves the efficiency of CIT in comparison with previous reported methods. PMID:22423552

  15. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  16. Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, Thomas J.; Larrañaga, Osvaldo; Giedion, Ursula; Arbelaez, José Jesus; Bowser, Diana M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. METHODS: The "decision space" approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. FINDINGS: Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some specific policy mechanisms, can improve equity of resource allocation. In these countries, equitable levels of per capita financial allocations at the municipal level were achieved through different forms of decentralization--the use of allocation formulae, adequate local funding choices and horizontal equity funds. Findings on equity of utilization of services were less consistent, but they did show that increased levels of funding were associated with increased utilization. This suggests that improved equity of funding over time might reduce inequities of service utilization. CONCLUSION: Decentralization can contribute to, or at least maintain, equitable allocation of health resources among municipalities of different incomes. PMID:12751417

  17. The allocation of the radio spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. L.

    1980-02-01

    The system of the radio spectrum (10 kHz-300 GHz) allocation is discussed in its technical, economic, and managerial aspects. Possible improvements to the system are considered, such as minimizing human management, establishing a single authority for the allocation of the spectrum, and stimulating a more efficient use of the spectrum with economic incentives. The 'anarchy band' concept, a system of dynamic allocation, is suggested as a means of replacing human management with electronic equipment. The growing importance of the satellite portion of the spectrum is also shown.

  18. Linear modelling of attentional resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, B.

    1978-01-01

    Eight subjects time-shared performance of two compensatory tracking tasks under conditions when both were of constant difficulty, and when the control order of one task (designated primary) was varied over time within a trial. On line performance feedback was presented on half of the trials. The data are interpreted in terms of a linear model of the operator's attention allocation system, and suggest that this allocation is strongly suboptimal. Furthermore, the limitations in reallocating attentional resources between tasks, in response to difficulty fluctuations were not reduced by augmented performance feedback. Some characteristics of the allocation system are described, and reasons for its limitations suggested.

  19. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  1. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  2. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  3. Noise-resistant system of concealed information transfer on a chaotic delayed feedback oscillator with switchable delay time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kul'minskii, D. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Karavaev, A. S.; Prokhorov, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a system of concealed information transfer based on a delayed feedback oscillator with switchable chaotic regimes. The proposed system is analyzed numerically and experimentally. The dependences of the bit error rate during transmission of a binary information signal on the signal-to-noise ratio, attenuation of the signal in the communication channel, and the duration of the time interval during which a bit is transferred are constructed. The high stability of the system to noise and amplitude distortions of a signal in the communication channel is demonstrated.

  4. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology. PMID:25466156

  5. Using pretest data to screen low-reactivity individuals in the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro; Tsuneoka, Michiko; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) can be used to assess whether an individual possesses crime-related information. However, its discrimination performance has room for improvement. We examined whether screening out participants who do not respond distinctively on a pretest improves the diagnosticity of a mock-crime CIT. Before conducting the CIT, we gave a pretest to 152 participants, 80 of whom were assigned as guilty. Pretest screening significantly improved the diagnostic value of the mock-crime CIT; however, it also led to a substantial number of undiagnosed participants (33.6%). Pretest screening holds promise, but its application would benefit from dedicated measures for screening out participants. PMID:25208848

  6. Concealed carry weapon permits: a Second Amendment right or a recipe for disaster on our nation's campuses?

    PubMed

    Fennell, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Crimes on college campuses can "strike fear" into the lives of those in higher education and a shooting is one of the crimes that ranks at the top of the most feared acts of violence. Maybe more direct counseling for clients who have weapons with regard to anticipatory guidance on firearms is needed. However, the debate continues with proposed legislation in different states regarding Second Amendment rights to legally carry concealed weapons on our Nation's campuses. What should be our response to this legislation? PMID:19892645

  7. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth...

  8. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may...

  9. The Ethics of Allocating Uterine Transplants.

    PubMed

    Bayefsky, Michelle J; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    In September 2014, a healthy male child was born in Sweden following a successful uterine transplantation (UTx). The event brought hope to many women without functional uteruses around the world. Having a child with a transplanted uterus is now possible, and as knowledge of the procedure proliferates and interest in UTx grows, it is important to begin thinking about how a scarce supply of uteruses will be allocated. This article represents a first discussion of the range of factors that must be considered in answering the allocation question. The primary issues addressed are (1) the motivation to seek treatment, (2) allocation by age, (3) child-rearing capacity, and (4) the amount of infertility treatment required. A set of eligibility and ranking criteria are presented. These criteria are not exhaustive but are intended to spark discussion about how uteruses can be allocated in a just manner. PMID:26864991

  10. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  11. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  12. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  13. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  14. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  15. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  16. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  17. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed. PMID:17746245

  18. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  19. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  20. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  1. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  2. A Concealed Intracranial Aneurysm Detected after Recanalization of an Occluded Vessel: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Torikoshi, Sadaharu; Akiyama, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background Based on the results of several randomized controlled trials, acute endovascular thrombectomy is strongly recommended for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO). The incidence of an intracranial aneurysm has been reported to be approximately 5% in the general population. Therefore, the possibility of the coincidence of LAO and an intracranial aneurysm at the distal part of an occluded vessel should be considered. Summary A 74-year-old female patient presented with the sudden onset of consciousness disturbance and left-sided weakness. Neuroimages demonstrated an acute infarction due to right middle cerebral artery occlusion. The occlusion was successfully treated, and an aneurysm was incidentally detected at the occluded artery. We reviewed the literature and identified 11 cases in 8 reports, which were similar to our case. Among the 11 cases, aneurysms ruptured during endovascular therapy in 2 cases. In the present report, we discussed the prediction of concealed aneurysms and avoidance of their rupture during endovascular intervention. Key Message The presence of an aneurysm concealed behind an embolus should be carefully assessed on preoperative and intraoperative neuroimages. The important findings for suspecting such an aneurysm are a hyperdense nodular sign on preoperative computed tomography and unusual motion of the microwire during the endovascular intervention. Even if there is no finding indicative of an aneurysm, the catheter and thrombectomy devices should be more carefully advanced than usual, especially at the common sites of aneurysms, and the devices should be appropriately chosen. PMID:27051404

  3. An interfering n-back task facilitates the detection of concealed information with EDA but impedes it with cardiopulmonary physiology.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter

    2011-06-01

    One approach to investigate psychophysiological processes occurring in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is to use a parallel task, which engages specific mental activity in addition to the CIT. In the present study, the influence of an interfering n-back task on the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT) was investigated. Forty participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a within-subject design, the CIT was applied in blocks with and without an additional n-back task. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration line length (RLL), heart rate (HR), and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL) were registered. Reaction times in the n-back task and the CIT were recorded. The parallel task enhanced the differential EDA response to probe vs. irrelevant items, while it diminished the response differences for RLL and phasic HR. Results shed light upon working-memory-related processes in the CIT. The diverging effects of the interfering mental activity on electrodermal and cardiopulmonary measures, if replicable, might contribute to a better understanding of the psychophysiological responsiveness underlying the CIT. PMID:21440579

  4. A functional analysis of deception detection of a mock crime using infrared thermal imaging and the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kevin K.; Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize thermal imaging and the Concealed Information Test to detect deception in participants who committed a mock crime. A functional analysis using a functional ANOVA and a functional discriminant analysis was conducted to decrease the variation in the physiological data collected through the thermal imaging camera. Participants chose between a non-crime mission (Innocent Condition: IC), or a mock crime (Guilty Condition: GC) of stealing a wallet in a computer lab. Temperature in the periorbital region of the face was measured while questioning participants regarding mock crime details. Results revealed that the GC showed significantly higher temperatures when responding to crime relevant items compared to irrelevant items, while the IC did not. The functional ANOVA supported the initial results that facial temperatures of the GC elevated when responding to crime relevant items, demonstrating an interaction between group (guilty/innocent) and relevance (relevant/irrelevant). The functional discriminant analysis revealed that answering crime relevant items can be used to discriminate guilty from innocent participants. These results suggest that measuring facial temperatures in the periorbital region while conducting the Concealed Information Test is able to differentiate the GC from the IC. PMID:23470924

  5. Pixel-level Matching Based Multi-hypothesis Error Concealment Modes for Wireless 3D H.264/MVC Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shafai, Walid

    2015-09-01

    3D multi-view video (MVV) is multiple video streams shot by several cameras around a single scene simultaneously. Therefore it is an urgent task to achieve high 3D MVV compression to meet future bandwidth constraints while maintaining a high reception quality. 3D MVV coded bit-streams that are transmitted over wireless network can suffer from error propagation in the space, time and view domains. Error concealment (EC) algorithms have the advantage of improving the received 3D video quality without any modifications in the transmission rate or in the encoder hardware or software. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D MVV, we propose an efficient adaptive EC algorithm with multi-hypothesis modes to conceal the erroneous Macro-Blocks (MBs) of intra-coded and inter-coded frames by exploiting the spatial, temporal and inter-view correlations between frames and views. Our proposed algorithm adapts to 3D MVV motion features and to the error locations. The lost MBs are optimally recovered by utilizing motion and disparity matching between frames and views on pixel-by-pixel matching basis. Our simulation results show that the proposed adaptive multi-hypothesis EC algorithm can significantly improve the objective and subjective 3D MVV quality.

  6. Electron beam injected into ground generates subsoil x-rays that may deactivate concealed electronics used to trigger explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Explosively formed projectiles (EFP) are a major problem in terrorism and asymmetrical warfare. EFPs are often triggered by ordinary infrared motion detectors. A potential weak link is that such electronics are not hardened to ionizing radiation and can latch-up or enter other inoperative states after exposure to a single short event of ionizing radiation. While these can often be repaired with a power restart, they also can produce shorts and permanent damage. A problem of course is that we do not want to add radiation exposure to the long list of war related hazards. Biological systems are highly sensitive to integrated dosage but show no particular sensitivity to short pulses. There may be a way to generate short pulsed subsoil radiation to deactivate concealed electronics without introducing radiation hazards to military personnel and civilian bystanders. Electron beams of 30 MeV that can be produced by portable linear accelerators (linacs) propagate >20 m in air and 10-12 cm in soil. X-radiation is produced by bremsstrahlung and occurs subsoil beneath the point of impact and is mostly forward directed. Linacs 1.5 m long can produce 66 MWatt pulses of subsoil x-radiation 1 microsecond or less in duration. Untested as yet, such a device could be mounted on a robotic vehicle that precedes a military convoy and deactivates any concealed electronics within 10-20 meters on either side of the road.

  7. Ultra wide band detection of on body concealed weapons using the out of plane polarized late time response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmer, Stuart; Andrews, David; Bowring, Nicholas; Rezgui, Nacer; Southgate, Matthew

    2009-09-01

    A method of detecting concealed handguns and knives, both on and off body, has been developed. The method utilizes aspect-independent natural, complex resonances (poles) excited by illuminating the target with frequency swept, ultrawide band microwaves in the range 0.5 - 18 GHz. These natural resonances manifest as a Late Time Response (LTR) that extends significantly (~ 5 ns) beyond the direct reflections from the human body (the Early Time Response) and are of the form of a superposition of exponentially decaying sinusoidal waveforms. Two handguns are examined, both on the human body and in isolation, by the established methodology of applying the Generalised-Pencil-Of-Function to the late time response data of the target. These poles allow the weapon to be effectively classified. Out of plane polarized (cross-polarized) scattered response is used here as this gives improved discrimination between the early and late time responses. Determination of the presence or absence of particular weapons concealed under clothing, on the human body, is demonstrated. A novel bow-tie slot antenna is described which has good pulse and frequency response over the range 0.3-1 GHz and which is suitable for excitation of the fundamental natural resonances.

  8. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  10. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  11. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  12. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  13. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  14. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  15. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amounts held in reserve or distributed by base or administrative allocation times the basic State factor... available for allocation−NO reserve−total base and administrative allocations) × SF. (4) Transition formula... program section. (5) Base allocation. An amount that may be allocated to each State dependent upon...

  19. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  20. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  1. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  2. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  3. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  4. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  5. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Link to...

  6. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  7. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  8. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  9. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  10. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  11. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  12. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  13. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  14. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  15. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  16. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  17. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...